Shikdar, Ashraf A; Al-Kindi, Mahmoud A
Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed to evaluate the biomechanical exposure to the trapezius muscle activity in female weavers for a prolonged period in the workstation A (suggested by previous studies and workstation B (proposed by the present study. Methods: Electromyography data were collected from nine females during four hours for each ergonomically designed workstation at the Ergonomics Laboratory, Hamadan, Iran. The design criteria for ergonomically designed workstations were: 1 weaving height (20 and 3 cm above elbow height for workstations A and B, respectively, and 2 seat type (10° and 0° forwardsloping seat for workstations A and B, respectively. Results: The amplitude probability distribution function (APDF analysis showed that the left and right upper trapezius muscle activity was almost similar at each workstation. Trapezius muscle activity in the workstation A was significantly greater than workstations B (P<0.001. Conclusion: In general, use of workstation B leads to significantly reduced muscle activity levels in the upper trapezius as compared to workstation A in weavers. Despite the positive impact of workstation B in reducing trapezius muscle activity, it seems that constrained postures of the upper arm during weaving may be associated with musculoskeletal symptoms.
Woo, E H C; White, P; Lai, C W K
This paper presents an overview of global ergonomics standards and guidelines for design of computer workstations, with particular focus on their inconsistency and associated health risk impact. Overall, considerable disagreements were found in the design specifications of computer workstations globally, particularly in relation to the results from previous ergonomics research and the outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines. To cope with the rapid advancement in computer technology, this article provides justifications and suggestions for modifications in the current ergonomics standards and guidelines for the design of computer workstations. Practitioner Summary: A research gap exists in ergonomics standards and guidelines for computer workstations. We explore the validity and generalisability of ergonomics recommendations by comparing previous ergonomics research through to recommendations and outcomes from current ergonomics standards and guidelines.
Sep 9, 2010 ... in relation to their work environment and working surroundings. ... prolonged computer usage and application of ergonomics in the workstation. Design:One hundred and .... Occupational Health and Safety Services should.
Aman, A.; Dawal, S. Z. M.; Rahman, N. I. A.
Wudu’ (Ablution) workstation is one of the facilities used by most Muslims in all categories. At present, there are numbers of design guidelines for praying facilities but still lacking on wudu’ (ablution) area specification especially or elderly. Thus, It is timely to develop an ergonomic wudu’ workstation for elderly to perform ablution independently and confidently. This study was conducted to design an ergonomic ablution unit for the Muslim’s elderly in Malaysia. An ablution workstation was designed based on elderly anthropometric dimensions and was then analyse using CATIA V5R21 for posture investigation using RULAs. The results of the study has identified significant anthropometric dimensions in designing wudu’ (ablution) workstation for elderly people. This study can be considered as preliminary study for the development of an ergonomic ablution design for elderly. This effort will become one of the significant social contributions to our elderly population in developing our nation holistically.
Emmons, Mark; Wilkinson, Frances C.
Applies learning theory and ergonomic principles to the design of effective learning environments for library instruction. Discusses features of electronic classroom ergonomics, including the ergonomics of physical space, environmental factors, and workstations; and includes classroom layouts. (Author/LRW)
Background: Awareness of effects of long term use of computer and application of ergonomics in the computer workstation is important for preventing musculoskeletal disorders, eyestrain and psychosocial effects. Objectives: To determine the awareness of ºphysical and psychological effects of prolonged computer usage ...
May, Douglas R; Reed, Kendra; Schwoerer, Catherine E; Potter, Paul
A naturally occurring quasi-experimental longitudinal field study of 87 municipal employees using pretest and posttest measures investigated the effects of an office workstation ergonomics intervention program on employees' perceptions of their workstation characteristics, levels of persistent pain, eyestrain, and workstation satisfaction. The study examined whether reactions differed between younger and older employees. Results revealed that workstation improvements were associated with enhanced perceptions of the workstation's ergonomic qualities, less upper back pain, and greater workstation satisfaction. Among those experiencing an improvement, the perceptions of workstation ergonomic qualities increased more for younger than older employees, supporting the "impressionable years" framework in the psychological literature on aging. Implications for human resources managers are discussed.
Describes research to design and construct ergonomically correct work stations for Computer Numerical Control machine tools. By designing ergonomically correct work stations, industrial technology teachers help protect students from repetitive motion injuries. (Contains 12 references.) (JOW)
Torok, Andrew G.
Discusses evolution of ergonomics and development of computer ergonomics with its sub-fields of hardware ergonomics (user-equipment-related problems including workstation design); software ergonomics (problems in communication with computers); and peopleware ergonomics (psychological impact). Ergonomic features of VDTs, keyboards, and printers are…
Kraus, W. [HAW-Hamburg (Germany)
Nowadays, ergonomics and design are quality factors and indispensable elements of commercial vehicle design and development. Whereas a vehicle's appearance, i.e. its outside design, produces fascination and image, the design of its passenger cell focuses entirely on drivers and their tasks. Today, passenger-cell design and the ergonomics of driver workstations in commercial vehicles are clearly becoming more and more important. This article concentrates above all on defining commercial vehicle drivers, which, within the scope of research projects on coach-driver workstations, has provided new insight into the design of driver workstations. In light of the deficits determined, the research project mainly focused on designing driver workstations which were in line with the latest findings in ergonomics and human engineering. References to the methodology of driver-workstation optimization seems important in this context. The afore-mentioned innovations in the passenger cells of commercial vehicles will be explained and described by means of topical and practical examples. (orig.) [German] Ergonomie und Design sind heute Qualitaetsfaktoren und unverzichtbarer Bestandteil bei der Entwicklung von Nutzfahrzeugen. Erzeugt das Erscheinungsbild, die Aussengestaltung des Fahrzeugs, die Faszination und das Image, so ist die Innengestaltung weitgehend ganz auf die Bedienpersonen und ihre Arbeitsaufgaben bezogen. Die Innenraumgestaltung und die Ergonomie von Fahrerarbeitsplaetzen in Nutzfahrzeugen sind heute in einer Phase der deutlichen Aufwertung zu sehen. Im Beitrag wird besonders auf die Definition der Bedienpersonen fuer Nutzfahrzeuge eingegangen, die im Rahmen des Forschungsprojekts Fahrerarbeitsplatz im Reisebus zu neuen Erkenntnissen bei der Auslegung von Arbeitsplaetzen fuehrte. Gemaess der ermittelten Defizite konzentriert sich die Studie im Kern auf das Gestaltungskonzept des Fahrerarbeitsplatzes nach ergonomischen und arbeitswissenschaftlichen Erkenntnissen
Whitmore, Mihriban; Berman, Andrea H.; Byerly, Diane
Various gloveboxes (GBXs) have been used aboard the Shuttle and ISS. Though the overall technical specifications are similar, each GBX's crew interface is unique. JSC conducted a series of ergonomic evaluations of the various glovebox designs to identify human factors requirements for new designs to provide operator commonality across different designs. We conducted 2 0g evaluations aboard the Shuttle to evaluate the material sciences GBX and the General Purpose Workstation (GPWS), and a KC-135 evaluation to compare combinations of arm hole interfaces and foot restraints (flexible arm holes were better than rigid ports for repetitive fine manipulation tasks). Posture analysis revealed that the smallest and tallest subjects assumed similar postures at all four configurations, suggesting that problematic postures are not necessarily a function of the operator s height but a function of the task characteristics. There was concern that the subjects were using the restrictive nature of the GBX s cuffs as an upper-body restraint to achieve such high forces, which might lead to neck/shoulder discomfort. EMG data revealed more consistent muscle performance at the GBX; the variability in the EMG profiles observed at the GPWS was attributed to the subjects attempts to provide more stabilization for themselves in the loose, flexible gauntlets. Tests revealed that the GBX should be designed for a 95 percentile American male to accommodate a neutral working posture. In addition, the foot restraint with knee support appeared beneficial for GBX operations. Crew comments were to provide 2 foot restraint mechanical modes, loose and lock-down, to accommodate a wide range of tasks without egressing the restraint system. Thus far, we have developed preliminary design guidelines for GBXs and foot.
Ratib, Osman M.; Amato, Carlos L.; Balbona, Joseph A.; Boots, Kevin; Valentino, Daniel J.
We used 3D modeling techniques to design and evaluate the ergonomics of diagnostic workstation and radiology reading room in the planning phase of building a new hospital at UCLA. Given serious space limitations, the challenge was to provide more optimal working environment for radiologists in a crowded and busy environment. A particular attention was given to flexibility, lighting condition and noise reduction in rooms shared by multiple users performing diagnostic tasks as well as regular clinical conferences. Re-engineering workspace ergonomics rely on the integration of new technologies, custom designed cabinets, indirect lighting, sound-absorbent partitioning and geometric arrangement of workstations to allow better privacy while optimizing space occupation. Innovations included adjustable flat monitors, integration of videoconferencing and voice recognition, control monitor and retractable keyboard for optimal space utilization. An overhead compartment protecting the monitors from ambient light is also used as accessory lightbox and rear-view projection screen for conferences.
Robertson, Michelle M; Ciriello, Vincent M; Garabet, Angela M
Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) among office workers with intensive computer use is widespread and the prevalence of symptoms is growing. This randomized controlled trial investigated the effects of an office ergonomics training combined with a sit-stand workstation on musculoskeletal and visual discomfort, behaviors and performance. Participants performed a lab-based customer service job for 8 h per day, over 15 days and were assigned to: Ergonomics Trained (n = 11) or Minimally Trained (n = 11). The training consisted of: a 1.5-h interactive instruction, a sit/stand practice period, and ergonomic reminders. Ergonomics Trained participants experienced minimal musculoskeletal and visual discomfort across the 15 days, varied their postures, with significantly higher performance compared to the Minimally Trained group who had a significantly higher number of symptoms, suggesting that training plays a critical role. The ability to mitigate symptoms, change behaviors and enhance performance through training combined with a sit-stand workstation has implications for preventing discomforts in office workers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Margaritis, Spyros; Marmaras, Nicolas
This paper proposes a method and an information technology tool aiming to support the ergonomics layout design of individual workstations in a given space (building). The proposed method shares common ideas with previous generic methods for office layout. However, it goes a step forward and focuses on the cognitive tasks which have to be carried out by the designer or the design team trying to alleviate them. This is achieved in two ways: (i) by decomposing the layout design problem to six main stages, during which only a limited number of variables and requirements are considered and (ii) by converting the ergonomics requirements to functional design guidelines. The information technology tool (ErgoOffice 0.1) automates certain phases of the layout design process, and supports the design team either by its editing and graphical facilities or by providing adequate memory support.
John E. Muñoz-Cardona
Full Text Available This paper shows the design of work-station for work-related inclusion people upper-limb disability. The system involves the use of novel brain computer interface used to bridge the user-computer interaction. Our hope objective is elucidating functional, technological, ergonomic and procedural aspects to runaway operation station; with propose to scratch barrier to impossibility access to TIC’s tools and work done for individual disability person. We found access facility ergonomics, adaptability and portable issue of workstation are most important design criteria. Prototype implementations in workplace environment have TIR estimate of 43% for retrieve. Finally we list a typology of services that could be the most appropriate for the process of labor including: telemarketing, telesales, telephone surveys, order taking, social assistance in disasters, general information and inquiries, reservations at tourist sites, technical support, emergency, online support and after-sales services.
Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method's usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method.
Kwon, Yeong Guk
This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.
Rodrigues, Mirela Sant'Ana; Leite, Raquel Descie Veraldi; Lelis, Cheila Maira; Chaves, Thaís Cristina
Some studies have suggested a causal relationship between computer work and the development of musculoskeletal disorders. However, studies considering the use of specific tools to assess workplace ergonomics and psychosocial factors in computer office workers with and without reported musculoskeletal pain are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial factors in computer office workers with and without reported musculoskeletal pain (MSP). Thirty-five computer office workers (aged 18-55 years) participated in the study. The following evaluations were completed: Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA), Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA), and Maastricht Upper Extremity Questionnaire revised Brazilian Portuguese version (MUEQ-Br revised). Student t-tests were used to make comparisons between groups. The computer office workers were divided into two groups: workers with reported MSP (WMSP, n = 17) and workers without positive report (WOMSP, n = 18). Those in the WMSP group showed significantly greater mean values in the total ROSA score (WMSP: 6.71 [CI95% :6.20-7.21] and WOMSP: 5.88 [CI95% :5.37-6.39], p = 0.01). The WMSP group also showed higher scores in the chair section of the ROSA, workstation of MUEQ-Br revised, and in the upper limb RULA score. The chair height and armrest sections from ROSA showed the higher mean values in workers WMSP compared to workers WOMSP. A positive moderate correlation was observed between ROSA and RULA total scores (R = 0.63, p ergonomics indexes for chair workstation and worse physical risk related to upper limb (RULA upper limb section) than workers without pain. However, there were no observed differences in workers with and without MSP regarding work-related psychosocial factors. The results suggest that inadequate workstation conditions, specifically the chair height, arm and back rest, are linked to improper upper limb postures and that these factors are contributing to
Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel
Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340
Pentikis, John; Lopez, Mary S; Thomas, Robert E
An ergonomics team from the US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive medicine evaluated 465 video display terminal (VDT) workstations in a Government office building over an 18-day period. Each workstation evaluation involved an assessment of the worker, the chair, the desk, the keyboard, the pointing device, the monitor, and the office environmental conditions. The team also collected worker pain and injury information. The problems seen during the evaluation were characteristic of most office environments where VDT workstation furniture was purchased before the advent of mouse-driven software. The majority of furniture evaluated was not designed to meet the demands of intensive mouse use for prolonged periods of time. Much of the workstation furniture was not adjustable, chairs lacked adequate back support, and workers assumed non-neutral postures. As a result, more than 35% of the workers evaluated complained of on-the-job pain. New office furniture that is adjustable, adequate desk space and storage space were among the solutions recommended by the ergonomics team.
Background Improper workstation, work procedures and tools are found to be the risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders among the informal sector workers of the developing countries. Low cost ergonomic interventions can effectively improve such adverse conditions. Case presentation In the present article some studies related to design interventions in different informal and agricultural sectors were discussed and their efficacies were analyzed. It was observed that with the help of appropriate interventions musculoskeletal disorders were reduced, adverse physiological conditions were improved when awkward postures were corrected and ultimately the organisational productivity was increased. Conclusion Proper implementation of ergonomic interventions can ultimately improve the economy of the nation. PMID:25009740
Full Text Available Background and aims: High percentage of musculoskeletal disorders occurs due to awkward working posture and poor workstation design. So this study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of musculoskeletal disorders , evaluate workstations and investigate the effectiveness of ergonomic interventional measures among medical school staff of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS. Methods: In this interventional study, 200 employees of different units of medical school of SUMS participated. They were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. Data were collected via anonymous questionnaire, RULA and QEC techniques as well as an ergonomic workstation checklist that was used to evaluate working conditions. Results: The results showed that after conducting interventional program for the experimental group there was a significant relationship between employees' increased awareness of ergonomics and workstation improvement (p≤0.05. Additionally, the prevalence rate of reported musculoskeletal disorders in experimental group was significantly reduced following intervention (p≤0.05. After corrective measures, level of risk was decreased and working postures were improved. A significant relationship was observed between risk levels and neck and shoulder pain in the experimental group (p≤0.05 . Following the intervention, workstations scores were increased significantly. Conclusion: On the basis of the findings of this study, it could be noted that the ergonomic interventional program was effective to improve working posture and workstations as well as to reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among the staff.
Mirmohammadi, Seyed Jalil; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Olia, Mohammad Bagher; Mirmohammadi, Monirolsadat
Substantial evidence shows an association between musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and certain work-related physical factors. One of the jobs with known ergonomic hazards is working with video display terminals (VDTs). Redesign, ergonomic improvements, and education have generally been recommended as solutions for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. We designed this study to assess the effects of ergonomic training on the working postures of VDT users. In an intervention study, we assessed the impact of ergonomic training on the ergonomic hazards and work postures in employees working with VDTs. Participants and their workstations were assessed by Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method before and after training. 70 employees of an office, working with a VDT more than four hours per day entered the study. The greatest compliance with OSHA workstation recommendations was seen with the monitor (21.4% of cases) and the least compliance with the one was the chair (10.0%). Mean RULA score before and after intervention were 5.90, and 5.07, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p training office ergonomics to the VDT users, even without changing work place components can significantly improve VDT users' behavior and ability to properly fit a workstation to him/herself.
Allahyari, Teimour; Mortazavi, Narges; Khalkhali, Hamid Reza; Sanjari, Mohammad Ali
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulder regions are common among carpet weavers. Working for prolonged hours in a static and awkward posture could result in an increased muscle activity and may lead to musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomic workstation improvements can reduce muscle fatigue and the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study is to assess and to compare upper trapezius and middle deltoid muscle activity in 2 traditional and improved design carpet weaving workstations. These 2 workstations were simulated in a laboratory and 12 women carpet weavers worked for 3 h. Electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded during work in bilateral upper trapezius and bilateral middle deltoid. The root mean square (RMS) and median frequency (MF) values were calculated and used to assess muscle load and fatigue. Repeated measure ANOVA was performed to assess the effect of independent variables on muscular activity and fatigue. The participants were asked to report shoulder region fatigue on the Borg's Category-Ratio scale (Borg CR-10). Root mean square values in workstation A are significantly higher than in workstation B. Furthermore, EMG amplitude was higher in bilateral trapezius than in bilateral deltoid. However, muscle fatigue was not observed in any of the workstations. The results of the study revealed that muscle load in a traditional workstation was high, but fatigue was not observed. Further studies investigating other muscles involved in carpet weaving tasks are recommended. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V
Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought.
The factory capacity achievement and the bottleneck reduction of production process at wet-blanket workstations are influenced by the balance of life quality rates and worker’s productivity, along with the worker’s ability and limitations, tasks, organization and work environment. The life quality of workers is indicated by: the reduction of workload, and fatigue. Meanwhile, work productivity is measured by increasing production results per work shift. The optimization of the quality of life and productivity of workers is achieved by redesigning the system and workstations based on ergonomics integrating Total Ergonomics with Ergo-MicMac (Micro Ergonomics and Macro Ergonomics), which includes redesigning wet-blanket folding worktable, regulating the system pattern of working in pairs, giving official break time, giving extra nutritious intakes such as sweet tea and snack Pempek, giving personal protective equipments, and redesigning physical working environments.This study was an experimental study, with treatment by subject design involving 30 workers sampled at a workstation condition before and after Ergonomics based redesign. The findings and conclusions of the study were derived from the reduction of the workload by 16.06%, fatigue by 18.84% and the increase of production results per work shift by 20.29%.
Das, B [ed.; Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering
135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.
Das, B. (ed.) (Technical University of Nova Scotia, Halifax, NS (Canada). Dept. of Industrial Engineering)
135 papers were presented at the conference in 20 sessions with the following headings: aging and industrial performance; back injury and rehabilitation; bioinstrumentation and electromyography; cumulative trauma disorders; engineering anthropometry; equipment design and ergonomics; human computer interaction; human performance and worker satisfaction; human strength and testing; industrial accidents and prevention; industrial biomechanics; injuries in health care; manual materials handling; noise and vibration effects; occupational health and safety; robotics and agricultural machinery safety; statistics and modelling in ergonomics; work environment; workplace safety analysis; and workstation design. Papers are included entitled: A model for analyzing mining machine illumination systems' by R.L. Unger, A.F. Glowacki and E.W. Rossi, 'Ergonomic design guidelines for underground coal mining equipment by E.J. Conway and R. Unger, and Hot work environment and human strain - a relation proposed by K. Bhattacharya and S. Raja.
This paper presents a survey of cybercafes in a developing country to reveal their design pitfalls and propose appropriate solutions to the observed problems based on ergonomic principles. These cybercafes provide Internet services to communities but the concern is to make the work convenient at the computer workplace ...
Saito, S; Piccoli, B; Smith, M J; Sotoyama, M; Sweitzer, G; Villanueva, M B; Yoshitake, R
In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort.
Martin, K; Legg, S; Brown, C
Sustainability is a global issue that has worldwide attention but the role of ergonomics in designing for sustainability is poorly understood and seldom considered. An analysis of the literature on ergonomics, design and sustainability was conducted via a search of electronic databases: Scopus, Business Source Complete, Google Scholar, Emerald Publishing, Academic Search Premiere, Web of Science, Discover and Ergonomics Abstracts, for the years 1995-2012. A total of 1934 articles fulfilled the search criteria, but content analysis of the abstracts indicated that only 14 refereed articles addressed the main search criteria. Of those seven were in ergonomics journals and seven were in other journals (and were not written by ergonomists). It is concluded that the contribution of ergonomics to sustainability and sustainable design has been limited, even though the goals of sustainability and ergonomics are congruent. Ergonomists have not been at the forefront of research contributing to sustainability - and it is time for them to 'seize the day' - 'carpe diem'. This literature review shows that ergonomics contribution to sustainability is limited but since there is congruence between the disciplines it calls for ergonomists to become more involved and to seize the day - carpe diem.
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: To develop high quality products, a designer has to consider various influential factors, one of which is ergonomics. And to fashion a specific product for the user, a designer needs expert knowledge of the user’s requirements. However, expert knowledge can also be accessed through an intelligent advisory system for ergonomic design support. The effectiveness of such an expert system depends mainly on the quality of the knowledge base and on the appropriateness of the system's inference engine. Data for the system’s knowledge base can be collected in different ways. One approach is to study relevant projects to collect appropriate ergonomic solutions; another is to recognise bottlenecks in ergonomic design. This paper presents a case study of the design of an actual chainsaw – with emphasis on ergonomic design solutions – that can be transformed into ergonomic design recommendations. At the end of the paper, an application of one of the derived recommendations within the knowledge base of the intelligent advisory system is presented.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: By die ontwerp van gehaltegoedere moet aandag gegee word aan verskeie faktore soos die Ergonomie. Die produkontwerper moet deeglike kennis dra van die verbruikersbehoeftes. Daarbenewens moet hy liefs ook gebruik maak van ’n intelligente sisteem vir ontwerphulp. Die navorsing is toegespits op datasteun vir ’n kettingsaagontwerp en toon hoe die intelligente sisteem betekenisvolle ondersteuning verleen.
