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Sample records for world africa europe

  1. The origin and dispersion of human parasitic diseases in the Old World (Africa, Europe and Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozais Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancestors of present-day man (Homo sapiens sapiens appeared in East Africa some three and a half million years ago (Australopithecs, and then migrated to Europe, Asia, and later to the Americas, thus beginning the differentiation process. The passage from nomadic to sedentary life took place in the Middle East in around 8000 BC. Wars, spontaneous migrations and forced migrations (slave trade led to enormous mixtures of populations in Europe and Africa and favoured the spread of numerous parasitic diseases with specific strains according to geographic area. The three human plasmodia (Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae were imported from Africa into the Mediterranean region with the first human migrations, but it was the Neolithic revolution (sedentarisation, irrigation, population increase which brought about actual foci for malaria. The reservoir for Leishmania infantum and L. donovani - the dog - has been domesticated for thousands of years. Wild rodents as reservoirs of L. major have also long been in contact with man and probably were imported from tropical Africa across the Sahara. L. tropica, by contrast, followed the migrations of man, its only reservoir. L. infantum and L. donovani spread with man and his dogs from West Africa. Likewise, for thousands of years, the dog has played an important role in the spread and the endemic character of hydatidosis through sheep (in Europe and North Africa and dromadary (in the Sahara and North Africa. Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni have existed since prehistoric times in populations living in or passing through the Sahara. These populations then transported them to countries of Northern Africa where the specific, intermediary hosts were already present. Madagascar was inhabited by populations of Indonesian origin who imported lymphatic filariosis across the Indian Ocean (possibly of African origin since the Indonesian sailors had spent time on the African coast before

  2. Europe Versus Africa: Hegemony Versus Dependence | Ugwuanyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper proposes an alternative basis of self-worth on the part of Africa and authentic humanism on the part of Europe and argues that these are the necessary basis for a more productive relationship between Europe and Africa and the basis for promoting a genuine cultural dialogue between these two world cultures.

  3. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; Matthijs, K.; Neels, K.; Timmerman, C.; Haers, J.; Mels, S.

    2016-01-01

    Willekens, F. (2015) Demographic transitions in Europe and the world. In: K. Matthijs, K. Neels, C. Timmerman. J. Haers and S. Mels eds. Population change at work in Europe, the Middle-East and North Africa. Beyond the demographic divide. Ashgate (International Population Studies Series) pp. 13-44.

  4. Where Europe meets Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Data from a portion of the imagery acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera during 2000-2002 were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of southwestern Europe and northwestern Morocco and Algeria. The image extends from 48oN, 16oW in the northwest to 32oN, 8oE in the southeast. It is displayed in Albers conic equal-area projection (a projection which is frequently used for equal-area maps of regions that are predominantly east-west in extent). From the northeast, the image traverses a portion of the Swiss Alps (partially snow-covered) and a small part of Italy's Po Valley. The northern portion of the image also includes the western coast of France and much of southern and southwestern France's undulating terrain, which continues until reaching the hills of the Pyrenees. The Pyrenees act as the natural frontier to the Iberian Peninsula -- a landmass comprised of Spain and Portugal. The Peninsular landscapes are extremely varied, with some almost desert-like, others green and fertile. About half of Spain is situated atop a high plain, known as the Central Plateau, and many mountain ranges, rivers, geological basement rock and vegetation types are found across this great plateau. The largest alluvial plain is Andalusia in the south, where the valley of the Guadalquivir River is shut in by mountain ranges on every side except the southwest, where the valley descends to the Atlantic. The islands of Mallorca, Menorca and Ibiza are Spanish territories in the western Mediterranean. At the Strait of Gibralter, Spain and Morocco very nearly kiss, and Morocco appears relatively verdant along its northern coastal corner. The rugged Atlas Mountain ranges traverse northern Algeria and Morocco. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude. This data product was

  5. Uranium deposits of the world. Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlkamp, Franz J.

    2016-07-01

    Uranium Deposits of the World, in three volumes, comprises an unprecedented compilation of data and descriptions of the uranium regions in Asia, USA, Latin America and Europe structured by countries. With this third, the Europe volume, Uranium Deposits of the World presents the most extensive data collection of the set. It covers about 140 uranium regions in more than 20 European countries with nearly 1000 mentioned uranium deposits. Each country and region receives an analytical overview followed by the geologically- and economically-relevant synopsis of the individual regions and fields. The presentations are structured in three major sections: (a) location and magnitude of uranium regions, districts, and deposits, (b) principal features of regions and districts, and (c) detailed characteristics of selected ore fields and deposits. This includes sections on geology, alteration, mineralization, shape and dimensions of deposits, isotopes data, ore control and recognition criteria, and metallogenesis. Beside the main European uranium regions, for example in the Czech Republic, Eastern Germany, France, the Iberian Peninsula or Ukraine, also small regions an districts to the point of singular occurrences of interest are considered. This by far the most comprehensive presentation of European uranium geology and mining would not be possible without the author's access to extensive information covering the countries of the former Eastern Bloc states, which was partly not previously available. Abundantly illustrated with information-laden maps and charts throughout, this reference work is an indispensable tool for geologists, mining companies, government agencies, and others with an interest in European key natural resources. A great help for the reader's orientation are the substantial bibliography of uranium-related publications and the indices, latter containing about 3900 entries in the geographical part alone. The three volumes of Uranium Deposits of the

  6. Strategic resources - Europe and the World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godement, F

    2005-07-01

    This document analyzes the geopolitical aspects of the energy security policy of Europe, its vulnerability with respect to other regions of the world with strong economic development and consumption (North America and East Asia), the failures of the European energy policies, and the dangers for Europe of strong changes in the rest of the World: Middle East's geopolitical instabilities, increased consumption of energy and raw materials by emerging economies, general discontinuity for raw material prices, emergence of non-OPEC oil and gas producers, high import dependency ratios from non-OECD countries. Then it analyzes the global energy scarcity hypothesis according to different scenarios: resurgence of geopolitical conflicts around resources, geopolitical spill-over from increased scarcity of resources, or interplay of market forces and business strategy. Finally, it sounds two alarms regarding energy policy: the decline of active energy saving policies across Europe, and the threat of liberalization on energy security policy. (J.S.)

  7. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  8. science and fisheries management in southern africa and europe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case studies on southern African sardine and anchovy, Cape hake and West Coast rock lobster off southern Africa are described and compared with North Sea herring and cod, and Nephrops in European waters. The comparison shows that, in Europe, despite comprehensive institutional arrangements for fisheries ...

  9. How did Europe Rule Africa? Dialectics of Colonialism and African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question of how Europe ruled Africa relates to the crucial issues of settlernative identity as constructions of colonialism as well as political consciousness formation and development among the colonized as well as the colonizers. Because colonialism operated ambiguously throughout its life to the extent of hiding its ...

  10. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  11. Reconstructing ancient mitochondrial DNA links between Africa and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, María; Achilli, Alessandro; Olivieri, Anna; Perego, Ugo A; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Brisighelli, Francesca; Lancioni, Hovirag; Woodward, Scott R; López-Soto, Manuel; Carracedo, Angel; Capelli, Cristian; Torroni, Antonio; Salas, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages of macro-haplogroup L (excluding the derived L3 branches M and N) represent the majority of the typical sub-Saharan mtDNA variability. In Europe, these mtDNAs account for Romanization period, the Arab conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily, and during the period of the Atlantic slave trade. However, the remaining 35% of L mtDNAs form European-specific subclades, revealing that there was gene flow from sub-Saharan Africa toward Europe as early as 11,000 yr ago.

  12. Plants Africa gave to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kunkel

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and Ironwoods are much sought after timber trees of excellent quality. Numerous grasses and pulses are well-known for their food value, and some of the native Cucurbitaceae are appreciated additions to our vegetable diet. African plants have also made their contribution to horticulture, ranging from world-famous trees such as the African or Gabon Tulip tree and many of the South African species of Proteaceae to the multitude of East and South African succulents. The present paper provides a survey of the most important of these useful plants and will emphasize the need of further research for forestry and agricultural as well as horticultural purposes, especially as far as some still little-known but potentially important plants species are concerned.

  13. Europeanization of the World or Globalization of Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Bentley

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Building on his long career as a distinguished historian of early modern Europe, John Miles Headley has recently turned his gaze to the influence of Europe in the larger world. In The Europeanization of the World, Headley makes an insistent case for the uniqueness of European values—particularly human rights and democracy—and argues that these values are Europe’s most precious gifts to the larger world. Without seeking to diminish the remarkable intellectual and cultural achievements of European peoples, this presentation will suggest a more nuanced view of relations between Europe and the larger world. Human rights and democracy mean different things to different peoples in different contexts at different times, and there have in fact been numerous expressions of both in societies beyond Europe. Furthermore, European theorists of human rights and democracy drew influence from societies beyond Europe. To the extent that the Europeanization of the world is a persuasive idea, it is possible only because of a prior globalization of Europe.

  14. A database on downward shortwave radiation for Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, M.; Cros, S.; Albuisson, M.; Wald, L.

    2003-04-01

    comparisons between satellite-derived assessments and measurements performed in the world radiation network in Europe and Africa. The results depend upon the number of pixels whose values are averaged for the comparison with the irradiation measurements. The satellite data are in B2 format. This format results from a sub-sampling of the high-resolution data. Briefly written, one pixel out of six original pixels is kept. Estimates at the geographical locations of the stations are therefore produced by spatial interpolation [15]. These estimates were compared to observations made by 60 stations in Europe and 30 stations in Africa for one year, July 1994 to June 1995. The bias and root mean square error (RMSE) for the assessment of the irradiance for a month are better than respectively 3 and 17 W m-2 on cells of 5' of arc angle in size (approx. 10 km at mid-latitude). The RMSE decreases down to 9 W m-2 if assessments are averaged over cells of 0.5° of arc angle. Data in B2 format were collected from Eumetsat. They were quality-controlled and calibrated. The method Heliosat-II is being operated to produce a database of SW downward radiation for the Eastern Atlantic Ocean, Europe and Africa from 1985 onwards and for each day. This database is accessible through the SoDa service on a free basis [16] (http://www.soda-is.com). Further, tools are available through this service to estimate longwave downward irradiance and net irradiance from the SW downward irradiance. The Heliosat-II method can be operated in real-time. When applied to Meteosat data (MOP and MSG), it produces maps of downward SW irradiance within the hour following the acquisition. 1 Perez R., Seals R., Zelenka A., 1997, Comparing satellite remote sensing and ground network measurements for the production of site/time specific irradiance data, Solar Energy, 60, 89-96. 2 Zelenka A., Perez R., Seals R., and Renné D., 1999, Effective accuracy of satellite-derived hourly irradiances, Theoretical and Applied Climatology

  15. News Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Almost dry but never dull: ASE 2014 EuroPhysicsFun shows physics to Europe Institute of Physics for Africa (IOPfA) South Sudan Report October 2013 Celebrating the centenary of x-ray diffraction The Niels Bohr Institute—an EPS Historical Site Nordic Research Symposium on Science Education (NFSUN) 2014: inquiry-based science education in technology-rich environments Physics World Cup 2013

  16. Demographic transitions in Europe and the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, Frans

    The demographic transition is a universal phenomenon. All regions of the world experience a change from high levels of mortality and fertility to low levels. The onset and pace of the demographic transition vary between regions and countries because of differences in timing of events and conditions

  17. CERN, Europe and the world of education

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    In addition to introducing young people to the fields of science and engineering, CERN’s Education Group is also an active partner in several European projects aimed at improving the tools used to teach science. With its wealth of experience, the Laboratory is a key player in these initiatives.   After the construction of a cloud chamber, participants in the CERN teacher programme observe particle trajectories. CERN’s Education Group has a long tradition of organising training courses and visits for students and teachers from all over the world. More recently, it has been involved in two European projects in partnership with universities, schools and various institutions in the field of science education. The Pathway and Discover the Cosmos programmes aim to promote science-learning through the pooling of teaching resources and expertise, and the creation or strengthening of networks that connect researchers, teachers and students. The EU’s Pathway project, whic...

  18. World Bank Development Policies and Poverty Alleviation in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks at how World Bank policies affect the outcomes of efforts at alleviating widespread poverty in Africa. It questions the repercussion of these policies on the stability of African economies by analyzing the survey of the literature. From the evidence gathered from Africa and specific countries on the continent, the ...

  19. Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botigué, Laura R.; Henn, Brenna M.; Gravel, Simon; Maples, Brian K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Corona, Erik; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry; Flores, Carlos; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic diversity in southern Europe is higher than in other regions of the continent. This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. Using SNP data from 2,099 individuals in 43 populations, we show that estimates of recent shared ancestry between Europe and Africa are substantially increased when gene flow from North Africans, rather than Sub-Saharan Africans, is considered. The gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Sub-Saharan Africa and is independent of recent gene flow from the Near East. The source of genetic diversity in southern Europe has important biomedical implications; we find that most disease risk alleles from genome-wide association studies follow expected patterns of divergence between Europe and North Africa, with the principal exception of multiple sclerosis. PMID:23733930

  20. The World Bank's Africa Virtual University Project: A Revisit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafukho, Fredrick M.; Muyia, Machuma Helen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of using technology in the delivery of virtual learning programs in higher education in Africa is to ensure access and equity as a strategy to develop human resources. Examining how specific educational innovations in higher education are working is necessary. The purpose of this study is to examine the World Bank's…

  1. World War One in Africa: Implications on Christian Missions | Lang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The First World War resulted in serious complexities that had to be surmounted by the missions. In all German territories in Africa that were turned into battle fields as well as in Allied possessions, missionaries suffered at the hands of Allied Forces. This article attempts an analysis of the treatment of the missions during and ...

  2. Securing South Africa during the 2010 FIFA World Cup: Legacy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trepidation over crime and safety concerns emerged as one of the main issues in relation to South Africa's hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup, prominent in the media and political debates. The event itself was highly regarded as being successful, with safety and security concerns being largely unfounded. This article ...

  3. Crisis Region Western Africa - The cradle of African migration to Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Kohnert, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    In the last decades the number of refugees from conflict regions in Africa increased dramatically. West Africa is the cradle of migration from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe, were most African migrants with overseas destinations live. The European Union shares dual responsibility for the continuing migration pressure: First, because they fostered over decades corrupt and autocratic regimes with dire disregard to principles of "good governance". The aftermath of these regimes is still to be felt...

  4. Health in Africa: what can France and Europe do about it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Kerouedan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Africa is the continent where the social and health situation is of greatest concern, and where progress on the Millennium Development Goals is the slowest. Access to global assistance for health is complex, as it is channeled through new funding mechanisms: global public-private partnerships or “innovative” financing. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the effectiveness of this aid, which is growing in volume, depends on a more equitable distribution between different countries on the same continent, or among patients with different pathologies, on financial resources as well as technical expertise, and on a evidence-based allocation of funding, using objective criteria such as epidemiological data, the efficacy of the chosen treatments, the population profile, the effectiveness and efficiency of selected interventions, etc. It is our opinion that food insecurity, including in urban areas, and unequal access to global health aid – combined with Africa’s unprecedented demographic growth and with the global financial and economic crisis effects– threaten the African continent political stability, particularly in the French-speaking Africa. To avoid the situation deteriorating still further, France and Europe, who have a historic responsibility towards this part of the world, must ensure that the human and financial resources allocated to global initiatives – channels these institutions favour to the detriment of bilateral aid – also benefit the most deprived populations living in French-speaking African countries.

  5. SCD in the world, Europe, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Mostar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlibegovic, Emir; Hadziomerovic, Mustafa; Dedovic, Aziz; Veledar, Emir; Fazlibegovic, Fadila

    2007-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is "a natural death due to cardiac causes, heralded by abrupt loss of consciousness within 1 hour of the onset of acute symptoms". Annual incidence is 0.36-1.28/1000 inhabitants. More than 1000 sudden deaths occur each day is in USA, and 100,000 people annually dead in the United Kingdom. Epidemiology differs greatly in 100-fold between young and old, and between developing and developed worlds. SCD is one of the leading causes of death and accounts for over 50% of the cardiac deaths. New data show that SCD is not nearly as sudden in most cases as the term may suggest. Warning symptoms that precede the sudden cardiac death are present for a surprisingly long time in many patients. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of death in the developed world. The major causes are inherited arrythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), anomalous coronary arteries and hereditary channelopathies (e.g., Long QT syndrome, LQTS). Prevalence is 3-4 fold higher in men, reflecting that of CAD. In adults, the incidence of CAD-related SCD varies with geography and age. The incidence of SCD increases with congestive heart failure (CHF), stroke, cancer and metabolic syndrome, particularly in the developed world. Coronary thrombi and plaque rupture or erosion are found in two thirds of SCD. In women over 50, rupture accounted for 80% of coronary thrombi. In Europe SCD accounts for 200,000 dead in 1 year. In FBiH rate of SCD fluctuates around 0.62/1000 inhabitants, in HNK it is 0.78/1000 and in Mostar 0.54/1000. A wide range of cardiac etiology and development of various management procedures in the primary and secondary preventive pharmacotherapy, device therapy, lifestyle changes and genetic profiling have had a major impact on the prediction and prevention of SCD. Improved resuscitation and defibrillation techniques together with advances in implantable pacemaker and defibrillator technology (AED

  6. On the transferability of RegCM4: Europe, Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Simulations driven by ERA-interim reanalysis for CORDEX domains covering Europe, Africa and Asia have been performed using RegCM4 at 50 km resolution. The same settings are used in basic simulations and preliminary evaluation of model performance for individual regions will be presented. Several settings of different options is tested and sensitivity of selected ones will be shown in individual regions. Secant Mercator projection is introduced for Africa providing more efficient model geometry setting, the impact of proper emissivity inclusion is compared especially for Africa and Asia desserts. CRU data are used for the validation.

  7. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Why Africa matters: evolution of Old World Salvia (Lamiaceae) in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Maria; Claßen-Bockhoff, Regine

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Salvia is the largest genus in Lamiaceae and it has recently been found to be non-monophyletic. Molecular data on Old World Salvia are largely lacking. In this study, we present data concerning Salvia in Africa. The focus is on the colonization of the continent, character evolution and the switch of pollination systems in the genus. Methods Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Analyses were based on two nuclear markers [internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and external transcribed spacer (ETS)] and one plastid marker (rpl32-trnL). Sequence data were generated for 41 of the 62 African taxa (66 %). Mesquite was used to reconstruct ancestral character states for distribution, life form, calyx shape, stamen type and pollination syndrome. Key Results Salvia in Africa is non-monophyletic. Each of the five major regions in Africa, except Madagascar, was colonized at least twice, and floristic links between North African, south-west Asian and European species are strongly supported. The large radiation in Sub-Saharan Africa (23 species) can be traced back to dispersal from North Africa via East Africa to the Cape Region. Adaptation to bird pollination in southern Africa and Madagascar reflects parallel evolution. Conclusions The phenotypic diversity in African Salvia is associated with repeated introductions to the continent. Many important evolutionary processes, such as colonization, adaptation, parallelism and character transformation, are reflected in this comparatively small group. The data presented in this study can help to understand the evolution of Salvia sensu lato and other large genera. PMID:24966353

  9. Pollen-based biome reconstruction for southern Europe and Africa 18,000 yr BP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elenga, H; Peyron, O; Bonnefille, R; Jolly, D; Cheddadi, R; Guiot, J; Andrieu, [No Value; Bottema, S; Buchet, G; de Beaulieu, JL; Hamilton, AC; Maley, J; Marchant, R; Perez-Obiol, R; Reille, M; Riollet, G; Scott, L; Straka, H; Taylor, D; Van Campo, E; Vincens, A; Laarif, F; Jonson, H

    Pollen data from 18,000 C-14 yr sp were compiled in order to reconstruct biome distributions at the last glacial maximum in southern Europe and Africa. Biome reconstructions were made using the objective biomization method applied to pollen counts using a complete list of dryland taxa wherever

  10. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. October 1973 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Population growth trends and family planning activities in Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania are summarized in this booklet developed by the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Narrative information for each continent gives a resume of population growth trends, reasons for the trends, population problems, policy formation, family…

  11. The natural link between Europe and Africa - 2.1 billion birds on migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, S.M.; Bauer, S.; Liechti, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Palaearctic–African migration system comprises enormous numbers of birds travelling between Europe and Africa twice each year. Migratory birds may form strong links between the two continents given they can act as both transport vehicles for parasites and diseases as well as temporary consumers

  12. Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grillo, R.; Mazzucato, V.

    2008-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue entitled 'Africa<>Europe: Transnational Linkages, Multi-Sited Lives' outlines the history of the African migrant presence in Europe, gives an account of the contexts which shape contemporary migration, and surveys the approaches to international migration from

  13. Malaria clusters among illegal Chinese immigrants to Europe through Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisoffi, Zeno; Matteelli, Alberto; Aquilini, Donatella; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Magnani, Giacomo; Orlando, Giovanna; Gaiera, Giovanni; Jelinek, Tomas; Behrens, Ron H

    2003-09-01

    Between November 2002 and March 2003, 17 cases of malaria (1 fatal) were observed in illegal Chinese immigrants who traveled to Italy through Africa. A further cluster of 12 was reported in August, 2002. Several immigrants traveled by air, making the risk of introducing sudden acute respiratory syndrome a possibility should such illegal immigrations continue.

  14. Prediction of bluetongue vector distribution in Europe and north Africa using satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Baylis, M; Mellor, P S; Purse, B V; Capela, R; Pena, I; Rogers, D J

    2003-12-02

    Bluetongue is an infectious, non-contagious arboviral disease thought to infect all known ruminant species. Since 1998, an unprecedented epizootic of the disease has occurred in the Mediterranean region, resulting in the deaths of over 800,000 sheep to date. Bluetongue virus (BTV) is transmitted by biting midges of which one species, Culicoides imicola, is the major vector in the old world. C. imicola was trapped for 2 years at 87 sites across Portugal and models were developed for predicting the presence and abundance of the midge at these sites. Discriminant analysis was used to identify the best models from 40 temporally Fourier-processed 1 km spatial resolution remotely-sensed variables. The best models correctly predicted presence and absence at 83 of the 87 sites, and abundance at 76 sites. The models were then used to predict C. imicola presence and abundance elsewhere across Europe and north Africa. C. imicola was predicted to be present and in high abundance at the majority of areas affected in the recent bluetongue epizootic, including the Balearics, Sardinia, Corsica, Sicily, areas of mainland Italy, large areas of Greece, western Turkey and northern Algeria and Tunisia.

  15. Consanguinity and genetic diseases in North Africa and immigrants to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Wagida A; Khyatti, Meriem; Hemminki, Kari

    2014-08-01

    Endemic diseases are caused by environmental and genetic factors. While in this special issue several chapters deal with environmental factors, including infections, the present focus is on genetic causes of disease clustering due to inbreeding and recessive disease mechanisms. Consanguinity is implying sharing of genetic heritage because of marriage between close relatives originating from a common ancestor. With limited natural selection, recessive genes may become more frequent in an inbred compared with an outbred population. Consanguinity is common in North Africa (NA), and the estimates range from 40 to 49% of all marriages in Tunisia and 29-33% in Morocco. As a consequence, recessive disorders are common in the NA region, and we give some examples. Thalassaemia and sickle cell disease/anaemia constitute the most common inherited recessive disorders globally and they are common in NA, but with immigration they have spread to Europe and to other parts of the world. Another example is familial Mediterranean fever, which is common in the Eastern Mediterranean area. With immigrantion from that area to Sweden, it has become the most common hereditary autoinflammatory disease in that country, and there is no evidence that any native Swede would have been diagnosed with this disease. The examples discussed in this chapter show that the historic movement of populations and current immigration are influencing the concept of 'endemic' disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Three Ways of Speaking Europe to the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosamond, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article—a sympathetic critique of the literature on ‘Normative Power Europe'—observes that the rationales for EU external action, while understandable in terms of the concept of ‘normative power’, emerge from a variety of overlapping and potentially contradictory liberal arguments. For the p...

  17. Phosphorus management in Europe in a changing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, Oscar F.; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Kabbe, Christian; Oenema, Oene; Dijk, van Kimo C.

    2015-01-01

    Food production in Europe is dependent on imported phosphorus (P) fertilizers, but P use is inefficient and losses to the environment high. Here, we discuss possible solutions by changes in P management. We argue that not only the use of P fertilizers and P additives in feed could be reduced by

  18. Intercontinental cross-linking of power supply - calculating an optimal power line corridor from North Africa to Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Walter, Katrin; Bosch, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    An oversupply of solar radiation in Northern Africa as well as high energy consumption in the economic centers of Central Europe give reason to an international cross-linking of regenerative power supply...

  19. Black: meaning and connotation in Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberascher, Leonhard; Oberascher, Fatumata

    2002-06-01

    The two fundamental questions of this study are: (1) Do the concept of black and the color black evoke the same association? (2) Do all cultures (and all social groups) in fact rate the color black mainly negatively? The first part of our investigation deals with the color associations of a particular professional group within the (endemic) society of Austria, the second part with people who, by reason of their skin color and origins, have a very personal association with black. So far, 51 architects, designers and students of design have been questioned about their associations with black and other colors/color combinations (presented as a concept and as a color sample). No significant differences were found (similarly for the other elementary colors W, Y, R, B, G). By contrast, clear differences from the connotations of black reported in European literature were demonstrated by 40 (dark-skinned) persons (37 from various parts of Africa, 2 Caribbean and 1 Colombian), questioned about their associations with black, the term(s) used for black, the significance and the use of black within their culture or tribe, and about the significance of their own skin color, both to them personally and to their own culture.

  20. North-South Regionalism : A Challenge for Europe in a Changing World .

    OpenAIRE

    Grasland, Claude; Beckouche, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Planning and other territorial policies within Europe are more and more dependant upon its relations with the rest of the world. The growing international flows (migrants, trade, investments, polluting agents) interact with the European territories; moreover, the vision the Europeans have of their place in the world, has a strong impact on the EU's policies. Many political decisions apparently related to purely “internal affairs”, are in fact based on a wider conception of the world. Three do...

  1. ABOUT DIRECT SALES IN THE WORLD, EUROPE AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct sale represents a modern product distribution system directly to consumers, generally, directly to their homes, to their workplace or other places, beside retail shops. The best known type of direct sale, the Network Marketing or Multilevel Marketing implies the existence of a network of distributors which earn income from selling on commission, to which they add the trade markup. This paper is based upon the analysis of these types of sales starting with the study of specialized literature especially by foreign authors, mainly Americans, with the analysis of statistical data presented by several organizations such as SELDIA (The European Direct Selling Association, MLM International Romania, ACVD (Association of Direct Selling Companies in Romania, as well as the legal regulations within this field. In conclusion, the paper presents an interesting comparison of the sales and structure volume between the Europe and Romania.

  2. THE STATUS OF AQUACULTURE IN THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Fijan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, several authors have presented the production data and the problems in Croatian aquaculture and suggested measures for improvements. Some of these authors referred to some sectors of aquaculture in the world. This paper reports basic statistical data of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, United Nations of the world aquaculture during the period of 1990–1999. The annual growth rate in that period averaged about 10%, and in the year 1999 the aquaculture provided 31.7% of the world needs for aquatic products. The total production and industrialization of aquaculture will continue. Planning of aquaculture development in Croatia and the preparations for joining the European Economic Community must take into account the status of aquaculture and trends in the world, the common fishery policy of EEC (green document, the production in EEC member states and EEC–candidate states and especially the production in neighboring countries. The number, the size and the strength of organizational structures helping the development of aquaculture in EEC are showing these factors to be of decisive importance for the future of sustainable aquaculture in Croatia, too. The very low fish consumption in the country is a negative health factor for the Croatian citizens and it emphasizes the importance of faster development of aquaculture. The paper is intended to stimulate improvements in the aquaculture development strategy, to promote more positive approach towards this food production sector and to speed up its successfulness in Croatia.

  3. Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

  4. Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This publication explores issues related to Africa. It examines the U.S. response to the Barbary pirate states (Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, Tripoli) in the early 19th century; the current AIDS crisis in Africa; and 14th century Mali and other Islamic lands through the eyes of Ibn Battuta, who traveled throughout the Muslim world. Each article…

  5. [Transnational networks between Europe and North Africa: the international without boundaries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesari, J

    1997-01-01

    "Despite the process of settlement of migrants from North Africa in Europe, the relationships with the countries of origin are continuing by different ways: remittances, marriages, Islamic activities, ethnic business. All these activities are possible because of the development and extension of transnational networks between the two banks of the Mediterranean sea. These networks enlighten new forms of migration which cannot be defined...by the classical framework of immigration/emigration.... In this perspective, the power of the Nation-States is more and more questioned as well as the supremacy of territory in...political and cultural regulation." (EXCERPT)

  6. Post-Colonial Africa and the World Economy: The Long Waves of Uneven Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouad Makki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to examine the interactive dynamics of "Africa" and the "world economy" over the past half century. By relating the overarching developmental trajectory of the continent to the long-wave rhythms of the world economy, the article identifies three relatively articulated periods in the political economy of postcolonial Africa. The first, from circa 1960 to the late 1970s, was a period of state-led developmentalism enabled by the long postwar boom in the world economy and the embedded liberalism of the Bretton Woods system. A second period from circa 1980 to the turn of the new century was conditioned by the long downturn in the world-economy and a neo-li beral regime of accumulation that sought to re-structure and re-integrate Africa into a deregulated world market. The turn of the new millennium constitutes a new period in which neither the deep structural springs of the long downturn nor the neo-liberal project as such have been overcome; but their impact on Africa has been relativized by the emergence of East Asia as the new center of accumulation in the world economy. The resulting de-synchronization of the long-wave rhythms of the world economy has permitted a modest economic expansion in Africa within a largely extractive regime of accumulation and a wave of new enclosures that are profoundly reconstituting the social universe of Africa's primary producers.

  7. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - Southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern African region comprises five countries, of which Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland and South Africa use small hydropower, with Namibia currently having a very limited use of this technology. Botswana does not possess any hydropower plants...

  8. Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Africa, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...

  9. The Effects of World War II on Economic and Health Outcomes across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesternich, Iris; Siflinger, Bettina; Smith, James P.; Winter, Joachim K.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate long-run effects of World War II on socio-economic status and health of older individuals in Europe. We analyze data from SHARELIFE, a retrospective survey conducted as part of SHARE in Europe in 2009. SHARELIFE provides detailed data on events in childhood during and after the war for over 20,000 individuals in 13 European countries. We construct several measures of war exposure—experience of dispossession, persecution, combat in local areas, and hunger periods. Exposure to war and more importantly to individual-level shocks caused by the war significantly predicts economic and health outcomes at older ages. PMID:24850973

  10. Omnibus Report: Europe, Middle East, Africa, East Asia and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F; Nolte, R H; Liebenow, J G; Ravenholt, A; Handelman, H

    1979-01-01

    5 papers deal respectively with economic development in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, East Asia, and Latin America. In Europe, basic problems include increasing political and military weakness; the high costs of social democracy; problems of the welfare state; the trend toward low or no-growth population rates; declining fertility combined with increasing longevity; increasing demand for social services and health care; industrial decline; continuing decline in economic indices; integration of the Left in European politics; and a pervasive trend toward neoconservatism. The paper on the Middle East focuses on Iran, Saudi Arabia, and the recent Egypt-Israel Treaty, in terms of assessment of the present situation followed by a prognosis for the future. The paper on Africa discusses 4 crises of development: 1) the crisis of national identity; 2) the crisis of poverty; 3) the crisis of colonialism and neocolonialism; and 4) the crisis of popular control over government. The paper on east Asia discusses the "economic miracles" and whether or not they are replicable elsewhere in the Pacific and Asia. Finally, the paper on Latin America focuses on the fact that despite expansion of the urban middle class through economic development and modernization, little economic improvement has resulted. The challenge of the 1980s will be to see whether Latin America can put its economies back on track while managing to channel more of the economic benefits to the "have-nots" and to allow more open, participatory systems.

  11. Transmission of HIV in sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Ramasco, José J.

    2013-09-01

    We are reviewing the literature regarding sexual networks and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. On Likoma Island in Malawi, a sexual network was reconstructed using a sociometric survey in which individuals named their sexual partners. The sexual network identified one giant component including half of all sexually active individuals. More than 25% of respondents were linked through independent chains of sexual relations. HIV was more common in the sparser regions of the network due to over-representation of groups with higher HIV prevalence. A study from KwaZulu-Natal in South-Africa collected egocentric data about sexual partners and found that new infections in women in a particular area was associated with the number of life-time partners in men. Data about sexual networks and HIV transmission are not reported in Europe. It is, however, found that the annual number of sexual partners follows a scale-free network. Phylogenetic studies that determine genetic relatedness between HIV isolates obtained from infected individuals, found that patients in the early stages of infections explain a high number of new infections. In conclusion, the limited information that is available suggest that sexual networks play a role in spread of HIV. Obtaining more information about sexual networks can be of benefit for modeling studies on HIV transmission and prevention.

  12. Contemporary Trans-regional Cooperation between Europe and Asia in a Changing World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beginda Pakpahan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is concerned with contemporary trans-regional cooperation between Europe and Asia in a changing world. It examines the emerging economic relationship between the EU and Asia and possible challenges and implications facing both regions. It argues that Europe - Asia economic and commercial ties are likely in the future to result in unbalanced economic development between both these regions; in short, future agreements are likely to disproportionately favour Europe. Therefore, the economic and commercial ties between these two regions should aim to develop the least advanced countries in Asia. The article argues that ASEM can be empowered as a common flexible framework for bilateral and inter-regional trade initiatives between both regions; it can be empowered to manage and monitor these trade initiatives and their social implications for vulnerable ASEM countries. The main objective of this article is to contribute a clearer understanding of the current EU - Asia relationship in the context of ASEM.

  13. The International Research Group in Geophysics Europe Africa: A Laboratory without Borders in the Earth Science and Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Amory-Mazaudier, Christine

    2011-01-01

    International audience; It was in 1995 that, at the end of the international project IEEY (International Equatorial Electrojet Year), African and European scientists decided to create the IRGGEA (International Group in Geophysics Europe Africa) in order to pursue the scientific work started during the IEEY project. The main objective of IRGGEA was to introduce new fields of research in Africa and built teams of African scientists recognized at an international level in these new fields. To re...

  14. Question 2. Survey of organic farming (around the world, in the tropics and in Europe, France and Martinique)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Organic farming around the world Traditional farming and ecological farming are by far the most common types of farming practised around the world, and they feed a high proportion of the world's population. Certified organic farming is a minor or marginal mode of production, but is increasing steadily in the tropics, Europe and France. The growth of certified organic farming in the tropics is based on exports to the richest countries (particularly the USA, Japan and Europe) and by the strong ...

  15. Emission trading beyond Europe: linking schemes in a post-Kyoto world

    OpenAIRE

    Anger, Niels

    2006-01-01

    This paper assesses the economic impacts of linking the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) to emerging schemes beyond Europe, in the presence of a post-Kyoto agreement in 2020. Simulations with a numerical multi-country model of the world carbon market show that linking the European ETS induces only marginal economic benefits: As trading is restricted to energy-intensive industries that are assigned generous initial emissions, the major compliance burden is carried by non-trading industries exc...

  16. World Hunger: Famine in Africa. Sample Lessons, Secondary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neeson, Eileen; And Others

    This model social studies lesson includes a simulated interview with a relief worker describing the famine conditions in Ethiopia. A map of Africa and pictures of famine victims are included. The objectives of the lesson are to have students describe the situation in Ethiopia, analyze the causes, and evaluate solutions to the famine. In the model…

  17. World Small Hydropower Development Report 2013 - South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a total electricity generation capacity of about 45,000 MW. Nearly 90 per cent of electricity is generated in coal-fired power stations. Koeberg, a large nuclear station near Cape Town, provides about five per cent of capacity...

  18. Old world versus new world: life-history alterations in a successful invader introduced across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael G; Copp, Gordon H

    2014-02-01

    We examined differences in pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) life-history traits between native North American and introduced European populations, and tested three life-history predictions related to the effect of temperature, growth, waterbody size, and the presence/absence of predators on native and non-native populations. Pumpkinseed populations exhibit more 'opportunistic' traits (earlier maturity, smaller size at maturity, and higher reproductive allocation) in their introduced European range than those in their native range. Predictions of life-history traits were improved when indicators of juvenile growth rate (mean length at age 2), waterbody size (surface area), and thermal regime (air temperature degree-days above 10 °C) were incorporated into models along with continental location, but European pumpkinseed populations exhibit more opportunistic life-history traits than North American populations even when these factors are accounted for. Native pumpkinseed in waterbodies containing piscivores mature later and at a larger size, and have lower gonadosomatic indices than those in waterbodies lacking piscivores, whereas there is no significant difference in the same three life-history traits between European waterbodies containing or lacking piscivores. Because congeneric competitors of the pumpkinseed are absent from Europe, the apparent absence of a predator life-history effect there could also be due to the absence of the major sunfish competitors. In either case, the evolution and maintenance of more opportunistic traits in European pumpkinseed can likely be attributed to enemy release, and this may explain the successful establishment and spread of pumpkinseed in many parts of Europe.

  19. Rabies in South Africa and the FIFA Soccer World Cup: Travelers' awareness for an endemic but neglected disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Malerczyk, Claudius; Nel, Louis; Gniel, Dieter; Blumberg, Lucille

    2010-01-01

    .... With the upcoming FIFA Soccer World Cup to be held in 2010 in cities throughout South Africa, this review depicts the rabies situation in South Africa and discusses what travelers visiting the games...

  20. Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016

    CERN Document Server

    Serrhini, Mohammed; Felgueiras, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    This book contains a selection of articles from The Europe, Middle East and North Africa Conference on Technology and Security to Support Learning 2016 (EMENA-TSSL'16), held between the 3th and 5th of October at Saidia, Oujda, Morocco. EMENA-TSSL'16 is a global forum for researchers and practitioners to present and discuss recent results and innovations, current trends, professional experiences and challenges in Information & Communication Technologies, and Security to support Learning. The main topics covered are: A) Online Education; B) Emerging Technologies in Education; C) Artificial Intelligence in Education; D) Gamification and Serious games; E) Network & Web Technologies Applications; F) Online experimentation and Virtual Laboratories; G) Multimedia Systems and Applications; H) Security and Privacy; I) Multimedia, Computer Vision and Image Processing; J) Cloud, Big Data Analytics and Applications; K) Human-Computer Interaction; L) Software Systems, Architectures, Applications and Tools; M) Onli...

  1. Telemedicine as a Tool for Europe-Africa Cooperation: A Practical Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Manuel; Santiago, Fernando; Silva, Luís; Ferreira, Ricardo; Machado, José; Castela, Eduardo

    This paper presents the experience of an Europe-Africa telemedicine network, focused on the pediatric area, and involving hospitals located in Luanda (Angola), Benguela (Angola), Praia (Cape Verde) and Coimbra (Portugal). In the scope of this network, the cooperation between these hospitals goes beyond the teleconsultation sessions. Tele-training, clinical experience exchange, patient transfer agreements and health staff training to local development of new medical capabilities are some of the involved activities. It is therefore agreed that this kind of technical and knowledge network could also be expanded to other African countries with clear benefits to the local citizens, overcoming the digital-divide and improving the cooperation between developed and developing countries.

  2. Africa and the World Leisure Organization | Coles | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents information regarding the World Leisure Organization. As a worldwide advocacy and knowledge-driven membership-focused organization, the World Leisure Organization is dedicated to understanding leisure, advancing the quality of life for all citizens, childhood to later life, and improving the wellbeing ...

  3. [African refugees and migrants: "invasion of welfare-state Europe"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohnert, D

    1993-06-01

    Migration and refugee movements from Sub-Saharan Africa to Europe are analyzed. Topics discussed include the volume of migration, countries of destination, the relationship of this migration to movements from other third world countries and Eastern Europe and to migration within Africa, causes of migration, major paths of migrants, costs and benefits of migration, and policy aspects.

  4. Intraspecific variation in Burkholderia caledonica: Europe vs. Africa and soil vs. endophytic isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraete, Brecht; Peeters, Charlotte; van Wyk, Braam; Smets, Erik; Dessein, Steven; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The best-known interaction between bacteria and plants is the Rhizobium-legume symbiosis, but other bacteria-plant interactions exist, such as between Burkholderia and Rubiaceae (coffee family). A number of bacterial endophytes in Rubiaceae are closely related to the soil bacterium Burkholderia caledonica. This intriguing observation is explored by investigating isolates from different geographic regions (Western Europe vs. sub-Saharan Africa) and from different niches (free-living bacteria in soil vs. endophytic bacteria in host plants). The multilocus sequence analysis shows five clades, of which clade 1 with two basal isolates deviates from the rest and is therefore not considered further. All other isolates belong to the species B. caledonica, but two genetically different groups are identified. Group A holds only European isolates and group B holds isolates from Africa, with the exception of one European isolate. Although the European and African isolates are considered one species, some degree of genetic differentiation is evident. Endophytic isolates of B. caledonica are found in certain members of African Rubiaceae, but only in group B. Within this group, the endophytes cannot be distinguished from the soil isolates, which indicates a possible exchange of bacteria between soil and host plant. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The impact of the World Health Organization's guidance in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ®nW and Barbare B. Cmneî. ABSTRACT. Along With governments from around the world, African leaders agreed at the International Conference on Population and. Development (ICPD) in 1994 to address unsafe abortion as a major public ...

  6. lessons from iSimangaliso World Heritage Park, South Africa.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Dennis Ocholla

    uzulu.ac.za. This paper explores the suitability of the ecological management approach to the management of the world heritage sites with an aim of linking sustainable livelihoods of local people and the protection of the resource. There are eight ...

  7. Uncommon Knowledge: World Bank Policy and the Unmaking of the Knowledge Economy in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obamba, Milton O.

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank is clearly one of the most influential global intergovernmental operators for international development assistance. In recent decades, the Bank and other agencies have invested immense technical and financial resources in a troubled and unprecedented mission of revitalizing and restructuring the development of education in Africa. A…

  8. Alternative routes in the digital world: Open source software in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alternative routes in the digital world: Open source software in Africa. V Van Reijswoud, C Topi. Abstract. No Abstract. Mtafiti Mwafrika Vol. Spec Ed. 2004: pp. 76-94. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mtafiti.v12i2.38359.

  9. Intelligence Preparations for World War I in South West Africa James

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    officers understood the immense value of military intelligence. Prior to World War I, South Africa's Union. Defence Force had no organic intelligence service, which is surprising given the success of the Zuid-. Afrikaansche Republiek Geheime Dienst (South African Republic Secret Service). 14 A comparable capability would ...

  10. Prevalence and diversity of allergic rhinitis in regions of the world beyond Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katelaris, C H; Lee, B W; Potter, P C; Maspero, J F; Cingi, C; Lopatin, A; Saffer, M; Xu, G; Walters, R D

    2012-02-01

    There is comparatively little information in the public domain on the diversity in prevalence and triggers/factors associated with allergic rhinitis (AR) or allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR/C) in countries beyond western-Europe and North America. To review the prevalence and the sensitizing agents/triggers and factors associated with AR/C in several countries in Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, Australia, Eastern Europe, Latin America, Middle East and Turkey. Articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals were assessed and selected for further review, following an extensive literature search using the Medline database. This review demonstrated that prevalence of AR and AR/C in these regions has predominantly been investigated in children; with studies indicating wide inter- and intra-regional variations ranging from 2.9% AR and 3.8% AR/C in 10-18-years-old children from one region in Turkey to 54.1% AR and 39.2% AR/C in 13-14-years-old children in one region in Nigeria. Moreover, the prevalence of AR and AR/C has increased markedly over the last decade particularly in some of the more affluent African countries, China-Taiwan and several Middle East countries, likely as a consequence of improved living standards leading to increased exposure to multiple traditional and non-traditional sensitizing agents and risk factors similar to those noted in western-Europe and North America. Our findings suggest that the greater diversity in prevalence of AR or AR/C in populations in these regions is in contrast to the lower diversity of AR or AR/C in the 'western populations (USA and Europe), which tend to be more uniform. This review provides a comprehensive database of the important allergens and triggers which are likely to influence the prevalence of allergic rhinitis in these diverse regions, where the prevalence of allergic rhinitis is increasing and its adverse impact on the quality of life of affected individuals is increasingly recognised. © 2011 Blackwell

  11. La poétique d’un empire européen ? Pétrarque dans L’Africa, Pétrarque en Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Behrens, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Au-delà du Canzoniere, l’Africa, son unique épopée, est l’œuvre majeure de Pétrarque (1338-74). Scipion l’Africain, protagoniste de l’épopée éponyme, vit autant dans son œuvre que sa Laure. C’est justement la comparaison entre les deux protagonistes que la recherche prend comme point de départ pour démontrer une dimension politique européenne autant dans Petrarca volgare que dans Petrarca latino. Partant d’une critique saïdienne de l’Africa, la recherche va au-delà du binarisme Orient versus ...

