WorldWideScience

Sample records for world bank loan

  1. Nigerian University Libraries and the World Bank Loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balarabe, Ahmed Abdu

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the development of Nigerian federal universities and their libraries. Topics include library funding; the Nigerian economic crisis and the university library system; rationale for the World Bank Federal Universities Adjustment Loan Project that was used for library materials, staff development, and equipment; and problems with the…

  2. Retrenched Journals: Further on the World Bank Loan in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olorunsola, R.

    1995-01-01

    Reviews collection development difficulties encountered at Nigeria's University of Ilorin as a result of the inflation of serial subscription prices and the poor state of the Nigerian economy in the 1980s. Describes the library's successful use of the World Bank loan of 1990-1993 to fund journal renewals and purchases. (JMV)

  3. [Progress report on a World Bank loan to China for a tuberculosis control project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F; Chi, Y; Wang, K

    1995-02-01

    The progress of the World Bank loaned TB control project implemented from the second quarter of 1991 to the fourth quarter of 1993 was described in this paper. In the past three years, 737 counties of the 12 provinces with the population of 360 million has been covered by the project. Among 95176 new smear positive cases discovered, 93909 patients received free treatment of TB. The treatment coverage is 98.7%, of which 95% were treated under full course supervision. The smear conversion rate at two, three months of new smear positive TB patients are 83.4% and 90.6% respectively. The cohort analysis showed that the cure rate is 89.8%, which has reached the advanced level of the modern national tuberculosis control programme in the world.

  4. Schistosomiasis control in China: the impact of a 10-year World Bank Loan Project (1992-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianyi, Chen; Liying, Wang; Jiming, Cai; Xiaonong, Zhou; Jiang, Zheng; Jiagang, Guo; Xiaohua, Wu; Engels, D; Minggang, Chen

    2005-01-01

    China has been carrying out large-scale schistosomiasis control since the mid-1950s, but in the early 1990s, schistosomiasis was still endemic in eight provinces. A World Bank Loan Project enabled further significant progress to be made during the period 1992-2001. The control strategy was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy -- primarily to reinforce morbidity control -- while at the same time acting on transmission with the ultimate goal of interrupting it. Chemotherapy was complemented by health education, chemical control of snails and environmental modification where appropriate. A final evaluation in 2002 showed that infection rates in humans and livestock had decreased by 55% and 50%, respectively. The number of acute infections and of individuals with advanced disease had also significantly decreased. Although snail infection rates continued to fluctuate at a low level, the densities of infected snails had decreased by more than 75% in all endemic areas. The original objectives of the China World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control had all been met. One province, Zhejiang, had already fulfilled the criteria for elimination of schistosomiasis by 1995. The project was therefore a success and has provided China with a sound basis for further control.

  5. 11 CFR 100.82 - Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.82 Section 100.82 Federal... Contributions § 100.82 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. A loan of money to a political committee or a candidate by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank) or a...

  6. 11 CFR 100.142 - Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans. 100.142 Section 100.142 Federal... Expenditures § 100.142 Bank loans. (a) General provisions. Repayment of a loan of money to a candidate or a political committee by a State bank, a federally chartered depository institution (including a national bank...

  7. Field activity cost estimates for the first 3 years of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, J; Booth, M; Jenkins, J; Wang, H; Tanner, M

    1998-12-01

    The World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis in China commenced field activities in 1992. In this paper, we describe disease control strategies for levels of different endemicity, and estimate unit costs and total expenditure of screening, treatment (cattle and humans) and snail control for 8 provinces where Schistosoma japonicum infection is endemic. Overall, we estimate that more than 21 million US dollars were spent on field activities during the first three years of the project. Mollusciciding (43% of the total expenditure) and screening (28% of the total) are estimated to have the most expensive field activities. However, despite the expense of screening, a simple model predicts that selective chemotherapy could have been cheaper than mass chemotherapy in areas where infection prevalence was higher than 15%, which was the threshold for mass chemotherapy intervention. It is concluded that considerable cost savings could be made in the future by narrowing the scope of snail control activities, redefining the threshold infection prevalence for mass chemotherapy, defining smaller administrative units, and developing rapid assessment tools.

  8. Highlights on the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Control Program in China (1991-1998): a special focus on Hunan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongbao, Y; Ross, A G; Musheng, X; Yuesheng, L; Yan, C

    1999-12-01

    A region-wide sampling survey was conducted in 1995 in order to evaluate the current epidemiological status of schistosomiasis japonica in Hunan Province, China. A total of 45,590 humans and 3,726 domestic animals, from 52 villages, were examined parasitologically and/or serologically for current Schistosoma japonicum infections. In uncontrolled endemic areas (43 villages) the overall human prevalence of S. japonicum was 7.81% across the different geographical subtypes. The geometric mean intensity of infection was 17.71 eggs per gram (epg) among infected individuals and only 1.25 epg in the general population. The bovine prevalence, as determined by the hatching test, was 9.63% in the uncontrolled endemic villages. Only one sero-positive (by indirect hemagglutination assay) child was found among 1,072 children tested aged 10-14 years in the 9 endemic villages under effective control. No infection was confirmed by the Kato-Katz thick smear stool examination. When the results of this survey were compared to those seen at baseline (1989) an overall reduction of 45.65% was seen in the human prevalence but no significant change was apparent in the lake-beach ecotype. Additionally, there was more than a 60% reduction in the prevalence among bovines over the same sampling period. The results demonstrate that the World Bank Loan Schistosomiasis Program was successful in achieving its most basic objectives for this province - to reduce human and bovine infections by 40%.

  9. Corporate boards and bank loan contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and nonprice loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants, and performance-pricing provisions) are more favorable, and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, audit committee structure, and other board characteristics influence bank loan prices. However, they do not consistently affect all nonprice loan terms except for a...

  10. Achievement of the World Bank loan project on schistosomiasis control (1992-2000) in Hubei province and the challenge in the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changsong, Sun; Binggui, Yu; Hongyi, Liao; Yuhai, Dai; Xu, Xingjian; Huiguo, Zhu; Yong, Jiang

    2002-05-01

    Since the World Bank provided a loan for control of schistosomiasis in China, started from 1992, with the objective of a reduction of prevalence and intensity of the infection both in humans and animals by 40%, through mass chemotherapy in areas of high prevalence, and selective chemotherapy in areas with medium and low endemicity together with focal mollusciciding, the objective of morbidity control of the project has been reached in Hubei Province.

  11. Achievements and challenges of the World Bank Loan/Department for International Development grant-assisted Tuberculosis Control Project in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peng; Jiang, Xu; Zhang, Ben; Jiang, Shi-wen; Liu, Bo

    2011-07-01

    In March 2002, the government of China launched the World Bank Loan/ Department for International Development-supported Tuberculosis (TB) Control Project to reduce the prevalence and mortality of TB. The project generated promising results in policy development, strengthening of TB control systems, patient treatment success, funds management, and the introduction of legislation. In light of the global TB epidemic and control environment, it is useful to review the TB control priorities of the project, summarize the achievements and experiences around its implementation.

  12. 12 CFR 614.4470 - Loans subject to bank approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans subject to bank approval. 614.4470 Section 614.4470 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Loan Approval Requirements § 614.4470 Loans subject to bank approval. (a) The following loans...

  13. Bank Consolidation and Consumer Loan Interest Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Charles Kahn; George Pennacchi; Ben Sopranzetti

    2001-01-01

    The recent wave of bank mergers has raised concern with its effect on competition. This paper examines the influence of concentration and merger activity on consumer loan interest rates. It uses Bank Rate Monitor, Inc. survey data on loan rates quoted weekly by large commercial banks in ten major U.S. cities during the 1989 to 1997 period. The pricing behavior of banks is analyzed for two types of loans: new automobile loans and unsecured personal loans. Market concentration is found to have ...

  14. Credit reporting, relationship banking, and loan repayment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Shirzad Kebria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine factors influencing on loan repayment in one of Iranian banks named Sepah Bank over the period 2012-2013. The study selects a sample of 290 bank’s customers who received loans and, using logistic regression technique, tries to find whether or not qualitative as well as quantitative characteristics of loan receivers influence on repayment of loans. The results indicate that history of outstanding debt as well as customers’ past experiences with banks had meaningful relationships with having bad credit and non-payment of loans. In our survey, having a bad credit in the past had positive relationship with non-payment of loans but long-term customers had negative relationship with non-payment of loans. In addition, working capital turnover ratio, cash ratio, total liabilities, current assets and loan value had significant impact on non-repayment of the loan facilities.

  15. Foreign Banks Set Sights on Housing Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Having cleared all the hurdles to enter the market, locally incorporated foreign banks declare their intentions to dive into the personal housing loan business in China A battle is brewing between domestic and locally incorporated foreign banks over the

  16. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  17. 7 CFR 1610.5 - Minimum Bank loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Bank loan. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.5 Minimum Bank loan. A Bank loan will not be made unless the applicant qualifies for a Bank...

  18. “Time for a Change”: Loan conditions and bank behavior when firms switch banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ongena, Steven; Ioannidou, Vasso

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies loan conditions when firms switch banks. Recent theoretical work on bank–firm relationships motivates our matching models. The dynamic cycle of the loan rate that we uncover is as follows: a loan granted by a new (outside) bank carries a loan rate that is significantly lower than the rates on comparable new loans from the firm's current (inside) banks. The new bank initially decreases the loan rate further but eventually ratchets it up sharply. Other loan conditions follow ...

  19. Bank Loan Loss Provisions, Investor Protection and the Macroeconomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ozili, Peterson K

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the non-discretionary determinants of bank loan loss provisions in Africa after controlling for macroeconomic fluctuation, financial development and investor protection. We find that non-performing loans, loan-to-asset ratio and loan growth are significant non-discretionary drivers of bank provisions in the African region. We observe that bank provision is a positive function of non-performing loans up to a threshold beyond which bank provisions will no longer increase...

  20. Loan Market Competition and Bank Risk-Taking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.B.

    2007-01-01

    Recent literature (Boyd and De Nicoló, 2005) has argued that competition in the loan market lowers bank risk by reducing the risk-taking incentives of borrowers. We show that the impact of loan market competition on banks is reversed if banks can adjust their loan portfolios. The reason is that when

  1. Gender and banking : Are women better loan officers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.

    2013-01-01

    Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania, we analyze gender differences in loan officers’ performance. Loans screened and monitored by female loan officers have a lower likelihood to turn problematic than loans handled by male loan officers. This effect cannot be explained by

  2. Farmers and Herders Benefit From Bank Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    From 2000 to the end of 2004, the Tibet Branch of Agricultural Bank provided farmers and herders with loans that helped raise their average net income from 1,342 Yuan to 1,863 Yuan during the period.The net increase in income totaled nearly 1.1 billion Yuan.

  3. Changing Patterns of Spatial Clustering of Schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999–2001 and 2007–2008: Assessing Progress toward Eradication after the World Bank Loan Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-01

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999–2001 and again in 2007–2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin’s Local Moran’s I test and Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China. PMID:24394217

  4. Dynamics of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in the Yangtze River Valley at the end of and following the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Ward, Michael; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-06-01

    The 10-year (1992-2001) World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) contributed greatly to schistosomiasis control in China. However, the re-emergence of schistosomiasis in recent years challenged the long-term progress of the WBLP strategy. In order to gain insight in the long-term progress of the WBLP, the spatial pattern of the epidemic was investigated in the Yangtze River Valley between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008. Two spatial cluster methods were jointly used to identify spatial clusters of cases. The magnitude and number of clusters varied during 1999-2001. It was found that prevalence of schistosomiasis had been greatly reduced and maintained at a low level during 2007-2008, with little change. Besides, spatial clusters most frequently occurred within 16 counties in the Dongting Lake region and within 5 counties in the Poyang Lake region. These findings precisely pointed out the prior places for future public health planning and resource allocation of schistosomiasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Changing patterns of spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China between 1999-2001 and 2007-2008: assessing progress toward eradication after the World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi; Xiong, Chenglong; Zhang, Zhijie; Luo, Can; Cohen, Ted; Gao, Jie; Zhang, Lijuan; Jiang, Qingwu

    2014-01-03

    We compared changes in the spatial clustering of schistosomiasis in Southwest China at the conclusion of and six years following the end of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP), the control strategy of which was focused on the large-scale use of chemotherapy. Parasitological data were obtained through standardized surveys conducted in 1999-2001 and again in 2007-2008. Two alternate spatial cluster methods were used to identify spatial clusters of cases: Anselin's Local Moran's I test and Kulldorff's spatial scan statistic. Substantial reductions in the burden of schistosomiasis were found after the end of the WBLP, but the spatial extent of schistosomiasis was not reduced across the study area. Spatial clusters continued to occur in three regions: Chengdu Plain, Yangtze River Valley, and Lancang River Valley during the two periods, and regularly involved five counties. These findings suggest that despite impressive reductions in burden, the hilly and mountainous regions of Southwest China remain at risk of schistosome re-emergence. Our results help to highlight specific locations where integrated control programs can focus to speed the elimination of schistosomiasis in China.

  6. 12 CFR 614.4070 - Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks, agricultural credit banks, Federal land bank...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks..., provided such loans are authorized by the policies of the bank and/or association involved, do not constitute a significant shift in loan volume away from the bank or association's assigned territory, and are...

  7. 26 CFR 1.581-2 - Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Mutual savings banks, building and loan... § 1.581-2 Mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. (a) While the... deduction provided in section 172, any taxable year for which a mutual savings bank, building and loan...

  8. (Case Study: Management of Loans by Private Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsijani Farsijani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the right choice of investment projects is very clear in our own country so that if the correct method based on pattern and scientific criteria for assessing specific plans and measures suitable for budgeting and resource allocation and planning had already seen half the work, or stay and become many non-economic plans. Private sector profitability condition as the criterion of governmental authorities saw the necessity of other factors including political considerations and design. Investment banks and commercial evaluation of projects in one hand and plan to be profitable categories on the other hand should develop programs and projects coordinated macro country. In this study, using the experiences of Iranian experts in providing loans to customers, a model was provided to be an expert system. The expert system presented in this study based on quantitative and qualitative factors considered in the evaluation process, experts from the banking loan requests is a private bank. To provide the expert system, the Bank study documents and research in the world and using interviews and questionnaires framework decision proposed expert system evaluation criteria for acceptance or rejection of requests bank customers are offered loans.

  9. Gender and Banking: Are Women Better Loan Officers?

    OpenAIRE

    Thorsten Beck; Patrick Behr; Andre Guettler

    2013-01-01

    We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than loans handled by male loan officers. This effect comes in addition to a lower default rate of female borrowers and cannot be explained by sample selection, overconfidence of male loan officers or exp...

  10. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of ...

  11. Bank loan portfolios and the Canadian monetary transmission mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Haan, W.J.; Sumner, S.W.; Yamashiro, G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Following a monetary tightening, bank loans to consumers decrease. This is true for both mortgage and non-mortgage loans, and it is true for a tightening by the Bank of Canada that is, and is not, a response to a tightening by the Federal Reserve System. In contrast, business loans increase

  12. Funding Costs and Loan Pricing by Multinational Bank Affiliates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 9 (2009), s. 1-48 ISSN 1803-7070 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : multinational banks * bank loan pricing * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/derviz- funding costs and loan pricing by multinational bank affiliates.pdf

  13. 76 FR 29147 - Federal Home Loan Bank Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...-AA32 Federal Home Loan Bank Investments AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency; Federal Housing Finance...-adopting existing investment regulations that apply to the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) and that were...' investment in mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and certain asset-backed securities (ABS) that were previously...

  14. Bank Systemic Risk-Taking and Loan Pricing : Evidence from Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gong, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we document evidence of systemic risk taking from syndicated loan pricing. Using U.S. syndicated loan data, we find that the borrower's idiosyncratic risk is positively priced whereas systematic risk is negatively related to loan spreads, controlling for firm, loan and bank specific

  15. The Effectiveness of Corporate Boards: Evidence from Bank Loan Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Bill; Hasan, Iftekhar; Koetter, Michael; Wu, Qiang

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of corporate boards in bank loan contracting. We find that when corporate boards are more independent, both price and non-price loan terms (e.g., interest rates, collateral, covenants and performance pricing) are more favorable and syndicated loans comprise more lenders. In addition, board size, board diversity, audit committee structure and other director characteristics also influence bank loan price. However they do not consistently affect all non-price loa...

  16. The World Bank and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, W.-C.

    2000-01-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is inextricably linked with economic and development policies. This raises the question, to what extent do the commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions under the Climate Change Convention affect the practices and policies of the World Bank? After briefly describing the interaction between climate change and economic development, as well as the respective instruments of the Climate Change Treaty and the World Bank, this paper identifies several windows through which the obligations set out by the Climate Change treaty affect the World Bank. These include the Global Environmentally Facility, the Operational Policies adopted by the Executive Directors of the World Bank, specific loan structures and conditions as well as the recent Prototype Carbon Fund. (Author)

  17. Managing Bad Loans of Domestic Banks under Modern Economic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolhar Tetyana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.

  18. Tax-exempt bank loans still an option for providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostlund, Grant; Cheney, John E

    2011-07-01

    In evaluating the potential for tax-exempt bank financing, healthcare organizations should carefully consider: Pricing. Loan structure. Security requirements (such as financial covenants and default remedies).

  19. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhijie; Zhu, Rong; Ward, Michael P; Xu, Wanghong; Zhang, Lijuan; Guo, Jiagang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qingwu

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China because of the current low endemic levels of infection. The future control

  20. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001. Its short-term impact has been assessed from non-spatial perspective, but its long-term impact remains unclear and a spatial evaluation has not previously been conducted. Here we compared the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk using national datasets in the lake and marshland regions from 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 to evaluate the long-term impact of WBLP strategy on China's schistosomiasis burden. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A hierarchical Poisson regression model was developed in a Bayesian framework with spatially correlated and uncorrelated heterogeneities at the county-level, modeled using a conditional autoregressive prior structure and a spatially unstructured Gaussian distribution, respectively. There were two important findings from this study. The WBLP strategy was found to have a good short-term impact on schistosomiasis control, but its long-term impact was not ideal. It has successfully reduced the morbidity of schistosomiasis to a low level, but can not contribute further to China's schistosomiasis control because of the current low endemic level. A second finding is that the WBLP strategy could not effectively compress the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk. To achieve further reductions in schistosomiasis-affected areas, and for sustainable control, focusing on the intermediate host snail should become the next step to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission within the two most affected regions surrounding the Dongting and Poyang Lakes. Furthermore, in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, the WBLP's morbidity control strategy may need to continue for some time until snails in the upriver provinces have been well controlled. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to further reduce morbidity due to schistosomiasis using a chemotherapy-based control strategy in the lake and marshland regions of China

  1. Gender and Banking : Are Women Better Loan Officers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Behr, P.; Guttler, A.

    2009-01-01

    We analyze gender differences associated with loan officer performance. Using a unique data set for a commercial bank in Albania over the period 1996 to 2006, we find that loans screened and monitored by female loan officers show statistically and economically significant lower default rates than

  2. Bank loan loss provisions research: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson K. Ozili

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We review the recent academic and policy literature on bank loan loss provisioning. Among other things, we observe that there exist some interaction between LLPs and existing prudential, accounting, institutional, cultural, religious, tax and fiscal frameworks which differ across countries; and we find that managerial discretion in provisioning is strongly linked to income smoothing, capital management, signalling, tax management and other objectives. We also address several issues including the ethical dimensions of income smoothing, factors influencing income smoothing, methodological issues in LLP modelling and the dynamic loan loss provisioning experiment; which opens up several avenues for further research such as: finding a balance between sufficient LLPs which regulators want versus transparent LLPs which standard setters want; the sensitivity of abnormal LLPs to changes in equity; the persistence of abnormal LLPs following CEO exit; country-specific interventions that induce LLP procyclicality in emerging countries; the impact of Basel III on banks' provisioning discretion; LLP behaviour among systemic and non-systemic financial institutions; etc. We conclude that regulators need to pay attention to how much discretion lending institutions should have in determining reported provision estimates, and this has been a long standing issue.

  3. Investigating on effects of different granting loans on bank deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Ebrahimi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between different granting loans and bank deposits in some governmental banks in province of Semnan, Iran. For the proposed study of this paper, equipment of resources includes cash account, zero-interest account, short term investment and long term investment and these are considered as dependent variables. There are also seven types of granting loans devoted to customers, which are partnership loans, zero-interest loans, civic participation, contract quantity loans, future contract loans, rent-purchase loans and installment sales loans. The study considers the financial information of 171 governmental banks located in province of Semnan, Iran over the period 2006-2011. The results of our study indicate that five variables maintain positive impact on dependent variable. The highest impact belongs to Partnership loans (0.34, followed by Sales loans (0.24, contract quantity loans (0.21 and Zero-interest loans (0.16 and Future contract loans (0.14 come in the last position. The study also uses Freedman test to rank dependent factors and the results indicate that short- term investment is number one priority followed by long term investment and the other two options including zero-interest and cash accounts are in lower priority.

  4. Analysis of Third Party Loan Guarantee and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loans in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Household loans remain the engine to productivity and economic growth globally. Non-prime household loan is essential, because it enables the borrowers with no collateral to access credit from Microfinance Banks. The survival and sustainability of non-prime household loans globally is therefore significant. Credit risk however remains the main deterrent of the soundness of Microfinance Banks. This leads to the poor performance of microfinance institutions in many economies in the world. Several countries globally are making inroad in reducing the credit risks, which lead to the poor performance of Microfinance Banks. It is still unknown why the credit risk affects the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks domiciled in Kenya. The reason for conducting this study is to determine the level at which the third party loan guarantee and the performance of non-prime household loans relate to the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. Particularly, this study is to determine how the amount secured by guarantee, recoveries from guarantors, percentage of loan secured, and percentage recoveries from guarantors relate to the performance of nonprime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The population was 516 senior management employees of the banks. The researcher conducted a multiple regression analysis for determining the relationship between the amount secured by guarantee—recoveries from guarantors, percentage granted, and percentage recoveries—and the performance of non-prime household loans. The R and R2 were used for determining the strength of the relationship and the coefficient of determination at 0.05 level of significance of variables. The result of this study reveals that there exists a strong relationship between the dependent and independent variables, thereby contradicting the null hypothesis, which states that the relationship does not exist. The percentage of the recoveries from the guarantors over the

  5. 12 CFR 221.112 - Loans by bank in capacity as trustee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. 221.112... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.112 Loans by bank in capacity as trustee. (a... been pledged as collateral for loans. Loans are not made, under the plan, from bank funds, and...

  6. 26 CFR 1.592-1 - Repayment of certain loans by mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Repayment of certain loans by mutual savings banks, building and loan associations, and cooperative banks. 1.592-1 Section 1.592-1 Internal Revenue... (CONTINUED) Mutual Savings Banks, Etc. § 1.592-1 Repayment of certain loans by mutual savings banks, building...

  7. 7 CFR 1610.6 - Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. 1610.6..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.6 Concurrent Bank and RUS cost-of-money loans. (a) The Bank makes loans, under section 408 of the Act, concurrently with RUS cost-of-money loans made under section...

  8. 12 CFR 709.12 - Prepayment fees to Federal Home Loan Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prepayment fees to Federal Home Loan Bank. 709... FEDERALLY INSURED CREDIT UNIONS IN LIQUIDATION § 709.12 Prepayment fees to Federal Home Loan Bank. The Board... of credit from a Federal Home Loan Bank will allow a claim for a prepayment fee by the Bank if: (a...

  9. 12 CFR 614.4080 - Loans and chartered territory-banks for cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-banks for cooperatives. 614.4080 Section 614.4080 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Chartered Territories § 614.4080 Loans and chartered territory—banks for...

  10. 12 CFR 7.2019 - Loans secured by a bank's own shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans secured by a bank's own shares. 7.2019... AND OPERATIONS Corporate Practices § 7.2019 Loans secured by a bank's own shares. (a) Permitted... the bank's custody. (b) Use of capital notes and debentures. A national bank may not make loans...

  11. Walking Wounded or Living Dead? Making Banks Foreclose Bad Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Max Bruche; Gerard Llobet

    2011-01-01

    Due to limited liability, banks that are essentially insolvent may have incentives to roll over bad loans as a gamble for resurrection, even though it is socially inefficient to do so. This paper considers the problem of making such banks remove and/or foreclose bad loans, when the proportion of loans on a bank’s balance sheet that has gone bad is private information. The private information implies that many plausible schemes are likely to generate windfall gains for bank equity holders, whi...

  12. 12 CFR 7.1004 - Loans originating at other than banking offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originating at other than banking offices. 7.1004 Section 7.1004 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BANK ACTIVITIES AND OPERATIONS Bank Powers § 7.1004 Loans originating at other than banking offices. (a) General...

  13. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Home Loan Banks A Appendix A to Subpart... Board Pt. 905, Subpt. A, App. A Appendix A to Subpart A of Part 905—Federal Home Loan Banks Federal Home Loan Bank District 1 (Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Vermont) Federal...

  14. 12 CFR 360.2 - Federal Home Loan banks as secured creditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal Home Loan banks as secured creditors... OF GENERAL POLICY RESOLUTION AND RECEIVERSHIP RULES § 360.2 Federal Home Loan banks as secured... regulations, the receiver of a borrower from a Federal Home Loan Bank shall recognize the priority of any...

  15. Macroeconomic and Bank Specific Determinants of Non-Performing Loans (NPLs in the Indian Banking Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memdani Laila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to find out the determinants of NPAs in the Indian Banking sector and to study if these determinants vary across the three different ownership structures viz., public sector banks (PSBs, private banks (PBs and foreign banks (FBs, of banks in India. The panel data for all the banks from 2005 to 2014 is collected from the official website of Reserve Bank of India (RBI, the Central Bank of the country. The econometric technique of Fixed Effects model and Random Effects model is used for the purpose. The results reveal that Macro economic factors, like log of percapita income (LPCY and Inflation (INFN, are significantly affecting NPLs in Public Sector Banks (PSBs. In case of private banks (PBs LPCY is highly significant while bank specific variables like size and total loans to total loans of the banking sector (TLTLBS are significant at 10% level. For FBs none of the variables were significant.

  16. Operational Efficiency of Bank Loans and Deposits: A Case Study of Vietnamese Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tram Nguyen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether there is a causal relationship between bank loans and deposits in the Vietnamese banking system and the efficiency of the use of loans and deposits by the Vietnamese banks. In a country such as Vietnam, where inter-bank money markets are relatively underdeveloped, one would expect a reasonably strong relationship between deposits and loans. A pooled cross-sectional sample of financial ratios is collected from annual reports of 44 Vietnamese banks covering the period 2008–2015. The explanatory power of instrumental variables in relation to the endogenous variables is tested. A deterministic frontier model based on corrected ordinary least squares, estimated by three-stage least squares on a simultaneous equations model, is employed to derive the frontiers for the sampled banks as well as to estimate the causality between bank loans and deposits. Our findings suggest that, in an underdeveloped banking system such as Vietnam, bank deposits have a positive and significant impact on bank loans, but the reverse relationship is not significant. It is further suggested that in deposit-taking and loan-creating activities, Vietnamese banks performed moderately well over the period examined; however, in the near future, they should start to focus more on deposit-taking activities.

  17. 76 FR 18366 - Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... attachment for Book-entry consolidated obligations. 1270.19 Reference to certain Department of Treasury... authorized Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) liabilities and book-entry procedures for COs, as new part 1270 of... Agency and Recent Legislation Effective July 30, 2008, the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008...

  18. Parent Influence on Loan Pricing by Czech Banks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Derviz, Alexis; Raková, M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 434-449 ISSN 1210-0455 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : multinational bank * interest rate * internal capital market Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/derviz-parent influence on loan pricing by czech banks.pdf

  19. Foreigners vs. Natives : Bank Lending Technologies and Loan Pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Ioannidou, V.; Schäfer, L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Do domestic and foreign banks differ in their lending techniques and loan pricing models? Are such differences driven by different clienteles? Using a sample of firms that borrow from both domestic and foreign banks in the same month, we show significant differences in lending techniques

  20. 75 FR 23631 - Federal Home Loan Bank Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... 2590-AA32 Federal Home Loan Bank Investments AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency, Federal Housing... Finance Agency (FHFA) is proposing to re- organize and re-adopt existing investment regulations that apply... incorporate into the new part 1267 limits on the Banks' investment in mortgage-backed securities (MBS) and...

  1. 76 FR 79050 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals: Mortgage Reporting Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1281 RIN 2590-AA48 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals... governing housing goals for the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) to make those requirements consistent with... Section 1205 of the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (HERA) amended the Federal Home Loan Bank...

  2. 75 FR 29877 - Affordable Housing Program Amendments: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ...: Federal Home Loan Bank Mortgage Refinancing Authority AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency. ACTION... Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to permit the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) until July 30, 2010... Mae), Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac) (collectively, Enterprises), the Banks, and...

  3. 12 CFR 215.5 - Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member banks. 215.5 Section 215.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS... MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.5 Additional restrictions on loans to executive officers of member...

  4. Corporate fraud and bank loans:Evidence from china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunsen; Chen; Song; Zhu; Yutao; Wang

    2011-01-01

    Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank,as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment By focusing on Chinese firms’borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud,we find that firms’bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower,but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms.In addition,loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before,but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts.In addition,we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the"performance-bank loan"relationship.Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing,which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.

  5. Software-Based Visual Loan Calculator For Banking Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isizoh, A. N.; Anazia, A. E.; Okide, S. O. 3; Onyeyili, T. I.; Okwaraoka, C. A. P.

    2012-03-01

    industry is very necessary in modern day banking system using many design techniques for security reasons. This paper thus presents the software-based design and implementation of a Visual Loan calculator for banking industry using Visual Basic .Net (VB.Net). The fundamental approach to this is to develop a Graphical User Interface (GUI) using VB.Net operating tools, and then developing a working program which calculates the interest of any loan obtained. The VB.Net programming was done, implemented and the software proved satisfactory.

  6. Can Student Loans Improve Accessibility to Higher Education and Student Performance? An Impact Study of the Case of SOFES, Mexico. World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 3425

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Erik; Blom, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Financial aid to students in tertiary education can contribute to human capital accumulation through two channels: increased enrollment and improved student performance. We analyze the quantitative importance of both channels in the context of a student loan program "Sociedad de Fomento a la Educacion, Superior" (SOFES) implemented at…

  7. 7 CFR 1610.10 - Determination of interest rate on Bank loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. 1610.10..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.10 Determination of interest rate on Bank loans. (a) All loan..., shall bear interest at the rate determined as established below, but not less than 5 percent per annum...

  8. Loan Products Included in the Offer of Commercial Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Dedu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A bank loan is the main form of economical credit. It is for corporate activities – for medium and big companies and for retail activities – for small companies and individuals. The conditions for credit mainly depend on the quality of customers, it means their ability to perform a profitable activity and to be able to pay back the credits. For reasons which are mainly connected to marketing, bank practice has developed a large range of credit names, trying to emphasize some of the parts of the products or to take profit of some competition advantages in relation with customers’ products. We are trying to include the offer of bank loans in a typology which takes into account the law, the bank field rules and the main technical features of the offered products.