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg
Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes...... employed in the same company, constituted a supporting factor for the possibilities to integrate ergonomic knowledge into the engineering design processes. However, the integration activities remained discrete and only happened in some of the design projects. A major barrier was related to the business...... to the ergonomic ambitions of the clients. The ergonomists’ ability to navigate, act strategically, and compromise on ergonomic inputs is also important in relation to having an impact in the engineering design processes. Familiarity with the engineering design terminology and the setup of design projects seems...
Recent experiences in the action-oriented use of ergonomic checkpoints in different work settings are reviewed. The purpose is to know what features are useful for healthy work design adjusted to each local situation. Based on the review results, common features of ergonomic checkpoints used in participatory training programs for improving workplace conditions in small enterprises, construction sites, home work and agriculture in industrially developing countries in Asia are discussed. These checkpoints generally compile practical improvement options in a broad range of technical areas, such as materials handling, workstation design, physical environment and work organization. Usually, "action checklists" comprising the tiles of the checkpoints are used together. A clear focus is placed on readily applicable low-cost options. Three common features of these various checkpoints appear to be important. First, the checkpoints represent typical good practices in multiple areas. Second, each how-to section of these checkpoints presents simple improvements reflecting basic ergonomic principles. Examples of these principles include easy reach, fewer and faster transport, elbow-level work, coded displays, isolated or screened hazards and shared teamwork. Third, the illustrated checkpoints accompanied by corresponding checklists are used as group work tools in short-term training courses. Many practical improvements achieved are displayed in websites for inter-country work improvement networks. It is suggested to promote the use of locally adjusted checkpoints in various forms of participatory action-oriented training in small-scale workplaces and in agriculture particularly in industrially developing countries.
Pereira, Michelle Jessica; Straker, Leon Melville; Comans, Tracy Anne; Johnston, Venerina
To establish the inter-rater reliability of an observation-based ergonomics assessment checklist for computer workers. A 37-item (38-item if a laptop was part of the workstation) comprehensive observational ergonomics assessment checklist comparable to government guidelines and up to date with empirical evidence was developed. Two trained practitioners assessed full-time office workers performing their usual computer-based work and evaluated the suitability of workstations used. Practitioners assessed each participant consecutively. The order of assessors was randomised, and the second assessor was blinded to the findings of the first. Unadjusted kappa coefficients between the raters were obtained for the overall checklist and subsections that were formed from question-items relevant to specific workstation equipment. Twenty-seven office workers were recruited. The inter-rater reliability between two trained practitioners achieved moderate to good reliability for all except one checklist component. This checklist has mostly moderate to good reliability between two trained practitioners. Practitioner Summary: This reliable ergonomics assessment checklist for computer workers was designed using accessible government guidelines and supplemented with up-to-date evidence. Employers in Queensland (Australia) can fulfil legislative requirements by using this reliable checklist to identify and subsequently address potential risk factors for work-related injury to provide a safe working environment.
Mendonça, André N F; van der Linden, Júlio C S; Fonseca, Tania M G
Through Brazilian publication revision on the relations amongst Ergonomics and Design, we observed the tendency towards an approach focusing on product design. However, it is our duty to question which would be the influences of ergonomics in the graphic design. As a methodology, we considered the identification that the practices derived from ergonomics as epistemic system found in the main bibliography related to graphic design.
Smith, Michael J; Bayehi, Antoinette Derjani
This paper examines whether improving physical ergonomics working conditions affects worker productivity in a call centre with computer-intensive work. A field study was conducted at a catalogue retail service organization to explore the impact of ergonomics improvements on worker production. There were three levels of ergonomics interventions, each adding incrementally to the previous one. The first level was ergonomics training for all computer users accompanied by workstation ergonomics analysis leading to specific customized adjustments to better fit each worker (Group C). The second level added specific workstation accessories to improve the worker fit if the ergonomics analysis indicated a need for them (Group B). The third level met Group B requirements plus an improved chair (Group A). Productivity data was gathered from 72 volunteer participants who received ergonomics improvements to their workstations and 370 control subjects working in the same departments. Daily company records of production outputs for each worker were taken before ergonomics intervention (baseline) and 12 months after ergonomics intervention. Productivity improvement from baseline to 12 months post-intervention was examined across all ergonomics conditions combined, and also compared to the control group. The findings showed that worker performance increased for 50% of the ergonomics improvement participants and decreased for 50%. Overall, there was a 4.87% output increase for the ergonomics improvement group as compared to a 3.46% output decrease for the control group. The level of productivity increase varied by the type of the ergonomics improvements with Group C showing the best improvement (9.43%). Even though the average production improved, caution must be used in interpreting the findings since the ergonomics interventions were not successful for one-half of the participants.
The growing prevalence of health problems among computer workstation workers has become one of the biggest threats to the overall health of our population. That is why many modern scientists are looking for ways and methods to prevent and reverse these negative trends. The purpose of this article is to present the potential for practical use of computer programs to design an ergonomic workplace and postural loads. These programs help configure the computer workstation correctly and adopt the correct body position during work, which reduces the risk of health problems. Creating visually attractive programs helps encourage and inspire those who work with a computer to introduce ergonomic solutions and reject the sedentary lifestyle.
Williams, J.C.; Story, D.T.
The application of ergonomic principles to the design process and some aspects of the Sizewell B control room is discussed. Also outlined is the management process which ensures that these principles are applied systematically throughout the design development activity and highlights the functional requirements which must also be met in the creation of a total man-machine system package which meets all the technical design criteria. The ergonomics requirements are part of this process and extend into all aspects of design ranging from such matters as workplace organization to environmental factors, social engineering, communications and aesthetics. (author)
Goodman, Glenn; Landis, James; George, Christina; McGuire, Sheila; Shorter, Crystal; Sieminski, Michelle; Wilson, Tamika
Ergonomic principles at the computer workstation may reduce the occurrence of work related injuries commonly associated with intensive computer use. A program implemented in 2001 by an occupational therapist and a physical therapist utilized these preventative measures with education about ergonomics, individualized evaluations of computer workstations, and recommendations for ergonomic and environmental changes. This study examined program outcomes and perceived effectiveness based on review of documents, interviews, and surveys of the employees and the plant manager. The program was deemed successful as shown by 59% of all therapist recommendations and 74% of ergonomic recommendations being implemented by the company, with an 85% satisfaction rate for the ergonomic interventions and an overall employee satisfaction rate of 70%. Eighty-one percent of the physical problems reported by employees were resolved to their satisfaction one year later. Successful implementation of ergonomics programs depend upon effective communication and education of the consumers, and the support, cooperation and collaboration of management and employees.
Marano, Antonio; Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Rossi, Emilio
Referring to the discussion recently promoted by the Sub-Technical Committee n°4 "Ergonomics and design for sustainability", in this paper will be shown the early results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability. In particular, the research is based on the comparison between the common thematic structure characterizing Ergonomics, with the principles of Sustainable Development and with criteria adopted from other disciplines already oriented toward Sustainability. The paper identifies an early logical-interpretative model and describes possible and relevant Strategies of Ergonomic design for sustainability, which are connected in a series of specific Sustainable Arguments.
Araújo, Adolfo Vicente; Arcanjo, Gemima Santos; Fernandes, Haroldo; Arcanjo, Georgia Santos
The collective transportation system is essential to reduce the number of automobiles in the roads. Concerns exist related to quality, comfort and safety of bus driver's workstations. The objective of this study was to improve the driver's workstation in the private collective transportation sector by analyzing ergonomic practices using the Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA). The EWA was chosen because it seeks to evaluate the labor condition as it relates to the psychophysiological conditions of workers, it complies with regulatory standard 17 (NR17). To identify driver concerns, interviews and questionnaires were administered. The workstation and worker routines were observed. The analysis revealed that the largest number of complaints related to noise, display light and location of the passenger identifier device. Drivers reported discomfort in the knees and lower back. Recommendations were made to improve the workstation and change the routine to minimize the discomfort and ergonomic risk factors.
Merrell, Wayne L.; Zeimet, Denis E.
Lists 15 principles for working safely with equipment. Describes phases of an ergonomic hazards program to identify and prevent problems and causes of cumulative trauma disorders in the workplace. (SK)
Courtney, Theodore K.
Perhaps the four most popular 'ergonomic' office culprits are: (1) the computer or visual display terminal (VDT); (2) the office chair; (3) the workstation; and (4) other automated equipment such as the facsimile machine, photocopier, etc. Among the ergonomics issues in the office environment are visual fatigue, musculoskeletal disorders, and radiation/electromagnetic (VLF,ELF) field exposure from VDT's. We address each of these in turn and then review some regulatory considerations regarding such stressors in the office and general industrial environment.
Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz
This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.
Morita, Mark M.; Ratib, Osman
The ergonomic design in the Surgical OR of information technology systems has been and continues to be a large problem. Numerous disparate information systems with unique hardware and display configurations create an environment similar to the chaotic environments of air traffic control. Patient information systems tend to show all available statistics making it difficult to isolate the key, relevant vitals for the patient. Interactions in this sterile environment are still being done with the traditional keyboard and mouse designed for cubicle office workflows. This presentation will address the shortcomings of the current design paradigm in the Surgical OR that relate to Information Technology systems. It will offer a perspective that addresses the ergonomic deficiencies and predicts how future technological innovations will integrate into this vision. Part of this vision includes a Surgical OR PACS prototype, developed by GE Healthcare Technologies, that addresses ergonomic challenges of PACS in the OR that include lack of portability, sterile field integrity, and UI targeted for diagnostic radiologists. GWindows (gesture control) developed by Microsoft Research and Voice command will allow for the surgeons to navigate and review diagnostic imagery without using the conventional keyboard and mouse that disrupt the integrity of the sterile field. This prototype also demonstrates how a wireless, battery powered, self contained mobile PACS workstation can be optimally positioned for a surgeon to reference images during an intervention as opposed to the current pre-operative review. Lessons learned from the creation of the Surgical OR PACS Prototype have demonstrated that PACS alone is not the end all solution in the OR. Integration of other disparate information systems and presentation of this information in simple, easy to navigate information packets will enable smoother interactions for the surgeons and other healthcare professionals in the OR. More intuitive
Salmani Nodooshan, H; Koohi Booshehri, S; Daneshmandi, H; Choobineh, A R
In Iranian orthotic and prosthetic workshops, the majority of activities are carried out by manpower and the tasks are labor-intensive. In these workshops, ergonomic aspects of working conditions are seldom considered. This study was conducted in orthotic and prosthetic workshops with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate of MSDs among employees and assessment of ergonomics working conditions. In this cross-sectional study, all employees (n = 42; 29 males and 13 females) in 11 active orthotic and prosthetic production centers of Shiraz city participated. Data were collected using Nordic Musculoskeletal disorders Questionnaire (NMQ) and observational technique by an ergonomics checklist for assessment of working conditions. The means (SD) of age and job tenure (years) in the study individuals were 37.26 (10.21) and 12.8 (9.39), respectively. The most prevalent MSD symptoms in the past 12 months were reported in the lower back (42.9%), shoulders (40.5%) and knees (40.5%). Working conditions assessment showed that the main ergonomic problems in the workshops studied originated from awkward working posture, improper workstation design, poorly designed hand tools and incorrect manual material handling. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should, therefore, focus on these areas.
Kidwell, George H.
Workstations provide sufficient computing memory and speed for early evaluations of aircraft design alternatives to identify those worthy of further study. It is recommended that the programming of such machines permit integrated calculations of the configuration and performance analysis of new concepts, along with the capability of changing up to 100 variables at a time and swiftly viewing the results. Computations can be augmented through links to mainframes and supercomputers. Programming, particularly debugging operations, are enhanced by the capability of working with one program line at a time and having available on-screen error indices. Workstation networks permit on-line communication among users and with persons and computers outside the facility. Application of the capabilities is illustrated through a description of NASA-Ames design efforts for an oblique wing for a jet performed on a MicroVAX network.
Filus, Rodrigo; Partel, Luciana
Abstract When the subject rotation between workstations (job rotation) is inside the organizations it's seemed that technically there are lots of restrictions to the development of an adequate system of rotation. We went from the need for an advanced ergonomic study and even possible restrictions of versatility and training of employees. The implementation of the ideal system of rotation passes through stages of development and research ergonomic study of the level of employee versatility, awareness and discussion with employees, implementation of the proposed system, feedback and audits for maintenance of the ideal sequence and time of rotation. For the success of the project there is a need for multidisciplinary involvement in the areas of manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering, human resources, medical services and manufacturing. Rotation between the tasks may mean that a worker should conduct two or more different activities in different parts of the day (ie. change between activity A and activity B "between 1 hours and 2 hours interval). An important consideration is to ensure that different activities do not present the same ergonomic risk for the same body part. The tracing of the execution of the activity is an important factor for production processes. Thus it is possible to conduct appropriate levels of training for employees and ensure safe and sustainable processes in terms of workers' health, productivity and quality.
Chim, Justine M Y
An effective office ergonomics program can predict positive results in reducing musculoskeletal injury rates, enhancing productivity, and improving staff well-being and job satisfaction. Its objective is to provide a systematic solution to manage the potential risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users in an office setting. A FITS Model office ergonomics program is developed. The FITS Model Office Ergonomics Program has been developed which draws on the legislative requirements for promoting the health and safety of workers using computers for extended periods as well as previous research findings. The Model is developed according to the practical industrial knowledge in ergonomics, occupational health and safety management, and human resources management in Hong Kong and overseas. This paper proposes a comprehensive office ergonomics program, the FITS Model, which considers (1) Furniture Evaluation and Selection; (2) Individual Workstation Assessment; (3) Training and Education; (4) Stretching Exercises and Rest Break as elements of an effective program. An experienced ergonomics practitioner should be included in the program design and implementation. Through the FITS Model Office Ergonomics Program, the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among computer users can be eliminated or minimized, and workplace health and safety and employees' wellness enhanced.
Chow, Joyce A; Törnros, Martin E; Waltersson, Marie; Richard, Helen; Kusoffsky, Madeleine; Lundström, Claes F; Kurti, Arianit
Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Our research institute focused on an experimental and "designerly" approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as " rapid ethnography " and " conversation with materials ". We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the image, and create linked information. The augmented reality magnetically tracked scalpel reduces tool switching though
Ahearn, David J; Sanders, Martha J; Turcotte, Claudia
The increasing complexity of the dental office environment influences productivity and workflow for dental clinicians. Advances in technology, and with it the range of products needed to provide services, have led to sprawl in operatory setups and the potential for awkward postures for dental clinicians during the delivery of oral health services. Although ergonomics often addresses the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders for specific populations of workers, concepts of workflow and productivity are integral to improved practice in work environments. This article provides suggestions for improving workflow and productivity for dental clinicians. The article applies ergonomic principles to dental practice issues such as equipment and supply management, office design, and workflow management. Implications for improved ergonomic processes and future research are explored.
Beard, David V.; Johnston, Richard E.; Pisano, Etta D.; Hemminger, Bradley M.; Pizer, Stephen M.
For the last four years, the UNC FilmPlane project has focused on constructing a radiology workstation facilitating CT interpretations equivalent to those with film and viewbox. Interpretation of multiple CT studies was originally chosen because handling such large numbers of images was considered to be one of the most difficult tasks that could be performed with a workstation. The authors extend the FilmPlane design to address mammography. The high resolution and contrast demands coupled with the number of images often cross- compared make mammography a difficult challenge for the workstation designer. This paper presents the results of preliminary work with workstation interpretation of mammography. Background material is presented to justify why the authors believe electronic mammographic workstations could improve health care delivery. The results of several observation sessions and a preliminary eyetracker study of multiple-study mammography interpretations are described. Finally, tentative conclusions of what a mammographic workstation might look like and how it would meet clinical demand to be effective are presented.
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between different knowledge domains, while the aim of an intermediary object is to circulate knowledge and thus produce a distant effect. Adjustable layout drawings served as boundary objects and had a positive impact on the dialog between an ergonomist and designers. An ergonomic guideline document was identified as an intermediary object. However, when the ergonomic guidelines were circulated in the design process, only some of the guidelines were transferred to the design of the sterile processing plant. Based on these findings, recommendations for working with objects in design processes are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Goyal, N. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)], E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom)
The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations.
Goyal, N.; Jain, N.; Rachapalli, V.
The use of computers is increasing in every field of medicine, especially radiology. Filmless radiology departments, speech recognition software, electronic request forms and teleradiology are some of the recent developments that have substantially increased the amount of time a radiologist spends in front of a computer monitor. Computers are also needed for searching literature on the internet, communicating via e-mails, and preparing for lectures and presentations. It is well known that regular computer users can suffer musculoskeletal injuries due to repetitive stress. The role of ergonomics in radiology is to ensure that working conditions are optimized in order to avoid injury and fatigue. Adequate workplace ergonomics can go a long way in increasing productivity, efficiency, and job satisfaction. We review the current literature pertaining to the role of ergonomics in modern-day radiology especially with the development of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) workstations
Di Bucchianico, Giuseppe; Marano, Antonio; Rossi, Emilio
Starting from the results of a theoretical and methodological study on Ergonomic design for sustainability previously developed from the authors, this paper shows the early results of a study that tries to apply them to actual operational and conceptual apparatuses of Ergonomics. In particular, the research aims to verify the possibility for Ergonomics to initiate an update of its current theoretical and procedural tools, towards new design solutions of "sustainable well-being", trying to look for new declinations of its several fields of application. The paper identifies new paradigms and definitions for one of the central themes of ergonomic design, as well as one among the most established and investigated: the usability of products and services.
Mazloumi, Adel; Mohammadreze, Fallah
One of the applications of ergonomics disciplinary is designing driver workstation compatible to users' characteristics. The aim of this study was evaluation of interior design of Shoka vehicle with respect to the accommodation for Iranian population and proposing suggestions for customizing design of this vehicle. This study was a descriptive-analytical study conducted among thirty men from Iranian drivers population in 5, 50, 95 percentiles of the stature variable. Objective variables related to the occupant packaging and vehicle visual aspects including anthropometric variables, frontal, lateral, and side view and so on were investigated first. Then, subjective variables related to the driver mental workload and body comfort discomfort were studied using BMDMW and comfort questionnaires during 2-hour driving trial sessions. Occupant packaging variables and hand-arm angle showed the least accommodation percent (%53). Seating angles showed low accommodation as well (%73). Among three percentile groups there were no significant differences between the mean values of mental workload during two hours driving task. And, the mean value related to the comfort discomfort was 3.9 during driving sessions. Considering the findings in this study, it can be conclude that seating angles need correction and optimization. Taking mental workload results into account, it can be concluded that the interior design of the studied car had no influence on drivers' mental workload. From the aspect of comfort discomfort, Shoka vehicle showed neutral state among drivers. Optimizing seating angles, decreasing vibration, correcting stiffness of seating pan are suggested for customization of the ergonomics aspect of this vehicle.
Beuscart, R J; Molenda, S; Souf, N; Foucher, C; Beuscart-Zephir, M C
Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by using local ETHERNET or public ISDN Networks. A detailed ergonomic task analysis studies the cognitive functioning of the physicians involved, compares their behaviour in the normal and the mediatized situations, and leads to an interpretation of the likely causes for success or failure of CSCW tools.
The relationship between Ergonomics and Design is a key element in the sustainability project, as well as in many other areas of experimental design. In the Design for Sustainability field, Ergonomics is a strategic factor for design culture innovation, providing designers with the necessary knowledge and skills regarding human characteristics and capabilities, as well as user needs and desires during use and interaction with products in work activities and everyday life. Ergonomics is also a strategic innovative factor in design development and manufacturing processes. In fact, ergonomics provides a methodological approach in user-product interaction evaluation processes through the use of participatory design and survey methods, user trials, direct observation, savings and resource conservation, etc.On the other hand, design offers solutions able to interpret user needs and expectations, at the same time suggesting new behaviors and lifestyles.In Design for Sustainability, the ergonomic and user-centered approach contributes greatly to lifestyles and innovative use of products--making it possible to understand and interpret real people needs and expectations in their everyday actions and behavior.New consumption patterns, new awareness of lifestyles, energy source consumption, purchasing methods and consumption style etc. can be supported by design innovation, responding to expressed and unexpressed user needs. With this in mind, the ergonomic approach represents the starting point for design choices and at the same time, a tool for assessing their appropriateness and effectiveness.
Mallam, Steven C; Lundh, Monica; MacKinnon, Scott N
Computer-aided solutions are essential for naval architects to manage and optimize technical complexities when developing a ship's design. Although there are an array of software solutions aimed to optimize the human element in design, practical ergonomics methodologies and technological solutions have struggled to gain widespread application in ship design processes. This paper explores how a new ergonomics technology is perceived by naval architecture students using a mixed-methods framework. Thirteen Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering Masters students participated in the study. Overall, results found participants perceived the software and its embedded ergonomics tools to benefit their design work, increasing their empathy and ability to understand the work environment and work demands end-users face. However, participant's questioned if ergonomics could be practically and efficiently implemented under real-world project constraints. This revealed underlying social biases and a fundamental lack of understanding in engineering postgraduate students regarding applied ergonomics in naval architecture. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Py Szeto, Grace; Tsui, Macy Mei Sze; Sze, Winky Wing Yu; Chan, Irene Sin Ting; Chung, Cyrus Chak Fai; Lee, Felix Wai Kit
All around the world, there is a rising trend of computer use among young children especially at home; yet the computer furniture is usually not designed specifically for children's use. In Hong Kong, this creates an even greater problem as most people live in very small apartments in high-rise buildings. Most of the past research literature is focused on computer use in children in the school environment and not about the home setting. The present pilot study aimed to examine ergonomic issues in children's use of computers at home in Hong Kong, which has some unique home environmental issues. Fifteen children (six male, nine female) aged 8-11 years and their parents were recruited by convenience sampling. Participants were asked to provide information on their computer use habits and related musculoskeletal symptoms. Participants were photographed when sitting at the computer workstation in their usual postures and joint angles were measured. The participants used computers frequently for less than two hours daily and the majority shared their workstations with other family members. Computer furniture was designed more for adult use and a mismatch of furniture and body size was found. Ergonomic issues included inappropriate positioning of the display screen, keyboard, and mouse, as well as lack of forearm support and suitable backrest. These led to awkward or constrained postures while some postural problems may be habitual. Three participants reported neck and shoulder discomfort in the past 12 months and 4 reported computer-related discomfort. Inappropriate computer workstation settings may have adverse effects on children's postures. More research on workstation setup at home, where children may use their computers the most, is needed.