  12. MIGRATION OF WOMEN FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TO EUROPE: THE ROLE OF HIGHLY SKILLED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Spadavecchia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to analyze Sub-Saharan women’s migration with a special focus on highly skilled women in order to create a framework to better understand the different factors shaping migration patterns, such as the push and pull factors, the increase of flows and the complexity associated with them. In recent years the number of female Sub-Saharan migrants has grown at a rate much higher than the global average. In fact, in 2010 alone the number of female African migrants was 47.2% (World Bank, 2012, showing an increase of 5.2% since the 1960’s when women constituted 42% of the total migration from Sub-Saharan Africa. The feminization of migration flows from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA in recent years has also witnessed a diversification of the flows. One specific segment on the rise is labor migration, specifically, highly skilled migration, especially for tertiary students and physicians and nurses. The study explores social geography and the geography of migration. The author considers two dimensions of analysis: women’s migration patterns from SSA (with a special focus on the impacts of the flows and highly skilled migration from SSA.

  13. Climate and climate impact scenarios for Europe in a warmer world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lough, J.M.; Wigley, T.M.L.; Palutikof, J.P.

    1983-10-01

    Scenarios for Europe in a warmer world, such as may result from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, have been constructed using the early 20th century warming as an analogue. The climate scenarios are used to construct scenarios of the impact of a global warming on energy consumption and agriculture. Cool winters alone would imply greater energy demand for space heating, but this is largely offset by warmer temperatures in spring and autumn which reduce the length of the heating season. Increased temperature variability combined with a general cooling during winter over north and northwestern Europe suggests a greater frequency of severe winters, and thus larger fluctuations in the demand for heating energy. The impact on agriculture is difficult to assess because of the complexity of crop-climate relationships and because of the importance of nonclimatic factors associated with technological change and perhaps, with enhanced photosynthesis due to increased carbon dioxide concentrations. In northern latitudes, the increase in the length of the growing season would appear to be favorable for agriculture, but warmer summers, drier springs and wetter autumns would be less favorable. A specific study was made of the effect of two different climate scenarios on crop yields in England and Wales with regression models constructed using a principal components regression technique. Most crops showed a decrease in yield for both warm-world scenarios, with largest decreases for hay yield and least effect on wheat yield. A similar regression analysis of French wine-quality showed an improvement in the quality of Bordeaux and Champagne in a warmer world. 52 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Evolution of the stapeliads (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae) - repeated major radiation across Africa in an Old World group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyns, P V; Klak, C; Hanáček, P

    2014-08-01

    The stapeliads of the Ceropegieae (Apocynaceae-Asclepiadoideae), are approximately 340 species of stem-succulents placed in around 30 genera, found in semi-arid parts of the Old World. Here we sampled 192 species (i.e. nearly two thirds of the total) from across the full geographic range of the group and analysed data from the two nuclear regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS and ncpGS) and five plastid regions (psbA-trnH intergenic spacer, rps16 intron, trnL-trnF intergenic spacer, trnS-trnG intergenic region and the non-coding rpl32-trnL region). We find that the stapeliads radiated first in the northern hemisphere from Africa to southern Europe and Myanmar. This radiation subtends a grade of minor clades in the south-western corner of the African continent. These were followed by a single clade containing major radiation back across Africa from South Africa to tropical Arabia (but no further east than Dhofar, Oman), which includes also a single early spread into Madagascar. We establish the monophyly of many of the genera, such as Echidnopsis Hook.f., Hoodia Hook., Huernia R. Br., Piaranthus R. Br., Rhytidocaulon P.R.O. Bally and Tridentea Haw., but find that Duvalia Haw., Orbea Haw., Stapelia L. and Tromotriche Haw. are polyphyletic. We show that in certain vegetative features, there is broad cohesion across clades. Florally, on the other hand, the stapeliads exhibit considerable plasticity and we are able to show that very differently shaped flowers as well as large and small flowers evolved repeatedly among closely related species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Climate and Climate Impact Scenarios for Europe in a Warmer World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lough, J. M.; Wigley, T. M. L.; Palutikof, J. P.

    1983-10-01

    Scenarios for Europe in a warmer world, such as may result from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, have been constructed using the early 20th century warming as an analogue. Mean temperature, Precipitation and pressure patterns for the period 1934-53 were compared with those for 1901-20. These are the warmest and cooler twenty-year periods this century based on Northern Hemisphere annual mean surface air temperature data, differing by 0.4°C. The climate scenarios show marked subregional scale differences from season to season, and individual season scenarios often show little similarity to the annual scenario. Temperature scenarios show warming for the annual mean and for spring, summer and autumn. The largest positive changes are found in higher latitudes. Winters over a large part of Europe are actually cooler and show greater interannual variability during the warmer period. These changes appear to be associated with a greater frequency of blocking activity. Precipitation changes occur in both directions in all seasons. There is, however, an overall tendency for spring and summer to be drier and autumn and winter to be wetter.The climate scenarios are used to construct scenarios of the impact of a global warming on energy consumption and agriculture. Cooler winters alone would imply greater energy demand for space heating, but this is largely offset by warmer temperatures in spring and autumn which reduce the length of the heating season. Increased temperature variability combined with a general cooling during winter over north and northwestern Europe suggests a greater frequency of severe winters, and thus larger fluctuations in the demand for heating energy. The impact on agriculture is difficult to assess because of the complexity of crop-climate relationships and because of the importance of nonclimatic factors associated with technological change and, perhaps, with enhanced photosynthesis due to increased carbon dioxide concentrations. In

  16. The genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana in the south-western Mediterranean range reveals a shared history between North Africa and southern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Adrian C; Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Haddioui, Abdelmajid; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Picó, F Xavier; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-10

    Deciphering the genetic structure of Arabidopsis thaliana diversity across its geographic range provides the bases for elucidating the demographic history of this model plant. Despite the unique A. thaliana genomic resources currently available, its history in North Africa, the extreme southern limit in the biodiversity hotspot of the Mediterranean Basin, remains virtually unknown. To approach A. thaliana evolutionary history in North Africa, we have analysed the genetic diversity and structure of 151 individuals collected from 20 populations distributed across Morocco. Genotyping of 249 genome-wide SNPs indicated that Morocco contains substantially lower diversity than most analyzed world regions. However, IBD, STRUCTURE and PCA clustering analyses showed that genetic variation is strongly geographically structured. We also determined the genetic relationships between Morocco and the closest European region, the Iberian Peninsula, by analyses of 201 populations from both regions genotyped with the same SNPs. These analyses detected four genetic groups, but all Moroccan accessions belonged to a common Iberian/Moroccan cluster that appeared highly differentiated from the remaining groups. Thus, we identified a genetic lineage with an isolated demographic history in the south-western Mediterranean region. The existence of this lineage was further supported by the study of several flowering genes and traits, which also found Moroccan accessions similar to the same Iberian group. Nevertheless, genetic diversity for neutral SNPs and flowering genes was higher in Moroccan than in Iberian populations of this lineage. Furthermore, we analyzed the genetic relationships between Morocco and other world regions by joint analyses of a worldwide collection of 337 accessions, which detected an additional weak relationship between North Africa and Asia. The patterns of genetic diversity and structure of A. thaliana in Morocco show that North Africa is part of the species native

  17. The World Karst Aquifer Mapping project: concept, mapping procedure and map of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Auler, Augusto S.; Bakalowicz, Michel; Drew, David; Griger, Franziska; Hartmann, Jens; Jiang, Guanghui; Moosdorf, Nils; Richts, Andrea; Stevanovic, Zoran; Veni, George; Goldscheider, Nico

    2017-05-01

    Karst aquifers contribute substantially to freshwater supplies in many regions of the world, but are vulnerable to contamination and difficult to manage because of their unique hydrogeological characteristics. Many karst systems are hydraulically connected over wide areas and require transboundary exploration, protection and management. In order to obtain a better global overview of karst aquifers, to create a basis for sustainable international water-resources management, and to increase the awareness in the public and among decision makers, the World Karst Aquifer Mapping (WOKAM) project was established. The goal is to create a world map and database of karst aquifers, as a further development of earlier maps. This paper presents the basic concepts and the detailed mapping procedure, using France as an example to illustrate the step-by-step workflow, which includes generalization, differentiation of continuous and discontinuous carbonate and evaporite rock areas, and the identification of non-exposed karst aquifers. The map also shows selected caves and karst springs, which are collected in an associated global database. The draft karst aquifer map of Europe shows that 21.6% of the European land surface is characterized by the presence of (continuous or discontinuous) carbonate rocks; about 13.8% of the land surface is carbonate rock outcrop.

  18. ANALYSIS OF WINE SECTOR: DEVELOPMENTS AND PROSPECTS THE WORLD AND IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MATEI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Except unwelcoming and unfriendly area of agriculture, in general, Antarctica, all continents meet grape-vine, which is plant trees with the largest expansion around the globe. Wine, the wine produced extremely complex (the composition of the entering over 300 different chemical compounds has a great importance both rational human nutrition as well as increase the national income of a country cultivators, shown standing figures showing growing share while the global economy horticulture and viticulture crops in agricultural production. Thus, we can appreciate the importance of wine products both from a social and economic one. This study aims to develop a blueprint for the wine sector and to capture its evolution both globally and especially in Europe. We believe that an incursion in the analysis of wine-growing in the world and in Europe leaning on the development of wine production and consumption is particularly useful in our proof is the importance of wine in contemporary society. The study is part of a broader analysis is investigating the applicability of the marketing mix in the wine industry.

  19. Impact of international financial assistance on economic growth in Europe after the World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polchanov A.Yu.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research is devoted to studying the impact of international financial aid on economic growth in Europe after the Second World War. The aim of the investigation is the identification of regularities of post-war recovery of European economies in the second half of the twentieth century and the assessment of international financial aid’s role in the economic growth stimulation. The author summarizes domestic and foreign researchers’ achievements of studying the issue of the Marshall Plan and its importance for modern Ukraine, and differentiates the classic, capitalistic and modern stages of post-conflict reconstruction of the national economies. The relation between the amount of financial assistance from US government to 14 European countries and the growth of GDP in 1947–1952 is studied with the help of correlation and regression analysis and their significant linear dependence is determined. The issue of institutional support of international financing program of economic recovery of Europe has not been left without attention.

  20. Europe 2020 Strategy’s Viability under This More Volatile Economic World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo-Victor Ionescu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The global crisis accentuated the competition between the greatest world economic actors. One of them, the EU28, tried to find, as solution to support its economic growth, the Cohesion Policy. The paper is focused on the analysis of the results of the Cohesion Policy and the perspectives of the new strategy Europe 2020. In order to do these, the paper uses the latest official statistic data and divides the analysis into three periods: until 2012, during 2012-2014 and during 2015-2020. The analysis is based on three elements (a comparative trend analysis, followed by a cluster analysis and a forecast using SPSS19 software and takes into considerations four important macroeconomic indicators. The main conclusion of the paper is that the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy will be not achieved and the socio-economic disparities will increase across the EU in 2020.All conclusions of the analysis are supported by pertinent diagrams and statistic tables.

  1. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  2. Hope in Africa?: social representations of world history and the future in six African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabecinhas, Rosa; Liu, James H; Licata, Laurent; Klein, Olivier; Mendes, Júlio; Feijó, João; Niyubahwe, Aline

    2011-10-01

    Data on social representations of world history have been collected everywhere in the world except sub-Saharan Africa. Two studies using open-ended data involving university students from six African countries fill this gap. In Study 1, nominations from Cape Verde and Mozambique for the most important events in world history in the past 1000 years were dominated by war and politics, recency effects, and Western-centrism tempered by African sociocentrism on colonization and independence. The first three findings replicated previous research conducted in other parts of the world, but the last pattern contrasted sharply with European data. Study 2 employed a novel method asking participants how they would begin the narration of world history, and then to describe a major transition to the present. Participants most frequently wrote about the evolution of humanity out of Africa, followed by war and then colonization as a beginning, and then replicated previous findings with war, colonization, and technology as major transitions to the present. Finally, when asked about how they foresaw the future, many participants expressed hope for peace and cooperation, especially those facing more risk of collective violence (Burundi and Congo). A colonial/liberation narrative was more predominant in the data from former Portuguese colonies (Angola, Cape Verde, and Guinea-Bissau) than from former Belgian colonies (Burundi and Congo).

  3. Evidence of Absolute Decoupling from Real World Policy Mixes in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doreen Fedrigo-Fazio

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In resource economics, decoupling from environmental impacts is assumed to be beneficial. However, the success of efforts to increase resource productivity should be placed within the context of the earth’s resources and ecosystems as theoretically finite and contingent on a number of threshold values. Thus far relatively few analyses exist of policies which have successfully implemented strategies for decoupling within these limits. Through ex-post evaluation of a number of real world policy mixes from European Union member states, this paper further develops definitions of the concept of decoupling. Beyond absolute (and relative decoupling, “absolute decoupling within limits” is proposed as an appropriate term for defining resource-productivity at any scale which respects the existing real world limits on resources and ecosystems and as such, contributes to meeting sustainability objectives. Policy mixes presented here cover a range of resources such as fish stocks, fertilizers, aggregates and fossil based materials (plastics. Policy mixes demonstrating absolute decoupling and at least one where absolute decoupling within limits has occurred, provide insights on developing resource efficiency policies in Europe and beyond.

  4. Historical isolation versus recent long-distance connections between Europe and Africa in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma). We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes), which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG) and trnK-matK) were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.

  5. AN OUTLINE OF THE EUROPE – SOUTH AFRICA RELATIONS DURING AND POST THE APARTHEID ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Margaritis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available South Africa was always a main interest region for European countries. The United Kingdom, the Netherlands, France and many others at lesser extent, tried to establish control over thecountry due to its special geographical position. On the other hand, since 1948, South Africa had been characterized by a tremendous regime, the so-called apartheid. The idea of this paper is to clarify the position of certain European countries towards South Africa during this severe period for the latest and to outline the major development agreements between the EC/EU and South Africa after the fall of apartheid, since South Africa is an important trade partner for the Union.

  6. Serious soccer, sex (work) and HIV - will South Africa be too hot to handle during the 2010 World Cup?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richter, Marlise; Massawe, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    ... to the fact that South Africa has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world and that 'innocent' tourists might return home with nasty HIV from Africa. (1-3) Worse still, that these 'innocent' tourists will consort with 'dubious' sex workers and find themselves languishing in overcrowded South African prisons (4) long after the last vuvuze...

  7. Transmission patterns of smallpox: Systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bhatnagar (Vibha); M.A. Stoto (Michael); S.C. Morton (Sally); R. Boer (Rob); S.A. Bozzette (Samuel)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Because smallpox (variola major) may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods: A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library

  8. Systematic Review of Breast Cancer Biology in Developing Countries (Part 1): Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhikoo, Riyaz, E-mail: riyazbhikoo@gmail.com; Srinivasa, Sanket; Yu, Tzu-Chieh [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Moss, David [Department of Surgery, Middlemore Hospital, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand); Hill, Andrew G [Department of Surgery, South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland 1640 (New Zealand)

    2011-05-13

    There has been no systematic appraisal of ethnicity-based variations in breast cancer (BC) biology amongst women from developing countries. A qualitative systematic review was conducted of breast cancer size, stage, grade, histological type, extra-mammary involvement, hormone receptor status as well as patient demographics. This review includes patients from Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe, Mexico, the Caribbean and South America. BC in these regions present at an earlier age with large aggressive tumours. Distant metastases are frequently present at the time of diagnosis. African women have a higher frequency of triple negative tumours. Over half of Middle Eastern women have lymph node involvement at the time of diagnosis. Despite experiencing a lower incidence compared to the Ashkenazi Jewish population, Palestinian women have poorer five-year survival outcomes. The majority of women from Mexico and South America have stage two or three disease whilst over sixty percent of women from Eastern Europe have either stage one or stage two disease. The biological characteristics of BC in the Caribbean cannot be fully assessed due to a paucity of data from the region. BC amongst the developing world is characterised by an early peak age of onset with aggressive biological characteristics. Strategies that improve breast cancer awareness, address amenable risk factors and improve early detection are essential.

  9. A world class nuclear research reactor complex for South Africa's nuclear future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keshaw, Jeetesh [South African Young Nuclear Professional Society, PO Box 9396, Centurion, 0157 (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South Africa recently made public its rather ambitious goals pertaining to nuclear energy developments in a Draft Policy and Strategy issued for public comment. Not much attention was given to an important tool for nuclear energy research and development, namely a well equipped and maintained research reactor, which on its own does not do justice to its potential, unless it is fitted with all the ancillaries and human resources as most first world countries have. In South Africa's case it is suggested to establish at least one Nuclear Energy Research and Development Centre at such a research reactor, where almost all nuclear energy related research can be carried out on par with some of the best in the world. The purpose of this work is to propose how this could be done, and motivate why it is important that it be done with great urgency, and with full involvement of young professionals, if South Africa wishes to face up to the challenges mentioned in the Draft Strategy and Policy. (authors)

  10. Sustainable Electricity and Water for Europe, Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Steinhagen, H.; Trieb, F.

    2009-04-01

    Sufficient supply of energy and water are among the key requirements for a sustainable development of nations. Both depend strongly on energy carriers such as oil, gas, coal and uranium which have limited availability and a negative impact on the environment during their use. Within the framework of a series of detailed studies, conventional and renewable energy sources available for electricity production and desalination in Europe, North Africa and the Middle East (EU-MENA) have been analysed. Scenarios have been developed for a sustainable electricity supply based on increased plant and user efficiency, and an accelerated introduction of renewable energy sources. Even if all potential exclusion criteria are applied and only those technologies are considered which will become economically competitive within the next decades, a potential has been identified which exceeds the present electricity demand by orders of magnitude. Solar energy is, in this context, the by far largest resource which will most economically be exploited in centralised solar thermal power plants. In combination with heat storage, these power plants can provide bulk and peak electricity, and can be combined with thermal or reverse osmosis desalination plants. At present, solar thermal power plants with a total capacity exceeding 10 GW are in operation or under construction in Abu Dhabi, Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Italy, Morocco, Spain and the USA. Ultimately, the increasing electricity demand of EU-MENA can only be secured in conjunction with the required climate and resource protection targets, if all renewable energy sources are exploited where appropriate, and conversion and user efficiency are increased. To utilise the enormous energy resources of the Mediterranean countries, high voltage direct current power lines will have to be built, linking the most abundant and economic resources with the load centres in the North. With electricity losses below 10% over a distance of 3000 km

  11. Mortality in Patients with HIV-1 Infection Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa, Europe, or North America: A Collaborative Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, Andrew; Schomaker, Michael; May, Margaret T.; Hogg, Robert S.; Shepherd, Bryan E.; Monge, Susana; Keiser, Olivia; Lampe, Fiona C.; Giddy, Janet; Ndirangu, James; Garone, Daniela; Fox, Matthew; Ingle, Suzanne M.; Reiss, Peter; Dabis, Francois; Costagliola, Dominique; Castagna, Antonella; Ehren, Kathrin; Campbell, Colin; Gill, M. John; Saag, Michael; Justice, Amy C.; Guest, Jodie; Crane, Heidi M.; Egger, Matthias; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background High early mortality in patients with HIV-1 starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa, compared to Europe and North America, is well documented. Longer-term comparisons between settings have been limited by poor ascertainment of mortality in high burden African settings. This study aimed to compare mortality up to four years on ART between South Africa, Europe, and North America. Methods and Findings Data from four South African cohorts in which patients lost to follow-up (LTF) could be linked to the national population register to determine vital status were combined with data from Europe and North America. Cumulative mortality, crude and adjusted (for characteristics at ART initiation) mortality rate ratios (relative to South Africa), and predicted mortality rates were described by region at 0–3, 3–6, 6–12, 12–24, and 24–48 months on ART for the period 2001–2010. Of the adults included (30,467 [South Africa], 29,727 [Europe], and 7,160 [North America]), 20,306 (67%), 9,961 (34%), and 824 (12%) were women. Patients began treatment with markedly more advanced disease in South Africa (median CD4 count 102, 213, and 172 cells/µl in South Africa, Europe, and North America, respectively). High early mortality after starting ART in South Africa occurred mainly in patients starting ART with CD4 count death registry linkage, residual bias could still be present due to differing approaches to and frequency of linkage. Conclusions After accounting for under-ascertainment of mortality, with increasing duration on ART, the mortality rate on HIV treatment in South Africa declines to levels comparable to or below those described in participating North American cohorts, while substantially narrowing the differential with the European cohorts. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25203931

  12. Sharing Knowledge Agrifood Networks (SKAN – a Portuguese project to promote technology links between Europe, Africa and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Mira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Three years ago, in 2013, the SKAN initiative - Sharing Knowledge Agrifood Networks (http://www.skanplatform. org/ was launched in Lisbon. The main objective was to create a "network of networks" to promote an international dialogue between all relevant actors at a political and diplomatic level, as well as the business community, universities and academia, with a focus on three continents: Europe, Africa and Latin America. More specifically, the initial aim was to promote the sharing of knowledge and technology at an international and comprehensive level in the agrifood sector. In only three years the SKAN Platform achieved a prominent place in the development of networks of knowledge sharing in Portuguese speaking countries. The goal for the future is to increase the number of initiatives in the countries where SKAN is established and begin to collaborate and develop new initiatives in other countries. The project has produced significant outcomes and the return on the investment that was initially allocated has been high. We expect this initiative will have an impact on global challenges such as food security, agricultural development, or the transfer of technology, as well as the ability to strengthen the cooperation between Europe, Africa and Latin America in the agrifood sector.

  13. Stabilizing southeastern Europe, financial legacies and European lessons from the first world war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe John R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper pays brief attention, although more than the recent flood of 1914 centenary books, to economic causes of the First World War before turning to it fateful economic consequences for Southeastern Europe. The Austrian lack of economic leverage over Serbia is cited as a reason for its resort to the military option. At the war’s end, the option of the victorious powers to provide significant economic relief to the region where the conflict had begun was not taken. After tracking the brief, limited assistance provided, the paper reviews to the massive economic problems confronting four of the five of independent states, neglecting Albania as a special case, that could now be called Southeastern Europe. First Greece and then Bulgaria faced forced inflow of refugees. Romania and the Yugoslav Kingdom faced the economic integration of large new, formerly Austro-Hungarian lands. All of them were left not only with war deaths and destruction but also with large war debts, or in Bulgaria’s case, reparations. The paper concentrates on the primary Western response to these four economies, an effort led by the Bank of England to replace immediate postwar inflation with the deflation needed to reestablish currencies with prewar convertibility to gold, now with Pound Sterling added to a gold reserve standard. Independent central banks, the major positive legacy of this initiative, were to lead the way. But the financial stability that all four economies did eventually achieve in the 1920s served only to reduce their war debts. Otherwise, maintaining the fixed and overvalued exchange rates restricted domestic credit, encouraged protective tariffs, and did not attract the foreign capital, especially new state loans, that this emphasis on a single, European financial framework had promised. A concluding section considers the lessons learned from a postwar period that promoted economic disintegration by the 1930s. Looking at the period since the end of

  14. Historical isolation versus recent long-distance connections between Europe and Africa in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fernández-Mazuecos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to its complex, dynamic and well-known paleogeography, the Mediterranean region provides an ideal framework to study the colonization history of plant lineages. The genus Linaria has its diversity centre in the Mediterranean region, both in Europe and Africa. The last land connection between both continental plates occurred during the Messinian Salinity Crisis, in the late Miocene (5.96 to 5.33 Ma. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the colonization history of Linaria sect. Versicolores (bifid toadflaxes, which includes c. 22 species distributed across the Mediterranean, including Europe and Africa. Two cpDNA regions (rpl32-trnL(UAG and trnK-matK were sequenced from 66 samples of Linaria. We conducted phylogenetic, dating, biogeographic and phylogeographic analyses to reconstruct colonization patterns in space and time. Four major clades were found: two of them exclusively contain Iberian samples, while the other two include northern African samples together with some European samples. The bifid toadflaxes have been split in African and European clades since the late Miocene, and most lineage and speciation differentiation occurred during the Pliocene and Quaternary. We have strongly inferred four events of post-Messinian colonization following long-distance dispersal from northern Africa to the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily and Greece. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The current distribution of Linaria sect. Versicolores lineages is explained by both ancient isolation between African and European populations and recent events of long-distance dispersal over sea barriers. This result provides new evidence for the biogeographic complexity of the Mediterranean region.

  15. Holding the World Bank accountable for leakage of funds from Africa's health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marouf, Fatma E

    2010-06-15

    This article explores the accountability of international financial institutions (IFIs), such as the World Bank, for human rights violations related to the massive leakage of funds from sub-Saharan Africa's health sector. The article begins by summarizing the quantitative results of Public Expenditure Tracking Surveys performed in six African countries, all showing disturbingly high levels of leakage in the health sector. It then addresses the inadequacy of good governance and anticorruption programs in remedying this problem. After explaining how the World Bank's Inspection Panel may serve as an accountability mechanism for addressing the leakage of funds, discussing violations of specific Bank policies and procedures that would support a claim related to leakage and examining the relevance of human rights concerns to such as claim, the article explores some of the Panel's limitations and the positive steps taken to address these concerns.

  16. Island words, island worlds : the origins and meanings of words for ‘Islands’ in North-West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Owe Ronstrom

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion that words mirror ideas, perspectives and world-views. Etymologies and meanings of general words for ‘islands’ in a number of languages in North and West Europe are then discussed. Here, islands are shown to be etymologically constituted by the interplay between land and water, and which of these two is emphasized varies. In the third section, a number of Swedish island words are surveyed, in an attempt to illuminate the principle of linguistic relativity. Final...

  17. Island Words, Island Worlds: The Origins and Meanings of Words for ‘Islands’ in North-West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Owe Ronstrom

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion that words mirror ideas, perspectives and world-views. Etymologies and meanings of general words for ‘islands’ in a number of languages in North and West Europe are then discussed. Here, islands are shown to be etymologically constituted by the interplay between land and water, and which of these two is emphasized varies. In the third section, a number of Swedish island words are surveyed, in an attempt to illuminate the principle of linguistic relativity. Final...

  18. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus and genotype distribution in immigrants crossing to Europe from North and sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daw, Mohamed A; El-Bouzedi, Abdallah; Ahmed, Mohamed O; Dau, Aghnyia A; Agnan, Mohamed M

    The association between the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and immigration is rarely studied, particularly for the immigrants crossing to the resettlement countries. Most of the published data are confined to those immigrants who were resident in European countries and rarely immigrated before they reach the final destination. Libya is a large country in North Africa with the longest coast of the Mediterranean Sea facing the European Union. It has been considered as the main transient station for African immigrants to Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the prevalence of HCV in African immigrants gathered in Libya from different African countries on their way to Europe and (2) HCV genotype distribution in these immigrants and its correlation with different demographic factors. A total of 14 205 serum samples were collected in a 3-year period (2013-2015) from different immigrants from North and sub-Saharan Africa who resided in the African immigrant campus, Tripoli, Libya. The participants were interviewed, and relevant information was collected, including socio-demographic, ethnic, and geographic variables. Each serum sample was tested for anti-HCV antibody using ELISA. The genotypes were determined and assigned using a specific genotyping assay and correlated with demographic and potential risk factors of the recruited individuals. Of the immigrants studied, 1078 (7.6%) were positive for HCV. The prevalence of HCV infection ranged from 1.4% to 18.7%; it was higher among individuals arriving from Nile river (3.6-18.7%) of North Africa, followed by those who arrived from the West African region (2.1-14.1%), Horn of Africa (HOA, 6.8-9.9%), and Maghreb countries (1.4-2.7%). The relative risk factor attributable to gender variation was not significant (95% Cl: 0.8513-1.2381). Five genotypes were detected in 911 African immigrants. Genotypic analysis showed that the predominant HCV genotypes in this group were genotypes 4, 1, and 2 that

  19. Innovation in the Desert: 9th Air Force Tactical Aviation Logistics in Northwest Africa during World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    INNOVATION IN THE DESERT: 9TH AIR FORCE TACTICAL AVIATION LOGISTICS IN NORTHWEST AFRICA DURING WORLD WAR II A thesis...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUN 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Innovation in the Desert: 9th Air Force Tactical Aviation Logistics in Northwest Africa...learning organization methodology will unmask a prevalence for proactive change, resulting in an innovative culture which led to operational

  20. Youth unemployment in Europe and the world: Causes, consequences and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Görlich, Dennis; Stepanok, Ignat; Al-Hussami, Fares

    2013-01-01

    The recent Employment and Social Developments report by the European Commission has drawn a bleak picture of the economic situation in Europe. Unemployment levels are on record-highs, household incomes have declined, and risks of poverty and social exclusion have risen, most notably in Southern and Eastern Europe. The group of young adults faces a particularly high risk, as long-term unemployment rates of this group have increased in many countries, and skill mismatch has become more severe. ...

  1. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B.; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K.; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living

  2. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? : The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among

  3. The origin and historical development of branding and advertising in the old civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starčević Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of branding and advertising has always been mutually conditioned. The goal of this research is to determine the origin and show historic development of branding and advertising in the ancient civilizations of Africa, Asia and Europe. The historical method of research was used. New evidence on various means of branding, advertising and other promotional activities application in the ancient history is presented. What was found is that social development imposed a need for marking of goods and promotional activities. It was done in a similar manner in all ancient civilizations, regardless of different time span. There were two types of branding and advertising: commercial and personal. The roles of branding and advertising were versatile and similar to their contemporary roles.

  4. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe : The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Kunst, Anton E.; Agyemang, Charles; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; De-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendeka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Amoah, Stephen; Galbete, Cecilia; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between

  5. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Kunst, Anton E.; Agyemang, Charles; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendeka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Amoah, Stephen; Galbete, Cecilia; Schulze, Matthias B.; Danquah, Ina; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking

  6. Quantification of accuracy of precipitation estimates from MSG data suing using CloudSat satellite observations in Europe and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoni, E.; Su, Z.; Timmermans, J.

    2010-05-01

    Availability of fresh water supply is an essential important to humans and all forms of life. Precipitation, being the source of most of fresh water plays an important role in the socio-economic activities as human settlement is often found in regions abundant with this precious commodity in its various forms either sourced directly from rainfall or from rivers, lakes, springs, etc. A good estimate of the amount of precipitation in any place assists the population in better planning of their activities that may include agriculture, infrastructure development and maintenance, flood and forest fire monitoring, etc. Several remote sensing based rainfall monitoring schemes are currently in existence. One of the best known is the Meteosat Second Generation, MSG's Multi-sensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE). The MPE product relies mainly on the cloud top temperatures, a proxy for the cloud top-height, to estimate the rainfall intensity emanating from particular kinds of clouds with large vertical extent. The MSG has been useful in the estimation of rainfall intensity estimates especially for remote places over Africa and over the oceanic areas, however the accuracy of these products remains to be established using more quantitative . measurements, like the weather radar systems in Europe. On the other hand, as opposed to their counterparts in Western Europe, most of Africa is not covered by weather radar. This is attributed to affordability as these radars are costly. The weather radars which have been known to give more accurate rainfall intensity estimates than the MSG. , as opposed toThis approach is feasible in Europe which is endowed with a network of weather radars under the OPERA network. An advantage of the radar technology is that it penetrates into the cloud to examine the water and ice and considers them in estimation of rainfall intensities. On the other hand, as opposed to their counterparts in Western Europe, most of Africa is not covered by weather radar

  7. The European Legacy in Africa, the African Legacy in Europe: Postcolonial Violence and the Specter of Genocide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Jalušič

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on selected elements of the European legacy in Africa that frame the twentieth century in a crucial way. They mark the “Western” picture of the world during that period, and they contributed to the perpetration of major atrocities on the African continent on a scale that invites comparison with the Holocaust – that is, the genocide of Namibian Hereros at the beginning of the twentieth century and the genocide of the Rwandan Tutsis at its end. This paper also discusses elements of the African legacy in Europe – particularly the emergence and transfer of a new form of power that depends on the experience of imperialism as central to the “Western” worldview – and the question of how one can explain this. The Rwandan genocide in 1994 did not represent a repetition or even an approximation of the European Holocaust, just as the Herero genocide (1904–8 cannot be seen as its forerunner, although they all share many points in common. The Rwandan genocide is qualitatively different from both: it represents a new development in the nature of the atrocity, in which the victims become the killers. A better understanding of it could therefore also shed light on some related, but different, events, such as “humanitarian interventions” and the “war against terror.” This contribution draws on some recent historical studies and builds on the analysis of imperialism, race, and bureaucracy in Hannah Arendt’s work; it is also inspired by the works of some authors that adopted the Arendtian analysis of totalitarianism, such as Mahmood Mamdani. The article focuses on the organization of the colonial and postcolonial bureaucratic apparatus of rule, its special form of non-state power, and its connection with “race,” “tribe,” and “tradition” as crucial elements of post-totalitarian forms of government and new forms of identitarian collective violence. The main aim is not so much to analyze the Rwanda genocide

  8. Legacy in Major Sport Events: Empirical Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bason Tom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The awarding of the 2010 FIFA World Cup to South Africa was an historic moment for all of Africa as football’s biggest event travelled to the continent for the first time. This study, set five years on, seeks to identify the legacies left by the construction of two new stadiums in Durban and Cape Town. As part of the EU-funded CARNiVAL project, which seeks to investigate the legacies and impacts of hosting such events, interviews were conducted with key stakeholders involved in the planning of legacies in the two cities. Using Chappelet and Junod’s (2006 framework to analyse the legacies, this study found that Durban and Cape Town have used different strategies to leverage the legacies with differing results. Yet, both stadiums have suffered from the same issue; a seeming lack of need for two stadiums with capacities over 54,000, for domestic sport leagues which average fewer than 10,000 spectators.

  9. Chagas disease in Europe: A review for the internist in the globalized world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Spinello; Galimberti, Laura; Bianco, Roberto; Grande, Romualdo; Galli, Massimo; Corbellino, Mario

    2017-09-01

    Chagas disease (CD) or American trypanosomiasis identified in 1909 by Carlos Chagas, has become over the last 40years a global health concern due to the huge migration flows from Latin America to Europe, United States, Canada and Japan. In Europe, most migrants from CD-endemic areas are concentrated in Spain, Italy, France, United Kingdom and Switzerland. Pooled seroprevalence studies conducted in Europe show an overall 4.2% prevalence, with the highest infection rates observed among individuals from Bolivia (18.1%). However, in most European countries the disease is neglected with absence of screening programmes and low access to diagnosis and treatment. Physicians working in Europe should also be aware of the risk of autochthonous transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to newborns by their infected mothers and to recipients of blood or transplanted organs from infected donors. Finally, physicians should be able to recognize and treat the most frequent and serious complications of chronic Chagas disease, namely cardiomyopathy, megacolon and megaesophagus. This review aims to highlights the problem of CD in Europe by reviewing papers published by European researchers on this argument, in order to raise the awareness of internists who are bound to increasingly encounter patients with the disease in their routine daily activities. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of the pathway to a two degrees warmer world on the regional temperature change of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Fox Maule

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate if the pathway to reach a 2 degree warmer world influences the regional climate in Europe at the time of 2 degrees of global warming above the pre-industrial level. We have investigated this using climate change data from ensembles of both Global Climate Models and Regional Climate Models. We compare the change of regional temperature in Europe to the global temperature change for different emission scenarios, following the IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP, to see if the pathway has any influence. We find that there is a small but significant difference in the regional temperature change, but the effect is small compared to internal variability on the timescales involved in reaching +2 degrees for the investigated emission scenarios. From an adaptation point of view, reaching +2 degrees as slowly as possible will obviously allow for a longer time period to implement adaptation measures to mitigate the effect of climate change.

  11. Wanderings in Western Europe. Theatre for Young Audiences around the World: Aesthetic and Political Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, Harold R.

    Noting that theatre for young people in Europe is much more aggressive in seeking to influence the attitudes and ideas of audiences than that of the United States, this paper examines the political and social trends occurring in children's theatre in four European countries. Following an introduction to this trend toward "educational…

  12. "Europe/Asia" Regionalism, Higher Education and the Production of World Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan

    2008-01-01

    From the early 1990s onwards, various European Union (EU) reports have commented on the low level of European exports and foreign direct investment (FDI) in the Asian region, and the invisibility of Europe in the Asian imagination in comparison with the United States. To overcome this problem, a series of policy and programme initiatives have been…

  13. Investing in amnesia, or fantasy and forgetfulness in the World Bank's approach to healthcare reform in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epprecht, M

    1997-01-01

    "Investing in Health," the World Bank's 1993 World Development Report, and a follow-up report, "Better Health in Africa," advocate investments in Third World health sectors as a means of increasing individual productivity and strengthening economic growth. Both reports maintain that structural adjustment policies have enhanced the physical health of low-income populations by improving the fiscal health of business elites. This essay critiques the World Bank's approach through a historical analysis of health care problems in sub-Saharan Africa with an emphasis on the devastating effects of colonialism, patriarchy, and imperialism. Although these documents contain many useful recommendations for Western donors (e.g., recognition of the destructive potential of alcohol and tobacco, the need for state regulation over key parts of the health sector, and the effects of gender on health status), they reflect an "investment in amnesia" regarding historical evidence on health care reform in Africa and an erroneous assumption that Western biomedicine is politically neutral. Foreign aid has tended to serve the needs of multinational corporations rather than African populations. Recommended, in place of structural adjustment policies, are measures such as a massive rebuilding of Africa's urban infrastructure, the enforcement of minimum wage laws, the preservation of ecosystems that supply traditional medicines, attention to the ecologic and health consequences of economic growth, and a feminist-led reproductive rights movement.

  14. Modelling and simulation-based support for interoperability exercises in preparation of 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Le Roux, WH

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available With less than 650 days to go until the first kick-off of the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa, the safety and security of everyone is paramount. All South African departments, agencies and institutes that are part of the team to ensure a safe...

  15. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Rachel; Addo, Juliet; Kunst, Anton E; Agyemang, Charles; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendeka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Amoah, Stephen; Galbete, Cecilia; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking behaviours and migration-related factors. Data on a relatively homogenous group of Ghanaians living in London (n = 949), Amsterdam (n = 1400), Berlin (n = 543), rural Ghana (n = 973) and urban Ghana (n = 1400) from the cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity & Diabetes in African Migrants) study were used. Age-standardized prevalence rates of smoking by location of residence and factors associated with smoking among Ghanaian men were estimated using prevalence ratios (PR: 95% CIs). Current smoking was non-existent among women in rural and urban Ghana and London but was 3.2% and 3.3% in women in Amsterdam and Berlin, respectively. Smoking prevalence was higher in men in Europe (7.8%) than in both rural and urban Ghana (4.8%): PR 1.91: 95% CI 1.27, 2.88, adjusted for age, marital status, education and employment. Factors associated with a higher prevalence of smoking among Ghanaian men included European residence, being divorced or widowed, living alone, Islam religion, infrequent attendance at religious services, assimilation (cultural orientation), and low education. Ghanaians living in Europe are more likely to smoke than their counterparts in Ghana, suggesting convergence to European populations, although prevalence rates are still far below those in the host populations.

  16. Smoking prevalence differs by location of residence among Ghanaians in Africa and Europe: The RODAM study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Brathwaite

    Full Text Available Although the prevalence of smoking is low in Ghana, little is known about the effect of migration on smoking. Comparing Ghanaians living in their country of origin to those living in Europe offers an opportunity to investigate smoking by location of residence and the associations between smoking behaviours and migration-related factors.Data on a relatively homogenous group of Ghanaians living in London (n = 949, Amsterdam (n = 1400, Berlin (n = 543, rural Ghana (n = 973 and urban Ghana (n = 1400 from the cross-sectional RODAM (Research on Obesity & Diabetes in African Migrants study were used. Age-standardized prevalence rates of smoking by location of residence and factors associated with smoking among Ghanaian men were estimated using prevalence ratios (PR: 95% CIs.Current smoking was non-existent among women in rural and urban Ghana and London but was 3.2% and 3.3% in women in Amsterdam and Berlin, respectively. Smoking prevalence was higher in men in Europe (7.8% than in both rural and urban Ghana (4.8%: PR 1.91: 95% CI 1.27, 2.88, adjusted for age, marital status, education and employment. Factors associated with a higher prevalence of smoking among Ghanaian men included European residence, being divorced or widowed, living alone, Islam religion, infrequent attendance at religious services, assimilation (cultural orientation, and low education.Ghanaians living in Europe are more likely to smoke than their counterparts in Ghana, suggesting convergence to European populations, although prevalence rates are still far below those in the host populations.

  17. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, Volume 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Klerk, Vivian, Ed.

    Essays on English in South Africa and its neighboring countries include: "A History of English in South Africa" (Len Lanham); "English in South African Society: A Preliminary Overview" (Bill Branford); "Black English in South Africa" (David Gough); "Language Contact, Transmission, Shift: South African Indian…

  18. Multilateral Cooperation between the EU and Africa: Resetting the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The EU presents itself as a 'privileged partner' of Africa and characterises the latter as a 'natural partner' in the search for a new world order, an order based on norms, rules and greater equity for developing states. Africa's geo-strategic importance due to its proximity to Europe, its growing value as a trading and investment ...

  19. Atmospheric transportation of marihuana pollen from North Africa to the Southwest of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezudo, Baltasar; Recio, Marta; Sánchez-Laulhé, JoséMaŕia; Trigo, María Del Mar; Toro, Francisco Javier; Polvorinos, Fausto

    As a result of aerobiological samples taken on the Costa del Sol (S. Spain), Cannabis sativa L. (marihuana) pollen was detected from May to September 1991-1996, always sporadically and usually during the afternoons. Sampling was by two volumetric spore traps set up in Malaga and Estepona, two coastal towns approximately 90 km apart. A study of the days when this pollen was recorded points to the movement of air masses from North Africa to southern Spain. Furthermore, the isentropic air trajectories calculated for these days reinforce the possibility of the pollen originating in marihuana plantations in northern Morocco (Rif). This study demonstrates the application of aerobiology to the control of the source, quantity and phenology of the crop.