  9. Population and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program.

  10. Investment banks in AIC – alternative loan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Lysenok

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Determining the status and problems of modern investment in agricultural enterprises, as well as ways to improve their financial security. The article deals with the essence of investments and their varieties. The dynamics of the securities portfolio of domestic banks and investments in agriculture. According to a study submitted proposals to increase investment banking businesses in the agricultural sector, which is necessary to create such conditions are not included in the calculation of the volume of investment regulations investment banking provided by agribusiness companies; availability of specialized banks, which will focus its resources on the development of agricultural enterprises; give banks the opportunity to issue special investment certificates, which received funds will be channeled exclusively on investing in the development of agricultural enterprises; for the above to create an appropriate legal framework.

  11. CERN debt to the Pension Fund (Bank loan)

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    The Finance Committee is invited to recommend the Council and the Council is invited to approve the taking out of a loan with FORTIS BANK with the purpose of the repayment of the Organization's debt to the Pension Fund, in accordance with the conditions set out in the Annex 2, thereby authorising the CERN Management to sign the Agreement on 23 June 2006.

  12. UNFAIR TERMS.CAUSES FOR INBALANCES IN BANK LOAN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rodica ȚÎRLEA

    2014-11-01

    In the case of bank loan contracts, we believe that the abuse of power takes the form of contractual terms imposed by breaking the natural order and the contract’s drafting principles, in a properly articulated decisive way, commissioned by one holding it, namely by the party holding the dominant position.

  13. 75 FR 68534 - Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-08

    ... combine provisions now found in the Finance Board regulations part 965, Sources of Funds, and part 969... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Parts 965, 966, 969, and 987 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1270 RIN 2590-AA36 Federal Home Loan Bank Liabilities AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance...

  14. 75 FR 60347 - Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... business days between the hours of 10 a.m. and 3 p.m. at the Federal Housing Finance Agency, Fourth Floor... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD 12 CFR Part 914 FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1260 RIN 2590-AA35 Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY: Federal Housing Finance Agency...

  15. Corporate fraud and bank loans: Evidence from china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsen Chen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Receiving punishment from regulators for corporate fraud can affect financing contracts between a firm and its bank, as both the firm’s credit risk and information risk increase after punishment. By focusing on Chinese firms’ borrowing behavior after events of corporate fraud, we find that firms’ bank loans after punishment are not only significantly lower, but are also less than those for non-fraudulent firms. In addition, loan interest rates after punishment are not only higher than before, but also higher than those for their non-fraudulent counterparts. In addition, we find that corporate fraud indirectly destabilizes the “performance-bank loan” relationship. Our results suggest that corporate fraud negatively affects a firm’s ability to source debt financing, which provides new evidence about the economic consequences of fraud.

  16. 78 FR 37101 - Rules of Practice and Procedure: Enterprise and Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ...: Enterprise and Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals Related Enforcement Amendment AGENCY: Federal Housing... Mortgage Corporation (Freddie Mac), or the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) for failure to submit or follow... 1209. 2. Bank Housing Plan Enforcement Section 10C(a) of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act), as...

  17. 75 FR 17037 - Federal Home Loan Bank Directors' Eligibility, Elections, Compensation and Expenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... determined by a resolution adopted by the board of directors of the Bank and subject to the provisions of... 2590-AA03, 2590-AA31 and 2590-AA34 Federal Home Loan Bank Directors' Eligibility, Elections... that implements two separate proposed rules, which relate to Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) director...

  18. Determinants of Non Performing Loans in Commercial Banks: A Study of NBC Bank Dodoma Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Viswa Nadham

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study attempts to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans in National Bank of Commerce. Data was collected from 152 respondents. Tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze data. Data collection methods adopted for the study were interview, questionnaire and documentary evidence. Interest rate, GDP, concentration of lending activities, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition were investigated, and the results suggest that interest rate, GDP, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition influence the level of NPLs. However, the results did not suggest that concentration of lending activities increase the level of NPLs.   The study suggests that banks should put in place a vibrant credit process that ensures proper customer selection and risk identification, robust credit analysis, proactive monitoring and clear recovery strategies for bad loans, formulate clear policy framework that addresses issues of ethical standards and check and balance credit process, organizational capacity enhancement of banks, deliberate effort to develop credit culture for managing loans ,and ensure prudent policies that govern bank loans. Since the results for this study were encouraging, the researcher encourages replicating the study for other lending institutions. In order to extend the literature on non-performing loans, the researcher suggested incorporating models of Golem effect, Social loafing, Inverted pyramid effect, Pollyanna effect and High default culture effect.  Also, basing on the merits of the study, the researcher suggests determining relationship between non-performing loans and loan size, collateral, credit culture, and credit management information system.

  19. Loans of the European Investment Bank to gaseous plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (EIB) has loaned 525 million Ecu (European currency unit) to Portugal to finance in particular the Transgas pipeline construction destined to the natural gas transport. It has also renewed its support to the construction and exploitation of a high pressure pipelines system for the transport and the distribution of natural gas in Greece. At last, it has loaned 180 million Ecu to Poland for the conversion of a worked-out gas deposit into a gas storage. (O.M.)

  20. The world bank and the environment, exercise 1992. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  1. The World Bank's innovation market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert Chapman; Hamel, Gary

    2002-11-01

    Large, tradition-bound organizations can make space for radical, low-cost (and therefore low-risk) innovations. Just ask executives at the World Bank. The story of this best practice begins in 1998, when a young new-products group at the international funding agency proposed holding an Innovation Marketplace to capture novel ideas within the Bank for alleviating poverty. The forum, which eventually was opened to external participants, let people informally present their antipoverty ideas to potential funding sources. Funders could move among hundreds of booths and evaluate proposals for, say, a program that would provide postdisaster reconstruction insurance in developing countries or a vaccination development initiative. The marketplace truncated the Bank's standard project-review processes, which often stretched to a year or more, and gave funders permission to make commitments in the tens of thousands of dollars, rather than in the tens of millions more typical of Bank-financed projects. The marketplace concept met with some skepticism at the beginning. Some senior executives at the Bank felt no group had the right to spend the agency's money without following its well-established resource allocations process. But the marketplace team believed an open process for allocating grants would produce more breakthrough ideas in the long run than a centralized one. In this article, the authors describe how the new-products team brainstormed to create a market for ideas, how it got senior management's support, and how it has expanded on the original concept for these innovation marketplaces. The program's success, they contend, offers hope both for the world's poor and for business leaders looking to find new ideas under the hard crust of corporate dogma, conformance, and bureaucracy.

  2. The Bank's Choice of Financing and the Correlation Structure of Loan Returns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannidou, V.; Pierides, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how the correlation structure of loan returns within a bank s loan portfolio a.ects its choice of .nancing when the bank faces binding capital constraints and there is asymmetric information about the quality of its loans.The paper uses an asymmetric information model similar to

  3. SUBSEQUENTLY AQCUIRED ASSETS AS FIDUCIARY SECURITY ON BANK LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisadini Prasastinah Usanti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Collateral in terms of subsequently acquired assets namely subsequently acquired credit might be charged with fiduciary security. This collateral is not considered ideal regarding the high risk a bank must take. To minimize the risks, the bank analyzes the credit thoroughly, impose fiduciary security officials perfectly and performs monitoring of credits regularly to avoid misconduct committed by the debtor. If a default occurs, the bank will take over the assets. Nevertheless, the problems of execution on the subsequently acquired credits might arise due to debtor’s default and bad debts to the third party. Consequently, subsequently acquired assets as collateral provides as additional collateral. Keywords: bank, subsequently acquired objects, fiduciary, security, loans.

  4. Plundering the poor: the role of the World Bank in the Third World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, E

    1983-01-01

    The World Bank, the most important so-called development assistance agency, annually dispenses billions of dollars to Third World governments, ostensibly to "develop" their economics through a variety of loan projects. But even a superficial analysis reveals that the Bank is the perfect mechanism to help (i.e., subsidize) the large transnational corporations from the industrial countries to expand their industrial, commercial, and financial activities in the Third World, at the expense of the latter and particularly at the expense of the rural and urban proletariat. This article discusses Cheryl Payer's recent book, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis, in which she analyzes the Bank's role in the Third World and sets forth the major reasons why poverty, hunger, and malnutrition, as well as unemployment, and all the adverse social phenomena associated with them, are on the increase.

  5. Non-performing loans decision making in the Romanian banking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Ionuț-Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Non-Performing Loans (NPLs are representing nowadays one of the main challenges for the banking systems all over the world. Therefore, a sustainable decision-making process should be implemented, for minimizing the effects of credit risk. The current paper uses a dynamic panel regression model to present the determinants of NPLs for the largest five banks of the Romanian Banking System during 2007-2016. A Generalized Method of Moments (GMM regression is used and defined under three different types of variables: bank specific indicators, macroeconomic indicators and qualitative variables. Other studies illustrated also the determinants of NPLs in various banking systems from all around the world, such as Japan, China or several CEE countries (especially the emergent ones. After an in-depth analysis of the literature and Romanian market, the following variables were found to be relevant and were introduced into a dynamic data panel model: unemployment rate, annual average growth rate of gross domestic product, return on equity (ROE, loan to deposit ratio (LTD. The existing literature presents ROE as having a negative impact on NPLs, unemployment rate being positive correlated with NPLs and a negative relationship between economic growth and such loans. Our contribution to the current literature is represented by the introduction of two additional qualitative variables (Board Risk Management Ratio (BRMR, as the proportion of risk managers within the Board of Directors of each bank in question and the Expert Aggregate Priority Vector (EAPV, as the aggregated perceived risk regarding the NPLs. The decision of introducing these variables relies on previous research made in this area, results being validated by experts from the Romanian Banking System, according to the BASEL III and NBR criteria. The results of the current paper are consistent with the existent literature, the correlations and impact of the variables being relevant for the subject

  6. Intelligent Decision Support System for Bank Loans Risk Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨保安; 马云飞; 俞莲

    2001-01-01

    Intelligent Decision Support System (IISS) for Bank Loans Risk Classification (BLRC), based on the way of integration Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and Expert System (ES), is proposed. According to the feature of BLRC, the key financial and non-financial factors are analyzed. Meanwhile, ES and Model Base (MB) which contain ANN are designed . The general framework,interaction and integration of the system are given. In addition, how the system realizes BLRC is elucidated in detail.

  7. 12 CFR 221.114 - Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to purchase stock of American...) Interpretations § 221.114 Bank loans to purchase stock of American Telephone and Telegraph Company under Employees' Stock Plan. (a) The Board of Governors interpreted this part in connection with proposed loans by a bank...

  8. 12 CFR 221.116 - Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank loans to replenish working capital used to... Bank loans to replenish working capital used to purchase mutual fund shares. (a) In a situation... period of time the result would be the same. Accordingly, the Board concluded that bank loans made under...

  9. MANAGEMENT OF SECURITY FOR BANK LOANS ON THE BASIS OF RISK MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktoriia Kovalenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study methods and tools for risk management to ensure bank loans.  Proved that the effectiveness of risk management to ensure bank loans depends on consistency,  adequacy methods of evaluation, quality monitoring and timely response system of the banks and the  regulator. The article is to develop recommendations to improve the effectiveness of risk management providing bank loans considering the risks inherent in the process support mortgage portfolio of banks in the  face of considerable uncertainty functioning banks. It is proved that the risk provision of bank loans in the loan management should be considered  through risk characteristics that form the aggregate credit risk. Substantiated that risk management software meets the classic risk management, which identifies  four main stages: identification; risk assessment software; control risk; minimizing risk. Keywords: credit risk provision, loan, risk management, reserves.JEL: G 28

  10. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Jie; Zhu, Rong; Bergquist, Robert; Chen, Dong-Mei; Chen, Yue; Zhang, Li-Juan; Guo, Jia-Gang; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Qing-Wu

    2012-05-01

    The long-term effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward. Based on the national database of schistosomiasis prevalence for the periods of 1999-2001 and 2007-2008 in the People's Republic of China, a Bayesian regression model was used for spatial comparison of schistosomiasis risk distribution between two periods taking account of all the potential risk factors simultaneously through two latent components of random effects: spatially correlated heterogeneities (CH) and spatially uncorrelated heterogeneities (UH). Four different types of endemic areas were investigated: those that remained endemic despite control efforts (17 or 37.8%), those that became non-endemic (9 or 20.0%), those that reverted back to endemicity (7 or 15.6%), and those with fluctuating endemicity (12 or 26.7%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis was lower in 2007-2008 compared with that in 1999-2001, but the spatial distribution of risk remained similar. Compared to 1999-2001, the magnitude and range of risk even tended to be greater in 2007-2008. UH showed a fluctuating pattern, while CH increased gradually doubling over the two periods. There was no evidence for long-term effectiveness of the WBLP chemotherapy-based control strategy in this region. Controlling the effect of UH is still the main aspect of current schistosomiasis control strategy for the hilly and mountainous regions, but innovative methods are urgently needed for effectively controlling UH.

  11. The legality of unilateral increase of interest rate in banking loan contracts under Serbian law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudaš Atila I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic crisis spread in 2008 through the world and reached Serbia, rendered the repayment of banking loans indexed in foreign currencies, mostly in CHF at the time, even more difficult. The growing number of non-performing loans inevitably led to an increase in number of the court proceedings in which the debtors made attempts to have the loan contracts declared null and void. In these proceedings, the courts needed to take a stand on some typical clauses in loan contracts and on some banking practices that the debtors considered to be contrary to the principle of good faith, which, before the crisis, was hardly ever given judicial epilogue. In the majority of cases, two types of clauses proved to be unlawful: a clause establishing a right of the bank to subsequently, i.e. after the formation of the contract, and unilaterally, i.e. without a specific consent of the debtor, change (regularly increase the interest rate for the remainder of the credit period; and a clause establishing the right of the bank to apply different exchange rates, i.e. the buying rate to the disbursement of the loan, and the selling rate to the value of credit installments. These clauses certainly existed even before the crisis, but the difficulties in performing the loans caused by the crisis was the social propelling force that brought these cases within the sight of the judiciary. In this paper the author analyzes the reaction of courts, and subsequently that of the legislator, to the clause in loan contracts entitling the bank to unilaterally increase the variable interest rate after the formation of contract. The application of this clause was usually conditioned on significant changes in international financial markets or changes in the costs of the sources of financing, while in some cases the conditions of the application of the clause were simply changes in the business policy of the bank or the need to operate with profit. In any case, these are

  12. The Effects of Nonperforming Loans on Dynamic Network Bank Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day-Yang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to explore the relationship between banks’ performance and their nonperforming loans (NPLs. The banks’ performance through a network production process structure with NPLs is developed. With increasing NPLs in recent years, the quality of lending assets is a key significant and influencing factor for banks’ operational risk. The research methodology is to integrate the radial and nonradial measures of efficiency into the network production process framework with NPLs; this study utilizes network epsilon-based measure model to evaluate the banking industry performance. In addition, the key characteristics of the bank industry including those of financial holding companies and privatized government banks are needed to be figured out and to provide insight into what causes imperfectly competitive conditions for some banks. The results demonstrate that the banking sector grew consistently in three aspects of operation: operating performance, profitability performance, and risk management in the last five years of the subject period. These results showed that the overall banking sector was capable of pursuing growth in both operations and profits while accounting for risk management. The potential applications and strengths of network data envelopment analysis in assessing financial organizations are also highlighted.

  13. 77 FR 14787 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... 2010 fifth round community support review cycle: Federal Home Loan Bank of Boston--District 1 People's... Association Canton Georgia. Bank of Chickamauga Chickamauga Georgia. The Peoples Bank Eatonton Georgia. The........... Kentucky. Peoples Bank of Kentucky, Inc Flemingsburg......... Kentucky. The Farmers Bank Hardinsburg...

  14. 78 FR 8131 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Indiana. The Citizens Exchange Bank Fairmount Indiana. Fire Fighter's City County Federal Credit Fort... Michigan. Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago--District 7 Old Second National Bank Aurora Illinois. Tompkins... Chester Illinois. Lakeside Bank Chicago Illinois. Pacific Global Bank Chicago Illinois. The Northern Trust...

  15. 75 FR 16463 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... Inova Federal Credit Union Elkhart Indiana. The Citizens Exchange Bank Fairmount Indiana. Fire Fighter's... Federal Credit Union...... Westland Michigan. Federal Home Loan Bank of Chicago--District 7 The First.... Lakeside Bank Chicago Illinois. Pacific Global Bank Chicago Illinois. Republic Bank of Chicago Chicago...

  16. 76 FR 12109 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... Bank and Trust Panama City Florida. First Federal Savings and Loan of Valdosta Georgia. Valdosta... Wisconsin. Paper City Savings Association Wisconsin Rapids Wisconsin. Rural American Bank--Luck Luck...

  17. Concentration in corporate bank loans. What do we learn from European comparisons?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe J. Godlewski; Ydriss Ziane

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to empirically investigate the determinants of creditor concentration in the use of bank loans by firms in a European cross-country framework. We analyze the influence of loan and borrower characteristics but also banking market structure and legal enforcement country-specific variables that are expected to influence the financial and strategic decision relative to the number of bank lenders. We find that firms tend to diversify sources of financing by reducing bank c...

  18. SURVEY OF DEMAND AND SUPPLY BALANCE IN LOAN MARKETS: CENTRAL BANK'S EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Naumenkova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the existing Bank Lending Survey (BLS approaches to the assessment of the non-price lending conditions' impact on the credit market balance. BLS responses provided domestic central banks an early and reliable signal about the deterioration of financing conditions and the financial access. The monitoring pattern stipulate by using the core indicators: net percentage, diffusion index, Bank Lending Tightness (BLT. The priority tasks for National Bank of Ukraine for Bank Lending Survey were put forward by author. Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey (SLOOS on Bank Lending Practices address changes in the supply of, and demand for, bank loans to businesses and households over the past months.

  19. The Dynamics in Requested and Granted Loan Terms when Bank and Borrower Interact Repeatedly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirschenmann, K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies how credit constraints develop over bank relationships. I analyze a unique dataset of matched loan application and loan contract information and measure credit constraints as the ratio of requested to granted loan amounts. I find that the most important determinants of receiving

  20. Sewing machines and bank loans, farming and family planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, F A; Nsarkoh, J D

    1980-03-01

    Half of a $10,000 grant was given by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) to finance the rural development project activities of Danfa, a village of about 835 people in Ghana. In this community the women are hard working but doubly disadvantaged. Along with a high illiteracy rate, the women are limited by inadequate income due to underemployment, under productivity, unfavorable farming conditions, and a lack of resources. Large families, frequent pregnancies, poor mother and child health, and high infant mortality all make matters worse for both the rural farm wife and her family. The project began with a nucleus of women that soon grew to between 24-30. Members soon formed small groups according to their occupational interests. The women grasped the self-help idea immediately. Once or twice a month there were demonstrations and the group worked together in such activities as making soap and pomade, preparing meals, and sewing. Meetings generally ended with a general group brainstorming and then members gathered in smaller groups to review their activities and plan for the future. During the 1st year of the project the men in the group rarely attended meetings. The group gave priority attention to their community's urgent need for working capital. 15 women farmers who met the criteria determined by the group received loans in the 1st round; only 8 satisfied the criteria in the 2nd round. At the beginning of the small loans scheme, the group decided to seek bigger loans from the bank if members proved credit worthy. This requirement was satisfied, and the group began negotiations for a loan with the Agricultural Development Bank. The group received the total group loan. The Ghana Home Science Association considers the project to be successful in several respects. Team spirit has developed the group, and the women play important and respected roles. Family planning problems are regularly presented for discussion, but it is difficult to correlate

  1. LESSONS FROM THE IMPACT OF INTERNAL AND MACROECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF BAD LOANS IN CEE BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Florin FILIP

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims identifying and analysing the determinants of bad loans in the banks from Central and Eastern Europe, while their accumulation may lead to malfunctions on macroeconomic level. Analysing 38 of the most representative banks in the region during 2004-2013, we found significant positive linkages of bad loans ratio with cost to income ratio, unemployment and crisis, but also significant negative linkages with bank size, activity mix, bank risk taking behaviour, real GDP growth and inflation. Moreover, using Panel Least Squares Fixed Effects Method, we found that the main determinants of bad loans ratio increase are bank size, crisis, unemployment and cost to income ratio. Contrary, activity mix, bank risk taking behaviour, real GDP growth and inflation proved to act against bad loans accumulation. The results offer important lessons which may be useful in the future both for the banks and also for the governments from this region.

  2. The impact of bank ownership concentration on impaired loans and capital adequacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shehzad, Choudhry Tanveer; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert

    This paper examines the impact of bank ownership concentration on two indicators of bank riskiness, namely banks' non-performing loans and capital adequacy. Using balance sheet information for around 500 commercial banks from more than 50 countries averaged over 2005-2007, we find that concentrated

  3. Accounting for fixed repayment bank loans in accordance with accounting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Atis, Caner; Copur Vardar, Gizem

    2016-01-01

    As a result of intensive competition, banks offer many differentiated loans. Unfortunately, while these loans are being offered, there may be differences among their forms and substances; and reporting them depending on their form distorts financial statements and misleads users. Banks can even offer loans with zero percent interest, while overcharging fees, commissions, and insurance premiums in advance to compensate the cost and make a reasonable profit. They may divert interest and commiss...

  4. Dynamics Of The Relationship Between Bank Loans And Stock Prices In Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Saud Almutair

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find the dynamics of the relationship between bank loans and stock prices in Saudi Arabia using quarterly data for the period 1998 to 2013. The estimation methodology consists of a cointegration test, an error correction model estimation, and VAR Granger Causality. The study confirms the long-run relationship between credit card loans (CCLOAN) and Saudis stock market index (SSPI). We found a positive relationship between SSPI and bank loans, supporting the ec...

  5. Revisiting Bank Pricing Policies in Brazil: evidence from loan and deposit markets

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo S. Alencar

    2011-01-01

    This paper addresses the micro and macroeconomic determinants of interest rates in the Brazilian banking market. The results suggest that banks fully adjust their loan interest rates to a change in the monetary policy rate, but we also observe a rigid short-term response for some loan product categories. The study confirms that pricing policies can vary substantially depending on the market. For example, microeconomic factors did not seem to be a major determinant of retail loan rates, but th...

  6. Risk Factors of Loan Default Payment in Ghana: A case study of Akuapem Rural Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Antwi; Ebenezer Fiifi Emire Atta Mills; Gifty Atta Mills; Xicang Zhao

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to determine some risk factors that influence loan default repayment among customers in Akuapem rural bank. Secondary data on some variables which influence customer loan default was obtained from the credit department of Akuapem rural bank. Data was collected for the period 2006 to 2010. A logistic regression model was fitted to the data. It was found that among the variables that were used, Security and Type of Loan were significant to the study whereas Sex, Marital Status,...

  7. Product Diversification in the European Banking Industry: Risk and Loan Pricing Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Lepetit , Laetitia; Nys , Emmanuelle; Rous , Philippe; Tarazi , Amine

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between bank risk and product diversification in the changing structure of the European banking industry. Based on a broad set of European banks for the period 1996-2002, our study shows that banks expanding into non-interest income activities present higher risk than banks which mainly supply loans. Whereas previous studies (mainly on U.S. banks) focused on portfolio diversification effects we explore risk implications of cross-sel...

  8. 75 FR 8239 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission Activities and Standby Letters of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... written appeal to FHFA that includes the Bank's decision resolution and a statement of the basis for the... Parts 1264, 1265 and 1269 RIN 2590-AA33 Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Associates, Core Mission... regulations address, respectively, Federal Home Loan Bank (Bank) housing associates, the Banks' core mission...

  9. What is the impact of bankrupt and restructured loans on Japanese bank efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Mamatzakis, Emmanuel; Matousek, Roman; Vu, Anh Nguyet

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese banking system provides a distinctive platform for the examination of the long-lasting effect of problem loans on efficiency. We measure technical efficiency by modifying a translog enhanced hyperbolic distance function with two undesirable outputs, identified as problem loans and problem other earning assets. Our unique database allows us to distinguish between bankrupt and restructured loans to investigate the underlying causality between these loans and efficiency. From the fl...

  10. Analysis of Post Loan Disbursement Allocation and Performance of Non-Prime Household Loan in Microfinance Banks in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Ndirangu Wachira

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The part played by non-prime household loans in improving the lives of many people who cannot afford collateral globally cannot be ignored. Many Microfinance Banks in many economies worldwide have tried to maintain the Grameen Bank Model of granting microloans, mainly non-prime household loans. However, the credit risks associated with this initiative hamper the pace at which the granting of this credit facility is expected to grow. This study intends to explore the relationship between the post loan disbursement allocation and the performance of non-prime household loans in the Microfinance Banks in Kenya. The theory associated to this study is the Credit Risk Theory. This theory, which is regarded as credit structural theory, was developed by Merton in 1972. The descriptive survey research design method was applied, and the sample size was 150 respondents. The data-collection tool used was a questionnaire. A logistic regression analysis was conducted for the purpose of predicting non-prime household performance in the Microfinance Banks using training budget, recoveries budget, percentage of training budget, and percentage of recoveries budget as predictors. The Wald test shows that training budget, recoveries budget, and percentage of training budget were good predictors, making a significant contribution to prediction. The percentage of budget on recoveries was not a significant predictor. The Microfinance Banks should enhance the performance of non-prime household loans through capacity building to the borrowers and educate the borrowers on dangers of enforced loan recoveries. The government, through the Central Bank of Kenya, should have a training policy for the Microfinance Banks so that they can enlighten the borrowers on proper financial management to avoid conflicts with borrowers during loan recoveries.

  11. 12 CFR 584.2-2 - Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... savings and loan holding companies. 584.2-2 Section 584.2-2 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2-2 Permissible bank holding company activities of savings and loan holding companies. (a) General. For purposes of § 584.2(b)(6)(i) of this part...

  12. How Does Distress Acquisition Incentivized by Government Purchases of Distressed Loans Affect Bank Default Risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyh-Jiuan Lin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The topic of bank default risk in connection with government bailouts has recently attracted a great deal of attention. In this paper, the question of how a bank’s default risk is affected by a distress acquisition is investigated. Specifically, the government provides a bailout program of distressed loan purchases for a strong bank to acquire a bank in distress. The acquirer bank may likely refuse the acquisition with a bailout when the amount of distressed loan purchases is large or the knock-out value of the acquired bank is high. When the acquirer bank realizes acquisition gains, the default risk in the consolidated bank’s equity return is negatively related to loan purchases, but positively to the knock-out value of the acquired bank. The government bailout, as such, in large part contributes to banking stability.

  13. Modelling the Demand for Bank Loans by Private Business Sector in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, Faiza; Qayyum, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The importance of studying demand for bank loan by private business sector stems from the fact the money supply is ‘credit-driven’ and demand-determined and at the rate of interest determined by the central bank the money supply function is horizontal as illustrated by Moore and Threadgold (1985), Coghlan, (1981), Moore (1979, 1983). The analysis of the demand for bank loan by private business sector is important for understating the monetary transmission mechanism and formulation of the eff...

  14. 75 FR 23152 - Board of Directors of Federal Home Loan Bank System Office of Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ...Governed by the Federal Housing Finance Agency's (FHFA) regulations, the Federal Home Loan Bank System's (Bank System) Office of Finance issues debt (``consolidated obligations'') as agent for the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) on which the Banks are jointly and severally liable and publishes combined financial reports on the Banks so that members of the Bank System, investors in the consolidated obligations, and other interested parties can assess the strength of the Bank System that stands behind them. The Office of Finance (OF) is governed by a board of directors, the composition and functions of which are determined by FHFA's regulations. FHFA's experience with the Bank System and with the OF's combined financial reports during the recent period of market stress suggests that the OF and the Bank System could benefit from a reconstituted board and strengthened audit committee. This regulation is intended to achieve that end.

  15. A perspective from the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna de Berry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The World Bank brings distinctive qualities to the role it can play in furthering the humanitarian to development transition and is significantly scaling up its engagement on forced displacement.

  16. WORLD BANK: Status of Grievance Process Reform

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    In June 1998, in response, to concerns about the fairness of its employee grievance process and as part of a broader effort to reform its human resource policies, the World Bank appointed an internal...

  17. 76 FR 49477 - Termination of Federal Home Loan Bank Resolution Funding Corporation Obligation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY [No. 2011-N-08] Termination of Federal Home Loan Bank Resolution... Banks (Banks) have satisfied their statutory obligation to contribute a percentage of their annual net earnings toward the interest payments due on bonds issued by the Resolution Funding Corporation (RefCorp...

  18. Business cycle effects on commercial bank loan portfolio performance in developing economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Glen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of business cycles on the performance of commercial bank loan portfolios across major developing economies in the period 1996–2008. We measure loan performance via loan loss provisions (that is, recognized expenses related to expected losses in bank income statements. Our results indicate that while economic growth is the main driver of loan portfolio performance, interest rates have second-order effects. Furthermore, we find the relationship between loan loss provisions and economic growth to be highly non-linear only under extreme economic stress: GDP growth needs to decline by more than 6 percentage points (pp, in absolute terms in order to generate an increase in loan loss provisions equivalent to median emerging market bank profits; while a decline of more than 10 pp in growth implies significant capital losses, of at least 20 percent, for the median emerging market bank. In addition, we find higher loan loss provisions are associated with private sector leverage, poor loan portfolio quality, and lack of banking system penetration and capitalization.

  19. Photovoltaic technology: World Bank's attitude and activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitwally, E M

    1982-08-01

    Several major problems stand in the way of the implementation of solar cells in developing countries; these are discussed first and relate to the following: (I) technology; (II) national strategy; (III) required capital. Next, the possible role of the World Bank is discussed. Although there is a strong commitment to the development of renewable energy sources, it is pointed out that the World Bank rates the direct solar technologies far behind biomass conversion. This results from the relatively high cost of solar cells. Nevertheless, there are several Bank-financed projects which are being carried out to enable the Bank to decide for itself the true state of the art. In view of the results obtained, it is believed that this was an appropriate course of action. It is concluded that a combination of efforts from the manufacturers and from the funding organizations is necessary if the Third World market for photovoltaics is to expand to its potential size.

  20. 75 FR 678 - Federal Home Loan Bank Membership for Community Development Financial Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... financial support are: (1) Federally regulated insured depository institutions and their holding companies... that provide health care, childcare, educational, cultural, or social services; and (4) community... association, savings and loan association, cooperative bank, homestead association, insurance company, savings...

  1. Efficiency measurement of the banking sector in the presence of non-performing loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nurhayati; Ramli, Noor Asiah; Hussin, Siti Aida Sheikh

    2017-01-01

    Bank industry plays a vital role in a country's economic development. In the banking industry, the non-performing loans which are acknowledged as being undesirable outputs and usually ignored in most of the analysis should be taken into account since they are undesirable by-products of producing loans and may lead to the bank inefficiency. Modelling the efficiency measurement without undesirable outputs can provide misleading results and unfair assessment. The Directional Distance Function (DDF) approach which extended from the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) framework is one of the enhancement efficiency approaches to handle a situation when there is a joint production of the desirable and undesirable outputs. The comparison of both results between the domestic and foreign banks shows that the DEA technical efficiency score for domestic banks is marginally higher than the Malaysian foreign banks. However, when incorporating the undesirable output, the DDF technical efficiency for foreign banks is slightly higher than domestic banks.

  2. 25 CFR 170.303 - Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 170.303 Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State infrastructure bank? Yes. Upon the request... facilitate obtaining loans and other forms of credit for an IRR project. A state infrastructure bank is a... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a tribe apply for loans or credit from a State...