Afshari, Davood; Motamedzade, Majid; Salehi, Reza; Soltanian, Alir Raze
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of back among weavers are prevalent. Epidemiological studies have shown an association between poor working postures and back disorders among carpet weavers. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the impact of the traditional (A) and ergonomically designed (B) workstations on trunk posture and cumulative compression load in carpet weavers. In this study, subtasks were identified in terms of stressful postures and carpet weaving process. Postural data were collected during knotting and compacting subtasks using inclinometer during four hours for each workstation. Postural data, weight and height of the weavers were entered into the University of Michigan three-dimensional static biomechanical model for estimation of the compression load and cumulative load were estimated from the resultant load and exposure time. Thirteen healthy carpet weavers (four males and nine females) participated in the study. Median trunk flexion angle was reduced with workstation B during knotting subtask (18° versus 8.5°, pergonomically designed workstation.
Lahaye, T.; Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Paquet, F.; Beneli, C.; Cordoliani, Y.S.; Vrigneaud, J.M.; Gauron, C.; Petrequin, A.; Frison, D.; Jeannin, B.; Charles, D.; Carballeda, G.; Crouail, P.; Valot, C.
This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)
Watson, Gale R.; Ramsey, Vincent; De l'Aune, William; Elk, Arona
This study found that the provision of ergonomic workstations for 12 older persons with age-related macular degeneration who used low vision devices significantly increased the participants' reading speed and decreased their discomfort when reading.
Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4%. A poor physical work environment and placement of the keyboard were work-related factors increasing the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. The randomized intervention study included questionnaire survey, a diary of discomfort, and ergonomic rating of the workstations. The subjects (n=124 were allocated into three groups. The intensive and the education groups had less musculoskeletal discomfort than the control group at the 2-month follow-up. After the intervention, the level of ergonomics was distinctly higher in the intensive ergonomic group than in the education or control group. Two experts in ergonomics analyzed and rated the ergonomics of workstations before and after intervention. The validity of the assessment method was rated against the technical measurements, assessment of tidiness and space, and work chair ergonomics. The intraclass correlation coefficient between ratings of the two experts was 0.74. Changes in the location of the input devises and the screen, as well as the values of tidiness and space and work chair ergonomics showed a significant association with the ratings of both experts. The method to assess the loads imposed on the upper limbs was validated against the expert observations from the video, continuous recordings of myoelectric activity of forearm muscles, and wrist posture, measured with goniometers. Inter-observer repeatability and validity were
Peng, Wen-Xian; Peng, Tian-Zhou; Xia, Shun-Ren; Jin, Guang-Bo
According to the patient examination criterion and the demands of all related departments, the DSA digital subtraction workstation has been successfully designed and is introduced in this paper by analyzing the characteristic of video source of DSA which was manufactured by GE Company and has no DICOM standard interface. The workstation includes images-capturing gateway and post-processing software. With the developed workstation, all images from this early DSA equipment are transformed into DICOM format and then are shared in different machines.
Alhadeff, Cynthia Mossé; Silva, Rosana Fernandes da; Reis, Márcia Sales dos
This study presents the challenge involved in the negotiation and construction of a standard process in a major petroleum company that has the purpose of guiding the implementation of ergonomic studies in the development of projects, systemising the implementation of ergonomics design. The standard was created by a multi-disciplinary working group consisting of specialists in ergonomics, who work in a number of different areas of the company. The objective was to guide "how to" undertake ergonomics in all projects, taking into consideration the development of the ergonomic appraisals of work. It also established that all the process, in each project phase, should be accompanied by a specialist in ergonomics. This process as an innovation in the conception of projects in this company, signals a change of culture, and, for this reason requires broad dissemination throughout the several company leadership levels, and training of professionals in projects of ergonomics design. An implementation plan was also prepared and approved by the corporate governance, complementing the proposed challenge. In this way, this major oil company will implement new procedures of ergonomics design to promote health, safety, and wellbeing of the workforce, besides improving the performance and reliability of its systems and processes.
Joyce A Chow
Full Text Available Context: Within digital pathology, digitalization of the grossing procedure has been relatively underexplored in comparison to digitalization of pathology slides. Aims: Our investigation focuses on the interaction design of an augmented reality gross pathology workstation and refining the interface so that information and visualizations are easily recorded and displayed in a thoughtful view. Settings and Design: The work in this project occurred in two phases: the first phase focused on implementation of an augmented reality grossing workstation prototype while the second phase focused on the implementation of an incremental prototype in parallel with a deeper design study. Subjects and Methods: Our research institute focused on an experimental and “designerly” approach to create a digital gross pathology prototype as opposed to focusing on developing a system for immediate clinical deployment. Statistical Analysis Used: Evaluation has not been limited to user tests and interviews, but rather key insights were uncovered through design methods such as “rapid ethnography” and “conversation with materials”. Results: We developed an augmented reality enhanced digital grossing station prototype to assist pathology technicians in capturing data during examination. The prototype uses a magnetically tracked scalpel to annotate planned cuts and dimensions onto photographs taken of the work surface. This article focuses on the use of qualitative design methods to evaluate and refine the prototype. Our aims were to build on the strengths of the prototype's technology, improve the ergonomics of the digital/physical workstation by considering numerous alternative design directions, and to consider the effects of digitalization on personnel and the pathology diagnostics information flow from a wider perspective. A proposed interface design allows the pathology technician to place images in relation to its orientation, annotate directly on the
Many construction injuries are musculoskeletal related in the form of sprains and strains arising from the handling of materials, which are specified by designers. The paper presents the results of a study conducted among delegates attending two 'designing for H&S' (DfH&S) seminars using a questionnaire. The salient findings include: the level of knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials is limited; designers generally do not consider the mass and density of materials when designing structures and elements and specifying materials; to a degree designers appreciate that the mass and density of materials impact on construction ergonomics; designers rate their knowledge of the mass and density of materials as limited, and designers appreciate the potential of the consideration of the mass and density of materials to contribute to an improvement in construction ergonomics. Conclusions include: designers lack the requisite knowledge relative to the mass and density of materials; designers are thus precluded from conducting optimum design hazard identification and risk assessments, and tertiary built environment designer education does not enlighten designers relative to construction ergonomics. Recommendations include: tertiary built environment designer education should construction ergonomics; professional associations should raise the level of awareness relative to construction ergonomics, and design practices should include a category 'mass and density of materials' in their practice libraries.
Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the effect of carpet weaving at a proposed workstation on Upper Trapezius (UTr fatigue during a task cycle. Fatigue in the shoulder is one of the most important precursors for upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. One of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders between carpet weavers is disorder of the shoulder region. Methods: This cross-sectional study, included eight females and three males. During an 80-minute cycle of carpet weaving, Electromyography (EMG signals of right and left UTr were recorded by the surface EMG, continuously. After raw signals were processed, MPF and RMS were considered as EMG amplitude and frequency parameters. Time series model and JASA methods were used to assess and classify the EMG parameter changes during the working time. Results: According to the JASA method, 58%, 16%, 8% and 8% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the right UTr. Also, 50%, 25%, 8% and 16% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the left UTr. Conclusions: For the major portion of the weavers, dominant status in Left and right UTr was fatigue, at the proposed workstation during a carpet weaving task cycle. The results of the study provide detailed information for optimal design of workstations. Further studies should focus on fatigue in various muscles and time periods for designing an appropriate and ergonomics carpet weaving workstation
Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R
The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design are based.
Full Text Available This paper presents a model for an ergonomic design of an aircraft cockpit with the specification and verification with respect to the new European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA requirements. The goal is to expressing the concepts on which the aircraft cockpit design is based.
Laestadius, Jasminka Goldoni; Ye, Jian; Cai, Xiaodong; Ross, Sandra; Dimberg, Lennart; Klekner, Meg
Does proactive ergonomics program enhance office worker health and productivity? The investigation was conducted in connection with the move of 1500 office staff to a building with improved ergonomics. It was focused on associations between workstation features, working postures, musculoskeletal pain symptoms, and eye strain before and 18 months after implementation of a proactive ergonomic program. The outcomes were compared between the intervention and a similar reference group. Associations between improvement of postures and less musculoskeletal pain and eye strain were confirmed. A cross association between several features and postures and improved symptoms was noted, along with improved productivity. The study suggests that a proactive program adhering to the OSHA recommendations needs to include an individual workstation assessment to be effective in reducing symptoms and increasing productivity.
This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, ...
This paper discusses some central issues in the concept of constructive ergonomics. It does so by reflecting on experiences from ergonomics intervention projects carried out in Denmark. Constructive ergonomics has a huge potential as a new way to go for ergonomics research and practice. However, many challenges are to be overcome. They relate among others to education and training of ergonomist, and the cultural and institutional setting of ergonomics in specific countries.
Antoniazzi, A.B.; Shmayda, W.T.; Fishbien, B.F.
A design for a tritium decontamination workstation based on plasma cleaning is presented. The activity of tritiated surfaces are significantly reduced through plasma-surface interactions within the workstation. Such a workstation in a tritium environment can routinely be used to decontaminate tritiated tools and components. The main advantage of such a station is the lack of low level tritiated liquid waste. Gaseous tritiated species are the waste products with can with present technology be separated and contained
Dockrell, Sara; Earle, Deirdre; Galvin, Rose
This study investigated the effect of a school-based ergonomic intervention on childrens' posture and discomfort while using computers using a pre/post test study design. The sample comprised 23 children age 9 and 10 years. Posture was assessed with Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and a workstation assessment was completed using a Visual…
Gao, Xiyin; Li, Xinling; Song, Qiang; Zheng, Ying
Along with agricultural economy development, the farm machinery product type Increases gradually, the ergonomics question is also getting more and more prominent. The widespread application of computer aided machinery design makes it possible that farm machinery design is intuitive, flexible and convenient. At present, because the developed computer aided ergonomics software has not suitable human body database, which is needed in view of farm machinery design in China, the farm machinery design have deviation in ergonomics analysis. This article puts forward that using the open database interface procedure in CATIA to establish human body database which aims at the farm machinery design, and reading the human body data to ergonomics module of CATIA can product practical application virtual body, using human posture analysis and human activity analysis module to analysis the ergonomics in farm machinery, thus computer aided farm machinery designing method based on engineering can be realized.
Chowdhury, Anirban; Sanjog, J; Reddy, Swathi Matta; Karmakar, Sougata
Application of nanotechnology and nanomaterials is not new in the field of design, but a recent trend of extensive use of nanomaterials in product and/or workplace design is drawing attention of design researchers all over the world. In the present paper, an attempt has been made to describe the diverse use of nanomaterials in product and workplace design with special emphasis on ergonomics (occupational health and safety; thermo-regulation and work efficiency, cognitive interface design; maintenance of workplace, etc.) to popularise the new discipline 'nanoergonomics' among designers, design users and design researchers. Nanoergonomics for sustainable product and workplace design by minimising occupational health risks has been felt by the authors to be an emerging research area in coming years. Use of nanomaterials in the field of design ergonomics is less explored till date. In the present review, an attempt has been made to extend general awareness among ergonomists/designers about applications of nanomaterials/nanotechnology in the field of design ergonomics and about health implications of nanomaterials during their use.
Esmaeilzadeh, Sina; Ozcan, Emel; Capan, Nalan
The aim of the study was to determine effects of ergonomic intervention on work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (WUEMSDs) among computer workers. Four hundred computer workers answered a questionnaire on work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal symptoms (WUEMSS). Ninety-four subjects with WUEMSS using computers at least 3 h a day participated in a prospective, randomized controlled 6-month intervention. Body posture and workstation layouts were assessed by the Ergonomic Questionnaire. We used the Visual Analogue Scale to assess the intensity of WUEMSS. The Upper Extremity Function Scale was used to evaluate functional limitations at the neck and upper extremities. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form-36. After baseline assessment, those in the intervention group participated in a multicomponent ergonomic intervention program including a comprehensive ergonomic training consisting of two interactive sessions, an ergonomic training brochure, and workplace visits with workstation adjustments. Follow-up assessment was conducted after 6 months. In the intervention group, body posture (p 0.05). Ergonomic intervention programs may be effective in reducing ergonomic risk factors among computer workers and consequently in the secondary prevention of WUEMSDs.
Pollack, T.; Brueggenwerth, G.; Kaulfuss, K.; Niederlag, W.
Material and Methods: During February 1999 and September 1999 medical users at the hospital Dresden-Friedrichstadt Germany had tested 7 types of radiology diagnostic workstations. Two types of test methods were used: In test type 1 ergonomic and handling functions were evaluated impartial according to 78 selected user requirements. In test type 2 radiologists and radiographers (3+4) performed 23 work flow steps with a subjectively evaluation. Results: By using a progressive rating no product could fully meet the user requirements. As a result of the summary evaluation for test 1 and test 2 the following compliance rating was calculated for the different products: Rad Works (66%), Magic View (63%), ID-Report (58%), Impax 3000 (53%), Medical Workstation (52%), Pathspeed (46%) and Autorad (39%). (orig.) [de
The Three Mile Island accident highlighted the importance of ergonomic design of control rooms. Emphasis has been on a reappraisal of the reactor/operator interface, but in the United Kingdom the CEGB maintains that safe efficient operation needs a centralised information system optimised for all control room staff. (author)
Zare, Mohsen; Malinge-Oudenot, Agnes; Höglund, Robert; Biau, Sophie; Roquelaure, Yves
The aims of this study were 1) to assess the ergonomic physical risk factors from practitioner's viewpoint in a truck assembly plant with an in-house observational method and the NIOSH lifting equation, and 2) to compare the results of both methods and their differences. The in-house ergonomic observational method for truck assembly i.e. the SCANIA Ergonomics Standard (SES) and the NIOSH lifting equation were applied to evaluate physical risk factors and lifting of loads by operators. Both risk assessment approaches revealed various levels of risk, ranging from low to high. Two workstations were identified by the SES method as high risk. The NIOSH lifting index (LI) was greater than two for four lifting tasks. The results of the SES method disagreed with the NIOSH lifting equation for lifting tasks. Moreover, meaningful variations in ergonomic risk patterns were found for various truck models at each workstation. These results provide a better understanding of the physical ergonomic exposure from practitioner's point of view in the automotive assembly plant.
Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti
This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.
Wulff, Ingrid Anette
This thesis investigates under what conditions ergonomic criteria are being adhered to in engineering design. Specifically, the thesis discusses (1) the ergonomic criteria implementation process, (2) designer recognition of ergonomic requirements and the organization of ergonomics, (3) issues important for the implementation of ergonomic requirements, (4) how different means for experience transfer in design and operation are evaluated by the designers, (5) how designers ensure usability of offshore work places, and (6) how project members experience and cope with the large amount of documentation in large-scale engineering. 84 refs., 11 figs., 18 tabs.
Conclusion: This study result showed that frequency of musculoskeletal problems in the neck, back, elbow, and wrist was generally high among our subjects, and ergonomic interventions such as computer workstation redesign, users educate about ergonomic principles computer with work, reduced working hours in computers with work must be carried out.
Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña
The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.
Sealetsa, O J; Thatcher, A
Universally musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of low productivity in today's work environment. The situation is reportedly even worse in developing countries with appalling working conditions in many industries. In addition, there is often an acute lack of awareness of ergonomics issues, education and training programmes, and certification within developing countries. Numerous studies internationally have highlighted musculoskeletal risk factors associated with the textile industry and garment-making jobs because of highly repetitive work in awkward work postures. The objective of this study was to identify and describe possible ergonomics deficiencies in the workstation of sewing machine operators in a textile industry in Botswana as well as their perception of workload and bodily discomfort. This study focused on one textile manufacturing factory in Botswana where 157 female sewing machine operators were recruited as participants. A modified Corlett and Bishop body map questionnaire and the NASA TLX were administered and relevant anthropometric and workplace layout measurements were collected. The results of the study revealed a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders. Back, neck and shoulder discomfort are highly prevalent among these sewing machine operators. This study proposes intervention strategies including the re-design of the workstations and seating and the provision of training in basic ergonomics principles for improving the work-life of these operators and provides a base for further research on the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among sewing machine operators in developing countries.
Andersen, Simone Nyholm
Participatory ergonomics simulation (PES) is a method to involve workers in simulation and design of their own future work system. Understanding of the process of PES is crucial in order to plan and facilitate the process towards creating an ergonomics work system design supporting both human well...
Herbst, L.; Hinz, W.
Modern power plant control rooms are characterized by automation of protection and control functions, subdivision according to functions, computer-aided information processing, and ergonomic design. Automation relieves the personnel of stress. Subdivision according to functions permits optimized procedures. Computer-aided information processing results in variable information output tailored to the actual needs. Ergonomic design assures qualified man-machine interaction. Of course, these characteristics will vary between power plants in dependence of unit power, mode of operation, and safety and availability requirements. (orig.) [de
Broberg, Ole; Duarte, Francisco; Andersen, Simone Nyholm
The aim of this paper is to outline a framework of simulation methodology in design processes from an ergonomics perspective......The aim of this paper is to outline a framework of simulation methodology in design processes from an ergonomics perspective...
J. Dul (Jan); H.J. de Vries (Henk); S. Verschoof (Sandra); W. Eveleens (Wietske); A. Feilzer (Albert)
textabstractIn designing of production systems, economic and social goals can be combined, if ergonomics is integrated into the design process. More than 50 years of ergonomics research and practice have resulted in a large number of ergonomics standards for designing physical and organizational
One of the main causes of inefficiency of existing nuclear plant operator activity support means is the absence of common integrated system approach to ergonomic designing of operator activity. Some attempt to formalize the problem as a task of macro-ergonomic designing is made. The structure of anthropocentric functional model of human-operator-nuclear plant system operation is described. Operator activity is characterized by some resulting properties (such as reliability, etc.). These properties are influenced by human-operator internal properties and working environment external properties. The detailed classification of all these properties is offered. The main result of this work is the statement of tasks of operator activity macro-ergonomic designing based on the offered formalization
As a marked increase in the number of musculoskeletal disorders was noted in many industrialized countries and more specifically in companies that require the use of hand tools, the French National Research and Safety Institute launched in 1999 a research program on the topic of integrating ergonomics into hand tool design. After a brief review of the problems of integrating ergonomics at the design stage, the paper shows how the "Quality Function Deployment" method has been applied to the design of a boning knife and it highlights the difficulties encountered. Then, it demonstrates how this method can be a methodological tool geared to greater ergonomics consideration in product design.
Naik Prashant P
Full Text Available Background and aim: Neck pain is a common health problem experienced by engineering students. Majority of the times, neck pain is due to poor workstation posture, improper workstation structure. Thus, the aim of the study was to analyze the effect of ergonomic advice on neck pain among engineering students of Belagavi. Materials and methodology: An observational study was carried out among engineering students of all academic levels in local engineering institutes of Belagavi. Data of study was collected in academic year 2016-2017 using Neck pain and disability scale from 331 students. Initially, a baseline data was collected and then booklet consisting of ergonomic advice was given and follow-up was done after 4 weeks by using same questionnaire. Results: Overall 33.96% of reduction in neck pain was seen after ergonomic advice. In accordance with movements associated with neck pain, there was significant pain reduction in relation to up-down movement. Conclusion: Ergonomic advice is effective in terms of reducing neck pain among engineering students and it should be adopted for prevention of neck pain.
Passero, Carolina Reich Marcon; Ogasawara, Erika Lye; Baú, Lucy Mara Silva; Buso, Sandro Artur; Bianchi, Marcos Cesar
Ergonomic design is the adaptation of working conditions to human limitations and skills in the physical design phase of a new installation, a new working system, or new products or tools. Based on this concept, the purpose of this work was to analyze the implementation of ergonomic design at the new industrial units of an oil refinery, using the method of Ergonomic Workplace Assessment. This study was conducted by a multidisciplinary team composed of operation, maintenance and industrial safety technicians, ergonomists, designers and engineers. The analysis involved 6 production units, 1 industrial wastewater treatment unit, and 3 utilities units, all in the design detailing phase, for which 455 ergonomic requirements were identified. An analysis and characterization of the requirements identified for 5 of the production units, involving a total of 246 items, indicated that 62% were related to difficult access and blockage operations, while 15% were related to difficulties in the circulation of employees inside the units. Based on these data, it was found that the ergonomic requirements identified in the design detailing phase of an industrial unit involve physical ergonomics, and that it is very difficult to identify requirements related to organizational or cognitive ergonomics.
Zadry, Hilma Raimona; Susanti, Lusi; Rahmayanti, Dina
Diego-Mas, Jose Antonio; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Garzon-Leal, Diana
RGB-D sensors can collect postural data in an automatized way. However, the application of these devices in real work environments requires overcoming problems such as lack of accuracy or body parts' occlusion. This work presents the use of RGB-D sensors and genetic algorithms for the optimization of workstation layouts. RGB-D sensors are used to capture workers' movements when they reach objects on workbenches. Collected data are then used to optimize workstation layout by means of genetic algorithms considering multiple ergonomic criteria. Results show that typical drawbacks of using RGB-D sensors for body tracking are not a problem for this application, and that the combination with intelligent algorithms can automatize the layout design process. The procedure described can be used to automatically suggest new layouts when workers or processes of production change, to adapt layouts to specific workers based on their ways to do the tasks, or to obtain layouts simultaneously optimized for several production processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
.Conclusion: Using the ROSA technique was seemed to be beneficialto assess the ergonomic risk factors of office works, and the deficiencies in the workstation can be identified through this method. Moreover,by design and implementation of an educational intervention program along with engineering interventions which comply with the elements of this technique, the defects can be eliminated.
Punchihewa, Himan K G; Gyi, Diane E
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) affect the well-being of workers. Unfortunately, user requirements for design to reduce workplace risk factors for MSDs are not always effectively communicated to designers creating a mismatch between the user requirements and what is ultimately produced. To understand the views of practitioners of design and ergonomics regarding tools for participatory design and features they would like to see in such tools. An online questionnaire survey was conducted with a cohort of practitioners of ergonomics and design (n = 32). In-depth interviews were then conducted with a subset of these practitioners (n = 8). To facilitate discussion, a prototype integrated design tool was developed and demonstrated to practitioners using a verbalized walkthrough approach. According to the results of the questionnaire survey, the majority (70%) believed an integrated approach to participatory design would help reduce work-related MSDs and suggested ways to achieve this, for example, through sharing design information. The interviews showed the majority (n = 7) valued being provided with guidance on design activities and ways to manage and present information. It is believed that an integrated approach to design in order to help reduce work-related MSDs is highly important and a provision to evaluate design solutions would be desirable for practitioners of design and ergonomics.