  20. Adolescent Psychology around the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnett, Jeffrey Jensen, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book paints a portrait of adolescent psychology in 4 major regions: Africa/the Middle East, Asia, the Americas, and Europe. Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the "International Encyclopedia of Adolescence" (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. Most contributors…

  1. Family Planning in Five Continents: Africa, America, Asia, Europe, Oceania. November 1975 Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    This document gives highlights of the family planning situation in countries of the world, together with basic demographic statistics. Its purpose is to provide a quick reference source for those who work in family planning, population, and other related fields. Following a brief history of the pioneering work in family planning, population…

  2. IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography practice in 40 countries in Asia, Europe, Latin America and Africa: procedures and protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassileva, Jenia [National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, Sofia (Bulgaria); Rehani, Madan M. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, Vienna (Austria); Applegate, Kimberly [Emory Radiology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Ahmed, Nada A. [Sudan Atomic Energy Commission, Khartoum (Sudan); Al-Dhuhli, Humoud [Sultan Qaboos University, Al Khod (Oman); Al-Naemi, Huda M. [Hamad Medical Corp. Hamad General Hospital, Doha (Qatar)

    2013-03-15

    To survey procedures and protocols in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 40 less resourced countries. Under a project of the International Atomic Energy Agency, 146 CT facilities in 40 countries of Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America responded to an electronic survey of CT technology, exposure parameters, CT protocols and doses. Modern MDCT systems are available in 77 % of the facilities surveyed with dedicated paediatric CT protocols available in 94 %. However, protocols for some age groups were unavailable in around 50 % of the facilities surveyed. Indication-based protocols were used in 57 % of facilities. Estimates of radiation dose using CTDI or DLP from standard CT protocols demonstrated wide variation up to a factor of 100. CTDI{sub vol} values for the head and chest were between two and five times those for an adult at some sites. Sedation and use of shielding were frequently reported; immobilisation was not. Records of exposure factors were kept at 49 % of sites. There is significant potential for improvement in CT practice and protocol use for children in less resourced countries. Dose estimates for young children varied widely. This survey provides critical baseline data for ongoing quality improvement efforts by the IAEA. (orig.)

  3. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervella, M; Svensson, E M; Alberdi, A; Günther, T; Izagirre, N; Munters, A R; Alonso, S; Ioana, M; Ridiche, F; Soficaru, A; Jakobsson, M; Netea, M G; de-la-Rua, C

    2016-05-19

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Peştera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we present in this article corresponds fully to Homo sapiens, whilst exhibiting a mosaic of morphological features related to both modern humans and Neandertals. We have identified the PM1 mitogenome as a basal haplogroup U6*, not previously found in any ancient or present-day humans. The derived U6 haplotypes are predominantly found in present-day North-Western African populations. Concomitantly, those found in Europe have been attributed to recent gene-flow from North Africa. The presence of the basal haplogroup U6* in South East Europe (Romania) at 35 ky BP confirms a Eurasian origin of the U6 mitochondrial lineage. Consequently, we propose that the PM1 lineage is an offshoot to South East Europe that can be traced to the Early Upper Paleolithic back migration from Western Asia to North Africa, during which the U6 lineage diversified, until the emergence of the present-day U6 African lineages.

  4. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required.

  5. Industrial production quantities and uses of ten engineered nanomaterials in Europe and the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piccinno, Fabiano; Gottschalk, Fadri [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Switzerland); Seeger, Stefan [University of Zurich, Institute of Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Nowack, Bernd, E-mail: nowack@empa.ch [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa-Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Not much is known so far about the amounts of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) that are produced but this information is crucial for environmental exposure assessment. This paper provides worldwide and Europe-wide estimates for the production and use of ten different ENM (TiO{sub 2}, ZnO, FeO{sub x}, AlO{sub x}, SiO{sub 2}, CeO{sub 2}, Ag, quantum dots, CNT, and fullerenes) based on a survey sent to companies producing and using ENM. The companies were asked about their estimate of the worldwide or regional market and not about their company-specific production, information that they would be less likely to communicate. The study focused on the actual production quantities and not the production capacities. The survey also addressed information on distribution of the produced ENM to different product categories. The results reveal that some ENM are produced in Europe in small amounts (less than 10 t/year for Ag, QDs and fullerenes). The most produced ENM is TiO{sub 2} with up to 10,000 t of worldwide production. CeO{sub 2}, FeO{sub x}, AlO{sub x}, ZnO, and CNT are produced between 100 and 1000 t/year. The data for SiO{sub 2} cover the whole range from less than 10 to more than 10,000 t/year, which is indicative of problems related to the definition of this material (is pyrogenic silica considered an ENM or not?). For seven ENM we have obtained the first estimates for their distribution to different product categories, information that also forms the base for life-cycle based exposure analysis.

  6. Single-vehicle collisions in Europe: Analysis using real-world and crash-test data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naing, C.L.; Hill, J.; Thomson, R.; Fagerlind, H.; Kelkka, M.; Klootwijk, C.; Dupre, G.; Bisson, O.

    2008-01-01

    Many European road casualties result from vehicles leaving the road, often impacting roadside obstacles. As part of the European Commission-funded project RISER (Roadside Infrastructure for Safer European Roads), several activities were undertaken to collate the type of real world crash data which

  7. Asia vs. Europe: Conceptual Framework of the High School World History Curriculum in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sunjoo

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author explores the conceptual framework of South Korea's high school world history curriculum, and the problems it has faced related to Eurocentrism and Sinocentrism. Through a description of the development of current and past curriculua, the author intends to make clear that in the traditional conceptual framework of Asia…

  8. A European Football Family? German and British Television Broadcasts of the 2010 Football World Cup and the Representation of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Lichtenstein

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Football World Cup tournament ranks amongst the largest international sports events, captivating vast live and television audiences. A key characteristic of football can be seen in its community-building function. Football provides opportunities for identification, strengthening local and national bonds. But does this also apply to the still vague category of Europe? Does the televised coverage of the Football World Cup hold the potential to foster a European identity? This paper employs a quantitative content analysis of the German and British live-commentaries of the 2010 World Cup matches between European and non-European teams. It analyzes and compares the description and evaluation of European and non-European participants. TV-commentaries have proven an ability to influence the audiences´ perception of the match. It is therefore assumed that the commentaries contribute to a feeling of European identity and unity – if they make the European category salient. The analysis reveals some differences in the portrayal of European and non-European participants with the commentators paying more attention to participants from European countries. Whereas the evaluation of the European and non-European teams differs, the evaluation of the individual football players is well-balanced. In regard to the analyzed criteria, British and German commentaries tend to be very similar.

  9. Postcolonial Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    How has European identity been shaped through its colonial empires? Does this history of imperialism influence the conceptualisation of Europe in the contemporary globalised world? How has coloniality shaped geopolitical differences within Europe? What does this mean for the future of Europe......? Postcolonial Europe: Comparative Reflections after the Empires brings together scholars from across disciplines to rethink European colonialism in the light of its vanishing empires and the rise of new global power structures. Taking an interdisciplinary approach to the postcolonial European legacy the book...... argues that the commonly used nation-centric approach does not effectively capture the overlap between different colonial and postcolonial experiences across Europe....

  10. Chapter 5: Zones of inhibition? The transfer of information relating to penicillin in Europe during World War II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    Alexander Fleming published his first description of penicillin in 1929, but the journal articles that were to propel penicillin from its relative obscurity were those of Howard Florey and his co-workers at Oxford University. These were published in The Lancet in the early years of World War II and although wartime conditions restricted the flow of information on penicillin throughout Europe, they never succeeded in shutting it off altogether. In Germany an information-gathering initiative was established in the early phases of the war to systematically copy and distribute British and American scientific articles. A similar, though less well-resourced, operation was permitted to function in Occupied France. Both these operations were to yield up information on penicillin to their respective scientists. However, workers in other countries of occupied Europe fared less well; there was a dearth of information on penicillin in Holland but despite this, activity to produce the antibiotic still took place. Central to the production of penicillin at this time was access to a strain of Fleming's strain of Penicillium notatum, and an attempt to explain how this particular strain found its way to various European laboratories is given here.

  11. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...... we have engaged with Africa in a similar manner as we have done with other emerging economies? We also introduce the papers published in this special issue and highlight directions for future research....

  12. The sex ratio at birth in South Africa increased 9months after the 2010 FIFA World Cup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masukume, Gwinyai; Grech, Victor

    2015-12-01

    In humans in the absence of significant stress the sex ratio at birth [males/(males+females)] is in favor of more male than female live births. This study sought to determine the influence of the 2010 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup in South Africa on the sex ratio at birth in that country specifically 9months afterwards. Publicly available data from Statistics South Africa was utilized detailing recorded live births. Analysis was carried out by Chi-squared tests. February and March 2011 about 9months after the World Cup, had the highest observed sex ratio at birth (relatively more male births) of 0.5063 for the period 2003 to 2012. The observed sex ratio at birth in the considered two months of 2011 was 0.63% (p=0.02) greater than the sex ratio at birth for corresponding periods from 2008 to 2012. The increase noted in 2011 corresponds to more than 1000 extra male births than expected for February and March 2011. The 2010 FIFA World Cup was followed about 9months afterwards by a significant increase in the sex ratio at birth. The main mechanism driving the observed increase in the sex ratio at birth in South Africa is most likely more frequent sexual intercourse at population level during the tournament. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transmission patterns of smallpox: systematic review of natural outbreaks in Europe and North America since World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boer Rob

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because smallpox (variola major may be used as a biological weapon, we reviewed outbreaks in post-World War II Europe and North America in order to understand smallpox transmission patterns. Methods A systematic review was used to identify papers from the National Library of Medicine, Embase, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Defense Technical Information Center, WorldCat, and reference lists of included publications. Two authors reviewed selected papers for smallpox outbreaks. Results 51 relevant outbreaks were identified from 1,389 publications. The median for the effective first generation reproduction rate (initial R was 2 (range 0–38. The majority outbreaks were small (less than 5 cases and contained within one generation. Outbreaks with few hospitalized patients had low initial R values (median of 1 and were prolonged if not initially recognized (median of 3 generations; outbreaks with mostly hospitalized patients had higher initial R values (median 12 and were shorter (median of 3 generations. Index cases with an atypical presentation of smallpox were less likely to have been diagnosed with smallpox; outbreaks in which the index case was not correctly diagnosed were larger (median of 27.5 cases and longer (median of 3 generations compared to outbreaks in which the index case was correctly diagnosed (median of 3 cases and 1 generation. Conclusion Patterns of spread during Smallpox outbreaks varied with circumstances, but early detection and implementation of control measures is a most important influence on the magnitude of outbreaks. The majority of outbreaks studied in Europe and North America were controlled within a few generations if detected early.

  14. 9th state of logistics survey for South Africa: connecting neighbours - engaging the world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Viljoen, N

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The 9th State of Logistics survey for South Africa 2012 delivers a message of action. South Africa must make great strides in addressing critical issues relating to the road freight sector, shifting freight from road to rail and addressing rampant...

  15. The Old World Drought Atlas: Tree-ring reconstructions of past drought over Europe and the Mediterranean Basin since 1200 C.E. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, E. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Mediterranean Basin (MB) has been experiencing a drying trend over the past few decades that could be due to anthropogenic greenhouse warming as predicted by climate models. However, there is a great deal of natural variability to account for before that drying trend can be attributed even in part to anthropogenic forcing and its possible impact on the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). To help place the current MB drying trend in a pre-anthropogenic warming perspective, an Old World Drought Atlas (OWDA) of reconstructed self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Indices (scPDSI) over Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East has been developed from a network of long tree-ring chronologies distributed over that region. The tree-ring network used was specifically constructed to emphasize the preservation of centennial time-scale hydroclimatic variability and provides reconstructions of scPDSI back to 1200 C.E. across the full OWDA domain. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis of the reconstructed field reveals the strong influence of the NAO on hydroclimatic variability over the domain as the leading mode. The EOF projection coefficients provide insights about how unusual 20th-21st Century hydroclimatic conditions are compared to the previous 700 years. This comparison indicates that the influence of the NAO over recent times has not exceeded that found in the past. A closer look at some higher order modes indicate that hydroclimatic variability over the MB is also tied to sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. Warmer SSTs are associated with drier conditions over the MB, a condition that is currently in force. Projections of future SSTs over this region may be useful for predicting future trends in MB drying.

  16. Secondary Education in Africa: Strategies for Renewal. World Bank Presentations at the UNESCO/BREDA-World Bank Regional Workshop on the Renewal of Secondary Education in Africa (Mauritius, Africa, December 2001). Africa Region Human Development Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastri, Lawrence, Ed.

    During the last 3 decades secondary education has become universal in most industrialized countries. Sub-Saharan African countries face special challenges to benefit from this international trend. The gap between these countries and the rest of the world in coverage, quality, and relevance of secondary education is widening. To address these…

  17. Retrieval of daily gross primary production over Europe and Africa from an ensemble of SEVIRI/MSG products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, B.; Sanchez-Ruiz, S.; Gilabert, M. A.; Moreno, A.; Campos-Taberner, M.; García-Haro, F. J.; Trigo, I. F.; Aurela, M.; Brümmer, C.; Carrara, A.; De Ligne, A.; Gianelle, D.; Grünwald, T.; Limousin, J. M.; Lohila, A.; Mammarella, I.; Sottocornola, M.; Steinbrecher, R.; Tagesson, T.

    2018-03-01

    The main goal of this paper is to derive a method for a daily gross primary production (GPP) product over Europe and Africa taking the full advantage of the SEVIRI/MSG satellite products from the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) sensors delivered from the Satellite Application Facility for Land Surface Analysis (LSA SAF) system. Special attention is paid to model the daily GPP response from an optimized Montheith's light use efficiency model under dry conditions by controlling water shortage limitations from the actual evapotranspiration and the potential evapotranspiration (PET). The PET was parameterized using the mean daily air temperature at 2 m (Ta) from ERA-Interim data. The GPP product (MSG GPP) was produced for 2012 and assessed by direct site-level comparison with GPP from eddy covariance data (EC GPP). MSG GPP presents relative bias errors lower than 40% for the most forest vegetation types with a high agreement (r > 0.7) when compared with EC GPP. For drylands, MSG GPP reproduces the seasonal variations related to water limitation in a good agreement with site level GPP estimates (RMSE = 2.11 g m-2 day-1; MBE = -0.63 g m-2 day-1), especially for the dry season. A consistency analysis against other GPP satellite products (MOD17A2 and FLUXCOM) reveals a high consistency among products (RMSD 3.0 g m-2 day-1) and over dry biomes with MSG GPP estimates lower than FLUXCOM (MBD up to -3.0 g m-2 day-1). This newly derived product has the potential for analysing spatial patterns and temporal dynamics of GPP at the MSG spatial resolutions on a daily basis allowing to better capture the GPP dynamics and magnitude.

  18. Evaluation of a regional mineral dust model over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East with AERONET data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basart, S.; Pérez, C.; Cuevas, E.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    A variety of regional and global models of the dust aerosol cycle have been developed since early 1990s. Dust models are essential to complement dust-related observations, understand the dust processes and predict the impact of dust on surface level PM concentrations. Dust generation and the parameterization of its deposition processes shows a high variability on spatial and temporal scales. It responds, in a non-linear way, to a variety of environmental factors, such as soil moisture content, the type of surface cover or surface atmospheric turbulence. Thus the modelling of this very complex process is a challenge. DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model; Nickovic et al., 2001) provides operational dust forecasts for Northern Africa, Europe and Middle East, as well as for the East-Asia regions. DREAM is operated and further developed in the Barcelona Supercomputing Center. DREAM is fully inserted as one of the governing equations in the NCEP/Eta atmospheric model and simulates all major processes of the atmospheric dust cycle. In order to implement new model versions for operational applications there is a need for extensive checking and validation against real observations. The present study focuses on the evaluation of forecasting capacity of the new version of DREAM by means of a model-to-observation comparison of the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) over Northern Africa, Southern Europe and Middle East for one year. The model provides 72h forecasts initialized at 12UTC of each day with outputs every 1 hour at horizontal resolution of about 1/3° and 24 z-vertical layers in the troposphere. Comparisons against 47 selected AERONET sites are used. Eight size bins between 0.1 and 10 µm are considered, and dust-radiation interactions are included (Pérez et al., 2006). Wet deposition scheme has been also improved. The simulation has been performed over one year (2004); statistics and time series for the model outputs and AERONET data are used to evaluate the ability of

  19. Enhanced epidemic intelligence using a web-based screening system during the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantero, J; Szegedi, E; Payne Hallstrom, L; Lenglet, A; Depoortere, E; Kaic, B; Blumberg, L; Linge, J P; Coulombier, D

    2014-05-08

    The 2010 FIFA World Cup took place in South Africa between 11 June and 11 July 2010. The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), in collaboration with the hosting authorities, carried out enhanced epidemic intelligence activities from 7 June to 16 July 2010 for timely detection and monitoring of signals of public health events with a potential to pose a risk to participants and visitors. We adapted ECDC’s routine epidemic intelligence process to targeted event-based surveillance of official and unofficial online information sources. A set of three specifically adapted alerts in the web-based screening system MedISys were set up: potential public health events in South Africa, those occurring in the participating countries and those in the rest of the world. Results were shared with national and international public health partners through daily bulletins. According to pre-established ECDC criteria for the World Cup, 21 events of potential public health relevance were identified at local and international level. Although none of the events detected were evaluated as posing a serious risk for the World Cup, we consider that the investment in targeted event-based surveillance activities during the tournament was relevant as it facilitated real-time detection and assessment of potential threats. An additional benefit was early communication of relevant information to public health partners.

  20. Fortress Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    Ceuta and Melilla are two Spanish coastal-enclaves located in Northern Africa that constitute the only territories in mainland Africa belonging to an EU member state and, as a result, the only land border between the two continents. This book aims to study the role of these enclaves as EU border...... lookouts, as they are on the front line of the migration route between Europe and Africa. In effect, one of the most relevant contributions that this book aims to bring is to connect the study of the border in Ceuta and Melilla with the European dimension, that is, with the European policies that affect...

  1. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alessia; Bozzi, Giorgio; Franzetti, Marco; Binda, Francesca; Simonetti, Francesco R; De Luca, Andrea; Micheli, Valeria; Meraviglia, Paola; Bagnarelli, Patrizia; Di Biagio, Antonio; Monno, Laura; Saladini, Francesco; Zazzi, Maurizio; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Balotta, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype. Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches. The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8%) clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively) compared to those from Africa (20%) (p Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of such variant, probably through sex work.

  2. Real-World Treatment Patterns for Hormone Receptor-Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-Negative Advanced Breast Cancer in Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Rita; Scazafave, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Clinical guidelines generally recommend endocrine therapy over chemotherapy for hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer (unless life-threatening metastases are present). This study aimed to assess the real-world treatment patterns of patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer in Europe and the United States. Treatment patterns in Europe (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) and the United States from January 2012 to December 2014 were investigated using a patient record database (Global Oncology Monitor©). Sample data were projected to the wider clinical population to provide running annual estimates every 3 months. Sample sizes ranged from 1272 to 1640 patients in Europe and from 2225 to 2760 patients in the United States. Across all lines of therapy, 37-43% (Europe) and 45-50% (United States) of patients received chemotherapy. More patients received endocrine therapy than chemotherapy as first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer (Europe: 51-54% vs. 33-35%; United States: 53-60% vs. 34-42%). In contrast, endocrine therapy-only regimens were given less commonly than chemotherapy-only regimens in the third-line setting in both Europe and the United States. Chemotherapy is used extensively in routine clinical practice for hormone receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative advanced breast cancer. The results also suggest that the treatment patternsin Europe and the United States are qualitatively different. Funding : Ipsos Healthcare and AstraZeneca.

  3. Emergence of trimethoprim resistance gene dfrG in Staphylococcus aureus causing human infection and colonization in sub-Saharan Africa and its import to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjadi, Dennis; Olalekan, Adesola O; Layer, Franziska; Shittu, Adebayo O; Alabi, Abraham; Ghebremedhin, Beniam; Schaumburg, Frieder; Hofmann-Eifler, Jonas; Van Genderen, Perry J J; Caumes, Eric; Fleck, Ralf; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Herrmann, Mathias; Kern, Winfried V; Abdulla, Salim; Grobusch, Martin P; Kremsner, Peter G; Wolz, Christiane; Zanger, Philipp

    2014-09-01

    Co-trimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole) is clinically valuable in treating skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The genetic basis of emerging trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole resistance in S. aureus from Africa is unknown. Such knowledge is essential to anticipate its further spread. We investigated the molecular epidemiology of trimethoprim resistance in S. aureus collected in and imported from Africa. Five hundred and ninety-eight human S. aureus isolates collected at five locations across sub-Saharan Africa [Gabon, Namibia, Nigeria (two) and Tanzania] and 47 isolates from travellers treated at six clinics in Europe because of SSTIs on return from Africa were tested for susceptibility to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, screened for genes mediating trimethoprim resistance in staphylococci [dfrA (dfrS1), dfrB, dfrG and dfrK] and assigned to spa genotypes and clonal complexes. In 313 clinical and 285 colonizing S. aureus from Africa, 54% of isolates were resistant to trimethoprim, 21% to sulfamethoxazole and 19% to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. We found that 94% of trimethoprim resistance was mediated by the dfrG gene. Of the 47 S. aureus isolates from travellers with SSTIs, 27 (57%) were trimethoprim resistant and carried dfrG. Markers of trimethoprim resistance other than dfrG were rare. The presence of dfrG genes in S. aureus was neither geographically nor clonally restricted. dfrG, previously perceived to be an uncommon cause of trimethoprim resistance in human S. aureus, is widespread in Africa and abundant in imported S. aureus from ill returning travellers. These findings may foreshadow the loss of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole for the empirical treatment of SSTIs caused by community-associated MRSA. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights

  4. Economic impacts of the FIFA Soccer World Cups in France 1998, Germany 2006, and outlook for South Africa 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Swantje Allmers; Wolfgang Maennig

    2009-01-01

    The effects of Football World Cups in Germany 2006 and France 1998 on overnight stays at hotels, national income from tourism, and retail sales are analyzed. For France, no effects could be isolated. For Germany, 700,000 additional overnight stays and US$900 million in net national tourism income could be identified. Novelty effects of the stadiums, image effects for the host nations, and the feel-good effect for the population might be of larger importance. South Africa might have to ...

  5. Modelling the market in a risk-averse world: the case of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For that purpose it was decided to use ex-ante estimates of expected returns. This led to bias in the observed mean returns, which negates the rational expectations hypothesis. In the light of the literature on the subject, this is considered acceptable for these purposes. KEYWORDS Market portfolio, risk aversion, South Africa ...

  6. Managing Information for Rural Development: Lessons from Eastern Africa. World Bank Staff Working Paper No. 379.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboeck, Guido; Kinsey, Bill

    The study summarizes discussions and conclusions of the Regional Workshop on Monitoring and Evaluation of Rural Development Projects in East Africa (Nairobi, Kenya, April 1979), whose purpose was to share lessons learned from field experiences in managing information for rural development. An initial section summarizes information in papers…

  7. Diabetes in Africa: the new pandemic. Report on the 19th World ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of diabetes in Africa is predicted to increase by 80% in 2025 and impact younger working age patients. We increasingly live in an obesogenic society that drives the global pandemic of Type 2 diabetes. The powerful commercial, socio-economic and political factors shaping this society encourage individual ...

  8. Analysing regional climate change in Africa in a 1.5 °C global warming world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Torsten; Haensler, Andreas; Jacob, Daniela

    2017-04-01

    At the 21st session of the UNFCCC Conference of the Parties (COP21) in Paris, a reaffirmation to strengthen the effort to limit the global temperature increase to 1.5 °C was decided. However, even if global warming is limited, some regions might still be substantially affected by climate change, especially for continents like Africa where the socio-economic conditions are strongly linked to the climatic conditions. Hence, providing a detailed analysis of the projected climate changes in a 1.5 °C global warming scenario will allow the African society to undertake measures for adaptation in order to mitigate potential negative consequences. In order to provide such climate change information, the existing CORDEX Africa ensemble for RCP2.6 scenario simulations has systematically been increased by conducting additional REMO simulations using data from various global circulation models (GCMs) as lateral boundary conditions. Based on this ensemble, which now consists of eleven CORDEX Africa RCP2.6 regional climate model simulations from three RCMs (forced with different GCMs), various temperature and precipitation indices such as number of cold/hot days and nights, duration of the rainy season, the amount of rainfall in the rainy seasons and the number of dry spells have been calculated for a 1.5 °C global warming scenario. The applied method to define the 1.5 °C global warming period has been already applied in the IMPACT2C project. In our presentation, we will discuss the analysis of the climate indices in a 1.5 °C global warming world for the CORDEX-Africa region. Amongst presenting the magnitude of projected changes, we will also address the question for selected indices if the changes projected in a 1.5 °C global warming scenario are already larger than the climate variability and we will also draw links to the changes projected under a more extreme scenario.

  9. Children's Rights to Mother-Tongue Education in a Multilingual World: A Comparative Analysis between South Africa and Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrizell Stoop (néé Chürr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the mother tongue, and, more specifically, of mother-tongue education, is recognised globally. Use of the mother tongue is regarded as one of the most effective ways of acting and performing cognitively, socially and communally. The aim of this article is to encourage and promote the implementation and realisation of mother-tongue education through certain school/education models in order to achieve equality and liberation and to increase the incidence of high-performance education systems in a multilingual world. A comparative analysis of South Africa and Germany will also be undertaken with regard to language policies and the mother-tongue education situation in these countries' school systems. Several other aspects such as the choice of language as a fundamental right, the importance of international instruments, as well as some lessons to be learnt for both South Africa and Germany in respect of mother-tongue education, will be discussed. It will be concluded that, despite the existence of a multilingual world, the crucial importance of the use of the mother tongue and mother-tongue education should not be underestimated and/or ignored.

  10. People in sub-Saharan Africa rate their health and health care among the lowest in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, Angus S; Tortora, Robert

    2015-03-01

    The health of people in sub-Saharan Africa is a major global concern. However, data are weak, and little is known about how people in the region perceive their health or their health care. We used data from the Gallup World Poll in 2012 to document sub-Saharan Africans' perceived health status, their satisfaction with health care, their contact with medical professionals, and the priority they attach to health care. In comparison to other regions of the world, sub-Saharan Africa has the lowest ratings for well-being and the lowest satisfaction with health care. It also has the second-lowest perception of personal health, after only the former Soviet Union and its Eastern European satellites. HIV prevalence is positively correlated with perceived improvements in health care in countries with high prevalence. This is consistent with an improvement in at least some health care services as a result of the largely aid-funded rollout of antiretroviral treatment. Even so, sub-Saharan Africans do not prioritize health care as a matter of policy, although donors are increasingly shifting their aid efforts in the region toward health. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. Divergent Paths of Development: The Modern World-System and Democratization in South Africa and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Andreasson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The 1990s constitute a watershed decade for change in postcolonial Africa as one-party states have crumbled and old authoritarian leaders have stepped down or been removed. The ?rst few years of the 1990s saw about half of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa either install, or prepare for, multiparty rule (Widner 1994:1; van de Walle 1999a:21. Of course, not all change has been positive and it is not clear whether the current democratic wave can be sustained as the latter part of the decade has brought both severe setbacks and continued success (Bratton and van de Walle 1997:3; Diamond 1999:269–270; Baker 2000: 9. Considering the precarious nature of African democratization, it is necessary to further investigate its future prospects.

  12. Climate Change Impact on the Southeastern Europe Security Environment and the Increasing Role of the Bulgarian Army as the World Warms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    farmers and pastoralists with minimal capital in semi - arid regions. Risk of loss of marine and coastal ecosystems, biodiversity, and the ecosystem... CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON THE SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SECURITY ENVIRONMENT AND THE INCREASING ROLE OF THE BULGARIAN ARMY AS THE WORLD WARMS...DD-MM-YYYY) 10-06-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUN 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change

  13. The Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa: A Product of The Entire Black World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mgwebi Snail

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo ilustra cómo el surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica puede estar diametralmente unido a la emergencia de los movimientos de Conciencia Negra y Black Power en América. Pretende demostrar además cómo, en el contexto africano, el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra fue impulsado por el nacionalismo africano y cómo ese nacionalismo fue moldeado y transformado por pensadores africanos de la década de los 50 y 60 en el Panafricanismo. El artículo también mostrará similitudes y diferencias entre la Negritud Africana y el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra. El texto de nuevo explicará de manera cronológica cómo el Garveyismo, la Conciencia Negra en América y el nacionalismo africano, la personalidad africana y la Negritud en África contribuyeron al surgimiento del Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica. El estudio advierte de que la falta de comprensión de estos antecedentes, podría llevar a la confusión y a una mala interpretación de concepto vital en la historia de África. Finalmente, este trabajo busca hacer hincapié en la historización del desarrollo del por qué el Movimiento de Conciencia Negra en Sudáfrica no puede estar divorciado del contexto global.____________________ABSTRACT:The paper illustrates how the rise of the Black Consciousness Movement in South Africa can be diametrically tied up with the emergence of the Black Consciousness and Black-Power Movements in America. It goes further to demonstrate how, in the African context, the Black Consciousness Movement was given impetus by African nationalism and how that nationalism was later moulded and shaped by African thinkers of the 1950’s and 1960’s into Pan Africanism. The paper, will also try to show similarities and the disparities between Negritude African personality and the Black Consciousness Movement. The paper will again explain in a chronological manner how Garveyism, Black Consciousness in America and African Nationalism in

  14. World Network of Friends: Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    exchange invitations to training courses and partnerships for the development of human resources. The structure of and focus on human resource development is inspired by experiences of ODA financed courses in Japan and, thereby, fits Shimomura and Wang’s argument that ‘the notable difference between...... traditional and emerging donors is their experience of receiving aid.” Much literature on the ‘emerging donors’ focuses on the challenge they pose to the ‘DAC regime’ of conditionalities. However, this chapter will explore how the Africa-Asia regional partnerships and South-South development cooperation...

  15. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  16. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lai

    Full Text Available Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype.Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches.The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8% clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively compared to those from Africa (20% (p < .001. Higher proportions of clustering sequences were found in intravenous drug users with respect to heterosexuals (85.7% vs. 59.3%, p = .056 and in women with respect to men (81.4% vs. 53.2%, p < .006. Subtype A1 dated phylogeny indicated an East African origin around 1961. Phylogeographical reconstruction highlighted 3 significant groups. One involved East European and some Italian variants, the second encompassed some Italian and African strains, the latter included the majority of viruses carried by African and Italian subjects and all viral sequences from Albania and Greece.Subtype A1 originated in Central Africa and spread among East European countries in 1982. It entered Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of

  17. Global Bioethics and Culture in a Pluralistic World: How does Culture influence Bioethics in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukwuneke, FN; Umeora, OUJ; Maduabuchi, JU; Egbunike, N

    2014-01-01

    Bioethics principles and practice can be influenced by different cultural background. This is because the four globally accepted bioethics principles are often based on basic ethical codes such as autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice. Beneficence/nonmaleficence requires us to maximize possible benefits, while minimizing possible harms and consequently secure the well-being of others by refraining from harming them. Autonomy gives individuals the right to self-actualization and decision-making, while justice is concerned with the fair selection and distribution of the burdens and benefits of research among participants. Applications of these principles in cultural settings vary more often from one cultural perspective to the other because of the different understanding and practices of “what is good.” The proponents of global ethics may argue that these principles should be universally generalizable and acceptable, but this is not possible because of the existing cultural diversities. In the African set-up, despite the existence of major common cultural practices, there are other norms and practices, which differ from one society to the other within the communities. Therefore, the word “global” bioethics may not be applicable generally in practice except if it can account for the structural dynamics and cultural differences within the complex societies in which we live in. However, the extent to which cultural diversity should be permitted to influence bioethical judgments in Africa, which at present is burdened with many diseases, should be of concern to researchers, ethicist and medical experts taking into considerations the constantly transforming global society. This topic examines the cultural influence on principles and practice of bioethics in Africa. PMID:25328772

  18. Global Digital Revolution and Africa: Transforming Nigerian Universities to World Class Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isah, Emmanuel Aileonokhuoya; Ayeni, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the global digital revolution and the transformation of Nigerian universities. The study overviewed university developments world wide in line with what obtains in Nigeria. The study highlighted the several challenges that face Nigerian universities inclusive of poor funding, poor personnel and the poor exposure to global…

  19. World Bank Education Policy and Human Resource Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutamba, Charlene

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the intersection of education and training through societal development in the developing world, a concept linked to national human resource development (NHRD). In addition, education and training is known to correlate strongly with employment outcomes that are connected to economic success, health and family…

  20. The Crisis of Funding Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: African Perspectives versus World Bank Prescriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanu, K. E.

    1996-01-01

    Reforms of African educational systems with World Bank assistance are likely to fail unless they are based on a fundamentally African vision of society. This vision involves creating a habitat for human resource development, the use of intermediate technology, and space for the informal sector. (SK)

  1. Orientalism and the geoculture of the World System: Discursive othering, political economy and the cameralist division of labor in Habsburg Central Europe (1713-1815

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemens Kaps

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of to what degree the concept of geoculture can be brought in line with research on Orientalist stereotypes and imaginary. Following Said’s original definition of orientalism discourses of the 18th-century political economy are reassessed by focusing on their perception of spatial hierarchies in Eastern Europe. This article reconsiders these discourses as an active factor in the struggle for power and a tool in the hands of the geopolitical interests of absolutist monarchs in Prussia, the Habsburg Monarchy, and Russia in the age of mercantilism, as demonstrated by the Partitions of Poland-Lithuania. By focusing on the Habsburg Monarchy between the Spanish War of Succession and the Congress of Vienna, it is demonstrated here that, territorial landlocked empires within Europe used a similar language as colonial maritime empires in order to justify their geopolitical expansion and territorial domination of Eastern Europe. In a second step, it is shown that this discourse was part of the geopolitical culture of the World System and was instrumental in setting ideological conditions for cameralist-driven institutional transformations in favor of the core regions within the Habsburg dominions in Central Europe.

  2. El Nuevo Mundo desde Europa y para los europeos = The New World from Europe and for the Europeans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Carzolio

    2015-12-01

    .The Spaniards were the forefront of European progress in the newly discovered lands in the sixteenth century. They had to face the expanded horizon of their experiences with the same material and intellectual weapons that had served them until 1492 to join Renaissance Europe. European and American historiography until the twentieth century show the success with which the Spaniards and Portuguese managed to impose their rule constructing vast colonial territories.America was conceived in political projects of European and especially Spanish, first, as a tool to solve the demographic, economic, religious and social problems of the Old Continent. The Spanish Monarchy of Thomas Campanella exhibits a possible effect of such experience. Witness of the expansion of the known world by Europeans, conceived a project that goes beyond the Mediterranean space integrating the New World in the Hispanic Empire, but not immune to the effects of an eurocentric perspective. In this project, and correlatively, American Indians have a passive and marginal role.

  3. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödder Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (recolonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i Morocco, (ii Tunisia, (iii Sicily, (iv Italy and southern France, (v eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source

  4. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habel, Jan C; Lens, Luc; Rödder, Dennis; Schmitt, Thomas

    2011-07-21

    The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (re)colonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i) Morocco, (ii) Tunisia, (iii) Sicily, (iv) Italy and southern France, (v) eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi) western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii) south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source or speciation centre of this taxon, while the

  5. Obesity and type 2 diabetes in sub-Saharan Africans - Is the burden in today's Africa similar to African migrants in Europe? The RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyemang, Charles; Meeks, Karlijn; Beune, Erik; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Addo, Juliet; de Graft Aikins, Ama; Bahendeka, Silver; Danquah, Ina; Schulze, Matthias B; Spranger, Joachim; Burr, Tom; Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Amoah, Stephen K; Galbete, Cecilia; Henneman, Peter; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Nicolaou, Mary; Adeyemo, Adebowale; van Straalen, Jan; Smeeth, Liam; Stronks, Karien

    2016-10-21

    Rising rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are impending major threats to the health of African populations, but the extent to which they differ between rural and urban settings in Africa and upon migration to Europe is unknown. We assessed the burden of obesity and T2D among Ghanaians living in rural and urban Ghana and Ghanaian migrants living in different European countries. A multi-centre cross-sectional study was conducted among Ghanaian adults (n = 5659) aged 25-70 years residing in rural and urban Ghana and three European cities (Amsterdam, London and Berlin). Comparisons between groups were made using prevalence ratios (PRs) with adjustments for age and education. In rural Ghana, the prevalence of obesity was 1.3 % in men and 8.3 % in women. The prevalence was considerably higher in urban Ghana (men, 6.9 %; PR: 5.26, 95 % CI, 2.04-13.57; women, 33.9 %; PR: 4.11, 3.13-5.40) and even more so in Europe, especially in London (men, 21.4 %; PR: 15.04, 5.98-37.84; women, 54.2 %; PR: 6.63, 5.04-8.72). The prevalence of T2D was low at 3.6 % and 5.5 % in rural Ghanaian men and women, and increased in urban Ghanaians (men, 10.3 %; PR: 3.06; 1.73-5.40; women, 9.2 %; PR: 1.81, 1.25-2.64) and highest in Berlin (men, 15.3 %; PR: 4.47; 2.50-7.98; women, 10.2 %; PR: 2.21, 1.30-3.75). Impaired fasting glycaemia prevalence was comparatively higher only in Amsterdam, and in London, men compared with rural Ghana. Our study shows high risks of obesity and T2D among sub-Saharan African populations living in Europe. In Ghana, similarly high prevalence rates were seen in an urban environment, whereas in rural areas, the prevalence of obesity among women is already remarkable. Similar processes underlying the high burden of obesity and T2D following migration may also be at play in sub-Saharan Africa as a consequence of urbanisation.

  6. Health Inequality in South Africa: A Systematic Review | Obuaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a review of key empirical studies on health inequalities in South Africa with the aim of contributing to a comparative examination of social inequalities in health across different countries in Europe and other parts of the World. Studies reviewed were identified through a computerised search of key words ...

  7. Implementation of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Bosco Ndihokubwayo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increase in disease burden has continued to weigh upon health systems in Africa. The role of the laboratory has become increasingly critical in the improvement of health for diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases. In response, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO and its partners created the WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory (Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA program.SLIPTA implementation process: WHO AFRO defined a governance structure with roles and responsibilities for six main stakeholders. Laboratories were evaluated by auditors trained and certified by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Laboratory performance was measured using the WHO AFRO SLIPTA scoring checklist and recognition certificates rated with 1–5 stars were issued.Preliminary results: By March 2015, 27 of the 47 (57% WHO AFRO member states had appointed a SLIPTA focal point and 14 Ministers of Health had endorsed SLIPTA as the desired programme for continuous quality improvement. Ninety-eight auditors from 17 African countries, competent in the Portuguese (3, French (12 and English (83 languages, were trained and certified. The mean score for the 159 laboratories audited between May 2013 and March 2015 was 69% (median 70%; SD 11.5; interquartile range 62–77. Of these audited laboratories, 70% achieved 55% compliance or higher (2 or more stars and 1% scored at least 95% (5 stars. The lowest scoring sections of the WHO AFRO SLIPTA checklist were sections 6 (Internal Audit and 10 (Corrective Action, which both had mean scores below 50%.Conclusion: The WHO AFRO SLIPTA is a process that countries with limited resources can adopt for effective implementation of quality management systems. Political commitment, ownership and investment in continuous quality improvement are integral components of the process.

  8. Implementation of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruta, Talkmore; Ndlovu, Nqobile; Moyo, Sikhulile; Yahaya, Ali Ahmed; Coulibaly, Sheick Oumar; Kasolo, Francis; Turgeon, David; Abrol, Angelii P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The increase in disease burden has continued to weigh upon health systems in Africa. The role of the laboratory has become increasingly critical in the improvement of health for diagnosis, management and treatment of diseases. In response, the World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) and its partners created the WHO AFRO Stepwise Laboratory (Quality) Improvement Process Towards Accreditation (SLIPTA) program. SLIPTA implementation process WHO AFRO defined a governance structure with roles and responsibilities for six main stakeholders. Laboratories were evaluated by auditors trained and certified by the African Society for Laboratory Medicine. Laboratory performance was measured using the WHO AFRO SLIPTA scoring checklist and recognition certificates rated with 1–5 stars were issued. Preliminary results By March 2015, 27 of the 47 (57%) WHO AFRO member states had appointed a SLIPTA focal point and 14 Ministers of Health had endorsed SLIPTA as the desired programme for continuous quality improvement. Ninety-eight auditors from 17 African countries, competent in the Portuguese (3), French (12) and English (83) languages, were trained and certified. The mean score for the 159 laboratories audited between May 2013 and March 2015 was 69% (median 70%; SD 11.5; interquartile range 62–77). Of these audited laboratories, 70% achieved 55% compliance or higher (2 or more stars) and 1% scored at least 95% (5 stars). The lowest scoring sections of the WHO AFRO SLIPTA checklist were sections 6 (Internal Audit) and 10 (Corrective Action), which both had mean scores below 50%. Conclusion The WHO AFRO SLIPTA is a process that countries with limited resources can adopt for effective implementation of quality management systems. Political commitment, ownership and investment in continuous quality improvement are integral components of the process. PMID:28879103

  9. CLIMATE ANOMALIES AND EXTREME EVENTS IN AFRICA IN 2003, INCLUDING HEAVY RAINS AND FLOODS THAT OCCURRED DURING NORTHERN HEMISPHERE SUMMER

    OpenAIRE

    Kadomura, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    The climate of 2003, particularly during Northern Hemisphere summer, was marked by exceptionally abnormal events throughout the world, and Africa was no exception. As record heat waves prevailed over Europe, heavy rains and floods occurred over the west-central Sahara, across the Sudano-Sahelian region and western Kenya, while drought conditions gripped the Guinea Coast and southeastern Southern Africa, and cold waves hit southern South Africa. Among the most remarkable events were record rai...

  10. The Economic Impact of IMF and World Bank Programs in the Middle East and North Africa: A Case Study of Jordan, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia, 1983-2004

    OpenAIRE

    Harrigan, Jane; El-Said, Hamed

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines whether the economic reforms attached to IMF and World Bank policy-based lending in the Middle East and North Africa have stimulated sustained economic growth. In order to investigate this, we chose four countries to study in depth: Jordan, Egypt, Tunisia and\\ud Morocco. These were chosen as they have been put forward by both the IMF and the World Bank as successful reformers who, for prolonged periods, carried out World Bank and IMF guided economic reform programs. We exa...

  11. Paul and Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Loba-Mkole

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between Saint Paul and the continent of Africa has never been a significant point of discussion in the New Testament studies. The same can be observed about other continents, even if the study of the Pauline corpus touches on some countries of Europe and the Middle East. The present article was triggered by the invitation of the Catholic Church to celebrate the 3rd millennium of Paul’s birthday during the period of June 2008 – June 2009, which was declared as the Year of Paul all over the world. It raises and discusses the question of relevance of Paul to Africa and vice versa in the light of intercultural exegesis.

  12. Africa: a Future Energy Supplier for Europe? Africa as a Member of Trans-European Transfer Networks and a Partner to EU on the Field of Electricity Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waisová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The EU member states rank among the most developed countries in the world which also makes them signifi cant electricity consumers. Electricity consumption in the EU member states has been increasing steadily over several decades and this tendency should be expected to continue in the future Majority of the EU member states are not self -suffi cient as to electricity production and have to cover greater or smaller part of their consumption by import from third countries. The present text deal...

  13. Island words, island worlds : the origins and meanings of words for ‘Islands’ in North-West Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ronström, Owe

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the notion that words mirror ideas, perspectives and worldviews. Etymologies and meanings of general words for ‘islands’ in a number of languagesin North and West Europe are then discussed. Here, islands are shown to be etymologicallyconstituted by the interplay between land and water, and which of these two is emphasizedvaries. In the third section, a number of Swedish island words are surveyed, in an attemptto illuminate the principle of linguistic relativity. Finally, t...