  3. Credit supply and monetary policy : Identifying the bank balance-sheet channel with loan applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez Porras, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the impact of monetary policy on the supply of bank credit. Monetary policy affects both loan supply and demand, thus making identification a steep challenge. We therefore analyze a novel, supervisory dataset with loan applications from Spain. Accounting for time-varying firm

  4. World Bank policy research : a historical overview

    OpenAIRE

    Dethier, Jean-Jacques

    2009-01-01

    The World Bank is a leading intellectual institution on development. It is a world leader in analytical studies in areas including poverty measurement, delivery of social services, impact evaluation, measurement of development outcomes, international trade and migration. It is also a leader in development data, including the Living Standard Measurement Surveys; the enterprise surveys, and...

  5. Rational inefficiency and non-performing loans in Chinese banking: A non-parametric bootstrapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Kent; Guo, Jianguang; Zhang, Nina

    2007-01-01

    The existing Chinese banking system was born out of a state-planning framework focussed on the funding of state-owned enterprises. Despite the development of a modern banking system, numerous studies of Chinese banking point to its high level of average inefficiency. Much of this inefficiency relates to the high level of non-performing loans held on the banks books. This study argues that a significant component of inefficiency relates to a defunct bureaucratic incentive structure. Using boot...

  6. The National Educational Loan Bank: A Proposal for Improving the System of Lending for Higher Education. Working Paper, Preliminary Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitch, Kenneth M.

    A National Education Loan Bank (NELB) is proposed as an alternative to existing federal loan programs for education, such as the National Direct Student Loan program and the Guaranteed Student Loan program. The history and structures of these two programs are detailed: financing, costs, insurance arrangements, agencies, volume, and interest rates.…

  7. Methodical approaches to assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tysyachna Yunna S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article lies in the study of basic methodical approaches to assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio, identification of specific features of their practical application and justification of selection of the most appropriate for the modern economic conditions. The article considers three main groups of methods of assessment of the quality of the bank loan portfolio: expert evaluation methods and statistical and analytical methods. It goes without saying that in order to obtain an objective assessment of quality of the bank loan portfolio it is necessary to apply a complex approach, however, due to some advantages and shortcomings of the studied methods, the author marks expediency of building an integral indicator, taxonomic in particular, in order to obtain a complex, objective and efficient assessment of the bank loan portfolio. Prospects of further studies in this direction are assessment of the quality of the loan portfolio of the first group banks by the size of their assets through building integral taxonomic indicators and identification, on this basis, of factors that influence the quality of the loan portfolio with the aim of improvement of the mechanism of management of the bank lending activity.

  8. Coral reefs and the World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatziolos, M

    1997-01-01

    The World Bank¿s involvement in coral reef conservation is part of a larger effort to promote the sound management of coastal and marine resources. This involves three major thrusts: partnerships, investments, networks and knowledge. As an initial partner and early supporter of the International Coral Reef Initiative (ICRI), the Bank serves as the executive planning committee of ICRI. In partnership with the World Conservation Union and the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, the Bank promotes the efforts towards the establishment and maintenance of a globally representative system of marine protected areas. In addition, the Bank invested over $120 million in coral reef rehabilitation and protection programs in several countries. Furthermore, the Bank developed a ¿Knowledge Bank¿ that would market ideas and knowledge to its clients along with investment projects. This aimed to put the best global knowledge on environmentally sustainable development in the hands of its staff and clients. During the celebration of 1997, as the International Year of the Reef, the Bank planned to cosponsor an associated event that would highlight the significance of coral reefs and encourage immediate action to halt their degradation to conserve this unique ecosystem.

  9. ANALISIS PENGARUH CAPITAL ADEQUACY RATIO (CAR) DAN NON PERFORMING LOAN (NPL) TERHADAP LOAN TO DEPOSIT RATIO (LDR) PADA BANK BUMN PERSERO DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    TANGKO, IRENE LASTRY FARDANI

    2012-01-01

    Non Performing Loan (NPL)Analisis Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) dan Non Performing Loan (NPL) Terhadap Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR) Pada Bank BUMN Persero Di Indonesia Analysis ofEffect ofCapitalAdequacy Ratio (CAR) and theNon-PerformingLoan(NPL) AgainstLoanto DepositRatio (LDR) Thestate-owned bankinIndonesiaPersero Irene Lastry Fardani Tangko Otto R. Payangan Maat pono Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) dan Non Performin...

  10. SME Financing in Europe: Cross-Country Determinant of Bank Loan Maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeter-Kant, J.; Hernandez-Canovas, G.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the influence of cross-country differences on bank loan maturity for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), using a sample of 3366 SMEs from 19 European countries. It analyses a country's legal and institutional environment while controlling for banking structure, economic

  11. Currency Denomination of Bank Loans : Evidence from Small Firms in Transition Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, M.; Ongena, S.; Yesin, P.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the firm-level and country-level determinants of the currency denomination of small business loans. We introduce an information asymmetry between banks and firms in a model that also features the trade-off between the cost of debt and firm-level distress costs. Banks in our model don’t

  12. The World Bank Annual Report 2008 : Year in Review

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The World Bank Group's work focuses on achievement of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The goals call for eliminating poverty and achieving inclusive and sustainable globalization. The MDGs lay out a blueprint for the World Bank Group, setting its priorities and measuring its results. The World Bank is the world's largest funder of education; the world's largest external fund...

  13. NONPERFORMING LOANS PORTFOLIO AND ITS EFFECT ON BANK PROFITABILITY IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John N. N. Ugoani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Huge nonperforming loans portfolio erodes the ability of banks to make profits. In the 1990s and beyond many Nigerian banks became weak and highly unprofitable due to excessive nonperforming loans portfolio accumulated by bank promoters and management that led to their demise. Insider dealing was the major cause of large nonperforming loan portfolio in Nigeria, involving over-extension of loans to promoters, directors and significant others that became bad and irrecoverable. To clean up the mess in the banking sector and return the banks to the paths of sound management and profitability, the CBN had to inject about N700bn in a bailout exercise while purging the system of bad and irresponsible management teams .The exploratory research design was adopted. Data generated were organized and coded before they were classified. To achieve the objective of the study data analyses were done through descriptive and regression analyses using the statistical package for the social sciences for the regression. With the regression result of Y = 78.353 – 4.04x it was found that nonperforming loans portfolio has negative effect on bank profitability.

  14. RISKS IN THE ENFORCEMENT OF ASSIGNMENT OF CLAIM ARISING FROM A BANK LOAN AGREEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Călin Viorel Iuga

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the risks generated in the matter of by the assignment of claim arising from a bank loan agreement following the review the of the court judgments delivered by courts within the Cluj Court of Appeal. The result of the study is practical, topical,with implications on the banking market in Romania of the practitionersidentified deem that the bank loan agreement loses its enforceability following the assignment of claim, and the novation of the assignee creditor during the enforcement did not occur.

  15. The World Bank's "Employing Workers" index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Sangheon; McCann, Deirdre; Torm, Nina Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    This note provides an update on the ongoing debate over the World Bank's Doing Business project with a particular focus on its "Employing Workers" index, which is intended to measure difficulty of hiring, rigidity of working hours and difficulty of firing. The authors review the findings of studi...

  16. The Provision of Services, Interest Margins and Loan Pricing in European Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Lepetit , Laetitia; Nys , Emmanuelle; Rous , Philippe; Tarazi , Amine

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications on bank interest margins of the expansion into non- traditional fee-based activities in European banking. We use a sample of 602 European commercial and cooperative banks from 1996 to 2002 and consider the total income shares of trading income and commission and fee income as measures of product diversification to explore loan pricing. Our results show that a higher income share from commission and fee activities is associated with lower margins and lower ...

  17. 75 FR 81096 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ...). Section 10C(e) requires the Director to annually report to Congress on the performance of the Banks in... benchmark levels to measure the Banks' housing goals performance. The Banks' performance under the housing... originated both by members and non-members. A Bank meets a housing goal if its annual performance meets or...

  18. LOAN DISTRIBUTION STRATEGY PT. BANK X (PERSERO, TBK – BOGOR CREDIT BUSINESS UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isyana Mitrady

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PT. Bank X (Persero, Tbk has credit business unit and one of them is located in Bogor, which experienced decreased performance from year to year because of the increasing of competitiveness among rivalry. The decrease of performance measured both from realization of distribution credit and level of bad loans or Non Performing Loans (NPL. This research aimed to analyze the loan portfolio strategies based on the precautionary principle in the company. This research begins with identification factors affecting the company on its business both internal and external factors. The study was conducted qualitatively by filling questionnaires and in-depth interviews to seven experts on credit sector. Internal and external factors are treated with EFE-IFE matrix then IE matrix to determine the condition of the company, then a SWOT analysis to formulate some alternative strategies was carried out and last method is QSPM to choose the best strategic alternatives for the company. The results showed that the relative strength of the company has not been strong in overcoming internal weaknesses, but the company is considered good enough to take advantage of the opportunities that exist outside and can overcome challenges. Interest rates on loans, convenience and services to debtors, the technology owned by, also the opening of the public mindset about the banking world are the important factors that affect the company in doing business. Based on the QSPM result, supply chain utilization from existing debtor is the best strategy for prudent lending in company.Keyword: loan, non performing loan, IE Matrix, SWOT, QSPMABSTRAKPT. Bank X (Persero, Tbk memiliki salah satu unit bisnis penyalur kredit yang terletak di Bogor dan mengalami penurunan kinerja dari tahun ke tahun akibat persaingan yang semakin kompetitif. Penurunan kinerja tersebut diukur dari sisi realisasi penyaluran kredit maupun dari tingkat kredit macet. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis

  19. How Law and Institutions Shape Financial Contracts: The Case of Bank Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Qian; Philip E. Strahan

    2005-01-01

    We examine empirically how legal origin, creditor rights, property rights, legal formalism, and financial development affect the design of price and non-price terms of bank loans in almost 60 countries. Our results support the law and finance view that private contracts reflect differences in legal protection of creditors and the enforcement of contracts. Loans made to borrowers in countries where creditors can seize collateral in case of default are more likely to be secured, have longer mat...

  20. The World Bank and the environment, fiscal 1992, exercise 92. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The report describes the Bank's activities in assisting countries with environmental management, such as programs to reduce poverty without exhausting natural resources. Included are assessments of the environmental impacts of projects supported by World Bank loans, and accounts of efforts to meet global environmental challenges with coordinated international action through the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Among the events in the period covered by the report are the affirmation of the World Bank's participation with United Nations organizations in the GEF and the Bank's administration of pilot programs aimed at finding solutions to such global environmental problems as pollution of international waters, global warming, depletion of the Earth's ozone layer, and dwindling biological diversity; the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; and the publication of the World Development Report 1992, with its theme of development and the environment

  1. 75 FR 29947 - Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... performance of the Banks in meeting the housing goals under section 10C. 12 U.S.C. 1430c(e). Sections 1331... would measure the Banks' single-family housing goals performance relative to the actual goals-qualifying... advantages of comparing the Bank's performance to actual market performance outweigh the disadvantages. A...

  2. Forest sector: A World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources

  3. Daniel Stufflebeam and The World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russon, Craig; Russon, Karen

    2018-04-01

    Circa 2000 when The Evaluation Center on the campus of Western Michigan University was undergoing a renovation, staff were encouraged to clean out their filing cabinets. One of the authors rescued two manila files from the garbage dealing with a presentation that Daniel Stufflebeam made to The World Bank on 13 December 1993 and a subsequent World Bank conference on evaluation and development in which he participated 5-6 December 1994. In these documents, Dan set out some of his early thinking on international evaluation and other topics. The authors used these materials to write a tribute article to Dan publishing some of these ideas for the historical record. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Forest sector: A world bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Forests are the most extensive terrestrial ecosystem, and nearly 500 million people depend on forests for their livelihood. Since the World Bank issued its forestry sector policy paper in 1978, there has been growing concern about the accelerated rate of destruction of the remaining primary forests in various parts of the world. The policy paper identifies two key challenges: to slow the alarmingly rapid rates of deforestation, especially (although not exclusively) in the tropical moist forests, and to ensure adequate planting of new trees to meet the rapidly growing demand for fuelwood in developing countries. The Bank intends to move vigorously to promote the conservation of natural forests and the sustainable development of managed forestry resources

  5. 77 FR 53887 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Bancorp, Inc., and thereby indirectly acquire control of Midwest Federal Savings and Loan Association of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12...

  6. Seeing Like the World Bank on Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vetterlein, Antje

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates the way in which the World Bank constructs knowledge on poverty by identifying analytic institutions inside the organisation where ideas are developed, ‘anti-poverty advocates’ that populate these institutions and the strategies they employ to foster their agenda. By doing...... the discursive level with developments on the policy and operational level reveals that the poverty or social agenda has grown incrementally from the late 1960s even in times when neoliberalism dominated world politics and economy. The article goes beyond such an organisational analysis in critically assessing...

  7. Supervision and Performance : The Case of World Bank Projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilby, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores empirical aspects of the relation between supervision and project performance. I focus on development projects funded by the World Bank and on supervision done by the World Bank. The World Bank is the preeminent international development organization both in terms of money lent

  8. Do bank loans and local amenities explain Chinese urban house prices?

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Daisy J.; Leung, Charles Ka Yui; Qu, Baozhi

    2015-01-01

    Based on Chinese city-level data from 1999 to 2012 and controlling for geological, environmental, and social diversity, this study suggests that credit plays a significant role in driving up house prices after the Great Recession, whereas property prices only influence bank lending before 2008. Local amenities such as higher education, green infrastructure, healthcare, and climate also positively affect house prices. Moreover, the impacts of bank loans on housing prices tend to be related to ...

  9. 75 FR 81145 - Members of Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... financial reports must show that it originates or purchases such loans. In theory, an applicant could... context of the home financing policy requirement, the absence of any qualitative standards as to the form... members. With respect to the 10 percent requirement, initial research indicates that, of the approximately...

  10. Loan Performance Of Development Banks And Their Impact On ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development banks were set up and restructured over the years in Nigeria by various governments to enhance self reliance and improve incomes of rural and urban farmers in Nigeria with huge sums of money. This paper investigated the extent to which one of such banks, NACRDB, had impacted on farmers' income level ...

  11. 75 FR 72751 - Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... possible that the Banks will not have the same motivation as depository institutions or other business... than a simple majority of each board could discourage Bank management and directors from developing and... reasonably determined, such as within a specified period after the occurrence of a particular event, such as...

  12. Bridging the gap: The design of bank loan contracts and distance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Stephan; Verriest, A.J.M.

    How do the distance constraints faced by lenders in acquiring borrower information affect the design of bank loan contracts? Theoretical studies posit that greater information asymmetry leads to the allocation of stronger ex ante decision rights to the lender (the uninformed party). Consistent with

  13. Systemic Risk-Taking at Banks: Evidence from the Pricing of Syndicated Loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Gong (Di); W.B. Wagner (Wolf)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPublic guarantees extended during systemic crises can affect the relative pricing of risks in the financial system. Studying the market for syndicated loans, we find that banks require lower compensation for aggregate risk than for idiosyncratic risk, consistent with systemic risk-taking

  14. Why banks say NO to great healthcare practitioners. Five reasons why banks reject loans to quality small-business owners and what you can do about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrick, Cheree

    2014-01-01

    If you have a dream of opening or expanding a practice, then bank lending is probably an option you've considered. However, many practitioners are under the false assumption that banks are currently not lending. Untrue! Between 2008 and 2012, banks have loaned an average of $216 billion to small businesses throughout the United States each year. There are two aspects to a bank loan package: (1) your loan application with tax information, asset information, etc.; and (2) your business plan. This article delves into the five reasons banks say "no" to a great healthcare practitioner and what you should include in your business plan to not only have the bank say "yes" to financing your business but also to create a situation where multiple banks are offering to lend you money.

  15. What Drives Bank Lending in Domestic and Foreign Currency Loans in a Small Open Transition Economy with Fixed Exchange Rate? The Case of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Bogoev

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates two different bank loan supply functions and their determinants according to the currency of bank loans in the Republic of Macedonia. There is robust statistical evidence in favour of the existence of a bank lending channel through foreign currency loans and the foreign reference interest rate. This suggests that the impact of domestic monetary policy over the bank lending channel is limited. The most significant bank-specific characteristic for the foreign currency lo...

  16. 78 FR 73415 - Information To Be Distributed to the Federal Home Loan Banks and the Office of Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...Section 20A of the Federal Home Loan Bank Act (Bank Act), requires the Director of the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to make available to the Federal Home Loan Banks (Banks) such reports, records, or other information as may be available, relating to the condition of any Bank in order to enable each Bank to evaluate the financial condition of one or more of the other Banks individually and the Bank System as a whole. FHFA has adopted, and published in this issue of the Federal Register, a regulation to implement the statutory information sharing provisions, which will be located at 12 CFR part 1260. As required by Sec. 1260.2(b) of that regulation, FHFA is providing this notification to the Banks and the Bank System's Office of Finance of the categories of information that it will distribute under part 1260 beginning on the effective date noted below.

  17. 76 FR 72823 - Voluntary Mergers of Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... corporate law, disclosure practices that are required under the federal securities laws, and the approval standards required under federal banking laws relating to mergers of insured depository institutions. D...

  18. 78 FR 6045 - Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... Disclosure Requirements on COs The Banks fund their operations principally through the issuance of... abolished the Finance Board and established FHFA, provides that all regulations of the Finance Board shall...

  19. Knowledge sharing at the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denning, S.

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank is thus one of many organizations that have recognized that knowledge sharing is a central driver of the 21st century economy. The World Bank experience replicates what has been learned in many organizations that have attempted to implement an organization-wide program over the last eight years. Here are ten main features of that experience. 1. Knowledge sharing requires seven basic elements: strategy of knowledge management; organizing for knowledge management; budget of knowledge management; incentives for knowledge management; communities of practice; technology of knowledge management; measurement of KM strategy. 2. Communities of practice are the key to knowledge sharing. 3. Virtual community members also need physical interactions. 4. Passion is the driving force behind communities of practice. 5. Tacit knowledge can be at least partially captured. 6. Knowledge sharing has an inside-out and outside-in dynamic. 7. Storytelling is needed to ignite knowledge sharing. 8. Knowledge sharing is at some point confused with IT. 9. Vibrant communities of practice attract new talents. 10. Organizations are in different stages of knowledge sharing

  20. Towards Open Knowledge : The State of World Bank Knowledge Services

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This first World Bank Knowledge Report launches what is intended as a series of World Bank Knowledge Reports. Although knowledge is a fundamental to the Bank s overall mission, and informs all of the Bank s development activities, it has not received the same degree of attention from management that has been accorded to its lending activities. By paying attention to knowledge work as a dis...

  1. The impact of efficiency on discretionary loans/finance loss provision: A comparative study of Islamic and conventional banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekri Ali Shawtari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates whether there is a significance difference between the practices of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions between Islamic and conventional banks. Same time, the paper tests whether the efficiency may influence the behaviour of discretionary loans/finance loss provisions, taken into consideration other micro and macro variables. The study utilizes panel data runs over 1996–2011 with unbalanced observations for 16 banks, of which 4 Islamic banks. In order to achieve research objectives, the two-stage approach is adopted to examine the factors that may influence the behaviour of discretionary loan/finance loss provisions with specific emphasize on the efficiency. Furthermore, efficiency scores are estimated using Data Envelopment Windows Analysis. The findings of the research show that Islamic banks employ the discretionary loans/finance loss provisions to manage their earnings. However, the magnitude of discretion of accruals is significantly lower than conventional banks with exception for foreign banks which have reported lower discretionary loans/finance loss provisions than Islamic banks. Moreover, the analysis showed that efficiency affects the overall discretionary loans/finance loss provision positively, although this impact is shaped differently for Islamic and conventional banks.

  2. MEASURING MODEL FOR BAD LOANS IN BANKS. THE DEFAULT PROBABILITY MODEL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOCOL ADELA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The banking sectors of the transition countries have progressed remarkably in the last 20 years. In fact, banking in most transition countries has largely shaken off the traumas of the transition eraAt the start of the 21st century banks in these countries look very much like banks elsewhere. That is, they are by no means problem free but they are struggling with the same issues as banks in other emerging market countries during the financial crises conditions. The institutional environment differs considerably among the countries. The goal we set with this article is to examine in terms of methodology the most important assessment criteria of a measuring model for bad loans.

  3. FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI LOAN TO DEPOSIT RATIO (LDR BANK UMUM DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Novalina Ambaroita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Loan to Deposit Ratio kredit belum menunjukan optimalisasi sesuai dengan peraturan Bank Indonesia yaitu berkisar 85%-110%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendiskripsikan DPK, CAR, dan NPL, dan menganalisis bagaimana pengaruh CAR, DPK, NPL, terhadap LDR dalam jangka pendek dan jangka panjang bank umum di Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah time series berdasarkan bulanan tahun 2009-2013 yang diperoleh dari Bank Indonesia dan Otoritas jasa keuangan (OJK. Metode analisis yang digunakan adalah Error Corection Model (ECM dan menggunakan uji asumsi klasik. Hasil dalam jangka panjang CAR tidak berpengaruh terhadap LDR, dalam jangka pendek CAR berpengaruh positif terhadap LDR bank umum di Indonesia, dalam jangka panjang DPK berpengaruh positif terhadap LDR dan dalam jangka pendek DPK tidak berpengaruh terhadap LDR bank umum di Indonesia, dalam jangka panjang NPL berpengaruh negatif terhadap LDR dan dalam jangka pendek NPL berpengaruh positif terhadap LDR. Saran untuk DPK diusahakan semaksimal mungkin. Berbagai inovasi terus dimunculkan dan berbagai strategi dimunculkan agar DPK yang efektif dan agar dalam jangka pendek dan jangka panjang dapat lebih maksimal sehingga tidak ada hambatan.  Loan to deposit ratio not show that the optimization of credit in accordance with the bank indonesia but range 85 % -110 % . This study attempts to mendiskripsikan dpk , car , and non-performing loans of the , and analyze how the influence of car , dpk , non-performing loans of the , against ldr in the short term and longer term commercial banks in indonesia . The data used was based on time series monthly koni year obtained from bank indonesia and the authority of financial services ( ojk . In the long run this results not affect the ldr, on this positive effect on short-term ldr commercial banks in indonesia; the positive effect on long-term deposits ldr in short-term deposits do not affect the ldr commercial banks in indonesia; in its negative effects towards long

  4. Mortgage loans: an analysis of the portfolios of the largest banks in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Vinícius Ramos Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Given the current macroeconomic environment experienced in Brazil, where inflation has stabilized and the basic interest rate of the economy is in one of their historical lows, demand for mortgages is increasing. In this context, the mortgage is presented with great emphasis to meet the demand for purchasing housing in addition to being a catalyst for the reduction of the high housing deficit. From a descriptive and empirical-analytic was analyzed the mortgage loan portfolio of the largest banks of the country between the years 2001 and 2010 through Quarterly Financial Information (IFT available on the Central Bank website. It was settled a comparative relationship between the data in order to check the development of mortgage portfolios over the years and the factors that influenced this evolution, and evaluate the timeliness and quality of those loans. For the evolution of the portfolio there was an economic context in which Brazil was included in the period, and observed that for most of these operations are long term the banks are more exposed to market risk. With regard to credit risk parse that, over the years, Brazilian banks are presenting a mortgage loan portfolio with lower risk, and it is found that institutions with real estate credits with higher levels of portfolio risk are subject to have higher losses on such operations in the possibility of default.

  5. Determinants of rural bank loan repayment capacity among farmers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the determinants of the Nigeria Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) repayment by farmers in Yewa division of Ogun State. Primary data collected through scheduled interview with the help of a structured questionnaire as well as secondary data were used for this purpose.

  6. 78 FR 73407 - Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... distributed only by or through FHFA. In addition, the revised material in Sec. 1260.2 has now been divided... rule, FHFA declined a commenter's request to include in the rule text an explicit provision stating... ``matters requiring attention'' of the Bank's board of directors.\\22\\ \\22\\ During 2013, FHFA has been...

  7. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, L.

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  8. World Bank support for renewable energy - the ASTAE experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaeffer, L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States). Asia Alternative Energy Unit

    1999-07-01

    Historically, the World Bank has helped finance the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity as well as improvements in supply-side energy efficiency. The World Bank's ability to mainstream renewable energy technologies in developing countries is enhanced by the Global Energy Facility (GEF), the World Bank Solar Initiative (and the nascent Solar Development Corporation), the International Finance Corporation and the Asia Alternative Energy Unit (ASTAE). (orig./RHM)

  9. An Asset Protection Scheme for Banks Exposed to Troubled Loan Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a discretionary regulatory tool to reduce asymmetric information and help restore the capital base of troubled banks. The APS can be a fair-valued contract with an appropriate structure...... of incentives. We apply two alternative multivariate structural default risk models: the classical Gaussian Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian processes. Using a data set on annual farm level data from 1996 to 2009, we use the Danish agricultural sector as a case study and price an APS...... on an agricultural loan portfolio. We compute the economic capital for this loan portfolio with and without an APS. Moreover, we illustrate how model risk in the form of parameter uncertainty is reduced when an APS is attached to the loan portfolio....

  10. From Payday Loans To Pawnshops: Fringe Banking, The Unbanked, And Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg-Guyot, Jerzy; Firth, Caislin; Klawitter, Marieka; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-01

    The fringe banking industry, including payday lenders and check cashers, was nearly nonexistent three decades ago. Today it generates tens of billions of dollars in annual revenue. The industry's growth accelerated in the 1980s with financial deregulation and the working class's declining resources. With Current Population Survey data, we used propensity score matching to investigate the relationship between fringe loan use, unbanked status, and self-rated health, hypothesizing that the material and stress effects of exposure to these financial services would be harmful to health. We found that fringe loan use was associated with 38 percent higher prevalence of poor or fair health, while being unbanked (not having one's own bank account) was associated with 17 percent higher prevalence. Although a variety of policies could mitigate the health consequences of these exposures, expanding social welfare programs and labor protections would address the root causes of the use of fringe services and advance health equity.

  11. Solar Stimulus: Perceptions of banks and credit unions towards solar loans in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahirwani, Suveer

    Access to finance for residential solar photovoltaic systems (PV) is an essential element of the clean energy economy. Perceptions about solar PV and solar loans among lenders at banks and credit unions shape the availability of lending products for residential solar PV. In March 2015, interviews were carried out among select informants and subsequently, between April and May 2015, a survey was conducted to gauge the perceptions of lenders in Massachusetts. Lenders have a range of concerns with the market and the provision of solar loans. These concerns can be grouped around risk, market size or viability and policy uncertainty. In summary, lending for this segment is not a priority for banks and credit unions in Massachusetts at this time. Recommendations are offered for the lending community and policymakers to improve adoption. Questions for further research are also presented.

  12. Lending booms, reserves, and the sustainability of short-term debt - inferences from the pricing of syndicated bank loans

    OpenAIRE

    Eichengreen, Barry; Mody, Ashoka

    1999-01-01

    Academics pay little attention to international bank lending, focusing instead on rapidly growing market segments such as the international bond market and derivative credit instruments. The authors argue for paying more attention to international bank lending. Why? Three reasons. First, the syndicated bank loan is one of the workhorses of international capital markets. Second, international bank lending is especially important for private-sector borrowers, whose participation in internationa...

  13. A dynamical model on deposit and loan of banking: A bifurcation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarti, Novriana; Hasmi, Abrari Noor

    2015-09-01

    A dynamical model, which is one of sophisticated techniques using mathematical equations, can determine the observed state, for example bank profits, for all future times based on the current state. It will also show small changes in the state of the system create either small or big changes in the future depending on the model. In this research we develop a dynamical system of the form: d/D d t =f (D ,L ,rD,rL,r ), d/L d t =g (D ,L ,rD,rL,r ), Here D and rD are the volume of deposit and its rate, L and rL are the volume of loan and its rate, and r is the interbank market rate. There are parameters required in this model which give connections between two variables or between two derivative functions. In this paper we simulate the model for several parameters values. We do bifurcation analysis on the dynamics of the system in order to identify the appropriate parameters that control the stability behaviour of the system. The result shows that the system will have a limit cycle for small value of interest rate of loan, so the deposit and loan volumes are fluctuating and oscillating extremely. If the interest rate of loan is too high, the loan volume will be decreasing and vanish and the system will converge to its carrying capacity.

  14. The World Bank | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Accueil · Ce que nous faisons · Nos partenaires et initiatives. The World Bank. The World Bank. http://www.worldbank.org/ · Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources · À propos du CRDI. Savoir. Innovation. Solutions. Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les ...

  15. Review of the World Bank Road Safety website.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The Road Safety website of The World Bank needs to be redeveloped. The website should reflect the new developments in the work field and the IT policy of The World Bank and support its implementation. The report is meant as a brief business case, describing the target audience, purposes of the site,

  16. Banking services for everyone? Barriers to bank access and use around the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Martinez Peria, M.

    2008-01-01

    Using information from 209 banks in 62 countries, we develop new indicators of barriers to banking services around the world, show their correlation with existing measures of outreach, and explore their association with other bank and country characteristics suggested by theory as potential

  17. Determinants of loans and deposits strategies of foreign bank subsidiaries in emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This paper focuses on the transmission of bank liquidity shocks in Loan and deposit in emerging markets. First, we attempt to identify factors affecting the credit strategy of foreign banks in emerging countries. Second, we test whether depositors exert market discipline on foreign subsidiaries. By combining financial variables of subsidiaries and their parent banks and macroeconomic variables of host and home countries, we investigate the factors that may affect the behavior of depositors. Our empirical approach is based on a Partial Least Squares-Path model that allows us to indentify the causal relationships between the various groups of variables. Our results show that foreign bank lending is determined by the specific financial variables of the parent bank and macroeconomic variables of the country of origin. This support that the strategy's credit of foreign subsidiary is centrally managed at the parent bank and credit supply of subsidiaries depends primary on the financial situation of its parent bank. Finally we find evidence of market discipline exercised over foreign subsidiaries in emerging countries. We show that market discipline is strongly affected by the specific characteristics of the subsidiary.

  18. 78 FR 63978 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  19. 78 FR 38715 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  20. 77 FR 74191 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  1. 78 FR 62302 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-15

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  2. 77 FR 66616 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-06

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  3. 76 FR 75882 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  4. 78 FR 21368 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  5. 76 FR 61102 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  6. 76 FR 72922 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  7. 77 FR 26009 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  8. 78 FR 65312 - Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Savings and Loan Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and the Board's Regulation LL (12 CFR Part 238) to acquire shares of a savings and...

  9. Earnings Management in the Banking Industry : The consequences of IFRS implementation on discretionary use of loan loss provisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.J. van Oosterbosch (Renick)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractExecutive summary Prior research suggests that banks have an incentive to smooth income through loan loss provisions (LLPs), but there has been no research on the effects of IFRS implementation on this. Using a sample of European banks and a single-stage regression that models the

  10. Effect 0f Credit Risk Management Techniques 0n The Performance 0f Unsecured Bank Loans Employed Commercial Banks In Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R.W Gakure

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial risk in a banking organization is possibility that the outcome of an action or event could bring up adverse impacts. Such outcomes could either result in a direct loss of earnings / capital or may result in imposition of constraints on bank’s ability to meet its business objectives. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of credit risk management techniques on the performance of unsecured bank loans by commercial banks in Kenya.