Full Text Available loskeletaldisorders (WMSDs among the video display terminals (VDTs users, Prevention ofthese disorders among this population is a challenge for many workplaces today. ErgonomicallyImproving of VDT workstations may be an effective and applicable way to decrease the risk ofWMSDs. This study evaluated the effect of an ergonomics-training program on the risk ofWMSDs among VDT users.Methods: This study was conducted among a large group of computer users in SAPCO industrialcompany, Tehran, Iran (84 persons with 29.85±11.2 years of age and with 6.98±2.54 years ofexperience. An active ergonomics-training program was designed and implemented during 14days to empower the VDT users and involve them in improving their workstations. The directobservational RULA (Rapid Upper Limb Assessment method was used in pre and postinterventionstages to evaluate the risk of WMSDs among participants.Results: The RULA final scores showed that 18.8 % of VDT users were at action level 2, 63.5%at action level 3 and 17.6% at action level 4 before any intervention. In addition, 8.2% of userswere at action level 1, 44.7% at action level 2, 42.4% at action level 3 and 4.7% at action level 4 atthe post-intervention stage. The results of Wilcoxon statistical test indicated that RULA scoresere decreased significantly after interventions (P < 0.05 and consequently, decreased risk ofWMSDs.Conclusion: Active ergonomics training programs can be used effectively to improve the VDTworkstations and decrease the risk of musculoskeletal disorders among VDT users.
In recent years, the engineering community has recognized that ergonomics can make significant contributions to system design. Working together engineers and ergonomists can create designs that effectively meet system goals. By considering the role of humans and technology in the context of systems and by reducing the potential for errors, gains can be made in overall system reliability. Such efforts can reduce the need for costly backfits and increase system efficiency. (author)
Kirwan, B.; Reed, J.; Litherland, M.
BNFL has realised the need to take a consistent approach to the ergonomic design of operator interfaces. Towards this aim, a design standard document has been produced under the direction of a principal design engineer based on the key ergonomics aspects of plant design. The standard was requested by the designers, and the original standard was produced by ergonomists working on BNFL projects. This standard was then reviewed by a large number of key design and operations personnel, and a series of multidisciplinary meetings produced the final version. The standard contains six sections (ergonomics requirements for the design of Control Rooms, Consoles and Panels Design, Labelling, VDU Systems, Alarm Systems and Colour Coding) containing approximately 180 guidelines in text format or supplemented by diagrams and tables. Each guideline is classified as either mandatory or advisory. A high proportion of effort concentrated on making the document usable by designers. The standard is not intended to be fully comprehensive, since the range of possible variations in the designs of interfaces makes such a task intractable at this stage. However, the document does ensure that account is taken of ergonomics throughout the design phase, and particularly in the early phases whilst design change is still cost-effective, and that designers are aware of the important issues and principles. (author)
Andersen, Simone Nyholm
Participatory ergonomics simulation (PES) is a method to involve workers in simulation and design of their own future work system. Understanding of the process of PES is crucial in order to plan and facilitate the process towards creating an ergonomics work system design supporting both human well-being and overall system performance. With outset in two cases of PES in hospital work system design, this study investigates the elements of the PES process and their interrelations. The aim is to ...
This research effort is focused on providing a workstation table design that will reduce the risk of occupant injuries due to secondary impacts and to compartmentalize the occupants to prevent impacts with other objects and/or passengers seated acros...
Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Fuyu; Gao Jia
The general principle of ergonomic in design of NPPs is given and some causes of TMI and Chernobyl accidents from the view point of human factor engineering are reviewed. The paper also introduces some Ergonomic problems in design, operation and management of earlier NPPs. Some ergonomic principles of man-machine systems design have been described. Some proposals have been suggested for improving human reliability in NPPs
Ghosh, S; Andriole, K P; Avrin, D E
Diagnostic workstation design has migrated towards display presentation in one of two modes: tiled images or stacked images. It is our impression that the workstation setup or configuration in each of these two modes is rather distinct. We sought to establish a commonality to simplify software design, and to enable a single descriptor method to facilitate folder manager development of "hanging" protocols. All current workstation designs use a combination of "off-screen" and "on-screen" memory whether or not they use a dedicated display subsystem, or merely a video board. Most diagnostic workstations also have two or more monitors. Our central concept is that of a "logical" viewport that can be smaller than, the same size as, or larger than a single monitor. Each port "views" an image data sequence loaded into offscreen memory. Each viewport can display one or more images in sequence in a one-on-one or traditionally tiled presentation. Viewports can be assigned to the available monitor "real estate" in any manner that fits. For example, a single sequence computed tomography (CT) study could be displayed across all monitors in a tiled appearance by assigning a single large viewport to the monitors. At the other extreme, a multisequence magnetic resonance (MR) study could be compared with a similar previous study by assigning four viewports to each monitor, single image display per viewport, and assigning four of the sequences of the current study to the left monitor viewports, and four of the earlier study to the right monitor viewports. Ergonomic controls activate scrolling through the off-screen image sequence data. Workstation folder manager hanging protocols could then specify viewports, number of images per viewport, and the automatic assignment of appropriately named sequences of current and previous studies to the viewports on a radiologist-specific basis. Furthermore, software development is simplified by common base objects and methods of the tile and stack
Cristancho, María Yanire León
The objective of this paper was to control ergonomic risks among female cashiers working in a department store belonging to the retail market. This study was conducted between May and November 2010. Participatory ergonomics was applied through knowing and understanding how the company works, establishing the work team (Ergo group), training the team in ergonomics-related topics, and making decisions and interventions. The sample was composed of 71 participants--mostly female cashiers--, and all of them have a musculoskeletal compromise, declaring pain or discomfort mainly in the neck, lower back, right wrist and shoulders. Among others, following problems were found: postural overload, repetitive work, manual load handling, mental fatigue, environmental discomfort, variable work schedules, extended working days, and absence of breaks. In the intervention, the main implemented changes were the redesign of workstation, complete change of chairs and keyboards, and the implementation of a rotation system, as well breaks for compensatory exercises. After that, an evident improvement of found problems was observed, therefore it can be concluded that participatory ergonomics is an attractive methodology, appropriate and efficient for solving and controlling ergonomic risks and problems.
, the construction process generates a disproportionate number of fatalities, injuries and disease and both the direct and indirect costs contribute to the cumulative cost of construction. Designers influence construction ergonomics directly and ...
Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke
The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...
This paper demonstrates that the goals of ergonomics (i.e. effectiveness, efficiency, health, safety and usability) are closely aligned with the goals of design for environmental sustainability. In this paper, the term 'green ergonomics' is conceptualised to specifically describe ergonomics interventions with a pro-nature emphasis. Green ergonomics is focused on the bi-directional connections between human systems and nature. This involves looking at (1) how ergonomics design and evaluation might be used to conserve, preserve, and restore nature and (2) how ecosystem services might be harnessed to facilitate the improved wellbeing and effectiveness of human systems. The paper proposes the scope of green ergonomics based on these bi-directional relationships in the areas of the design of low resource systems and products, the design of green jobs, and the design for behaviour change. Suggestions for further work in the green ergonomics domain are also made. Given the enormous environmental challenges facing modern industrial society, this paper encourages ergonomics science to embrace a pro-nature understanding of work design and research. This paper sets out the role for green ergonomics based on an appreciation of the human-nature connections that have been integrated with our understanding of ergonomics science and practice.
Lahaye, T. [Direction des relations du travail, 75 - Paris (France); Donadille, L.; Rehel, J.L.; Paquet, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Beneli, C. [Paris-5 Univ., 75 (France); Cordoliani, Y.S. [Societe Francaise de Radioprotection, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Vrigneaud, J.M. [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, 75 (France); Gauron, C. [Institut National de Recherche et de Securite, 75 - Paris (France); Petrequin, A.; Frison, D. [Association des Medecins du Travail des Salaries du Nucleaire (France); Jeannin, B. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France); Charles, D. [Polinorsud (France); Carballeda, G. [cabinet Indigo Ergonomie, 33 - Merignac (France); Crouail, P. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Valot, C. [IMASSA, 91 - Bretigny-sur-Orge (France)
This day on the workstations studies for the workers follow-up, was organised by the research and health section. Devoted to the company doctors, for the competent persons in radiation protection, for the engineers of safety, it presented examples of methodologies and applications in the medical, industrial domain and the research, so contributing to a better understanding and an application of regulatory measures. The analysis of the workstation has to allow a reduction of the exposures and the risks and lead to the optimization of the medical follow-up. The agenda of this day included the different subjects as follow: evolution of the regulation in matter of demarcation of the regulated zones where the measures of workers protection are strengthened; presentation of the I.R.S.N. guide of help to the realization of a workstation study; implementation of a workstation study: case of radiology; the workstation studies in the research area; Is it necessary to impose the operational dosimetry in the services of radiodiagnostic? The experience feedback of a competent person in radiation protection (P.C.R.) in a hospital environment; radiation protection: elaboration of a good practices guide in medical field; the activities file in nuclear power plant: an evaluation tool of risks for the prevention. Methodological presentation and examples; insulated workstation study; the experience feedback of a provider; Contribution of the ergonomics to the determiners characterization in the ionizing radiation exposure situations;The workstations studies for the internal contamination in the fuel cycle facilities and the consideration of the results in the medical follow-up; R.E.L.I.R. necessity of workstation studies; the consideration of the human factor. (N.C.)
Robertson, Michelle; Amick, Benjamin C; DeRango, Kelly; Rooney, Ted; Bazzani, Lianna; Harrist, Ron; Moore, Anne
A large-scale field intervention study was undertaken to examine the effects of office ergonomics training coupled with a highly adjustable chair on office workers' knowledge and musculoskeletal risks. Office workers were assigned to one of three study groups: a group receiving the training and adjustable chair (n=96), a training-only group (n=63), and a control group (n=57). The office ergonomics training program was created using an instructional systems design model. A pre/post-training knowledge test was administered to all those who attended the training. Body postures and workstation set-ups were observed before and after the intervention. Perceived control over the physical work environment was higher for both intervention groups as compared to workers in the control group. A significant increase in overall ergonomic knowledge was observed for the intervention groups. Both intervention groups exhibited higher level behavioral translation and had lower musculoskeletal risk than the control group.
Madhwani, Kishore P; Nag, P K
Use of laptops and hand-held devices increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). More time spent on this activity adopting faulty postures, higher the risk of developing such injuries. This study addresses training on office ergonomics with emphasis on sustainable behavior change among employees to work in safe postures, as this is a top priority in the corporate environment, today. To explore training intervention methods that ensure wider coverage of awareness on office ergonomics, thereby promoting safer working and suggesting sustainable programs for behavior change and job enrichment. A cross-sectional study was conducted (2012 - 2017), encompassing corporate office employees of multinational corporations selected from India, Dubai (U.A.E), Nairobi (East Africa), Durban (South Africa), South East Asian countries (Philippines, Vietnam, Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Sri Lanka).Participant employees ( n = 3503) were divided into two groups to study the effect of interventions'; i.e., (a) deep training: 40 minute lecture by the investigator with a power point presentation ( n = 1765) using a mock workstation and (b) quick training: live demonstrations of 10 minutes ( n = 1738) using a live workstation. While deep training enhanced awareness in 95.51% and quick training in 96.59% globally, the latterwas much appreciated and educated maximum employees. From statistical analysis, quick training was found superior in providing comprehensive training and influencing behavior modification in India, but all over the world it was found highly superior in knowledge enlargement, skills enrichment in addition to providing comprehensive training ( P office ergonomics program. This could lead to propose as a best practice for corporate offices globally.
Lin, Chih-Long; Chen, Si-Jing; Hsiao, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Rungtai
Cultural ergonomics is an approach that considers interaction- and experience-based variations among cultures. Designers need to develop a better understanding of cultural ergonomics not just to participate in cultural contexts but also to develop interactive experiences for users. Cultural ergonomics extends our understanding of cultural meaning and our ability to utilize such understanding for design and evaluate everyday products. This study aims to combine cultural ergonomics and interactive design to explore human-culture interaction in user experiences. The linnak is a typical Taiwanese aboriginal cultural object. This study examined the cultural meaning and operational interface of the linnak, as well as the scenarios in which it is used in interaction and user experiences. The results produced a cultural ergonomics interface for examining the manner in which designers communicate across cultures as well as the interweaving of design and culture in the design process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Abad, Jocelyn D.
The use of the simulation-based technique in facility layout has been a choice in the industry due to its convenience and efficient generation of results. Nevertheless, the solutions generated are not capable of addressing delays due to worker's health and safety which significantly impact overall operational efficiency. It is, therefore, critical to incorporate ergonomics in facility design. In this study, workstation analysis was incorporated into Promodel simulation to improve the facility layout of a garment manufacturing. To test the effectiveness of the method, existing and improved facility designs were measured using comprehensive risk level, efficiency, and productivity. Results indicated that the improved facility layout generated a decrease in comprehensive risk level and rapid upper limb assessment score; an increase of 78% in efficiency and 194% increase in productivity compared to existing design and thus proved that the approach is effective in attaining overall facility design improvement.
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
The objective of this study was to explore the role of objects in integrating ergonomic knowledge in engineering design processes. An engineering design case was analyzed using the theoretical concepts of boundary objects and intermediary objects: Boundary objects facilitate collaboration between...
Marques, Luiz Guilherme Oliveira; Cardoso, Vânia Maria Batalha
This paper refers to the development of a signage system, driven by the vector of Signage Design and Informational Ergonomics associated with Regulatory Standards. The methodology of the Ergonomic Intervention of Moraes and Mont'Alvão (2003), in its early stages, and the Method of the Signage Pyramid of Calori (2007) were used to develop the research, data collection and analysis and to guide the design by a signaling system. The system contemplated by this job is called Mount Zion, a site of 19 hectares, which has signs of disturbance. As a result, we obtained a signaling system, with graphic features that refer to formal-site, capable of meeting the needs of orientation and displacement inherent to the site.
Montreuil, Sylvie; Laflamme, Lucie; Brisson, Chantal; Teiger, Catherine
The goal of this article is to better understand how preventive measures are undertaken after training. It examines how certain variables, such as musculoskeletal pain, participant age and workstation and work content characteristics influence the reduction of postural constraints after office employees working with a computer have received ergonomics training. A pre-test/post-test design was used. The 207 female office workers were given 6 hours of ergonomics training. The variables were determined using a self-administered questionnaire and an observation grid filled out 2 weeks before and 6 months after the training session. The FAC and HAC were used in the data processing. The presence or absence of musculoskeletal pain had no statistically significant influence on whether or not postural constraints were eliminated. The age of the participants and the possibility of adjusting the workstation characteristics and work content produced differentiated results with regard to postural constraint reduction. We concluded that trained people succeed in taking relevant and effective measures to reduce the postural constraints found in VDUs. However other measures than work station adjustments lead to this prevention and such training must be strongly supported by the various hierarchical levels of an enterprise or an institution.
Jensen, Per Langå; Broberg, Ole; Hasle, Peter
Integration of ergonomics, human factors and occupational health and safety into design and management of pro-duction systems has for years been the major strategy for professional within the field. The traditional approach based on establishing ergonomic criteria’s to be integrated into other...
Tuomivaara, S; Ketola, R; Huuhtanen, P; Toivonen, R
Musculoskeletal strain and other symptoms are common in visual display unit (VDU) work. Psychosocial factors are closely related to the outcome and experience of musculoskeletal strain. The user-computer relationship from the viewpoint of the quality of perceived competence in computer use was assessed as a psychosocial stress indicator. It was assumed that the perceived competence in computer use moderates the experience of musculoskeletal strain and the success of the ergonomics intervention. The participants (n = 124, female 58%, male 42%) worked with VDU for more than 4 h per week. They took part in an ergonomics intervention and were allocated into three groups: intensive; education; and reference group. Musculoskeletal strain, the level of ergonomics of the workstation assessed by the experts in ergonomics and amount of VDU work were estimated at the baseline and at the 10-month follow-up. Age, gender and the perceived competence in computer use were assessed at the baseline. The perceived competence in computer use predicted strain in the upper and the lower part of the body at the follow-up. The interaction effect shows that the intensive ergonomics intervention procedure was the most effective among participants with high perceived competence. The interpretation of the results was that an anxiety-provoking and stressful user-computer relationship prevented the participants from being motivated and from learning in the ergonomics intervention. In the intervention it is important to increase the computer competence along with the improvements of physical workstation and work organization.
Full Text Available Background: Most dentists complain of musculoskeletal disorders which can be caused by prolonged static posture, lack of suitable rest and other physical and psychological problems. Objective: We evaluated a chair with a new ergonomic design which incorporated forward leaning chest and arm supports. Methods: The chair was evaluated in the laboratory during task simulation and EMG analysis on 12 students and subjectively assessed by 30 professional dentists using an 18-item questionnaire. EMG activity of right and left trapezius muscles for 12 male students with no musculoskeletal disorders was measured while simulating common tasks like working on the teeth of the lower jaw. Results: Normalized EMG data showed significant reduction (p<0.05 in all EMG recordings of the trapezius muscle. Dentists also unanimously preferred the ergonomically designed chair. Conclusion: Such ergonomically designed chairs should be introduced as early as possible in student training before bad postural habits are acquired.
Winter, Gabriele; Schaub, Karlheinz G; Großmann, Kay; Laun, Gerhard; Landau, Kurt; Bruder, Ralph
Occupational hazards exist, if the design of the work situation is not in accordance with ergonomic design principles. At assembly lines ergonomics is applied to the design of work equipment and tasks and to work organisation. The ignoring of ergonomic principles in planning and design of assembly work leads to unfavourable working posture, action force and material handling. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system are of a common occurrence throughout Europe. Musculoskeletal disorders are a challenge against the background of disabled workers. The changes in a worker's capability have to be regarded in the conception of redesigned and new assembly lines. In this way ergonomics becomes progressively more important in planning and design of vehicles: The objective of ergonomic design in different stages of the vehicles development process is to achieve an optimal adaptation of the assembly work to workers. Hence the ergonomic screening tool "Design Check" (DC) was developed to identify ergonomic deficits in workplace layouts. The screening-tool is based on the current ergonomic state of the art in the design of physical work and relevant EU legal requirements. It was tested within a federal German research project at selected work stations at the assembly lines at Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG / Stuttgart. Meanwhile the application of the screening-tool DC is transferred in other parts of the Porsche AG, Stuttgart. It is also realized as an ergonomic standard method to perform assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.
Full Text Available
La simulación permite estimar el comportamiento de sistemas estocásticos complejos, cuando su estudio por la vía analítica resulta insuficiente. En este estudio se empleó esta técnica numérica, para mostrar el impacto de los rediseños ergonómicos realizados a las estaciones de trabajo de una estera. Para simular este sistema, se realizó un análisis preliminar de las estaciones de trabajo, con el objetivo de recoger información útil para diseñar un modelo lógico. El modelo fue simulado y sometido a los cambios resultantes del rediseño ergonómico de las estaciones de trabajo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron la utilidad de la simulación para la predicción y el análisis del impacto que tendrían las propuestas efectuadas.
Simulation is used when the stochastic system is too complex to be analyzed satisfactorily through analytic-mathematical models. In this research, the simulation was used to show the impact of the ergonomic redesigns at the workstations in a conveyor. To simulate this system, a preliminary analysis of the workstations was made in the order to collect useful information to design a logic model. This model was simulated and changed according to the ergonomic redesign of the workstations. The results proved the usefulness of simulation for predicting and analyzing the impact of the implemented propositions.
Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.
This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…
Full Text Available Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materials and Methods: This study reviewed the role and effectiveness of Ergonomics in dental profession. We used related journals, books and ergonomics websites to write this article. Conclusion: Many of researchers believe that awkward body posture and low movement are the sources of occupational disorders. Therefore, knowledge of ergonomics risk factors in dental office design is very important. Dentist's body posture and dental equipment evaluations are important factors in dental ergonomics. The most logical approach to design dental equipment for utilizing ergonomics principles is consideration of the dentist posture and type of movements and activities. In conclusion, dentists should be informed about dental ergonomics regulation and its different aspects. Furthermore, academic developments and research projects can be useful in this area.
Pilczuk, Davana; Barefield, Kevin
When discussing ergonomics, the term 'sustainability' usually refers to the preservation of the human workforce. However, in 2010 Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation made a conscious effort to combine ergonomics and environmental sustainability in order to increase employee engagement for both programs. They introduced a companywide campaign called Green Ergo which is the idea of creating ergonomic solutions from scrap material found on site. This concept embraced the true meaning of 'green' and encouraged engineers and employees all across the company to design innovative green ergonomic solutions. The idea generated over 35 new ergo solutions, reduced waste production, and solved over 700 ergo problems for a fraction of the cost of newly purchased items. The demand for these items grew large enough that the company outsourced their manufacturing to a local non-profit. The Green Ergo campaign has changed the culture of the company and has increased the level of buy-in for both the ergonomics and sustainability programs.
Ushada, M.; Kusuma Aji, G.; Okayama, T.; Khidir, M.
Small-Medium sized (SME) is a focal type of Indonesian industry which contributes to national emerging economies. Indonesian goverment has developed employee social security system (BPJS Ketenagakerjaan) to support worker quality of life. However, there were limited research which could assist BPJS Ketenagakerjaan in evaluating worker quality of life. Worker quality of life could be categorized as the highest worker needs or affective states. SME Worker Affective (SWA) index is being concerned as a basic tool to make balance between worker performance and quality of life in workstation of SMEs. The research objectives are: 1) To optimize the environmental ergonomics in SMEs; 2) To quantify SME Worker Affective (SWA) index based on optimized environmental ergonomics. The research advantage is to support Indonesian goverment in monitoring SMEs good practices to its worker quality of life. Simulated annealing optimized the heart rate and environmental ergonomics parameters. SWA index was determined based on comparison between optimized heart rate and environmental ergonomics parameters. SWA index were quantified for 380 data of worker. The evaluation indicated 51.3% worker in affective and 48.7% in non-affective condition. Research results indicated that stakeholders of SMEs should put more attention on environmental ergonomics and worker affective.