  14. Reducing Insecurity in Africa: Roles and Responsibilities of the U.S. Military, U.S. Government and Non-Governmental Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    trafficking in Nigeria. A second threat to Ghana is trafficking, including cocaine from South America to Europe; oil from Nigeria to the world; cigarettes...from Europe and Asia to West and North Africa; counterfeit medicines from Asia to West Africa; victims of trafficking for sexual exploitation from...illicit trafficking in arms, narcotics, people, counterfeit goods, and many licit goods and commodities but in ways that circumvent Section Two: Panel

  15. Identification of Defensive Performance Factors in the 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Alberto Casal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of defensive play in elite football, to identify variables associated with the direct recovery of ball possession, and to propose a model for predicting the success of defensive transitions. We analyzed 804 transitions in the final stages of the Fedération Internationale Football Association (FIFA World Cup 2010, and investigated the following variables using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses: duration of defensive transition, possession loss zone, position of players at the start and end of the defensive transitions, defensive organization, general defensive approach, time of the match, position of defense, zone in which the offensive transition ends, match status, and outcome of the defensive transition. We found that the defensive transitions started most frequently in the middle offensive zone (48.9%, with an organized defense set-up (98.8%, and were unsuccessful on 57.2% of occasions. The bivariate analysis showed that the variable most strongly associated with direct recovery of the possession of the ball (p = 0.018 is the area in which the ball is lost, and the multivariate analysis showed that the duration of the defensive transition can be used as a performance indicator, with transitions lasting between 0 and 15 s associated with a higher likelihood of directly recovering the ball. This work has allowed us to identify a pattern of tactical-strategic behavior with major probabilities of success in the defensive transitions. These results will be able to be used by coaches to improve the performance of their teams in this type of situation in the game.

  16. Analyzing Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in Success of Football (Case Study: South Africa World Cup 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiee Shahram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed with SPSS.18 software and indices of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics tests such as binomial and chi square were analyzed. Results showed that there was significant difference between two halves of competitions in terms of the number of scored goals. Increase of attack in the second 45 min led to more goals for teams. No significant difference was found between the scored goals and every 15 min and teams competed with opponents until the final minutes of competition. There was significant difference between positive results for the teams which scored the first goal and the teams which scored the first goal had more chance of victory. On the other hand, all teams which were ahead of the opponent in one goal in the final 30 min won at the end (P≤0/05.

  17. The determinants of the efficiency of shots on goal at the world cup in South Africa 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujović Peko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of physical, technical-tactical and other activities related to the structure of football game has become, with the development of modern technology, an essential aspect of preparing the team for achieving favorable results. With the advent of software packages for analysis, it has become possible to quantify, in a very accessible way, the performance of individuals in a game, as well as the effect of the whole team. The problem treated in this study is the impact of specific technical-tactical elements on the successful implementation of attacks in the football game. The focus of this paper is split into two thematic areas. The first is establishing the determinants of the efficiency of shots on goal in the World Cup in South Africa in 2010. The second thematic unit is linked to the comparative analysis of the determinants of efficiency of shots on goal between the winning and losing teams in the aforementioned championship. The task of this paper is to determine which of the observed variables represent a successful predictor of efficiency in the realization phase of attack. This experimental research of transversal character was conducted on a sample of 16 teams at the aforementioned championship. All data collected through the research were analyzed using the descriptive and comparative statistics, upon which valid conclusions based on the results were extracted.

  18. Relationships between forest fires and weather parameters from long-term national observations on a transect from Europe to North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutsias, Nikos; Boris Pezzatti, Gianni; Madoui, Amar; Mouillot, Florent; Conedera, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Long-term historical fire records extending back to the late 1800s are very rare worldwide. Three such long-term historical fire data spanning for more than one century have been gathered along a north-south transect across (i) Switzerland, central Europe (1900-2014), (ii) Greece, south Europe (1897-2014), and (iii) Algeria, north Africa (1870-2014). Within the context of a Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant (individual fellowship, GRADIENT), these data gave a unique and excellent opportunity to investigate the relationships between forest fire activity and meteorological parameters and to understand fire - weather relationships in a north to south transect. The time series of fire and weather data were analyzed on the basis of their autocorrelation in order to identify potential temporal structures. Change point estimation methods were also used to detect significant shifts in time series. The relationships between fire occurrence and selected meteorological parameters were investigated using non-parametric as well as parametric statistics. Finally, lagged relationships between fires and weather data were further explored. Preliminary results underline the dominant effect of meteorological parameters on fire spread by controlling both fuel production and fuel moisture. In all study areas there was a negative relationship between total yearly precipitation and area burned while only in Greece there was a positive correlation of fires with spring precipitation and with yearly precipitation at lag 2 years, which reflects a fuel accumulation process. In Switzerland fires seem to be related to precipitation and temperature depending on the fire causes (anthropogenic or lighting-induced), whereas in Greece they are mostly controlled by both fuel and meteorological conditions (precipitation and max temperature, especially during the fire season). In Algeria, on contrary, no clear influence is detectable despite a marginal negative effect of the total precipitation that

  19. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in Northern Africa and Western Europe: the situation of meteorological drought and floods 2015-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrouk, M. S.

    2016-12-01

    "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Europe and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the Meridian Atmospheric Circulation (MAC), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity towards their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc.The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological, economic and social footprint on the North African and West European people.During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn in Morocco, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016.Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary crests (Azores anticyclone), projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), rejecting the negative waves (polar Vortex) to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East.These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015.The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

  20. Downscaling Pest Risk Analyses: Identifying Current and Future Potentially Suitable Habitats for Parthenium hysterophorus with Particular Reference to Europe and North Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren J Kriticos

    Full Text Available Pest Risk Assessments (PRAs routinely employ climatic niche models to identify endangered areas. Typically, these models consider only climatic factors, ignoring the 'Swiss Cheese' nature of species ranges due to the interplay of climatic and habitat factors. As part of a PRA conducted for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, we developed a climatic niche model for Parthenium hysterophorus, explicitly including the effects of irrigation where it was known to be practiced. We then downscaled the climatic risk model using two different methods to identify the suitable habitat types: expert opinion (following the EPPO PRA guidelines and inferred from the global spatial distribution. The PRA revealed a substantial risk to the EPPO region and Central and Western Africa, highlighting the desirability of avoiding an invasion by P. hysterophorus. We also consider the effects of climate change on the modelled risks. The climate change scenario indicated the risk of substantial further spread of P. hysterophorus in temperate northern hemisphere regions (North America, Europe and the northern Middle East, and also high elevation equatorial regions (Western Brazil, Central Africa, and South East Asia if minimum temperatures increase substantially. Downscaling the climate model using habitat factors resulted in substantial (approximately 22-53% reductions in the areas estimated to be endangered. Applying expert assessments as to suitable habitat classes resulted in the greatest reduction in the estimated endangered area, whereas inferring suitable habitats factors from distribution data identified more land use classes and a larger endangered area. Despite some scaling issues with using a globally conformal Land Use Systems dataset, the inferential downscaling method shows promise as a routine addition to the PRA toolkit, as either a direct model component, or simply as a means of better informing an expert assessment of the suitable

  1. Downscaling Pest Risk Analyses: Identifying Current and Future Potentially Suitable Habitats for Parthenium hysterophorus with Particular Reference to Europe and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriticos, Darren J.; Brunel, Sarah; Ota, Noboru; Fried, Guillaume; Oude Lansink, Alfons G. J. M.; Panetta, F. Dane; Prasad, T. V. Ramachandra; Shabbir, Asad; Yaacoby, Tuvia

    2015-01-01

    Pest Risk Assessments (PRAs) routinely employ climatic niche models to identify endangered areas. Typically, these models consider only climatic factors, ignoring the ‘Swiss Cheese’ nature of species ranges due to the interplay of climatic and habitat factors. As part of a PRA conducted for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization, we developed a climatic niche model for Parthenium hysterophorus, explicitly including the effects of irrigation where it was known to be practiced. We then downscaled the climatic risk model using two different methods to identify the suitable habitat types: expert opinion (following the EPPO PRA guidelines) and inferred from the global spatial distribution. The PRA revealed a substantial risk to the EPPO region and Central and Western Africa, highlighting the desirability of avoiding an invasion by P. hysterophorus. We also consider the effects of climate change on the modelled risks. The climate change scenario indicated the risk of substantial further spread of P. hysterophorus in temperate northern hemisphere regions (North America, Europe and the northern Middle East), and also high elevation equatorial regions (Western Brazil, Central Africa, and South East Asia) if minimum temperatures increase substantially. Downscaling the climate model using habitat factors resulted in substantial (approximately 22–53%) reductions in the areas estimated to be endangered. Applying expert assessments as to suitable habitat classes resulted in the greatest reduction in the estimated endangered area, whereas inferring suitable habitats factors from distribution data identified more land use classes and a larger endangered area. Despite some scaling issues with using a globally conformal Land Use Systems dataset, the inferential downscaling method shows promise as a routine addition to the PRA toolkit, as either a direct model component, or simply as a means of better informing an expert assessment of the suitable habitat

  2. Question 1. What are the definitions and representations of organic farming in Martinique, around the world and in Europe?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In Europe, organic farming is now governed by EC regulations. But although these regulations spell out definitions at some length, the legal texts do not solve the problem of definitions, and it is one that is central to this review. Organic farming is the product of a long historical process which has finally led to these regulations. But organic farming has taken a variety of forms in different countries and at different times. It gradually acquired legitimacy in most countries at a time wh...

  3. The historiography of Danish representations of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....

  4. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... the teaching of creationism as a scientific discipline on an equal footing with the theory of evolution." Creationism in Europe offers a discerning introduction to the cultural history of modern Europe, the variety of worldviews in Europe, and the interplay of science and religion in a global context...

  5. Multipolar World at the End of the First Decade of the 21st Century: How about Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Herolf

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It seems that the world is now heading towards a system of multipolarity in which the United States will have to share power with a number of quickly rising powers. This article describes the concept of multipolarity, the way it has been dealt with in the past and the context in which it is treated in today’s globalised world.
    European Union has expressed high ambitions to come to terms with the multipolar world through effective multilateralism and strategic partnerships. In order to accomplish this, the organisation needs to develop towards becoming a unitary actor. The article deals with some specific areas on which the EU needs to agree and brings up some of the hurdles to and possibilities of achieving such agreement.

  6. A postal history of the First World War in Africa and its aftermath - German colonies : III Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    The 'Great War' had a major impact on Africa and that is visible in the post stamps used in the various postal territories in Africa. This paper discusses the postal offices, postal services, and stamps used in the German colony Deutsch-Sdwestafrika (SWA) during the early twentieth century. For the

  7. The Wordy Worlds of Popular Music in Eastern and Southern Africa: Possible Implications for Language-in-Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree; Makoni, Busi; Rosenberg, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Language-in-education policy in Africa is replete with debate regarding the use of standard African languages as part of mother-tongue education. An issue inadequately addressed within this debate is the role and function of urban vernaculars which have become "the" mother tongue of the greater part of Africa's population. Using data…

  8. Fragmenta excerpti de thesauri leguminosarum: Three of the world's first domesticated plants in the Indo-European languages of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikić Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The words denoting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik., pea (Pisum sativum L. and faba bean (Vicia faba L. in the modern Indo-European languages show a high level of uniformity in morphology and semantics and reveal the traces of mutual borrowings among the languages of different Indo-European branches and the exchanges with the neighbouring non-Indo-European languages. Nearly all modern Indo-European languages derived their words denoting lentil and faba bean from the Proto-Indo-European roots *lent- and *bhabh-, with the same primeval meaning. Among the Proto-Indo-European roots related to pea are *erəgw[h]-, *g'er[a]n-, *ghArs-, *kek- and *pis-. The collected results offer another testimony how important grain legumes such as lentil, pea or faba bean were in the everyday life of the forefathers of the modern Indo-European nations of Europe and their non-Indo-European neighbours.

  9. La danza e la lotta: performances culturali e buone pratiche di cooperazione tra Europa e Africa - Dance and fighting: cultural performances and best practices of cooperation between Europe and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aresta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the relationship between cultural performances (ritual fighting and its theatrical representation, social dynamics and international cooperation. It is the fruit of research work that was carried out last year in Senegal and Italy. The analysis that was realised concerns three subject fields: the connections between myth and ritual fighting in Senegal, from the emic perspective; the transformations of the ritual that have taken place over the last decades and the different ways in which it is practiced in urban and rural contexts, and its relations with political power and the media; the theatrical representation of the rite in the work of the “Takku Ligey Théâtre” company, in the ambit of the N.A.T. programme of international cooperation (Network for African Talents. The N.A.T. programme took place from 2012 to 2014 with the aim of supporting cooperation between Europe and Africa, through the performing arts (music, theatre and dance, and involved associations and institutions from four countries (Italy, Senegal, Mozambique and Cameroon.

  10. The Changing Face of World Cities. Young Adult Children of Immigrants in Europe and the United States.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Mollenkopf, J.

    2012-01-01

    A seismic population shift is taking place as many formerly racially homogeneous cities in the West attract a diverse influx of newcomers seeking economic and social advancement. In The Changing Face of World Cities, a distinguished group of immigration experts presents the first systematic,

  11. Girls and Schools in Sub-Saharan Africa: From Analysis to Action. World Bank Technical Paper Number 298. Africa Technical Department Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaga, Adhiambo; Heneveld, Ward

    This study presents a summary of the major research findings on the factors that constrain girls' schooling in Sub-Saharan Africa. The factors are discussed under three categories: (1) sociocultural and socioeconomic factors; (2) factors related to the school environment; and (3) political and institutional factors. The study provides an outline…

  12. New Species in the Old World: Europe as a Frontier in Biodiversity Exploration, a Test Bed for 21st Century Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Benoît; van Achterberg, Kees; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel Angel; Araujo, Rafael; Asche, Manfred; Aspöck, Horst; Aspöck, Ulrike; Audisio, Paolo; Aukema, Berend; Bailly, Nicolas; Balsamo, Maria; Bank, Ruud A.; Belfiore, Carlo; Bogdanowicz, Wieslaw; Boxshall, Geoffrey; Burckhardt, Daniel; Chylarecki, Przemysław; Deharveng, Louis; Dubois, Alain; Enghoff, Henrik; Fochetti, Romolo; Fontaine, Colin; Gargominy, Olivier; Lopez, Maria Soledad Gomez; Goujet, Daniel; Harvey, Mark S.; Heller, Klaus-Gerhard; van Helsdingen, Peter; Hoch, Hannelore; De Jong, Yde; Karsholt, Ole; Los, Wouter; Magowski, Wojciech; Massard, Jos A.; McInnes, Sandra J.; Mendes, Luis F.; Mey, Eberhard; Michelsen, Verner; Minelli, Alessandro; Nafrıa, Juan M. Nieto; van Nieukerken, Erik J.; Pape, Thomas; De Prins, Willy; Ramos, Marian; Ricci, Claudia; Roselaar, Cees; Rota, Emilia; Segers, Hendrik; Timm, Tarmo; van Tol, Jan; Bouchet, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    The number of described species on the planet is about 1.9 million, with ca. 17,000 new species described annually, mostly from the tropics. However, taxonomy is usually described as a science in crisis, lacking manpower and funding, a politically acknowledged problem known as the Taxonomic Impediment. Using data from the Fauna Europaea database and the Zoological Record, we show that contrary to general belief, developed and heavily-studied parts of the world are important reservoirs of unknown species. In Europe, new species of multicellular terrestrial and freshwater animals are being discovered and named at an unprecedented rate: since the 1950s, more than 770 new species are on average described each year from Europe, which add to the 125,000 terrestrial and freshwater multicellular species already known in this region. There is no sign of having reached a plateau that would allow for the assessment of the magnitude of European biodiversity. More remarkably, over 60% of these new species are described by non-professional taxonomists. Amateurs are recognized as an essential part of the workforce in ecology and astronomy, but the magnitude of non-professional taxonomist contributions to alpha-taxonomy has not been fully realized until now. Our results stress the importance of developing a system that better supports and guides this formidable workforce, as we seek to overcome the Taxonomic Impediment and speed up the process of describing the planetary biodiversity before it is too late. PMID:22649502

  13. The long-term durability of low alkali cements. Evidence from new natural analog sites in Europe and North Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W. Russell [Bedrock Geosciences, Auenstein (Switzerland); Laine, Heini M. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Khoury, Hani [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Geology

    2015-07-01

    reported here. In addition, a second site in Europe has been identified where natural low alkali cements exist in combination with both saline groundwaters and brines, allowing examination of saline groundwater/low alkali cement interaction. Once again, the preliminary results of the study will be reported here and a comparison between the two sites will be made, highlighting the different impact of the differing groundwaters on the cement. Although precise dates for the systems examined are not yet forthcoming, this is a focus for future efforts at both sites, allowing more precise definition of the probable longevity of low alkali cements in repository environments.

  14. 'There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business' a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richter, Marlise L; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    .... This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives...

  15. Situation in Europe and the World: Nanotechnology and Scientific Policy. Action of UN Agencies in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair-Bedouelle, Shamila

    The modern long-term economy is based on scientific progress and the subsequent technological achievements. Without this, the world would be the same as it was centuries ago, with populations living on the edge of survival, spending most of their time in search of food. Technology provides a way for societies to fight disease, to improve crop yields, to create new energy sources, to spread information, to favour the transport of goods and people, and much more!

  16. Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cêtre-Sossah, Catherine; Baldet, Thierry; Delécolle, Jean-Claude; Mathieu, Bruno; Perrin, Aurélie; Grillet, Colette; Albina, Emmanuel

    2004-01-01

    Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a devastating effect on the sheep industry in Italy and on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearics, but fortunately, has not penetrated onto mainland France and Spain. To survey for the presence of C. imicola, an extensive light-trap network for the collection of Culicoides, was implemented in 2002 in southern mainland France. The morphological identification of Culicoides can be both tedious and time-consuming because its size ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm. Therefore, an ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. The aim of this work was to set up a rapid test for the detection of C. imicola amongst a pool of insects collected in areas at risk for BT. The sequence similarity of the rDNA (nuclear ribosomal DNA), which is greater within species than between species, is the foundation of its utilisation in species-diagnostic assays. The alignment of the 11 ITS1 sequences of Culicoides obtained from Genbank and EMBL databases helped us to identify one region in the 5' end and one in the 3' end that appear highly conserved. PCR primers were designed within these regions to amplify genus-specific fragments. In order to set up a C. imicola-specific PCR, another forward primer was designed and used in combination with the previously designed reverse primer. These primers proved to be highly specific and sensitive and permitted a rapid diagnostic separation of C. imicola from Culicoides spp. Copyright 2004 INRA, EDP Sciences

  17. Validation of the Meteosat storm detection and nowcasting system Cb-TRAM with lightning network data – Europe and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Zinner

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent changes to the Meteosat thunderstorm TRacking And Monitoring algorithm (Cb-TRAM are presented as well as a validation of Cb-TRAM against data from the European ground-based LIghtning NETwork (LINET of Nowcast GmbH and the South African Weather Service Lightning Detection Network (SAWS LDN. Validation is conducted along the well-known skill measures probability of detection (POD and false alarm ratio (FAR on the basis of Meteosat/SEVIRI pixels as well as on the basis of thunderstorm objects. The values obtained demonstrate specific limitations of Cb-TRAM, as well as limitations of satellite methods in general which are based on thermal emission and solar reflectivity information from thunderstorm cloud tops. Although the climatic conditions and the occurrence of thunderstorms are quite different for Europe and South Africa, quality score values are similar. Our conclusion is that Cb-TRAM provides robust results of well-defined quality for very different climatic regimes. The POD for a thunderstorm with intense lightning is about 80% during the day. The FAR for a Cb-TRAM detection which is not even close to intense lightning is about 50%. If only proximity to any lightning activity is required, FAR is much lower at about 15%. Pixel-based analysis shows that detected thunderstorm object size is not indiscriminately large, but well within physical limitations of the satellite method. Night-time POD and FAR are somewhat worse as the detection scheme does not use the high-resolution visible information during night-time hours. Nowcasting scores show useful values up to approximately 30 min in advance.

  18. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Background Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists’ perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. Methods The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Results Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Conclusion Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in

  19. Psychiatrists' awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, José Manuel; Alptekin, Köksal; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Cañas, Fernando; Dubois, Vincent; Emsley, Robin; Gorwood, Philip; Haddad, Peter M; Naber, Dieter; Papageorgiou, George; Roca, Miquel; Thomas, Pierre; Martinez, Guadalupe; Schreiner, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Nonadherence is common among patients with schizophrenia, although the rates vary according to means of assessment and patient population. Failure to adhere to medication can have a major impact on the course of illness and treatment outcomes, including increasing the risk of relapse and rehospitalization. Understanding psychiatrists' perception of the causes and consequences of nonadherence is crucial to addressing adherence problems effectively. The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA) Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES) survey was conducted by questionnaire during January-March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate), it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence. Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication. Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in increasing patient insight of their illness

  20. recent trends on tv white space deployments in africa recent trends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    a video on YouTube [2]. Africa's telecommunications market is still at its early phase of development, simultaneously, undergoing a rapid growth rate than the rest of the world. The continent's 650 million mobile phone subscribers even outnumber those in the. U.S. and Europe [2]. With this growth comes several wireless ...

  1. recent trends on tv white space deployments in africa recent trends

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Africa's telecommunications market is still at its early phase of development, simultaneously, undergoing a rapid growth rate than the rest of the world. The continent's 650 million mobile phone subscribers even outnumber those in the. U.S. and Europe [2]. With this growth comes several wireless communication system and ...

  2. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the World Health Organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from Europe and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankovic, Nicole; Geelen, Anouk; Streppel, Martinette T; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Orfanos, Philippos; van den Hooven, Edith H; Pikhart, Hynek; Boffetta, Paolo; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bobak, Martin; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B; Kee, Frank; Franco, Oscar H; Park, Yikyung; Hallmans, Göran; Tjønneland, Anne; May, Anne M; Pajak, Andrzej; Malyutina, Sofia; Kubinova, Růžena; Amiano, Pilar; Kampman, Ellen; Feskens, Edith J

    2014-11-15

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly men and women from Europe and the United States. We analyzed data from 396,391 participants (42% women) in 11 prospective cohort studies who were 60 years of age or older at enrollment (in 1988-2005). HDI scores were based on 6 nutrients and 1 food group and ranged from 0 (least healthy diet) to 70 (healthiest diet). Adjusted cohort-specific hazard ratios were derived by using Cox proportional hazards regression and subsequently pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. During 4,497,957 person-years of follow-up, 84,978 deaths occurred. Median HDI scores ranged from 40 to 54 points across cohorts. For a 10-point increase in HDI score (representing adherence to an additional WHO guideline), the pooled adjusted hazard ratios were 0.90 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87, 0.93) for men and women combined, 0.89 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.92) for men, and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85, 0.95) for women. These estimates translate to an increased life expectancy of 2 years at the age of 60 years. Greater adherence to the WHO guidelines is associated with greater longevity in elderly men and women in Europe and the United States. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Go spy out the land: intelligence preparations for World War I in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As World War I approached, the potential for conflict drove the principal future protagonists, England and Germany, to seek detailed information on their anticipated enemies, not just in Europe, but wherever their nations' interests crossed paths. After 1910, the Union of South Africa turned its eyes to the northwest to keep ...

  4. The representations of the overseas world in the De Bry collection of voyages (1590-1634)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, M.

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with the De Bry collection of voyages, one of the most monumental publications of Early Modern Europe. It analyzes the textual and iconographic changes the De Bry publishing family made to travel accounts describing Asia, Africa and the New World. It discusses this editorial strategy

  5. Colonisation, the New World Order, and the eradication of traditional food habits in East Africa: historical perspective on the nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raschke, Verena; Cheema, Bobby

    2008-07-01

    To discuss factors which have underpinned the nutrition transition in the countries of East Africa, including Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania, from early colonisation to the current, oppressive political-economic structure. Colonisation and neocolonisation in accordance with the desires of the New World Order have ensured the systematic extirpation of indigenous and traditional food habits in East Africa. These indigenous and traditional food habits, associated with myriad health benefits, have been progressively replaced by the globalised food system of the multinational corporations, a system inherently associated with the creation of non-communicable disease (NCD) epidemics throughout this region and globally. While the simplification of the East African food culture may be most apparent today, the nutrition transition has actually occurred over the past 400 years, since the onset of colonial occupation. It is imperative that greater efforts be directed towards exposing the colonial and neocolonial forces which have undermined food security and health status in East Africa. Heightened awareness of these forces is essential for proposing genuine solutions to the nutrition transition and related NCD epidemics throughout this region and, indeed, worldwide.

  6. Psychiatrists’ awareness of adherence to antipsychotic medication in patients with schizophrenia: results from a survey conducted across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares JM

    2013-01-01

    effectively.Methods: The Europe, the Middle East, and Africa (EMEA Spanish Adherencia Terapéutica en la Esquizofrenia (ADHES survey was conducted by questionnaire during January–March 2010 among psychiatrists treating patients with schizophrenia in 36 countries. The survey comprised 20 questions. In addition to recording the demographic details of the 4722 respondents (~12% response rate, it canvassed their preferred methods of assessing adherence, their perceptions of adherence rates, reasons for nonadherence, and strategies to improve adherence.Results: Psychiatrists estimated that 53% of their patients with schizophrenia were partially/nonadherent during the previous month. They estimated only one-third of patients who deteriorated after stopping medication were able to attribute this to nonadherence. Psychiatrists assessed adherence most often by patient interview. Lack of insight was viewed as the most important cause of medication discontinuation, followed by patients feeling better and thinking their medication unnecessary, and experiencing undesirable side effects. Considerably fewer psychiatrists viewed insufficient efficacy, cognitive impairment, or drug/alcohol abuse as the most important reasons for their patients stopping medication.Conclusion: Psychiatrists throughout EMEA recognize the impact of partial/nonadherence to medication, with patient enquiry being the most commonly used means of assessment. There remains a need for more proactive management of patients with schizophrenia, particularly in increasing patient insight of their illness in order to improve adherence and minimize the consequences of relapse. Strategies focused on raising awareness of the importance of adherence are also warranted, with the aim of improving patient outcomes in schizophrenia.Keywords: adherence, schizophrenia, psychiatrist, survey, ADHES

  7. EPA Collaboration with Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    By working together to achieve common goals, the U.S. and Europe can enhance our respective environmental protection efforts while creating a cleaner environment on both continents and around the world.

  8. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals......Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...

  9. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques...... that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights from...... Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa....

  10. Communicating European Integration in the Age of the World Wars: Print Media Discourses on the Unity of Europe, 1914-1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Greiner

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the communication of European integration by the media did not begin with the European unification process after 1950. It draws upon a broad definition of the term “European integration” favoured by modern historiography, and in so doing shows that in the first half of the 20th century journalists communicated various notions of the unity of Europe to their readers. By linking media history and discourse analysis, the article examines three different facets of mediating European integration in German, British and American newspapers between 1914 and 1945. It traces “integrational thinking” in press coverage in three different sectors in particular, namely politics, economy and culture. Although discourses on continental unity were of course ambivalent and far from pointing straight towards European integration in the sense of a present-day European Union, they played an important role in the age of the World Wars. The article thus conceptualises a long-term historical perspective on communicating European integration.

  11. An Investigation of a new Concept of World- Class Clusters in Europe – A Case Study of the Visegrad Group of Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bialic-Davendra Magdalena

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in order to successfully compete on a global level, it has become crucial for clusters to search for new alternative solutions to enable them stay competitive. One of these solutions is the need for the creation of a wider scale of networking – which is where the new idea of “clustering the clusters” appears. This paper aims at investigating the development of a new concept of World-Class Clusters and inter-cluster collaboration in Europe with focus on the Visegrad Group of countries i.e. Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary. The type and subject/area of clusters’ cooperation is one of the focal points. Hence, this paper conducts a detailed examination of the reasons why certain clusters are willing to cooperate (the benefits of collaboration while others are not interested in this type of collaboration at all (restrictions, barriers of collaboration. Additionally, the positive (opportunities and negative (threats aspects of inter-cluster cooperation are distinguished.

  12. The plights of African resources patenting through the lenses of the World Trade Organisation: an assessment of South Africa's rooibos tea's labyrith journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amusan, Lere

    2014-01-01

    Just as developing states are blessed with natural resources capable of transforming their economies into a positive direction, the imposed World Trade Organisation's (WTO) mores continue to relegate them to the status of underdevelopment. The consequences of this on investment, trade and finance in Third World States (TWSs), especially Africa, are disarticulation of the economy, exploitation, disinvestment, unemployment, political instability and unavailability of relevant technology to move TWSs forward, among others. This gives rise to the politics behind Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) patenting (a medicinal plant found only in South Africa) by various multinational corporations (MNCs). This study adopted political economy approach with emphasis on both primary and secondary sources of data collection using content analysis. There is need to adhere strictly to the issues of intellectual property rights (IPRs), geographical indications (GIs), prior informed consent (PIC), and access and sharing benefits (ASB). These have not been observed by the western states because of their economic of neo-imperialism to the disadvantage of developing states. This paper recommends that there is need for a regional regime such as African Regional Intellectual Property Organisation (ARIPO), on indigenous knowledge (IK) to patent the continental biodiversity resources.

  13. Impact of the 2010 FIFA (Federation Internationale de Football Association) World Cup on Pediatric Injury and Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zroback, Chris; Levin, David; Manlhiot, Cedric; Alexander, Angus; van As, Ab Sebastian; Azzie, Georges

    2014-02-01

    To examine how a mass-gathering event (the Federation Internationale de Football Association World Cup, 2010, South Africa) impacts trauma and mortality in the pediatric (≤ 18 years) population. We investigated pediatric emergency visits at Cape Town's 3 largest public trauma centers and 3 private hospital groups, as well as deaths investigated by the 3 city mortuaries. We compared the 31 days of World Cup with equivalent periods from 2007-2009, and with the 2 weeks before and after the event. We also looked at the World Cup period in isolation and compared days with and without games in Cape Town. There was significantly decreased pediatric trauma volume during the World Cup, approximately 2/100,000 (37%) fewer injuries per day, compared with 2009 and to both pre- and post-World Cup control periods (P < .001). This decrease occurred within a majority of injury subtypes, but did not change mortality. There were temporal fluctuations in emergency visits corresponding with local match start time, with fewer all-cause emergency visits during the 5 hours surrounding this time (-16.4%, P = .01), followed by a subsequent spike (+26.2%, P = .02). There was an increase in trauma 12 hours following matches (+15.6%, P = .06). In Cape Town, during the 2010 Federation Internationale de Football Association World Cup, there were fewer emergency department visits for traumatic injury. Furthermore, there were fewer all-cause pediatric emergency department visits during hometown matches. These results will assist in planning for future mass-gathering events. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Setting priorities in health research using the model proposed by the World Health Organization: development of a quantitative methodology using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacking, Damian; Cleary, Susan

    2016-02-09

    Setting priorities is important in health research given the limited resources available for research. Various guidelines exist to assist in the priority setting process; however, priority setting still faces significant challenges such as the clear ranking of identified priorities. The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed a Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY)-based model to rank priorities by research area (basic, health systems and biomedical) by dividing the DALYs into 'unavertable with existing interventions', 'avertable with improved efficiency' and 'avertable with existing but non-cost-effective interventions', respectively. However, the model has conceptual flaws and no clear methodology for its construction. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to amend the model to address these flaws, and develop a clear methodology by using tuberculosis in South Africa as a worked example. An amended model was constructed to represent total DALYs as the product of DALYs per person and absolute burden of disease. These figures were calculated for all countries from WHO datasets. The lowest figures achieved by any country were assumed to represent 'unavertable with existing interventions' if extrapolated to South Africa. The ratio of 'cost per patient treated' (adjusted for purchasing power and outcome weighted) between South Africa and the best country was used to calculate the 'avertable with improved efficiency section'. Finally, 'avertable with existing but non-cost-effective interventions' was calculated using Disease Control Priorities Project efficacy data, and the ratio between the best intervention and South Africa's current intervention, irrespective of cost. The amended model shows that South Africa has a tuberculosis burden of 1,009,837.3 DALYs; 0.009% of DALYs are unavertable with existing interventions and 96.3% of DALYs could be averted with improvements in efficiency. Of the remaining DALYs, a further 56.9% could be averted with existing but non

  15. Africa-Asia trade versus Africa's trade with the North: Trends and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    trade with Asia has been growing at a much faster rate than Africa's trade with Europe. Over the years, Africa's share of .... (2013) notes that while the trend is that dependency on Europe is changing significantly and is ...... raw materials and energy resources which Africa can easily provide. Broadman (2007) notes that Asia ...

  16. Medieval Europe. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.6. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.6 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the civilizations of Medieval Europe." Seventh-grade students study the geography of Europe and the Eurasian land mass; describe the spread of Christianity north of the Alps and…

  17. Urban Life-Worlds in Motion: In Africa and Beyond Städtische Lebenswelten in Bewegung: in Afrika und darüber hinaus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Peter Hahn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although throughout the history of anthropology the ethnography of urban societies was never an important topic, investigations on cities in Africa contributed to the early theoretical development of urban studies in social sciences. As the ethnography of rural migrants in towns made clear, cultural diversity and creativity are foundational and permanent elements of urban cultures in Africa (and beyond. Currently, two new aspects complement these insights: 1 Different forms of mobility have received a new awareness through the concept of transnationalism. They are much more complex, including not only rural–urban migration, but also urban–urban migration, and migrations with a destination beyond the continent. 2 Urban life-worlds also include the appropriation of globally circulating images and lifestyles, which contribute substantially to the current cultural dynamics of cities in Africa. These two aspects are the reasons for the high complexity of urban contexts in Africa. Therefore, whether it is still appropriate to speak about the “locality” of these life-worlds has become questionable. At the same time, these new aspects explain the self-consciousness of members of urban cultures in Africa. They contribute to the expansive character of these societies and to the impression that cities in Africa host the most innovative and creative societies worldwide. Auch wenn die Ethnographie städtischer Gesellschaften in der Geschichte der Ethnologie nie eine große Rolle gespielt hat, leisteten doch Untersuchungen zu urbanen Lebenswelten in Afrika einen wichtigen Beitrag zur frühen theoretischen Entwicklung sozialwissenschaftlicher Stadtforschung. Wie die Ethnographie von Migranten aus ländlichen Räumen in afrikanischen Städten schon damals deutlich machte, sind kulturelle Diversität und Kreativität grundlegende und dauerhafte Elemente urbaner Kultur in Afrika (und weltweit. In letzter Zeit haben zwei wichtige Aspekte diese fr

  18. Translating Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yves Chevrel

    2007-07-01

    Europe thinks in many languages and Europe is a land of translation. Translation is a means of transmitting culture, a means of making it available to others and an invitation to share. It is a cement which binds Europe together.

  19. The representations of the overseas world in the De Bry collection of voyages (1590-1634). - Pbk ed.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Groesen, M.

    2012-01-01

    This book deals with the De Bry collection of voyages, one of the most monumental publications of Early Modern Europe. It analyzes the textual and iconographic changes the De Bry publishing family made to travel accounts describing Asia, Africa and the New World. It discusses this editorial strategy

  20. Taenia solium in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little...... is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine...... cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps...

  1. Creationism in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    For decades, the creationist movement was primarily situated in the United States. Then, in the 1970s, American creationists found their ideas welcomed abroad, first in Australia and New Zealand, then in Korea, India, South Africa, Brazil, and elsewhere—including Europe, where creationism plays...... an expanding role in public debates about science policy and school curricula. In this, the first comprehensive history of creationism in Europe, leading historians, philosophers, and scientists narrate the rise of—and response to—scientific creationism, creation science, intelligent design, and organized...... antievolutionism in countries and religions throughout Europe. Providing a unique map of creationism in Europe, the authors chart the surprising history of creationist activities and strategies there. Over the past forty years, creationism has spread swiftly among European Catholics, Protestants, Jews, Hindus...

  2. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE INDICATORS OF THE ATTACK PHASIS AT THE WORLD CUP IN GERMANY 2006th AND SOUTH AFRICA 2010th

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peko Vujović

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this paper is the recording of predefined hypothetical significant predictors for achieving goals in modern football. Concretely, the object of this study is the mode of play of top teams and individual characteristics of ellite players and comparative analysis of the last two world championships. The aim of the research was to determine the qualitative and quantitative differences between the successfully completed attacks on the World Cup in Germany in 2006 and South Africa in 2010, using a pre-defined variables. Task of the paper is to identify the set of variables that represent a good predictor for efficacy in attack phase, and which tendencies of play can be seen using of variables recorded on the sample matches in the last two world championships. The steps of work are the followers. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the positions of the players in the team, who scored a goals and assisted on two observed world championships. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the time intervals in which the goals was scored in the two above-mentioned competition. To determine whether there are a significant differences in the number of contacts with the ball at players just before successfuly implementation of attack on the mentioned competitions. And to determine whether there are a significant differences in the positions on the ground from which the goal has been scored, and from which is assisted for the goal. On the basis on the processed variables, the conclusions which have a foothold in the relevant and reliable parameters were drawn.

  3. An Analysis Of The Strategic Impact Of The Campaign In German East Africa During The First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    Portuguese troops to their colony in present day Mozambique. These soldiers were augmented by about 12,000 African colonial troops. 10 France on the...Somaliland as well. In fact, there were almost 100 million throughout the British Empire , nearly half of the total world population at that time. 77 The...pitted the British, French, Belgians and eventually the Portuguese against the Germans was the longest campaign of the war outlasting the armistice

  4. Propositions du Centre Mondial D'Information sur l'Education Bilingue (CMIEB) au Conseil de l'Europe [Proposals of the World Center of Information on Bilingual Education (CMIEB) to the Council of Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgalian, Gilbert

    The socio-economic, cultural and political situation in Europe necessitates a systematic and pedagogically sound promotion of bilingual education. Two prerequisites to this promotion are seen: (1) a political framework and support, and (2) a substructure for linguistic and pedagogical information and coordination. A proposal is presented to…

  5. Utilization of engineered resistance to viruses in crops of the developing world, with emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuze, Jan F; Valkonen, Jari Pt

    2017-08-08

    Viral diseases in crop plants constitute a major obstacle to food security in the developing world. Subsistence crops, including cassava, sweetpotato, potato, banana, papaya, common bean, rice and maize are often infected with RNA and/or DNA viruses that cannot be controlled with pesticides. Hence, healthy planting materials and virus-resistant cultivars are essential for high yields of good quality. However, resistance genes are not available for all viral diseases of crop plants. Therefore, virus resistance engineered in plants using modern biotechnology methods is an important addition to the crop production toolbox. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The mitogenome of a 35,000-year-old Homo sapiens from Europe supports a Palaeolithic back-migration to Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hervella, M.; Svensson, E.M.; Alberdi, A.; Gunther, T.; Izagirre, N.; Munters, A.R.; Alonso, S.; Ioana, M.; Ridiche, F.; Soficaru, A.; Jakobsson, M.; Netea, M.G.; Rua, C. de la

    2016-01-01

    After the dispersal of modern humans (Homo sapiens) Out of Africa, hominins with a similar morphology to that of present-day humans initiated the gradual demographic expansion into Eurasia. The mitogenome (33-fold coverage) of the Pestera Muierii 1 individual (PM1) from Romania (35 ky cal BP) we

  7. Successful implementation of the World Health Organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in a referral hospital in Mali, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegranzi, Benedetta; Sax, Hugo; Bengaly, Loséni; Richet, Hervé; Minta, Daouda K; Chraiti, Marie-Noelle; Sokona, Fatoumata Maiga; Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Bonnabry, Pascal; Pittet, Didier

    2010-02-01

    To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the World Health Organization hand hygiene improvement strategy in a low-income African country. A before-and-after study from December 2006 through June 2008, with a 6-month baseline evaluation period and a follow-up period of 8 months from the beginning of the intervention. University Hospital, Bamako, Mali. Participants. Two hundred twenty-four healthcare workers. The intervention consisted of introducing a locally produced, alcohol-based handrub; monitoring hand hygiene compliance; providing performance feedback; educating staff; posting reminders in the workplace; and promoting an institutional safety climate according to the World Health Organization multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy. Hand hygiene infrastructure, compliance, healthcare workers' knowledge and perceptions, and handrub consumption were evaluated at baseline and at follow-up. Severe deficiencies in the infrastructure for hand hygiene were identified before the intervention. Local handrub production and quality control proved to be feasible, affordable, and satisfactory. At follow-up, handrubbing was the quasi-exclusive hand hygiene technique (93.3%). Compliance increased from 8.0% at baseline to 21.8% at follow-up (P staff. Multimodal hand hygiene promotion is feasible and effective in a low-income country. Access to handrub was critical for its success. These findings motivated the government of Mali to expand the intervention nationwide. This experience represents a significant advancement for patient safety in developing countries.

  8. SURVEY OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND REFERENCE WORKS ON ASIA, AFRICA, LATIN AMERICA, RUSSIA, AND EAST EUROPE--AND COMPILATION OF BIBLIOGRAPHIES ON EAST ASIA, SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA FOR UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES. INTERIM REPORT, PHASE ONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREHOUSE, WARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE PROJECT IS TO ASSIST UNDERGRADUATE LIBRARIES IN STRENGTHENING THEIR RESOURCES ON AREAS OUTSIDE THE PERIMETER OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION USUALLY GIVEN LITTLE ATTENTION BY AMERICAN COLLEGES, WITH SPECIAL EMPHASIS ON EAST AND SOUTH ASIA AND AFRICA SOUTH OF THE SAHARA. UNDER THE PROJECT'S FIRST PHASE, A PANEL OF LIBRARY ADVISERS WAS…

  9. Guide to standard floras of the world: an annotated, geographically arranged systematic bibliography of the principal floras, enumerations, checklists, and chorological atlases of different areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frodin, D. G

    2001-01-01

    ... of divisions and superregions Division 0: World polar regions 93 floras, 92 isolated oceanic islands and Division 1: North America (north of Mexico) 148 Division 2: Middle America 256 Division 3: South America 309 Division 4: Australasia and islands of the southwest Indian Ocean (Malagassia) 381 Division 5: Africa 434 Division 6: Europe 517 Divis...

  10. Access to Education for the Poor in Europe and Central Asia: Preliminary Evidence and Policy Implications. World Bank Technical Paper No. 511.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandycke, Nancy

    In Europe and Central Asia, the poor face three problems: (1) the education system as a whole does not work well, and hence fails to meet their needs; (2) the private cost of education has risen, so that "education," as a commodity, competes with other consumption goods in shrinking household budgets; and (3) the perceived benefits of…

  11. Introduction: Highlights of HeartWeek 2013 at the Sixth World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery in Cape Town South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip

    2013-12-01

    This December issue of Cardiology in the Young represents the 11th annual publication generated from the two meetings that compose "HeartWeek in Florida". "HeartWeek in Florida", the joint collaborative project sponsored by the Cardiac Center at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, together with Johns Hopkins All Children's Heart Institute of Saint Petersburg, Florida, averages over 1000 attendees every year and is now recognised as one of the major planks of continuing medical and nursing education for those working in the fields of diagnosis and treatment of cardiac disease in the foetus, neonate, infant, child,and adult. "HeartWeek in Florida" combines the International Symposium on Congenital Heart Disease,organised by All Children's Hospital and Johns Hopkins Medicine and entering its 14th year, with the Annual Postgraduate Course in Pediatric Cardiovascular Disease, organised by The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia and entering its 17th year.This December, 2013 issue of Cardiology in the Young highlights the sessions from HeartWeek 2013 that were held at The Sixth World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery in Cape Town, South Africa. We would like to acknowledge the tremendous contributions made to medicine by John Brown, and therefore we dedicate this HeartWeek 2013 issue of Cardiology in the Young to him.