  11. PENGARUH INFLASI, KURS DAN TINGKAT SUKU BUNGA TERHADAP NON PERFORMING LOAN PADA PT. BANK TABUNGAN NEGARA (PERSERO Tbk CABANG PADANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthia Roza Linda

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to get empirical evidence of the effects of inflation, exchange rate, and interest rates on non-performing loans At the State Savings Bank (Persero Tbk Branch Padang. In this research used observation period ranging from 2008 - 2013. Data used is secondary data obtained from the financial statements of the State Savings Bank (Persero Tbk Branch Padang. For testing the hypothesis used multiple linear regression model to see the value of t-statistic. Based on the results of hypothesis testing found that inflation, and interest rates are individually significant effect on non-performing loans at the State Savings Bank (Persero Branch Padang, whereas no significant effect on the rate of non-performing loans at the State Savings Bank (Persero Branch Padang ,

  12. An Asset Protection Scheme for Banks Exposed to Troubled Loan Portfolios: Application to the Danish Agricultural Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas

    while retaining an appropriate structure of incentives. Within the structural credit risk modeling framework we apply two alternative structural multivariate default risk models, the classical Gaussian Black-Scholes-Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG) processes, e.g. Barndorf...... as the underlying in the valuation of the corresponding APS in order to demonstrate the applicability of the APS as a regulatory tool. The contribution to the financial literature on credit risk is the empirical analysis of agricultural loans using our unique data set. The contribution to the banking literature......An Asset Protection Scheme (APS) is a portfolio insurance contract; a credit derivative used as a tool to restore financial stability and reestablish economic confidence. Opposed to most governmental bailout packages implemented all over the world recently, the APS can be a fair market contract...

  13. Cross-Border Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Eaton

    1994-01-01

    The banking systems of some countries export intermediation services to the rest of the world, while many other countries are net exporters of deposits to banks abroad and net importers of loans from banks abroad. Banking center countries typically have lower inflation, deeper financial systems, earn less government revenue from seigniorage, and have lower reserve money relative to bank assets than nonbanking-center countries. This paper develops a stylized model of regulated bank intermediat...

  14. Design considerations of the World Bank-assisted $55 million photovoltaic market development project in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabraal, A.; Bradley, J.

    1993-01-01

    The World Bank's first loan for photovoltaic (PV) power systems was approved on December 17, 1992. The $55-million project will offer concessional financing through the Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency (IREDA) for the purchase of PV systems. The objective of the PV Market Development Project is to encourage the establishment of sustainable product supply, delivery, after-sales service, and financing mechanisms to support marketing PV products on a commercial basis. This paper outlines the issues and steps involved in the project design including: (1) technical viability, (2) financial and economic viability, (3) infrastructure issues, and (4) the economic and financial viability of the project as a whole

  15. Selecting the best bank that offered Islamic personal loan package by using consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Sarudin, Ezzah Suraya; Hamid, Fairus; Shamsuddin, Nor Diyana Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    There are various thoughts and opinions when it comes to how people think of their selected banks. Therefore, to choose the best bank with a good personal loan package can be a bit tricky especially for first time customer. This research offers a guide in choosing the right bank for applying personal loan package by highlighting the important criteria that applicants should take into consideration. In order to cater the problem above, we used Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations (CFPR). Based on expert and public opinions, the important criteria in selecting an Islamic personal loan package are interest rate, tenure of loan, processing period and security of the loan. We developed questionnaire with the criteria mention earlier and distributed it among academic staffs and non academic staffs at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (FSKM), UiTM Shah Alam. Based on the questionnaire, we found that four banks have been selected for multiple reasons. Before we could determine the best bank, calculations are divided into 2 phases which are criteria weights determination and ranking of alternatives. We implemented these phases to get the aggregation result and to obtain the ranking in descending order. As a result, our objectives have been achieved. As a conclusion, CFPR can help others in the decision making process.

  16. From the History of the Loan and Account Bank of Persia (From the Russian Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina K. Pavlova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes new Russian archival materials related to the activities of the Loan and Account Bank of Persia from the late nineteenth century to the early twentieth century. The article illustrates how the Bank through its various activities, turned into one of the main agents of Russian state interest in Persia during that period. The performance of the Bank has been elucidated in the works of Russian and foreign researchers encompassing various aspects of the Bank’s activities. This article, however, is based on the previously unused materials from the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA, St. Petersburg and the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire (AVPRI, Moscow. Among the new materials introduced and employed in this article, two documents are of an exceptional importance: “Case of rewarding Persian subjects with Russian orders and medals” and “Case of purchasing a movie theatre”. These documents confirm that the Bank’s works in Persian were multi-faceted. Many merchants were involved in commercial relations with the Bank. At the same time, some of them were informants of the Bank and helped the Russians to monitor the situation in Persia. On avenue used by the Board in order to maintain amiable relationships with Shah and His immediate circle was to bestow fascinating gifts on them.

  17. assessment of selected world bank policies and their implications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LUCY

    U. Akah, Department of Human Kinetics and Health Education, University of Calabar, Calabar,. Nigeria .... (SAP) policies by the World Bank which was aimed at streamlining the ... of water resources to her citizens as a conation for assessing ...

  18. Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Martin; Stuckler, David

    2015-12-10

    While many international organisations have independent evaluations, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Health organization (WHO), uniquely the World Bank in its 2015 World Development Report sought to ascertain the potential biases that influence how its staff interpret evidence and influence policy. Here, we describe the World Bank's study design, including experiments to ascertain the impact on Bank staff's judgements of complexity, confirmation bias, sunk cost bias, and an understanding of the wishes of those whom they seek to help. We then review the Bank's proposed mechanisms to minimise the impact of the biases they identified. We argue that this approach, that we refer to as 'reflective practice,' deserves to be adopted more widely among institutions that seek to use evidence from research to inform policy and practice. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  19. World bank and the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion

  20. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  1. World Bank and agricultural development: food production and rural poverty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stryker, R E

    1979-03-01

    Over the past decade, the World Bank has become the leading international institution for development financing and for elaborating new development strategies. This has involved a major shift in lending toward agriculture and rural development. Explanations for the change range from more progressive expertise within the Bank to the shock of the 1972-74 food crisis and renewed penetration of Third World agriculture by capitalist agribusiness. Discriminating among these perspectives requires attention to the core issue of the relationship between increasing food production and reducing rural poverty. The author feels that the issue is irreducibly political and that the Bank's record is less encouraging than the reformist rhetoric. 33 references, 4 tables.

  2. Oil and gas activities of the world bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossein, R.

    1993-01-01

    The oil crisis of the 1970s profoundly challenged the economies of most developing countries. The crisis hit the the oil-importing countries severely, and many suffered deteriorating balances of payments and increasingly unmanageable import bills. It was in this context, in July 1977, that the World Bank's Executive Directors approved an expanded program of lending to assist the Bank's client countries in developing their own energy resources. In 1978, the Bonn Summit and the Secretary General of the United Nations endorsed the initiation of new approaches in the energy sector by the World Bank, particularly in financing oil exploration in countries that were significant oil importers. The new initiative led to a rapid expansion of the World Bank's lending for oil and gas projects, which reached about $1 billion in 1983

  3. Hazardous Times for Monetary Policy : What do Twenty-three Million Bank Loans Say about the Effects of Monetary Policy on Credit Risk?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiminez, G.; Ongena, S.; Saurina, J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the stance and path of monetary policy on the level of credit risk of individual bank loans and on lending standards. We employ the Credit Register of the Bank of Spain that contains detailed monthly information on virtually all loans granted by all credit institutions

  4. A review of World Bank lending for electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munasinghe, M.; Gilling, J.; Mason, M.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective study was carried out to review power projects financed by the Bank from 1965 to 1983. The main objectives of the study were to: (1) assess the performance of power projects and institutions in terms of key physical and financial indicators, and adherence to loan covenants; (2) assess sector performance in terms of the increase in access to service, and service price, quality, and cost; (3) identify issues and causal factors relating to good or poor performance; and (4) determine options and make recommendations to improve project and sector performance

  5. Oil and gas financing by the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, Hossein

    1995-01-01

    The World Bank has developed a flexible oil and gas programme that is structured to meet the changing needs of the sector as they arise. The Bank became prominent in the oil and gas sector after the oil crises of the 1970s, when it began assisting client countries in developing their indigenous energy resources. At the beginning, Bank lending concentrated on exploration and development of hydrocarbon resources where the level of lending expanded to US$1 billion in 1983. This rapid expansion caused some concern that Bank activities might preempt those of the private sector. In response, the Bank imposed in 1984 strict limitations on petroleum exploration and oil production lending. In combination with the perception that future oil demand would be weak, this caused the lending programme to fall off sharply (to US$300 million by 1986). By 1990, the Bank was again moving actively into hydrocarbon sector lending, but then the emphasis was on promoting private sector development and supporting the development of natural gas as a substitute for coal and oil. Bank lending to the sector has been on the increase since 1990; a lending level of about US$1 billion yearly is expected for the second half of the 1990s. In addition to its direct lending, the World Bank facilitates contributions by other financiers through its cofinancing and risk mitigation arrangements. (author)

  6. Does a loan to a bank qualify as a ’deposit’?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2011-01-01

    that deposits from provincial, regional, local and municipal authorities are included in the definition of deposit – provided that they fulfill the other requirements in the definition, i.e. that they come up to the definition “any credit balance which results from funds left in an account or from temporary...... from funds left in an account’. It finally concludes that it makes no difference when interpreting the definition ‘deposit’ in the sense of Article 1(1) of the Directive where the de-posits were made directly by the depositor/investor, or indirectly through an agent who had screened the market for bank......The article deals with the definition of ’deposit’ in Directive 94/19/EC, the Deposit Guarantee Directive, as amended by Directive 2009/14/EC. It is closer examined in the article to what extent a loan to a bank qualifis as a ’deposit’ in connection with the directive. The article concludes...

  7. World Bank Okays Public Interest in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, David; Clipper, Lutitia; Enkhbaatar, D.; Manning, Anitra; Riley, Thomas; Zaman, Husam

    2004-01-01

    This essay review discusses the report of The Task Force on Higher Education and Society (TFHES), convened in 1998 by the World Bank but independently financed and staffed in collaboration with UNESCO and several foundations. "Peril and Promise" marks an historic turning point in the framework for postsecondary educational planning. Rate-of-return…

  8. Argentina: Social Sectors in Crisis. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Based on the findings of a two month visit to Argentina by a World Bank Mission in November/December of 1988, this report summarizes current economic, education, and social policies in Argentina. The four major areas targeted are the social sectors, education, health care, and housing. The analysis identifies critical problems in the organization…

  9. Compensation, Diversity and Inclusion at the World Bank Group

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jishnu; Joubert, Clement; Tordoir, Sander Florian

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines salary gaps by gender and nationality at the World Bank Group between 1987 and 2015 using a unique panel of all employees over this period. The paper develops and implements a dynamic simulation approach that models existing gaps as arising from differences in job composition at entry, entry salaries, salary growth and attrition. There are three main findings. First, 76...

  10. World Bank in Nepal's Education: Three Decades of Neoliberal Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically analyses key educational policy documents produced by the World Bank mainly from the mid-1980s to 2010 with regard to implementing major educational projects in Nepal. Using critical policy sociology as a methodological tool, the paper explores how a small Himalayan nation with per capita income of about US$730 (2014) plunged…

  11. US politics and World Bank IDA-lending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Hansen, Henrik; Markussen, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the role of US political factors in the allocation of World Bank concessional lending, where US political interests are proxied by voting similarity in the United Nations General Assembly on issues identified as important by the US Department of State. In contrast to previous...

  12. 76 FR 70132 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Bank Bainbridge Georgia Peoples State Bank and Trust Baxley Georgia Bank of Early Blakely Georgia... The Security State Bank McRae Georgia First Bank of Coastal Georgia Pembroke Georgia First Peoples... Georgia Vidalia Federal Savings Bank Vidalia Georgia Bank of Dooly Vienna Georgia The Peoples Bank...

  13. The Information Content of Commercial Banks' Fair Value Disclosures of Loans under SFAS 107

    OpenAIRE

    Chee, Seungmin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation utilizes empirical methods to shed light on the current debate over whether to adopt fair value accounting for loans held for long term. Proponents of fair valuing loans argue that reporting loans at their fair values enhances the overall transparency of financial reporting. In contrast, opponents are against applying fair value accounting to loans because fair values cannot be measured reliably in the case of loans held for long term. Therefore, the key question here is whe...

  14. Pengaruh Capital Adequacy Ratio (Car), Loan to Deposit Ratio (Ldr) Dan Bopo Terhadap Profitabilitas (Roa Dan Roe) Bank Persero Indonesia Yang Dipublikasikan Bank Indonesia Periode 2010 – 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Khoirunnisa, Hani Maulida; Rodhiyah, Rodhiyah; Saryadi, Saryadi

    2016-01-01

    State-owned banks have involvement with many parties in their business, so the performance maintenance is benecessary to deal with banking risks that may arise. The downward trend in the profitability of state-ownedbanks indicated by Return on Assets (ROA) and Return on Equity (ROE) becomes a problem when the CapitalAdequacy Ratio (CAR), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), and ROA experiencing upward trend.The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of CAR, LDR and ROA on ROA and ROE withe...

  15. 75 FR 65331 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... Bank, FSB Saint Cloud Minnesota. Capital Bank Saint Paul Minnesota. Bremer Bank, National Association........ South St. Paul Minnesota. Farmers & Merchants State Bank of Springfield Minnesota. Springfield. Central... Bank Denver Colorado. FirstBank of Cherry Creek--Denver, CO.... Denver Colorado. FirstBank of Denver...

  16. The Application of VaR Method to Risk Evaluation of Bank Loans%VaR方法在银行贷款风险评估中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹新月

    2005-01-01

    Value-at-Risk model developed recently is a mathemetical medol to measure and monitor market risk. The article focuses on discussing calculate procedure and calculate method about applying VaR means for the bank loan risk in evaluation, we make clear differentiate both the Bank for International Settlements draw credit risk reserve and VaR means calculate bank loan risk value, find VaR means in application practicality value and extensity perspective in our bank loan risk for evaluation

  17. 76 FR 35434 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ............ Massachusetts. Company. Danversbank Danvers........ Massachusetts. Mechanics' Co-operative Bank. Taunton.... OceanFirst Bank Tom Rivers..... New Jersey. Roma Bank Robbinsville... New Jersey. Glen Rock Savings Bank... Savings, FSB........ Munster........ Indiana. Farmers and Mechanics Federal Bloomfield..... Indiana...

  18. The World Banks' BioCarbon Fund

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noble, I.

    2003-03-01

    In November 2002 the World Bank launched the BioCarbon Fund, a public/private initiative to provide finance to projects that store carbon in vegetation and soils ('sinks') while helping to reverse land degradation, conserve biodiversity and improve the livelihoods of local communities. The Fund will seek projects to sequester or conserve carbon in non-Annex I countries and in countries in transition. Sinks may be the only option for poor nations with small energy to benefit from the carbon finance business. The Fund will include a portion of assets based on reductions in emissions such as substitution of biofuels for fossil fuels. The author Ian Noble of the World Bank, is chairman of the BioCarbon Fund Technical Advisory Committee.

  19. 77 FR 35965 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    .... Crown Bank Ocean City New Jersey. Hopewell Valley Community Bank Pennington New Jersey. Rumson-Fair... Thomasville Georgia. The Park Avenue Bank Valdosta Georgia. Oconee State Bank Watkinsville Georgia. Atlantic... First Bank, National Forest Ohio. Association. The Croghan Colonial Bank Fremont Ohio. Ohio Catholic...

  20. Poverty crisis in the Third World: the contradictions of World Bank policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, P

    1991-01-01

    Politicians, the mainstream media, and orthodox social science have all been telling us of a final victory of capitalism over socialism, suggesting that capitalism is the only viable option for solving the world's problems. Yet, the global capitalist system is itself entering the third decade of a profound structural crisis, the costs of which have been borne largely by the exploited and oppressed peoples of the underdeveloped periphery. While the World Bank's latest World Development Report recognizes the current poverty crisis in the third world, its "two-part strategy" for alleviating poverty is based on an inadequate analysis of how peripheral capitalist development marginalizes the basic needs of the third world poor. Hence, the World Bank's assertion that free-market policies are consistent with effective antipoverty programs does not confront the class structures and global capitalist interests bound up with the reproduction of mass poverty in the third world. The World Bank's subordination of the basic needs of the poor to free-market adjustments and reforms in fact suggests that the real purpose of its "two-part strategy" is to ensure continued extraction of surplus from third world countries by maintaining the basic structure of imperialist underdevelopment.

  1. Data for Development : An Evaluation of World Bank Support for Data and Statistical Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2017-01-01

    This evaluation’s objective was to assess how effectively the World Bank has supported development data production, sharing, and use, and to suggest ways to improve its approach. This evaluation defines development data as data produced by country systems, the World Bank, or third parties on countries’ social, economic, and environmental issues. At the global level, the World Bank has a st...

  2. The role of building societies on the market of hypothec loaning: world experience and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellada Georgiyevna Pilavova

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the study of international experience in modeling residential mortgage, the need to develop savings and loan institutions is justified - banks of building savings - as an institution to meet mass demand of the general population of Russia on the improvement of living conditions. In particular, the history of mortgage lending in Asia and Europe is described in details. Particular attention is paid to the models of the Eastern Europe (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Poland and Germany. The percentage volume of housing loans to GDP in transition and developed countries is compared. The reasons for the backlog of Poland and the Czech Republic from more developed countries are investigated. It is concluded that exactly the building society was the starting point for the rapid evolution of housing finance in different countries. The advantageous features of this institution as reducing credit risk through specialization, providing a source of long-term money and effective tool for the selection of reliable borrowers to the banking sector, as well as beneficial effects on the economic culture of borrowers are indicated.

  3. Climate change and the World Bank: opportunity for global governance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmer-Christiansen, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The direct and indirect efforts of the World Bank and its off-spring, the Global Environment Facility (GEF), to become leading international agents of global environmental 'governance' and 'sustainable development' are described and analysed politically with reference to the development of an implementation regime of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). The Bank/GEF are seen as engaging in a potentially dangerous experiment of 'global ecological modernisation', or industrial transformation, in 'emerging economies', an experiment legitimised by reference to the catastrophic threat of man-made 'global warming'. This threat is already being translated into political, commercial and bureaucratic benefits accruing to a small global elite. How was this achieved and what are the likely political implications? (author)

  4. The world Bank's support for concentrated solar power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pariente-David, S.; Walters, J.; Govindarajalu, Ch.; Coma Cunill, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Clean Technology Fund (CTF) was set up in 2008 to provide funding, especially subsidies, on an industrial scale for projects that experiment with, deploy or transfer low-carbon technology, which can potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions significantly in the long run. The CTF helps multilateral development banks providing the funds needed, and giving a boost to experiments with low-carbon techniques, while waiting for the conclusion of the negotiations conducted by the United Nations on climate change. The World Bank manages this temporary fund. The article presents the use of CTF as a catalyzer to lower costs, to create a viable market and to attract important financing for the development of concentrating solar plants in Middle East and North-Africa countries

  5. 77 FR 58542 - Federal Home Loan Bank Members Selected for Community Support Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ... Union Bedminster New Jersey. Liberty Bell Bank Cherry Hill New Jersey. Grand Bank, National Association... Eye Minnesota. BankCherokee St. Paul Minnesota. Saint Paul Federal Credit Union St. Paul Minnesota...

  6. Managing Climate Risk. Integrating Adaptation into World Bank Group Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aalst, M.

    2006-08-01

    Climate change is already taking place, and further changes are inevitable. Developing countries, and particularly the poorest people in these countries, are most at risk. The impacts result not only from gradual changes in temperature and sea level but also, in particular, from increased climate variability and extremes, including more intense floods, droughts, and storms. These changes are already having major impacts on the economic performance of developing countries and on the lives and livelihoods of millions of poor people around the world. Climate change thus directly affects the World Bank Group's mission of eradicating poverty. It also puts at risk many projects in a wide range of sectors, including infrastructure, agriculture, human health, water resources, and environment. The risks include physical threats to the investments, potential underperformance, and the possibility that projects will indirectly contribute to rising vulnerability by, for example, triggering investment and settlement in high-risk areas. The way to address these concerns is not to separate climate change adaptation from other priorities but to integrate comprehensive climate risk management into development planning, programs, and projects. While there is a great need to heighten awareness of climate risk in Bank work, a large body of experience on climate risk management is already available, in analytical work, in country dialogues, and in a growing number of investment projects. This operational experience highlights the general ingredients for successful integration of climate risk management into the mainstream development agenda: getting the right sectoral departments and senior policy makers involved; incorporating risk management into economic planning; engaging a wide range of nongovernmental actors (businesses, nongovernmental organizations, communities, and so on); giving attention to regulatory issues; and choosing strategies that will pay off immediately under current

  7. Healthy development: the World Bank strategy for health, nutrition, and population results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... the views of the Executive Directors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply any judgement on th...

  8. LOAN BROKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela IONESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A loan is probably the most important financial decision we make in life. In a time when lack of time affects us in every way, including financially, we can only appeal to specialists if we want fast, reliable and quality long-term services. „The notion of “creditor” includes all legal entities, branches of credit institution and nonbankingfinancial institutions that operate in Romania and grant or undertake to grant loans in itscommercial of professional activity”. In the case of loans, the "specialist" has been called loan broker. Loan broker is a person trained in intermediating bank loans who offers advice on choosing the best financial solutions for each client. Through partnerships with banks in Romania, the broker has access to their credit products and assist customers in choosing the loan that best suits their financial needs and possibilities. Moreover, the broker will help in preparing loan application to be submitted to the bank and pursue it to its completion. Loan broker can be defined as the person authorized by the bank or non-bank financial institutions to promote their products through direct contact with natural or legal persons wishing to contract a loan, without any of the parties to have exclusivity. There can be defined as an independent bank or non-bank financial institution, as an intermediary between customers and banks. Through its financial advisors , the company helps customers overcome the difficulty of understanding the credit products, difficulties arising from the multitude of factors that compose such a product, especially in the case of a housing loan or mortgage. Each financial institution is doing everything possible through such partnerships to attract the largest possible portfolio of clients, therefore is developing a real network of brokers to be partners for local or national level (depending on the sites coverage of the branches of each institution on one or more types of credit products. The

  9. Gas in the developing world--The role of the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    Over a third of the world's supply of energy today comes from the developing countries, a percentage that is likely to increase to almost 43% by the year 2000. One of the major areas of growth is expected to be in natural gas, which may supply over 20% of the total world's energy by 2000. Though there are major gas reserves in the developing world, they are not being exploited optimally. Growth of the gas industry requires resolution of a number of issues--financial, technical, and institutional. International trade in gas has shown recent signs of recovery, but over 70% of the gas produced in the developing countries is expected to be consumed domestically. The development and management of this emerging gas sector in the domestic economies of the developing countries will be one of the major challenges of the future. These issues are discussed in some detail. The role of the World Bank in financing natural gas projects is also discussed. The World Bank Group comprises the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development Association (IBRD) and its affiliates, the International Development Association (IDA), the International Finance Corporation (IFC), and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA)

  10. U.S. Banking Deregulation and Emerging Market Loans: Potential Links and Evidence, 1984~2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Koo Cho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available How did the deregulation of U.S. bank activities affect the patterns of cross-border lending to emerging economies? Unlike bank lending from Europe or Japan, U.S. bank lending to emerging economies exhibited increasing volatility over time. Using U.S. cross-border bank exposure data, this study identifies a temporal association between important deregulation initiatives and the volatility of U.S. bank emerging market lending. This association is explained by the linkages between an important outcome of bank deregulation-earnings volatility from diversified bank activities-and the rising volatility. Together, it argues that U.S. banking deregulation had unanticipated effects of exacerbating the volatility of bank lending to emerging economies.

  11. 7 CFR 1610.4 - Loan applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.4 Loan applications. No application for a loan will be considered for approval by the Bank... of the applicant for a Bank loan and the amount thereof. Loan application forms are available from...

  12. Knowledge Banking in Global Education Policy: A Bibliometric Analysis of World Bank Publications on Public-Private Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menashy, Francine; Read, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    As a leading mobilizer of international development and educational knowledge, the World Bank has been critiqued in two key areas: (1) the dominance of economic thinking in its policies, and (2) its Northern-generated knowledge which informs its work in the Global South. In this paper, we investigate the disciplinary foundation of Bank knowledge,…

  13. The Determinants of Bank Internationalisation in Times of Financial Globalisation: Evidence from the World's Largest Banks (1980-2007)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhuis, Gerarda; Mulder, Arjen

    2015-01-01

    This article analyses the determinants of bank internationalisation, of the world's largest banks from the period 1980–2007. The purpose of the article is twofold. First, we show how a mixed-methods research design, in which we combine a variables-based research with three case studies, can

  14. The World Bank, Support for Universities, and Asymmetrical Power Relations in International Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christopher S.; Rhoads, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the role of the World Bank in advancing higher education sectors in the developing world, considering in particular the increasing power and strength of a global knowledge-based economy. Given the powerful role that intergovernmental organizations such as the World Bank play in shaping global economic policies, the authors…

  15. Higher Education for Development : An Evaluation of the World Bank Group’s Support

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2017-01-01

    The World Bank Group’s twin goals have redefined the rationale for engagement across all sectors. Although the World Bank Group has never had an explicit strategy for higher education, institutional- and regional-level strategies and knowledge work anchor the World Bank’s engagement in supporting and promoting (i) greater access and equity, (ii) relevant and quality teaching and research, ...

  16. 78 FR 23162 - Supervision and Regulation Assessments for Bank Holding Companies and Savings and Loan Holding...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... bank holding company's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) forms; \\3... Balance Sheet of the BHC's Consolidated Financial Statements for Bank Holding Companies (FR Y-9C) (OMB No... holding companies with $50 billion or more in total consolidated assets, and nonbank financial companies...

  17. Implementation of South African national credit act and its impact on home loans market: The case of First National Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bathmanathan Vasie Naicker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Since it has been observed that credit granting is a serious problem across the entire credit market, South Africa introduced National Credit Act 34 of 2005 in order to regulate the credit industry and protect credit consumers from becoming over-indebted. The study highlights and examines the implementation of the Act in relation to the South African home loans market, focussing on First National Bank home loans portfolio. The study documents that the current state of consumer indebtedness shows that both credit institutions and consumers were responsible for over extending retail credit. The study noticed that credit industry has significantly managed to regulate the retail credit through the implementation of the Act. Furthermore, the study finds that a new stakeholder such as a debt counsellor has been introduced into the retail credit value chain for debt counselling for over-indebted clients. However, the study recommends that internal forums within banks as well as industry-wide forums should be used in order to ensure that the implementation of a regulation that impacts the entire credit industry is implemented with all stakeholders to limit any possible misinterpretation of key sections of a new regulation.

  18. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    Concerns about corruption have intensified in recent years as there is a growing realization among international financial donors, including the World Bank, that corruption may undermine development...

  19. Engaging the banks: financing small-scale renewables in the developing world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.; Touhami, M.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios

  20. Engaging the banks: financing small-scale renewables in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usher, E.; Touhami, M.

    2006-05-15

    This article reports on the UN Environment Programme's (UNEP's) work in supporting the banking and financing sector by creating clean energy finance markets in developing countries. Details are given of the shifting of cash markets to credit, financing solar home systems in India, solar thermal lending in Tunisia, the financing of hotel based solar water heating in Morocco, and the Green Village Credit initiatives in the Yunnan province of China. The importance of providing banks with information needed to gain awareness and experience of renewable energy systems is stressed. The fundamentals of a bank engagement programme, financial catalysts, structuring market oriented approaches, and linking bank lending to policy making are discussed along with the need to shift to credit enhancements to help banks set up their first loan portfolios.

  1. Study on Shareholder Related Loans's Impact to the Commercial Banks Development%股东关联贷款对商业银行发展的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程筱敏

    2013-01-01

    股东关联贷款对商业银行发展的影响与银行贷款危机密不可分。文中分析了股东关联贷款与银行贷款危机之间的关系,着重就股东关联贷款对商业银行影响进行研究,并提出了防范和降低商业银行股东关联贷款风险的政策建议。%The shareholder loans of commercial banks related development impact of the crisis and bank loans are inseparable.This article analyzes association between the shareholder loans and the crisis of bank loan,focusing on shareholder loans of commercial banks association,and proposed to prevent and reduce the risk of commercial bank lending policies related shareholder proposals.

  2. Uranium loans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    When NUEXCO was organized in 1968, its founders conceived of a business based on uranium loans. The concept was relatively straightforward; those who found themselves with excess supplies of uranium would deposit those excesses in NUEXCO's open-quotes bank,close quotes and those who found themselves temporarily short of uranium could borrow from the bank. The borrower would pay interest based on the quantity of uranium borrowed and the duration of the loan, and the bank would collect the interest, deduct its service fee for arranging the loan, and pay the balance to those whose deposits were borrowed. In fact, the original plan was to call the firm Nuclear Bank Corporation, until it was discovered that using the word open-quotes Bankclose quotes in the name would subject the firm to various US banking regulations. Thus, Nuclear Bank Corporation became Nuclear Exchange Corporation, which was later shortened to NUEXCO. Neither the nuclear fuel market nor NUEXCO's business developed quite as its founders had anticipated. From almost the very beginning, the brokerage of uranium purchases and sales became a more significant activity for NUEXCO than arranging uranium loans. Nevertheless, loan transactions have played an important role in the international nuclear fuel market, requiring the development of special knowledge and commercial techniques

  3. Bank loan components and the time-varying effects of monetary policy shocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Haan, W.J.; Sumner, S.W.; Yamashiro, G.M.

    2011-01-01

    The impulse response function (IRF) of an aggregate variable is time-varying if the IRFs of its components are different from each other and the relative magnitudes of the components are not constant—two conditions likely to be true in practice. We model the behaviour of loan components and document

  4. Bank Loan Classification and Provisioning Practices in Selected Developed and Emerging Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Laurin, Alain; Majnoni, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews loan classification and provisioning practices in a broad sample of countries that differ in size, location and level of financial development. The survey conducted for the report compares the regulatory approaches adopted by industrial and emerging economies, and is intended to complement other sources of information that focus exclusively on either industrial or devel...

  5. 12 CFR 5.50 - Change in bank control; reporting of stock loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... directors (or persons exercising similar functions) of the issuing national bank, or to vote on or to direct..., or in any manner, to select or to vote for the selection of directors (or persons exercising similar... of the bank; (iv) The competence, experience, or integrity of any acquiring person, or of any of the...

  6. 26 CFR 1.585-1 - Reserve for losses on loans of banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regulations thereunder. For rules relating to a debt evidenced by a security (as defined in section 165(g)(2..., see § 1.585-4. For rules relating to large banks, see §§ 1.585-5 through 1.585-8. (b) Application of... with the conduct of a banking business within the United States. (2) Exception. For taxable years...

  7. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  8. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  9. Post-crisis asymmetries of the world market development of banking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladyslav Тіpanov

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed theoretical backgrounds for defining the concept «banking service» by scientists from different countries: considered its main characteristics and classification, determined the key peculiarities of the world market functioning of banking services and its structure, found out the present-day developments of the world market of banking services under conditions of post-crisis period.