Fadzly, M. K.; Munirah, Anis; Shayfull, Z.; Saad, Mohd Sazli
The purposes of this project are to design and diversify the function of a battery powered scooter frame which is more practical for the human factor in ergonomic and optimum design. The new design is based on ideas which are studied from existing scooter frame, United States Patent design and European States International Patent design. The final idea of concept design for scooter frame is based on concept chosen from the best characteristics and it is divided into three main difference ideas and the matrix evaluation method is applied. Analysis that applies to frame design, arm, rim and drive train component is based on Cosmos Express program. As a conclusion, the design that is produce are able to carry the maximum also has more practical features in ergonomic view.
Pavel, M; Sweet, B.
The purpose of the engineering workstation is to provide an environment for rapid prototyping and evaluation of fusion and image processing algorithms. Ideally, the algorithms are designed to optimize the extraction of information that is useful to a pilot for all phases of flight operations. Successful design of effective fusion algorithms depends on the ability to characterize both the information available from the sensors and the information useful to a pilot. The workstation is comprised of subsystems for simulation of sensor-generated images, image processing, image enhancement, and fusion algorithms. As such, the workstation can be used to implement and evaluate both short-term solutions and long-term solutions. The short-term solutions are being developed to enhance a pilot's situational awareness by providing information in addition to his direct vision. The long term solutions are aimed at the development of complete synthetic vision systems. One of the important functions of the engineering workstation is to simulate the images that would be generated by the sensors. The simulation system is designed to use the graphics modeling and rendering capabilities of various workstations manufactured by Silicon Graphics Inc. The workstation simulates various aspects of the sensor-generated images arising from phenomenology of the sensors. In addition, the workstation can be used to simulate a variety of impairments due to mechanical limitations of the sensor placement and due to the motion of the airplane. Although the simulation is currently not performed in real-time, sequences of individual frames can be processed, stored, and recorded in a video format. In that way, it is possible to examine the appearance of different dynamic sensor-generated and fused images.
Nawik, N. S. M.; Deros, B. M.; Rahman, M. N. A.; Sukadarin, E. H.; Nordin, N.; Tamrin, S. B. M.; Bakar, S. A.; Norzan, M. L.
An ergonomics problem is one of the main issues faced by palm oil plantation workers especially during harvesting and collecting of fresh fruit bunches (FFB). Intensive manual handling and labor activities involved have been associated with high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among palm oil plantation workers. New and safe technology on machines and equipment in palm oil plantation are very important in order to help workers reduce risks and injuries while working. The aim of this research is to improve the design of a wheelbarrow, which is suitable for workers and a small size oil palm plantation. The wheelbarrow design was drawn using CATIA ergonomic features. The characteristic of ergonomics assessment is performed by comparing the existing design of wheelbarrow. Conceptual design was developed based on the problems that have been reported by workers. From the analysis of the problem, finally have resulting concept design the ergonomic quality of semi-automatic wheelbarrow with safe and suitable used for palm oil plantation workers.
Windrum, P.; Frenken, K.; Green, Lawrence
The article addresses the role of ergonomic design in product innovation. Designers meet users’ needs by developing solutions to complex trade-offs—reverse salients—between a product’s characteristics. The fundamental ergonomic design challenge in portable computers concerns the reverse salient
Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics...
IJmker, S.; Mikkers, J.; Blatter, B.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.
Introduction: "Ergonomic" questionnaires are widely used in epidemiological field studies to study the association between workstation characteristics, work posture and musculoskeletal disorders among office workers. Findings have been inconsistent regarding the putative adverse effect of work
Sancibrian, Ramon; Gutierrez-Diez, María C; Torre-Ferrero, Carlos; Benito-Gonzalez, Maria A; Redondo-Figuero, Carlos; Manuel-Palazuelos, Jose C
Laparoscopic surgery techniques have been demonstrated to provide massive benefits to patients. However, surgeons are subjected to hardworking conditions because of the poor ergonomic design of the instruments. In this article, a new ergonomic handle design is presented. This handle is designed using ergonomic principles, trying to provide both more intuitive manipulation of the instrument and a shape that reduces the high-pressure zones in the contact with the surgeon's hand. The ergonomic characteristics of the new handle were evaluated using objective and subjective studies. The experimental evaluation was performed using 28 volunteers by means of the comparison of the new handle with the ring-handle (RH) concept in an instrument available on the market. The volunteers' muscle activation and motions of the hand, wrist, and arm were studied while they performed different tasks. The data measured in the experiment include electromyography and goniometry values. The results obtained from the subjective analysis reveal that most volunteers (64%) preferred the new prototype to the RH, reporting less pain and less difficulty to complete the tasks. The results from the objective study reveal that the hyperflexion of the wrist required for the manipulation of the instrument is strongly reduced. The new ergonomic handle not only provides important ergonomic advantages but also improves the efficiency when completing the tasks. Compared with RH instruments, the new prototype reduced the high-pressure areas and the extreme motions of the wrist. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Thomas, Robert E.; Babai, Majid
The application of high-level 3D simulation software to the design phase of colossal mandrel tooling for composite aerospace fuel tanks was accomplished to discover and resolve safety and human engineering problems. The analyses were conducted to determine safety, ergonomic and human engineering aspects of the disassembly process of the fuel tank composite shell mandrel. Three-dimensional graphics high-level software, incorporating various ergonomic analysis algorithms, was utilized to determine if the process was within safety and health boundaries for the workers carrying out these tasks. In addition, the graphical software was extremely helpful in the identification of material handling equipment and devices for the mandrel tooling assembly/disassembly process.
Wang, Lingyan; Lau, Henry Y K
It is a well recognized understanding that workers whose voice needs to be heard should be actively encouraged as full participants and involved in the early design stages of new ergonomic work system which encompass the development and implementation of new tools, workplaces, technologies or organizations. This paper presents a novel participatory strategy to evaluate three key psychological factors which are respectively mental fatigue, spiritual stress, and emotional satisfaction in work system design based on a modified version of Participatory Ergonomics (PE). In specific, it integrates a PE technique with a formulation view by combining the parallel development of PE strategies, frameworks and functions throughout the coverage of the entire work system design process, so as to bridge the gap between qualitative and quantitative analysis of psychological factors which can cause adverse or advantageous effects on worker's physiological and behavioral performance.
Anjos, Luciana Mattos dos; Curty, Adriana Favacho [CHEMTECH, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Franca, Guilherme Foerster do Monte; Jardino, Alessandro Neto [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Ergonomics is the technological design of the interplay between men, machines and environment in order to make labor activities more pleasant, profitable and functional. This article analyses the importance of ergonomic issues in process terminal plants and facilities, since the conceptual design stage until the detail engineering design. The ergonomic solutions are compared with practices that are current in engineering design plants nowadays. It will be shown how an inadequate ergonomic design often leads to accessibility problems and non-effectiveness during plant operation and dangers in emergency situations. The way perform an ergonomic design is to integrate the various disciplines that are involved in all stages of the design plant. The earlier the ergonomic design is implemented the better are the results in cost reduction, since later design modifications are more time-consuming and expensive. (author)
Fitterman, L. Jeffrey
Defines ergonomics and discusses design and environmental considerations. Suggests work-space requirements for: tables, chairs, monitor height, ambient noise and light, electricity, and environmental hazards. Includes sources for additional information related to ergonomic design. (AEF)
Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.
Key Features: Offers the conceptual tools for creating more adaptable ergonomic designs to meet the needs of diverse human populations, Unlock the strategic business value found in ergonomically safe and comfortable products, Learn from in-depth case studies how ergonomic intervention was
Mani, Karthik; Provident, Ingrid; Eckel, Emily
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) related to computer work have become a serious public health concern. Literature revealed a positive association between computer use and WMSDs. The purpose of this evidence-based pilot project was to provide a series of evidence-based educational sessions on ergonomics to office computer workers to enhance the awareness of risk factors of WMSDs. Seventeen office computer workers who work for the National Board of Certification in Occupational Therapy volunteered for this project. Each participant completed a baseline and post-intervention ergonomics questionnaire and attended six educational sessions. The Rapid Office Strain Assessment and an ergonomics questionnaire were used for data collection. The post-intervention data revealed that 89% of participants were able to identify a greater number of risk factors and answer more questions correctly in knowledge tests of the ergonomics questionnaire. Pre- and post-intervention comparisons showed changes in work posture and behaviors (taking rest breaks, participating in exercise, adjusting workstation) of participants. The findings have implications for injury prevention in office settings and suggest that ergonomics education may yield positive knowledge and behavioral changes among computer workers.
Karlheinz, Schaub; Michaela, Kugler; Max, Bierwirth; Andrea, Sinn-Behrendt; Ralph, Bruder
In industrialized countries musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) play an import role and are often responsible for almost one third of the total sick leave. The changes in the demographic profiles, i.e. aging work forces might even worsen this situation in the future. For a highly productive and sustainable use of human resources in production systems, ergonomics offers high potentials. In the recent years the authors have developed several ergonomic risk assessment tools, especially for the use in automotive industries. These methods may be used during the planning phases in the Tech Centers as well as during the production phase at shop floor level. The tools might also be used for a standardized communication in between the Tech Center and the plants to improve the effects of "lessons learned" for the design and layout of workstations and processes and the optimization of vehicle components. This paper describes suitable risk assessment tools as well as the integration of these tools into the vehicle development process. It introduces a comprehensive management approach for the integration of ergonomics into the management of production systems.
The goal of this NET study was to define the functionality of a remote handling workstation and its hardware and software architecture. The remote handling workstation has to fulfill two basic functions: (1) to provide the man-machine interface (MMI), that means the interface to the control system of the maintenance equipment and to the working environment (telepresence) and (2) to provide high level (task level) supporting functions (software tools) during the maintenance work and in the preparation phase. Concerning the man-machine interface, an important module of the remote handling workstation besides the standard components of man-machine interfacing is a module for graphical scene presentation supplementing viewing by TV. The technique of integrated viewing is well known from JET BOOM and TARM control using the GBsim and KISMET software. For integration of equipment dependent MMI functions the remote handling workstation provides a special software module interface. Task level support of the operator is based on (1) spatial (geometric/kinematic) models, (2) remote handling procedure models, and (3) functional models of the equipment. These models and the related simulation modules are used for planning, programming, execution monitoring, and training. The workstation provides an intelligent handbook guiding the operator through planned procedures illustrated by animated graphical sequences. For unplanned situations decision aids are available. A central point of the architectural design was to guarantee a high flexibility with respect to hardware and software. Therefore the remote handling workstation is designed as an open system based on widely accepted standards allowing the stepwise integration of the various modules starting with the basic MMI and the spatial simulation as standard components. (orig./HP) [de
Mason, S.; Simpson, G.C.
Underground investigations of development machines have revealed a number of limitations in ergonomics aspects of their design which could influence both the safety and efficiency of the operation. This handbook is intended to provide designers of Combined Drilling and Loading machines with the ergonomic information which can be used to eliminate or reduce such problems. The following criteria were examined: workspace position; operator clearances; operator protection; operator visual communications; operator visual machine monitoring; operator visual safety information; operator seating; operature posture; operator access to workspace; control types; control operating forces; control-response stereotypes; safety controls; control dynamics; control layout; control clearances; control protection; visual displays.
Sørensen, Lene Bjerg; Broberg, Ole
This paper reports on a case study within an engineering consultancy firm, where engineering designers and ergonomists were working together on the design of a new hospital sterile processing plant. The objective of the paper is to gain a better understanding of the premises for integrating ergonomics into engineering design processes and how different factors either promote or limit the integration. Based on a grounded theory approach a model illustrating these factors is developed and different hypotheses about how these factors either promote and/or limit the integration of ergonomics into design processes is presented along with the model.
Koren, Katja; Pišot, Rado; Šimunič, Boštjan
To determine the effects of a moderate-intensity active workstation on time and error during simulated office work. The aim of the study was to analyse simultaneous work and exercise for non-sedentary office workers. We monitored oxygen uptake, heart rate, sweating stains area, self-perceived effort, typing test time with typing error count and cognitive performance during 30 min of exercise with no cycling or cycling at 40 and 80 W. Compared baseline, we found increased physiological responses at 40 and 80 W, which corresponds to moderate physical activity (PA). Typing time significantly increased by 7.3% (p = 0.002) in C40W and also by 8.9% (p = 0.011) in C80W. Typing error count and cognitive performance were unchanged. Although moderate intensity exercise performed on cycling workstation during simulated office tasks increases working task execution time with, it has moderate effect size; however, it does not increase the error rate. Participants confirmed that such a working design is suitable for achieving the minimum standards for daily PA during work hours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
The design and implementation of a small scale image archival and processing workstation for use in the study of digitized neuroradiologic images is described. The system is designed to be easily interfaced to existing equipment (presently PET, NMR and CT), function independent of a central file server, and provide for a versatile image processing environment. (Auth.)
Unless the teacher is working at an ergonomically designed workstation, using a computer can result in eyestrain, neck aches, backaches, and headaches. Unfortunately, most teachers do their keyboarding at desks, on lab tables, and in other spaces that were not designed with computer use in mind. Ergonomics is the science of adapting workstations,…
Martins, S B; Martins, L B
People who lie beyond the "standard" model of users often come up against barriers when using fashion products, especially clothing, the design of which ought to give special attention to comfort, security and well-being. The principles of universal design seek to extend the design process for products manufactured in bulk so as to include people who, because of their personal characteristics or physical conditions, are at an extreme end of some dimension of performance, whether this is to do with sight, hearing, reach or manipulation. Ergonomics, a discipline anchored on scientific data, regards human beings as the central focus of its operations and, consequently, offers various forms of support to applying universal design in product development. In this context, this paper sets out a reflection on applying the seven principles of universal design to fashion products and clothing with a view to targeting such principles as recommendations that will guide the early stages of developing these products, and establish strategies for market expansion, thereby increasing the volume of production and reducing prices.
Liem, André; Brangier, Eric
In this conceptual article the topic of "Prospective Ergonomics" will be discussed within the context of innovation, design thinking and design processes & methods. Design thinking is essentially a human-centred innovation process that emphasises observation, collaboration, interpretation, visualisation of ideas, rapid concept prototyping and concurrent business analysis, which ultimately influences innovation and business strategy. The objective of this project is to develop a roadmap for innovation, involving consumers, designers and business people in an integrative process, which can be applied to product, service and business design. A theoretical structure comprising of Innovation perspectives (1), Worldviews supported by rationalist-historicist and empirical-idealistic dimensions (2) and Models of "design" reasoning (3) precedes the development and classification of existing methods as well as the introduction of new ones.
Bulduk, Sıdıka; Bulduk, Emre Özgür; Süren, Tufan
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are a major hazard for sewing machine operators. Ergonomics education is recommended for reducing musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an ergonomics education in reducing the exposure to risk factors for WMSDs among sewing machine operators. In this study of 278 workers, their exposure to the risk of WMSDs was assessed using the quick exposure check scale prior to them attending an ergonomics education programme and then again 3 months after the programme. The scores for risk exposure before the education programme were moderate for back (static) and back (dynamic), high for shoulder/arm and very high for wrist/hand and neck. The results obtained 3 months later were low for back (static) and shoulder/arm, and moderate for back (dynamic), wrist/hand and neck. Based on our results, ergonomics education can reduce the exposure to risk factors for WMSDs in the workplace.
The aims of this study were to investigate work related and individual factors as predictors of insident neck pain among video display unit (VDU) workers, to assess the effects of an ergonomic intervention and education on musculoskeletal symptoms, and to study the repeatability and validity of an expert assessment method of VDU workstation ergonomics. A method to assess the risk factors for upper limb disorders was developed, and its validity and repeatability were studied. The annual inc...
Ghasemi, Mohamad Sadegh; Hosseinzadeh, Payam; Zamani, Farhad; Ahmadpoor, Hossein; Dehghan, Naser
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the body's movement and musculoskeletal system. Awkward postures represent one of the major ergonomic risk factors that cause WMSDs among sonographers while working with an ultrasound transducer. This study aimed to design and evaluate a new holder for the ultrasound transducer. In the first phase a new holder was designed for the transducer, considering design principles. Evaluation of the new holder was then carried out by electrogoniometry and a locally perceived discomfort (LPD) scale. The application of design principles to the new holder resulted in an improvement of wrist posture and comfort. Wrist angles in extension, flexion, radial deviation and ulnar deviation were lower with utilization of the new holder. The severity of discomfort based on the LPD method in the two modes of work with and without the new holder was reported with values of 1.3 and 1.8, respectively (p ergonomics design principles was effective in minimizing wrist deviation and increasing comfort while working with the new holder.
Sherrod, Charles W.; Casey, George; Dubro, Robert E.; Johnson, Dale F.
Objective This report describes the case management of musculoskeletal disorders for an employee in a college work environment using both chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. Clinical Findings A 54-year-old male office worker presented with decreased motor function in both wrists; intermittent moderate-to-severe headaches; and pain or discomfort in the neck, both shoulders, left hand and wrist, and lumbosacral region resulting from injuries sustained during recreational soccer and from excessive forces and awkward postures when interacting with his home and office computer workstations. Intervention and Results Ergonomic training, surveillance, retrofitted equipment with new furniture, and an emphasis on adopting healthy work-style behaviors were applied in combination with regular chiropractic care. Baseline ergonomic job task analysis identified risk factors and delineated appropriate control measures to improve the subject's interface with his office workstation. Serial reevaluations at 3-month, 1-year, and 2-year periods recorded changes to the participant's pain, discomfort, and work-style behaviors. At end of study and relative to baseline, pain scale improved from 4/10 to 2/10; general disability improved from 4 to 0; and hand grip strength (pounds) increased from 20 to 105 (left) and 45 to 100 (right). Healthy work habits and postures adopted in the 3-month to 1-year period regressed to baseline exposures for 3 of 6 risk priorities identified in the ergonomic job task analysis. Conclusion The patient responded positively to the intervention of chiropractic care and applied ergonomics. PMID:23997724
Hedge, A; Dorsey, J A
A retrospective post-occupancy evaluation survey of 44 occupants in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Platinum buildings on a US college campus is reported. The Internet survey covered a range of indoor environment and ergonomics issues. Results show that working in these buildings were a generally positive experience for their health, performance and satisfaction. However, in one building there were persistent issues of variability in air temperature, air freshness, air quality and noise that affected the perceived health and performance of the occupants. Although the buildings were energy-efficient and sustainable structures, ergonomics design issues were identified. Implications for the role of ergonomics in green buildings and in the US LEED rating system are discussed. This survey identified a number of ergonomics design issues present in the LEED Platinum energy-efficient and sustainable buildings that were studied. These results highlight the importance of integrating ergonomics design into green buildings as a component in the US LEED rating system.
Saint-Jean, T.; Lescoat, D.A.
Following a brief review of theoretical scope this paper will characterize a methodology to the design of teleoperation workstations. This methodology is illustrated by an example - field analysis of a telemanipulation task in a hot cell. Practical informations are given: operating strategy different from the written procedure, team work organization, different skills. Recommendations are suggested as regards the writing of procedures, the training of personnel and the work organisation
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: According to previous researches, workers' participation in issues affecting their working condition is the key to success in ergonomics interventions in working environments. Therefore, the present study was performed to increase active particapitation of supervisors in production line and also to identify and assess ergonomics risks and presenting modification actions (Kaizen by themselves in Pars Khodro automobile manufacturing company. Methods: A manual regarding lifting objects and body postures, according to the Finish evaluation method, was provided for supervisors in production line and related trainings were presented to them. Then, they were asked to insert the results of their assessments and suggestions in special forms during one year. The presented assessments and suggestions were examined by ergonomics experts. Results: According to the assessments conducted by supervisors, 26 work stations had high ergonomics risks, 51 had ergonomics risks with an average level, and 45 had low ergonomics risks. Moreover, the number of required Kaizens presented by supervisors was increased from 18 cases in the first year to 42 cases in the second year, after implementation of ergonomics training and identifying and assessing ergonomic risks by supervisors. Conclusion: Empowering and training supervisors increased workers' participation. In case of adequate training, supervisors can present practical solutions to reduce ergonomics risks in their workstations.
The Volkswagen Group operates and coordinates the activities of ergonomics from Wolfsburg in Germany and works with its contact persons of every plant and brand of the group towards an integrated proceeding relating to ergonomics. For the ergonomic process it is very important to consider the ergonomics in the whole production process, still from the beginning the conception and construction of the vehicle in the early phases. In these phases there is a big potential to work in the preventive ergonomics and avoid correcting the workstations after start of production. Therefore, it is important to have fluently information in all this phases and identify the potential in each of them. In order to attend these items, Volkswagen has defined different activity fields: coordination of ergonomic standards and the roll-out into all the plants, introducing the ergonomic items in the product development process (PEP), considering the constant improvement of the workplaces in the Volkswagen-Way (KVP and 3P Workshops), taking care of an adequate qualification concept in ergonomics and the intern and extern information exchange within the committees. This topic is established in the industrial engineering of the production area of the group. We are working interdisciplinary with the medical services, human resources, work council and the protection of labor.
This paper first discusses the major inefficiencies faced in current human factors and ergonomics (HFE) approaches: (1) delivering an optimal end-to-end user experience (UX) to users of a solution across its solution lifecycle stages; (2) strategically influencing the product business and technology capability roadmaps from a UX perspective and (3) proactively identifying new market opportunities and influencing the platform architecture capabilities on which the UX of end products relies. In response to these challenges, three case studies are presented to demonstrate how enhanced ergonomics design approaches have effectively addressed the challenges faced in current HFE approaches. Then, the enhanced ergonomics design approaches are conceptualised by a user-experience ecosystem (UXE) framework, from a UX ecosystem perspective. Finally, evidence supporting the UXE, the advantage and the formalised process for executing UXE and methodological considerations are discussed. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents enhanced ergonomics approaches to product design via three case studies to effectively address current HFE challenges by leveraging a systematic end-to-end UX approach, UX roadmaps and emerging UX associated with prioritised user needs and usages. Thus, HFE professionals can be more strategic, creative and influential.
Educational ergonomics - the teaching of ergonomics and the design of environments where ergonomics teaching and learning might occur - has received little attention from ergonomists. This paper first describes the roots of the author's interest and research in educational ergonomics; second it provides a personal view of the opportunities and challenges posed by the two streams of educational ergonomics; and lastly it considers the implications of teaching ergonomics to children in terms of their personal development, the design of schools and the impact such initiatives might have on wider societal problems.