  12. Lighting the World: the first application of an open source, spatial electrification tool (OnSSET) on Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentis, Dimitrios; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Holger; Korkovelos, Alexandros; Arderne, Christopher; Zepeda, Eduardo; Siyal, Shahid; Taliotis, Costantinos; Bazilian, Morgan; de Roo, Ad; Tanvez, Yann; Oudalov, Alexandre; Scholtz, Ernst

    2017-08-01

    In September 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030, which comprises a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) defined by 169 targets. ‘Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all by 2030’ is the seventh goal (SDG7). While access to energy refers to more than electricity, the latter is the central focus of this work. According to the World Bank’s 2015 Global Tracking Framework, roughly 15% of the world’s population (or 1.1 billion people) lack access to electricity, and many more rely on poor quality electricity services. The majority of those without access (87%) reside in rural areas. This paper presents results of a geographic information systems approach coupled with open access data. We present least-cost electrification strategies on a country-by-country basis for Sub-Saharan Africa. The electrification options include grid extension, mini-grid and stand-alone systems for rural, peri-urban, and urban contexts across the economy. At low levels of electricity demand there is a strong penetration of standalone technologies. However, higher electricity demand levels move the favourable electrification option from stand-alone systems to mini grid and to grid extensions.

  13. Le développement transformationnel, réponse de World Vision South Africa à la pauvreté

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Lindiwe de Wet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article explore la construction des sens du développement dans le cadre d’une approche intégrée du développement – le développement transformationnel – et sa pratique connexe au sein d’une organisation chrétienne spécifique, World Vision South Africa (WVSA. Le développement transformationnel est analysé comme un concept et un processus dynamique, dont la compréhension se révèle être, chez WVSA, multiple et contrastée, et correspondre à différents niveaux au sein de l’organisation. L’écart le plus grand distinguant les différentes conceptions du développement transformationnel se situe entre les organes stratégiques et les organes d’exécution de WVSA, ce qui souligne la complexité de traduire la conception en pratique, ainsi que le jeu et la négociation d’intérêts divergents dans ce processus. Un discours de la dépendance, principalement laïque, existe implicitement à travers tout WVSA. Ce discours influence les conceptualisations-clés de l’approche de développement transformationnel de WVSA, et a des répercussions importantes et peut-être nuisibles sur le potentiel transformateur de sa pratique.

  14. Rare earth elements upon assessment of reasons of the geophagy in Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation), Africa and other world regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichev, Alexander M; Popov, Vladimir K; Chekryzhov, Igor Yu; Seryodkin, Ivan V; Stolyarova, Tatiana A; Zakusin, Sergey V; Sergievich, Alexandr A; Khoroshikh, Pavel P

    2016-12-01

    Rocks eaten by wild animals on the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur in the Sikhote-Alin region (Russian Federation) are zeolite-clay mineral complexes-products of weathering of zeolitized vitric tuffs of rhyolite composition, deposited in aqueous medium within the volcanic caldera of about 55 million years ago. By composition of rock-forming oxides, the tuffs refer to high-potassium calc-alkaline series. In trace elements of most favorite kudurites of the Bolshoy Shanduyskiy kudur, there are significantly increased contents of most of rare earth elements (2-5 times in comparison with surrounding rocks). The results of our analysis of geological and geochemical data on kudurs and kudurites in another part of the Sikhote-Alin, as well as on other regions of the world (particularly, in Africa and Indonesia), taking into account new data on the prevalence of rare earth elements in living matter and their medical and biological properties, enable us to consider the version of causal connection of the geophagy with rare earth elements.

  15. Do Cross-circle Designs, the Mayan World Tree, Chitto Tustenuggee's, and Miami's Tequesta, Sites have Analogs in Brazil as they have in Peru, Europe, and Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataide, Jade; Mc Leod, Roger; Mc Leod, David

    2007-04-01

    Florida's Miami Tequesta site conveys information about potential tornadoes, hurricanes, and even earthquakes. It is visually analogous to cross-circle designs, like other equivalent sites we have located, as in Maine, New Hampshire, in Medicine Wheels, and elsewhere. We focus on the detectable effects of time-and-place dependent electromagnetic signals. Non-technologic societies, and individuals, still find and use them, even today, especially in places like Cuzco, Peru. Modes of detection involve senses, such as sensitive, observant eyesight, and electromagnetically induced nerve signals interpreted as tinnitus, as traditionally indicated by ``Kokopelli's'' flute-playing, ``pins and needles,'' or even odor sensations. Recorded events show that youthful children are sometimes involved, as by Pacal's Classic-Mayan-era son, who became Kan Balum, Serpent Jaguar. Our intent is to check whether similar signals can be technologically identified in Brazil and New England. Site information investigated by us seems to be driven by the electromagnetic field. Enigmatic Brazilian locations should be technologically investigated with site correlations to other possible analogs, such as Florida's Chitto Tustenuggee site at Miramar. To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2007.NES07.C2.6

  16. World coal outlook to the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-01-01

    The 1983 edition of the World Coal Outlook to the Year 2000 examines the worldwide impact of lower oil prices and lower economic activity on the demand, production, and international trade in coal. The report includes detailed regional forecasts of coal demand by end-use application. Regions include the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Other Asia, Latin America, Africa, Australia/New Zealand, Communist Europe, and Communist Asia. In addition, regional coal production forecasts are provided with a detailed analysis of regional coal trade patterns. In all instances, the changes relative to Chase's previous forecasts are shown. Because of the current situation in the oil market, the report includes an analysis of the competitive position of coal relative to oil in the generation of electricity, and in industrial steam applications. The report concludes with an examination of the impact of an oil price collapse on the international markets for coal.

  17. World Atlas of Intellectual Capital: A Sketchy Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo TOME

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first draft of a future World Atlas on Intellectual Capital (IC. We believe IC is a global phenomenon and that analysing the distribution of IC in the world can help understanding much of the social and economic problems of today. The Atlas is made according to an economic point of view. Therefore we analyse IC through twelve relevant economic issues: demand, supply, equilibrium, price, quantity, market forces, roleof the State, investment, stock, need, international grows and returns. Those twelve economic perspectives are grouped in four classes: market, agents, assets and international grows. For a start we use twelve economic spaces: Northern Europe, Central Europe, Southern Europe, Eastern Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, Muslim World, Latin America and Mexico, the Anglo-Saxon countries, Russia, India, China, Japan and the Asian Tigers. We achieve the description of a very complex, but very valuable, socio-economic mosaic. We depict the difference between many of those areas in IC terms and as a result the difference in their socio and economic well-being. We hope to carry on the study in order to make a book on IC distribution in the world. Contributions are welcome.

  18. Towards a New Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2015-01-01

    This article raises two questions: What are the challenges for an understanding of Europe and European future? How can we rethink literary history so that it reflects the present historical and political moment of Europe? The aim of bringing these two concerns together is to argue that European...... literary history has the potential of being an agent in the forming a new understanding of Europe. The article takes its point of departure in Etienne Balibar’s suggestion that Europe should base its future ‘identity’ in palimpsestic collaboration and anti-essential agency in stead of basing it in a common...... culture. It argues that if we want the genre of literary history to adapt to a new and dynamic world, we have to rethink the term of ‘historicity’ and the function of history within literary history. The article suggests that literary histories could be developed through a strategic use of the concepts...

  19. Mineralisation footprints and regional timing of the world-class Siguiri orogenic gold district (Guinea, West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, Erwann; Thébaud, Nicolas; Miller, John; Roberts, Malcolm; Evans, Noreen

    2017-04-01

    Siguiri is a world-class orogenic gold district hosted in the weakly metamorphosed Upper Birimian to Lower Tarkwa Group sedimentary rocks of the Siguiri Basin (Guinea). The district is characterised by a protracted deformation history associated with four main deformation events: D1S is a N-S compression; D2S is an E-W compression progressively evolving into an early-D3S transpression and then into a late-D3S NNW-SSE transtension and D4S is a NE-SW compression. Field observations, petrography and geochemistry at three key deposits of the Siguiri district (Bidini, Sintroko PB1 and Kosise) suggest a polyphase hydrothermal history that can be subdivided into four hydrothermal events. The first hydrothermal event was associated with the development of barren bedding-parallel and en-echelon V2S quartz-dominated-(pyrite) veins. The second hydrothermal event is characterised by the development of V3A pyrite-ankerite veins late during D3S. Laser ablation-ICP-MS data show that this vein set contains high gold contents of up to 43.3 ppm, in substitution in pyrite crystal lattice, representing a minor first gold mineralisation event. The third and most prominently developed hydrothermal event is late D3S and represents the second and principal gold mineralisation event. This mineralisation event led to two distinct mineralisation textures. The first texture is best exposed in the Kosise deposit and is characterised by gold-bearing quartz-ankerite-arsenopyrite conjugate V3B veins. Although the bulk of the gold is hosted in native gold grains in V3B veins, LA-ICP-MS analyses show that gold also substitutes in the arsenopyrite crystal lattice (up to 55.5 ppm). The second mineralisation texture is best expressed in the Sanu Tinti deposit and consists of disseminated barren pyrite hosted in a polymict conglomerate. The second and third hydrothermal events are both structurally controlled by a series of early-D3S N-S, NE-SW, WNW-ESE and E-W sub-vertical incipient structures

  20. Epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder in Africa: a systematic review of data from Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esan, Oluyomi; Esan, Arinola

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder impacts negatively on the patient, the family, as well as the society. It taxes the health care services due to a combination of the illness with associated medical and psychiatric comorbidities. In Africa, unfortunately, knowledge of the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder is based mainly on studies from the USA and Europe. In this systematic review of literature from Africa, we highlight the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder. A systematic review of publications from Africa relating to the epidemiology and burden of bipolar disorder was conducted. Data from community surveys conducted in Nigeria and Ethiopia indicated a lifetime prevalence estimate of 0.1 % to 1.83 for bipolar disorder. Missed diagnosis rate of bipolar disorder was up to 36.2 %. In one study, 8.1 % of the males and 5.4 % of the females reported a previous suicide attempt. A study showed that up to 60 % of patients with bipolar disorder had at least one comorbidity. There were no reports on all-cause mortality and cost of illness. Bipolar disorder is a major mental health problem in Africa. Scientific findings on bipolar disorder from Africa are consistent with the existing literature from other parts of the world. There still exists a dearth of high quality studies addressing the epidemiological, clinical, social, and economic burden of the disorder.

  1. Racism and xenophobia: The role of the Church in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Pillay

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Racism and xenophobia have become a worldwide issue and challenge. The recent flood of immigrants and refugees into Europe and America has put this matter on the world map. In South Africa racism and xenophobia have, in recent times, reached explosive proportions and have greatly intensified the need for the Church to get more deeply involved in the creation of racial harmony and peace as it works towards the fullness of life for all people. This chapter explored the challenges of racism and xenophobia in South Africa and concluded by discussing the role of the Church in combating these realities.

  2. Kaposi Sarcoma Risk in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy From Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohner, Eliane; Schmidlin, Kurt; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND:  The burden of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has not been compared globally. METHODS:  We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS...... and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe. We included HIV-infected children aged HIV/AIDS stage at cART initiation......HR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1) and advanced HIV/AIDS stage (CDC stage C vs A/B; aHR, 2.4; 95% CI, .8-7.3) at cART initiation. CONCLUSIONS:  HIV-infected children from SSA but not those from other regions, have a high risk of developing KS after cART initiation. Early cART initiation in these children might...

  3. Differences in HIV natural history among African and non-African seroconverters in Europe and seroconverters in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Pantazis

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: It is unknown whether HIV treatment guidelines, based on resource-rich country cohorts, are applicable to African populations. METHODS: We estimated CD4 cell loss in ART-naïve, AIDS-free individuals using mixed models allowing for random intercept and slope, and time from seroconversion to clinical AIDS, death and antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation by survival methods. Using CASCADE data from 20 European and 3 sub-Saharan African (SSA cohorts of heterosexually-infected individuals, aged ≥15 years, infected ≥2000, we compared estimates between non-African Europeans, Africans in Europe, and Africans in SSA. RESULTS: Of 1,959 (913 non-Africans, 302 Europeans-African origin, 744 SSA, two-thirds were female; median age at seroconversion was 31 years. Individuals in SSA progressed faster to clinical AIDS but not to death or non-TB AIDS. They also initiated ART later than Europeans and at lower CD4 cell counts. In adjusted models, Africans (especially from Europe had lower CD4 counts at seroconversion and slower CD4 decline than non-African Europeans. Median (95% CI CD4 count at seroconversion for a 15-29 year old woman was 607 (588-627 (non-African European, 469 (442-497 (European-African origin and 570 (551-589 (SSA cells/µL with respective CD4 decline during the first 4 years of 259 (228-289, 155 (110-200, and 199 (174-224 cells/µL (p<0.01. DISCUSSION: Despite differences in CD4 cell count evolution, death and non-TB AIDS rates were similar across study groups. It is therefore prudent to apply current ART guidelines from resource-rich countries to African populations.

  4. Ramses 2010 - World crisis and global governance; Ramses 2010 - Crise mondiale et gouvernance globale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreau Defarges, Ph.; Montbrial, Th. de [Institut francais des Relations Internationales, 75 - Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    2009: the world has changed and is learning to live with the crisis. Not only it is expected to last long but also it impacts the overall social life and in particular the political systems (through governments, elections..). The Ramses 2010 book presents the world through two main axes, crisis and governance, and analyses its geopolitical situation in 8 parts dealing with: world economy, energy and climate, USA, Europe, Middle-East/Maghreb, Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It comprises 53 entries by country and/or topic with maps and key data (150 countries). (J.S.)

  5. Paul and Africa?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-06-07

    Jun 7, 2011 ... The relationship between Saint Paul and the continent of Africa has never been a significant point of discussion in the New Testament studies. The same can be observed about other continents, even if the study of the Pauline corpus touches on some countries of Europe and the Middle East. The present ...

  6. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  7. The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World

    OpenAIRE

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of ...

  8. Child mortality and poverty in three world regions (the West, Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa) 1988-2010: Evidence of relative intra-regional neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Colin; Keen, Steven

    2016-12-01

    Poverty kills children. This study assesses the relationship between poverty and child mortality rates (CMRs) in 71 societies from three world regions to determine whether some countries, relative to their region, neglect their children. Spearman rank order correlations were calculated to determine any association between the CMR and poverty data, including income inequality and gross national income. A current CMR one standard deviation (SD) above or below the regional average and a percentage change between 1988 and 2010 were used as the measures to assess the progress of nations. There were positive significant correlations between higher CMRs and relative poverty measures in all three regions. In Western countries, the current CMRs in the USA, New Zealand and Canada were 1 SD below the Western mean. The narrowest income inequalities, apart from Japan, were seen in the Scandinavian nations alongside low CMRs. In Asia, the current CMRs in Pakistan, Myanmar and India were the highest in their region and were 1 SD below the regional mean. Alongside South Korea, these nations had the lowest percentage reductions in CMRs. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the current CMRs in Somalia, Burkina Faso, Sierra Leone, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola were the highest in their region and were 1 SD below the regional mean. Those concerned with the pursuit of social justice need to alert their societies to the corrosive impact of poverty on child mortality. Progress in reducing CMRs provides an indication of how well nations are meeting the needs of their children. Further country-specific research is required to explain regional differences.

  9. FLOSS World Africa regional workshop

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tucker, KC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available / capacity building  What role do informal FLOSS communities, universities and other HEIs, and  businesses play in the development of skills related to the software sector?  How important are secondary skills (such as knowledge of licensing legal issues,  teamwork... all software code 37 FLOSSPOLS findings: developers  Learn many technical skills, basic as well as advanced  Learn many non­technical skills (legal,  management/teamwork, general – e.g. English)  Think they learn most things better from FLOSS community  than...

  10. Percutaneous mitral valve interventions in the real world: early and 1-year results from the ACCESS-EU, a prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of the MitraClip therapy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisano, Francesco; Franzen, Olaf; Baldus, Stephan; Schäfer, Ulrich; Hausleiter, Jörg; Butter, Christian; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Sievert, Horst; Richardt, Gert; Widder, Julian D; Moccetti, Tiziano; Schillinger, Wolfgang

    2013-09-17

    The purpose of this article is to report early and mid-term outcomes of the ACCESS-EU study (ACCESS-Europe A Two-Phase Observational Study of the MitraClip System in Europe), a European prospective, multicenter, nonrandomized post-approval study of MitraClip therapy (Abbott Vascular, Inc., Santa Clara, California). MitraClip has been increasingly performed in Europe after approval; the ACCESS-EU registry provides a snapshot of the real-world clinical demographic data and outcomes. A total of 567 patients with significant mitral valve regurgitation (MR) underwent MitraClip therapy at 14 European sites. Mean logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation at baseline was 23.0 ± 18.3; 84.9% patients were in New York Heart Association functional class III or IV, and 52.7% of patients had an ejection fraction ≤40%. The MitraClip implant rate was 99.6%. A total of 19 patients (3.4%) died within 30 days after the MitraClip procedure. The Kaplan-Meier survival at 1 year was 81.8%. Intensive care unit and hospital length of stay was 2.5 ± 6.5 days and 7.7 ± 8.2 days, respectively. Single leaflet device attachment was reported in 27 patients (4.8%). There were no MitraClip device embolizations. Thirty-six subjects (6.3%) required mitral valve surgery within 12 months after the MitraClip implant procedure. There was improvement in the severity of MR at 12 months, compared with baseline (p 2+ at 12 months. At 12 months, 71.4% of patients had New York Heart Association functional class II or class I. Six-min-walk-test improved 59.5 ± 112.4 m, and Minnesota-living-with-heart-failure score improved 13.5 ± 20.5 points. In the real-world, post-approval experience in Europe, patients undergoing the MitraClip therapy are high-risk, elderly patients, mainly affected by functional MR. In this patient population, the MitraClip procedure is effective with low rates of hospital mortality and adverse events. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology

  11. [Epidemiology of HIV infection in the world and in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semaille, Caroline; Lot, Florence

    2006-05-15

    All continents are affected by HIV at various degrees and the situation of Africa is certainly one of the most serious with HIV prevalence over 20% in Austral Africa, and accounting for half of all HIV cases in the world. Eastern Europe has been recently affected by HIV mainly among IDU. In Asia, the spread of epidemic on general population follows HIV transmission linked to drug use and commercial sex. Similar trends have been observed in Western Europe: relapse of safer sex among men wich have sex with men (MSM) with new HIV contamination, decrease of HIV transmission among drug users and increase of new HIV diagnosis among heterosexuals originating from countries with high prevalence of HIV/AIDS, notably sub-Saharan Africa. Since the introduction of potent anti-retroviral agents in 1996, the numbers of AIDS cases and mortality due to AIDS have sharply decreased in Western Europe. The number of new HIV diagnosis in 2004 is around 7 000 cases in France. The two mostly affected populations in 2003-2004 are homosexuals and sub-Saharan Africans. The harm reduction policies conducted has markedly reduced HIV transmission among injecting drug users.

  12. Building integrated health systems in central and eastern Europe: an analysis of WHO and World Bank views and their relevance to health systems in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnoij, Diana M J; Klazinga, Niek S; van der Velden, Koos

    2003-09-01

    Two questions are addressed. i) What are the views on health and health systems as expressed in the World Development Report 2000/2001 of the WB and the World Health Report 2000 and Health 21 of the World Health Organization, and how compatible are those views? ii) To what extent will compliance of CEEC and NIS with the WHO and WB recommendations result in health systems that produce maximum health for all by adequately addressing the needs of their populations? The reports prepared by the World Bank and the World Health Organization were assessed against the theoretical framework of a needs-based public health approach. It is observed that the WHO and WB approaches are currently converging, although there remain differences in their respective focuses. The main merit of the WHO approach is its focus on performance and the systems approach towards health (care). The merit of the WB view is the integrated approach to health, education and poverty. It is argued that CEEC and NIS need to anticipate an ageing population and growing numbers of chronically ill. This calls for integrated health care systems and more integrated funding and payment systems. The recommendations provided in the WHR and the WDR with regard to integrated care and integrated financing remain rather abstract. Advisors of CEEC and NIS on health care reform and Western assistance projects should focus more on future needs, in order to avoid building health systems that consistently lag behind the needs of their populations.

  13. Is Information Enough? User Responses to Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Report to the World Bank, AFTE1-ENVGC. Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in Sub{sub S}aharan Africa, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Karen; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto; Kingamkono, Robert; Hochobeb, Ben

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, long-lead climate forecasts have been developed and used to predict the onset of El Nino events and their impact on climate variability. This report discusses user responses to seasonal climate forecasts in southern Africa, with an emphasis on small-scale farmers in Namibia and Tanzania. The study examines how farmers received and used the forecasts in the agricultural season of 1997/1998. It also summarises a workshop on user responses to seasonal forecasts in southern Africa. Comparison of case studies across south Africa revealed differences in forecast dissemination strategies and in the capacity to respond to extreme events. However, improving these strategies and the capacity to respond to the forecasts would yield net profit to agriculture in southern Africa. In anticipation of potential changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme events associated with global climate change, there clearly is a need for improved seasonal forecasts and improved information dissemination.

  14. Nurturing talent in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States.   It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...

  15. How the “People’s game“ conquered the world: A short socio-economic history of football in Europe and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary football represents a highly commodified spectacle, a segment of the entertainment industry where huge amounts of money change hands, and the popularity of football competitions - whether national or international - is a global phenomenon, which billions of people take part in. Only thirty years ago, however, the situation was very different. In Western Europe, and especially Great Britain, football was mostly associated with hooliganism, and the audiences at the run-down stadiums were dwindling in numbers. On the other hand, in Eastern Europe before the fall of the Berlin wall football was at its peak, only to fall from grace and onto the European periphery in the 90’s, where it is, by and large, still situated. This dramatic transformation which turned football into “entertainment for rich people” did not occur by accident, it has deep roots in the history of the sport, but also in the wider socio-economic transformations within the context of which this segment of pop culture exists. In this paper I will offer a look at the social and economic conditions in which football developed with the aim of establishing a framework for understanding the changes which occurred within the sport and within the society, with a special focus on the connection between football and the rise of nationalism in the former Yugoslavia, but also wider social processes linked to the descent of Serbia into the so-called process of “transition”, or the acceptance of parliamentary democracy and capitalism as bases of social order. It is my intention to, through the analysis of sociohistorical elements which influenced the development and transformation of the game of football, indicate the wider frame of possibilities for the analysis of contemporary events through the prism of this segment of pop-culture.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177026

  16. Adherence to a healthy diet according to the world health organization guidelines and all-cause mortality in elderly adults from europe and the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, N.; Geelen, A.; Streppel, M.T.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Orfanos, P.; Hooven, E.H. van den; Pikhart, H.; Boffetta, P.; Trichopoulou, A.; Bobak, M.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Kee, F.; Franco, O.H.; Park, Y.; Hallmans, G.; Tjonneland, A.; May, A.M.; Pajak, A.; Malyutina, S.; Kubinova, R.; Amiano, P.; Kampman, E.; Feskens, E.J.

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has formulated guidelines for a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and postpone death worldwide. Our objective was to investigate the association between the WHO guidelines, measured using the Healthy Diet Indicator (HDI), and all-cause mortality in elderly

  17. Critical Reflections on the Joint Africa-EU Strategy | Ölund | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Joint Africa-EU Strategy (JAES), adopted at the EU-Africa Lisbon Summit in 2007, is a vision for a long-term relationship between Africa and Europe in which the two should come together in a shared framework for stronger collaboration. I will here critically reflect on the JAES based on developments up to the recent ...

  18. Is Gray Water the Key to Unlocking Water for Resource-Poor Areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and Other Arid Regions of the World?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight...

  19. A compilation of field surveys on gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from contrasting environmental settings in Europe, South America, South Africa and China: separating fads from facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Oyarzun, Roberto; Kotnik, Joze; Esbrí, José María; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Horvat, Milena; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; Llanos, Willians; Vaselli, Orlando; Nisi, Barbara; Mashyanov, Nikolay; Ryzov, Vladimir; Spiric, Zdravko; Panichev, Nikolay; McCrindle, Rob; Feng, Xinbin; Fu, Xuewu; Lillo, Javier; Loredo, Jorge; García, María Eugenia; Alfonso, Pura; Villegas, Karla; Palacios, Silvia; Oyarzún, Jorge; Maturana, Hugo; Contreras, Felicia; Adams, Melitón; Ribeiro-Guevara, Sergio; Niecenski, Luise Felipe; Giammanco, Salvatore; Huremović, Jasna

    2014-08-01

    Mercury is transported globally in the atmosphere mostly in gaseous elemental form (GEM, [Formula: see text]), but still few worldwide studies taking into account different and contrasted environmental settings are available in a single publication. This work presents and discusses data from Argentina, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Chile, China, Croatia, Finland, Italy, Russia, South Africa, Spain, Slovenia and Venezuela. We classified the information in four groups: (1) mining districts where this contaminant poses or has posed a risk for human populations and/or ecosystems; (2) cities, where the concentration of atmospheric mercury could be higher than normal due to the burning of fossil fuels and industrial activities; (3) areas with natural emissions from volcanoes; and (4) pristine areas where no anthropogenic influence was apparent. All the surveys were performed using portable LUMEX RA-915 series atomic absorption spectrometers. The results for cities fall within a low GEM concentration range that rarely exceeds 30 ng m(-3), that is, 6.6 times lower than the restrictive ATSDR threshold (200 ng m(-3)) for chronic exposure to this pollutant. We also observed this behavior in the former mercury mining districts, where few data were above 200 ng m(-3). We noted that high concentrations of GEM are localized phenomena that fade away in short distances. However, this does not imply that they do not pose a risk for those working in close proximity to the source. This is the case of the artisanal gold miners that heat the Au-Hg amalgam to vaporize mercury. In this respect, while GEM can be truly regarded as a hazard, because of possible physical-chemical transformations into other species, it is only under these localized conditions, implying exposure to high GEM concentrations, which it becomes a direct risk for humans.

  20. Bringing Europe and Third countries closer together through renewable Energies (BETTER). D2.1. EU RES cooperation initiatives with third Countries. North Africa, West Balkans and Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, A.; Dalla Longa, F.; Veum, K.C.; Straver, K. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Karakosta, C [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece)

    2013-03-15

    One major element of EU's external energy policy is expanding its energy norms and regulations to neighbourhood countries and beyond to achieve its energy policy priorities - safe, secure, affordable and sustainable energy supply. The importance of external energy policy has been acknowledged in the European Union's 2007 'energy package', and Second Strategic Energy Review and the European Commission's Communication on security of energy supply and international cooperation. The EU Renewable Energy Directive provides another element to crossborder cooperation by allowing Member States to fulfil their 2020 renewable energy (RES) targets by implementing joint projects in third countries. Even though the Member States' national renewable energy action plans (NREAPs) to reach their RES targets do not indicate any significant use of this mechanism, the RES Directive acknowledges the importance of renewable energy as part of external energy policy. This report aims at presenting the political framework between the EU and the BETTER project target regions (North Africa, Western Balkans and Turkey) with regards to (renewable) energy and the relevant initiatives and the projects to set the scene for RES joint projects as defined in Article 9 of the RES Directive. The main objectives of this study report are (1) to review energy treaties, agreements, and partnerships to assess their relevance to cooperation mechanism with Third countries; and (2) to analyse the relevance of the recent projects and initiatives to BETTER project and improve and trigger the communication and synergies between BETTER project partners and the relevant projects.

  1. Alcohol use in special populations in Africa. Data from the World Health Survey and Study on global AGEing and adult health

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    Background Alcohol use is an important factor in a population’s risk for disease and mortality. Alcohol has a long history of use in Africa, and changes in drinking behavior are underway in many African states. Women and older adults are two special populations that comprise sizable proportions of the general population and whose use of alcohol will have important consequences for public health in Africa. There is limited information about the drinking behavior of women and older adults, w...

  2. Islamist Extremism in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    lived in East Africa for generations. Trade and cultural exchanges between East Africa and the Arab world are centuries old. These links predate...prestigious, following the 2001 World Trade Center attacks Western countries raised immigration hurdles. At the same time, scholarship...conservative interpretations of Islam regarding dress , the role of women, and differenti- ated relationships between Muslims and non-Muslims. The

  3. 1981 World Refugee Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sherbinin, Michael J., Ed.

    This report presents an update and analysis of refugee and/or resettlement situations in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Europe and Canada, and Latin America. Described are activities undertaken by the following refugee organizations: (1) the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR); (2) the Intergovernmental Committee for…

  4. Antiretroviral therapy related adverse effects: Can sub-Saharan Africa cope with the new "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2017-02-15

    Recent studies have shown that early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation results in significant HIV transmission reduction. This is the rationale behind the "test and treat" policy of the World Health Organization (WHO). Implementation of this policy will lead to an increased incidence of ART-related adverse effects, especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Is the region yet ready to cope with such a challenging issue? The introduction and widespread use of ART have drastically changed the natural history of HIV/AIDS, but exposure to ART leads to serious medication-related adverse effects mainly explained by mitochondrial toxicities, and the situation will get worse in the near future. Indeed, ART is associated with an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease, lipodystrophy, prediabetes and overt diabetes, insulin resistance and hyperlactatemia/lactic acidosis. The prevalence of these disorders is already high in SSA, and the situation will be exacerbated by the implementation of the new WHO recommendations. Most SSA countries are characterized by (extreme) poverty, very weak health systems, inadequate and low quality of health services, inaccessibility to existing health facilities, lack of (qualified) health personnel, lack of adequate equipment, inaccessibility and unaffordability of medicines, and heavy workload in a context of a double burden of disease. Additionally, there is dearth of data on the incidence and predictive factors of ART-related adverse effects in SSA, to anticipate on strategies that should be put in place to prevent the occurrence of these conditions or properly estimate the upcoming burden and prepare an adequate response plan. These are required if we are to anticipate and effectively prevent this upcoming burden. While SSA would be the first region to experience the huge benefits of implementing the "test and treat" policy of the WHO, the region is not yet prepared to manage the consequential increased burden of ART

  5. FIP Symposium 1997 (South Africa); FIP Symposium 1997 (Minami Africa) ni sankashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niwano, T. [Oriental Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Shinagawa, K.; Takahashi, T.

    1997-07-31

    FIP (Federation Internationale de la Precontrainte) Symposium was held in Johannesburg, South Africa. Ikeda and others were sent by the Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Association to participate the symposium and visit some bridges in Hong Kong and South Africa. As the keynote addresses, the trends of PC in South Africa, Europe, America, East Asia and Australia was reported. Japanese papers among 105 presented papers are as follows: Iwasaki`s `Construction method of the railway PC skew slab bridge, Natori-Gawa bridge`, Toda`s `Construction of the suspended slab bridge longest in the world, Yume Tsuri-bashi`, Iizuka`s `Experiment on earthquake characteristics of precast concrete columns` and Sugita`s `Study on concrete using high-activity rice hull ash`. The group visited Kap Shui Mun bridge (Hong Kong) of 750m long constructed by Japanese JV which is the 5-span continuous complex cable stayed bridge, and featured by PC box girder structure of side spans. The group also visited Gouritz River PC bridge in South Africa. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Implementation effectiveness of revised (post-2010) World Health Organization guidelines on prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV using routinely collected data in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumede-Moyo, Sehlulekile; Filteau, Suzanne; Munthali, Tendai; Todd, Jim; Musonda, Patrick

    2017-10-01

    To synthesize and evaluate the impact of implementing post-2010 World Health Organization (WHO) prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines on attainment of PMTCT targets. Retrospective and prospective cohort study designs that utilized routinely collected data with a focus on provision and utilization of the cascade of PMTCT services were included. The outcomes included the proportion of pregnant women who were tested during their antenatal clinic (ANC) visits; mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) rate; adherence; retention rate; and loss to follow-up (LTFU). Of the 1210 references screened, 45 met the inclusion criteria. The studies originated from 14 countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The highest number of studies originated from Malawi (10) followed by Nigeria and South Africa with 7 studies each. More than half of the studies were on option A while the majority of option B+ studies were conducted in Malawi. These studies indicated a high uptake of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing ranging from 75% in Nigeria to over 96% in Zimbabwe and South Africa. High proportions of CD4 count testing were reported in studies only from South Africa despite that in most of the countries CD4 testing was a prerequisite to access treatment. MTCT rate ranged from 1.1% to 15.1% and it was higher in studies where data were collected in the early days of the WHO 2010 PMTCT guidelines. During the postpartum period, adherence and retention rate decreased, and LTFU increased for both HIV-positive mothers and exposed infants. Irrespective of which option was followed, uptake of antenatal HIV testing was high but there was a large drop off along later points in the PMTCT cascade. More research is needed on how to improve later components of the PMTCT cascade, especially of option B+ which is now the norm throughout sub-Saharan Africa.

  7. Tb drug resistance: is it really a threat to Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Paul; Zignol, Matteo; Jaramillo, Ernesto; Wright, Abigail; Getahun, Haileyesus

    2007-10-01

    In most of the world and particularly in Eastern Europe, China and India, drug resistance is increasingly seen as a major threat to tuberculosis (TB) control and even to public health and health security. What about in Africa? The conditions for creation of drug resistance exist in most, if not all, African countries, as a result of underinvestment in basic TB control, poor management of anti-TB drugs and virtual absence of infection control measures. The severity of drug resistance is increasing--following outbreaks all over the world of multi-drug resistant TB (MDR) in the 1990's, extensive drug resistant (XDR) TB has now been found in 37 countries, including South Africa. (MDR is, in essence, resistance to the most powerful first-line drugs, and XDR-TB is TB resistant to the most powerful second-line drugs as well.) Worse still, the impact of XDR-TB is magnified among those with HIV infection, giving rise to a remarkably high mortality, and exposing significant weaknesses in both HIV and TB control. In particular, the lack of laboratories capable of carrying out culture and drug susceptibility testing severely limits the capacity of countries even to detect the problem in Africa. This paper analyses the threat of TB drug resistance to health and to TB control in Africa, and puts forward measures to diminish this threat.

  8. Area Studies and Eastern Europe: How Eastern Europe Collapsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Kasapović

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, the author outlines the development of area studies in contemporary comparative politics, and points to their importance for the development of political science. In the second part, she examines the methodology – research design and methods – of regional comparatistics, paying particular attention to the problem of defining the region as a central category in this field of comparative politics. The third and central part is focused on the emergence of Eastern Europe as a historical-political and socio-cultural region in the course of history, especially after World War II, and on its dissolution in the processes of democratic transformation of communist regimes in the last two decades. The dissolution of Eastern Europe has resulted in restoration of a tripartite political geography in the area which it used to take up, made up of Central Europe, Southeast Europe and the proper Eastern Europe.

  9. Multilingual Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipson, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp.......Review of: Multilingual Europe: Multilingual Europeans. (European Studies: An Interdisciplinary Series in European Culture, History and Politics, Vol. 29). Eds. Láslá Maràcz & Mireille Rosello. Rodopi, 2012. 323 pp....

  10. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-18

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost Ask an Expert service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world, including Africa.

  11. Social psychiatry in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    2004-02-17

    Feb 17, 2004 ... World Association of Social Psychiatry (WASP) in association with the. South African Society of Psychiatrists (SASOP) with support from the. World Psychiatric Association (WPA) invites you to the. 1st Regional Congress of Social Psychiatry in Africa. Where: Caesars Convention Centre, Johannesburg, ...

  12. Is gray water the key to unlocking water for resource-poor areas of the Middle East, North Africa, and other arid regions of the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Eric C; Dare, Anne; Al-Delaimy, Wael K

    2014-10-01

    Support for the use of treated gray water as an alternative water resource in the Middle East and North Africa is high, especially given the lack of religious restrictions against its use, but several obstacles have kept application of treated gray water near 1 % in some areas. The largest of obstacles include the cost of treatment and the ambiguity surrounding the health safety of gray water and treated gray water. This paper aims to provide an overview of current gray water practices globally, with specific focus on household-level gray water practices in the Middle East and North Africa region, and highlight the need for cost reduction strategies and epidemiological evidence on the use of household-level gray water and treated gray water. Such actions are likely to increase the application of treated gray water in water-deprived areas of the Middle East and North Africa.

  13. [Research and treatment of war neuroses at the Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow before World War II in the context of psychiatry in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Krzysztof; Dembińska, Edyta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer an overview of the research into diagnosis and treatment of war neuroses at the Clinic for Nervous and Mental Diseases at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow before the outbreak of World War II. It also includes a profile of the work of Prof. Jan Piltz, the then director of the Clinic, and his major scientific achievements. The publications cited in the article date in the main from the period of World War I, and comprise clinical analyses of the consequences of stress suffered at the front as well as a description of the ways in which they were treated. These are presented alongside other major findings related to war neuroses being made in Europe at the time. The article draws attention to the very modern thinking on treatment of war neuroses, far ahead of the average standards of the day, evinced by Prof. Piltz and his team. The most important innovative elements of their treatment of these conditions were the fact that they perceived the cause of the neurosis to lie in previous personality disorders in the patients, their recommendation of psychotherapy as the main method of treatment, and their emphasis on the need for further rehabilitation following the completion of the course of hospital treatment. They also paid significant attention to the importance of drawing up individual therapy plans for each patient.

  14. Characteristics, resource utilization and safety profile of patients prescribed with neuropathic pain treatments: a real-world evidence study on general practices in Europe - the role of the lidocaine 5% medicated plaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Pablo; Pegoraro, Valeria; Liedgens, Hiltrud

    2017-08-01

    To identify characteristics, resource utilization, and safety profile of patients prescribed with lidocaine 5% medicated plaster, pregabalin, gabapentin, amitriptyline and duloxetine when experiencing pain in the real-world setting of general practitioners (GPs) in Europe. Retrospective analysis on real world data from IMS Health Longitudinal Patient Database. Patients with at least one prescription of the drugs of interest during 2014 were selected and those with a non-neuropathic pain-related diagnosis were excluded. Patients' demographic and clinical characteristics, resource utilization data and adverse drug reactions (ADRs) as described in the leaflet were extracted. The association between treatments and ADR occurrence was evaluated applying multivariate logistic models. A total of 70,515 patients were selected from Italy, Germany, the UK, Spain and Belgium. Lidocaine 5% medicated plaster patients were the oldest in Italy, the UK and Spain and the most health impaired in Italy, Spain and Belgium. No relevant differences in the number of co-prescriptions, specialist visits, examinations and hospitalizations were found. Significantly less lidocaine 5% plasters patients experienced ADRs, with odds ratios in favor of lidocaine 5% medicated plasters ranging from 3.41 (p = .036) to 52.33 (p lidocaine 5% medicated plaster patients showing a better safety profile, but also a comparable level of resource utilization. A possible re-evaluation of the scientific value coming from this retrospective study in building up a diagnostic as well as a therapeutic algorithm is suggested.

  15. 'There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business': a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Marlise; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew; Lüchters, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. Methods: A multi-method study design was emp...

  16. "On My Mind's World Map, I See an Africa": Bando de Teatro Olodum's Re-Routing of Afro-Brazilian Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson-Sanz, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    A group of black children in the city of Salvador da Bahia, intrigued by their teacher's explanation that black Brazilians are descendants of Africans, embark on a quest to search for Africa. This is the central plot of "Áfricas"--Bando de Teatro Olodum's theatre production for young people that premiered in 2007 (Teatro Vila Velha,…

  17. Ghana and Mali. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.4. World History and Geography: Medieval Sub-Saharan Africa. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.4 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the sub-Saharan civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa. Seventh-grade students focus on the Niger River and the growth of the Mali and Ghana empires; analyze the importance…

  18. Insight from the 5th World Water Forum on Securing Water for Food and Ecosystems in Africa : Report on BOCI Project BO-10-004-003: Water Conventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wageningen International,

    2009-01-01

    Water scarcity is considered to be one of the largest threats for many parts of Africa. Under water scarce conditions reducing the consumption of water and preventing pollution of accessible water resources is essential. Combating water scarcity in both dimensions of quality and quantity is of

  19. La propagande arabe anglaise vers le Maghreb pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1943 British Arabic Propaganda towards North Africa in the Second World War (1939-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Cherif

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of Second World War and its impact in North Africa, propaganda destined for Arab populations takes multiform aspects: radio, newspapers, leaflets, etc.. The propaganda conducted by Great Britain through the BBC, making use of the Arabic language, began in 1939. Programmes from Radio London were in fact an answer to German radio propaganda which had great success in North Africa. During the brief war operations in Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia, from 8 November 1942 to 13 May 1943, this propaganda tried to show and to improve the image of different combatants and to convince Arabs of the justice of their cause. A weekly newspaper published by Great Britain, “Akhbar al Ousbou” (or Weekly Information, was exclusively reserved for the governmental authorities. During the North Africa campaign (Torch, the Royal Air Force dropped leaflets in Arabic, trying to explain their war aims and to secure the support of the population. This article examines the developing of British Arabic propaganda and seeks to measure its degree of success or failure in the face of other subversive propaganda particularly from Germany and Italy and especially its impacts on the North African populations from 1939 till May 1943.

  20. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  1. 'Real-world' atrial fibrillation management in Europe: observations from the 2-year follow-up of the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Marco; Laroche, Cécile; Opolski, Grzegorz; Maggioni, Aldo P; Boriani, Giuseppe; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2017-05-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is commonly associated with a high risk of stroke, thromboembolism, and mortality. The 1-year follow-up of the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation (EORP-AF) Pilot Registry demonstrated a high mortality but good outcomes with European Society of Cardiology guideline-adherent therapy. Whether these 'real-world' observations on patients managed by European cardiologists extend to 2 years remains uncertain. In this report from the EORP-AF General Registry Pilot Phase, we provide data on the 2-year follow-up outcomes. Consistent with the 1-year follow-up report, only a small proportion of patients were symptomatic (24.9%), with minor differences between the different AF subtypes. Persistence of oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy remains high at 2-years, with ∼80% of patients treated with OAC. The prescribing rates of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants are progressively increasing (13.7% at 2 years). Rate and rhythm control approaches remained consistent across the entire follow-up observation. Overall mortality rates remained high, with 5.0% of patients dead during the 2-year follow-up, mostly due to cardiovascular causes (61.8%). Atrial fibrillation readmissions were frequent, particularly related to arrhythmias and heart failure. On multivariate analyses, any cardiovascular reason for admission rather than AF was significantly associated with increased mortality during the 2-year follow-up. In this 2-year follow-up report from EORP-AF, mortality rates with AF remain high from cardiovascular causes, despite the high prevalent use of OAC. Improved management strategies to reduce major adverse outcomes in AF patients are needed.

  2. Research contribution of different world regions in the top 50 biomedical journals (1995-2002).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soteriades, Elpidoforos S; Rosmarakis, Evangelos S; Paraschakis, Konstantinos; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated all articles published by different world regions in the top 50 biomedical journals in the database of the Journal Citation Reports-Institute for Scientific Information for the period between 1995 and 2002. The world was divided into 9 regions [United States of America (the U.S.), Western Europe, Japan, Canada, Asia, Oceania, Latin America, and the Caribbean, Eastern Europe, and Africa] based on a combination of geographic, economic and scientific criteria. The number of articles published by each region, the mean impact factor, and the product of the above two parameters were our main indicators. The above numbers were also adjusted for population size, gross national income per capita of each region, and other factors. Articles published from the U.S. made up about two-thirds of all scientific papers published in the top 50 biomedical journals between 1995 and 2002. Western Europe contributed approximately a quarter of the published papers while the remaining one-tenth of articles came from the rest of the world. Canada, however, ranked second when number of articles was adjusted for population size. The U.S. is by far the highest-ranking country/region in publications in the top 50 biomedical journals even after adjusting for population size, gross national product, and other factors. Canada and Western Europe share the second place while the rest of the world is far behind.

  3. Social Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul Dekker; Sjef Ederveen; Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers; Ruud de Mooij

    2003-01-01

    There is broad support for the European Union (EU) in the Netherlands: 73% of Dutch believe that EU membership is a 'good thing'. The figure in Germany is 59%, in France it is 50% and in the United Kingdom 30%. By contrast, engagement with Europe is very low in the Netherlands. In late 2002 fewer

  4. Europe phrasebook

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    This book replaces "Western Europe Phrasbook". It includes Basque, Catalan, Dutch, French, German, Greek, Irish, Italian, Maltese, Portugese, Scottish Gaelic, Spanish and Welsh. This fully updated edition includes special sections on going out, sports and festivals, as well as local dishes, shopping and sightseeing.