  10. Vocational Education and Training: A Major Shift in World Bank Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Phillip

    1992-01-01

    Comments on the World Bank's policy paper on vocational and technical education and training. Argues that past failures in establishing effective vocational and technical education were a result of not applying conventional neoclassical economic theory. Asserts that the World Bank's policy paper corrects this approach. (CFR)

  11. The World Bank: Changing Leadership and Issues for the United States and Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weiss, Martin A

    2005-01-01

    .... The focus of the next World Bank President likely will be on many development issues including global humanitarian and reconstruction assistance and debt relief for the poorest countries, among others. Congress has a significant role in shaping U.S. policy at the World Bank through funding arrangements and oversight responsibility. This report will be updated as events warrant.

  12. Cash Flow Valuation in an Inflactionary World. The Case of World Bank for Regulated Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Vélez-Pareja

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available We show that project evaluation should be based on free cash flows at nominal prices. We present a case where the results from the constant price method are biased upwards and there is a risk to accept bad projects. It is a widespread practice to evaluate projects at constant prices. With an example presented in the training on economic regulation of public utilities developed by the World Bank Institute we asses that methodology. We show an overvaluation of 21% when compared with the current prices methodology and using a correct Weighted Average Cost of Capital, WACC.

  13. Faith-based Organisations, Development and the World Bank (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Haynes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Faith-based organisations (FBOs have increasingly become important actors in international development cooperation. Many international institutions recognise them as valuable partners and declare to have ‘mainstreamed faith’ within their own activities. But is this really the case? And how has this happened? Focusing on the activities of the World Bank in the 1995–2005 period, when, under the leadership of President James Wolfensohn and Katherine Marshall, then Head of the Bank’s Development Dialogue on Values and Ethics (DDVE, the institution engaged with some selected FBOs, this chapter enquires into the reasons for the Bank’s interest in faith as well as its sudden disappearance. It argues that the main rationale for engagement with faith lay in the disappointing results of previous secular strategies and the feeling that religion had a positive role to play in fighting poverty. However, diverging perceptions of poverty and development between states and religious entities, along with lingering suspicions among state officials about dealing with faith in the public realm, derailed the collaboration.

  14. Policy impact of the Indonesian Central Bank certificate related on loan interest rate to the demand growth of property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirjodirdjo, B.; Asjari, H. Y.

    2018-04-01

    The Indonesian economic indicators shown a positive progress in the last three years, Foreign exchange reserves position of the end of March 2017 stood at US 121.8 billion higher than the position of the end of 2015 amounted to US 105.9 billion of the end of 2015. This reserve would ensure the resilience and maintaining sustainable Indonesian economic growth in the future. Although Indonesia’s foreign exchange is better, the structure of expenditure in the country is still less than ideal due the proportion of spending of consumer goods is far greater than the capital goods and tend to be unproductive spending. This needs to be regulated so that in the long term does not cause balance of payments deficit. Therefore, Indonesian Central Bank took a policy to raise interest rates for retail banks from 6% to 7.25% per annum gradually up to present. Policies relating to the interest rates on loans are intended to reduce the proportion of debt financing of consumer goods, however, these policies have implications to various economic sectors and one of those is property sector. A lot of research has been conducted related the impact of loan interest to the property sector but most of it is still in partial related to the ability the people to buy. However, this research has tried to see the implication of the macro Economic Policy of Indonesian Central Bank to the property sector as a systemic problem. This paper is going to present the study on the effects of these policies on the property sector, especially residence house. To obtain a comprehensive analysis and capture the relationship between interest rate policies and their impacts to the property sector, in this study the model developed and simulated using system dynamic methodology as an approach. Various scenarios are applied to the model to get an accurate information about how and when the effectiveness of the policy related to the property sector can be enforced. The result of this study can be delivered to

  15. Neoliberalism with a Feminist Face: Crafting a New Hegemony at the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Prügl Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism has been discredited as a result of proliferating crises (financial ecological care) and mounting inequality. This paper examines the growing research on gender at the World Bank as a site for the construction of a new hegemonic consensus around neoliberalism. Drawing on a computer assisted inductive analysis of thirty four Bank publications on gender since 2001 the paper documents Bank efforts to establish a positive relationship between gender equality and growth; shows the ex...

  16. The World Bank's financial support to the petroleum sector in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayorga-Alba, E.; Smith, S.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the World Bank Group's role in the petroleum sector of developing countries. It addresses separately the role of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), the International Finance Corporation (IFC) and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) in the upstream, downstream, and natural gas subsectors. Using specific examples, it describes the World Bank's role in promotion exercises, infrastructure projects, policy reform, mobilization of the private sector, and provision of political risk insurance. Considering that bank lending in the hydrocarbon sector meets only about 1 % of the industry's capital requirements, the paper argues that the World Bank Group is best suited to use its unique resources to catalyze private sector investment and to provide an environment conducive to market-driven development. 4 refs

  17. Training for Social Development Staff at the World Bank, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel R. Gross; Matthew LeDuc

    2010-01-01

    The social development family is facing a major challenge given the significant increase in lending made by the Bank in the last five years. Lending overall has more than doubled between FY05 and FY09; investment lending has increased by 82 percent and infrastructure lending by 125 percent. In this report, International Evaluation Group (IEG) suggests that the World Bank's safeguard policies ...

  18. Training for Social Development Staff at the World Bank, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Daniel R.; LeDuc, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The social development family is facing a major challenge given the significant increase in lending made by the Bank in the last five years. Lending overall has more than doubled between FY05 and FY09; investment lending has increased by 82 percent and infrastructure lending by 125 percent. In this report, International Evaluation Group (IEG) suggests that the World Bank's safeguard policies ...

  19. The World Bank's Shift Away from Neoliberal Ideology: Real or Rhetoric?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman

    2012-01-01

    Some literature on World Bank education policies after 1999 tries to project a shift away of the Bank from its 1980s neoliberal mandate. This article argues that the shift is only in the form of rhetoric, which facilitates a hidden agenda of creating a worldwide higher education market, leaving the poor with primary education only. At the…

  20. Bangladesh looks for a soft loan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain, A.

    1986-01-01

    The problems faced by developing countries in embarking on a nuclear power programme are considered. It is argued that an international funding agency should be set up by the IAEA and the World Bank to provide developing countries with help in the form of a loan at soft interest rates and longer repayment periods. (U.K.)

  1. Leaders of Universities' Association Criticize World Bank's View on Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morna, Colleen Lowe

    1987-01-01

    World Bank recommendations calling on developing countries to shift some of their higher-education funds to elementary and secondary education have prompted opposition from leaders of the International Association of Universities. (MLW)

  2. Ordering the Preference Hierarchies for Internal Finance, Bank Loans, Bond and Share Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Leo de Haan; Jeroen Hinloopen

    2002-01-01

    We estimate the incremental financing decision for a sample of some 150Dutch companies for the years 1984 through 1997, thereby distinguishinginternal finance and three types of external finance: bank borrowing, bondissues and share issues. First, we estimate a multinomial logit model whichconfirms several predictions of both the static trade-off theory and thepecking-order theory as to the determinants of financing choices. Next, weuse ordered probit models to determine which financing hiera...

  3. The world bank and the environment. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The second annual report describes specific environmental strategies and environmental lending in the Bank's four operational regions: Africa; Asia; Europe, Middle East, and North Africa; and Latin America and the Caribbean. It details the Bank's progress in eight environmental categories: energy and the environment, pollution, urban environment, water resources management, forest and land management, social and cultural, environmental economics, and the global environment. One chapter is devoted exclusively to tropical forests, studying ways in which the Bank is dealing with deforestation as a part of the constant review of its forest policies. Suggestions are made for decreasing the degradation of tropical forests while meeting demands for forest products. This chapter reflects a shift in Bank emphasis from commercial ventures to conservation measures. The publication reports on other initiatives by the Bank during fiscal 1991, including the launching of the Global Environment Facility (GEF)--a pilot program to oversee reduction of global warming, preservation of biological diversity, protection of international waters, and prevention of ozone depletion

  4. Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs : Component 1. Case Study Summary and Final Report

    OpenAIRE

    IC Net

    2004-01-01

    The World Bank in November 2001 commissioned IC Net Limited of Japan to carry out a study titled 'Integrating Gender into World Bank Financed Transport Programs' in accord with the terms of reference (TOR) issued in June 2001. The study was financed by a grant from the Japanese Large Studies Trust Fund. The contract came into effect on 15 December 2001 and covers the period to 15 June 2004...

  5. Challenges of the banking regulation systems in the climate of the world economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlarević Lazar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 20th century, banking systems of the developed countries have undergone multiple changes, where the basic dimensions of those changes were integration, deregulation and globalisation of activities. The resultant of these factors' actions was the creation of highly risky banking environment, which acted as a catalyst of the world economic crisis effects. These effects brought to the forefront weaknesses of the banking sector and of the banking regulation system, while emphasizing the need for their redefining. Hence this work examines in detail concrete models of the banking regulation systems in the European Union area and in the United States of America. In addition, directions of redefining regulation system were highlighted, and also the relevant differences between banking business regulation in the European Union and in the United States of America.

  6. An evaluation of the feedback loops in the poverty focus of world bank operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardoust, Shahrokh; Kanbur, Ravi; Luo, Xubei; Sundberg, Mark

    2018-04-01

    The World Bank Group in 2013 made the elimination of extreme poverty by 2030 a central institutional focus and purpose. This paper, based on an evaluation conducted by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank Group, examines how, and how well, the Bank uses feedback loops to enhance the poverty focus of its operations. Feedback loops are important for every element of the results chain running from data, to diagnostics, to strategy formulation and finally to strategy implementation. The evaluation uses a range of instruments, including surveys of stakeholders and World Bank staff, focus group meetings, country case studies and systematic reviews of Bank lending and non-lending operations. We find that while the Bank generates useful information on poverty reduction from its projects and programs, the feedback loops - from outcomes to data analysis to diagnostics to strategy formulation and implementation - have generally been weak, with sizable variation across countries. Copyright © 2017 The World Bank. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. World Bank Research Digest, Vol. 5(2)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    In this issue: growth and development at the center of the G-20 agenda; food price inflation in South Asia: crisis revisited? How fast can Egypt grow? Sustainable energy policy and nuclear power; access to HIV/AIDS treatment and risky sexual behaviors; the investment climate when firms have climate control; and bank capital: lessons from the financial crisis.

  8. Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation Of Loan Disbursement And Repayment Of Supervised Credit ... bank as regard to loan supervision was scored low as a result of low rate of loan recovery, ... strategy to recover outstanding debts and reduce interest charge on loans.

  9. Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking; Welcome Christian Banking. ... banks pay interest on deposits, and charge interest on loans and advances, ... However, the literature on interest rates, in relation to Commercial Bank ...

  10. Entering the Forbidden Zone: the World Bank, Criminal Justice Reform and the Political Prohibition Clause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 7 years or so, the World Bank has expanded its rule of law agenda by moving into the area of criminal justice reform. This turn to criminal justice reform, however obvious it may be from a development perspective, was — and still is — a controversial step. This is because the World

  11. 78 FR 67004 - Removal of References to Credit Ratings in Certain Regulations Governing the Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... not the sole or principal factor underlying a decision. FHFA also does not believe that the proposed... Bank Act (Bank Act).\\1\\ The Banks are cooperatives; only members of a Bank may purchase the capital... if it satisfies certain criteria and purchases a specified amount of the Bank's capital stock.\\4\\ \\1...

  12. Coal pricing in China: Issues and reform strategy. World Bank discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albouy, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The study assesses the magnitude of coal price distortions left in place by the dual track pricing approach to price reform implemented by China in the 1980s; it examines the economic and financial costs of these distortions and identifies the potential winners and losers of pricing improvements. Finally the report outlines a strategy for gradual price adjustments and liberalization in the coal sector. (Copyright (c) 1991 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank.)

  13. Bad Loans and Loan Write-Offs

    OpenAIRE

    福田, 慎一; 鯉渕, 賢

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate who bears the burden when writing off bad loans in Japan. Traditionally, Japanese main banks bore large burdens in saving their customers. We still find that some main banks bear a large burden in saving their customers. However, in most cases, main banks became very reluctant to bear large burdens when bailing out their customers. In the transition from the bank-based system to a market-based system, traditional implicit rules are collapsing dramatically. We sug...

  14. PENSION REFORMS AND WORLD BANK-REGULATED LAWS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    prospective public servants who world borrow from the experiences of retired .... and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja together with workers in the private sector which .... intellectual project but also a practical reality in implementation.

  15. An Asset Protection Scheme for Banks Exposed to Troubled Loan Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grosen, Anders; Jessen, Pernille; Kokholm, Thomas Sander

    contract with an appropriate structure of incentives. Within the structural credit risk modeling framework, we apply two alternative multivariate default risk models; the classical Gaussian Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG) processes. Exchanging the normal factors......We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a tool to restore financial stability and reduce asymmetric information. As opposed to most governmental bailout packages implemented across the world recently, the APS can be a fair valued...

  16. An Asset Protection Scheme for Banks Exposed to Troubled Loan Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokholm, Thomas

    contract with an appropriate structure of incentives. Within the structural credit risk modeling framework, we apply two alternative multivariate default risk models: the classical Gaussian Merton model and a model based on Normal Inverse Gaussian (NIG) processes. Exchanging the normal factors......We examine a specific portfolio credit derivative, an Asset Protection Scheme (APS), and its applicability as a tool to restore financial stability and reduce asymmetric information. As opposed to most governmental bailout packages implemented across the world recently, the APS can be a fair valued...

  17. A Parallel World for the World Bank: A Case Study of Urgent: Evoke, An Educational Alternate Reality Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I. Waddington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the World Bank launched Urgent: Evoke, an alternate reality game. Conceived in response to the demands of African universities, the game was designed to promote the World Bank Institute’s vision of positive global change through social innovation, and made substantial use of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, personal profiles, and social networks. This article offers a case study of Urgent: Evoke, divided into four sections: first, the potential to use video games as citizenship education tools is discussed; second, the unique game genre (alternate reality games into which Evoke falls is explained and some possible uses of this genre in higher education are examined; third, the functioning of the Evoke game world is explained; and fourth, the results of the Evoke educational project are assessed. The case study concludes with some commentary on Evoke’s ideological message, which those less sympathetic to capitalism may view as problematic.

  18. Information and Communication Technologies : A World Bank Group Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    Information and communication technologies provide the basis for increasing and applying knowledge in the private and public sectors. Countries with strong information infrastructures that employ innovative information technology applications, have many advantages for sustained economic growth and social development. This book is, primarily, a business strategy which explains the World Ban...

  19. The World Bank and Fragile States: Dynamics of Cooperation and Aid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomatin A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of extreme poverty in fragile states is one of the central problems of global governance at the present time. Development of these states is hindered by instability, weak public and social institutions or ongoing conflicts and violence. The World Bank is a key partner of fragile states, which account for almost a third of the world’s population. This article is a continuation of research exploring the evolution of conceptual and practical approaches by the World Bank to cooperation with fragile states. Its methodology is based on a multilevel analysis of the securitization of foreign aid as proposed by J. Lind and J. Howell of the London School of Economics. The main focus of this examination is on the dynamics of the change of scale and structure of the World Bank’s aid to fragile states in comparison with global armed trends of providing aid to fragile states as well. This article concludes that statements about the priority of the Bank’s work in fragile states have not yet been realized in practice. The Bank remains committed to the standard approach to working with this group of recipients, which involves serious risks. The World Bank leans toward supporting projects in fragile states which increases volatility and reduces aid predictability. This trend undermines the development potentials of recipient states. Attention is drawn to political factors influencing aid flows to fragile states and particularly to the tendency of increasing the share of aid provided to fragile states through multi donor trust funds rather than through the mechanisms of the International Development Association (IDA. This trend indicates that the Bank is no longer a central point of aid distribution to the recipients, pointing to the lack of trust of donor states in the existing mechanisms and rules of aid distribution. It also reveals the expanding role of donors’ strategic interests in the process of choosing recipients of World Bank aid.

  20. Giving Your Patrons the World: Barriers to, and the Value of, International Interlibrary Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munson, Kurt; Thompson, Hilary H.

    2018-01-01

    Using the 2011 and 2015 survey by the Reference and User Services Association Sharing and Transforming Access to Resources Section (RUSA STARS) of international interlibrary loans (ILL), the authors explore barriers to this method of meeting patrons' information needs. They evaluate international ILL in the context of developments in the…

  1. A discussion paper for emerging markets: The role of IMF and the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo R. Lizarzaburu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available While both the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, are two separate entities, often not clear the role of each of them is therefore that this paper seeks to consolidate diverse information reviewed from both entities with the purpose of being able to understand the functioning and scope of each of these important institutions that have had successes and setbacks and ultimately have an active role in global finance and economy, despite the many detractors who are at levels world. There is an anecdote which is worth mentioning. “John Maynard Keynes, recognized at the inaugural meeting of the International Monetary Fund was confused by the names he thought the Fund should be called a bank, and the World Bank should be called a bottom. Confusion has reigned ever since. The Bank and the IMF are two intergovernmental pillars supporting the structure of economic and financial world”. The fundamental difference between the two is understood as: the Bank institution primarily for the development, while the IMF is a cooperative institution that seeks to maintain an orderly system of payments and receipts between nations. The manner followed to choose the head of each organization has a different procedure, but the important thing is that in the next few years, several countries such as Brazil, India have more active participation and Latin America as a group may perhaps lead some of them.

  2. Development's Collateral Damage : The World Bank, involuntary resettlement and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Deirdre Christine

    2011-01-01

    Each year millions of people throughout the world are forced from their homes to make way for new roads, dams and other infrastructure developments. The World Bank funds many of these projects in developing countries and has been both harshly criticised for its track record with involuntary resettlement and a global leader in producing guidelines aimed at ensuring those forced to relocate are not harmed by the process. The Bank’s policy on involuntary resettlement is backed up by an Inspecti...

  3. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1991-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. Technical assistance will be provided to enhance the skills ofPGN and the Ministry of Mines and Energy, and a Gas Technology Unit similar to the Institute of Gas Technology will be established at Indonesia's Research and Development Center for Oil and Gas (LEMIGAS) in Jakarta. 14 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  4. Toward a Green, Clean, and Resilient World for All : A World Bank Group Environment Strategy 2012 - 2022

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2012-01-01

    The new environment strategy for the World Bank Group lays out an ambitious action agenda that seeks to respond to calls from our client countries for a new kind of development path, one that supports growth while focusing more on sustainability and ensuring that the environment is a key enabler for green, more-inclusive growth. This strategy recognizes the importance of our convening powe...

  5. Efficiency in Reaching the Millennium Development Goals. World Bank Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasuriya, Ruwan, Ed.; Wodon, Quentin, Ed.

    The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) provide clear targets and areas of focus for international organizations such as the World Bank. At a conceptual level, to reduce poverty and hunger, to improve education and health indicators, and to promote gender equality and sustainable development, countries can either increase the resources they…

  6. What the World Bank's shift from public to private funding means for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Something new is afoot at the World Bank. But there's no reason for developing countries to be hopeful that development funding is about to get a much needed fillip after decades of dismal performance and inappropriate policy prescriptions. It's just that Santa Claus will only give gifts to the investor kids from now on.

  7. Pension reforms and world bank-regulated laws of the jungle: the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peripheral societies (or better still, non-industrialized, raw materialsexporting states) are originally (and still remain) designed as raw resources supply zone not only in World Bank lexicon but also in global planning and programming of industrialized societies in general. Worker welfare of those both retired and in service ...

  8. The politics of entrapment : the World Bank, the integrated development model & citizenship at a crossroad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Hatcher (Pascale)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe thesis is about the World Bank and the political dimensions of the new aid architecture. The new aid agenda, which emerged out of the post-Washington Consensus (PWC), has led to debates over its real significance. While Joseph Stiglitz has argued that the new consensus actually

  9. Peru : Country Program Evaluation for the World Bank Group, 2003-09

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2011-01-01

    Since 2003, Peru has emerged as an open, rapidly growing economy. Over the review period of 2003-09, successive governments adopted policy platforms aimed at maintaining macroeconomic stability, furthering the private sector supply response, broadening participation in growth, improving social service delivery, and strengthening public institutions. The World Bank Group (WBG) supported each of ...

  10. Social Gains from Female Education: A Cross-National Study. World Bank Discussion Papers 194.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbarao, K.; Raney, Laura

    This paper on the social gains from female education is part of a series, prepared by the World Bank, on the benefits of improving opportunities for women. The paper suggests that expanding women's opportunities enhances their productivity and earning potential and thus contributes to better economic performance and poverty alleviation. Education…

  11. Education in Asia: A Comparative Study of Cost and Financing. World Bank Regional and Sectoral Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jee-Peng; Mingat, Alain

    Data analyzed in this study are drawn from varied sources including documents provided by governments in the context of the World Bank's operational activity. The data on a basic set of indicators were assembled for a core of 11 Asian countries (Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Nepal, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Sri…

  12. Minding the gap: World Bank's assistance to power shortage mitigation in the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, G.; Maurer, L.; Sarkar, A.; Wang, X. [The World Bank, 1818 H Street, NW, Washington DC 20433 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    This paper describes the World Bank's technical assistance and lending efforts in support of developing countries facing power shortages. The paper reviews the World Bank's experience in helping governments to mitigate power shortages in Africa, South Asia, East Asia, and Latin America regions. The paper stresses the need to consider each power ''crunch'' on an individual basis, and describes the process used in diagnosing a shortage situation and prescribing mitigation strategies. Several brief case studies are presented, including Botswana, Brazil, Uganda, and South Africa. The political and customer-centric dimensions of power shortage mitigation are briefly described, with suggestions for minimizing the socio-economic impacts of power shortages on the urban and rural poors. The paper concludes that an integrated supply-demand portfolio approach works best, and within the portfolio a mix of market-based rationing, emergency mobilization of customer-owned generation, interruptible rates, load control, and energy efficient lighting should be sought. Although the best formulation will vary according to market structure, demand composition, and nature of the crisis, World Bank practitioners have found one program that works almost everywhere to produce fast and effective results - mass market Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) replacement programs. (author)

  13. The Solar Bank concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhart, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Solar Bank is proposed to be established as a multinational wholesale lending institution supporting the adoption of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems by as much as 40% of the world's population. It would supply capital resources to local lending institutions such as banks, credit unions, cooperatives, and rural lending organizations in the developing countries, and to financial institutions in the developed countries. The Solar Bank is intended to be global in scope, with operations in the major countries. The Solar Bank will bring a degree of standardization to the process of making small loans to many people for the purchase of PV systems, and it will provide technical support and training to its participating financial institutions. 'Solar Bank International' is likely to be headquartered in Europe. (orig.)

  14. Financial management information systems 25 years of World Bank experience on what works and what doesn't

    CERN Document Server

    Dener, Cem; Dorotinsky, William Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Since 1984, the World Bank has financed 87 Financial Management Information System (FMIS) projects in 51 countries totaling over US 2.2 billion, of which US 938 million was for FMIS related information and communication technology (ICT) solutions. This study presents the World Bank?s experience with these investment operations to share the achievements and challenges observed, and provide guidance for improving the performance of future projects. The report is structured according to four overarching questions:?What historical patterns emerge from World Bank financed Treasury/FMIS projects?Thi

  15. Credit Risk in the Banking Sector in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamet Aliu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Loans make up the bulk of a bank’s assets, and thus credit risk is the most significant risk for commercial banks in Kosovo and throughout the world. Despite its complexity, effective management of credit risk is a prerequisite for the success of a bank and the banking system in general. A special role in this aspect is played by the separation of reserves to cover the risk of failure to repay the loan or in cases of nonfulfilment of contractual obligations by the loan recipient. Therefore, this research aims to address this issue and analyses the credit risk management of the banking system of the Republic of Kosovo in general and the effects of separation of reserves for loan losses in particular.

  16. The World Bank Inspection Panel and Quasi-Judicial Oversight: In Search of the 'Judicial Spirit' in Public International Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Naudé Fourie (Andria)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis PhD dissertation conceptualizes the World Bank Inspection Panel as a mechanism of quasi-judicial review or oversight, aimed at enhancing the accountability and legitimacy of the World Bank – which is conceived as an international institution exercising public power. The author

  17. The IMF-World Bank's economic stabilisation and structural adjustment policies and the Uganda economy, 1981-1989

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabudere, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    This research report traces all the main developments in IMF-World Bank policies in Uganda. Most of the material concerns the three IMF standby arrangements with Uganda for 1981-1984 and the World Bank Group's Structural Adjustment Programmes. These programmes introduced two contradictory policies

  18. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerns about credit quality, undue concentrations in the bank's portfolio of residential real estate, small business, or small farm loans, or concerns about the bank's overall credit risk management systems...

  19. Creating religiously compliant milk banks in the Muslim world: a commentary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnakshabandi, Kholoud; Fiester, Autumn

    2016-02-01

    Human milk banks are vital for providing donor milk to infants for whom there are maternal or postnatal barriers to the mother's own milk. Although more than 35 countries have active milk banks, not one of those is a Muslim country.(1) Despite widespread support for breastfeeding across the Muslim world, religious constraints surrounding milk-sharing have created challenging barriers to the creation of milk banks. The religious objection centres around the Islamic tenet that consuming human milk builds a kinship bond between individuals who have consumed the same woman's milk which prohibits future marriage between the 'milk-brothers and sisters.' While a small-scale, experimental 'milk exchange' programme has been attempted in two Muslim countries (Kuwait and Malaysia), the only proposed milk bank in the Muslim world was a pilot programme in Turkey that was halted because of religious concerns. The problem with milk banking is the step in the process during which the milk from individual donors is pooled and de-identified, making it impossible to trace its origins and acknowledge the newly formed kinship relationship. To meet the need for Muslim children to be able to access human milk while remaining compliant with the prevalent understanding of Islamic doctrine on milk-sharing, we propose a new approach to milk banking that we term the Conditional Identified Milk Banking System (CIMBS). In this new system, both the donor's and recipient's identities are accessible to all parties through a voluntary registry, and the milk-pooling is limited to three milk donors. Based on recent survey data, we believe that there would be receptivity among practicing Muslims and religious leaders to this alternative approach.

  20. Book review: Unholy trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO Richard Peet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Breitenbach

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this timely book Richard Peet and his team lay the foundation with an excellent analysis of the process of globalisation and the resultant emergence of the global economy. The authors are especially critical of the increasing influence of institutions like the International Monetary Fund (IMF, World Bank and World Trade Organisation (WTO on the economy and the consequences experienced by peoples, cultures and the environment. The single ideology of neo-liberalism is blamed for the undesirable outcomes. This book considers concepts of power, political interest, hegemony, discourse, responsibility and the power of practicality, in critically examining the IMF, World Bank and WTO. The conclusion is reached that “all three institutions play roles greatly different from those originally agreed to under the charters that set them up”.

  1. Loan Defaults in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Svetlana Andrianova; Badi H Baltagi; Panicos O Demetriades

    2011-01-01

    African financial deepening is beset by a high rate of loan defaults, which encourages banks to hold liquid assets instead of lending. We put forward a novel theoretical model that captures the salient features of African credit markets which shows that equilibrium with high loan defaults and low lending can arise when contract enforcement institutions are weak, investment opportunities are relatively scarce and information imperfections abound. We provide evidence using a panel of 110 banks ...

  2. THE ACCOUNTING OF THE PLEDGED ASSETS PASSED TO THE LICENSED BANKS FROM THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA FOR THE REPAYMENT OF THE GRANTED LOAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana ŞEVCIUC

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In banking practice the pledge plays an important role, it is often used to denote the pledge agreement, as well asthe real right that is the result of the pledge agreement conclusion and the good that is the object of the pledge. Thepledge is the only real security interest in the range of bank guarantees. Actually, each obligation can beguaranteed by the pledging. Assets diversification and trade needs have led to the development of a new pledgeform. Anyway, regardless of the number and content of the economic material, the licensed banks from the Republicof Moldova attach importance to the correctness of pledge accounting taking into account the deadline. Thus, thisresearch aims to present the accounting of the pledged assets passed to the licensed banks from the Republic ofMoldova for the repayment of the granted loan, taking into account the enforcement of the obligation secured by thepledge deadline, the right to possession of the pledged asset and not the least of its value. In the research there wasmainly used the method of monographic study applying elements of observation, selection, induction and deduction.

  3. Financing of LNG projects in developing countries and the role of the World Bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitsky, M.; Nore, P.

    1992-01-01

    The future quantities of capital required by the LNG industry will be very large. However, the continued rapid development of the industry is justified by the economic and environmental benefits of increased natural gas use. It is likely that the World Bank will continue to play a modest absolute role in supplying capital to the industry. The Bank can, however, play a crucial role in assisting governments in formulating appropriate energy policies and project development strategies and thereby creating the right policy and financial climate. The Bank can also provide a relatively modest amount of financial backing to projects, which nonetheless can help to generate larger volumes of finance from other sources. In the long run, LNG projects which are well structured and which operate within an appropriate policy environment should succeed in attracting financing even in today's more competitive environment

  4. An Evaluative Look Behind the Curtain : World Bank Group Staff's Early Experience with the Shared Prosperity Goal

    OpenAIRE

    Smets, Lodewijk; Bogetic, Zeljko

    2018-01-01

    In 2013, the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank Group endorsed two ambitious goals: eliminating extreme poverty in the world by 2030 and boosting shared prosperity. The latter is defined as fostering the growth in the income of the poorest 40 percent of the population in each country. In 2016-17, the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group conducted an evaluation on how well ...

  5. Survey data on factors affecting negotiation of professional fees between Estate Valuers and their clients when the mortgage is financed by bank loan: A case study of mortgage valuations in Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuemeka O. Iroham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, two sets of questionnaires were administered to professionals and clients (commercial banks on their willingness to negotiate the professional fees charged by the Estate Valuers assuming that the mortgage in valuation was financed by bank loan. A range of fees options were provided. Other factors such as the business environment and mortgage valuation can influence the negotiated fees when the data obtained from the survey data is analyzed.

  6. Survey data on factors affecting negotiation of professional fees between Estate Valuers and their clients when the mortgage is financed by bank loan: A case study of mortgage valuations in Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iroham, Chukwuemeka O; Okagbue, Hilary I; Ogunkoya, Olalekan A; Owolabi, James D

    2017-06-01

    In this article, two sets of questionnaires were administered to professionals and clients (commercial banks) on their willingness to negotiate the professional fees charged by the Estate Valuers assuming that the mortgage in valuation was financed by bank loan. A range of fees options were provided. Other factors such as the business environment and mortgage valuation can influence the negotiated fees when the data obtained from the survey data is analyzed.

  7. World Bank agricultural policies, poverty and income inequality in Sub-Saharan Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Howard Stein

    2010-01-01

    The original logic underlying the World Bank's structural adjustment policies in Africa was that the removal of state-created distortions would not only improve efficiency in the operation of markets but also enhance income equality and reduce poverty. The paper explores the linkage between adjustment and the deteriorating income distribution and rising poverty in sub-Saharan Africa with a focus on the rural sector where most of the population earns its livelihoods. The pattern observed is a ...

  8. Business creation in Portugal: Comparison between the World Bank data and Quadros de Pessoal

    OpenAIRE

    Elsa Morais Sarmento; Alcina Nunes

    2010-01-01

    Portugal has some of the highest business entry rates when compared to other countries, according to Eurostat, Statistics Portugal and the OECD Entrepreneurship Indicators Programme. We look at business creation in Portugal, from 2000 to 2007, by approaching two other complementary data sources, the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey, based on official Portuguese business register’s and the universe of active employer enterprises, obtained by applying to the dataset Quadros de Pessoal, ...