Mahmud, Norashikin; Kenny, Dianna T; Md Zein, Raemy; Hassan, Siti Nurani
This study explored whether musculoskeletal complaints can be reduced by the provision of ergonomics education. A cluster randomized controlled trial study was conducted in which 3 units were randomized to intervention and received training and 3 units were given a leaflet. The effect of intervention on knowledge, workstation practices, musculoskeletal complaints, sickness absence, and psychological well-being were assessed at 6 and 12 months. Although there was no increment of knowledge among workers, significant improvements in workstation practices in the use of monitor, keyboard, and chair were observed. There were significant reductions in neck and upper and lower back complaints among workers but these did not translate into fewer days lost from work. Workers' stress was found to be significantly reduced across the studies. In conclusion, office ergonomics training can be beneficial in reducing musculoskeletal risks and stress among workers. © 2011 APJPH.
Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg; Neumann, Patrick; Broberg, Ole
The integration of ergonomics knowledge into engineering projects leads to both healthier and more efficient workplaces. There is a lack of knowledge about integrating ergonomic knowledge into the design practice in engineering consultancies. This study explores how organizational resources can pose constraints for the integration of ergonomics knowledge into engineering design projects in a business-driven setting, and how ergonomists cope with these resource constraints. An exploratory case study in an engineering consultancy was conducted. A total of 27 participants were interviewed. Data were collected applying semi-structured interviews, observations, and documentary studies. Interviews were transcribed, coded, and categorized into themes. From the analysis five overall themes emerged as major constituents of resource constraints: 1) maximizing project revenue, 2) payment for ergonomics services, 3) value of ergonomic services, 4) role of the client, and 5) coping strategies to overcome resource constraints. We hypothesize that resource constraints were shaped due to sub-optimization of costs in design projects. The economical contribution of ergonomics measures was not evaluated in the entire life cycle of a designed workplace. Coping strategies included teaming up with engineering designers in the sales process or creating an alliance with ergonomists in the client organization.
Tung, Kryztopher D; Shorti, Rami M; Downey, Earl C; Bloswick, Donald S; Merryweather, Andrew S
Many factors can affect a surgeon's performance in the operating room; these may include surgeon comfort, ergonomics of tool handle design, and fatigue. A laparoscopic tool handle designed with ergonomic considerations (pistol grip) was tested against a current market tool with a traditional pinch grip handle. The goal of this study is to quantify the impact ergonomic design considerations which have on surgeon performance. We hypothesized that there will be measurable differences between the efficiency while performing FLS surgical trainer tasks when using both tool handle designs in three categories: time to completion, technical skill, and subjective user ratings. The pistol grip incorporates an ergonomic interface intended to reduce contact stress points on the hand and fingers, promote a more neutral operating wrist posture, and reduce hand tremor and fatigue. The traditional pinch grip is a laparoscopic tool developed by Stryker Inc. widely used during minimal invasive surgery. Twenty-three (13 M, 10 F) participants with no existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders or experience performing laparoscopic procedures were selected to perform in this study. During a training session prior to testing, participants performed practice trials in a SAGES FLS trainer with both tools. During data collection, participants performed three evaluation tasks using both handle designs (order was randomized, and each trial completed three times). The tasks consisted of FLS peg transfer, cutting, and suturing tasks. Feedback from test participants indicated that they significantly preferred the ergonomic pistol grip in every category (p < 0.05); most notably, participants experienced greater degrees of discomfort in their hands after using the pinch grip tool. Furthermore, participants completed cutting and peg transfer tasks in a shorter time duration (p < 0.05) with the pistol grip than with the pinch grip design; there was no significant difference between completion
Watson, Celia H.
The wearing of body amour has become a necessity for many professions and much work has gone into the optimisation of the mechanics of protection. In the present study a broader view of the effects of ergonomics, design, reliability and protection has been taken. Three background topics are examined by reference to the literature. First, as an example of the threats and injury mechanisms that prevail in modern conflicts, the effects of blast injury to the head are investigat...
Despite guidance from the United States Green Building Council (USGBC) on the requirements for earning a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) ergonomics credit in the Innovation in Design and Innovation in Operations category, few projects have received the credit. The University of California, Berkeley ergonomics program, Ergonomics@Work, has aligned the ergonomics strategy to those of the USGBC and LEED to achieve the ergonomics credit in several new buildings. This article describes the steps needed to obtain the credit and highlights the opportunities it creates to partner with the project team to promote ergonomics. As a profession it is up to ergonomists to create the road map that incorporates ergonomics into the green building design.
Brulé , Emeline; Kazi-Tani , Tiphaine
International audience; In the middle of the XXth century, ergonomics met design in the works of Ernst Neufert and Henry Dreyfuss. Although ‘user-centered design’ is usually attributed to Donald Norman and his book User Centered System Design (1986), ‘human-centered’ design principles can be traced back at least to the beginning of the XXth century, if not to the Vitruvius anthropomorphic ideal.Various systems of measurements based on the human figure have been proposed in the past as argumen...
Alabdulkarim, Saad; Nussbaum, Maury A; Rashedi, Ehsan; Kim, Sunwook; Agnew, Michael; Gardner, Richard
Existing evidence is limited regarding the influence of task design on performance and ergonomic risk, or the association between these two outcomes. In a controlled experiment, we constructed a mock fuselage to simulate a drilling task common in aircraft manufacturing, and examined the effect of three levels of workstation adjustability on performance as measured by productivity (e.g. fuselage completion time) and quality (e.g. fuselage defective holes), and ergonomic risk as quantified using two common methods (rapid upper limb assessment and the strain index). The primary finding was that both productivity and quality significantly improved with increased adjustability, yet this occurred only when that adjustability succeeded in reducing ergonomic risk. Supporting the inverse association between ergonomic risk and performance, the condition with highest adjustability created the lowest ergonomic risk and the best performance while there was not a substantial difference in ergonomic risk between the other two conditions, in which performance was also comparable. Practitioner Summary: Findings of this study supported a causal relationship between task design and both ergonomic risk and performance, and that ergonomic risk and performance are inversely associated. While future work is needed under more realistic conditions and a broader population, these results may be useful for task (re)design and to help cost-justify some ergonomic interventions.
Ergonomic and design practitioners routinely make assessments of the appropriateness of a workspace. For example, practitioners must answer questions such as: “will the user be at risk of injury, is the space high enough, wide enough and deep enough to accommodate the intended users, does the design
Dirkse van Schalkwyk, Riaan; Steenkamp, Rigard J
A holistic review of ergonomic history shows that science remains important for general occupational health and safety (OSH), the broad society, culture, politics and the design of everyday things. Science provides an unconventional and multifaceted viewpoint exploring ergonomics from a social, corporate and OSH perspective. Ergonomic solutions from this mindset may redefine the science, and it will change with companies that change within this socially hyper-connected world. Authentic corporate social responsibility will counter 'misleadership' by not approaching ergonomics with an afterthought. The review concludes that ergonomics will be stronger with social respect and ergonomic thinking based on the optimisation of anthropometric data, digital human models, computer-aided tools, self-empowerment, job enrichment, work enlargement, physiology, industrial psychology, cybernetic ergonomics, operations design, ergonomic-friendly process technologies, ergonomic empowerment, behaviour-based safety, outcome-based employee wellness and fatigue risk management solutions, to mention a few.
Luquetti Santos, I.J.A.; Carvalho, P.V.R.
The study of ergonomics has evolved around the world as one of the keys to understand human behavior in interaction with complex systems as nuclear power plant and to achieve the best match between the system and its users in the context of task to be performed. Increasing research efforts have yielded a considerable body of knowledge concerning the design of workstations, workplace, control rooms, human-system interfaces, user-interface interaction and organizational design to prevent worker discomfort, illness and also to improve productivity, product quality, ease of use and safety. The work ergonomics analysis consists of gathering a series of observation in order to better understand the work done and to propose changes and improvements in the working conditions. The work ergonomics analysis implies both the correction of existing situations (safety, reliability and production problems) and the development of new work system. Operator activity analysis provides a useful tool for the ergonomics approach, based on work ergonomics analysis. The operators will be systematically observed in their real work environment (control room) or in simulators. The focus is on description of the distributed regulated mechanisms (in the sense that operators work in crew), both in nominal and degraded situations, observing how operators regulate collectively their work during an increase in workload or when confronted with situations where incidents or accidents occur. Audio, video recorders and field notes can be used to collect empirical data, conversations and interactions that occur naturally within the work environment. Our research develops an applied ergonomics methodology, based on field studies, that permits to identify and analyze situations, factors that may affect the operational performance of nuclear power plants. Our contribution is related to the following technical topic: How best to learn from and share operational safety experience and manage changes during
Milton, Stuart W.; Han, Sang; Choi, Hyung-Sik; Kim, Yongmin
The Univ. of Washington's Image Computing Systems Lab. (ICSL) has been involved in research into the development of a series of PACS workstations since the middle 1980's. The most recent research, a joint UW-IBM project, attempted to create a diagnostic radiology workstation using an IBM RISC System 6000 (RS6000) computer workstation and the X-Window system. While the results are encouraging, there are inherent limitations in the workstation hardware which prevent it from providing an acceptable level of functionality for diagnostic radiology. Realizing the RS6000 workstation's limitations, a parallel effort was initiated to design a workstation, UWGSP6 (Univ. of Washington Graphics System Processor #6), that provides the required functionality. This paper documents the design of UWGSP6, which not only addresses the requirements for a diagnostic radiology workstation in terms of display resolution, response time, etc., but also includes the processing performance necessary to support key functions needed in the implementation of algorithms for computer-aided diagnosis. The paper includes a description of the workstation architecture, and specifically its image processing subsystem. Verification of the design through hardware simulation is then discussed, and finally, performance of selected algorithms based on detailed simulation is provided.
Shimomura, Yoshihiro; Minowa, Keita; Kawahira, Hiroshi; Katsuura, Tetsuo
The purpose of this study was to design an endoscopic dissector handle and objectively assess its usability. The handles were designed with increased contact area between the fingers and thumb and the eye rings, and the eye rings were modified to have a more perpendicular insertion angle to the finger midline. Four different handle models were compared, including a conventional product. Subjects performed dissection, exclusion, grasping, precision manipulation and precision handling tasks. Electromyography and subjective evaluations were measured. Compared to conventional handles, the designated handle reduced the muscle load in the extensor and flexor muscles of the forearm and increased subjective stability. The activity of the first dorsal interosseous muscle was sometimes influenced by the shape of the other parts. The ergonomically designed endoscopic dissector handle used in this study achieved high usability. Medical instrument designs based on ergonomic concepts should be assessed with objective indices. Practitioner Summary: The endoscopic dissector handles were designed with increased contact area and more suitable insertion angle between the fingers and thumb and the eye rings. Compared to conventional handles, the designated handle reduced the muscle load in the extensor and flexor muscles of the forearm and increased subjective stability.
Yordán Rodríguez Ruíz
Full Text Available
El comportamiento creciente de las estadísticas relacionadas a desórdenes músculo-esqueléticos de origen ocupacional (DMEs en una empresa mexicana de autopartes de aluminio, indicó la necesidad de tomar acciones encaminadas a la prevención de estas dolencias. El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue evaluar cinco estaciones de trabajo con los métodos ergonómicos Evaluación del Riesgo Individual (ERIN y Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA para comparar resultados y contrastarlos con el número de enfermedades registradas por estación. Se realizó la observación directa de las estaciones de trabajo, se filmaron y se recopilaron las estadísticas relacionadas con los DMEs. Finalmente se realizaron un conjunto de propuestas dirigidas a disminuir el riesgo por variable y global de ERIN. Los resultados mostraron coincidencia en los niveles de riesgo entre ERIN y RULA en cuatro de las cinco estaciones, así como se detectó relación entre el riesgo global de ERIN y el número de enfermedades, excepto en una estación. Las propuestas preliminares realizadas no implican grandes costos y redujeron el riesgo global de ERIN y en ocasiones el nivel de riesgo. Este trabajo ilustra cómo se pueden realizar acciones primarias dirigidas a la prevención de DMEs sin incurrir en grandes costos.
Incidences of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD have been increasing in a Mexican factory during the last years. Five workstations were assessed using Individual Risk Assessment (ERIN and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA ergonomic tools. The final risk levels of these tools were compared. Videos of workstations were taken and WMSD statistics gathered. The ERIN and RULA risk levels were similar in four of five workstations. Correspondence between WMSD and global ERIN scores was found. This paper shows how can be made initiatives aimed to the prevention of these occupational diseases at workplace level.
Habib, Md Monjurul
Many sewing machine operators are working with high risk factors for musculoskeletal health in the garments industries in Bangladesh. To identify the physical risk factors among sewing machine operators in a Bangladeshi garments factory. Sewing machine operators (327, 83% female), were evaluated. The mean age of the participants was 25.25 years. Six ergonomic risk factors were determined using the Musculoskeletal Disorders risk assessment. Data collection included measurements of sewing machine table and chair heights; this data was combined with information from informal interviews. Significant ergonomic risk factors found included the combination of awkward postures of the neck and back, repetitive hand and arm movements, poor ergonomic workstations and prolonged working hours without adequate breaks; these risk factors resulted in musculoskeletal complaints, sick leave, and switching jobs. One aspect of improving worker health in garment factories includes addressing musculoskeletal risk factors through ergonomic interventions.
Kim, M. J.; Kim, Y. K.; Jung, H. S.; Choi, Y. S.; Woo, J. S.; Jeon, B. J.
As a first step to the upgrade plan of the HANARO reactor control computer system, we furnished IBM workstation class PC to replace the existing operator workstation, the dedicated HMI console. Also designed is the new human-machine interface by using the commercial HMI development software that is operating on the MS-Windows. We expect that we would not have any more difficulties in preparing replacement parts and providing maintenance of hardware. In this paper, we introduce the features of new interface, which adopted the virtue of the existing design and enabled the safe and efficient reactor operation by correcting the demerits. Also described are the functionality of historian server that provides the simpler storage, retrieval and search operation and the design of trend display screen that replaces the existing chart recorder by using the dual monitor feature of PC graphic card
Bentley, Tim; Tappin, David
This paper conceptualises organisational safety culture and considers its relevance to ergonomics practice. Issues discussed in the paper include the modest contribution that ergonomists and ergonomics as a discipline have made to this burgeoning field of study and the significance of safety culture to a systems approach. The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics work with regard to the analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process, and implications for participatory ergonomics approaches, are also discussed. A potential user-friendly, qualitative approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented, based on a recently published conceptual framework that recognises the dynamic and multi-dimensional nature of safety culture. The paper concludes by considering the use of such an approach, where an understanding of different aspects of safety culture within an organisation is seen as important to the success of ergonomics projects. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relevance of safety culture to ergonomics practice is a key focus of this paper, including its relationship with the systems approach, participatory ergonomics and the ergonomics analysis, design, implementation and evaluation process. An approach to assessing safety culture as part of ergonomics work is presented.
Gaudez, C; Gilles, M A; Savin, J
For several years, increasing numbers of studies have highlighted the existence of movement variability. Before that, it was neglected in movement analysis and it is still almost completely ignored in workstation design. This article reviews motor control theories and factors influencing movement execution, and indicates how intrinsic movement variability is part of task completion. These background clarifications should help ergonomists and workstation designers to gain a better understanding of these concepts, which can then be used to improve design tools. We also question which techniques--kinematics, kinetics or muscular activity--and descriptors are most appropriate for describing intrinsic movement variability and for integration into design tools. By this way, simulations generated by designers for workstation design should be closer to the real movements performed by workers. This review emphasises the complexity of identifying, describing and processing intrinsic movement variability in occupational activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Cao, Mingliang; Li, Yi; Guo, Yueping; Yao, Lei; Pan, Zhigeng
A successful high-performance sportswear design that considers human factors should result in a significant increase in thermal comfort and reduce energy loss. The authors describe a body-mapping approach that facilitates the effective ergonomic design of sportswear. Their general framework can be customized based on the functional requirements of various sports and sportswear, the desired combination and selection of mapping areas for the human body, and customized quantitative data distribution of target physiological indicators.
Iraj Mohammad faam
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: In Economic and competitive world today,cost-benefit analysis is one of the most important parameters for any intervention.The purpose of thisstudy was cost-benefit analysis of ergonomic interventions effects in Boiler and Equipment Engineering and Manufacturing Company. Methods:At first all workstations of the company assessed using QEC. Thenthose earned more than 70% in QEC assessed by OWAS. By analyzing the results of these two methods, the “Haarp welding” workstation selected as the critical one. After presentation of possible solutions in specialized committee, the final solution selected and cost-benefit analysis done by CyberManS tool. Finally after implementing the intervention workstation reassessed. Findings:The results of the survey showed that the final score of assessment using QEC, OWAS and NASA-TLX before the intervention was 84.7%, 3 and 75.4, respectively and after the intervention was 47.5%, 1 and 42.7 that witnesses a significant reduction in all three methods of assessment. Also the result of cost-benefit analysis by CyberManS showed that by spending 110 million rials after 1.5 years the investment returned and profitability initiated. Conclusion:In addition to reducing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic interventions have financial benefits by increasing the productivity and production, reducing the compensation and the lost work days can also cause financial benefits.
The handbook is intended to facilitate the design and construction of controlrooms. The book appeals to instrument makers, computer operators and process technicians among others. The ergonomic data and relevant information are presented. (G.B.)
Full Text Available The word of “Ergonomics “is composed of two separate parts: “Ergo” and” Nomos” and means the Human Factors Engineering. Indeed, Ergonomics (or human factors is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance. It has applied different sciences such as Anatomy and physiology, anthropometry, engineering, psychology, biophysics and biochemistry from different ergonomics purposes. Sound when is referred as noise pollution can affect such balance in human life. The industrial noise caused by factories, traffic jam, media, and modern human activity can affect the health of the society.Here we are aimed at discussing sound from an ergonomic point of view.
Zeng, Liang; Proctor, Robert W; Salvendy, Gavriel
This article investigates the role of creativity in ergonomic design and the generic process of developing creative products and services. Creativity is gaining increased emphasis in both academia and industry. More than 50 years of research in creativity indicates that creativity is key to product and service innovation. Nevertheless, there is scarcely any comprehensive review dedicated to appraising the complex construct of creativity, the underlying cognitive process, and the role of creativity in product and service development. We review relevant literature regarding creativity, creative cognition, and the engineering design process to appraise the role of creativity in ergonomic design and to construct a conceptual model of creative product and service development. A framework of ergodesign creativity is advanced that highlights the central role of creativity in synergistically addressing the four dimensions of ergonomic design: functionality, safety, usability, and affectivity. A conceptual model of creative design process is then constructed that is goal oriented and is initiated by active problem finding and problem formulating. This process is carried out in a recursive and dynamic way, facilitated by creative thinking strategies. It is proposed that ergodesign creativity can add supplemental value to products and services, which subsequently affects consumer behavior and helps organizations gain competitive advantage. The proposed conceptual framework of ergodesign creativity and creative design process can serve as the ground for future theory development. Propositions advanced in this study should facilitate designers generating products and services that are creative and commercially competitive.
Weber, Andrew; Ghatikar, Girish; Sartor, Dale; Lanzisera, Steven
Miscellaneous Electronic Loads (MELs) account for one third of all electricity consumption in U.S. commercial buildings, and are drivers for a significant energy use in India. Many of the MEL-specific plug-load devices are concentrated at workstations in offices. The use of intelligence, and integrated controls and communications at the workstation for an Office Automation Hub – offers the opportunity to improve both energy efficiency and occupant comfort, along with services for Smart Grid operations. Software and hardware solutions are available from a wide array of vendors for the different components, but an integrated system with interoperable communications is yet to be developed and deployed. In this study, we propose system- and component-level specifications for the Office Automation Hub, their functions, and a prioritized list for the design of a proof-of-concept system. Leveraging the strength of both the U.S. and India technology sectors, this specification serves as a guide for researchers and industry in both countries to support the development, testing, and evaluation of a prototype product. Further evaluation of such integrated technologies for performance and cost is necessary to identify the potential to reduce energy consumptions in MELs and to improve occupant comfort.
Muanah; Syuaib, M. F.; Liyantono
Productivity of manpower could be improved by considering the economic and ergonomic aspect. The ergonomic aspect (human factor) is required to design an optimal manpower, while in the economic aspect, the well being of manpower could be evaluated from the amount of received income based on their work capability. This research was conducted on February 2016 to January 2017 in Gapoktan Silih Asih rice field Cigombong, Bogor. This study aims to analyze the income of manpower based on current conditions, increasement of working hours and mechanization addition. The results showed that manpower income based on the current condition and ergonomic consideration was Rp 1,174,030/person.month, by increasing the working hours with ergonomic consideration the obtained income was Rp 1,766,204/person.month. the revenues were based on the existing work system even though the increasement of working hours have not provided optimal income due to low productivity. Therefore the results of analysis with the addition of selective mechanization, showed self-ownership machinery was more profitable the obtained income have more than the Bogor minimum wage standard of Rp 2,969,325/person.month.
Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Goncalves, Gabriel de L., E-mail: email@example.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, Tamara D.M.F.; Falcao, Mariana A. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Desenho Industrial
Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)
Santos, Isaac J.A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Goncalves, Gabriel de L.; Souza, Tamara D.M.F.; Falcao, Mariana A.
Human factors is a body of scientific factors about human characteristics, covering biomedical, psychological and psychosocial considerations, including principles and applications in the personnel selection areas, training, job performance aid tools and human performance evaluation. Control Centre is a combination of control rooms, control suites and local control stations which are functionally related and all on the same site. Digital control room includes an arrangement of systems, equipment such as computers and communication terminals and workstations at which control and monitoring functions are conducted by operators. Inadequate integration between control room and operators reduces safety, increases the operation complexity, complicates operator training and increases the likelihood of human errors occurrence. The objective of this paper is to present a specific approach for the conceptual and basic design of the control centre and workstation of a nuclear reactor used to produce radioisotope. The approach is based on human factors standards, guidelines and the participation of a multidisciplinary team in the conceptual and basic phases of the design. Using the information gathered from standards and from the multidisciplinary team, an initial sketch 3D of the control centre and workstation are being developed. (author)
Booth, R.R.; Hileman, A.R.