  5. 'The trial the world is watching': the 1972 prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, abortion, and the regulation of the medical profession in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M

    2014-04-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman's life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country's newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary's stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their 'duty' to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites' attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa's extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975).

  6. Sub Saharan Africa Food Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry

    2016-01-01

    Study of food value chains in East Africa as a preliminary study. The paper wishes to underline a few under-researched assumptions about esepcially protein deficiencies, allergies etc. to establish what enablers and constraints exist when trying to supply food from e.g. Europe to e.g. East Africa....

  7. 'There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business' a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Marlise L; Scorgie, Fiona; Chersich, Matthew F; Luchters, Stanley

    2014-06-10

    Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity.

  8. ‘There are a lot of new people in town: but they are here for soccer, not for business’ a qualitative inquiry into the impact of the 2010 soccer world cup on sex work in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Sports mega-events have expanded in size, popularity and cost. Fuelled by media speculation and moral panics, myths proliferate about the increase in trafficking into forced prostitution as well as sex work in the run-up to such events. This qualitative enquiry explores the perceptions of male, female and transgender sex workers of the 2010 Soccer World Cup held in South Africa, and the impact it had on their work and private lives. Methods A multi-method study design was employed. Data consisted of 14 Focus Group Discussions, 53 sex worker diaries, and responses to two questions in surveys with 1059 male, female and transgender sex workers in three cities. Results Overall, a minority of participants noted changes to the sex sector due to the World Cup and nothing emerged on the feared increases in trafficking into forced prostitution. Participants who observed changes in their work mainly described differences, both positive and negative, in working conditions, income and client relations, as well as police harassment. The accounts of changes were heterogeneous - often conflicting in the same research site and across sites. Conclusions No major shifts occurred in sex work during the World Cup, and only a few inconsequential changes were noted. Sports mega-events provide strategic opportunities to expand health and human rights programmes to sex workers. The 2010 World Cup missed that opportunity. PMID:24915943

  9. Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Eudora I.

    1991-01-01

    Includes annotations for 19 government publications from 17 countries: Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi, Chile, Costa Rica, Mali, Mexico, Morocco, Mozambique, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Niue, Peru, Rwanda, and the Soviet Union. Topics covered include pornography, poverty, food, and hunger. The effect of library budget pressures on…

  10. Database Urban Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleutjes, B.; de Valk, H.A.G.

    2016-01-01

    Database Urban Europe: ResSegr database on segregation in The Netherlands. Collaborative research on residential segregation in Europe 2014–2016 funded by JPI Urban Europe (Joint Programming Initiative Urban Europe).

  11. Assessing China's Relations with Africa | Besada | Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    China's spectacular economic progress has led some security analysts and policy makers to question Beijing's intentions in other parts of the world. This paper examines the extent to which China's engagement with Africa has produced mutual benefits for both and whether Africa is reaping the necessary benefits required ...

  12. Initial Encounters: Seeking traces of ancient trade connections between West Africa and the wider world Premiers contacts. La recherche des traces de commerce ancien entre l’Afrique de l'Ouest et le reste du monde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Magnavita

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-standing, more mythical than fact-based assumptions about ancient trade contacts between West Africa and the wider world prior to the Arab conquest of North Africa have only been substantiated by archaeological evidence in recent years. Although the number of imported items known to have been brought into West Africa during late Roman and Byzantine times just started growing, the mechanisms of their diffusion are still far from being understood. This can mainly be set down to the dearth of convincing material evidence from other archaeological sites in West Africa, the Sahara and North Africa — the result of a lack of research and, perhaps too, of trade in “invisible” merchandise Previous archeological studies on this topic are discussed; and the preliminary findings of recent research in the eastern Niger Bend, presented.Les présupposés de longue date – plutôt mythiques que fondés sur des faits – à propos du commerce entre l’Afrique occidentale et le reste du monde avant la conquête arabe de l’Afrique du Nord n’ont été que récemment étayés par des travaux archéologiques. Bien que les découvertes d'articles importés, connus pour avoir été acheminés en Afrique de l'Ouest pendant les périodes romaine tardive et byzantine, sont, depuis peu, de plus en plus nombreuses, nous ne comprenons pas toujours les mécanismes de diffusion de ces derniers. Cette incompréhension est avant tout liée au manque d’indices matériels probants provenant d’autres sites archéologiques en Afrique de l’Ouest, au Sahara et en Afrique du Nord. Cela résulte à la fois d’un manque de recherche et, peut-être aussi, du commerce en marchandise “invisible”. Les études archéologiques antérieures sur le sujet sont ici discutées ; et les résultats préliminaires de recherches récentes dans la partie orientale de la boucle du Niger sont présentés.

  13. Bat Rabies Surveillance in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schatz, J.; Fooks, A. R.; McElhinney, L.

    2013-01-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered...... putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat...... rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977–2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands...

  14. Transnational Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2016-01-01

    in this development. The article concludes that encounters of the kind we find in different forms of TV drama will make Europe more diverse and richer for a much broader audience. The interaction between the particular and universal in “narratives” on our past and contemporary social and cultural order contribute......This article deals with the social and cultural dimensions of globalization and uses both qualitative and quantitative methods to analyse the effects of stronger European integration on media production and reception. It combines theories and methods from sociology, anthropology and media studies......-productions has increased the distribution of original and often local stories in Europe. The article analyses examples of some successful European drama series, their audiences and reception. The analysis is discussed in the context of national and transnational media policy and the impact of globalisation...

  15. Travelers to Europe Need Measles Protection: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been reported in Europe. And 35 people across Europe have died from the highly contagious infection in the past year, the World Health Organization says. "Most measles cases in the United States are the result of international travel," said Dr. Gary Brunette, chief of the CDC's ...

  16. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Abri, Seif S.; Abaidani, Idris Al; Fazlalipour, Mehdi; MOSTAFAVI, Ehsan; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Pshenichnaya, Natalia; Memish, Ziad A.; Hewson, Roger; Eskild Petersen, Jorgen; Mala, Peter; Nhu Nguyen, Tran Minh; Rahman Malik, Mamunur; Formenty, Pierre; Jeffries, Rosanna Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR), with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing inci...

  17. Urban ecological footprints in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clancy, Joy S.

    2008-01-01

    Africa's rate of urbanization is the highest in the world. This is relevant to ecologists working in Africa because urban growth is strongly associated with habitat destruction, and also creates new fields of study. The ecological footprint concept is used to illustrate how urban settlements in

  18. The status of mycology in Africa: A document to promote awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryzenhout, Marieka; Jefwa, Joyce M; Yorou, Nourou S

    2012-06-01

    The African Mycological Association (AMA) promotes mycology amongst members in Africa and globally. The AMA has about 200 members, mostly from African states but also with strong representation from Europe and USA, amongst others. Recent efforts by members of the AMA focused on reviving and developing mycological research and networking in Africa. A great deal must, however, still be done to promote the AMA under African mycologists, and those elsewhere with interests in Africa. African mycologists also experience challenges typical of the developing world and a great deal of fungi still needs to be discovered. This can also be seen as representing great opportunities for research and collaboration. Several issues pertinent to mycology in Africa were discussed during Special Interest Group sessions of the 9th International Mycological Congress in 2010, and through several opinion pieces contributed by AMA members in the AMA newsletter, MycoAfrica. This contribution serves as a document to summarise these in a form that can be presented to fellow mycologists, biologists and other scientists, relevant government departments, funding bodies and Non-Governmental Organizations and that pins down the importance of mycology, the status thereof in Africa and the need to promote it more.

  19. DDT residue contamination in sediments from Lake Sibaya in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: implications for conservation in a World Heritage Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Marc S

    2013-11-01

    Maputaland in northern KwaZulu-Natal is a biodiversity hotspot and host to a number of ecologically important systems, including Lake Sibaya, southern Africa's largest natural freshwater lake. The region is malaria endemic and this study reports the presence of DDT and its metabolites in the sediments of Lake Sibaya that have resulted from the widespread and continued use of DDT in the region. DDT residues (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDE) were detected at all 11 sites sampled, with total concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 123 ng g(-1). Total DDT concentrations at Lake Sibaya represent some of the highest levels reported in South Africa, with most samples exceeding sediment quality guideline values. The findings from this study raise concerns and indicate that urgent further work is needed to investigate the potential for bioaccumulation, which could adversely affect breeding fish, bird, and crocodile populations in the region. While this study represents the first report on DDT contamination in Lake Sibaya, results have important implications for a number of other aquatic ecosystems within the Maputaland ecoregion, as well as the many local people who depend on them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emerging Power Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    the only one to influence matters on a global scale besides, the US. Of particular importance in this context has been the growing attractiveness of the EU market and the considerable “soft power” which the EU exerts in some parts of the world. The paper reconstructs the most important steps of Europe......’s rise, with emphasis on the “expansionist” character of the EU. Internal developments in the EU have been crucial for its growing external influence. The “expansionism” of the EU and its system has until recently been peaceful. In the case of Ukraine, however, another (regional) power has applied...

  1. Introduction : irregular migrant domestic workers in Europe : who cares?

    OpenAIRE

    Triandafyllidou, Anna

    2013-01-01

    International migration in the last two decades has been increasingly gendered. Women have become important components of international migration flows both within Europe (from East to West) and from developing countries in Asia and Africa to Europe. Female migration has been encouraged by both push and pull factors. On the push side, the implosion of Communist regimes in central eastern Europe and the former Soviet republics has left women unemployed, without a welfare state to rely on and/o...

  2. Asia-Europe: The Third Link

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen-Setton, Jeremie; Pisani-Ferry, Jean

    2008-01-01

    [Introduction] The prevailing view of the world economy is strikingly polarised. Analyses of macroeconomic linkages and transmission channels routinely represent the world with the US at the centre and other regions, among which Asia and Europe, at the periphery. Asia and Europe are obviously regarded as important players, but mainly in interaction with the US rather than with each other. In recent assessments of the short‐term economic outlook, the US is still widely seen as the driving forc...

  3. South Africa's Subimperial Futures: Washington Consensus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANBR

    Adam Smith in Beijing: Lineages of the Twenty-First Century,. African Perspectives on China in Africa,. Asia Times,. Asia Times,. Africa's Silk Road: China and India's New Economic Frontier,. New Political Economy,. How Fast the Wind? Southern. Africa and the World-Economy 1975-2000,. The Discourse of Race in Modern ...

  4. Waste as a Resource in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Janse van Rensburg, R

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available in Africa Ruben Janse van Rensburg, Africa Sustainability CSIR October 5th, 2017 1 The Sleeping Giant? Africa is 20% of the earths land mass Everybody grows… … It’s just a matter of when It will have the World largest Workforce Why could it grow soon...

  5. Fondements du discours propagandiste arabe de la Grande-Bretagne au Maghreb pendant la Seconde Guerre mondiale (1939-1943 The Foundations of British Arabic Propaganda Speech in North Africa during World War II (1939-1943

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayçal Cherif

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Second World War’s ramifications and the landing of the Anglo-Americans in North Africa (Torch brought out the antagonism between the powers of the Axis and the Allies. Apart from the military war, a second war including more horrible and complex elements than weapons had been declared by the different rival camps: the propaganda in the Arabic language initiated at the beginning by Germany and Italy and soon developed by Great Britain too (from 1939. It was an efficient and fearsome weapon to control the spirit of the Arab people’s opinion in general, especially that of the Maghrebians, who were often hostile to the British and French colonial policies in their regions. Certainly, radio programmes were preponderant as they were easily accessible but newspapers and leaflets were also used a lot in this psychological war. The subtleties and the impact of this British propaganda will be the subject of research. This article explains the mechanism, the structures, the aims and finally the impact of British propaganda in the Arabic language in North Africa between September 1939 and May 1943.

  6. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  7. Moravia in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Casini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Though his fiction is deeply linked to Rome and Italy, we cannot understand the cultural figure of Alberto Moravia (1907-1990, if we do not consider his experience as a traveller. In particular, there is no other Italian or European writer of his generation, who had such a tight connection with Africa, which Moravia used to visit almost every year from 1963 until 1987. He wrote three books on this continent. «I would have to go to Africa twenty, thirty years before: instead I went very late in my life, when I was fifty. I do not know why I didn’t. I regret it. For me, Africa is the most beautiful thing in the world». This paper reconstructs the reasons and the stages that brought Moravia to Africa in detail, it also focuses on his travels as a European citizen, who  starts his journey from the coasts to the “heart of the black continent", sometimes following  the footsteps of his favorite Africanist writers, such as Conrad, Rimbaud, Gide, Hemingway and Céline, but always pursuing his own question, looking for his own Africa, which is indeed connected to his deepest self. The movement to Africa has changed the Roman writer, as his last novels clearly show, that whereby include Africa becomes one of their major themes.

  8. Unhomely Europes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris Eleftheriotis

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This special issue of PORTAL constitutes an indirect, sideways reflection on the EU’s move toward (re-discovering, establishing, and promoting shared cultural values. It seeks to unveil not the official historical contexts and traditions in which contemporary inventions of cultural identity occur. Rather, its aim is to discover and listen to competing voices and alternative visions—be they cultural, social, political, literary or cinematic—that give different shape to trans-European identities and model union, commonality, and belonging, according to transregional or translocal values. The special issue, then, is an exploration of possible forms of frictions occurring across the European cultural and historical landscape. It questions the pre-eminence of formal EU discourses on values, and the branding of Europe in the global marketplace, by listening to marginalised, unheard or discordant Euro-voices. The issue demonstrates the need for more rigorous theorisations of notions such as ‘value,’ whether ‘shared’ or ‘cultural,’ in the European region, and posits alternative mappings and visions of European belonging and identity. The essays included in this special issue consider Europe as a locus of frictions, consensus, tension, contestation and reconciliation. This locus is capable of co-locating Scotland with the Costa Brava, crossing Swedish views of Russia with their converse, recognising a Europe of borders that continuously unfold, acknowledging the interference of historical memories, and inflecting the Houellebecquian Euro-futurescape with Greco-Australian undertones; to cite a few examples of vibrant transvaluation occurring in the issue.

  9. Disciplining governance in Africa : a comparison of the World Bank’s Country Policy and Institutional Assessment and the African Union’s African Peer Review Mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Kassa (Saba)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis study examines the promotion of governance in the African Continent. It compares the Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) of the World Bank to the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM) of the African Union. These governance assessments represent differing

  10. Decentralisation in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tropix

    Decentralisation in Africa" at Heidelberg, Germany. 1 Steiner Decentralisation in Uganda 1. 2 Francis and James 2003 World Development 325 (also cited in Steiner Decentralisation in. Uganda 1). 3 Mitchinson 2003 Public Administration and Development 241 (also cited in Steiner. Decentralisation in Uganda 1).

  11. AED in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy for Educational Development, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Founded in 1961, the Academy for Educational Development (AED) is an independent, nonprofit, charitable organization that operates development programs in the United States and throughout the world. This directory presents an overview of the AED programs in Africa since 1975. Current AED Programs include: (1) HIV/AIDS Prevention and Impact…

  12. El deporte en el campo diplomático: el caso de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA Sudáfrica 2010 Sport in the Diplomatic Arena: The Case of FIFA World Cup South Africa 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carreño Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Por más de cuarenta años, el fútbol fue considerado en Sudáfrica un importante escenario en la lucha por la libertad. Así, el movimiento anti-apartheid obtuvo simbólicos y cruciales logros en este campo cuando la federación local fue suspendida por la Federación Internacional de Fútbol Asociado (FIFA de todas las competencias internacionales hasta 1992. Ya en democracia, el fútbol -como otras disciplinas deportivas- ha sido considerado una instancia de encuentro y reconciliación en una sociedad marcada por clivajes raciales, por lo cual la adjudicación de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA fue aclamada por los sudafricanos y por todo el continente africano como una gran victoria que hacía crecer las expectativas en torno a los beneficios de este evento para mejorar la calidad de vida de millones de personas. El objetivo principal de este artículo es analizar las motivaciones políticas, económicas y sociales tras la organización de la Copa Mundial de la FIFA Sudáfrica 2010. Es un estudio explicativo sustentado en la revisión de fuentes secundarias e información oficial entregada por el gobierno de Sudáfrica tendiente a estimar las implicancias diplomáticas de un evento que claramente sobrepasó lo netamente deportivo.For over forty years, the soccer was considered in South Africa an important scenario in the struggle for freedom, obtaining the anti-Apartheid movement symbolic, but crucial achievements in this sphere when the local federation was suspended by FIFA from all international competitions until 1992. Once democracy, the soccer -like other sports- has been considered an instance of encounter and reconciliation in a society marked by racial cleavages, thus awarding the FIFA World Cup was hailed by the South Africa's people and the African continent as a great victory that raised expectations about the benefits of this event to improve the quality of life for millions of people. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to

  13. Languages at Work in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlin has led a string of European university cooperation projects, launched from within the membership of the Conseil Européen pour les Langues / European Language Council. The overarching aim of these projects has been to map out the needs for foreign language and intercultural communication skills......Foreign language competences are vital not only for the individual European citizen, but in a more encompassing perspective, for mobility, socio-economic development and the competitiveness of Europe in a global world. - For more than a decade, Professor Wolfgang Mackiewicz of the Freie Universität...

  14. Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Insight is a quarterly, peer-reviewed journal of the Africa Institute of South Africa. It is accredited by the South African National Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET) and is indexed in the International Bibliography of Social Science (IBSS). It is a multi-disciplinary journal primarily focusing on African ...

  15. Destination Europe: The political and economic growth of a continent

    OpenAIRE

    Torbiorn, Kjell M.

    2003-01-01

    Destination Europe interprets and interrelates the major political, economic and security developments in Europe - including transatlantic relations - from the end of the Second World War up until the present time, and looks ahead to how the continent may evolve politically in the future. The book fills a definite lacuna in the current literature on Europe, as most studies cover only specific aspects, such as the European Union. Destination Europe by contrast weaves all the different strands ...

  16. A world on fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Olson; David N. Bengston

    2015-01-01

    We live in a world on fire. In just the past few years, major wildland fires have struck at least 13 U.S. states, as well as Indonesia, Australia, China, southern Europe, Russia, Canada, Bolivia, and other parts of the world. Wildland fires are increasing in number, size, and intensity. In particular, there has been an increase in large fire events—megafires—that...

  17. Entertaining the whole world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheok, Adrian David; Romão, Teresa; Yu, Gino; Cheok, A.D.; Nijholt, Antinus; Romão, T.

    2014-01-01

    Entertainment media are entertainment products and services that rely on digital technology. Mostly the digital entertainment industry is focused on the developed world such as USA, Europe, and Japan. However, due to the decreasing cost of computer and programming technologies, developing countries

  18. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  19. The Incidence and Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in the Contemporary World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SORIN M. RĂDULESCU

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the evolution of incidence and prevalence rates of child sexual abuse recorded in the statistics of different states and regions of the world, including the United States of America, Canada, Australia, Central America and South America, Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Europe. The paper also discusses the conclusions of the main international reports and assessments on the extent of the child sexual abuse phenomenon and it emphasizes certain distinct characteristics of child sexual abuse perpetrated by women against minors, mainly against teenagers.

  20. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, religious, scientific, military, intellectual and institutional models.Four millennia of civilization before Christian era did not pass without leaving a trace.Trade, currency, law, diplomacy, technology applied to works in time of war or peace, the profit based economy and the bureaucratized economy, popular and absolutist government, nationalist and universal spirit, tolerance and fanaticism – all these are not inventions of the modern world, but have their origins and methods of implementation, often even sophisticated methods, in this region.

  1. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  2. BRICS Regional Policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Deych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.

  3. Hispanophone culture. Meeting point between Latin America and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Solange Okome Beka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabon since its independence in 1960, adopted the teaching of Spanish as second foreign language. Since then, three major objectives were pursued: the linguistic, communicative and cultural, being the later the most prominent one. The (IPN National Pedagogical Institute recommends in its 1996 Guidance Letter, the cultural grounding of the Gabonese student, in order to contribute to their balanced development and their social and cultural integration, making them thoughtful citizens. For this aim, the teacher has the role of transmitting and developing students intercultural values. However, in Gabon, teaching of Spanish as second foreign language is done through manuals conceived in Spain or France. The contents are based on the European cultural view of the world, hiding other realities like Latin American or African ones. Even, when these are shown they are in a  very stereotypical way: drugs, misery, poverty, illegal immigration to the United States or Europe. Very few media offer further background on Afromerican or latinamerican indigenous contexts, even if there are quite noticeable similarities between Africa and America, as regards their cultures and beliefs. Students must know both the history and daily present of Latin America and Africa. Therefore, the latest gabonese educational reforms advocate towards introducing the intercultural perspective in teaching. Nevertheless, without promoting real contact and knowledge between the peoples of these areas, it will be totally unrealistic. Therefore, we favor a pedagogy in which the teaching of Spanish could be a meeting point between America and Africa.

  4. Tree Crown Mapping in Managed Woodlands (Parklands) of Semi-Arid West Africa Using WorldView-2 Imagery and Geographic Object Based Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Martin; Reese, Heather; Ostwald, Madelene

    2014-01-01

    Detailed information on tree cover structure is critical for research and monitoring programs targeting African woodlands, including agroforestry parklands. High spatial resolution satellite imagery represents a potentially effective alternative to field-based surveys, but requires the development of accurate methods to automate information extraction. This study presents a method for tree crown mapping based on Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) that use spectral and geometric information to detect and delineate individual tree crowns and crown clusters. The method was implemented on a WorldView-2 image acquired over the parklands of Saponé, Burkina Faso, and rigorously evaluated against field reference data. The overall detection rate was 85.4% for individual tree crowns and crown clusters, with lower accuracies in areas with high tree density and dense understory vegetation. The overall delineation error (expressed as the difference between area of delineated object and crown area measured in the field) was 45.6% for individual tree crowns and 61.5% for crown clusters. Delineation accuracies were higher for medium (35–100 m2) and large (≥100 m2) trees compared to small (crown mapping in parkland landscapes and similar woodland areas. PMID:25460815

  5. Pleistocene Paleoart of Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As in Australia, Pleistocene rock art is relatively abundant in Europe, but it has so far received much more attention than the combined Ice Age paleoart of the rest of the world. Since archaeology initially rejected its authenticity for several decades, the cave art of France and Spain and the portable paleoart from various regions of Europe have been the subjects of thousands of studies. It is shown, however, that much of the published information is unreliable and subjective, and that fundamental trends in the evidence have been misunderstood. In particular, the data implies that the paleoart of the Early Upper Paleolithic, the work of robust humans such as Neanderthals, is considerably more sophisticated and developed that that of more recent times. Thus, the European paleoart demonstrates that the teleological model of cultural “evolution” is false, which is to be expected because evolution is purely dysteleological. This is confirmed by the extensive record of pre-Upper Paleolithic European paleoart, which is comprehensively reviewed in this paper.

  6. Assessing existing drought monitoring and forecasting capacities, mitigation and adaptation practices in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyabeze, W. R.; Dlamini, L.; Lahlou, O.; Imani, Y.; Alaoui, S. B.; Vermooten, J. S. A.

    2012-04-01

    Drought is one of the major natural hazards in many parts of the world, including Africa and some regions in Europe. Drought events have resulted in extensive damages to livelihoods, environment and economy. In 2011, a consortium consisting of 19 organisations from both Africa and Europe started a project (DEWFORA) aimed at developing a framework for the provision of early warning and response through drought impact mitigation for Africa. This framework covers the whole chain from monitoring and vulnerability assessment to forecasting, warning, response and knowledge dissemination. This paper presents the first results of the capacity assessment of drought monitoring and forecasting systems in Africa, the existing institutional frameworks and drought mitigation and adaptation practices. Its focus is particularly on the historical drought mitigation and adaptation actions identified in the North Africa - Maghreb Region (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia) and in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. This is based on an extensive review of historical drought experiences. From the 1920's to 2009, the study identified 37 drought seasons in the North African - Maghreb Region and 33 drought seasons in the Southern Africa - Limpopo Basin. Existing literature tends to capture the spatial extent of drought at national and administrative scale in great detail. This is driven by the need to map drought impacts (food shortage, communities affected) in order to inform drought relief efforts (short-term drought mitigation measures). However, the mapping of drought at catchment scale (hydrological unit), required for longer-term measures, is not well documented. At regional level, both in North Africa and Southern Africa, two organisations are involved in drought monitoring and forecasting, while at national level 22 organisations are involved in North Africa and 37 in Southern Africa. Regarding drought related mitigation actions, the inventory shows that the most common actions

  7. THE PLACE OF E.U. TOURISM WITHIN THE FRAME OF WORLD TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Liviu SCUTARIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the evolution of the global tourism, highlighting the shares of the five major regions of the world: Africa, Middle East, America, Asia-Pacific and Europe. Over the last decades there has been registered a significant increase in tourism worldwide, but the rates of growth vary from one destination to another. The countries of the European continent still maintain their position among the most important tourist destinations of the world, which brings them consistent income from international tourism; the EU continues to have a significant share in world tourism, even if the states of Asia and the Pacific have attracted more and more tourists in the last years.

  8. Optimising the spatial resolution of WorldView-2 pan-sharpened imagery for predicting levels of Gonipterus scutellatus defoliation in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lottering, Romano; Mutanga, Onisimo

    2016-02-01

    Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal is a leaf feeding weevil that is a major defoliator of the genus Eucalyptus. Understanding the relationship between levels of weevil induced vegetation defoliation and the optimal spatial resolution of satellite images is essential for effective management of plantation resources. The objective of this study was to identify appropriate spatial resolutions for predicting levels of weevil induced defoliation. We resampled the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) images computed from a WorldView-2 pan-sharpened image, which is characterised with a 0.5 m spatial resolution and 8 spectral bands. Within each plantation compartment 30 × 30 m plots were established, representing different levels of defoliation. From the centre of each plot, the spatial resolution of the original image was progressively resampled from 1.5 to 8.5 m, with 1 m increments. The minimal variance for each level of defoliation was then established and used as an indicator for quantitatively selecting the optimal spatial resolution. Results indicate that an appropriate spatial resolution was established at 1.25, 1.25, 1.75 and 2.25 m for low, medium, high and severe levels of defoliation, respectively. In addition, an Artificial Neural Network was run to determine the relationship between the appropriate spatial resolution and levels of Gonipterus scutellatus induced defoliation. The model yielded an R2 of 0.80, with an RMSE of 1.28 (2.45% of the mean measured defoliation) based on an independent test dataset. We then compared this model to a model developed using the original 0.5 m image spatial resolution. Our results suggest that optimising the spatial resolution of remotely sensed imagery essentially improves the prediction of vegetation defoliation. In essence, this study provides the foundation for multi-scale defoliation mapping using high spatial resolution imagery.

  9. The burden and impact of COPD in Asia and Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan-Yeung, M.; Ait-Khaled, N.; White, N.; Ip, M.S.; Tan, W.C. [University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine

    2004-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that COPD is currently the 7th leading cause of death and disability worldwide, but will rise to the 5th position by 2020. The estimated prevalence of COPD worldwide in 2001 was 1013/100000 population; it was highest in the Western Pacific Region and lowest in Africa. The mortality from COPD followed the same pattern. The prevalence of smoking is slowly decreasing in the industrialized world and rising in developing countries, especially in Asia and Africa. Cigarette consumption per adult has also decreased in the Americas, remained the same in Europe but increased in all other regions, especially the Western Pacific. Indoor air pollution from combustion of biomass/traditional fuels and coal, previous tuberculous infection, outdoor air pollution and childhood respiratory infections are other important risk factors for COPD in developing countries. The rise in morbidity and mortality from COPD will be most dramatic in Asian and African countries over the next two decades, mostly due to progressive increase in the prevalence of smoking. As developing countries can ill afford the added economic burden of COPD and other smoking-related diseases, there is an urgent need for multidimensional actions in reducing the main risk factor of cigarette smoking. 94 refs.

  10. Cultural conditionally and aid to education in east Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1995-05-01

    Aid to African education often involves the imposition of conditions that create dependency and undermine indigenous educational patterns. Such conditions can include the insistence on textbooks written and published abroad, the use of examination systems devised in Europe or North America, and the neglect of African culture and languages. In the first part of this article the author examines the attempts at educational reform after the African states had achieved independence. The second part highlights the renewed dangers of educational dependency following the 1990 World Conference on Education for All, held in Jomtien, Thailand. The last part of the article discusses whether there is such a thing as "educational aid for empowerment" and gives some examples of good educational aid projects in Africa.

  11. Whole World Handbook. A Student Guide to Work, Study and Travel Abroad. 1978-79 Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marjorie Adoff

    This 1978-79 student guide to work, study, and travel abroad contains chapters on the following areas: Western Europe; the U.S.S.R. and Eastern Europe; the Middle East and North Africa; Africa south of the Sahara; South Asia (India, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Pakistan); East Asia; Southeast Asia; Australia and New Zealand; Latin America and…

  12. The YMCA in Central European Countries as One of the Ways of Americanising Central Europe after the First World War (Base of Information and Methodological Approaches zo Researching the Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Tlustý

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The YMCA in Central European Countries as One of the Ways of Americanising Central Europe after the First World War (Base of Information and Methodological Approaches zo Researching the Issue The YMCA is essentially an organisation uniting people of Christian faith. The basis of its work was the so-called “Four-way program”, which included religious (spiritual, educational and physical education activities. This organisation was established in London in 1844, having been formed by sales clerk George Williams. The YMCA began to spread rapidly throughout Great Britain. From here it spread to France and subsequently to Holland and Germany. It particularly flourished in the United States of America and came to Czechoslovakia from there after the First World War. Here, the YMCA began to establish military and later student residences. It played an important role in developing basketball, volleyball and other sports. It significantly contributed to the rise of permanent summer camps. It also brought a new view of the world, emerging from American Protestantism. The basic method we have decided to use is the comparative method. Using this classic method of historical research, it is necessary to compare the extent to which the YMCA organisation contributed to the “Americanisation” of national cultures of observed countries and how much it influenced young people. Due to the anticipated inequality and imbalance of sources, the method of probing will have to be used to assess individual regions. Unpublished archive materials as well as magazines and news reports from the period, which have not been systematically researched as yet, will be used as sources of information. YMCA ve středoevropských zemích jako jedna z cest amerikanizace střední Evropy po 1. světové válce (informační báze a metodologické přístupy k řešení problému YMCA je v první řadě organizace sdružující lidi křesťanského vyznání. Základem její pr

  13. Earliest and first Northern Hemispheric hoatzin fossils substantiate Old World origin of a "Neotropic endemic".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Gerald; De Pietri, Vanesa L

    2014-02-01

    The recent identification of hoatzins (Opisthocomiformes) in the Miocene of Africa showed part of the evolution of these birds, which are now only found in South America, to have taken place outside the Neotropic region. Here, we describe a new fossil species from the late Eocene of France, which constitutes the earliest fossil record of hoatzins and the first one from the Northern Hemisphere. Protoazin parisiensis gen. et sp. nov. is more closely related to South American Opisthocomiformes than the African taxon Namibiavis and substantiates an Old World origin of hoatzins, as well as a relictual distribution of the single extant species. Although recognition of hoatzins in Europe may challenge their presumed transatlantic dispersal, there are still no North American fossils in support of an alternative, Northern Hemispheric, dispersal route. In addition to Opisthocomiformes, other avian taxa are known from the Cenozoic of Europe, the extant representatives of which are only found in South America. Recognition of hoatzins in the early Cenozoic of Europe is of particular significance because Opisthocomiformes have a fossil record in sub-Saharan Africa, which supports the hypothesis that extinction of at least some of these "South American" groups outside the Neotropic region was not primarily due to climatic factors.

  14. South Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cathy Egan

    SOUTH AFRICA. Ruled for decades by the systematic, violent injustice of apartheid, South Africa by the mid-1980s was subjected to international sanctions and near-universal condemnation. It was in this period — long before transition seemed likely — that IDRC opened its own new assessment of its approach to South ...

  15. World perspective and celiac disease epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catassi, Carlo; Gatti, Simona; Lionetti, Elena

    2015-01-01

    In Europe and the USA, the mean frequency of celiac disease (CD) in the general population is approximately 1%, with some regional differences, the reasons for which remain elusive. A similar disease prevalence has been found in other countries mostly populated by individuals of European origin, e.g. Australia and Argentina. In Western countries, a true rise in overall CD prevalence of CD has been documented. CD is a common disorder in North Africa, the Middle East and India; however, the diagnostic rate is low in these countries due to low availability of diagnostic facilities and poor disease awareness. The highest CD prevalence in the world (5.6%) has been described in an African population originally living in Western Sahara, the Saharawi, of Arab-Berber origin. The reasons for this high CD frequency are unclear but could be primarily related to recent dietary changes and genetic factors, given the high level of consanguinity of this population. Further studies are needed to quantify the incidence of the celiac condition in apparently 'celiac-free' areas such as Sub-Saharan Africa and the Far East. In many developing countries, the frequency of CD is likely to increase in the near future given the diffuse tendency to adopt Western, gluten-rich dietary patterns. As most cases currently escape diagnosis all over the world, an effort should be made to increase the awareness of CD polymorphism. A cost-effective case-finding policy and new strategies of mass CD screening could significantly reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with untreated disease. The current high prevalence of CD is just the last link in a chain of events started about 10,000 years ago after wheat domestication and diffusion from the Middle East. We hypothesize different mechanisms to explain the so-called evolutionary celiac paradox of co-localization of gluten consumption and HLA CD-predisposing genotypes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Regional Integration and Conflict Management in Africa | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research is a critique of the regional integration attempts at conflict management in Africa. The drive towards the establishment of an African peace and security mechanism has become a common topic of discourse in political, security, and academic circles. If Europe needs integration for strength and prosperity, Africa ...

  17. The proposed CO2 Test Injection project in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, C.J.; Hicks, N.; Arenstein, G.; Tippmann, R.; Van Der Spuy, D.; Viljoen, J.; Davids, S.; Roos, M.; Cloete, M.; Beck, B.; Nell, L.; Arts, R.; Holloway, S.; Surridge, T.; Pearce, J.

    2013-01-01

    The South-Africa Europe Cooperation in Carbon capture and Storage (SAfECCS) project was initiated in 2011. The aim of the project is to support the South African Centre for Carbon Capture and Storage (SACCCS) Roadmap for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in South Africa through assessing the

  18. Psychiatry in Africa: the myths, the exotic, and the realities

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Africa's history is inescapably entwined with its history of colonization. Stereotypes ... possibility that some unique features of psychiatric and behavioural disorders in Africans offer the prospect of advancing our knowledge in regard to ... sites in Africa, Europe and North America have shown that the incidence of psychotic ...

  19. A multi-genome analysis approach enables tracking of the invasion of a single Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) clone throughout the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B; Edwards, O; Kang, L; Fuller, S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the population genetics, demographic history and pathway of invasion of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA) from its native range in Central Asia, the Middle East and Europe to South Africa and the Americas. We screened microsatellite markers, mitochondrial DNA and endosymbiont genes in 504 RWA clones from nineteen populations worldwide. Following pathway analyses of microsatellite and endosymbiont data, we postulate that Turkey and Syria were the most likely sources of invasion to Kenya and South Africa, respectively. Furthermore, we found that one clone transferred between South Africa and the Americas was most likely responsible for the New World invasion. Finally, endosymbiont DNA was found to be a high-resolution population genetic marker, extremely useful for studies of invasion over a relatively short evolutionary history time frame. This study has provided valuable insights into the factors that may have facilitated the recent global invasion by this damaging pest. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Perception of the relationship France–Africa by André Gide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The hero is a troubled Frenchman travelling in Africa. Camara inverted the roles traditionally attributed to Europe and Africa. The crossing of various regions is presented as initiatory tests which bring about the hero's palingenesis. Camara shows that a spiritual Africa brought peace and salvation to the Frenchman.

  1. Development of organic fruit in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Weibel, F.P.; Daniel, C.; Tamm, L.; Willer, H.; Schwartau, H.

    2013-01-01

    Europe is both a leading world market for and world producer of organic food. Growth of organically managed land and of domestic market values was strong in the past and continued during the financial recession, although at a slower rate. Many countries have specific plans for priority organic research and investment. Europe is a major producer of organic fruit crops, including a total of more than 900,000 ha consisting of 367,000 ha of olives, 92,700 ha of grapes, 187,000 ha of nuts, 94,800 ...

  2. Sex differences in the course of schizophrenia across diverse regions of the world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novick D

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Diego Novick,1 William Montgomery,2 Tamas Treuer,3 Maria Victoria Moneta,4 Josep Maria Haro4 1Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 2Eli Lilly Australia Pty Ltd, West Ryde, NSW, Australia; 3Eli Lilly and Company, Neuroscience Research, Budapest, Hungary; 4Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, CIBERSAM, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain Abstract: This study explores sex differences in the outcomes of patients with schizophrenia (clinical/functional remission and recovery across diverse regions of the world (Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America, East Asia, and North Africa and the Middle East. Data (n=16,380 for this post hoc analysis were taken from the World-Schizophrenia Health Outcomes Study. In most regions, females had a later age at first service contact for schizophrenia, a lower level of overall/negative symptom severity, lower rates of alcohol/substance abuse and paid employment, and higher percentages of having a spouse/partner and independent living. Overall, females had slightly higher rates of clinical remission (58.0% vs 51.8%, functional remission (22.8% vs 16.0%, and recovery (16.5% vs 16.0% at 36 months (P<0.001 for all. This pattern was consistently observed in Southern Europe and Northern Europe even after controlling for baseline sex differences, but not in other regions. In Central and Eastern Europe, rates of clinical remission were higher in females at 36 months, but those of functional remission and recovery were similar between males and females. The opposite was observed for Latin America. In East Asia, sex differences were rarely observed for these outcomes. Finally, in North Africa and the Middle East, sex differences in these outcomes were pronounced only in regression analyses. These regional variations shed light on the importance of psychosocial and cultural factors and their effects on sex in the prognosis of schizophrenia. Keywords: sex, remission, recovery

  3. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth. PMID:26667385

  4. Out of southern East Asia: the natural history of domestic dogs across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guo-Dong; Zhai, Weiwei; Yang, He-Chuan; Wang, Lu; Zhong, Li; Liu, Yan-Hu; Fan, Ruo-Xi; Yin, Ting-Ting; Zhu, Chun-Ling; Poyarkov, Andrei D; Irwin, David M; Hytönen, Marjo K; Lohi, Hannes; Wu, Chung-I; Savolainen, Peter; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the domestic dog remains a controversial question for the scientific community, with basic aspects such as the place and date of origin, and the number of times dogs were domesticated, open to dispute. Using whole genome sequences from a total of 58 canids (12 gray wolves, 27 primitive dogs from Asia and Africa, and a collection of 19 diverse breeds from across the world), we find that dogs from southern East Asia have significantly higher genetic diversity compared to other populations, and are the most basal group relating to gray wolves, indicating an ancient origin of domestic dogs in southern East Asia 33 000 years ago. Around 15 000 years ago, a subset of ancestral dogs started migrating to the Middle East, Africa and Europe, arriving in Europe at about 10 000 years ago. One of the out of Asia lineages also migrated back to the east, creating a series of admixed populations with the endemic Asian lineages in northern China before migrating to the New World. For the first time, our study unravels an extraordinary journey that the domestic dog has traveled on earth.

  5. [Motherhood without risk. A new hope for Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisberg, F

    1989-01-01

    Health agents, representatives of women's organizations, and political authorities from 22 francophone African countries met in Niamey, Niger, in June 1989 to examine why maternal mortality rates are still so high in their countries. Representatives of the World Bank, World Health Organization, UNFPA, and nongovernmental organizations such as the International Planned PArenthood Federation and of several bilateral aid organizations also attended. Each year around 150,000 women die in Africa of complications related to pregnancy and delivery. The maternal mortality rate is the highest in the world, some 700/100,000 live births vs. 10/100,000 in Western Europe. A videocassette shown by the WHO traced 1 case of death in childbirth to illustrate the multiple failures of the health system. A woman rendered seriously anemic by malnutrition and parasite infections began to hemorrhage during her 8th pregnancy but was not transferred for several hours to the district hospital, which had no blood with which to save her. The shocking problem of maternal mortality has not attracted much attention in Africa until recently because death related to pregnancy have been considered normal and because women have been valued chiefly for their reproductive functions. The causes of death are the same ones that have afflicted women through the ages: excessive blood loss, difficult delivery, infections, eclampsia due to hypertension, and complications of abortion. Family planning would help lower maternal mortality rates by preventing abortions and by reducing risks from closely spaced pregnancies and those at the extremes of the reproductive period. Many such pregnancies are undesired, which increases their risks. Women in Africa do not necessarily want to be reduced to continuous pregnancies, but the entire value system of the family and society puts pressure on them to have children. Women can help effect change by not transmitting these traditional values to their own children. The

  6. Natural gas in the world. Prospects for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This book reviews natural gas reserves and resources, supply and demand forecasting up to the year 2000 and in a less precise estimation to the year 2020 in regional analysis including North America, Latin America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and USSR, Africa, Middle East, Japan, Australia and New Zealand, other Asiatic countries and Oceania.

  7. Risk for rabies importation from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautret, Philippe; Ribadeau-Dumas, Florence; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe; Bourhy, Hervé

    2011-12-01

    A retrospective study conducted in France indicated that a large proportion of patients injured by potentially rabid animals while in North Africa did not seek pretravel advice, and some had not received proper rabies postexposure prophylaxis while in North Africa. As a result, imported human rabies cases are still being reported, and the need for postexposure prophylaxis after exposure in North Africa is not declining. Tourists are generally unaware of the danger of importing potentially rabid animals and of the rules governing the movement of pets. In France, for example, rabid dogs have frequently been imported from Morocco to France through Spain. This situation imposes heavy social and economic costs and impedes rabies control in Europe. Rabies surveillance and control should therefore be reinforced in North Africa, and travelers to North Africa should receive appropriate information about rabies risk and prevention.

  8. THE MIGRANT WORKER AND LEGISLATIVE PROTECTION. A DISCUSSION OF THE SOUTH AFRICA EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux G. Iwu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the context of this paper, a migrant is defined as an asylum seeker, a refugee, a legal and or an illegal immigrant. Labour migration in South Africa has received little attention due to concerns with immigration, which are regarded as far more immediate and pressing. This consideration and others provide the impetus for this paper, which in the opinion of the authors adds to the growing concern over the issues of xenophobia and incidences of maltreatment of African immigrants in South Africa, especially against the background of the bold posture of South Africa’s constitution as the most promising constitution in the world. One must note that South Africa’s independence in 1994 and the prospects of a booming economy in a democratic setting unleashed a floodgate for immigration into the Republic from a variety of countries in Africa including Eastern Europe. This paper finds that despite narratives that tend to argue that migrant workers are deficiently protected in South Africa, evidence suggests that their rights within and outside of the workplace are indeed under the veil of protection by the legislation and the courts. Nonetheless, we are of the opinion that more interventions need to be in place, especially with regard to mitigating the levels of exploitation of migrant workers. This and many other recommendations have been put forward considering that migrant workers are susceptible to exploitation.