  9. Knowledge-Based Country Programs : An Evaluation of World Bank Group Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Independent Evaluation Group

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank Group is currently engaged in reflection and debate on how to improve the delivery of development support. Part of this debate concerns strengthening the knowledge agenda. The findings of this evaluation are particularly relevant because they speak directly to questions that the institution is deliberating. In particular, they address four key aspects of the “science of delivery”: the role of local partners or local knowledge hubs; consultation with clients and other stakeholde...

  10. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  11. 31 CFR 25.400 - Loan provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SALES LOANS MADE BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY AND FOREIGN MILITARY SALES LOANS MADE BY THE FEDERAL FINANCING BANK AND GUARANTEED BY THE DEFENSE SECURITY ASSISTANCE AGENCY Form of Private Loan § 25... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loan provisions. 25.400 Section 25...

  12. Student Loans in Developing Countries: An Evaluation of the Colombian Performance. Bank Staff Working Paper No. 182.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jallade, Jean-Pierre

    The student loan program run by the Instituto Colombiano de Credito Educativo y Estudios Tecnicos en el Exterior (ICETEX) has three main objectives: to increase the country's supply of highly skilled manpower, to achieve more equality of educational opportunity, and to provide a meaningful source of finance for higher education. An analysis of…

  13. Transmission of Bank Liquidity Shocks in Loan and Deposit Markets: The Role of Interbank Borrowing and Market Monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, F.; Hryckiewicz, A.; Kowalewski, O.; Tumer Alkan, G.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the international transmission of liquidity shocks from multinational bank holding companies to their subsidiaries during the financial crisis of 2008. Our results demonstrate that a subsidiary's reduction in lending is strongly related to its parent bank's lending via the interbank

  14. Neoliberalism revised? A critical account of World Bank conceptions of good governance and market friendly intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiely, R

    1998-01-01

    This article examines recent World Bank reports on the role of the state in the development process, with particular reference to the rise of the East Asian newly industrializing countries and the crisis of "governance" in sub-Saharan Africa. The concepts of market friendly intervention and good governance are critically discussed, and are found to be inadequate as explanations for East Asian "success" and African "failure." The author presents an alternative explanation for the rise of the newly industrializing countries, which draws out some of the implications for the developing world.

  15. The International Monetary Fund and World Bank in Africa: a "disastrous" record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Demba Moussa

    2005-01-01

    In their 60th anniversary year, the International Monetary Fund and World Bank will attempt to highlight their "assistance" to Africa. But in reality, since the 1970s, these institutions have gradually become the chief architects of policies that are responsible for the worst inequalities and the explosion of poverty in the world, especially in Africa. When they began to intervene on that continent in the late 1970s and early 1980s, their stated goal was to "accelerate development." But the actual record is just disastrous, as this article reveals.

  16. Good Work--But Not Enough of It : A Review of the World Bank's Experience in Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Heaver, Richard

    2006-01-01

    The World Bank has been a leader in nutrition policy analysis, and many of the nutrition projects it has supported have been innovative and successful. But though the Bank has developed the economic justification for large-scale investment in nutrition, and has the experience needed to scale up, it has failed to do so. Nutrition lending is an insignificant proportion of the Bank's business...

  17. Re-thinking skilled international labour migration: world cities and banking organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaverstock, J V

    1994-08-01

    "Highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration has become an important facet of the contemporary world economy. The operations of transnational corporations have created more opportunities for skilled migrants to work abroad.... There is a growing interest amongst economic geographers to examine this form of migration through an appreciation of global economic restructuring, labour market change and world cities. Consequently, this paper introduces a new conceptual framework...[which] is based on the rationale that world cities, and the patterns of labour market demand that exist within them, are of paramount importance in influencing highly skilled professional and managerial labour migration within the world economy. The author uses an example of highly skilled labour migration within the transnational banking sector [in London] to illustrate this new conceptual framework." excerpt

  18. The determinants of loan contracts to business firms

    OpenAIRE

    Pham, Thi Thu Trà; Lensink, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper deals with loan contracting from a private bank in Vietnam. We focus on the main loan contract features that the bank uses in lending to business firms, namely loan maturity, collateral and loan interest rate. Based upon the simultaneous equation model of Dennis et al. (2000) and the bank’s loan contracting policies, we examine the possible interdependency of the three different loan contract terms. Also, we try to determine which firm characteristics and exogenous factors are rele...

  19. Takipteki Kredi Oranını Etkileyen Faktörlerin Belirlenmesi: Mevduat Bankaları Üzerinde Bir Dinamik Panel Veri Uygulaması (Assessing the Factors that Impact Non-Performing Loan Ratio: An Application On Deposit Banks By Using Dynamic Panel Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nida ABDİOĞLU

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the factors that are effective on non-performing loans ratio after the 2001 local financial crisis. State-owned banks, privately-owned banks and foreign banks that operate in Turkey between the years 2002 and 2014 are examined. According to System-GMM and Difference GMM results, lagged value of non-performing loans, net interest margin, capital adequacy and solvency ratio have negative effects on non-performing loans ratio. On the other hand, interest applied to loans, loans/ deposits ratio, inefficiency and operating efficiency have positive effects on non performing loans. Although the results are consistent with moral hazard and bad managemet hypothesis, they are inconsistent with diversification hypothesis

  20. The World Bank and Private Provision of Schooling: A Look through the Lens of Sociological Theories of Organizational Hypocrisy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundy, Karen; Menashy, Francine

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore how the World Bank operationalizes its focus on poverty alleviation in one of the most controversial arenas of educational change: the expansion of privately provided schooling. We argue that the Bank's role in promoting private provision has been far more complicated than most critics have discerned. It has…

  1. Cord Blood Banking in the Arab World: Current Status and Future Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2015-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. 12 CFR 583.20 - Savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Savings and loan holding company. 583.20... REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.20 Savings and loan holding company. The term savings and loan holding company means any company that directly or indirectly controls a savings...

  3. 12 CFR 561.30 - Nonresidential construction loan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS AFFECTING ALL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 561.30 Nonresidential construction loan. The term nonresidential construction loan means a loan for construction of other than one or more dwelling units. ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonresidential construction loan. 561.30...

  4. A program to develop the domestic natural gas industry in Indonesia: Case history of two World Bank projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klass, D.L.; Khwaja, S.

    1992-01-01

    Indonesia depends heavily on revenues from the export of LNG and oil, the availability of which appears to be decreasing. It is therefore making a strong effort to accelerate development of a domestic natural gas industry. A high priority has been given to the conversion of power plants and city gas systems, including local industries and commercial facilities, from liquid fuels to natural gas. This will release more oil for export, help to meet the objectives of Repelita V, and provide substantial environmental benefits. The World Bank recently provided loans to the Indonesian Government for two projects that are aimed at substituting natural gas for oil and manufactured gas in domestic markets. One project involves expansion of the gas distribution systems of Indonesia's natural gas utility (PGN) in three cities: Jakarta and Bogor in Java, and Medan in Sumatra. Approximately 350 new industrial, 800 new commercial, and 12,700 new residential natural gas customers are expected from this project. Incremental gas sales are projected to be about 48.1 million CF/d when the project is completed in 1992. The project also includes training programs for PGN staff and an energy pricing policy study to be carried out by Indonesia's Ministry of Mines and Energy. The second project involves expansion of the supply of natural gas for Surabaya and twelve other towns in its vicinity in East Java, and further expansion of Medan's supply system. The gas for Surabaya will be used for about 400 industrial and 150 commercial customers, and 3,600 households. The additional gas supply for Medan will be used for two power plants operated by the state electric utility, PLN. Incremental natural gas sales from this project are projected to be 68 million CF/d when it is

  5. The impact of bank's franchise on loan price: With an estimation about bargaining power of China's commercial bank%银行特许权对贷款价格的影响研究:兼论我国商业银行的议价能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琪; 曾胜

    2017-01-01

    With the deepening of the banking liberalization and market-oriented reform of interest rate controls,it would be an inevitable trend for banks and enterprises to determine the loan price by negotiation,so the role of the bargaining power in the loan pricing process will become more prominent.However,the existing literature mostly discussed the issue of loan pricing by focus on the product attribute of loan and the financial intermediary attribute of banks which ignored the properties of general merchandise of loans,so we barely knew the loan pricing mechanism form the perspective of market player's bargaining power,especially the bargaining power which came from bank's franchise and its impacts on loan price.This is neither conducive for us to understand the process of capital pricing correctly,nor comprehensive understanding the role of bank's franchise in loan pricing.This paper established a bargaining game model to analyze the formation mechanism of loan pricing with the market trend,and influences of bank's franchise on the loan prices negotiation.Based on this,this paper did an empirical study on the determinants of loan pricing by using two-tier stochastic frontier model and the data of 104 China's commercial bank from 2005 to 2013,measured commercial bank's bargaining power and its impact degree on loan prices.The study found:Firstly,franchise brought banks monopoly and operational superiority,which made banks have lower negotiation cost and stronger bargaining power,so as to get a strong position in the loan price negotiation to make the negotiation reach a higher transaction price;Secondly,beside the benchmark interest rate,loan cost,credit risk,the market structure of banking and the level of inflation were the major factors to determine the price of the loan.And the barging between the lender and borrower could lead to loan price fluctuation.Thirdly,although interest rate control limited the bargaining space of loan price,with monopoly power and

  6. The care connection: The World Bank and women's unpaid care work in select sub-Saharan African countries

    OpenAIRE

    Bibler, Sarah; Zuckerman, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    With the aim of reducing women's greater unpaid care work than men&'s and increasing women's paid employment, this paper examines the extent to which World Bank investments address unpaid care work. The paper conducts an in-depth gender analysis of 36 World Bank employment-related projects in Malawi, Mali, Niger, and Rwanda. It concludes that the vast majority (92 per cent) of reviewed projects fail to account for unpaid care work. Exceptionally, Malawi's Shire River Basin Management Program ...

  7. Making Infrastructure Work for Women and Men : A Review of World Bank Infrastructure Projects (1995-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    This report provides a gender review of a decade and a half of World Bank infrastructure lending for 1,246 projects. The objective of this review is to assess the status of and trends in gender integration in the World Bank infrastructure portfolio, and to establish a baseline for monitoring and enhancing gender integration in line with commitments made for the 2006 gender action plan. The ...

  8. Determinants of loan maturity in small business lending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashiqur Rahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the determinants of loan maturity of small and medium enterprises (SMEs in the context of Visegrad countries: Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Poland, and Hungary. The data of instead of for this paper was obtained from the Business Environment and Enterprise Performance Survey (BEEPS, which is a joint project of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the World Bank. By using a binary logistic model, we have found that loan maturity is shorter for older and mature firms, firms owned by female and firms experiencing a shortage of liquidity. At the same time, we have also found that firms having concentrated ownership structure and more tangible assets can borrow for a longer period. In addition to that, we have found evidence that loan maturity is longer for the firms located closer to a bank branch. We also provide empirical support for the assumption that bank low competition is associated with longer maturity. From the obtained results, we may recommend SMEs to borrow from banks that are within their vicinity since this may increase the maturity of loans. Policy makers are recommended to implement policies so that to alleviate gender-related discrimination and take initiatives to moderate the level of competition at this market.

  9. From Globalization to Liquidation: The Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and the First World War in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassan Moazzin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article uses the case of the Deutsch-Asiatische Bank and its liquidation during the First World War to examine the challenges faced by German businesses during the war in China and China’s involvement in Allied economic warfare. This case suggests the detrimental effect that political crises and global shifts of power had on foreign businesses in modern China’s globalized treaty port economy. It also reveals China’s role in the global economic warfare of the Allies, showing that China first resisted Allied demands for a full liquidation of the German bank but eventually acquiesced to Allied pressure and handed control over the liquidation to the Allies. As a consequence, China ended up violating the very international law it had put so much value on when entering the war.

  10. Syndicated Loan Signed for CPECC'S KUWAIT Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    @@ China Petroleum Engineering Construction Corp. (CPECC) has got a syndicated loan of 80 million USD from a consortium composed of 15 banks of Japan, Germany, France, Netherlands and Belgium with Sanwa Bank Hongkong Branch as the arrangement bank. The loan will be used for building a multiple well manifold production station (MWMPS) in Kuwait. The signing ceremony for the loan agreement was held in late January 1997.

  11. The Bank Lending Channel: Evidence from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of that cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We find the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan. Smaller banks are more sensitive to policy rate changes, and household loans, government loans and intra-group loans are less responsive to monetary policy compared with financial and non-financial loans.

  12. Green banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Drobnjaković

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to march towards “low - carbon economy”. Global challenges of diminishing fossil fuel reserves, climate change, environmental management and finite natural resources serving an expanding world population - these reasons mean that urgent action is required to transition to solutions which minimize environmental impact and are sustainable. We are at the start of the low - carbon revolution and those that have started on their low - carbon journey already are seeing benefits such as new markets and customers, improved economic, social and environmental performance, and reduced bills and risks. Green investment banks offer alternative financial services: green car loans, energy efficiency mortgages, alternative energy venture capital, eco - savings deposits and green credit cards. These items represent innovative financial products.

  13. Artful Teaching and Learning: The Bank Street Developmental-Interaction Approach at Midtown West School. Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intrator, Sam; Park, Soyoung; Lit, Ira

    2015-01-01

    This case study is one of five publications from the larger study, "Teaching for a Changing World: The Graduates of Bank Street College of Education." Established in 1989, Midtown West is a New York City public elementary school serving approximately 350 students from kindergarten through grade five. With the support of Tony Alvarado,…

  14. 77 FR 72247 - Rules of Practice and Procedure: Enterprise and Federal Home Loan Bank Housing Goals Related...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Desk, First Floor, on business days between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. U.S. Mail, United Parcel Service, Federal Express, or Other Mail Service: The mailing address for comments is: Alfred M. Pollard, General Counsel... Services of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs of the...

  15. 12 CFR 584.2a - Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exempt savings and loan holding companies and... THE TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.2a Exempt savings and loan holding companies and grandfathered activities. (a) Exempt savings and loan holding companies. (1) The following savings and loan...

  16. 12 CFR 583.12 - Multiple savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Multiple savings and loan holding company. 583... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.12 Multiple savings and loan holding company. The term multiple savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding...

  17. 12 CFR 583.11 - Diversified savings and loan holding company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Diversified savings and loan holding company... DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.11 Diversified savings and loan holding company. The term diversified savings and loan holding company means any savings and loan holding...

  18. The effect of organizational hierarchy on loan rates and risk assessments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.; Kroos, P.

    2012-01-01

    We examine whether loan decisions are affected by the internal decision structure of the bank. Banks typically grant decision rights on straight-forward loans entirely to individual loan officers. For more risky loans these officers have to seek ratification for their loan proposals at higher

  19. Economics, health and development: some ethical dilemmas facing the World Bank and the international community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, A

    2001-08-01

    The World Bank is committed to "work[ing] with countries to improve the health, nutrition and population outcomes of the world's poor, and to protect[ing] the population from the impoverishing effects of illness, malnutrition and high fertility".(1) Ethical issues arise in the interpretation of these objectives and in helping countries formulate strategies and policies. It is these ethical issues--which are often not acknowledged by commentators--that are the subject of this paper. It asks why there should be a focus on the poor, and explores the link between improving the health of the poor, and reducing health inequalities between the poor and better-off. It discusses difficult ethical issues at both the global level (including debt relief and the link between country ownership and donor commitment) and the country level (including user fees and whether providing assistance to the non-poor may in the long run be a way of helping the poor).

  20. banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-11-01

    The thaw period was a kind of bank from which our country set sail towards unexplored horizons. The series on the Moscow Palace of Young Pioneers is continued by the article by Felix Novikov (144-151, who writes about the history of the design of this wonderful building, today’s monument of architecture of Soviet modernism.

  1. 12 CFR 528.6 - Loan application register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan application register. 528.6 Section 528.6 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY NONDISCRIMINATION... Mortgage Disclosure Act Loan Application Registers with the Office of Thrift Supervision in accordance with...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format EC22SE91...

  3. Sequential Banking.

    OpenAIRE

    Bizer, David S; DeMarzo, Peter M

    1992-01-01

    The authors study environments in which agents may borrow sequentially from more than one leader. Although debt is prioritized, additional lending imposes an externality on prior debt because, with moral hazard, the probability of repayment of prior loans decreases. Equilibrium interest rates are higher than they would be if borrowers could commit to borrow from at most one bank. Even though the loan terms are less favorable than they would be under commitment, the indebtedness of borrowers i...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISTVÁN EGRESI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available While the financial world is still dominated by conventional banks, based on western economic principles, the number of Islamic banks is on the rise. Islamic banks have originated from colonial India as a response of the Muslims to the British who attempted to westernize their society. Other similar financial operations based on Islamic Law (Shari’a were established in Pakistan, Malaysia and Egypt to facilitate access of rural poor to interest-free loans. However, being unprofitable, these operations did not survive for very long. Islamic banks, unlike conventional banks, are not based on interest and conduct their business in accordance with a wide array of ethical and moral issues. The modern phase of Islamic banking started in the 1970s when the Islamic Development Bank was founded in Saudi Arabia. Soon after, a number of commercial banks were established in the neighboring countries. From this core, over the last four decades, Islamic finance and banking has spread across the entire Muslim world and beyond to become a global phenomenon. This study examines the development of Islamic banking in Turkey in the wider context of global expansion. Turkey is an interesting case study because, although its population is nearly 100% Muslim, it is a secular state built on the model of Western European countries. However, lately, the moderate Islamic party in power since 2002 has shown some signs of openness towards a parallel banking system based on Islamic principles.

  5. Rules versus discretion in loan rate setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerqueiro, G.M.; Degryse, H.A.; Ongena, S.

    2011-01-01

    Loan rates for seemingly identical borrowers often exhibit substantial dispersion. This paper investigates the determinants of the dispersion in interest rates on loans granted by banks to small and medium sized enterprises. We associate this dispersion with the loan officers’ use of “discretion” in

  6. Were the hydro dams financed by the World Bank from 1976 to 2005 worthwhile?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awojobi, Omotola; Jenkins, Glenn P.

    2015-01-01

    Because hydro dams are complex to design and usually involve long-term planning, they are particularly susceptible to cost and time overruns. The controversy surrounding their development remains an unresolved issue in the energy policy debate. This study re-examines the cost issues associated with a portfolio of 58 dams that were financed by the World Bank from 1976 to 2005. Further, an estimate is made of the value of the benefits produced by these investments to determine the magnitude of economic rates of return for the individual projects and the overall portfolio of dams. Even though this portfolio of dams suffered substantially from cost overruns, the net contribution of these dams has been positive and substantial. The ex-post real economic rate of return for the entire portfolio is estimated to be greater than 17 percent. The important policy implication of this study is that each investment in a hydro dam needs to be appraised taking into consideration the distribution and probabilities of costs that might be incurred, as well as the potential benefits. Adequate margins must exist of ex-ante benefits over costs to account for the risks of cost overruns. - Highlights: • An ex-post evaluation is made of hydroelectric dams financed by the World Bank. • Cost overruns, time overruns, and the cost of time overruns are measured. • The PV of benefits produced by this portfolio was 1.8 times the PV of the costs. • Real cost overruns were 27% and cost of time overruns 3.5% of ex-ante costs. • Risks of cost overruns must be evaluated in relation to projected benefits of dams.

  7. 12 CFR 926.2 - Bank authority to make advances to housing associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank authority to make advances to housing associates. 926.2 Section 926.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK MEMBERS AND HOUSING ASSOCIATES FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK HOUSING ASSOCIATES § 926.2 Bank authority to make...

  8. 12 CFR 583.3 - Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DEFINITIONS FOR REGULATIONS AFFECTING SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.3 Bank. The term bank means any national bank, state bank, state-chartered savings bank, cooperative bank, or industrial bank, the deposits of which are insured by the...

  9. Mortgage lenders and loans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalbers, M.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a short historical overview of the different types of lenders that are active in the origination of residential mortgage loans. First, a distinction is made between depository and nondepository lenders. Second, there are two major types of depository lenders: commercial banks,

  10. A Basic Library for Savings and Loan Associations: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Elizabeth W.; Zimmerman, Anne R.

    Recognizing that current and reliable sources of information are necessary for effective management and decision making, librarians of the Federal Home Loan Bank of San Francisco and the Federal Home Loan Bank in Seattle prepared this booklet listing what they feel are the basic books and periodicals essential to a savings and loan library…

  11. Analysis of Default Risk of Agricultural Loan by Some Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to reduce default rate and loan diversions since members can serve as watch dog to each other. Banks should also prevent unnecessary delay in loan disbursement to allow for timely use of the loan. Banks should also explore the Agricultural credit guarantee scheme (ACGS) to offset part of the risk in case of default.

  12. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-01-01

    In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...

  13. In the Best Interests of Youth or Neoliberalism? The World Bank and the New Global Youth Empowerment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarieh, Mayssoun; Tannock, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    Youth, and youth employment especially, have jumped to the forefront of the international development agenda, driven by new funding and reporting priorities of the World Bank and allied international and national aid organisations. Despite the seductive rhetoric of youth empowerment, however, we argue that the new turn to youth serves primarily to…

  14. Structural adjustment programmes on the African continent : the theoretical foundations of IMF/World Bank reform policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meilink, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Since the early 1980s the majority of countries in sub-Saharan Africa embarked on the implementation of IMF/World Bank designed 'structural adjustment programmes' (SAPs). This paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of the SAPs. It shows that IMF policies are based on a theoretical framework

  15. Using Quantitative Data in World Bank Per-Student Funding Reform Projects: Data, Designs and Dilemmas in Transition Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levacic, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, education systems have increasingly moved to allocating funding for general education by means of a per-student formula. The trend started with developed economies and moved to transition and developing economies, where the World Bank has promoted the adoption of per-student funding (PSF). But promoting a particular reform,…

  16. The World Bank's Position on Early Child Education in Brazil: A Critical Assessment of Contributions and Shortcomings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sabrina

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, the World Bank published a policy study on early child education (ECE) developments in Brazil, entitled "Early Child Education: Making Programs Work for Brazil's Most Important Generation. Development." This paper analyses the report's assessment of ECE policy in Brazil as well as the recommendations it provides. A critical…

  17. [THE RESULTS OF IMPLEMENTATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT LOAN PROJECT "PREVENTION, DIAGNOSIS, AND TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS AND AIDS", A "TUBERCULOSIS" COMPONENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Due to the implementation of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) loan project "Prevention, diagnosis, treatment of tuberculosis and AIDS", a "Tuberculosis" component that is an addition to the national tuberculosis control program in 15 subjects of the Russian Federation, followed up by the Central Research Institute of Tuberculosis, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, the 2005-2008 measures stipulated by the Project have caused substantial changes in the organization of tuberculosis control: implementation of Orders Nos. 109, 50, and 690 and supervision of their implementation; modernization of the laboratories of the general medical network and antituberbulosis service (404 kits have been delivered for clinical diagnostic laboratories and 12 for bacteriological laboratories, including BACTEC 960 that has been provided in 6 areas); 91 training seminars have been held at the federal and regional levels; 1492 medical workers have been trained in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of patients with tuberculosis; 8 manuals and guidelines have been prepared and sent to all areas. In the period 2005-2008, the tuberculosis morbidity and mortality rates in the followed-up areas reduced by 1.2 and 18.6%, respectively. The analysis of patient cohorts in 2007 and 2005 revealed that the therapeutic efficiency evaluated from sputum smear microscopy increased by 16.3%; there were reductions in the proportion of patients having ineffective chemotherapy (from 16.1 to 11.1%), patients who died from tuberculosis (from 11.6 to 9.9%), and those who interrupted therapy ahead of time (from 11.8 to 7.8%). Implementation of the IBR project has contributed to the improvement of the national strategy and the enhancement of the efficiency of tuberculosis control.

  18. Perspectives of co-operation with the World Bank towards elimination of low emission sources in Krakow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goerlich, K.

    1995-12-31

    I am not going to speak about or for the World Bank. More time and a different scope of the conference would be needed in order to more deeply assess the role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the environmental and energy sectors in Poland. I am going to stay within the context of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Project financed by the US AID and managed by the US DOE (called here for simplicity the Krakow Programme). However, in order to assess a role of the World Bank and other international lenders and donors in the pro-environment transformation of the energy systems of Krakow, one needs to briefly discuss: the possibilities and confinements related to the {open_quotes}technology{close_quotes} of disbursement of the financial resources by the multilateral development banks (MDB`s) in Poland, the type of results obtained within the {open_quotes}Krakow Programme{close_quotes} and a concept of involving American commercial companies to implement the clean-air policy for Krakow.

  19. 12 CFR 584.4 - Certain acquisitions by savings and loan holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certain acquisitions by savings and loan... TREASURY SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 584.4 Certain acquisitions by savings and loan holding companies. (a) Acquisitions by a savings and loan holding company of more than five percent of a non...

  20. 12 CFR 617.7415 - How does a qualified lender decide to restructure a loan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... restructure a loan? 617.7415 Section 617.7415 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM BORROWER RIGHTS Distressed Loan Restructuring; State Agricultural Loan Mediation Programs § 617.7415 How... the cost to the lender of restructuring the loan is equal to or less than the cost of foreclosure...

  1. 12 CFR 221.7 - Supplement: Maximum loan value of margin stock and other collateral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value of margin stock and other collateral. (a) Maximum loan value of margin stock. The maximum loan... nonmargin stock and all other collateral. The maximum loan value of nonmargin stock and all other collateral... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supplement: Maximum loan value of margin stock...

  2. Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review. ... have difficulties in obtaining loans from banks and other financial institutions because ... The limited availability of conventional collaterals in rural financial markets has led ...

  3. Evaluating competition in the loan and deposit market using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Competition was more intense in the market for loans than in the deposit market. There was more competition among domestic banks than among foreign banks. The study also reveals that there was marginal differences in the intensity of competition for loans and deposits among domestic banks. On the aggregate level, ...

  4. 12 CFR 221.103 - Loans to brokers or dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans to brokers or dealers. 221.103 Section... SYSTEM CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.103 Loans to brokers or dealers. Questions have...

  5. Banks on Notice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Regulators issue policies to guide China’s banks as massive loans compromise the banking sector’s ability to contain future risks R egulatory departments are strengthening their supervision over financial institutions to prevent an incomprehensible financial scenario from unfolding: the failure of the Chinese banking

  6. 12 CFR 931.8 - Other restrictions on the repurchase or redemption of Bank stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... redemption of Bank stock. 931.8 Section 931.8 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK RISK MANAGEMENT AND CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.8 Other restrictions on the repurchase or redemption of Bank stock. (a) Capital impairment. A Bank may not redeem or...

  7. Economic growth and decline in mortality in developing countries: an analysis of the World Bank development datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renton, A; Wall, M; Lintott, J

    2012-07-01

    The 1999 World Bank report claimed that growth in gross domestic product (GDP) between 1960 and 1990 only accounted for 15% of concomitant growth in life expectancy in developing countries. These findings were used repeatedly by the World Health Organization (WHO) to support a policy shift away from promoting social and economic development, towards vertical technology-driven programmes. This paper updates the 1999 World Bank report using the World Bank's 2005 dataset, providing a new assessment of the relative contribution of economic growth. Time-series analysis. Cross-sectional time-series regression analysis using a random effect model of associations between GDP, education and technical progress and improved health outcomes. The proportion of improvement in health indicators between 1970 and 2000 associated with changes in GDP, education and technical progress was estimated. In 1970, a 1% difference in GDP between countries was associated with 6% difference in female (LEBF) and 5% male (LEBM) life expectancy at birth. By 2000, these values had increased to 14% and 12%, explaining most of the observed health gain. Excluding Europe and Central Asia, the proportion of the increase in LEBF and LEBM attributable to increased GDP was 31% and 33% in the present analysis, vs. 17% and 14%, respectively, estimated by the World Bank. In the poorest countries, higher GDPs were required in 2000 than in 1970 to achieve the same health outcomes. In the poorest countries, socio-economic change is likely to be a more important source of health improvement than technical progress. Technical progress, operating by increasing the size of the effect of a unit of GDP on health, is likely to benefit richer countries more than poorer countries, thereby increasing global health inequalities. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 12 CFR 614.4354 - Federal land bank associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal land bank associations. 614.4354 Section 614.4354 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... association may assume endorsement liability on any loan if the total amount of the association's endorsement...

  9. Appreciating diversity: Regulatory reform and banking practices in the developed and developing worlds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayati Ghosh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The homogenisation of finance that has dramatically increased the proclivity to instability and crisis is directly related to the very structure of regulations that have discouraged different types of institutions from emerging and/or and surviving. In developing countries they have the further limitation of preventing the necessary variation of financial institutions that is required for financing development and enlarging the spread of and access to institutional finance. The rules that apply to commercial banks or investment banks cannot and should not be applied to development banks, savings banks or co-operative banks. Diversity in the financial system can and should be encouraged at several levels and through several means.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF THE ISLAMIC BANKING AND FINANCE IN THE MUSLIM AND NON-MUSLIM WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Ali Jimale

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In Islamic countries, many of them poor and not highly developed, large segments of the Muslim population do not have access to adequate banking services—often because devout Muslims are unwilling to put their savings into a traditional financial system that runs counter to their religious principles. Islamic banks seek to provide financial services in a way that is compatible with Islamic teaching, and if Islamic banks can tap that potential Muslim clientele, that could hasten economic development in these countries.             It is expanding not only in nations with majority Muslim populations, but also in other countries where Muslims are a minority, such as the United Kingdom and Japan. Similarly, countries such as India, the Kyrgyz Republic, and Syria have recently granted, or are considering granting, licenses for Islamic banking activities.             In fact, there are currently more than 300 Islamic financial institutions spread over 51 countries, plus well over 250 mutual funds that comply with Islamic principles. And, over the past decade, the Islamic banking industry has experienced growth rates of 10-15 percent per year—a trend that is expected to continue.            Globally, the assets of Islamic banks have been expanding at double-digit rates for a decade, and Islamic banking is an increasingly visible alternative to conventional banks in Islamic countries and countries with many Muslims. My study identifies the sources of Islamic banking expansion and ways to stimulate its continued growth. Knowing what drives the development of Islamic banking will help developing countries in Africa, Asia, and the Middle East catch up.

  11. Neuro-Based Artificial Intelligence Model for Loan Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Shorouq F. Eletter; Saad G. Yaseen; Ghaleb A. Elrefae

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Despite the increase in consumer loans defaults and competition in the banking market, most of the Jordanian commercial banks are reluctant to use artificial intelligence software systems for supporting loan decisions. Approach: This study developed a proposed model that identifies artificial neural network as an enabling tool for evaluating credit applications to support loan decisions in the Jordanian Commercial banks. A multi-layer feed-forward neural network with backpr...

  12. Diffuse Agency and Institutional Dynamics in Global Governance – the Cases of the World Bank and the WTO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strange, Michael Stewart; Aagaard, Peter

    change occurs through the introduction, framing and facilitation of new paradigms, programmes and public opinions. Consequently, it cannot be limited to a narrow elite but involves a wider intellectual exchange between academics, policy practitioners, media professionals, NGOs and private firms...... governance involves multiple actors who by their engagement are themselves changed. To better understand this process, the paper will consider normative change within global governance in the cases of the World Bank and the WTO....

  13. ONLINE BANKING IN THE ROMANIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IMOLA DRIGĂ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.

  14. Banking competition, risk and regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolt, Wilko; Tieman, Alexander F.