The Insulation Coordination Workstation was designed to aid the substation design engineer in the insulation coordination process. The workstation utilizes state of the art computer technology to present a set of tools necessary for substation insulation coordination, and to support the decision making process for all aspects of insulation coordination. The workstation is currently being developed for personal computers supporting OS/2 Presentation Manager. Modern Computer-Aided Software Engineering (CASE) technology was utilized to create an easily expandable framework which currently consists of four modules, each accessing a central application database. The heart of the workstation is a library of user-friendly application programs for the calculation of important voltage stresses used for the evaluation of insulation coordination. The Oneline Diagram is a graphic interface for data entry into the EPRI distributed EMTP program, which allows the creation of complex systems on the CRT screen using simple mouse clicks and keyboard entries. Station shielding is graphically represented in the Geographic Viewport using a three-dimensional substation model, and the interactive plotting package allows plotting of EPRI EMTP output results on the CRT screen, printer, or pen plotter. The Insulation Coordination Workstation was designed by Advanced Systems Technology (AST), a division of ABB Power Systems, Inc., and sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute under RP 2323-5, AC/DC Insulation Coordination Workstation
The VAX Professional Workstation (VPW) is a collection of programs and procedures designed to provide an integrated work-station environment for the staff at KMS Fusion's research laboratories. During the past year numerous capabilities have been added to VPW, including support for VT125/VT240/4014 graphic workstations, editing windows, and additional desk utilities. Graphics workstation support allows users to create, edit, and modify graph data files, enter the data via a graphic tablet, create simple plots with DATATRIEVE or DECgraph on ReGIS terminals, or elaborate plots with TEKGRAPH on ReGIS or Tektronix terminals. Users may assign display error bars to the data and interactively plot it in a variety of ways. Users also can create and display viewgraphs. Hard copy output for a large network of office terminals is obtained by multiplexing each terminal's video output into a recently developed video multiplexer front ending a single channel video hard copy unit
Radjiyev, Ayubkhon; Qiu, Hai; Xiong, Shuping; Nam, KyungHyun
The need for sustainable development has been widely recognized and sustainable development has become a hot topic of various disciplines even though the role of ergonomics in it is seldom reported or considered. This study conducts a systematic survey of research publications in the fields of ergonomics and sustainable development over the past two decades (1992-2011), in order to identify their research trends and convergent areas where ergonomics can play an important role in sustainable development. The results show that 'methods and techniques', 'human characteristics', 'work design and organization', 'health and safety' and 'workplace and equipment design' are the top five frequently researched areas in ergonomics. Ergonomics has an opportunity to contribute its knowledge especially to 'industrial and product design', 'architecture', 'health and safety' and 'HCI' (especially for energy reduction issues) categories of sustainable development. Typical methodologies and general guidance on how to contribute the expertise of ergonomist to sustainable development are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a
Cai, Dengchuan; Chen, Hsiao-Lin
Sleep quality is an essential factor to human beings for health. The current paper conducted four studies to provide a suitable pillow for promoting sleep quality. Study 1 investigated the natural positions of 40 subjects during sleep to derive key-points for a pillow design. The results suggested that the supine and lateral positions were alternatively 24 times a night, and the current pillows were too high for the supine position and too low for lateral positions. Study 2 measured body dimensions related to pillow design of 40 subjects to determine pillow sizes. The results suggested that the pillow height were quite different in supine position and lateral position and needed to take into consideration for a pillow design. Study 3 created a pillow design based on the results of above studies. The pillow was a U-form in the front of view in which the pillow height in the middle area was lower for the supine position, and both sides were higher for the lateral positions. Study 4 assessed sleep quality of 6 subjects by using the proposed pillows and the current pillows. The results showed that the newly designed pillow led to significantly higher sleep quality, and the new design received an innovation patent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Widana, IK; Wayan Sumetri, Ni; Ketut Sutapa, I.
This study is a research on ergonomics field, especially for ergonomics work station. This research begins with direct observation on the work process of carving craft. In addition to the aspect of occupational health, the stages of the process are also subject matter in the effort to solve the research problem. In accordance with the master plan of research of Bali State Polytechnic, problem solving will be focused on human aspect and utilization of appropriate technology, so that will get the work process ENASEP (effective, convenient, safe, healthy, efficient and productive) Technical easy to work, economical, ergonomic, energy saving, environmentally friendly and in accordance with the trend of the era. The method to be used in this research is experimental with the same subject design. Involves 9 samples who perform activities on conditions before and after treatment. Data on environmental conditions were analyzed by Mann-Whitney test. Data on work productivity and workload were tested with two pair sample t-test at a significance level of 5%. The results showed that by utilizing ergonomic work stations, occupational health indicators such as workload showed better signs, indicated by decreased the workload. In addition to occupational health, productivity indicators also increased significantly.
Stobbe, T J
Ergonomics is the study of people at work. The current focus is on the prevention of work-induced musculoskeletal injuries through the application of sound ergonomic principles. This chapter has briefly outlined ergonomics and its history, has described low back pain and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders from an ergonomic perspective, and has discussed control and prevention approaches for a few scenarios. Ergonomic principles are based on a combination of science and engineering and a thorough understanding of human capabilities and limitations. When these principles are applied to the design of a job, task, process, or procedure, the incidence and severity of musculoskeletal injuries decrease. In many cases productivity and morale also improve. Workers are spared suffering, and employers are spared costs. It is hoped that this discussion will encourage more health, safety, and business professionals to learn about and apply ergonomics in their workplaces for the improvement of the worker, product, and business. Finally, many additional epidemiologic studies on the individual and joint effects of the CTD risk factors are needed. The knowledge gained from these studies will promote the more effective application of ergonomic principles to reduce worker suffering, improve products, and reduce costs.
This thesis is the first to provide the fundamentals of ergonomic exoskeleton design. The fundamental theory as well as technology necessary to analyze and develop ergonomic wearable robots interacting with humans is established and validated by experiments and prototypes. The fundamentals are (1) a new theoretical framework for analyzing physical human robot interaction (pHRI) with exoskeletons, and (2) a clear set of design rules of how to build wearable, portable exoskeletons to easily and...
Liebregts, J; Sonne, M; Potvin, J R
The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was developed to assess musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk factors for computer workstations. This study examined the validity and reliability of remotely conducted, photo-based assessments using ROSA. Twenty-three office workstations were assessed on-site by an ergonomist, and 5 photos were obtained. Photo-based assessments were conducted by three ergonomists. The sensitivity and specificity of the photo-based assessors' ability to correctly classify workstations was 79% and 55%, respectively. The moderate specificity associated with false positive errors committed by the assessors could lead to unnecessary costs to the employer. Error between on-site and photo-based final scores was a considerable ∼2 points on the 10-point ROSA scale (RMSE = 2.3), with a moderate relationship (ρ = 0.33). Interrater reliability ranged from fairly good to excellent (ICC = 0.667-0.856) and was comparable to previous results. Sources of error include the parallax effect, poor estimations of small joint (e.g. hand/wrist) angles, and boundary errors in postural binning. While this method demonstrated potential validity, further improvements should be made with respect to photo-collection and other protocols for remotely-based ROSA assessments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Souza da Conceição, Carolina; Duarte, F.; Broberg, Ole
The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the use of an intermediary object, built from the ergonomic work analysis, in a participative design process. The object was a zoning pattern, developed as a visual representation ‘mapping’ of the interrelations among the functional units of t...
Dien, Y.; Montmayeul, R.
The design of operating procedures for continuous processes is much too often based on implicit assumptions both concerning the operators and the operating conditions that must be dealt with. The merit of the ergonomic approach to the design of procedures is to take account of the way the various operators actually use operating procedures. The actual use is determined from the analysis of on-site operation (normal and incident operating conditions) and the analysis of full-scale simulators tests (incident operating conditions). The introduction of the ergonomic approach in the procedure design results in new design principles being proposed
Stanton, NA; Young, MS
Ergonomists have a say in the design of almost everything in the modern world, but there is little evidence that their methods actually work. Here is an evaluation of those methods and of the worth of ergonomics in design.
Chi, Chia-Fen; Lin, Yen-Hui
Potential ergonomic hazards for 27 disabled call center agents engaged in computer-telephone interactive tasks were evaluated for possible associations between the task behaviors and work-related disorders. Data included task description, 300 samples of performance, a questionnaire on workstation design, body-part discomfort rating, perceived stress, potential job stressors, and direct measurement of environmental factors. Analysis indicated agents were frequently exposed to prolonged static sitting and repetitive movements, together with unsupported back and flexed neck, causing musculoskeletal discomforts. Visual fatigue (85.2% of agents), discomfort of ears (66.7%), and musculoskeletal discomforts (59.3%) were the most pronounced and prevalent complaints after prolonged working. 17 of 27 agents described job pressure as high or very high, and dealing with difficult customers and trying to fulfill the customers' needs within the time standard were main stressors. Further work on surrounding noise, earphone use, possible hearing loss of experienced agents, training programs, feasible solutions for visual fatigue, musculoskeletal symptoms, and psychosocial stress should be conducted.
Vidal, Mario Cesar; Guizze, Carmen Lucia Campos; Bonfatti, Renato José; Silva e Santos, Marcello
This paper aims at the application of an ergonomic maturity model (EMM), in order to assess the ergonomic sustainability outreach of ergonomic actions. This proposition was motivated by the widespread sensation that the development of the discipline, its educational devices and related practices depends on the attitude of ergonomics practitioners rather than environmental macroergonomic conditions. Maturity modeling in this paper is undertaken as a tool for ergonomic practitioners. Thus, its foundations were uprooted from diverse fields: Clinic Psychology, Quality Management and Project Management. The paper brings about a detailled explanation of this ergonomic maturity tool. The empirical part is fulfilled by the examination - using the EMM - of four emblematic cases excerpted from our research lab ergonomic portfolio.
Full Text Available Training based on competency is a government effort to improve employee candidates’ job competence. The T echnical Implementation Unit of the Technopark Ganesha Sukowati Sragen is a training centre in the Sragen Regency. Ergonomic issues have still not received attention in some training programmes. The work system design is constructed to support the achievement of the agency’s vision and mission, using the macro-ergonomic analysis and design approach (MEAD. Research results show that the key variance is the installation of embroidery hoops, which is difficult and time-consuming. Integration of the work system with ergonomic designs is necessary to create a pleasant training environment and to improve job competence. The new designs include adjustable seats, embroidery hoops tables with a foot rest, improved lighting, facemasks, earplugs, and a drinking water facility. The workshop layout is designed to follow the work process. The trainees also participated in stretching exercises before training began. A t-test was conducted with the same research design and the same subject, and the results showed a reduction of up to 60.39 per cent in musculoskeletal disorders and a reduction of up to 22.2 per cent in the risk of injury.
Rhijn, J.W. van; Bosch, T.; Looze, M.P. de
Due to shorter productlife cycles in manufacturing industry there is a lot of pressure on the process of designing new work systems. Early attention for human factors would lower the costs compared to changes at a later stage. Low cost tools for workstations design could help especially small to
Full Text Available The article analyzes ergonomics as a social and cultural phenomenon, as something that is formulated and described by speakers in a specific social context; in a company that is specialized in producing ergonomic office furniture. Through a case study of an office chair, the article examines how ergonomics and its association with the vision of the potential users and their working spaces are constructed by the relevant actors in project meetings and individual interviews during the manufacturing process. The article is concerned with how, in the process of producing an office chair, the chair gains an identity of an aesthetic design object and how this comes to mean the reformulation of the idea of ergonomics. The empirical analysis also provides insight into how the somewhat grand discourses of soft capitalism or aesthetic economy are not abstract, but very much grounded in everyday practices of an organization. The article establishes how the vision shared by all the relevant actors invites active, flexible, and cooperative end-users and how the vision also has potential material effects. The research is an ethnographically inspired case study that draws ideas from discursive psychology.
Aline Marian Callegaro
Full Text Available This paper aims to presentthe results after conducting an Ergonomic Work Analysis (EWA in a smallbusiness located in Porto Alegre. The ergonomic intervention was performed basedon Guérin et al. (2001 and aimed to analyze the process organization and thelayout of the shoemaker workstations to provide improvements to these areas.The starting point was the account of the small shoe business owner’s need hadto hire one more shoemaker without increasing the company physical space. The EWAwas used focusing the work organization, how the flow of information ran fromthe entry of an order to the final stage of the product repairing. Thediagnosis showed the company main problems were related to the shop assistantsdependence on the shoemakers to provide budget information and delivery time tocustomers and the layout organization. Among the results, a temporal analysisof two company recurrent tasks was performed in order to ascertain possiblelosses related to the displacement and the search for material. A new layoutscheme was also proposed, aiming to organize the work stations, making easierthe stock, tools and equipment removal, providing a free space to make possiblethe hiring of the new shoemakers within the current company boundaries.
Elmer, Steven J; Martin, James C
Facilitating physical activity during the workday may help desk-bound workers reduce risks associated with sedentary behavior. We 1) evaluated the efficacy of a cycling workstation to increase energy expenditure while performing a typing task and 2) fabricated a power measurement system to determine the accuracy and reliability of an exercise cycle. Ten individuals performed 10 min trials of sitting while typing (SIT type) and pedaling while typing (PED type). Expired gases were recorded and typing performance was assessed. Metabolic cost during PED type was ∼ 2.5 × greater compared to SIT type (255 ± 14 vs. 100 ± 11 kcal h(-1), P physical activity without compromising typing performance. The exercise cycle's inaccuracy could be misleading to users. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Kimmerly, Lisa; Odell, Dan
This study examines the home computer use of 26 children (aged 6-18) in ten upper middle class families using direct observation, typing tests, questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The goals of the study were to gather information on how children use computers in the home and to understand how both parents and children perceive this computer use. Large variations were seen in computing skills, behaviors, and opinions, as well as equipment and workstation setups. Typing speed averaged over 40 words per minute for children over 13 years old, and less than 10 words per minute for children younger than 10. The results show that for this sample, Repetitive Stress Injury (RSI) concerns ranked very low among parents, whereas security and privacy concerns ranked much higher. Meanwhile, children's behaviors and workstations were observed to place children in awkward working postures. Photos showing common postures are presented. The greatest opportunity to improve children's work postures appears to be in providing properly-sized work surfaces and chairs, as well as education. Possible explanations for the difference between parental perception of computing risks and the physical reality of children's observed ergonomics are discussed and ideas for further research are proposed.
Michael C. Godoy
Full Text Available Ergonomics (also called human factors engineering is the study of human characteristics for the appropriate design of the living and work environment. It is applied in various industrial areas which includes transportation.Tricycle being one of the most common means of public transportation in Lipa City has various adaptations to suit the culture, and environment. The purpose of this study is to analyze the variability in design of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines and propose a standard ergonomically designed tricycle sidecar seat for a greater population. The study was conducted at 26 tricycle terminals with 232 tricycle samples within Lipa City proper including the public market area where 400 commuters were given questionnaires to determine the risk factors associated with the existing tricycle sidecar seat design. Anthropometric measurements of 100 males and 100 female commuters were obtained together with the sidecar dimensions of 232 tricycles to substantiate the observed variations in design. Using the design for the average and design for the extremes, it was found out that most of the tricycles in Lipa City, Philippines have inappropriate inclined seat and lowered sidecar seat pan height which can result to leg and abdominal pain; narrowed seat pan depth which caused pressure on buttocks and legs; narrowed backrest width which can cause upper and low back pain; low backrest height that can pose upper back pain; which can also result to abdominal pain; inclined backrest and limited vertical clearance which can cause upper back pain and neck pain. The researcher proposed a sidecar seat design standard which can be used by the Land Transportation Office, and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board to provide ease, comfort, and convenience to the passengers.
Han Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Shinguryo, Takuro; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao
This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans and bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
According to the definitions, ergonomics is a natural part of the health and safety activity but it has its own research methods and causal models. Public health, occupational and clinical medicines are closely related to epidemiology and differ from ergonomics by using a disease model with a wide...... success of health effects from the clinical trials could not be obtained. It is argued that the ergonomics design, Integration and Implementation can be strengthened by adapting the epidemiological methods and causal models. The ergonomics can then contribute to a common development of public health...
Andreoni, Giuseppe; Arslan, Pelin; Costa, Fiammetta; Muschiato, Sabrina; Romero, Maximiliano
This work presents considerations on Ergonomics and Design for Sustainability in the healthcare field based on research experiences of the Technology and Design for Healthcare (TeDH) research group of INDACO (Industrial design, communication, arts and fashion) department of Politecnico di Milano. In order to develop a multidisciplinary approach to design able to answer to specific user needs such as elderly in an environmental sustainable way (1) this paper shows the results we achieved concerning ergonomics and environmental impact in product development (2), the extension of this approach to interior and home design and the advantage of the application of Information Communication Technologies (ICT). ICT can help people with special needs to make their everyday life easier and more safe, at the same time, ICT can make social-environmental impact of everyday behavior evident and can be applied to manage sustainability. The specific theme is thus to integrate ergonomics and sustainability competences in the development of Ambient Assisted Living through a Product- Service System approach. The concept of product service system has the potential to improve product performances and services, establish new relations and networks with different actors in order to satisfy user needs and apply a systems approach considering environmental, social and economic factors in the users' environment.
Ding, Li; Li, Xianxue; Hedge, Alan; Hu, Huimin; Feathers, David; Qin, Zhifeng; Xiao, Huajun; Xue, Lihao; Zhou, Qianxiang
This study developed an ergonomic evaluation system for the design of high-altitude partial pressure suits (PPSs). A total of twenty-one Chinese males participated in the experiment which tested three types of ergonomics indices (manipulative mission, operational reach and operational strength) were studied using a three-dimensional video-based motion capture system, a target-pointing board, a hand dynamometer, and a step-tread apparatus. In total, 36 ergonomics indices were evaluated and optimized using regression and fitting analysis. Some indices that were found to be linearly related and redundant were removed from the study. An optimal ergonomics index system was established that can be used to conveniently and quickly evaluate the performance of different pressurized/non-pressurized suit designs. The resulting ergonomics index system will provide a theoretical basis and practical guidance for mission planners, suit designers and engineers to design equipment for human use, and to aid in assessing partial pressure suits. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Partido, B B; Wright, B M
Dental professionals are at high risk of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to static working positions for extended periods of time. Musculoskeletal pain has been identified as early as during their entry-level dental education. The purpose of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve ergonomic scores and the accuracy of ergonomic self-assessments amongst dental students. The study involved a randomised control design of 135 dental students. At weeks 1 and 4, participants were photographed, and at weeks 1 through 4, participants completed ergonomic self-evaluations, using a Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks 2 and 3, participants in the training group were photographed and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were evaluated for ergonomic scores by two raters. A mixed-design ANOVA of ergonomic scores revealed that ergonomic scores improved for all students who received the ergonomics training (F(1,254)=17.41, P < .001). In addition, a mixed-design ANOVA of kappa coefficient values between student and rater scores revealed that the accuracy of self-assessments improved for all students who received the ergonomics training (F(1,127)=6.33, P < .05). The use of photographs and self-assessment provides dental and dental hygiene educators with a pragmatic method to improve self-assessment skills, increase student awareness of any postural deviations from ideal and improve musculoskeletal health. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.
Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang; O'Neill, Michael J; Schleifer, Lawrence M
A macroergonomics intervention consisting of flexible workspace design and ergonomics training was conducted to examine the effects on psychosocial work environment, musculoskeletal health, and work effectiveness in a computer-based office setting. Knowledge workers were assigned to one of four conditions: flexible workspace (n=121), ergonomics training (n=92), flexible workspace+ergonomics training (n=31), and a no-intervention control (n=45). Outcome measures were collected 2 months prior to the intervention and 3 and 6 months post-intervention. Overall, the study results indicated positive, significant effects on the outcome variables for the two intervention groups compared to the control group, including work-related musculoskeletal discomfort, job control, environmental satisfaction, sense of community, ergonomic climate, communication and collaboration, and business process efficiency (time and costs). However, attrition of workers in the ergonomics training condition precluded an evaluation of the effects of this intervention. This study suggests that a macroergonomics intervention is effective among knowledge workers in office settings.
Fakhriza, Z.; Rahayu, M.; Iqbal, M.
In the production activity of Bottled Drinking Water (AMDK) in CV Barokah Abadi there is a gallon washing station. At the work station it involves three stages of activity such as washing and rinsing the outside of the gallon, spraying the inside of the gallon and rubbing the inside of the gallon which is done in a separate place. Distribution of Nordic Body Map (NBM) questionnaires showing employee complaints data at gallon washing stations where workers complained of pain in the right upper arm, right forearm and right wrist respectively 88% and workers also complained of pain in the waist and The right hand respectively by 81%. Ergonomic gallon washer is one way to minimize the risk of MSDs. The design begins with an ergonomic evaluation of the existing conditions and the concept of the initial design of the gallon washer. The evaluation is utilized for consideration of design improvements with the utilization of Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD) in order for the product concept to conform to the ECSHE principle (Effective, Comfortable, Safe, Healthy and Efficient). The tool improvement design can minimize the risk of MSDs seen from the worker’s posture while using an ergonomic washer.
van Vugt, Sander
This book is a practical, step-by-step guide to creating and managing virtual machines using VMware Workstation.VMware Workstation: No Experience Necessary is for developers as well as system administrators who want to efficiently set up a test environment .You should have basic networking knowledge, and prior experience with Virtual Machines and VMware Player would be beneficial
Szeto, Grace P; Lee, Raymond
To evaluate and compare the postures and movements of the cervical and upper thoracic spine, the typing performance, and workstation ergonomic factors when using a desktop, notebook, and subnotebook computers. Repeated-measures design. A motion analysis laboratory with an electromagnetic tracking device. A convenience sample of 21 university students between ages 20 and 24 years with no history of neck or shoulder discomfort. Each subject performed a standardized typing task by using each of the 3 computers. Measurements during the typing task were taken at set intervals. Cervical and thoracic spines adopted a more flexed posture in using the smaller-sized computers. There were significantly greater neck movements in using desktop computers when compared with the notebook and subnotebook computers. The viewing distances adopted by the subjects decreased as the computer size decreased. Typing performance and subjective rating of difficulty in using the keyboards were also significantly different among the 3 types of computers. Computer users need to consider the posture of the spine and potential risk of developing musculoskeletal discomfort in choosing computers. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Full Text Available the design of trackless mining equipment (TME) is poor, with improvised seating, poor cabin layouts and sub-standard display instrumentation. This paper will present the key findings of two studies assessing ergonomics risk factors associated with automated...
Jackson, A.R.G.; Madden, V.J.; Umbers, I.G.; Williams, J.C.