  9. The double burden household in sub-Saharan Africa: maternal overweight and obesity and childhood undernutrition from the year 2000: results from World Health Organization Data (WHO) and Demographic Health Surveys (DHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2014-10-31

    Previous studies have characterized an increasing trend of double burden households, or households with individuals experiencing both undernutrition and obesity, in countries undergoing a nutrition transition. Although most prior studies indicate the prevalence of double burden households is highest in middle-income countries, there is some support for an increase in double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries as well. Using data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO), the prevalence of double burden households in sub-Saharan African countries was calculated and the associations between prevalence of overweight/obese adults and underweight, stunted and wasted children were evaluated at the country and household (DHS only) levels. Restricted analyses and frequencies were calculated using urban-only datasets. Surveys from 28 African countries were available using WHO data and 26 from the DHS surveys. Only surveys that were conducted after 2000 were included in analyses. Using the WHO datasets, there were inverse associations between the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adults and underweight, stunting and wasting in children. Correspondingly, there were positive associations between adult underweight and child underweight, stunting and wasting. These associations were not significant in a smaller sample size using urban-only surveys. The prevalence of double burden households in DHS datasets was low: under 5 percent for obese mothers and underweight, stunted or wasted child pairs with a slightly higher percentage for overweight mothers and children with undernutrition. Restricting the analysis to urban only populations did not increase the frequencies of double burden households significantly. There was a low prevalence of double burden households in recent data from sub-Saharan Africa. Countries that have a high prevalence of child undernutrition correspondingly have a high prevalence of adult

  10. Africa's Mining Sector Development: An Industry Perspective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa has in the past decade benefited from continuously increasing investment in the mining sector and is becoming a fully-fledged player in the world economy as a result of the mining boom. Growth in demand for mineral resources coming from emerging countries has transformed Africa, which previously received little ...

  11. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  12. Ordinary violence and social change in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouje, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Ordinary social violence, - i.e. recurrent mental or physical aggression occurring between closely related people - structures social relationships in Africa, and in the world. Studies of violence in Africa often refer to ethnic wars and explicit conflicts and do not enter the hidden domain of

  13. Understanding the Political Economy of Contemporary Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa, 2014. (ISSN 0850-3907). Understanding the Political Economy of. Contemporary Africa. Samir Amin*. Abstract. Current academic programmes in social sciences for African Universities have been prescribed by the World Bank and allied ...

  14. The energy world in 2002. Statistical yearbook ENERDATA 2003; Le monde de l'energie en 2002. Annuaire statistique ENERDATA 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This document summarizes the world energy key data for 2002 (total energy consumption and per gross domestic product unit, petroleum, gas, coal and lignite, and electric power consumptions, CO{sub 2} emissions). Data are grouped according to five main areas (Africa and Middle East, America, Asia and Pacific area, Western Europe, Eastern Europe and ex-USSR). The data show a restart of the world energy consumption (1.4% in 2002 with respect to 0.5% in 2001) despite a relatively low economic growth (1.6% with respect to 2.6% for the previous decade, as an average), a strong growth of the electricity and coal consumption, a restart of the gas consumption and a stagnation of the petroleum consumption. (J.S.)

  15. Opportunities for Renewables in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mushwana, C

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2014, 93 GW of wind and PV were newly installed globally, and until today renewables are mainly driven by the United States, Europe and China. South Africa has implemented an Integrated Resource Plan 2010 which highlights a plan of the power...

  16. Regional Integration and Conflict Management in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Abstract. This research is a critique of the regional integration attempts at conflict management in Africa. The drive towards the establishment of an African peace and security mechanism has become a common topic of discourse in political, security, and academic circles. If Europe needs integration for strength and ...

  17. Oriental Africa | du Plessis | Tydskrif vir letterkunde

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab culture and the religion of Islam permeated the traditions and customs of the African sub-Sahara for centuries. When the early colonizers from Europe arrived in Africa they encountered these influences and spontaneously perceived the African cultures to be ideologically hybridized and more compatible with Islam than ...

  18. Communication Challenges During the Development and Introduction of a New Meningococcal Vaccine in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlier, Monique; Barry, Rodrigue; Shadid, John; Sirica, Coimbra; Brunier, Alison; Hasan, Hayatee; Bouma, Enricke

    2015-11-15

    A new group A meningococcal conjugate vaccine was developed to eliminate deadly meningitis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa. From the outset of the project, advocacy and communication strategies were developed and adjusted as the project evolved in Europe, Africa, India, and the United States. Communications efforts were evidence-based, and involved partnerships with the media and various stakeholders including African ministries of health, the World Health Organization, UNICEF, Gavi, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Médecins Sans Frontières. The implementation of an integrated communication strategy ensured the active cooperation of stakeholders while providing an organized and defined format for the dissemination of project-related developmental activities and the successful introduction of the vaccine. Early in the project, a communications strategy that engaged stakeholders and potential supporters was developed. The strategy was implemented and adapted as the project matured. Linked communication proved to be key to the successful wide-scale introduction of the PsA-TT (MenAfriVac) vaccine in Africa. © 2015 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.

  19. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  20. World Literature - World Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offering their own twenty-first-century perspectives - across generations, nationalities and disciplines -, the contributors to this anthology explore the idea of world literature for what it may add of new connections and itineraries to the study of literature and culture today. Covering a vast ...

  1. [The world is free of pox - Implementation and success of a grandiose program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, S

    1980-12-15

    At the beginning of this century the compulsory vaccination and revaccination which was legally founded after the introduction of the vaccination by Jenner (1796) led to the removal of the smallpox in Europe and Northern America. However, up to the sixties in the developing countries of Asia, Africa as well as of Southern America and Middle America still fell ill and died of small-pox millions of people. Between 1953 and 1973 importations into countries of Europe and Northern America took place in 51 cases. In 1959 on the motion of the USSR the WHO decided performance of a world-wide eradication programme of small-pox which could be led to success with comprehensive personal, material and financial support of many countries. Flanking scientific, technological and methodical measures were of essential importance. In May 1980 the World Health Assembly in Geneva announced in solemn form the world-wide eradication of the small-pox and gave recommendations to the member countries for concluding measures concerning the small-pox vaccination, the foundation of vaccine reserves and the control of the epidemiological situation in the world. Also in the GDR the small-pox vaccination in childhood could be abolished.

  2. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  3. Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Book cover Regional Integration and Cooperation in West Africa: A Multidimensional Perspective. Directeur(s) : R. Lavergne. Maison(s) d'édition : Africa World Press, IDRC. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Out of print. 350 pages. e-ISBN :.

  4. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2014-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of

  5. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Navy mobility fuels forecasting system report: World petroleum trade forecasts for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, S.

    1991-12-01

    The Middle East will continue to play the dominant role of a petroleum supplier in the world oil market in the year 2000, according to business-as-usual forecasts published by the US Department of Energy. However, interesting trade patterns will emerge as a result of the democratization in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. US petroleum imports will increase from 46% in 1989 to 49% in 2000. A significantly higher level of US petroleum imports (principally products) will be coming from Japan, the Soviet Union, and Eastern Europe. Several regions, the Far East, Japan, Latin American, and Africa will import more petroleum. Much uncertainty remains about of the level future Soviet crude oil production. USSR net petroleum exports will decrease; however, the United States and Canada will receive some of their imports from the Soviet Union due to changes in the world trade patterns. The Soviet Union can avoid becoming a net petroleum importer as long as it (1) maintains enough crude oil production to meet its own consumption and (2) maintains its existing refining capacities. Eastern Europe will import approximately 50% of its crude oil from the Middle East.

  7. Mobile Africa : changing patterns of movement in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The case studies in this book on mobility in sub-Saharan Africa critically discuss dichotomous interpretations of mobility and reject the idea that migration indicates a breakdown in society. They adopt the approach that sedentary and mobile worlds converge and that mobility is part of the

  8. The Forte Kreis : an Attempt to Spiritual Leadership over Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Just before the outbreak of World War 1, a group of writers, artists and philosophers decided to establish a spiritual rule over Europe, the Forte Kreis. The group aimed at a reconciliation in Europe, by establishing pacifism, but also between East and West by creating a new language. Their thoughts

  9. EU online Trustmarks Building Digital Confidence in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remotti, L.; Veenstra, A.F.E.; Lieshout, M. van; Kool, L.; Rumpf, G.; Ipektsidis, b.; Damvakeraki, T.

    2012-01-01

    A recent study shows that Europe is the largest eCommerce market in the world, overtaking North America in 2011. The total value of the European market was estimated at €246bn, and online retail sales account for around 5.1% of the total value of the retail market in Europe. Still, cross-border

  10. Challenges of urbanization and peri-urban development in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Nilsson, Kjell Svenne Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Urbanisation has arguably been the most significant process of land use change in Europe since Second World War. Over 70% of Europe's population now lives in urban areas, which in turn, have grown in area by almost 80% over the last fifty years (EEA 2006). Urban areas cover approximately five...

  11. Collaborating to improve quality of life in patients with primary immunodeficiencies: World Prrimary Immunodeficiency Week (WPIW 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorensen Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available World Primary Immunodeficiency Week (WPIW 2013, is celebrated annually on 22-29 April. This year WPIW focuses on the need to test, diagnose and treat this primary immunodeficiency to promote its early detection and appropriate care. This year’s reflexions focuses on various regions of the world. The authors have taken stock of the situation in their respective areas of the world: Europe, Latin America, North Africa and Middle East, as well as Australia. Through a cross country analysis, it reflects on progress made to date to improve the life of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs and the challenges that remain to address. In addition the authors address the need for continued international collaboration amongst all relevant actors to drive better access to early diagnosis and appropriate treatment and ultimately improve the life of patients with PIDs.

  12. Cost challenges for laboratory medicine automation in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Moshen Tanyanyiwa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Automation in laboratory medicine is inevitable and the only way forward especially in Africa where the staff turnover is high due to migration of experienced staff to Europe and America. Described here are the common issues that laboratory Managers and Directors encounter when upgrading, replacing analytical systems as well as daily running of diagnostic laboratories. The rapid advancement driven by the first world where research facilities, resources and expertise are available has seen changes in the both the hardware and software utilised by analyzers every two to three years. The downside is that in the process of replacing/phasing out old analysers, the first world countries in some cases donate them to second and third world countries as refurbished analysers. Problems in obtaining spares ensue since the production of new analysers results in reduced production or even of old spares. Unavailability or delayed availability of spares results in suspension of diagnostic service by the recipient laboratory. In some areas costly modifications to the analysers or the location/building have had to done to suite local (African conditions, hence the need for Laboratory managers to understand fully the analysers’ operational requirements before purchasing or accepting donations

  13. EUROPE 1992, PART OF A PROCESS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUKKES, P

    1992-01-01

    'Europe 1992' is no more than one, although important, component of the rapid economic and political changes that take place in this part of the world. Therefore, overemphasizing its impact should be avoided. Perhaps the switch from EEC to EC is indicative for a shrinking importance of the

  14. The new migratory deal in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, J

    1993-01-01

    "In this paper, we shall examine successively: A world map of current migration flows, 1950-1990, a regional analysis of external migration surplus in Europe, the number and situation of foreigners in the [European Community], East and South migration pressure,...[and] implications for European Community migration policy and Western security." excerpt

  15. Identity and Islamic Radicalization in Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Murshed (Syed); S. Pavan (Sara)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper argues that both socio-economic disadvantage and political factors, such as the West’s foreign policy with regard to the Muslim world, along with historical grievances, play a part in the development of Islamic radicalized collective action in Western Europe. We emphasise the

  16. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders…

  17. FLOSSWorld Africa regional workshop agenda

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tucker, KC

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available forward for FLOSS in Africa. FLOSSWorld is a world-wide impact study of free/libre and open source software. At Idlelo 2 collaborators will be sought to extend its reach across the continent. There are three research tracks: (1) Human capacity building...

  18. Peace and conflict in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    book is touted as an introduction text to key themes with regard to peace and conflict in Africa. .... external lenders such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, and the nature and ... Commission (TRC). He identifies four ...

  19. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  20. Granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1983-04-16

    Apr 16, 1983 ... Granuloma inguinale is a chronic specific infection of the genitalia of both sexes. It is endemic in many parts of the world, including the Caribbean, the southern USA, India, New Guinea and tropical and. sUbtropical Africa. Apart from a single patient diag- nosed clinically, no cases of the disease have pre-.

  1. Narrative Cartoons. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  2. "europe Towards the Stars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-06-01

    YOUNG EUROPEANS AND THEIR TEACHERS TO OBSERVE WITH SUPER-TELESCOPE With the above title, and following the very successful events of the past two years [1], ESO again organises an "educational adventure" in 1995. It takes place within the framework of the "Third European Week for Scientific and Technological Culture", initiated and supported by the European Commission. This time ESO will invite about fifty 17-18 year old grammar school pupils with their teachers to try their skills at one of the world's most advanced astronomical telescopes. The young people are the winners of a Europe-wide astronomy contest that will take place during the summer and early autumn. The main event involves a free, week-long stay at the Headquarters of the European Southern Observatory in November this year. During this time, the participants will experience modern astronomy and astrophysics at one of the world's foremost international centres and also have the opportunity to perform remote observations via a satellite link with two telescopes at the ESO La Silla observatory in Chile. THE CONTEST This year's programme will begin with national competitions in sixteen European countries. It is devised as a contest between joint teams of pupils and teachers. Each team is expected to consist of (up to) three pupils and their teacher. They can choose between four different subjects requiring either practical or theoretical work. Each subject has a strong scientific and technological component. Here are short descriptions: At the telescope - Catching and interpreting the signals. "You observe with an existing telescope and instrument of your own choice. In your observational report you describe the scientific goal, the capability of your equipment, the execution of the observation. You discuss the observational data including an error analysis, and describe the conclusions." Technology for Science - Building an Instrument. "You build an astronomical instrument (e.g. a photometer or a

  3. World Bank Development Policies and Poverty Alleviation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sulaiman.adebowale

    2007-07-10

    Jul 10, 2007 ... exported them to the same markets as it did in the 1970s and 1980s (Onimode. 2003). Thus, whereas Africa ... their raw material calculations has lessened and by implication export rev- enues have also dwindled, .... Globalisation reinforces Africa's peripheral role in the world economy as it ensures that the ...

  4. 1:0 for Spain. After the soccer World Championship, Spain won an important solar contest in South Africa; 1:0 fuer Spanien. Nach der Fussball-WM hat Spanien in Suedafrika nun einen wichtigen Solarwettbewerb gewonnen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, Alejandro Diego; Mattke, Sascha

    2012-03-15

    Spanish manufacturers acquired more orders for construction of industrial-scale PV systems in South Africa than their competitors from other countries. German manufacturers managed to get contracts as partners in several projects.

  5. World law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold J. Berman

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available In the third millennium of the Christian era, which is characterised by the emergence of a world economy and eventually a world society, the concept of world law is needed to embrace not only the traditional disciplines of public international law, and comparative law, but also the common underlying legal principles applicable in world trade, world finance, transnational transfer of technology and other fields of world economic law, as well as in such emerging fields as the protection of the world's environment and the protection of universal human rights. World law combines inter-state law with the common law of humanity and the customary law of various world communities.

  6. developing world poverty, inequality, violence and social

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and Trinidad), 3 in Asia (India, China and Indonesia) and 1 in. Eastern Europe ... to mortality is likely to distort measures of long-term outcome in these contexts, as Ran and colleagues30 suggested in. China. Cohen and colleagues7 also express their skepticism ... of Africa is inescapably influenced by colonial stereotypes.

  7. Historicising ‘Irregular’ Migration from Senegal to Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Maher

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary discourses on migration from West Africa to Europe tend to frame migrants as victims of syndicated trafficking cartels that truck in human desperation. As part of this narrative, migrants are increasingly portrayed as ‘modern-day slaves’ in need of humanitarian protection. In both media and policy circles, African migrants are commonly referred to as desperate travellers who fall prey to exploitative ‘slave traders’ on their clandestine journeys to Europe. And yet, such framings do not adequately account for the ways in which migration from West Africa to Europe has a long and profound history, and thus does not sufficiently correspond to histories of enslavement. Nor do such framings appreciate how contemporary movements within and outside West Africa are informed by interrelated political genealogies that tie Europe to Africa in mutually dialectic ways. Focusing on the case of Senegal, this article aims to disrupt the ‘migrant as slave’ narrative by looking back at the histories of regional and international mobility that continue to shape population movements out of Senegal today.

  8. Europa e Africa - Anatomia di un incontro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    of an encounter" and deals with the historical relations between the continents, from slavery to contemporary relations, passing through colonialism and its distortions. The establishment of borders and nation-states is put under focus with the scope of connecting present realities with their antecedents, while...... and "Postcolonial" Chapter I - The borders in Africa: an overview 1.1 The critical issues of European borders in Africa 1.2 Pre-colonial Africa and the value of land 1.3 The appearance of arbitrary lines 1.4 Africa after the borders 1.5 Borders as lines of instability Chapter II - Beyond the Nation-State 2.......1 The concept of nation-state: a comparison between Europe and Africa 2.2 Giving new meaning to the concept of "migration": why not in Africa? 2.3 Why is that an urgent matter? 2.4 Migrants and social policies Chapter III - Saying Europe, meaning Eurafrica 3.1 The accounts with the past 3.2 Eurafrica, profile...

  9. Protecting Privacy in an Increasingly Digital Developing World ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Protecting Privacy in an Increasingly Digital Developing World. The rocketing growth in the number of people online and ... in sub-Saharan Africa wins Science Diplomacy Award. The Science Granting Councils Initiative in sub-Saharan Africa received a Science Diplomacy Award from the Government of South Africa.

  10. Worlds Fantastic, Worlds Familiar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buratti, Bonnie J.

    2017-02-01

    Introduction; 1. Mercury: the hottest little place; 2. Venus: an even hotter place; 3. Mars: the abode of life?; 4. Asteroids and comets: sweat the small stuff; 5. Galileo's treasures: worlds of fire and ice; 6. Enceladus: an active iceball in space; 7. Titan: an Earth in deep freeze?; 8. Iapetus and its friends: the weirdest 'planets' in the Solar System; 9. Pluto: the first view of the 'third zone'; 10. Earths above: the search for exoplanets and life in the universe; Epilogue; Glossary; Acknowledgements; Index.

  11. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Marjan; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahereh; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-09-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10-19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10-19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10-14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15-19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children's growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10-19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and over- nutrition, which should be considered in public health policy-making.

  12. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA: the CASPIAN-III study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansourian Marjan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The World Health Organization (WHO is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10–19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. Methods In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10–19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. Results The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44% participants aged 10–14 years , and 3118 (58% with 15–19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%, 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%, and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P  Conclusions The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children’s growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10–19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and

  13. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10–19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. Methods In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10–19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. Results The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10–14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15–19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children’s growth. Similar to most low-and middle income populations, Iranian children aged 10–19 years are facing a double burden of weight disorders, notably under- and over- nutrition, which should be considered in

  14. Maritime and Underwater Cultural Heritage in South Africa: The Development of Relevant Management Strategies in the Historical Maritime Context of the Southern Tip of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharfman, Jonathan; Boshoff, Jaco; Parthesius, Robert

    2012-10-01

    South Africans have a long association with water. It has provided a source of food, a medium for trade and a catalyst for migration and development. The country's geographical position as a crossroads of maritime trade between Europe and the East means that its history is inextricably linked to the history of the rest of the world. The result is a multi-faceted representation of sites, objects and mythologies related to water and maritime heritage that reflect not only local historical and social development, but global cultural change as well. Given the importance of South Africa's underwater cultural heritage (UCH), managers have grappled with management principles, ethics and theoretical models in an effort to produce and enforce heritage legislation that is relevant and effective. This paper outlines South Africa's maritime context from 1.5 million years ago until the present, summarises legislative and mitigation developments over the past half century and provides details of current trends in maritime archaeology and UCH management at the southern tip of Africa. Training programmes and public awareness are keys to this strategy to bring UCH and maritime archaeology into the mainstream and counter treasure hunting and looting of this rich, friable resource.

  15. Adherence to the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines and risk of death in Europe: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer cohort study1,4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergnaud, A.C.; Romaguera, D.; Peeters, P.H.M.; Gils, C.H. van; Chan, D.S.; Romieu, I.; Freisling, H.; Ferrari, P.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Fagherazzi, G.; Dartois, L.; Li, K.; Tikk, K.; Bergmann, M.M.; Boeing, H.; Tjonneland, A.; Olsen, A.; Overvad, K.; Dahm, C.C.; Redondo, M.L.; Agudo, A.; Sanchez, M.J.; Amiano, P.; Chirlaque, M.D.; Ardanaz, E.; Khaw, K.T.; Wareham, N.J.; Crowe, F.; Trichopoulou, A.; Orfanos, P.; Trichopoulos, D.; Masala, G.; Sieri, S.; Tumino, R.; Vineis, P.; Panico, S.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Ros, M.M.; May, A.; Wirfalt, E.; Sonestedt, E.; Johansson, I.; Hallmans, G.; Lund, E.; Weiderpass, E.; Parr, C.L.; Riboli, E.; Norat, T.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2007, the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR) issued recommendations on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. OBJECTIVE: We

  16. Bat rabies surveillance in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, J; Fooks, A R; McElhinney, L; Horton, D; Echevarria, J; Vázquez-Moron, S; Kooi, E A; Rasmussen, T B; Müller, T; Freuling, C M

    2013-02-01

    Rabies is the oldest known zoonotic disease and was also the first recognized bat associated infection in humans. To date, four different lyssavirus species are the causative agents of rabies in European bats: the European Bat Lyssaviruses type 1 and 2 (EBLV-1, EBLV-2), the recently discovered putative new lyssavirus species Bokeloh Bat Lyssavirus (BBLV) and the West Caucasian Bat Virus (WCBV). Unlike in the new world, bat rabies cases in Europe are comparatively less frequent, possibly as a result of varying intensity of surveillance. Thus, the objective was to provide an assessment of the bat rabies surveillance data in Europe, taking both reported data to the WHO Rabies Bulletin Europe and published results into account. In Europe, 959 bat rabies cases were reported to the RBE in the time period 1977-2010 with the vast majority characterized as EBLV-1, frequently isolated in the Netherlands, North Germany, Denmark, Poland and also in parts of France and Spain. Most EBLV-2 isolates originated from the United Kingdom (UK) and the Netherlands, and EBLV-2 was also detected in Germany, Finland and Switzerland. Thus far, only one isolate of BBLV was found in Germany. Published passive bat rabies surveillance comprised testing of 28 of the 52 different European bat species for rabies. EBLV-1 was isolated exclusively from Serotine bats (Eptesicus serotinus and Eptesicus isabellinus), while EBLV-2 was detected in 14 Daubenton's bats (Myotis daubentonii) and 5 Pond bats (Myotis dasycneme). A virus from a single Natterer's bat (Myotis nattereri) was characterized as BBLV. During active surveillance, only oral swabs from 2 Daubenton's bats (EBLV-2) and from several Eptesicus bats (EBLV-1) yielded virus positive RNA. Virus neutralizing antibodies against lyssaviruses were detected in various European bat species from different countries, and its value and implications are discussed. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. for Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was witnessed by a galaxy of African leaders all united in their vision of a future for Africa representative of the African. Renaissance as conceptualised by Nelson Mandela. Thousands of miles away, in the land of the Rising Sun, the city of. Yokohama witnessed the birth of another African child, con- ceived, carried and ...

  18. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  19. Africa Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. It is a social science journal whose major focus is on issues which are central to the development of society. Its principal objective is to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas among African scholars from a variety of intellectual persuasions and various ...

  20. Forced marriage in Europe: from a migration problem in a global world to the old phenomenon of gender violence / Les mariages forcés en Europe : d’un problème lié à la migration dans un monde globalisé à l’ancien phénomène de la violence de genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia Igareda

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forced marriages are sometimes defined as a migration problem, other times they are explained as justified or promoted by certain religious or cultures, but they are rarely portrayed as a form of gender violence. Depending on this variety of diagnosis, there are different legal and political approaches to this issue. The most common approach in Europe is to establish legal and political measures to control migration flows and avoid fraudulent marriages. Forced marriages are usually considered a form of trafficking in human beings or another form of violence against women as the consequence of European Union Directives or Conventions under the Council of Europe. Hence in national law, forced marriages become a new crime. Victims of forced marriage rarely have access to the criminal system, and they are left in very vulnerable situations, especially when we consider that estimates state that more than half of them are minors. Les mariages forcés sont parfois définis comme un problème migratoire, à d’autres occasions ils sont expliqués comme s’ils étaient justifiés ou favorisés par certaines religions ou cultures, mais ils sont rarement représentés comme une forme de violence de genre. Compte tenu de cette diversité de situations, il existe sur ce point différentes approches, d’ordre juridique et politique. L’approche la plus utilisée en Europe consiste à prendre des mesures visant à contrôler les flux migratoires et à empêcher les mariages frauduleux. Les mariages forcés sont souvent considérés comme une forme de traite d’êtres humains ou comme un autre type de violence à l’égard des femmes en conséquence des directives de l’Union européenne ou des Conventions élaborées dans le cadre du Conseil de l'Europe. Ainsi, dans les lois nationales, les mariages forcés deviennent un nouveau délit. Les victimes des mariages forcés ont rarement accès au système de justice pénale et sont laissées dans des

  1. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973): American surgeon and commander of the 27th Evacuation Hospital during the Second World War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmia, Anand N; Christein, John D

    2017-08-01

    Dr. Charles Bernard Puestow (1902-1973) was an American surgeon who is well known for developing the longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy, which is known as the "Puestow procedure" in his honor. Puestow served in the American military during the Second World War and commanded the 27th Evacuation Hospital, which provided medical and surgical services to wounded individuals in Europe and North Africa. In 1946, he founded the surgical residency training program at the Hines Veterans Hospital, which was the first such program in the United States based at a veterans hospital.

  2. Widespread plant species: Natives versus aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Pysek, P.; Kartesz, J.; Nishino, M.; Pauchard, A.; Winter, M.; Pino, J.; Richardson, D.M.; Wilson, J.R.U.; Murray, B.R.; Phillips, M.L.; Ming-yang, L.; Celesti-Grapow, L.; Font, X.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  3. Widespread plant species: natives vs. aliens in our changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Pyšek, Petr; Kartesz, John; Nishino, Misako; Pauchard, Aníbal; Winter, Marten; Pino, Joan; Richardson, David M.; Wilson, John R.U.; Murray, Brad R.; Phillips, Megan L.; Ming-yang, Li; Celesti-Grapow, Laura; Font, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of the level of invasion for a region are traditionally based on relative numbers of native and alien species. However, alien species differ dramatically in the size of their invasive ranges. Here we present the first study to quantify the level of invasion for several regions of the world in terms of the most widely distributed plant species (natives vs. aliens). Aliens accounted for 51.3% of the 120 most widely distributed plant species in North America, 43.3% in New South Wales (Australia), 34.2% in Chile, 29.7% in Argentina, and 22.5% in the Republic of South Africa. However, Europe had only 1% of alien species among the most widespread species of the flora. Across regions, alien species relative to native species were either as well-distributed (10 comparisons) or more widely distributed (5 comparisons). These striking patterns highlight the profound contribution that widespread invasive alien plants make to floristic dominance patterns across different regions. Many of the most widespread species are alien plants, and, in particular, Europe and Asia appear as major contributors to the homogenization of the floras in the Americas. We recommend that spatial extent of invasion should be explicitly incorporated in assessments of invasibility, globalization, and risk assessments.

  4. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD, THE EU-27 AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.

  5. Understanding the basics of audiovisual archiving in Africa and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The division between the two worlds (the developed and the developing world) has not spared the process of audiovisual archiving and the gap is widening bringing in a lot of challenges to Africa as part of the developing world. While the developed world is today concerned about digital technology and web-based ...

  6. Autochthonous and dormant Cryptococcus gattii infections in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ferry; Colom, M Francisca; Swinne, Daniëlle; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Iatta, Roberta; Montagna, Maria Teresa; Torres-Rodriguez, Josep M; Cogliati, Massimo; Velegraki, Aristea; Burggraaf, Arjan; Kamermans, Alwin; Sweere, Johanna M; Meis, Jacques F; Klaassen, Corné H W; Boekhout, Teun

    2012-10-01

    Until recently, Cryptococcus gattii infections occurred mainly in tropical and subtropical climate zones. However, during the past decade, C. gattii infections in humans and animals in Europe have increased. To determine whether the infections in Europe were acquired from an autochthonous source or associated with travel, we used multilocus sequence typing to compare 100 isolates from Europe (57 from 40 human patients, 22 from the environment, and 21 from animals) with 191 isolates from around the world. Of the 57 human patient isolates, 47 (83%) were obtained since 1995. Among the 40 patients, 24 (60%) probably acquired the C. gattii infection outside Europe; the remaining 16 (40%) probably acquired the infection within Europe. Human patient isolates from Mediterranean Europe clustered into a distinct genotype with animal and environmental isolates. These results indicate that reactivation of dormant C. gattii infections can occur many years after the infectious agent was acquired elsewhere.

  7. Top Ten Environmental Priorities for Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LANDA

    perpetually pregnant with disaster. Although we must progress simultaneously on all fronts, it is important to establish priorities for the ... vulnerability of forests and wildlife that attract many of the world's influential citizens to visit Africa? According to the World Health Organization's (WHO) recent comprehensive study on the ...

  8. The Reshaping of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the different paths Europe may follow, this study treats Soviet reform and new -vi- dinking as an independent variable that propels systemic change...Europe dating back to the Bolshevik Revolution to reinstate Russia in the European family of nations. Whether the Soviet Union chooses to behave as a

  9. Islam in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Schøler

    2008-01-01

    A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007.......A discussion of various approaches to Islam and Muslims in Europe in seven books published in the USA and the UK between 2005 and 2007....

  10. Small States in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe.......This book offers an accessible, coherent and informative analysis of contemporary and future foreign policy challenges facing small states in Europe....

  11. Desert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Doumbia, Seydou; Henry, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database ( N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else.

  12. The incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen E; Morrison-Rees, Sian; John, Ann; Williams, John G; Brown, Tim H; Samuel, David G

    Acute pancreatitis is increasingly one of the most important acute gastrointestinal conditions throughout much of the world, although incidence and aetiology varies across countries and regions. This study investigated regional and national patterns in the incidence and aetiology of acute pancreatitis, demographic patterns in incidence and trends over time in incidence across Europe. A structured review of acute pancreatitis incidence and aetiology from studies of hospitalised patient case series, cohort studies or other population based studies from 1989 to 2015 and a review of trends in incidence from 1970 to 2015 across all 51 European states. The incidence of acute pancreatitis was reported from 17 countries across Europe and ranged from 4.6 to 100 per 100 000 population. Incidence was usually highest in eastern or northern Europe, although reported rates often varied according to case ascertainment criteria. Of 20 studies that reported on trends in incidence, all but three show percentage increases over time (overall median increase = 3.4% per annum; range = -0.4%-73%). The highest ratios of gallstone to alcohol aetiologies were identified in southern Europe (Greece, Turkey, Italy and Croatia) with lowest ratios mainly in eastern Europe (Latvia, Finland, Romania, Hungary, Russia and Lithuania). The incidence of acute pancreatitis varies across Europe. Gallstone is the dominant aetiology in southern Europe and alcohol in eastern Europe with intermediate ratios in northern and western Europe. Acute pancreatitis continues to increase throughout most of Europe. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Assessment of future streamflow changes in major rivers of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudier, Philippe; Rojas, Rodrigo; Bisselink, Bernard; Feyen, Luc

    2013-04-01

    Although being one of the most vulnerable regions of the world to climate change, impact studies in West Africa, especially concerning water resources, are still scarce compared to other regions such as Europe, North-America or Asia. Therefore, we investigate in this study how climate change may affect the main rivers of West Africa (Niger, Volta, Senegal) using the global LISFLOOD model. This hydrological rainfall-runoff model, extensively used for pan-European assessments, has been recently set up and calibrated for Africa, allowing such impact analysis. Here, LISFLOOD is set up on a 0.1*0.1 degree grid for the period 1991-2050. Quantifying the uncertainty in climate impact studies is now a fundamental task, especially in West Africa where the agreement among rainfall projections is low. We therefore employ an ensemble of climate experiments originating from 8 different GCM/RCM combinations obtained from the EU FP6 ENSEMBLES project (SRES A1B scenario). Prior to forcing LISFLOOD, bias in the precipitation and temperature fields (Tmin, Tavg and Tmax) is removed with a quantile mapping method using as target the WATCH Forcing Data. In order to take into account the high population growth in West Africa we also account for projected changes in water use. Results first focus on changes in average streamflow conditions and how these changes affect water availability, expressed by the Water Exploitation Index. Second, and as underlined by the recent SREX IPCC report (2012), we show the impacts on extreme events (droughts and floods) using relevant indices such as the 100-year return period flood.

  14. Assessment of ozone impacts on vegetation in southern Africa and directions for future research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Tienhoven, AM

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available .h, which is intended to protect crops and natural vegetation in Europe. Natural vegetation and crops in southern Africa may be tolerant of elevated ozone concentrations because of naturally high background levels, but additional anthropogenic inputs...

  15. A socio-cultural perspective on transformation of gender roles and relations, and non-change in energy-health perceptions following electrification in rural South Africa : case study for Gender and Energy World Development Report Background Paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matinga, Margaret Njirambo

    2012-01-01

    This case study draws on a PhD which used an ethnographic approach in data collection and analysis. It is informed by extensive periods of observation and interviews by the researcher embedded in two villages, Cutwini and Tsilitwa in rural South Africa. Cutwini had no electricity or modern

  16. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  17. Epidemiology of stone disease across the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, Igor; Mamoulakis, Charalampos; Miyazawa, Katsuhito; Rodgers, Allen; Talati, Jamsheer; Lotan, Yair

    2017-09-01

    Nephrolithiasis is a highly prevalent disease worldwide with rates ranging from 7 to 13% in North America, 5-9% in Europe, and 1-5% in Asia. Due to high rates of new and recurrent stones, management of stones is expensive and the disease has a high level of acute and chronic morbidity. The goal of this study is to review the epidemiology of stone disease in order to improve patient care. A review of the literature was conducted through a search on Pubmed ® , Medline ® , and Google Scholar ® . This review was presented and peer-reviewed at the 3rd International Consultation on Stone Disease during the 2014 Société Internationale d'Urologie Congress in Glasgow. It represents an update of the 2008 consensus document based on expert opinion of the most relevant studies. There has been a rising incidence in stone disease throughout the world with a narrowing of the gender gap. Increased stone prevalence has been attributed to population growth and increases in obesity and diabetes. General dietary recommendations of increased fluid, decreased salt, and moderate intake of protein have not changed. However, specific recommended values have either changed or are more frequently reported. Geography and environment influenced the likelihood of stone disease and more information is needed regarding stone disease in a large portion of the world including Asia and Africa. Randomized controlled studies are lacking but are necessary to improve recommendations regarding diet and fluid intake. Understanding the impact of associated conditions that are rapidly increasing will improve the prevention of stone disease.

  18. Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book shows the state of the art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position, with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. It is divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, 4 to 5 contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather. From the reading of this book, it becomes evident that space weather is a living discipline, full of promises and already full of amazing realizations. The strength of Europe is clear through the book, but it is also clear that this discipline is world wide.

  19. Christian identity of secular Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other things, intensification of process of European integrations has imposed the need for realization and strengthening of common European cultural identity, that is for creating a new set of values, which would be common to all European citizens and which would be the basis for their permanent feeling of community and an experience of belonging to Europe as a common area. What are the chances of such a project since, on one hand, Islam is appearing in Europe as a religion that does not know secularity and, on the other hand, an important part of European inhabitants is showing the rise of anti-immigrant and , especially, anti-Islamic feelings, opposition to the presence of foreigners, fear of majorization and the loss of one's own identity and the values of European culture? The existing conflict with Islam is, most often, described as a conflict between secularized West where religion is a matter of private choice and religious (primarily Islamic world where religion is regulating every aspect of life. However, innumerable examples all around us (starting with the fact that the time is counted according to the Christian calendar, Christian holidays and iconography, Biblical myths, moral codes, architecture, toponims-to mention only few constantly reminds how much Christianity (primarily as a cultural tradition is strongly present in the lives of the secular Europeans, how much is that secular context in fact permeated with Christian story. Vestiges of that past, which are all around us, are not in fact perceived as a Christian story - in meeting with European secularism such recognition comes only to "others" to whom that story is not familiar. On what premises then can such a common forum be created on which all would really feel equally at home? In this work I will try to consider possible directions in which, considering the existing circumstances, Europe could move in search of the new common denominator. Since nations, according to

  20. An Appalling Ignorance of the World: The Price of Affluence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, John H.

    Today's students in the Western world show a widespread lack of basic world knowledge. Geography graduates in a Canadian and an Australian university were asked to locate 75 major cities in the world. The results indicated a wide knowledge of cities in the Western world but little knowledge of cities in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. Only…

  1. World Food Prospects for the 1990s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, John R.

    1990-01-01

    Addresses world hunger issues and the increasing world population. Sees continued imbalance between supply and demand. Points out Europe and the United States are dealing with surplus production, whereas developing nations continue to import needed food. Argues solving hunger problems requires eliminating poverty through development programs.…

  2. World port cities as cosmopolitan risk community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blok, Anders; Tschötschel, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Extending Ulrich Beck’s theory of world risk society, this article traces the emergence of a cosmopolitan risk community of world port cities in Europe and East Asia, constituted around shared imaginations of the global risks and opportunities of climate change. Such urban risk imaginations...... indication of this cosmopolitan risk community, in terms of the timing, intensity, priorities and modes of government manifested in the climate policy engagements of 16 major world port cities across the regions of Europe and East Asia. The substantial similarities in such policy engagements, we conclude...

  3. Suicide in the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeter Värnik

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Over the past 20 years the WHO has considerably improved world mortality data. There are still shortcomings but more countries now report data and world-wide estimates are regularly made. Methods: Data about mortality have been retrieved from the WHO world database. Worldwide injury mortality estimates for 2008 as well as trends of the suicide rate from 1950 to 2009 were analysed. Results: Suicides in the world amount to 782 thousand in 2008 according to the WHO estimate, which is 1.4% of total mortality and 15% of injury mortality. The suicide rate for the world as a whole is estimated at 11.6 per 100,000 inhabitants. The male–female rate ratio of suicide is estimated to be highest in the European Region (4.0 and the lowest in the Eastern Mediterranean region (1.1. Among males the highest suicide rate in the 15–29 age group is in the SE Asian region, in the 45–59 age group in European males and for ages above 60 in the Western Pacific region. Females from SE Asia have a remarkably high suicide rate among 15–29-year-olds and from age 45 in the Western Pacific region. The leading country is currently Lithuania, with a suicide rate of 34.1 per 100,000 inhabitants. Also among males the suicide rate is the highest in Lithuania at 61.2. Among females South Korea with 22.1 is at the top of world suicide rates. Conclusions: During the past six decades, according to the WHO Japan, Hungary, and Lithuania have topped the list of world countries by suicide rate, but if the current trends continue South Korea will overtake all others in a few years. The heart of the problem of suicide mortality has shifted from Western Europe to Eastern Europe and now seems to be shifting to Asia. China and India are the biggest contributors to the absolute number of suicides in the world.

  4. Community wind projects in Europe; Projets eolienne communautaires en Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renauld, M.A. [Enercon Gmbh (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Enercon has wind energy projects all over the world, including Canada, Europe, Australia, Brazil and Argentina. In Canada, the Enercon group has sales offices in Quebec and has operations in Edmonton, Calgary, Southern Ontario and Atlantic Canada. Their turbine manufacturing facility is in Quebec's Gaspe region. This presentation included illustrations of Enercon's simple and proven technologies that make it a leader in the industry. The presentation also highlighted the community wind energy projects that are underway or in operation in the United Kingdom, France and Germany. Most community projects produce 12 MW of power. Issues regarding investment and financing were also discussed. The level of local investment in community wind projects was shown to be strongly correlated to the level of social acceptance. The new trend for municipalities to generate their own electricity has made electricity production an election platform issue. figs.

  5. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  6. Effect of NOx emission controls from world regions on the long-range transport of ozone air pollution and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions, using the MOZART-2 model of tropospheric chemistry and transport. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between different world regions for ozone. We find that the strongest inter-regional influences are for Europe to the Former Soviet Union (FSU), East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for tropical source regions, due to greater sensitivity of ozone production to NOx emissions. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are about 20% as effective per ton at reducing ozone in Europe, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. In estimating the changes in cases of premature mortality associated with ozone, we find that NOx reductions in North America, Europe, and FSU reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, an average ton of NOx reduced in India causes the greatest number of avoided mortalities (mainly in India itself). We also assess the long-term increases in global ozone resulting from methane increases due to the regional NOx reductions. For many of the more distant source-receptor pairs, the long-term increase in ozone roughly negates the direct short-term ozone decrease. The increase in methane and long-term ozone per unit of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical source regions and varies among different regions by a factor of ten.

  7. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  8. Churchill, Europe and Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Dockter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available From the early 1930s until his peace time premiership (1951-1955, Winston Churchill was one of the strongest advocates of the concept of a United Europe. While this is well known among scholars of 20th century British history, Churchill’s actual vision for what a United Europe might look like has received less attention. Still less attention has been paid to Churchill’s opinions of the roles other nations might play within the new Europe. This article will examine Churchill’s view of Turkey in the new European order and will reveal that Churchill saw Turkey as a part of, (or at least an extension of Europe. However, this article will also reveal that Churchill’s conceptualisation of Turkey’s role was largely predicated on 19th century geostrategic thinking.

  9. Ministrations of peace : the historical-spiritual underpinnings of contemporary Quaker approaches to conflict in 'Third World' military settings with special reference to apartheid South Africa, 1960-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Guiton, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    This study identifies, analyses and compares the spiritual underpinning of Quaker approaches to conflict in two military settings, 1652-61 in England and 1960-94 in South Africa. It contends that the early Quakers were well within the Christian Apocalyptic tradition, using the language of metaphor and allegory to unveil the potential of the New Covenant within; to be "in the Life", as this was understood by the early Quakers, meant successfully undergoing a rigorous spiritual self-examination...

  10. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  11. Middle East: New Balkans of the World?

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Georgescu Stefan; Dr.Sc. Munteanu Marilena

    2012-01-01

    Middle East is a region whose geopolitical dynamics has many analogies with the role of the Balkans in the first half of the 19th century and up to the 3rd decade of the 20th century, namely a "Powder keg of Europe", defined in the same period as the "Eastern Issue".Moreover, Middle East is a region located at the junction of three continents: Europe, Asia and the Mediterranean Africa, and along with ancient Egypt is the cradle of Western civilization, providing for it political, economic, re...

  12. Back to Africa: Second Chances for the Children of West African Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Caroline H.; Sow, Papa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the phenomenon of West African parents living in Europe and North America who send their older children back home: from places of high immigrant aspiration to those of hardship and privation. Drawing on a project on West African immigration to Europe and on previous field studies in Africa, we conclude that West African…

  13. Multiple Sclerosis Epidemiology in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezzini, Daiana; Battaglia, Mario A

    2017-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterized by a non-homogeneous distribution around the world. Some authors in past described a latitude gradient, with increasing risk from the equator to North and South Poles, but this theory is still controversial. Regarding Europe, there are many articles in the literature concerning the epidemiology of this disease but, unfortunately, they are not always comparable due to different methodologies, they do not cover all countries in the continent, and most of them reported data of small areas and rarely at a national level. In 2012 there were 20 national registries that could help to describe the epidemiology of the disease and, in addition, there is an European Register for Multiple Sclerosis that collect data from already existing national or regional MS registries and databases. Another valid alternative to obtain epidemiological data, also at national level, in a routinely and cost-saving way is through administrative data that are of increasing interest in the last years.