    2004-01-01

    In a dynamic framework, commercial banks compete for customers by setting acceptance criteria for granting loans, while taking into account regulatory requirements. By easing its acceptance criteria a bank faces a trade-off between attracting more demand for loans, thus making higher per-period

  15. World corporate loan markets for raising new capital - does distance still matter: Are financial assets priced locally or globally?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojinovič Borut

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Though the paper focuses on pricing, as the background I provide some evidence about loan flows across markets in the form of borrowers’ and lenders’ propensity to issue outside their natural home market. The data show that borrowers stay home when they can and that they tend to issue in Europe when they must issue abroad. That is, borrowers domiciled in one of the major markets (Europe, U.S., and Asia almost always issue in that market, whereas borrowers in more remote locations usually issue in the European market. For example, borrowers from Latin America are overwhelmingly issuing in Europe rather than in the U.S. market.

  16. PRIVATE BANKING AND WEALTH MANAGEMENT SERVICES OFFERED BY BANKS

    OpenAIRE

    IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU

    2009-01-01

    The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...

  17. World Bank: Management Controls Stronger, But Challenges in Fighting Corruption Remain

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ... by deterring investment and growth and exacerbating poverty Although no Bank-wide estimates of the magnitude of this problem have been developed, levels of corruption vary from country to country...

  18. The Governance of the Black Holes of the World Economy: Shadow Banking and Offshore Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Palan, R.; Nesvetailova, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on regulatory challenges posed by the two interconnected structures of the global financial system – the economy of tax havens (or offshore financial centres), and the shadow banking system. The financial crisis of 2007-09 has revealed that tax havens structures and shadow banking entities play a central role in the practise of financial institutions reliant on financial innovation. Thriving on complexity, opaque networks and driven by arbitrage, the two phenomena pose trem...

  19. What Drives Failed Policy at the World Bank? An inside Account of New Aid Modalities to Higher Education: Context, Blame, and Infallibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappleye, Jeremy; Un, Leang

    2018-01-01

    This article analyses recent World Bank interventions aimed at improving higher education and local research capacity in low-income countries. Our empirical entry point is a critical analysis of the Development and Innovation Grant (DIG) scheme the Bank rolled out in Cambodia (2010-2015), a virtual carbon copy export of its Academic Initiative…

  20. Essays on banking and asset pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscovan, V.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation contains three studies on banking and asset pricing. It analyzes questions related to informational content of bank loan announcements and trading activity. The first two chapters examine theoretically and empirically how stock and bond holders react to bank loan announcements as a

  1. Investing in amnesia, or fantasy and forgetfulness in the World Bank's approach to healthcare reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, M

    1997-01-01

    "Investing in Health," the World Bank's 1993 World Development Report, and a follow-up report, "Better Health in Africa," advocate investments in Third World health sectors as a means of increasing individual productivity and strengthening economic growth. Both reports maintain that structural adjustment policies have enhanced the physical health of low-income populations by improving the fiscal health of business elites. This essay critiques the World Bank's approach through a historical analysis of health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on the devastating effects of colonialism, patriarchy, and imperialism. Although these documents contain many useful recommendations for Western donors (e.g., recognition of the destructive potential of alcohol and tobacco, the need for state regulation over key parts of the health sector, and the effects of gender on health status), they reflect an "investment in amnesia" regarding historical evidence on health care reform in Africa and an erroneous assumption that Western biomedicine is politically neutral. Foreign aid has tended to serve the needs of multinational corporations rather than African populations. Recommended, in place of structural adjustment policies, are measures such as a massive rebuilding of Africa's urban infrastructure, the enforcement of minimum wage laws, the preservation of ecosystems that supply traditional medicines, attention to the ecologic and health consequences of economic growth, and a feminist-led reproductive rights movement.

  2. 12 CFR 221.118 - Bank arranging for extension of credit by corporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... corporation of an “unsecured” bank loan to exercise an option to purchase stock of the corporation is an... to the bank. The corporation would issue to the bank a guaranty of the loan and hold the purchased... of their options through an unsecured bank loan guaranteed by the company, thereby facilitating the...

  3. Coping with poverty in international assistance policy: an evaluation of spatially integrated investment strategies. [World Bank, USAID, and UN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli, D A [Syracuse Univ., NY; Ruddle, K

    1978-04-01

    International assistance agencies have turned increasingly to integrated rural development policies in an attempt to ameliorate the inequitable distribution of economic growth plaguing Third World nations since World War II. This paper reviews the functionally and spatially integrated investment strategies of the World Bank, US Agency for International Development, and the United Nations, outlines their objectives, perceptions of the problem, basic assumptions and programs, and evaluates them in terms of potential difficulties for implementation. Those factors crucial to making integrated development policies operational--knowledge of human ecosystems in rural areas, analytical ability, operational procedures, arrangements for local participation, subsistence systems indicators and administrative capacity of local and national governments--are discussed and assessed.

  4. 12 CFR 591.4 - Loans originated by lenders other than Federal savings associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Federal savings associations. (a) With regard to any real property loan originated by a lender other than... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originated by lenders other than Federal savings associations. 591.4 Section 591.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. Collateral in Loan Classification and Provisioning

    OpenAIRE

    In W Song

    2002-01-01

    Adequate loan classification practices are an essential part of a sound and effective credit risk-management process in a bank. Failure to identify deterioration in credit quality in a timely manner can aggravate and prolong the problem. Two key issues arise with regard to the use of collateral in the context of loan classification and provisioning. In particular, the questions arise whether collateral should be taken into account in classifying a collateralized loan, and whether it should be...

  6. THE FINANCIAL SECTOR OF THE STATE - THE STRUCTURE OF THE BANKING SYSTEM WITH A BANKING SECTOR IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The financial sector of each country in the world has its own specificities that depend on many factors. In this paper we will talk about the structure of the financial system in our country from the aspect of the banking sector. Banks are specialized institutions that have a special role in the development of the country's economic system, as their basic function is to supply the economy with the necessary amount of loans and money. Banking business is a special economic activity. It is determined by the type and content of banking operations. In general terms, banking transactions are divided into two groups: active and passive. The Bank is established as a joint-stock company, which is regulated by the laws on banks and international regulatory frameworks.

  7. Loans may keep CERN collider on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Abbott, A

    1996-01-01

    The European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN) is considering taking out bank loans to fund its Large Hadron Collider project. CERN officials are evaluating this option in view of the German government's decision to substantially reduce its annual contributions to the project. They state that the bank loans may be the only way to complete the project by the year 2005, especially if other contributing nations follow Germany's lead.

  8. 78 FR 51046 - Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 610 RIN 3052-AC78 Registration of Mortgage Loan Originators... residential mortgage loan originators employed by Farm Credit System (FCS or System) institutions. We are... loan originators at banks, savings associations, credit unions, FCS institutions, and their...

  9. Common Problems of Mortgage Banking Development in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In many countries the mortgage banking plays a basic role in the housing funding. The Polish model of the housing funding in large measure grounded on banking loans. However, more than 95% of mortgage loans come from universal banks. Mortgage banks, which have existed in the Polish economy for 10 years still play a small role in housing funding.

  10. 12 CFR 204.121 - Bankers' banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... actual or impending failure of another depository institution; share insurance funds; depository... Federal Home Loan Bank, or in the National Credit Union Administration Central Liquidity Facility if the...

  11. Hazardous times for monetary policy : What do twenty-three million bank loans say about the effects of monetary policy on credit risk-taking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez, G.; Ongena, S.; Peydro, J.L.; Saurina, J.

    2014-01-01

    We identify the effects of monetary policy on credit risk-taking with an exhaustive credit register of loan applications and contracts. We separate the changes in the composition of the supply of credit from the concurrent changes in the volume of supply and quality, and the volume of demand. We

  12. 12 CFR 347.304 - Accounting for fees on international loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accepted accounting principles. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for fees on international loans. 347... OF GENERAL POLICY INTERNATIONAL BANKING International Lending § 347.304 Accounting for fees on...

  13. The rise and growth of Serbian banking until World war I: Part one: Creation of preconditions for the rise of Serbian banking until 1878

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Peace Conference. In the first stage, until 1878, the vassal state of Serbia had been introducing necessary political, economic and institutional preconditions for the rise of banking that led to the creation of the first organized credits and banks. At the end of this stage, there were two types of proper banks: state banks and privately-owned banks. Since the authorities of the vassal state of Serbia played a key role in preparing institutional framework for the banking operations and in organizing the first credit facilities, it could be argued that Serbian banking arose in the 19th century as a result of both state-backed and growthinduced processes.

  14. NON-PERFORMING LOANS DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILIE RĂSCOLEAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bad loans are essentially loans with arrears of 90 days or more, and the criterion of 90 days is the most common practice in different countries to determine indicators on the bad in lending. Credit risk is one of the most important financial risks facing the banking system is assumed by all credit institutions and may cause serious problems so that bank and the whole system if risk exposure is substantial. From this point of view, the most important function of bank management is to control the quality of the loan portfolio. This is because the poor quality of loans is the leading cause of bankruptcy. In accordance with the central bank, credit institutions are obliged to protect the bank's capital and the deposits of individuals and legal entities and to cover any loans that present uncertainties in recovery, to determine and utilize prudential value adjustments. The central bank aims NPL development using aggregated indicators on credit institutions. Conclusions are presented on developments and trends in non-performing loans in the portfolio of credit institutions in Romania.

  15. DETERMINANTS OF BUSINESS LOAN DEFAULT IN GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwaa-Sekyi, Ellis Kofi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The initiation, funding, servicing and monitoring of loans by financial intermediaries has been done without regard to some critical factors which could have averted the likelihood of default. The study aimed at measuring the extent that owner-specific, borrower-specific, loan and lender-specific characteristics could determine the probability of loan default. The study used logistic regression for 224 business customers of a bank in Ghana from its nation-wide branches. The study found that owner’s extra income (ownership characteristics, multiple borrowing, diversion of loan purpose (borrower characteristics, loan price, loan purpose, loan age, repayment plan (loan characteristics and underfunding (lender characteristics significantly determined the probability of business loan default. The overall model predicted up to 78.5% of variations in the likelihood of default. The hierarchy of strong determinants given by their odd ratios were loan purpose (47.9 times, underfunding (19.2 times, diversion of loan purpose (11.7 times multiple borrowing (9.4 times and owner’s extra income (8.2 times. The study can conclude that financial intermediaries should be wary of the credit granting process taking cognisance of ownership, borrower, loan and lender characteristics especially the significant predictors. Combining quantitative and qualitative variables as determinants of default could be considered in future.

  16. Analysis on Sustainable Development Management Model of Village Banks - Based on Bayan Rongxing Village Bank in Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang shuang; Wang Ji-heng; Liu Bing; Yu Xiao-wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarized the management models of village banks in China. We compared and analyzed different management models of four village banks in different regions on four aspects: regional agriculture feature, loan for farmers, loan for enterprises and the construction of network, then came to the conclusion that, if the village banks' health development can realize, they must pay attention to innovating in loan patterns as well as material loan and starting out the network development.

  17. Does Central Bank Quality Determine Sovereign Ratings and Credit Default Swap Spreads: Evidence from the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlall Indranarain

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study innovates from prior research which focuses on the determinants of sovereign ratings and credit default swap spreads for a large sample of countries by incorporating the quality of central banks, let alone refined proxies. Findings show that the explanatory power of both sovereign ratings and CDS spreads model improve by a hefty 11 percent in case of sovereign ratings and 6 to 9 percent in the case of CDS spreads when central bank quality is incorporated. Such a finding bolters the notion that institutional quality does play a preponderant role when it comes to assessing country risk, making it a systematic component of institutional quality. The effect of labour participation implies that countries buffeted by stronger effects of an ageing population have greater propensity of increases in CDS spreads. Evidence is also found as to the driving dynamics of CDS spreads and sovereign ratings to be distinct. Our results hold robust post tackling for endogeneity problem.

  18. What is Good Governance? World Bank and The Power of Normalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Wahyudi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini memberikan penilaian kritis alas konsep Bank Dunia tentang 'Good Governance' (Kepemerintahan yang Balk dengan melibat konsep ini melalui pendekatan Foucauldian, yaitu bukan hanya sebagai fenomena pengetahuan tetapi jugs sebagai fenomena kekuasaan,yaitu kekuasaan untuk normalisasi. Penelaahan atas asal mula dan evolusi konsep ini menyarankan bahwa keberadaan konsep ini tidaklab netral dan bebas kepentingan dan karena itu sebenarnyajuga tidak selalu universal atau dapat diterapkan dalam semua keadaan. Pengen'ian Good Governance yang didefinisikan sebagai kebijaksaan ekonomi yang baik dan pembangunan kelembagaan yang kuat, pada alehirnya telab memperkuat pola-pola hegemoni dan kelembagaan global dan menghasilkan dominasi atau hegemonisasi dari pengetahuan' Bank Dunia (atau sebenarnyajuga ekonomi internasionalyang lain scperti IMF terhadap 'bentuk pengetahuanyang lain', dengan akibal bahwa model alternatif pembangunanyang lain akan terpinggirkan atau sama sekalipunah.

  19. Six changes with the new Regulations on Automobile Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正> On Aug 16, 2004, the People’s Bank of China and China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC) jointly issued the new version of the Regulations on Automobile Loans. Due to be put into implementation on Oct 1, the new Regulations change radically compared with the previous version in terms of creditors, possible borrowers, rate of down payments, loan periods, etc.

  20. 12 CFR Appendix IV to Part 27 - Home Loan Data Submission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Home Loan Data Submission IV Appendix IV to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. IV Appendix IV to Part 27—Home Loan Data Submission ER21JN94.003 ER21JN94...

  1. Federal Workforce: Attrition Rates at Ex-Im Bank and Similar Agencies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hess, James

    1997-01-01

    .... Financing and protection provided by Ex-Im Bank includes (1) loans to foreign buyers of U.S. exports, (2) loan guarantees to commercial lenders providing repayment protection for loans to foreign buyers...

  2. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  3. The rise and growth of Serbian banking until World War I - part two: The second stage - the national state and the national banking (1878-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of Serbian banking during the 19th century was a gradual process that underwent two distinctive stages with the turning point in 1878 when Serbia became an independent state by the international agreement concluded at the Berlin Congress. In the first stage, until 1878, necessary political, economic and institutional preconditions had been formed for the rise of banking that led to the creation of the first organized credits and banks. During the second stage, decisive programme of economic and institutional development and modernization resulted in the mushrooming growth of banks. Apart from the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia (National Bank, as a bank of note issue, there were state banks and privately-owned banks mostly in the form of joint-stock companies. From 1894, farmers started to establish farm cooperative societies as institutions that met their credit needs with a much more favourable terms than banks. Analyses suggests that banks in the Kingdom of Serbia during 1878-1914 period better served the development of trade, building of the infrastructure (railroads and industry than credit needs of the farmers who were the main economic agent of the country representing 85% of the total population.

  4. Deposit competition and loan markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arping, S.

    Less-intense competition for deposits, by mitigating banks’ incentive to take excessive risks, is traditionally believed to lead to lower non-performing loan (NPL) ratios and more-stable banks. This paper revisits this proposition in a model with borrower moral hazard in which banks’ NPL ratios

  5. 12 CFR 591.3 - Loans originated by Federal savings associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans originated by Federal savings... PREEMPTION OF STATE DUE-ON-SALE LAWS § 591.3 Loans originated by Federal savings associations. (a) With regard to any real property loan originated or to be originated by a Federal savings association, as a...

  6. 12 CFR 211.45 - Accounting for fees on international loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with generally accepted accounting principles. [Reg. K, 68 FR 1159, Jan. 9, 2003] Interpretations ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for fees on international loans. 211... Accounting for fees on international loans. (a) Restrictions on fees for restructured international loans. No...

  7. Adaptation funding and the World Bank investment framework initiative. Background Report prepared for the Gleneagles Dialogue Government Working Groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, B.

    2006-06-01

    The recent World Bank Report on 'Clean Energy and Development: Towards an Investment Framework' estimates that 'climateproofing' investments in developing countries - excluding additional investment needed to reduce the exposure to current climate risks and unavoided climate related damages - would cost between $9 and $41 billions annually. This raises two key questions that the government working groups in Mexico might wish to consider: The first question is How are the costs of climate-proofing investments in particular, and adaptation in general to be covered and managed? Depending on the types of costs related to adaptation and impacts, different forms of disbursement will have to be used to achieve the desired results. A number of financial tools are already in place or are being introduced which could be used for this purpose. Apart from the traditional instruments used in climate change funding to-date - such as the hitherto sole operating entity of the financial mechanism of the UNFCCC, i.e. the GEF - there are the following: The World Bank concept of an Investment Framework - this is probably most suited to deal with the transfer of adaptation technologies; Climate impact risks could be addressed through insurance-related instruments - these might be strictly climate related, or more general, such as the proposed European Commission / World Bank Global Index Insurance Framework; The funding of relief efforts connected with climate/weather related disasters is probably best dealt with through the proposed reform of existing disaster relief fund, administered by the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA); and Economic shocks due to whether related disasters could be dealt with through the Exogenous Shock Facility of the IMF. The instruments for disbursement of adaptation funding thus need not deal solely with climate change aspects, nor is necessary that they should be governed exclusively by the UNFCCC (COP) or the Kyoto Protocol (COP

  8. 7 CFR 1427.23 - Cotton loan deficiency payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan... intentions to receive a loan deficiency payment on the identified commodity or (ii) A completed request for a... cotton based on a locked-in adjusted world price, provide identifying numbers for modules or other...

  9. IMF, BIS, and World Bank: On the Intra-institutional Articulation of the International Financial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fatima Silva do Carmo Previdelli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The international financial system could be organized into three groups. According to this classification, the first group includes the organizations that exercise the functions of regulation and supervision. In the second, we have those that are regulated and supervised by the former, and in the third, we find the organizations that do not follow such rules or supervision, forming the so-called shadow banking system. This article seeks to examine the first group, and, more specifically, how the International Monetary Fund articulates with the primary elements of such a group.

  10. MODERN THEORETICAL APPROACHES CREDIT PORTFOLIO QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF COMMERCIAL BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Lisnic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Credit portfolio management means the totality of financial and economic decisions realization aimed at achieving optimal ratio of performance indicators of loan portfolio. If low-quality loans increase, the reduction of productive assets volume and, respectively, profitability from banking lending. In extreme cases a such situation could lead to bank bankruptcy. At present bank loan portfolio quality assessment is an important component of bank management.

  11. Banking Fees in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Rudd; Chris Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. The results of the latest survey show that banks’ aggregate fee income rose slightly in the banks’ 2011 financial years, but that growth in fee income was less than that in banks’ total assets. Fee income from households declined while fee income from businesses grew, largely as a result of increases in fees on business loans and bank bills.

  12. 12 CFR 614.4000 - Farm Credit Banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... make, provided the borrower eligibility, membership, term, amount, loan security, and stock or... Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS Lending... the requirements in § 614.4200 of this part, to make real estate mortgage loans with maturities of not...

  13. Evaluation Of Selected Commercial Banks Financing Of Agro Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that the agro-based enterprises are faced with the problems of insufficient collateral, high interest rate and poor documentation while the banks are faced with the problems of loan diversion, irregular loan repayment and none presentation of perfectible collaterals by loan beneficiaries. Commercial banks ...

  14. 12 CFR 228.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 228.26... bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not intermediate small... performance is evaluated pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The bank's loan-to-deposit ratio, adjusted...

  15. 12 CFR 25.26 - Small bank performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small bank performance standards. 25.26 Section... § 25.26 Small bank performance standards. (a) Performance criteria—(1) Small banks that are not... lending performance is evaluated pursuant to the following criteria: (1) The bank's loan-to-deposit ratio...

  16. 12 CFR 615.5335 - Bank net collateral ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bank net collateral ratio. 615.5335 Section 615.5335 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5335 Bank net...

  17. BANKING BUSINESS MODELS IN UKRAINIAN BANKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya Onyshchenko

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The

  18. ESSENCE OF ACTIVE OPERATIONS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Irina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Constant changes in the economic situation in the country and in the world give rise to new problems in asset management of commercial banks. This, in turn, requires the timely development and introduction of new and improved mechanisms for active operations of banking institutions. Only the implementation of such adequate mechanisms will allow, on the one hand, to satisfy the needs of consumers of banking services, and on the other – for banking institutions, to obtain the necessary level of profit for the acceptable risk to them. Purpose. Substantiation of theoretical foundations of organization and management of assets of banking institutions and determination of perspective directions of development of active operations in commercial banks. Results. The article provides a list of operations carried out by commercial banks of Ukraine. The essence of the concept of active operations of a banking institution as an important element of its activity for profit is considered. Possible variants of classification of active operations are analyzed, depending on the criterion underlying (risk level, liquidity and term of putting. The definition of a bank loan and its basic principles are given. The purposes and advantages of investment activity of banking institutions are specified, the classification of such activity is carried out. Proposed directions of development of active operations of banking institutions through the use of intermediary operations and unconventional banking services are offered. Conclusions. Currently, banking institutions carry out a large number of different banking operations. Mobilized by carrying out passive operations cash funds of the banking institution are placed through active operations in different directions. The basis of active operations of a commercial bank is its credit and investment operations. A commercial bank’s profits in the future are dependent on their effective conduct. The conduct of

  19. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  20. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  1. How Commercial Banks Use the World Wide Web: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leovic, Lydia K.

    New telecommunications vehicles expand the possible ways that business is conducted. The hypermedia portion of the Internet, the World Wide Web, is such a telecommunications device. The Web is presently one of the most flexible and dynamic methods for electronic information dissemination. The level of technological sophistication necessary to…

  2. Uganda: The Challenge of Growth and Poverty Reduction. A World Bank Country Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report examines the outcomes of economic reform in Uganda and defines issues that Uganda must address in medium- and long-term strategies for poverty reduction. With a per capita income of approximately $220, Uganda is one of the poorest countries in the world. Its economy and social indicators bear the marks of nearly 15 years of political…

  3. 12 CFR 221.5 - Special purpose loans to brokers and dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special purpose loans to brokers and dealers... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM CREDIT BY BANKS AND PERSONS OTHER THAN BROKERS OR DEALERS FOR THE PURPOSE OF PURCHASING OR CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) § 221.5 Special purpose loans to brokers and dealers. (a...

  4. RMB Business Boost for Foreign Banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG PEI

    2006-01-01

    @@ With the competition over foreign currency loans becoming intensified among foreign and Chinese banks, rivalry on loans made in RMB are seeing a similar trend. Specifically, the local banks' "comfort zone" has been challenged as the country's financial industry opens according to the timetable of WTO agreement, with full opening arriving at the end of this year.

  5. Credit Ratings and Bank Monitoring Ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakamura, L.I.; Roszbach, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we use credit rating data from two Swedish banks to elicit evidence on these banks’ loan monitoring ability. We do so by comparing the ability of bank ratings to predict loan defaults relative to that of public ratings from the Swedish credit bureau. We test the banks’ abilility to

  6. Why The Rate Of Financing In Islamic Banks Is High? An Analysis Based On Malaysian Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Syauqi Beik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has grown rapidly and has become fi nancial-nerve centre in today’s world economy, particularly in the last three decades. It has attracted various entrepreneurs and enterprises to get its fi nancing. However, Islamic banks tend to have a higher rate of fi nancing compared to the conventional ones. This less competitiveness encourage the demand for Islamic products may fall leaving the Islamic banks. Good debtors opted for conventional loans since the interest rates paid were relatively lower and the rest (the bad debtors successfully made their way to Islamic banks. Therefore, the nonperforming financing of Islamic banks is high. This paper attempts to analyze factors that determine high rate of fi nancing in Islamic banks, by taking the case of Malaysian Islamic banks. In this paper, the top three of Islamic banks and conventional banks are selected for comparison. It finds that high default premium and overheads per capital contribute signifi cantly to the high fi nancing rate. Hence, the Islamic banks should diversify their assets and implement universal banking concept.Keywords: Islamic bank, rate of fi nancing, NPF (Non-Performing Financing, universal banking system

  7. PENGARUH NON PERFORMING LOAN (NPL TERHADAP PROFITABILITAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana Agustami

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Profitability is one of the essential elements in the process of assessing performance in banking finance. Bank needs to keep its profitability to maintain the continuity of its corporation. In the process of attaining income and making profit, a bank commonly does many efforts. One of them is through offering the credits to the public. However, in fact, credit which becomes the basis to run the company has the risk of failure when the clients/ debtors have to pay the loan back on its deadline/ Non Performing Loan (NPL. The objective of this study is to find out whether NPL influences negatively or not towards the bank profitability. This study employed the basic regression analysis method through linearity and normality tests. The data used is the financial statement of PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk in 2002 until 2010 published by Bank Indonesia. Based on the revealed elaboration and the data analysis about the influence of NPL towards profitability, it can be concluded that the condition of Non-Performing Loan (NPL in PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk is good in general since it is still below the NPL value regulated by Bank Indonesia which is 5%. Meanwhile, the profitability based on the return on assets (ROA in PT. Bank OCBC NISP tends to be below the minimum standard which is 1,5%, but it is classified in high category in the framework of performance determination of banking finance governed by Bank Indonesia. In PT. Bank OCBC NISP, Tbk, Non-Performing Loan (NPL influences negatively towards profitability.

  8. Trade Finance, Bank Bail-outs and Profit Taxation in an Interconnected World

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMIDT-EISENLOHR, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Defense date: 24 May 2010 Examining Board: Prof. Giancarlo Corsetti, EUI, Supervisor; Prof. Andrew Bernard, Tuck School of Business at Dartmouth; Prof. Russell Cooper, EUI; Prof. Jonathan Eaton, New York University Countries are increasingly linked internationally. The three models developed in this thesis shed light on how firms and governments respond to the increasing interconnectedness of the world economy, analyzing profit taxation, trade finance and government intervention in the ...

  9. The Role of Participation Banking as Alternative Financing Channels to Substitute for Deposit Banks and its Growth in the Turkish Finance Market - Period: 2007-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Sayım

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Financial systems and companies have become the most important reasons in the weakness of world economic system. The formation and development process of the financial structure also constitute the infrastructure of the world economic system. The path of the financial system and development has led to discuss with the financial crisis in 2008-2011. One of the solutions in order to reduce problems caused by the conventional banking system is alternative financing systems. In Turkey, the corporations based on profit share system are named participation banks. These banks which settle on different principles in the risk distribution of the portfolio acquired are analyzed more nowadays. Participation based banks are placed in practically every regulation related to banking terms and get their legal infrastructure more steady in the banking legislation of Turkey. This study is a continuation of a series related to the situation of participation banking in Turkey. On the other hand, the literature and the history of participation banking have been given less attention in this study. Literature information on methods in participation banks has been described in previous work of the series. Two analyzes were conducted in this study. One analysis is interpretive analysis that expresses the situation of applications of participation banking against banking risks. The other is an analysis of the figures of participation banks in Turkey as a continuation of the series. This study is a 2007-2015 part of research series. The study tries to explore the place and the importance of participation based banking with the various sub-headings, especially in Turkey. For this reason, we examine the comparative review 2007-2015 data of participation banks which are composed of Total Assets, Equity Net Profit, Collected Funds and Bank Loan Funds. Then we compare the total figures with deposit banks for the same period in Turkey.

  10. TINJAUAN TENTANG VARIABEL-VARIABEL CAMEL TERHADAP LABA USAHA PADA BANK UMUM SWASTA NASIONAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harianto Respati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available During the decade of December 2000 to June 2002, banking industry in Indonesiaespecially private general banks had not been able to manage their resource in order to obtainmore profit from their business. The Indonesian Bank had involved in establishing provision ofexecution concerning with financial report, which would be reported to the Indonesian Bankand then it would be published. In such situation, it was important to examine factors whichmight cause the profit to be weakened. This journal consisted of result or research concerningwith the influence of “CAMEL” variables toward profit of the private national banks. Out offourteen “CAMEL” variables, there were seven “CAMEL” variables that had an influence onprofit of the private national banks. ROA variable had more dominant influence than other sixvariables and it proved that during the decade the banking world had been dying and ineffectivein its effort to obtain more profit because of Non performing Loan.

  11. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: evidence from Australia(new version)

    OpenAIRE

    liu, luke

    2012-01-01

    This study explores how monetary policy changes flow through the banking sector in Australia. Drawing on data between 2004 and 2010, we divide banks into three groups according to their size, and examine the impact of cash rate change on lending of different types of loans. We found the response of bank lending after a monetary policy change varies with the size of the bank as well as the types of loan.

  12. INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL DETERMINANTS OF COMMERCIAL BANKS PROFITABILITY: EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM BULGARIA AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FIRTESCU BOGDAN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Our study focuses on commercial banks which are operating in Bulgaria and Romania, two countries whose banking sectors have registered major structural changes in the transition to a market economy and which are showing some similarities. Similar to other EU countries, the financial system from Bulgaria and Romania is dominated by the banking sector, which holds the largest share of total assets. Thus, we can say that health, strength and performance of the banking sector are of major importance for the sustainable economic development of states, but also for efficient transmission of monetary policy decisions on the real economy. The paper aims to identify the key factors that affect bank profitability and to evaluate empirically their contribution to a sample of 29 commercial banks in Bulgaria and Romania, for the period 2003-2012. Our research is based on data from the Bureau Van Dijk database, the World Bank and the European Central Bank and uses panel data estimation techniques. The dependent variable used in our study is the bank profitability, which is measured by two representative indicators the Return on Average Assets (ROAA and Return on Average Equity (ROAE. Regarding the independent variables, our analysis includes capital adequacy, the loan loss reserve rate, cost to income ratio, the ratio of liquid assets to total assets, the interest expenses to deposits ratio, the non-interest income over total gross revenues, bank size, the GDP per capita growth, inflation rate, domestic bank credit to private sector and banking industry concentration. The results of our empirical study shows that among the variables considered, the loan loss reserve rate, the ratio of cost to income, GDP per capita growth and domestic bank credit to the private sector, have a significant impact on bank profitability, results in line with our expectations, but also with the results of other empirical studies.

  13. Aggregate Uncertainty, Money and Banking

    OpenAIRE

    Hongfei Sun

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the problem of monitoring the monitor in a model of money and banking with aggregate uncertainty. It shows that when inside money is required as a means of bank loan repayment, a market of inside money is entailed at the repayment stage and generates information-revealing prices that perfectly discipline the bank. The incentive problem of a bank is costlessly overcome simply by involving inside money in repayment. Inside money distinguishes itself from outside money by its ...

  14. Female entrepreneurs in trouble: do their bad loans last longer?

    OpenAIRE

    Juri Marcucci; Paolo Emilio Mistrulli

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the duration of bad loans for a unique data set of sole proprietorships in Italy, finding that bad loans for female firms last longer. However, this result is mainly due to the fact that loans granted to female firms are less frequently written off than those to male ones, suggesting that for banks female firms might be more creditworthy than male firms. These findings are robust to censoring, alternative specifications of the distribution of bad loan duration and other bank-sp...

  15. Promoting anti-corruption reforms. Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  16. Promoting anti-corruption reforms : Evaluating the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program in seven African countries (1999-2001)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Haarhuis, Carolien Maria

    2005-01-01

    This study offers an investigation of the implementation of a World Bank anti-corruption program, by applying various relevant social science theories and methods. The aim of the program is to provide countries with tools to build a relevant and participatory anti-corruption program. The study

  17. World Bank Development Sector Adjustment Operation Life Line to Nigerian Universities: Impact on Information Demand and Supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozowa, Vincent Nnamdi

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview of the rationale behind the World Bank credit line to Nigerian universities and examines the impact of the credit facility on the information demand and supply in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi Library (Nigeria). Discusses problems, such as poor quantity and quality of books and journals, lack of equipment, and lack of…

  18. Test of the Bank Lending Channel: The Case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu HSING

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper tests the bank lending channel for Poland based on a simultaneousequation model consisting of demand for and supply of bank loans. The three-stage least squares method is employed in empirical work. This paper finds support for a bank lending channel for Poland. Expansionary monetary policy through a lower money market rate or open market purchase of government bonds to increase bank reserves/deposits would increase bank loan supply.

  19. Farmers Utilization Of Loan Schemes Of The Nigerian Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study on utilization of loans was conducted in the five branches of theNigerian Agricultural and Cooperatives Bank (NACRDB), in Abia State Nigeria. Two farmer customers were sampled randomly in proportion to the category of the bank branch . Thirty-two (32) farmers who had mandatory savings with the bank were ...

  20. 12 CFR 502.29 - How does OTS determine the condition component for a savings and loan holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for a savings and loan holding company? 502.29 Section 502.29 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies-Calculation of Assessments § 502.29 How does OTS determine the condition component for a savings and loan...

  1. 12 CFR 502.26 - How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan holding companies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment for savings and loan holding companies? 502.26 Section 502.26 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies-Calculation of Assessments § 502.26 How does OTS calculate the semi-annual assessment for savings and loan...

  2. 12 CFR 502.28 - How does OTS determine the organizational form component for a savings and loan holding company?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... component for a savings and loan holding company? 502.28 Section 502.28 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ASSESSMENTS AND FEES Assessments Savings and Loan Holding Companies... savings and loan holding company that OTS regulates under section 10(l) of the HOLA. OTS will compute your...

  3. 12 CFR 563.43 - Loans by savings associations to their executive officers, directors and principal shareholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans by savings associations to their... § 563.43 Loans by savings associations to their executive officers, directors and principal shareholders...) that is a savings and loan holding company. A company has control over a saving association if it...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix to Part 215 - Section 5200 of the Revised Statutes Total Loans and Extensions of Credit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... extensions of credit and not upon any full or partial recourse endorsement or guarantee by the transferor... Loans and Extensions of Credit Appendix to Part 215 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... Statutes Total Loans and Extensions of Credit (a)(1) The total loans and extensions of credit by a national...

  5. Banking Fees in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Reserve Bank of Australia

    2010-01-01

    The Reserve Bank has conducted a survey on bank fees each year since 1997. In 2009 growth in fee income increased slightly from recent years though it was again slower than growth in banks’ balance sheets. Growth in fee income was higher for businesses than for households. Banks reacted to the financial crisis by competing more aggressively for deposit funding which resulted in total fee income from deposit accounts falling, and repricing loan products which contributed to an increase in fe...

  6. 12 CFR 1229.3 - Criteria for a Bank's capital classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for a Bank's capital classification. 1229.3 Section 1229.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTITY REGULATIONS CAPITAL CLASSIFICATIONS AND PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Federal Home Loan Banks § 1229.3 Criteria for a Bank's capital...

  7. WHAT DETERMINES THE PROFITABILITY OF BANKS? EVIDENCE FROM THE US

    OpenAIRE

    Ruochen Wang; Xuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the factors affecting bank profitability. We use a sample of US banks over the period 2002-2014, and measure profitability using both return on assets (ROA) and return on equity (ROE). We find that banks have higher profitability when they have: (1) a lower loans to total assets ratio, (2) a lower customer deposits to total liabilities ratio, (3) a lower nonperforming loans to gross loans ratio, (4) higher efficiency, and (5) higher revenue diversification.   We...

  8. How loan interest rate liberalization affects firms'loan maturity structure Evidence from listed manufacturing companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfang Zhou; Jingjing Wang; Jianping Ding

    2014-01-01

    Purpose-After loan interest rate upper limit deregulation in October 2004,the financing environment in China changed dramatically,and the banks were eligible for risk compensation.The purpose of this paper is to focus on the influence of the loan interest rate librealization on firms' loan maturity structure.Design/methodology/approach-Based on Rajan's (1992) model the authors constructed a tradeoff model of how the banks choose long-term and short-term loans scales,and further analyzed banks' loan term decisions under the loan interest rate upper limit deregulation or collateral cases.Then the authors used an unbalanced panel data set of 586 Chinese listed manufacturing companies and 9,376 observations during the period 1996-2011 to testify the theoretical conclusion.Furthermore,the authors studied the effect on firms with different characteristics of ownership or scale.Findings-The results show that the loan interest rate liberalization significantly decreases the private companies' reliance on short-term loans and increases sensitivity to interest rates of stateowned companies' long-term loans.But the results also show that the companies' ownership still plays a key role on the long-term loans availability.When monetary policy tightened,small companies still have to borrow short-term loans for long-term purposes.As the bank industry is still dominated by state-owned banks and the deposit interest rate has upper limits,the effect of the loan interest rate liberalization on easing long-term credit constraints is limited.Originality/value-From a new perspective,the content and findings of this paper contribute to the study of the effect of the interest rate liberalization on China economy.

  9. 12 CFR 34.24 - Nonfederally chartered commercial banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonfederally chartered commercial banks. 34.24... LENDING AND APPRAISALS Adjustable-Rate Mortgages § 34.24 Nonfederally chartered commercial banks. Pursuant to 12 U.S.C. 3803(a), a State chartered commercial bank may make ARM loans in accordance with the...

  10. 12 CFR 614.4010 - Agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) of this chapter, for the export (including the cost of freight) of agricultural commodities or... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agricultural credit banks. 614.4010 Section 614.4010 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS...

  11. Reactor upgrade loans in spring?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) could start to make loans for immediate safety improvements on eastern European reactors in the first half of 1993, according to Francois Demarcq, the bank's project manager for the nuclear safety account. He reported to the German Atomforum meeting in Bonn on January 26; progress at last seems to be forthcoming on the proposals for urgent assistance put forward last year by the Group of 24 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development countries in Lisbon last June and the Group of 7 summit meeting in Bonn in July

  12. Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB): A Comprehensive Collection of Geoscience Images Being Developed by the American Geological Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, A. W.; Keane, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Although there are geoscience images available in numerous locations around the World Wide Web, there is no universal comprehensive digital archive where teachers, students, scientists, and the general public can gather images related to the Earth Sciences. To fill this need, the American Geological Institute (AGI) is developing the largest image database available: the Earth Science World ImageBank (ESWIB). The goal of ESWIB is to provide a variety of users with free access to high-quality geoscience images and technical art gathered from photographers, government organizations, and scientists. Each image is cataloged by location, author, image rights, and a detailed description of what the image shows. Additionally, images are cataloged using keywords from AGI's precise Georef indexing methodology. Students, teachers, and the general public can search or browse and download these images for use in slide show presentations, lectures, papers, or for other educational and outreach uses. This resource can be used for any age level, in any kind of educational venue. Users can also contribute images of their own to the database through the ESWIB website. AGI is scanning these images at a very high resolution (16 x 20 inches) and depending on the author's rights, is making high-resolution copies (digital or print) available for non-commercial and commercial purposes. This ImageBank is different from other photo sites available in that the scope has more breadth and depth than other image resources, and the images are cataloged with a very high grade of detail and precision, which makes finding needed images fast and easy. The image services offered by ESWIB are also unique, such as the low-cost commercial options and high quality image printouts. AGI plans on adding more features to ESWIB in the future, including connecting this resource to the up-coming online Glossary of Geology, a geospatial search option, using the images to make generic PowerPoint presentations

  13. The status of bank lending to SMES in the Middle East and North Africa region : the results of a joint survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems than private banks. On another hand, credit guarantee schemes are a popular form of support to SME finan...

  14. A New Measure of Competition in Indian Loan Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jugnu Ansari

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study endeavours at measuring bank competition in Indian loan market using a new competitiveness index, the Augmented Relative Profit Difference (ARPD, which quantifies the impact of marginal costs on performance, measured in terms of market shares. This study yields two major insights. First, the theoretical foundation of the ARPD is very robust as compared to other conventional measures. Second, applying this unbiased competition indicator to Indian bank loan markets shows that financial reform indeed has contributed to significant improvements in competition. As regards, the competition among specific types of banks, we found public sector banks and private sector banks are comparatively more competitive than foreign banks. The empirical finding indicates that the Indian loan market is monopolistic in nature.

  15. Using Banks: Teaching Banking Skills to Low-Income Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurtz, Mary Ann; LeFlore, Ann Becker

    This module, one of six on teaching consumer matters to low-income adults, discusses banking skills. Topics include banking services (savings accounts, safety deposit boxes, Christmas clubs, loans, etc.), checking accounts (deposits, checkwriting, check registers, opening an account), how to use the check register (cancelled checks, deposits),…

  16. Competition between bank regulators

    OpenAIRE

    Schindler, Dirk; Eggert, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines competition between bank regulators in open economies. We use a model where credit demand of firms is endogenous and show any tendency for downward competition in regulation policy is limited by the effect of regulation on profits of nonfinancial firms. Moreover, perfect mobility on loans and deposit markets fully eliminates the incentives of regulators to set bank regulation at ine±cient low levels.

  17. Stress Testing as a Tool of Bank Risk Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonyuk Oksana I.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is development of theoretical, methodological and practical recommendations on the use of stress testing by Ukrainian commercial banks. Stress testing is defined as a part of bank risk management on the basis of scientific studies of domestic and foreign scientists. The article marks the essence of the bank stress testing and identifies its role in the structure of banks’ risk management in Ukraine. It considers goals of conducting stress testing in banking institutions. It identifies main aspects and specific features of conducting stress testing of bank risks. It characterises main advantages and shortcomings of use of stress testing in the modern bank risk management. It generalises the world and European approaches to the methods of conducting stress testing in commercial banks in comparison with the Ukrainian methodical recommendations. It shows that results of stress testing have practical value, since they help to preliminary assess influence of potentially negative events upon the state of the loan portfolio of the bank and make relevant managerial decisions.

  18. The Status of Bank Lending to SMEs in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Results of a Joint Survey of the Union of Arab Bank and the World Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Roberto; Farazi, Subika; Khouri, Rania; Pearce, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Among the principal constraints for SME lending is the lack of SME transparency, poor credit information from credit registries and bureaus, and weak creditor rights. If constraints can be addressed, lending can potentially reach bank targets of 21 percent. State banks still play an important role in financing SMEs in the MENA region, but they use less sophisticated risk management systems...

  19. Financial stability of banking system in China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, B

    2014-01-01

    This thesis aims at investigating the financial stability of China's banking system. Since the banking system is one of the most important financial intermediaries in the financial systems, the financial soundness of banks could secure the stability of the whole financial system. Two of the factors that may significantly increase imbalance of the banking system, and hence affect financial stability of an economy is the accumulated non-performing loans of banks and the macro-economic turbulenc...

  20. Green Bank Observatory (GBO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The largest fully steerable telescope in the world - the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), began observations in Green Bank, West Virginia in 2000and is a...

  1. 42 CFR 417.937 - Loan and loan guarantee provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Loan and loan guarantee provisions. 417.937 Section... HEALTH CARE PREPAYMENT PLANS Administration of Outstanding Loans and Loan Guarantees § 417.937 Loan and loan guarantee provisions. (a) Disbursement of loan proceeds. The principal amount of any loan made or...

  2. 7 CFR 1751.103 - Loan and loan advance requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan and loan advance requirements. 1751.103 Section... Telecommunications Modernization Plan § 1751.103 Loan and loan advance requirements. (a) For information about loan... February 13, 1996, RUS will make RUS hardship loans, RUS cost-of-money loans, and RTB loans for facilities...

  3. Learning from All? The World Bank, Aid Agencies and the Construction of Hegemony in Education for Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Antoni; Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Altinyelken, Hulya Kosar

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and quality of the participation that characterises the Bank's consultations with external actors and examines the extent to which the Bank is responsive to such feedback when it comes to defining its policy preferences and strategies in the education domain. It draws on a case study of the participatory process that…

  4. Strategic loan defaults and coordination : An experimental analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, S.T.; Vlahu, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper experimentally studies the impact of bank and borrower fundamentals on loan repayment. We find that solvent borrowers are more likely to default strategically when the bank’s expected strength is low, although loan repayment is a Pareto dominant Nash equilibrium. Borrowers are also less

  5. Factors Affecting Loan Utilization And Repayment Patterns By Small ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified factors affecting loan utilization and repayment patterns by small holder farmers of the Nigerian Agricultural Co-operative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) Osogbo branch in Osun State. Two Local Government Areas with large number of loan beneficiaries from 2003 to 2008 in NACRDB were ...

  6. Capital Requirements and Banks' Leniency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietrich, J. Kimball; Wihlborg, Clas

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the effect of changes in capital regulation on the strictness(leniency) of loan terms using a simple model of bank capital requirements andasset quality examinations. Banks offer different levels of `leniency' in the senseof willingness to offer automatic extensions of loans...... rates. As capital requirements increase thedifference between initial capital levels and between interest rates of strict andlenient banks decrease. Thus, higher capital requirements in recessions tend toreduce the interest rate premium paid for leniency. If a recession is interpreted asan increase...... in the required return, the interest rate premium paid for leniency isincreased in recession at a given level of required capital....

  7. Banking Competition and Economic Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald Fischer; Nicolás Inostroza; Felipe J. Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    We consider a two-period model of a banking system to explore the effects of competition on the stability and efficiency of economic activity. In the model, competing banks lend to entrepreneurs. After entrepreneurs receive the loans for their projects, there is a probability of a shock. The shock implies that a fraction of firms will default and be unable to pay back their loans. This will require banks to use their capital and reserves to pay back depositors, restricting restrict second per...

  8. Trilogy of China's Banking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Banks of China will face declining profit rate and slightly increasing non-performing loans ratio in a short term during 2009, but government policies will reduce the negative impact of financial crisis, and China's financial environment is still relatively safe in a global comparison.

  9. Financial Statements as Monitoring Mechanisms: Evidence from Small Commercial Loans

    OpenAIRE

    Minnis, Michael; Sutherland, Andrew Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Using a data set that records banks’ ongoing requests of information from small commercial borrowers, we examine when banks use financial statements to monitor borrowers after loan origination. We find that banks request financial statements for half the loans and this variation is related to borrower credit risk, relationship length, collateral, and the provision of business tax returns, but in complex ways. The relation between borrower risk and financial statement requests has an inverted ...

  10. European Banks Straddling Borders: Risky or Rewarding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Duijm (Patty); D. Schoenmaker (Dirk)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractTheory suggests that cross-border banking is beneficial as long as there is a non-perfect correlation across country-specific risks. Using a unique hand-collected dataset with cross-border loans for the 61 largest European banks, we find that cross-border banking in general decreases

  11. The Impact of Monetary Policy on Bank Credit During Economic Crisis: Indonesia's Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Mongid, Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The monetary policy mechanism by which monetary policy was transmitted to thereal economy had emerged as the pivotal discussion topic recently. This paper tried to discussthe impact of Bank Indonesia’s monetary policy on loan bank. By using simple loan bankframework we concluded that monetary policies were able to influence loan bank. Themonetary variables such as discount rate policy, base money and exchange rate policy werevery important in determining the banking credit. As the credit was ...

  12. An Initial Econometric Consideration of Supply and Demand in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayus, Barry; Kendis, Kurt

    1982-01-01

    In this econometric model of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP), supply is related to banks' liquidity and yield curves, all lenders' economic costs and returns, and Student Loan Marketing Association activity. GSLP demand is based on loan costs, family debt position, and net student need for financial aid. (RW)

  13. Overview of US AID-World Bank-NASA Collaboration to Address Water Management Issues in the MENA Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    The World Bank, USAID and NASA have recently established a joint project to study multiple issues pertaining to water related applications in the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. The main concentration of the project is on utilization of remote sensing data and hydrological models to address crop irrigation and mapping, flood mapping and forecasting, evapotranspiration and drought problems prevalent in this large geographic area. Additional emphases are placed on understanding the climate impact on these areas as well. Per IPCC 2007 report, by the end of this century MENA region is projected to experience an increase of 3 C to 5 C rise in mean temperatures and a 20% decline in precipitation. This poses a serious problem for this geographic zone especially when majority of the hydrological consumption is for the agriculture sector and the remaining amount is for domestic consumption. The remote sensing data from space is one of the best ways to study such complex issues and further feed into the decision support systems. NASA's fleet of Earth Observing satellites offer a great vantage point from space to look at the globe and provide vital signs necessary to maintain healthy and sustainable ecosystem. These observations generate multiple products such as soil moisture, global precipitation, aerosols, cloud cover, normalized difference vegetation index, land cover/use, ocean altimetry, ocean salinity, sea surface winds, sea surface temperature, ozone and atmospheric gases, ice and snow measurements, and many more. All of the data products, models and research results are distributed-via the Internet freely through out the world. This project will utilize several NASA models such as global Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS) to generate hydrological states and fluxes in near real time. These LDAS products will then be further compared with other NASA satellite observations (MODIS, VIIRS, TRMM, etc.) and other discrete models to compare and optimize

  14. Export financing of nuclear power plants - banks experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeber

    1976-01-01

    Export financing of a nuclear power plant to be exported from Germany, is, in principle, provided by German commercial banks and KfW (Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau). As a rule, 50 per cent of the financing of maturities falling due under the export portion of the loan will be taken over by a banking syndicate of approximately 25 member banks, and the remaining 50 per cent would be provided by KfW. KfW and the commercial banks must grant their loans at the respective money market conditions. The banks' and KfW's loans will normally be disbursed pro rata delivery. (HP) [de

  15. The European investment bank and financing the installation of urban refuse treatment plants with energy recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty-Gauquie, H.

    1992-01-01

    The European Investment Bank (BEI), the world's leading international financing institution, with an annual loans total of 15.3 billion Ecus in 1991, every year finances a number of projects for the treatment of refuse, with energy recovery from waste and heat distribution. This article describes the missions of the BEI and the parameters taken into account for authorizing investment. (author). 2 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Enhancing Cooperative Loan Scheme Through Automated Loan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Financial transactions through manual system of operation .... Integrated Financial Accounting. The accounting processes for loans are supported within Loans ... principal and interest, and print checks, payment receipts, or ...

  17. Strategi Ekspansi Penyaluran Kredit UKM (Studi Kasus PT Bank BJB Tbk)

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayat, Ayat; Koesrindartoto, Deddy P

    2013-01-01

    Data of Bank Indonesia stated that Small Medium Enterprises (SME) loan portfolio by the end of April 2012 amounted to 20.65% of the total national banking loans. Currently the banks, ranging from the state owned banks, private banks, rural banks (BPR), joint venture banks, to foreign banks are competing to grab SME market. The reason is that the SME sector is a profitable and huge market. Bank BJB is one of the commercial banks based in West Java, where in the region, small medium enterprises...

  18. Banking on women's spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, M

    1993-11-01

    An interview with Professor Mummadad Yunus, Managing Director of the Grameen Bank, revealed that he has provided loans to poor women in Bangladesh since 1976 and that the Grameen Bank has continued his work since 1983. The idea behind the banking system is that poor people without traditionally accepted collateral are good credit risks. In 1993, the Grameen Bank had operations in 33,000 out of a possible 68,000 villages in Bangladesh. The operations include 1030 branches and a staff of 12,000 people. 1.6 million people are recipients of loans, of whom 94% are women. The population served is the poorest and has no experience in income generation. Conclusions drawn from this experience are that women are better managers of resources and are more serious entrepreneurs than men and that the benefits of loan programs for the poor go directly to children and households. Women's self-image suffers from negative social conceptions, and one task is to convince women of their value, skills, and possibility of advancement. The bank philosophy rests with the belief that all human beings are a "treasure of potential possibilities." Women are advised to protect their money and marriage and not to sacrifice one for the other. Husbands initially are against money going to wives, but eventually they understand that the family benefits. Over 200,000 loans have been made for the provision of housing. The loan requirement is that the woman must own the land on which the house is built. Husband's have the opportunity to transfer title of the land to the wife. Ownership of land provides security for the wife.

  19. 12 CFR 617.7430 - Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... state agricultural loan mediation programs? 617.7430 Section 617.7430 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT... Mediation Programs § 617.7430 Are institutions required to participate in state agricultural loan mediation programs? (a) If initiated by a borrower, System institutions must participate in state mediation programs...

  20. 12 CFR 621.5 - Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and chargeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... according to generally accepted accounting principles. (b) Develop, adopt, and consistently apply policies... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for the allowance for loan losses... ACCOUNTING AND REPORTING REQUIREMENTS General Rules § 621.5 Accounting for the allowance for loan losses and...

  1. 12 CFR 221.109 - Loan to open-end investment company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... CARRYING MARGIN STOCK (REGULATION U) Interpretations § 221.109 Loan to open-end investment company. In... customarily purchases stocks registered on a national securities exchange, the Board stated that in view of... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan to open-end investment company. 221.109...

  2. Loan managers' decisions and trust in entrepreneurs in different institutional contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moro, Andrea; Fink, Matthias; Maresch, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Loan managers’ trust in entrepreneurs can be a useful tool for overcoming entrepreneurial firms’ opaqueness. Nevertheless, the possibility for loan managers to leverage trust can be affected by differences in the regulative institutions within the banks (type of bank) and by place-bound normative...

  3. 12 CFR 226.46 - Special disclosure requirements for private education loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Special Rules for Private Education Loans § 226.46 Special disclosure requirements for private education loans. (a) Coverage. The... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Special disclosure requirements for private...

  4. Bank, Banking System, Macroprudential Supervision, Stability of Banking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Vasilyeva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid

  5. 78 FR 67144 - Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-08

    ... EXPORT-IMPORT BANK [Public Notice 2013-0050] Application for Final Commitment for a Long-Term Loan or Financial Guarantee in Excess of $100 Million: AP086418XX AGENCY: Export-Import Bank of the United...) of the Charter of the Export-Import Bank of the United States (``Ex-Im Bank''), that Ex-Im Bank has...

  6. Islamic banks and finance and the possibility of agricultural investments in the Republic of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kačar Bahrija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Financing the economy and agriculture as well in the Republic of Serbia in recent past present was realized and has been implemented with the financial and credit support of the state, as well as through expensive commercial bank loans and financial leasing. Bearing in mind the productive resources, the importance of agriculture to the national economy and employment of the population, and that the financing of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia, at its current level of development, should be implemented with the support of the state. States should work towards the establishment of specialized agricultural banks and by legislation facilitate the arrival of financial institutions which will place funds at favorable conditions such as the Islamic financial institutions do. Islamic financial institutions in the placement of funds-loans do not use the loan interest rate which is according to the Islamic beliefs unfair and unacceptable. The theoreticians of Islamic economy see an alternative in the fundamental values and teachings of Islam, the Quran and the Sunnah, which strictly prohibit interest. Islamic bank can make certain comparative advantages in respect to the other domestic banks. It is in a position to establish a sound business relationship with clients from Muslim countries for the local companies to perform in their markets, as well as with the performance of companies from Muslim countries on the Serbian market. A further advantage of this bank we see in the fact that one of its founders would be the IDB - Islamic Development Bank - the leading development bank of the Muslim world, whose experience in the implementation of development projects in Serbia can be of great benefit. However, the largest Islamic bank has potential in the establishment and development of business relationships and cooperation with a growing number of financial and other institutions whose operations are based on the principles of Shariah.

  7. The UNDP/World Bank monitoring program on small scale biomass gasifiers (BTG's experience on tar measurements)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoef, H.A.M. [Biomass Technology Group BTG, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    By the time that small-scale biomass gasifiers were 'rediscovered' and promoted for use in developing countries (1970s), UNDP and the World Bank were well aware of the pitfalls of previous attempts to diffuse decentralized energy technologies. Therefore they decided to initiate a technology assessment programme before endorsing and/or stimulating a widespread gasifier introduction programme in developing countries. On July 1, 1983, the UNDP/WB worldwide Small-scale biomass gasifier monitoring was initiated, which was to {sup c}ollect uniform data on the actual field performance, economics, safety and public acceptability of biomass gasifiers currently operating in developing countries{sup .} For the UNDP/WB program BTG developed a tar measuring protocol which was used at twenty gasifiers worldwide (Indonesia, Philippines, Brazil, Mali, Seychelles, Vanuatu and Burundi). Other parameters monitored include pressure and temperatures at various spots, gasflow, fuel consumption, lubrication oil analyses, gas-composition analyses, emission measurements. The seven year programme showed that most of donor funded projects failed, mainly because there was not sufficient commitment from involved parties. National programs on the utilization of loca available biomass resources mostly failed because the fuel did not suit the requirements of gasifier reactor. In case of proper project design/set-up most of the small scale biomass gasifiers operated without major problems. Examples of such projects are the ones in Balong and Majalengka (Indonesia) Onesua (Vanuatu), Espara Feliz (Brazil) and Dogofiry (Mali). A motivated team of technicians, operators, managers is one the most important items within this respect. Most of the heat gasifiers are installed commercially and are much more successful compared to the subsidized power gasifiers. Local manufactured gasifiers are generally constructed of low quality materials causing frequent technical problems. However, locally

  8. Federal Student Loan Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Student Aid, US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    For those needing a loan to attend college, think federal aid first. Federal student loans usually offer borrowers lower interest rates and have more flexible repayment terms and options than private student loans. This brief report answers the following questions about federal aid: (1) What is a federal student loan?; (2) What is a private…

  9. Electronic banking

    OpenAIRE

    Gradišnik, Monika

    2017-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology is one of the most important reasons for the incredibly fast changes in business. Electronic commerce is spreading unstoppably in the operations of companies. The creation of new models, such as online banking, online shopping and the like, has sped up the development of the World Wide Web. Owing to the rapid progress of the World Wide Web and technologies for secure business operations, we can barely imagine life today without e...

  10. Interest rate and commercial banks' lending operations in Nigeria: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that Monetary Policy Rate (MPR) and inflation rate exert a positive and significant impact on banks' loans for the period. For the deregulation era, the result showed that MPR and the exchange rate had significant impact on banks' loans and advances. While the former exerted a negative impact, the later had a ...

  11. An Assessment of SMEs’ Financing by Commercial Banks in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Sachikonye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Small-to-medium enterprises (SMEs play a key role in the world economy and contribute significantly to an economy’s output, income and employment. This paper seeks to assess the extent to which Zimbabwe’s commercial banks finance SMEs. Document analysis and an extensive review of the literature was undertaken to contextualize and draw a framework of analysis for the study. The literature shows that SMEs are of great socio-economic importance in developing countries but access to financial services for SMEs in Zimbabwe remains low. Zimbabwe’s economic challenges since 2000 to dollarization in 2009, the informalization of the SME sector, customers’ financial illiteracy and lack of training, lack of collateral security for loans, a high non-performing loans ratio, the lack of understanding of SMEs’ needs by banks, the inaccessibility of banks and the general lack of financial innovation are some of the major reasons for the low level of SME financing. A harmonised approach to policy suggestions for SMEs, lending institutions, the central bank and government to ensure the viability and growth of the SME sector are required and outlined. The research helps to formalize the SME sector considering its attendant benefits to the relevant players in the economy.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.

  13. Bank Financing for SMEs : Evidence Across Countries and Bank-Ownership Types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Demirgüc-Kunt, A.; Martinez Peria, M.

    2009-01-01

    Using data for 91 large banks from 45 countries, this paper finds few differences in the extent, type, and pricing of SME loans across foreign, private, and government-owned banks, even though different bank ownership types apply different lending technologies and have different organizational

  14. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... such activities constitute a materially important line of business to its members. Also, investments... banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management § 615...

  15. Nothing special about banks : Competition and bank lending in Britain 1885-1925

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braggion, Fabio; Dwarkasing, Narly; Moore, Lyndon

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the impact of increasing bank concentration on bank loan contracts in a lightly regulated environment. This environment allows us to abstract from possible confounding effects of regulation to focus on the “pure” effects of competition on bank lending. We study over 30,000 British

  16. THE INTRODUCTION OF THE UNIQUE MECHANISM OF SURVEILLANCE AND THE REDUCTION OF NON-PERFORMING LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Georgeta PANAIT

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of a harmonized framework for financial supervision allows the minimizing of tax consequences and possible systemic bank failures. Banking union project will have impact on both the micro-prudential supervisory practices and the prudential supervision framework in the euro area and in the state members that will decide to participate in this project. The non-performing loans (NPL trend in the countries of Southeastern Europe further shows that nonperforming loans will increase in some of the states of Eastern Europe affecting credit flows and profits made by the banks. The activities conducted by the banks cannot be estimated, quantified and especially eliminate all risk, lending generates NPL even lending procedures were followed in accordance with the laws and regulations in force. Romania has the highest rate of non-performing loans in the region and the fact is generated because of difficulties in removing non performing loans from banks' balance sheets. In order to increase the volume of loans it is necessary to decrease of nonperforming loans from banks' balance sheets. To identify the optimal strategy for managing non-performing loans is necessary to continually monitor the performance and providing rapid adaptation to the dynamic environmental factors and changes in the characteristics of the loan portfolio. European Central Bank will consistently enforce a set of unique rules apply to the group of euro area credit institutions will directly supervise credit large institutions and will monitor supervisory practices of credit institutions less significant conducted by competent national authorities.

  17. Gestione delle acque, pace nel Medio Oriente e un ruolo per la Banca Mondiale (Water Management, Middle East Peace and a Role for the World Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Askari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The region comprising North Africa and the Middle East is the driest in the world. Thus conflicts over water have been a part of the landscape. These conflicts over water are invariably seen as a zero sum game; such a view does not incorporate the notion that water is an economic good and is therefore scarce. Given the limitation of competitive markets, optimal water allocation could only but help. However, even if one country allocates water efficiently within its own territory, its allocation could be sub-optimal if water interdependencies with other countries are not incorporated in a regional optimization model. The World Bank is in the best position to adopt a regional optimization model and thus ameliorate water conditions in the Middle East and in other regions around the world.       JEL Codes: Q25, Q28, Q15, Q13Keywords: Water

  18. Determinants of Commercial Banks' Profitability in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Trofimov, Ivan D.; Md. Aris, Nazaria; Ying Ying, Jovena Kho

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between non-performing loans (NPLs) and commercial banks' performance in Malaysia, alongside other factors. It considers the effect of NPLs, cost efficiency and bank size on commercial banks' profitability by using panel data regression (Pooled OLS model), covering the period of 2010-2015. The findings of the study show that NPLs and cost efficiency have a significant negative relationship with commercial banks' performances in Malaysia. On the othe...

  19. 12 CFR 614.4357 - Banks for cooperatives look-through notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....4357 Section 614.4357 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... endorsement or unconditional guarantee by the borrower; (b) The bank determines the financial condition, repayment capacity, and other credit factors of the loan to the original maker reasonably justify the credit...

  20. Monetary policy, bank size and bank lending: Evidence from Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Luke

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of monetary policy may hold the key to explaining the effects of policy on the economy. The objective of the study is to assess the importance of the bank lending channel in the transmission of monetary policy in Australia. In this paper, we found that the effectiveness of monetary policy varies with the size of the bank as well as the type of the loan. For different asset size and different kinds of loans, the effect of monetary policy is different. Thus, policy has distribu...