  14. Demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions: are they relevant to population health patterns in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Kuate Defo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies of trends in population changes and epidemiological profiles in the developing world have overwhelmingly relied upon the concepts of demographic, epidemiological, and health transitions, even though their usefulness in describing and understanding population and health trends in developing countries has been repeatedly called into question. The issue is particularly relevant for the study of population health patterns in Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as the history and experience there differs substantially from that of Western Europe and North America, for which these concepts were originally developed. Objective: The aim of this study is two-fold: to review and clarify any distinction between the concepts of demographic transition, epidemiological transition and health transition and to identify summary indicators of population health to test how well these concepts apply in Africa. Results: Notwithstanding the characteristically diverse African context, Africa is a continent of uncertainties and emergencies where discontinuities and interruptions of health, disease, and mortality trends reflect the enduring fragility and instability of countries and the vulnerabilities of individuals and populations in the continent. Africa as a whole remains the furthest behind the world's regions in terms of health improvements and longevity, as do its sub-Saharan African regions and societies specifically. This study documents: 1 theoretically and empirically the similarities and differences between the demographic transition, epidemiological transition, and health transition; 2 simple summary indicators that can be used to evaluate their descriptive and predictive features; 3 marked disparities in the onset and pace of variations and divergent trends in health, disease, and mortality patterns as well as fertility and life expectancy trajectories among African countries and regions over the past 60 years; 4 the rapid decline in infant

  15. Republic of South Africa: unraveling the population puzzle. Country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-06-01

    This discussion of the Republic of South Africa focuses on population growth, regions and cities, ethnicity and religion of the population, age distribution, housing and households, education, employment, income, and marketing and communication. South Africans, condemmed by the world community for their policy of racial discriminatioon, contend that outsiders fail to understand the system they legalized in 1948. Apartheid calls for developing different political institutions for blacks and whites in preparation for their eventual separation. According to this reasoning, black Africans are not considered permanent residents of South Africa, but rather of the "homelands" to which each tribal group has been assigned by the government. 4 homelands have been made independent, and if the remaining 6 become independent as scheduled, South Africa theoretically will no longer have any black citizens. Under this plan, nearly 90% of the current area of South Africa would go to whites, while the remaining 10% would be divided among the 10 homelands. The UN has condemmed the homelands policy, and no country has recognized their independence. By law South Africa has 4 distinct populations: Africans, whites, coloureds, and asians. Rhe combination of Afrikaners and British makes up the white population. Whites are in the minority and numbered only 4.7 million in 1983, or 15% of the total population. Since whites rule the country, their importance is far disproportionate to their numbers. There were 2.7 million coloureds in 1983, approximately 9% of all South Africans. Black africans, the single largest population group, numbered 22.7 million in 1983, or 73% of the total population. Blacks are divided in 10 subgroups corresponding to the 10 ethnicallyy based homelands. The largest groups are the Zulu (5.9 million in 1981) and the Xhosa (3.1 million). Population growth varies by race. The annual growth rate for the entire country was 2.4% in 1983, but for blacks it was 2.7% and for

  16. MIGRATION AND MALARIA IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of imported malaria cases due to immigrants in Europe has increased during the lasts decades, being the higher rates for those settled immigrants who travel to visit friends and relatives (VFRs at their country of origin. Cases are mainly due to P. falciparum and Sub-Saharan Africa is the most common origin. Clinically, malaria in immigrants is characterized by a mild clinical presentation with even asymptomatic o delayed malaria cases and low parasitemic level. These characteristics may be explained by a semi-immunity acquired after long periods of time exposed to stable transmission of malaria. Malaria cases among immigrants, even those asymptomatic patients with sub-microscopic parasitemia, could increase the risk of transmission and reintroduction of malaria in certain areas with the adequate vectors and climate conditions. Moreover imported malaria cases by immigrants can also play an important role in the non-vectorial transmission out of endemic area, by blood transfusions, organ transplantation or congenital or occupational exposures. Probably, out of endemic areas, screening of malaria among recent arrived immigrants coming from malaria endemic countries should be performed. These aim to reduce the risk of clinical malaria in the individual as well as to prevent autochthonous transmission of malaria in areas where it had been eradicated.

  17. South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    The 1983 population of South Africa was estimated at 31.1 million, with an annual growth rate of 2.5% (0.8% for whites, 1.8% for blacks and "coloreds," 1.8% for Asians, and 2.8% for Africans). The infant mortality rate was 14.9/1000 live births among whites, 80.6/1000 among blacks and coloreds, and 25.3/1000 among Asians. Life expectancy was 70 years for whites, 59 years for blacks and coloreds, 66 years for Asians, and 55 years for Africans. Racial discrimination has become increasingly institutionalized in South Africa since the ruling National Party came to power in 1948. The policy of apartheid calls for separate political institutions for the 4 major racial groups in the population. Africans are considered citizens of the homelands to which their tribal group is assigned, not permanent citizens of the country. Coloreds and Asians are considered citizens and given some political expression. The new political system envisions broad consensus among whites, coloreds, and Indians, and a parliamentary committee is considering possible abolition of laws against multiracial political activity. The work force totals 11 million, 30% of whom are engaged in agriculture, 29% are employed in industry and commerce, 34% work in the services sector, and 7% work in mining. The GNP in 1983 totalled US$75.5 billion and the GDP stood at US$73.2 billion. Per capita GNP was US$5239.

  18. Hepatitis A virus seroprevalence by age and world region, 1990 and 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Wiersma, Steven T

    2010-09-24

    To estimate current age-specific rates of immunity to hepatitis A virus (HAV) in world regions by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of published data. The estimation of the global burden of hepatitis A and policies for public health control are dependent on an understanding of the changing epidemiology of this viral infection. Age-specific IgG anti-HAV seroprevalence data from more than 500 published articles were pooled and used to fit estimated age-seroprevalence curves in 1990 and 2005 for each of 21 world regions (as defined by the Global Burden of Disease 2010 Study). High-income regions (Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, the United States, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Singapore) have very low HAV endemicity levels and a high proportion of susceptible adults, low-income regions (sub-Saharan Africa and parts of South Asia) have high endemicity levels and almost no susceptible adolescents and adults, and most middle-income regions have a mix of intermediate and low endemicity levels. Anti-HAV prevalence estimates in this analysis suggest that middle-income regions in Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East currently have an intermediate or low level of endemicity. The countries in these regions may have an increasing burden of disease from hepatitis A, and may benefit from new or expanded vaccination programs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetes trends in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motala, Ayesha A

    2002-01-01

    Diabetes is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Although a dramatic increase in disease burden is projected, it remains to be seen what effect the ongoing devastation of HIV disease will have on the epidemiology of such chronic diseases as diabetes. Recent data on type 2 diabetes prevalence indicate low rates in some rural populations, moderate rates similar to those in developed areas in some countries, and alarmingly high rates in others. The frequent observation of moderate to high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance, particularly in populations with a low prevalence of diabetes, may indicate the early stage of a diabetes epidemic. Risk factors include urbanization, age, and family history of disease, as well as such modifiable risk factors as adiposity and physical inactivity. For type 1 diabetes, limited data indicate that the prevalence is low in sub-Saharan Africa and that onset occurs later in life there than in other parts of the world. Mortality associated with diabetes is unacceptably high and is disproportionately due to preventable acute metabolic and infective causes. With long duration of disease, there is a high frequency of hypertension and microvascular complications. The apparent low frequency of chronic macrovascular complications needs fuller documentation - as does the apparent high frequency of hypertension even in the non-diabetic population. Efforts to prevent this disease and its complications in Africa are impeded by inadequate health care infrastructure, inadequate supply of medications, absence of educational programs, and lack of available health care facilities and providers. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery: "The Olympics of our profession".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo-Hamman, Christopher; Jacobs, Jeffery Phillip

    2012-12-01

    The first World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology was held in London, United Kingdom, in 1980, organised by Dr. Jane Somerville and Prof. Fergus Macartney. The idea was that of Jane Somerville, who worked with enormous energy and enthusiasm to bring together paediatric cardiologists and surgeons from around the world. The 2nd World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology took place in New York in 1985, organised by Bill Rashkind, Mary Ellen Engle, and Eugene Doyle. The 3rd World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology was held in Bangkok, Thailand, in 1989, organised by Chompol Vongraprateep. Although cardiac surgeons were heavily involved in these early meetings, a separate World Congress of Paediatric Cardiac Surgery was held in Bergamo, Italy, in 1988, organised by Lucio Parenzan. Thereafter, it was recognised that surgeons and cardiologists working on the same problems and driven by a desire to help children should really rather meet together. A momentous decision was taken to initiate a Joint World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. A steering committee was established with membership comprising the main organisers of the four separate previous Congresses, and additional members were recruited in an effort to achieve numerical equality of cardiologists and surgeons and a broad geographical representation. The historic 1st "World Congress of Paediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery" took place in Paris in June, 1993, organised by Jean Kachaner. The next was to be held in Japan, but the catastrophic Kobe earthquake in 1995 forced relocation to Hawaii in 1997. Then followed Toronto, Canada (2001, organised by Bill Williams and Lee Benson), Buenos Aires, Argentina (2005, organised by Horatio Capelli and Guillermo Kreutzer), and most recently Cairns, Australia (2009, organised by Jim Wilkinson). Having visited Europe (1993), Asia-Pacific (1997), North America (2001), South America (2005), and Australia (2009), and reflecting the "African Renaissance", the

  1. The West Africa Initiative to Strengthen Capacities through Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    West Africa has many of the lowest development indicators in the world - 10 of the 15 member states of the West African Community number among the world's 35 low-income countries. The World Health Organization reports that 14 of the member states have a high maternal mortality ratio, defined as 300 or more maternal ...

  2. Superhabitable worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, René; Armstrong, John

    2014-01-01

    To be habitable, a world (planet or moon) does not need to be located in the stellar habitable zone (HZ), and worlds in the HZ are not necessarily habitable. Here, we illustrate how tidal heating can render terrestrial or icy worlds habitable beyond the stellar HZ. Scientists have developed a language that neglects the possible existence of worlds that offer more benign environments to life than Earth does. We call these objects "superhabitable" and discuss in which contexts this term could be used, that is to say, which worlds tend to be more habitable than Earth. In an appendix, we show why the principle of mediocracy cannot be used to logically explain why Earth should be a particularly habitable planet or why other inhabited worlds should be Earth-like. Superhabitable worlds must be considered for future follow-up observations of signs of extraterrestrial life. Considering a range of physical effects, we conclude that they will tend to be slightly older and more massive than Earth and that their host stars will likely be K dwarfs. This makes Alpha Centauri B, which is a member of the closest stellar system to the Sun and is supposed to host an Earth-mass planet, an ideal target for searches for a superhabitable world.

  3. Spatial and temporal dynamics of hepatitis B virus D genotype in Europe and the Mediterranean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianguglielmo Zehender

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus genotype D can be found in many parts of the world and is the most prevalent strain in south-eastern Europe, the Mediterranean Basin, the Middle East, and the Indian sub-continent. The epidemiological history of the D genotype and its subgenotypes is still obscure because of the scarcity of appropriate studies. We retrieved from public databases a total of 312 gene P sequences of HBV genotype D isolated in various countries throughout the world, and reconstructed the spatio-temporal evolutionary dynamics of the HBV-D epidemic using a bayesian framework.The phylogeographical analysis showed that India had the highest posterior probability of being the location of the tree root, whereas central Asia was the most probable location of the common ancestor of subgenotypes D1-D3. HBV-D5 (identified in native Indian populations diverged from the tree root earlier than D1-D3. The time of the most recent common ancestor (tMRCA of the tree root was 128 years ago, which suggests that the common ancestor of the currently circulating subgenotypes existed in the second half of the XIX century. The mean tMRCA of subgenotypes D1-D3 was between the 1940s and the 1950-60s. On the basis of our phylogeographic reconstruction, it seems that HBV-D reached the Mediterranean area in the middle of the XX century by means of at least two routes: the first pathway (mainly due to the spread of subgenotype D1 crossing the Middle East and reaching north Africa and the eastern Mediterranean, and the second pathway (closely associated with D2 that crossed the former Soviet Union and reached eastern Europe and the Mediterranean through Albania. We hypothesise that the main route of dispersion of genotype D was the unsafe use of injections and drug addiction.

  4. La concurrence entre les diverses ressources énergétiques fossiles sur le marché européen et mondial à l'horizon 2000 Competition Between Different Fossil Energy Resources on the European and World Markets Between Now and the Year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunner G.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le pétrole continuera à dominer la scène énergétique mondiale d'ici l'an 2000 mais sa part relative se réduira progressivement. Il est vraisemblable qu'il continuera a jouer son rôle de prix directeur de l'énergie. Le gaz naturel est actuellement lié dans son prix au fuel oil mais son prix de revient dépend de nombreux facteurs : coûts d'exploration, de transport de gestion de réseau et de stockage qu'il faudra prendre en considération pour assurer la rentabilité des investissements. Le charbon n'est pas compétitif pour une grande partie de sa production dans la Communauté et l'on ne doit guère s'attendre à ce que cette situation change totalement dans l'avenir. Hors d'Europe par contre, particulièrement aux USA, le charbon est tout à fait concurrentiel et d'ici l'an 2000 on doit s'attendre à une croissance considérable du commerce international vers l'Europe occidentale. En fait, nucléaire et charbon supplanteront le fuel oil et joueront des rôles complémentaires dans la production d'électricité mais le nucléaire gardera un avantage sur le thermique classique beaucoup moins protégé contre le risque de hausse des prix des combustibles. Les autres combustibles fossiles sont abondants mais leur production sera limitée en raison des coûts et des problèmes d'environnement. Oil will continue to dominate the world energy scene between now and the year 2000, but its relative share will gradually be reduced. It will probably continue ta play the role of price setter for energy. The price of natural gas is currently linked to that of fuel oil, but its cost price depends on various factors such as the costs of exploration, transportation, management of the network and storage, all of which must be taken into consideration in seeing that investments are profitable. Most of the cool produced in the EEC is not competitive, and this situation can hardly be expected to undergo a total change in the future. Outside of Europe

  5. The impact of the Commonwealth on Churchill's Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cat Wilson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing from the time of his electoral defeat in July 1945 until the end of his second term as Prime Minister (October 1951-April 1955, this article examines the impact the Commonwealth had on Churchill’s Europe. Following the end of the Second World War Churchill’s Europe was fragile, yet not broken beyond all repair. Rather than weaken world organisations, such as the United Nations or a united post-war Europe, Churchill argued that the British Commonwealth would strengthen such liaisons. Analysing Churchill’s key relationships with the heads of the Commonwealth, reveal him to have been a true European – where security and democracy took precedence. His realism and pragmatism in the face of ever-changing, everevolving world-wide post-war alliances, where the Commonwealth arguably played a significant role, offers a stark contrast to the more common image of Churchill the “die-hard” imperialist.

  6. Distribution and establishment of the alien Australian redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in South Africa and Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L. Nunes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens, is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available. Methods To establish a better understanding of its distribution, rate of spread and population status, we surveyed a total of 46 sites in various river systems in South Africa and Swaziland. Surveys were performed between September 2015 and August 2016 and involved visual observations and the use of collapsible crayfish traps. Results Cherax quadricarinatus is now present in the Komati, Lomati, Mbuluzi, Mlawula and Usutu rivers, and it was also detected in several off-channel irrigation impoundments. Where present, it was generally abundant, with populations having multiple size cohorts and containing ovigerous females. In the Komati River, it has spread more than 112 km downstream of the initial introduction point and 33 km upstream of a tributary, resulting in a mean spread rate of 8 km year−1 downstream and 4.7 km year−1 upstream. In Swaziland, estimated downstream spread rate might reach 14.6 km year−1. Individuals were generally larger and heavier closer to the introduction site, which might be linked to juvenile dispersal. Discussion These findings demonstrate that C. quadricarinatus is established in South Africa and Swaziland and that the species has spread, not only within the river where it was first introduced, but also between rivers. Considering the strong impacts that alien crayfish usually have on invaded ecosystems

  7. Distribution and establishment of the alien Australian redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus, in South Africa and Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Ana L; Zengeya, Tsungai A; Hoffman, Andries C; Measey, G John; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-01-01

    The Australian redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus, von Martens), is native to Australasia, but has been widely translocated around the world due to aquaculture and aquarium trade. Mostly as a result of escape from aquaculture facilities, this species has established extralimital populations in Australia and alien populations in Europe, Asia, Central America and Africa. In South Africa, C. quadricarinatus was first sampled from the wild in 2002 in the Komati River, following its escape from an aquaculture facility in Swaziland, but data on the current status of its populations are not available. To establish a better understanding of its distribution, rate of spread and population status, we surveyed a total of 46 sites in various river systems in South Africa and Swaziland. Surveys were performed between September 2015 and August 2016 and involved visual observations and the use of collapsible crayfish traps. Cherax quadricarinatus is now present in the Komati, Lomati, Mbuluzi, Mlawula and Usutu rivers, and it was also detected in several off-channel irrigation impoundments. Where present, it was generally abundant, with populations having multiple size cohorts and containing ovigerous females. In the Komati River, it has spread more than 112 km downstream of the initial introduction point and 33 km upstream of a tributary, resulting in a mean spread rate of 8 km year-1 downstream and 4.7 km year-1 upstream. In Swaziland, estimated downstream spread rate might reach 14.6 km year-1. Individuals were generally larger and heavier closer to the introduction site, which might be linked to juvenile dispersal. These findings demonstrate that C. quadricarinatus is established in South Africa and Swaziland and that the species has spread, not only within the river where it was first introduced, but also between rivers. Considering the strong impacts that alien crayfish usually have on invaded ecosystems, assessments of its potential impacts on native freshwater biota

  8. Critical review of the analysis of brominated flame retardants and their environmental levels in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brits, Martin; de Vos, Jayne; Weiss, Jana M; Rohwer, Egmont R; de Boer, Jacob

    2016-12-01

    World-wide, the prevalence of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) is well documented for routine analysis of environmental and biological matrices. There is, however, limited information on these compounds in the African environment and insufficient information on the analytical approaches used to obtain data. This paper presents a review on BFR levels in the African environment and the various analytical methodologies specifically applied in Africa for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyls and alternative-BFRs. The analyses include liquid sample preparation using liquid-liquid and solid phase extraction and solid sample preparation involving Soxhlet extraction, with ultrasound-assisted extraction increasingly being applied. Instrumental detection techniques were limited to gas chromatography coupled with electron capture detector and electron impact ionisation with single quadrupole mass spectrometers. Information on congener profile prevalence in indoor dust, soil, aquatic environment (water, sediment, and aquatic organisms), eggs, wastewater treatment plant compartments, landfills (leachate and sediment) and breast milk are presented. Although PBDEs were inconsistently detected, contamination was reported for all investigated matrices in the African environment. The manifestation in remote regions indicates the ubiquitous prevalence and long-range transport of these compounds. Levels in sediment, and breast milk from some African countries were higher than reported for Asia and Europe. Due to limited data or non-detection of alternative-BFRs, it is unclear whether banned formulations were replaced in Africa. Most of the data reported for BFR levels in Africa were obtained in non-African laboratories or in South Africa and formed the basis for our discussion of reported contamination levels and related methodologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Phylogeny, divergence times, and historical biogeography of New World Dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Emily B; Zimmer, Elizabeth A; Givnish, Thomas J

    2012-04-01

    Dryopteris is a large, cosmopolitan fern genus ideal for addressing questions about diversification, biogeography, hybridization, and polyploidy, which have historically been understudied in ferns. We constructed a highly resolved, well-supported phylogeny for New World Dryopteris and used it to investigate biogeographic patterns and divergence times. We analyzed relationships among 97 species of Dryopteris, including taxa from all major biogeographic regions, with analyses based on 5699 aligned nucleotides from seven plastid loci. Phylogenetic analyses used maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference. We conducted divergence time analyses using BEAST and biogeographic analyses using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, Bayesian, and S-DIVA approaches. We explored the monophyly of subgenera and sections in the most recent generic classification and of geographic groups of taxa using Templeton tests. The genus Dryopteris arose ca. 42 million years ago (Ma). Most of the Central and South American species form a well-supported clade which arose 32 Ma, but the remaining New World species are the result of multiple, independent dispersal and vicariance events involving Asia, Europe, and Africa over the last 15 Myr. We identified six long-distance dispersal events and three vicariance events in the immediate ancestry of New World species; reconstructions for another four lineages were ambiguous. New World Dryopteris are not monophyletic; vicariance has dominated the history of the North American species, while long-distance dispersal prevails in the Central and South American species, a pattern not previously seen in plants.

  10. Library Marketing in the World

    OpenAIRE

    Ionel Enache; Simona Gheorghe

    2008-01-01

    The article is a sequel to the previous one published in the previous issue of the Librarianship and Information Science magazine. A presentation of several experiences concerning the implementation of library marketing in Europe being already made, in what follows we will deal with other situations from different countries of the world. All these examples can be useful to the infodocumentary structures in Romania which marketing is a new domain, still discreet.

  11. Heat Roadmap Europe 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Heat Roadmap Europe (Pre-study 1) investigates the role of district heating in the EU27 energy system by mapping local conditions across Europe, identifying the potential for district heating expansion, and subsequently simulating the potential resource in an hourly model of the EU27 energy system....... In 2010, approximately 12% of the space heating demand in Europe is met by district heating, but in this study four alternative scenarios are considered for the EU27 energy system: 1. 2010 with 30% district heating 2. 2010 with 50% district heating 3. 2030 with 30% district heating 4. 2050 with 50......% district heating These scenarios are investigated in two steps. Firstly, district heating replaces individual boilers by converting condensing power plants to combined heat and power plants (CHP) to illustrate how district heating improves the overall efficiency of the energy system. In the second step...

  12. Heat Roadmap Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    information systems (GIS) and energy system analyses. In this report, the inputs for other modelling tools such as PRIMES are presented, in order to enable other researches to generate similar heating scenarios for Europe. Although Heat Roadmap Europe presents a complete heat strategy for Europe, which...... includes energy efficiency, individual heating units (such as boilers and heat pumps), and heat networks, the recommendations here are primarily relating to the potential and modelling of district heating. Although other solutions will play a significant role in decarbonising the heating and cooling sector...... in a low-carbon energy system context, so we have focused on this area based on our extensive experience in this area [1-10]. This report includes guidelines on the potential heat demand in European buildings that can be met by district heating as well as some general guidelines on how this district...

  13. Prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, S A; Maiga, A I; Guindo, I; Maiga, A; Camara, N; Savadogo, S; Diallo, S; Bougoudogo, F; Armand-Lefevre, L; Andremont, A; Maiga, I I

    2015-09-01

    Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae have been isolated from many regions of the world. Epidemiological studies are being conducted in Europe, North America, and Asia. No study has however been conducted in Africa to determine the prevalence and distribution of ESBLs on the continent. This literature review aimed at describing the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae isolated from blood cultures, as well as the ESBL genes involved at the international level. Our focus was mainly on Africa. We conducted a literature review on PubMed. Articles related to our study field and published between 1996 and 2014 were reviewed and entirely read for most of them, while we only focused on the abstracts of some other articles. Relevant articles to our study were then carefully reviewed and included in the review. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae differs from one country to another. The results of our literature review however indicate that class A ESBLs prevail over the other types. We took into consideration articles focusing on various types of samples to assess the prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, but information on isolates from blood cultures is limited. The worldwide prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae has increased over time. Evidence of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae can be found in all regions of the world. Studies conducted in Africa mainly focused on the Northern and Eastern parts of the continent, while only rare studies were carried out in the rest of the continent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. ‘The Trial the World is Watching’: The 1972 Prosecution of Derk Crichton and James Watts, Abortion, and the Regulation of the Medical Profession in Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klausen, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    After its formation in 1910 as a self-governing dominion within the British empire, the Union of South Africa followed a combination of English and Roman-Dutch common laws on abortion that decreed the procedure permissible only when necessary to save a woman’s life. The government continued doing so after South Africa withdrew from the Commonwealth and became a republic in 1961. In 1972 a sensational trial took place in the South African Supreme Court that for weeks placed clandestine abortion on the front pages of the country’s newspapers. Two men, one an eminent doctor and the other a self-taught abortionist, were charged with conspiring to perform illegal abortions on twenty-six white teenagers and young unmarried women. The prosecution of Dr Derk Crichton and James Watts occurred while the National Party government was in the process of drafting abortion legislation and was perceived by legal experts as another test of the judiciary’s stance on the common law on abortion. The trial was mainly intended to regulate the medical profession and ensure doctors ceased helping young white women evade their ‘duty’ to procreate within marriage. Ultimately, the event encapsulated a great deal about elites’ attempt to buttress apartheid culture and is significant for, among other reasons, contributing to the production of South Africa’s extremely restrictive Abortion and Sterilisation Act (1975). PMID:24775430

  15. The present and future growth of scholarly publishing in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scholarly publishing in Africa, though still struggling to keep pace with the rest of the world, has made major progress. Many universities in Africa are seriously engaged in scholarly publishing, both in print and electronic formats. The outputs of research are constantly disseminated in universities, at conferences and during ...

  16. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine

  17. Addressing Africa's health needs - time for strong South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health and development in South Africa are, and will increasingly be, closely linked to changes in other African countries. This was recognised by Gear and Gear nearly 50 years ago when they stated that 'for a variety of reasons humanitarian, scientific, economic, and social interest in. Africa is growing throughout the world.

  18. The Economic Situation in Contemporary Africa: Comment on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The economic situation in contemporary Africa is highly problematic, creating populations that are in general much discontented with matters as they now stand. Africa's populations are now assailed by negative phenomena such as high unemployment; low wages in an environment of high prices (Third World wages and ...

  19. The Challenges of Piracy in Africa's Maritime Zones | Nyakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa, like the rest of the world, has many maritime resources which could contribute to its development. Unfortunately, these resources are illegally plundered by others. At the same time, free trade and movement in the African waters have been hampered by phenomena such as piracy and organised crime. Indeed, Africa ...

  20. The importance of heavy vehicle driver education in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Magazi, L

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available compares education and training levels, the amount of time spent on education, the quality of available training and education facilities in South Africa, Africa and the rest of the world. Findings indicate that currently very few formal education...

  1. Genealogies of Coloniality and Implications for Africa's Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consensus, scramble for and conquest of Africa that concretised the dismemberment and fragmentation of Africa; ... inauguré l'exclusion de l'Afrique de la souveraineté ; le Consensus de Berlin 1884-. 1885,la ruée et la .... world economic system known as capitalism, but by racism as an organising principle. The modern ...

  2. Empowering Youth for Sub-Saharan Africa's Development | Betchoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At this critical time of development in sub-Saharan Africa where the continent's growth actually makes it a region of great potential, it would be vital to integrate the youth in the development of the youngest continent in the world. Long-time considered as the continent of all worries and social threats, sub-Saharan Africa has ...

  3. Private military and security companies policy in Africa: regional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this article is to explain the policy stasis around private security regulation in Africa. Africa is one of the largest theatres of private military and security company operations in the world. Yet, there is still no new regional convention or policy on their regulation. Previous studies focused on Western efforts to ...

  4. Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa: Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa improve maternal, newborn, and child health. This project will provide ... Five world-class research teams are working to develop vaccines for neglected livestock diseases in the Global South.

  5. The Crisis of Technological Underdevelopment in Africa | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most countries in Africa lack even the ability to feed their own populations and rather than gain grounds, are rapidly falling behind other third world states. This research attempts an analysis of factors that impede Africa's development bid. Corrupt governments, often kept in power by foreign donors, repressive states ...

  6. Liberating the 'Mistress' in Africa: The Prophetic Role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inspired by the arguments of J. S. Mill and in solidarity with the quest of women throughout the world, but particularly in Africa, for the recognition of their fundamental human rights, this paper contends that development communication has an invaluable prophetic role to play in liberating the 'mistress' (women) in Africa as an ...

  7. South Africa and the Global Recruitment of Health Professionals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brain drain is one of the most critical issues affecting the developing world. One aspect of globalisation is the international migration of skilled health professionals. The aim of this article is to provide insight into patterns of organised recruiting of skilled health personnel from South Africa. Africa Insight Vol. 37 (4) 2008 pp.

  8. Shaping Social Protection in Africa : National Transfer Accounts ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shaping Social Protection in Africa : National Transfer Accounts. Although birth and death rates are still relatively high in Africa, African populations display some of the most youthful age structures in the world. A bulge in the working-age population, as compared to the juvenile or elderly population, represents a potentially ...

  9. Freshwater crayfish invasions in South Africa: past, present and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Freshwater crayfish invasions have been studied around the world, but less so in Africa, a continent devoid of native freshwater crayfish. The present study reviews historical and current information on alien freshwater crayfish species introduced into South Africa and aims to indicate which areas are at risk from invasion.

  10. The mobile phone in Africa: Providing services to the masses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, Adèle

    2010-08-31

    Full Text Available The story of mobile telecommunications in Africa and the developing world is a remarkable one. Africa's mobile cellular growth rate has been the highest of any region over the past 5 years, averaging close to 60% year on year. Large cellular...

  11. Sigtuna Think Piece 1 Climate Change Education in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Climate change has placed the environment firmly on the international agenda. It is one subject that all nations of the world must relate to and address. Africa is not left out. Though Africa produces less than 10% of total greenhouse gas emissions, the continent was noted as one of the most vulnerable to climate change by ...

  12. the education systems of South Africa and Madagascar

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    island in the world. It is roughly half the size of South Africa, which covers a surface area of 1 219 090 square kilometers. The topographi- cal characteristics of Madagascar also pose definite similarities with the coastal provinces of South Africa, such as Mpumalanga and Kwa-. Zulu Natal. Therefore, education provisioning ...

  13. Evaluating Alcohol Control Policies in South Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South Africa has one of world's highest levels of heavy episodic drinking among men and women. Alcohol has been identified as one of the country's leading risk factors for death and disability, accounting for 6.3% of disability-adjusted life years lost in 2004. Since 1994, South Africa has attempted to influence alcohol ...

  14. Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Large-scale Agricultural Land Acquisitions in West Africa. As agriculture becomes more strategically important in the world, large-scale land acquisition - or "land grabbing" - is a growing concern for West Africa. Recent increases in commodity prices have led some governments and private investors to purchase or lease ...

  15. The World Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangoura, O

    2008-09-01

    The control of human onchocerciasis (river blindness) is one of the most successful global partnerships ever supported by the World Bank. Mectizan mass treatments have greatly contributed to this success and have shaped the strategies of the programmes in which the World Bank has been involved - the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP), which covered onchocerciasis control in West Africa until 2002, and the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC), which is currently working in 30 countries, to protect millions of people from onchocerciasis. Through the strategy of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), onchocerciasis control in Africa was transformed from a technologically-driven and vertical health initiative to a community-directed process of treatment and empowerment. Together, CDTI and the donation of Mectizan also reduced costs, producing one of the most effective and affordable disease-control schemes ever seen, and the CDTI strategy is now being applied to other disease-control initiatives. The onchocerciasis programmes have also been exemplary in shaping partnerships with communities, countries, the World Health Organization, governments, non-governmental development organizations, and the private sector. The Bank's involvement in onchocerciasis control has helped mobilize funds, giving confidence to other donors. More than U. S.$800 million was raised for both the OCP and APOC (excluding the initial costs of Mectizan). With these funds and the commitment of the partners involved, high coverages have been achieved in the Mectizan distributions. The Bank is confident that, during the years to come, the partners will continue their success, and that the APOC will achieve its goals by the target date for its closure, in 2015.

  16. TOWARDS MEDIA OF AFRICA BY AFRICANS AND FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Allen Adum Nnanwuba

    Europeans' idea of superiority created an image of Africa which was the perverse opposite of Europe's ... Herodotus, who is regarded as the Father of History, relates in his book, Histories, a cautionary tale about what .... This brand of development journalism could serve as a tool for empowerment. African Media for Africans.

  17. Cost challenges for laboratory medicine automation in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Automation in laboratory medicine is inevitable and the only way forward especially in Africa where the staff turnover is high due to migration of experienced staff to Europe and America. Described here are the common issues that laboratory Managers and Directors encounter when upgrading, replacing analytical systems ...

  18. Africa and International Policy Making for Lifelong Learning: Textual Revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…

  19. South Africa's D-day veterans | Bisset | Scientia Militaria: South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although some 657 members of the South African Union Defence Forces served in North West Europe between D-Day on 6 June 1944 and VE-Day on 8 May 1945, it would seem that relatively few of them were present on D-Day. South Africa's main contributions to the war effort were made in Ethiopia, Madagascar, the ...

  20. 'Black Athena' and Africa's contribution to global cultural history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Martin Bernal's 'Black Athena' has evoked three kinds of reaction: scholarly evaluation of the historical evidence for Bernal's claims, both of Ancient Europe's indebtedness to West Asia and Northeast Africa, and of the construction in recent centuries of the Greek miracle as a Eurocentric,

  1. Initiatives in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J; Middleberg, M I

    1986-03-01

    Since the 1st oil crisis in 1973, the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have barely kept pace with their burgeoning populations. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa give birth more often than women in any other region of the world, with an average of more than 6.5 live births each. The region's natural increase average 2.5% a year in the 1960s, 2.7% in the 1970s, and in the mid-1980s, it is 3.1% per annum--a rate that will double the regions population in 22 years. National leaders in Sub-Saharan Africa were slow to consider population policy as a key component of the social and economic development effort. The neglect of population issues is reflected in the limited scope of public or private family planning programs in the sub-continent. Donor countries and institutions play an important role in developing the information base by providing technical training to government staff, supporting research, and disseminating information to a broad spectrum of political actors. Some examples of policy reconsiderations in Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Niger are given. These countries are starting to give active consideration to population policies to reduce fertility and high rates of population growth by expanding family planning services, raising the age of marriage, improving the status of women, providing family-life education, and incorporating economic incentives for smaller families into the provision of social services. The highly centralized nature of African governments dictates that the acquiescence of the governmental elite must be obtained before any policy can take hold. Overall, high population growth rates in combination with a stagnating social and economic development effort throughout the region have provided the catalyst for a new look at Sub-Saharan Africa population policy. The ability of African nations to implement policies that reduce fertility is more open to question; no African nation has as yet done so, and the socioeconomics factors contributing to high

  2. Cultural participation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevenson, David; Kann-Rasmussen, Nanna; Balling, Gitte

    2015-01-01

    Europe has a ‘problem’; it is becoming a ‘less cultural continent’ as fewer Europeans are ‘engaging in cultural activities’. This conclusion has been reached due to the findings of the latest cross national cultural participation survey. This paper questions the existence of this ‘problem......’ and instead suggests that there is a shared problematisation across Europe sustained by common discursive archaeology that employs various discursive strands in relation to a dominant institutional discourse. The argument is that the ‘problem’ of ‘non-participation’ legitimates a ‘solution’ that predates its...

  3. Cosmopolitan Futures for Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Wallgren, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A Nordic proverb tells us that a prudent man does not make the goat his gardener. But that is exactly what we have done. In the garden of Europe we have handed over power to the goat of transnational companies and banks and to democratically weakly accountable bureaucrats. The harvest we have reaped is the euro-crisis. I will first present the basic features of what I consider to be the standard view of the political situation in Europe. In the discussion that follows I will try to show that ...

  4. Africa-Europe Group for Interdisciplinary Studies European ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Safety Promotion: A Journal of Injury and Violence Prevention. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 5, No 2 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Migratory Prostitution with Emphasis on Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M&oring;rdh; Genç

    1995-03-01

    In many European countries, foreigners constitute the majority of certain groups of prostitutes, e.g., approximately 90% of the window prostitutes in the red light district of Amsterdam are not native to the Netherlands. The same is true for prostitutes working in bars in Vienna. In cities where registered prostitution is legal, unregistered prostitutes, most of whom are foreigners, often outnumber the registered ones. Central European countries often receive "sex workers" from eastern Europe, e.g., from Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Romania, whereas the majority of migratory prostitutes in Great Britain and continental western Europe come from Africa, the Caribbean, and South America. In northern Europe, women from Russia, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, and the Baltic states are prostituting themselves in increasing numbers. Scandinavia has so far been affected relatively less by this mobility. In Spain, France, and Italy, women from Arabic and subSaharan countries are common among prostitutes. Foreign prostitutes move into Turkey along two main routes: women from the Balkan countries come to the western part of the country, whereas those from the former Soviet Union cross the border from Georgia, where they usually operate at resorts along the eastern Black Sea coast. Prostitutes are also mobile within the former communist bloc. For instance, women from Russia prostitute themselves in Lithuania, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary. the customers are locals, particularly those with "hard currency", such as businessmen and "sex tourists" from the West. Following the outbreak of civil war in the former Yugoslavia, women from that country are now more frequently seen among the population of migratory prostitutes in Europe.

  6. Aloes of the world project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klopper, Ronell R.; Smith, Gideon F.; Crouch, Neil R.

    2013-01-01

    Background - The Old World genus Aloe L. comprises ± 630 species to which almost 1300 names have been applied. Members of the genus are prominent components of many, mainly arid, African landscapes. Aloes can be found in Africa (the majority of species), the Arabian Peninsula, Socotra, Madagascar...... and the Mascarene Islands. The berried aloes of the genus Lomatophyllum Willd. are included as a section of the genus Aloe for the purpose of this project. Aims - As part of the African Plants Initiative (JSTOR Plant Science), the Aloes of the World project aims to provide a comprehensive electronic facility...

  7. Bluetongue in small ruminants: An opinionated review, with a brief appraisal of the 2014 outbreak of the disease in Greece and the south-east Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakis, C S; Billinis, C; Papadopoulos, E; Vasileiou, N G C; Athanasiou, L V; Fthenakis, G C

    2015-12-14

    Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne viral disease of ruminants, especially of sheep, caused by Bluetongue virus, which belongs to the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae and is classified into 26 antigenically distinct serotypes. Once thought to be restricted in Africa and parts of the Middle East, bluetongue has now become a concern in sheep-rearing countries around the world. In the past 10 years, severe outbreaks have occurred in Europe with important economic consequences; of these, the 2006-20008 outbreak in Europe was caused by a serotype 8 strain and the 2014 outbreak in Greece and the other countries of south-east Europe was caused by a serotype 4 strain, suggested to be a reassortant strain with genome segments from lineages of serotype 1, 2 and 4. Immunisation campaigns can be implemented for successful control and limiting of the disease. Nevertheless, in both of the above outbreaks, late application of vaccinations led to a wide spread of the disease, which subsequently resulted in significant losses in livestock in the affected regions. In view of that, standardisation of control measures in the future will be beneficial for efficiently limiting outbreaks of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cultural Diplomacy in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Anthony

    The evolution of European government activities in the sphere of international cultural relations is examined. Section 1 describes the period between World War I and World War II when European governments tried to enhance their prestige and policies by means of cultural propaganda. Section 2 analyzes the period during World War II when the…

  9. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  10. Africa, Sociocultural Overviews: West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an overview of social worlds, values, and material and nonmaterial cultures of the region south of the Sahara from Mauritania to Cameroon. Attention is paid, in particular, to modes of social solidarity and the cultural dynamics of community formation in West African settings.

  11. Developing curriculum in nursing informatics in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, J

    1998-06-01

    The NIGHTINGALE Project (NIGHTINGALE Project: HC1109 DGXIII Contract and Technical Annex, European Commission, December 1995) which started on the 1st of January, 1996, after the approval of the European Commission, has a 36 month duration. It is essential in planning and implementing a strategy in training the nursing profession in using and applying healthcare information systems. NIGHTINGALE contributes towards the appropriate use of the developed telematics infrastructure across Europe by educating and training nurses in a harmonious way across Europe in the upcoming field of nursing informatics. NIGHTINGALE develops courseware material based on the curriculum development process using multimedia technologies. Computer based training software packages in nursing informatics will be the basis of the training material and the corresponding courses. CD-ROM based training and reference material will also be provided in the courses whereas the traditional booklets, teaching material and textbooks can also play an adequate role in training. NIGHTINGALE will disseminate all information and courseware material freely to all interested parties through the publications of the proceedings of the conferences, through the establishment of the world wide web (WWW) server in nursing informatics for Europe (http://www.dn.uoa.gr/nightingale), which will become a depository of nursing information knowledge across Europe as well as a dissemination node of nursing informatics throughout the European members states for the benefit and welfare of the European citizen.

  12. New Crustal Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbach, Oliver; Custodio, Susana; Kingdon, Andrew; Mariucci, Maria Teresa; Montone, Paola; Müller, Birgit; Pierdominicini, Simona; Rajabi, Mojtaba; Reinecker, John; Reiter, Karsten; Tingay, Mark; Williams, John; Ziegler, Moritz

    2016-04-01

    The World Stress Map (WSM) Project was initiated in 1986 under the auspices of the International Lithosphere Program in order to compile globally the information on the contemporary crustal stress state. For the 30th anniversary the WSM database has been updated and increased the number of data records from 21,750 to 42,410 worldwide. For the Mediterranean and Central European stress map the number of data records has increased from 3877 to 8192. The data come from a wide range of stress indicators such as borehole data (e.g. hydraulic fracturing, drilling induced tensile fractures, borehole breakouts), earthquake focal mechanism solutions and stress inversions from these, engineering methods (overcoring, borehole slotter) and geological data (e.g. volcanic alignment, inversion of fault slip data). To guarantee the comparability of the different stress indicator the resulting data are quality-ranked using the WSM quality ranking scheme. The new data set has a better coverage and enables us to identifying the regional and local variability of the stress pattern. For the Mediterranean and Central Europe we analysed the wave-length of the stress pattern by determining the mean orientation of the maximum horizontal stress SHmax on a regular grid using an updated version of the hybrid approach of Heidbach et al. [2010]. The preliminary results show that the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is a key control of the overall stress pattern. However, given the complex tectonic setting in particular due to the indentation/collision of the Adriatic micro block, the Alpine topography as well as forces that control the movement of the Anatolian and Aegean block, the stress pattern shows in these regions significant changes in the mean SHmax orientation as well as in the tectonic regime.

  13. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the South Africa Coastal Province, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Cook, Troy A.; Pollastro, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    The South Africa Coastal Province along the South Africa coast recently was assessed for undiscovered, technically recoverable oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids resources as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) World Oil and Gas Assessment. Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the USGS estimated mean volumes of 2.13 billion barrels of oil, 35.96 trillion cubic feet of natural gas, and 1,115 million barrels of natural gas liquids.

  14. U.S. Media Coverage of Africa. A Media Source Guide, Issues for the '80s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, David S.

    One of a series on topics of concern to the U.S. media, this guide is intended to provide journalists with a critical analysis of U.S. media coverage of Africa. Section I provides an overview of the folklore about Africa and the nature and sources of stereotypes and misconceptions about Africa and the Western world. Findings and interpretations of…

  15. World Wind

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — World Wind allows any user to zoom from satellite altitude into any place on Earth, leveraging high resolution LandSat imagery and SRTM elevation data to experience...

  16. Mapping Europe: Images of Europe in the Eurovision Song Contest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajala, Mari

    2012-01-01

    abstractThe Eurovision Song Contest (ESC) offers a unique viewpoint to the ways Europe has been imagined on television from the 1950s to the present. This paper looks at the use of a key visual symbol for Europe, the European map, to outline the history of the ESC’s representation of Europe. Whilst

  17. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  18. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-15

    European dimension in its foreign policy. Hardly Satisfactory It is in the cards that Norway can become the Conmunity’s 13th member country...equal strategic importance. It is known that the Azores are an "important trampoline for U.S. intervention in Europe and the Middle East and on the

  19. Chytrid fungus in Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garner, Trenton W J; Walker, Susan; Bosch, Jaime; Hyatt, Alex D; Cunningham, Andrew A; Fisher, Matthew C

    2005-01-01

    ...-offs that will likely lead to local extinction (4,5) (J. Bosch et al., unpub, data). We screened 1,664 current and archived samples of wild amphibians collected in Europe from 1994 to 2004 by researchers using amphibians as study organisms. B. dendrobatidis infects the skin of adult amphibians and the mouthparts of anuran larvae; samples included toe clip...

  20. NMC Horizon Report Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Jos Fransen

    2014-01-01

    The NMC Horizon Report Europe > 2014 Schools Edition was produced by the NMC in collaboration with the European Commission’s Directorate General for Education and Culture (EC DG EAC), the Joint Research Centre - Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (JRC-IPTS), Inholland University, QIN