The safe operation of nuclear reactors depends not only on good physical safety engineering but on the human operators as well. The Central Electricity Generating Board's approach to human reliability includes the following aspects: ergonomics design (task analysis and the development of man-machine interfaces), analysis of human reliability, operational feedback, staff training and assessment, maintenance management, research programmes and management. This paper describes how these combine to achieve the highest practicable level of human reliability, not only for the Sizewell-B pressurized water reactor, but also for the Board's gas-cooled reactors. Examples are used to illustrate the topics considered. (UK)
Botti, Lucia; Mora, Cristina; Regattieri, Alberto
The data presented in this article are related to the research article "Integrating ergonomics and lean manufacturing principles in a hybrid assembly line" (Botti et al., 2017) . The results refer to the application of the mathematical model for the design of lean processes in hybrid assembly lines, meeting both the lean principles and the ergonomic requirements for safe assembly work. Data show that the success of a lean strategy is possible when ergonomics of workers is a parameter of the assembly process design.
Oppold, P; Rupp, M; Mouloua, M; Hancock, P A; Martin, J
Unmanned (UAVs, UCAVs, and UGVs) systems still have major human factors and ergonomic challenges related to the effective design of their control interface systems, crucial to their efficient operation, maintenance, and safety. Unmanned system interfaces with a human centered approach promote intuitive interfaces that are easier to learn, and reduce human errors and other cognitive ergonomic issues with interface design. Automation has shifted workload from physical to cognitive, thus control interfaces for unmanned systems need to reduce mental workload on the operators and facilitate the interaction between vehicle and operator. Two-handed video game controllers provide wide usability within the overall population, prior exposure for new operators, and a variety of interface complexity levels to match the complexity level of the task and reduce cognitive load. This paper categorizes and provides taxonomy for 121 haptic interfaces from the entertainment industry that can be utilized as control interfaces for unmanned systems. Five categories of controllers were based on the complexity of the buttons, control pads, joysticks, and switches on the controller. This allows the selection of the level of complexity needed for a specific task without creating an entirely new design or utilizing an overly complex design.
Ministry of Technology, London (England). Warren Spring Lab.
THE LITERATURE OF ERGONOMICS, OR BIOTECHNOLOGY, IS CLASSIFIED INTO 15 AREAS--METHODS, SYSTEMS OF MEN AND MACHINES, VISUAL AND AUDITORY AND OTHER INPUTS AND PROCESSES, INPUT CHANNELS, BODY MEASUREMENTS, DESIGN OF CONTROLS AND INTEGRATION WITH DISPLAYS, LAYOUT OF PANELS AND CONSOLES, DESIGN OF WORK SPACE, CLOTHING AND PERSONAL EQUIPMENT, SPECIAL…
DARLlS; WIDAGDO, SUHARYO
Ergonomics investigation on the layout and design of the reactor thermalhydraulic testing loop main control room has been done. This reason is needed to be done as the primary step for evaluating of operator workload. The operator work load be influence on the operator performance, and finally would influencing the installation operation safety. Generally, the factors that is influencing on operator performance are the layout and design of MCR and its supporting physical environments factors for instance lighting, noising and climatic condition respectively. From investigation had been done, cod be identified that ergonomics point of view not implemented yet on the main control console design, especially on the alarm panel, and also found a little bit brightness problem. Otherwise the temperature and noise room are still in the tolerance boundary
Background More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. Methods/Design The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. Discussion The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance
Ghosh, Srinka; Andriole, Katherine P.; Avrin, David E.
Diagnostic workstation design has migrated towards display presentation in one of two modes: tiled images or stacked images. It is our impression that the workstation setup or configuration in each of these two modes is rather distinct. We sought to establish a commonality to simplify software design, and to enable a single descriptor method to facilitate folder manager development of “hanging” protocols. All current workstation designs use a combination of “off-screen” and “on-screen” memory...
Nowadays, human factors has become an important aspect of the design of work places. Since the control room in a nuclear power plant is a work place, too, its layout is also influenced by ergonomics. With the KWU control room concept for the 1300 MW PWR as an example, we show how assured and applicable ergonomic findings enter into the control room design. On the basis of general design principles for work places, specific methods for control room planning have been developed. By working with these methods a concept that makes it possible to build a man-machine interface able to fulfill the process control tasks with all their underlying conditions has been derived. (author)
Li, Zheng; Wang, Guohui; Tan, Juan; Sun, Xulong; Lin, Hao; Zhu, Shaihong
Laparoscopic surgery carries the advantage of minimal invasiveness, but ergonomic design of the instruments used has progressed slowly. Previous studies have demonstrated that the handle of laparoscopic instruments is vital for both surgical performance and surgeon's health. This review provides an overview of the sub-discipline of handle ergonomics, including an evaluation framework, objective and subjective assessment systems, data collection and statistical analyses. Furthermore, a framework for ergonomic research on laparoscopic instrument handles is proposed to standardize work on instrument design. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simone De Sio
working session and at the end of the working day, while 61.5% of the original articles emphasized the use of modern and ergonomic instruments. Discussion This review showed that static postures are strongly responsible in the etiology of musculoskeletal disorders. The awkward postures more frequently identified among dental professionals are: extreme forward-head and neck flexion; trunk inclination and rotation towards one side; lifting one or both shoulders; increased curvature of the thoracic vertebral column; incorrect positioning of the lower limbs with thigh-leg angle of less than 90°. It is really important to use of a modern workstation with appropriate ergonomic supports. Among the preventive ergonomic measures, literature has widely recognized the role of physical activity and of a neutral and balanced posture. The present review has some limits: a large part of the selected studies did not have a high methodological quality score and an inadequate statistical analysis.
De Sio, Simone; Traversini, Veronica; Rinaldo, Francesca; Colasanti, Valerio; Buomprisco, Giuseppe; Perri, Roberto; Mormone, Federica; La Torre, Giuseppe; Guerra, Fabrizio
, while 61.5% of the original articles emphasized the use of modern and ergonomic instruments. This review showed that static postures are strongly responsible in the etiology of musculoskeletal disorders. The awkward postures more frequently identified among dental professionals are: extreme forward-head and neck flexion; trunk inclination and rotation towards one side; lifting one or both shoulders; increased curvature of the thoracic vertebral column; incorrect positioning of the lower limbs with thigh-leg angle of less than 90°. It is really important to use of a modern workstation with appropriate ergonomic supports. Among the preventive ergonomic measures, literature has widely recognized the role of physical activity and of a neutral and balanced posture. The present review has some limits: a large part of the selected studies did not have a high methodological quality score and an inadequate statistical analysis.
Krause, Niklas; Burgel, Barbara; Rempel, David
The literature on psychosocial job factors and musculoskeletal pain is inconclusive in part due to insufficient control for confounding by biomechanical factors. The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the independent effects of effort-reward imbalance (ERI) at work on regional musculoskeletal pain of the neck and upper extremities of call center operators after controlling for (i) duration of computer use both at work and at home, (ii) ergonomic workstation design, (iii) physical activities during leisure time, and (iv) other individual worker characteristics. This was a one-year prospective study among 165 call center operators who participated in a randomized ergonomic intervention trial that has been described previously. Over an approximate four-week period, we measured ERI and 28 potential confounders via a questionnaire at baseline. Regional upper-body pain and computer use was measured by weekly surveys for up to 12 months following the implementation of ergonomic interventions. Regional pain change scores were calculated as the difference between average weekly pain scores pre- and post intervention. A significant relationship was found between high average ERI ratios and one-year increases in right upper-extremity pain after adjustment for pre-intervention regional mean pain score, current and past physical workload, ergonomic workstation design, and anthropometric, sociodemographic, and behavioral risk factors. No significant associations were found with change in neck-shoulder or left upper-extremity pain. This study suggests that ERI predicts regional upper-extremity pain in -computer operators working >or=20 hours per week. Control for physical workload and ergonomic workstation design was essential for identifying ERI as a risk factor.
Ismail Wilson Taifa
Full Text Available This paper presents anthropometric measurements regarding engineering students in India. Health survey (ergonomic assessment was carried out to know the health status of all students who have been using poorly designed furniture. The data were measured with the help of various tools. After data collection and analysis, authors came up with exhaustive dimensions for designing adjustable classrooms furniture. Dimensions recommended include; bench surface height, bench depth and width, back rest width and height, backrest angle, desk height, desk depth, width, and desk angle. Therefore, an implementation of these data will help to create comfortability, safety, well-being, suitability, reduce Musculoskeletal disorders, and improve performance of students in terms of attentiveness. Also, it is highly recommended to consider requirements from students in designing classrooms furniture and conduct seminar or workshop to educate students regarding the negative impact towards adapting poor posture in the long usage of classrooms furniture.
Teymourian, Kiumars; Seneviratne, Dammika; Galar, Diego
The objective of this paper is to describe an ergonomics contribution in maintainability. The economical designs, inputs and training helps to increase the maintainability indicators for industrial devices. This analysis can be helpful, among other cases, to compare systems, to achieve a better design regarding maintainability requirements, to improve this maintainability under specific industrial environment and to foresee maintainability problems due to eventual changes in a device operation conditions. With this purpose, this work first introduces the notion of ergonomics and human factors, maintainability and the implementation of assessment of human postures, including some important postures to perform maintenance activities. A simulation approach is used to identify the critical posture of the maintenance personnel and implements the defined postures with minimal loads on the personnel who use the equipment in a practical scenario. The simulation inputs are given to the designers to improve the workplace/equipment in order to high level of maintainability. Finally, the work concludes summarizing the more significant aspects and suggesting future research.
Zeng, Chi-liang; Xiao, Ze-xin; Deng, Shi-chao; Yu, Xin-ye
The principles of ergonomics design in fundus cameras should be extending the agreeableness by automatic control. Firstly, a 3D positional numerical control system is designed for positioning the eye pupils of the patients who are doing fundus examinations. This system consists of a electronically controlled chin bracket for moving up and down, a lateral movement of binocular with the detector and the automatic refocusing of the edges of the eye pupils. Secondly, an auto-focusing device for the object plane of patient's fundus is designed, which collects the patient's fundus images automatically whether their eyes is ametropic or not. Finally, a moving visual target is developed for expanding the fields of the fundus images.
Sundaragiri, Krishna Sireesha; Shrivastava, Shikha; Sankhla, Bharat; Bhargava, Akshay
Ergonomics is simply a science focused on "study of work" to reduce fatigue and discomfort through product design. A comprehensive ergonomics program for the pathology laboratory has become necessary to prevent the occurrence of work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and accidents. Most of the literature on ergonomics involve various web links or occasional studies on the effect of laboratory work and associated MSDs. A Google search was carried out corresponding to the terms "ergonomics", "pathology laboratory", "microscope". All the relevant literature from web sources was sorted out and categorized. In this review, we intend to identify basic anthropometric factors, biomechanical risk factors, laboratory design considerations and specific microscopy-related considerations. The ultimate aim of ergonomics is to provide a safe environment for laboratory personnel to conduct their work and to allow maximum flexibility for safe research use.
Estryn-Behar, M.; Bougniot, C.; Colleu, C.; Launec, V.; Lepinay, S.; Pihery, M.; Bauden, F.; Stambouli, A.; Maylin, C.
The authors report an ergonomic analysis of the activity in a radiotherapy department of a hospital. This study aimed at understanding physiological fatigue and pathologies among technical personnel, at analyzing factors which impact reception quality, but also the professional satisfaction associated with this profession. The authors have developed a guide for a radiotherapy technician workstation study. They report and comment the activity analysis (time organisation, working time in different positions, movements and handling, handled weights), also outline the anxiety associated with the risk of mistake. They identify various improvement possibilities
The scope of the ergonomics contribution to the design and operation of power stations is described on the basis of current experience in the CEGB and in other countries. The ergonomics questions which arise in relation to Sizewell 'B' are enumerated in detail. Issues which arise from the point of view of station operation and from the complementary point of view of human behaviour are considered. (author)
Full Text Available The majority of female batik workers uses non-ergonomic chairs (dingklik that pose risks of musculoskeletal disorders. This study aimed to design an ergonomic chair and evaluate its effectiveness in reducing musculoskeletal disorders among the workers. This is a quasi-experimental study (using one group pre and post-test design on 50 female batik workers selected by quota sampling. Musculoskeletal disorders were measured among the samples before and after the use of the designed ergonomic chair which they were asked to use for two months. T-test, ANCOVA, Wilcoxon test, McNemar test and Chi Square test were used for the analysis. The study found statistical significant differences of risk factor against musculoskeletal disorders among the workers before and after their use of the designed ergonomic chair (p=0.000; and of musculoskeletal disorders before and after using the ergonomic chair (p= 0,035. Body Mass Index (BMI was identified as a confounding factor, and statistical significant difference of musculoskeletal disorders were also found among the workers with 25 BMI even before and after using the ergonomic chair (p=0.033 and p=0.015 respectively. By ANCOVA statistical test, after controlling BMI, another statistical difference of musculoskeletal disorders was also identified before and after using the ergonomic chair (p=0.033. It is concluded that the designed ergonomic chair is effective to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.
Sonne, Michael; Villalta, Dino L; Andrews, David M
The Rapid Office Strain Assessment (ROSA) was designed to quickly quantify risks associated with computer work and to establish an action level for change based on reports of worker discomfort. Computer use risk factors were identified in previous research and standards on office design for the chair, monitor, telephone, keyboard and mouse. The risk factors were diagrammed and coded as increasing scores from 1 to 3. ROSA final scores ranged in magnitude from 1 to 10, with each successive score representing an increased presence of risk factors. Total body discomfort and ROSA final scores for 72 office workstations were significantly correlated (R = 0.384). ROSA final scores exhibited high inter- and intra-observer reliability (ICCs of 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Mean discomfort increased with increasing ROSA scores, with a significant difference occurring between scores of 3 and 5 (out of 10). A ROSA final score of 5 might therefore be useful as an action level indicating when immediate change is necessary. ROSA proved to be an effective and reliable method for identifying computer use risk factors related to discomfort. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Klim, R. D.
The ergonomic problems of designing a sophisticated Windows Icons Mouse Pop-up (WIMP) based twin screen workstation are outlined. These same problems will be encountered by future spacecraft controllers. The design of a modern, advanced workstation for use on a distributed multicontrol center in a multisatellite control system is outlined. The system uses access control mechanisms to ensure that only authorized personnel can undertake certain operations on the workstation. Rules governing the use of windowing features, screen attributes, icons, keyboard and mouse in spacecraft control are discussed.
BROOKHUIS, K; BROWN, [No Value
Modifications to the design of vehicles and road infrastructures have improved road safety significantly over the past decades, but all such developments depend upon user acceptance and institutional backing for their success. New R&D programmes combining ergonomic and engineering approaches are
The subject of this bachelor thesis is survey of computer classrooms from the ergonomic point of view and show ergonomic rules to internet community in accessible form. Theoretic knowledge was gain from literature connected with ergonomic and work hygiene. Main relevance was given to use of computer and ergonomic of computer classroom. Several schools was evaluates in practical part with focus on ergonomic suitability. The conclusions of this thesis are websites contains ergonomics rules and ...
Full Text Available Today, people of almost every age group are users of computers and computer aided systems. Technology makes our life easier, but it can also threaten our health. In recent years, one of the main causes of the proliferation of diseases such as lower back pain, neck pain or hernia, Arthritis, visual disturbances and obesity is wrong computer usage. The widespread use of computers also increases these findings. The purpose of this study is to direct computer users to use computers more carefully in terms of ergonomics. The user-interactive system developed for this purpose controls distance of the user to the screen and calculates the look angle and the time spent looking at the screen and provides audio or text format warning when necessary. It is thought that this system will reduce the health problems caused by the frequency of computer usage by encouraging individuals to use computers ergonomically.
Karlson, C.F.; Reed, M.L.; Webb, J.R.; Elzea, J.D.
The nuclear fuel management department of Arizona Public Service Company (APS) has evaluated various computer platforms for a departmental engineering and business work-station local area network (LAN). Historically, centralized mainframe computer systems have been utilized for engineering calculations. Increasing usage and the resulting longer response times on the company mainframe system and the relative cost differential between a mainframe upgrade and workstation technology justified the examination of current workstations. A primary concern was the time necessary to turn around routine reactor physics reload and analysis calculations. Computers ranging from a Definicon 68020 processing board in an AT compatible personal computer up to an IBM 3090 mainframe were benchmarked. The SIMULATE-3 advanced nodal code was selected for benchmarking based on its extensive use in nuclear fuel management. SIMULATE-3 is used at APS for reload scoping, design verification, core follow, and providing predictions of reactor behavior under nominal conditions and planned reactor maneuvering, such as axial shape control during start-up and shutdown
Krubsack, David; Haberman, David
The Advanced Display and Computer Augmented Control (ADCACS) Program at ACT is sponsored by NASA Ames to investigate the broad field of technologies which must be combined to design a 'virtual' workstation for the Space Station Freedom. This program is progressing in several areas and resulted in the definition of requirements for a workstation. A unique combination of technologies at the ACT Laboratory have been networked to effectively create an experimental environment. This experimental environment allows the integration of nonconventional input devices with a high power graphics engine within the framework of an expert system shell which coordinates the heterogeneous inputs with the 'virtual' presentation. The flexibility of the workstation is evolved as experiments are designed and conducted to evaluate the condition descriptions and rule sets of the expert system shell and its effectiveness in driving the graphics engine. Workstation productivity has been defined by the achievable performance in the emulator of the calibrated 'sensitivity' of input devices, the graphics presentation, the possible optical enhancements to achieve a wide field of view color image and the flexibility of conditional descriptions in the expert system shell in adapting to prototype problems.
Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai
In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive cha...
Mason, J.H.; Crosby, J.W.
System engineers offer an approach for effective technical support for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. System engineer groups are being set up by most utilities in the United States. Institute of Nuclear Power operations (INPO) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) have endorsed the concept. The INPO Good Practice and a survey of system engineer programs in the southeastern United States provide descriptions of system engineering programs. The purpose of this paper is to describe a process for developing a design for a department-level information network of workstations for system engineering groups. The process includes the following: (1) application of a formal information engineering methodology, (2) analysis of system engineer functions and activities; (3) use of Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Plant Information Network (PIN) data; (4) application of the Information Engineering Workbench. The resulting design for this system engineer workstation can provide a reference for design of plant-specific systems
Full Text Available The term "work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs," refers to musculoskeletal disorders to which the work environment contributes significantly, or to musculoskeletal disorders that are made worse or longer lasting by work conditions or workplace risk factors. In recent years, there has been an increase in reporting WMSDs for dental persons. Risk factors of WMSDs with specific reference to dentistry include - stress, poor flexibility, improper positioning, infrequent breaks, repetitive movements, weak postural muscles, prolonged awkward postures and improper adjustment of equipment. Ergonomics is the science of designing jobs, equipment and workplaces to fit workers. Proper ergonomic design is necessary to prevent repetitive strain injuries, which can develop over time and can lead to long-term disability. In this article, 20 strategies to prevent WMSDs in the dental operatory are discussed.
Reddy, Swathi Matta; Chakrabarti, Debkumar; Karmakar, Sougata
Interaction between the users and their environment is spontaneous and unavoidable. This interaction can be positive or negative. A good interior space is about considering all the physical, environmental and cognitive elements and harmonizing them to make it a space that feels right, functionally and emotionally. The important element that has to be considered the most in an interior space is the "user". Balancing all these elements is a challenging job and results in a perfect interior space design. This paper intends to bring to light the necessity of designing an optimum interior space, which is a balance of the user's choice and the mandatory standards that ought to be followed for user safety and convenience. There has to be an intervening domain of ergonomics which will guide to bring out a balance between the personal choice of the user and the usual standards followed. It should also provide a step-by-step information, guidance and direction to act to the specifications and standards systematically to adapt an integrated approach of handling all the elements holistically which will indeed result in a good interior space.
Sutarjo, Untung S
Workers' conditions in accordance with their place of work are different from one area to another, especially in this reformation era where there are immense alterations in politics shown from the centralized government shifting to decentralization and district autonomy. Ergonomics problems in Indonesia are reviewed. In home industries, workers have to adjust themselves to their jobs, and ergonomic improvement may face significant impediments especially in small-scale industries. It is necessary to create or identify the most plausible model to be implemented in accordance with the conditions of districts, including low awareness about the relation between ergonomics and workers' productivity in producing goods and services and working processes scattered often at their own houses. As conditions conducive to ergonomics programs, district-level willingness to improve and increase the wealth of their society, recognition by businesses about the impacts of ergonomics on productivity and reduction of medical treatment costs may be mentioned. Labor unions support ergonomic improvements at production processes, and professionals and academicians are ready to assist, whereas national banks and foreign investment may encourage new technologies including ergonomics aspects. It is important to strengthen ergonomic improvement efforts in Indonesia through establishing district ergonomics improvement networks and ergonomics peer leaders with the support of continual training starting from the training of core leaders at the province level and extending to peer leaders at district level. This training should be made as simple as possible in order to facilitate innovations toward changes. Finally assistance is needed by the mentor teams in order to periodically monitor the improvements undertaken.
Larson, N; Wick, H
The added value of the Ergonomics Program at 3M was found to be improved employee safety, compliance with regulations and reduction of work-related illness, increases in productivity, and quality and operating efficiency. This paper describes the thirty years of existence of this program. For the first twenty years, the program objectives were to: respond to requests for assistance related to work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) concerns, raise employee awareness of MSDs and ergonomics; educate engineers in ergonomics design; and develop ergonomics teams at manufacturing locations. Since the year 2000, 3M's Ergonomics Program has been in transition from a US-centric and corporate-based technical-expertled program to a global program applying participatory ergonomics strategies within a macroergonomics framework. During that transition, the existing program requirements were revised, new methods and program tools were created, and expectations for implementation at the manufacturing locations clarified. This paper focuses on the company's manufacturing ergonomics program activities during the past ten years and includes specifics of the program's objectives, risk assessment reduction process, and ergonomics technical expertise development. The main benefit achieved throughout the company is reducing employee injury while also increasing productivity and operating efficiency.
José Adriano Canton; Andrea Regina Martins Fontes; Isaías Torres
This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysi...
Hignett, Sue; Wilson, John R; Morris, Wendy
This paper gives an overview of the theory of participatory ergonomics interventions and summary examples from a range of industries, including health care, military, manufacturing, production and processing, services, construction and transport. The definition of participatory approaches includes interventions at macro (organizational, systems) levels as well as micro (individual), where workers are given the opportunity and power to use their knowledge to address ergonomic problems relating to their own working activities. Examples are given where a cost-effective benefit has been measured using musculoskeletal sickness absence and compensation costs. Other examples, using different outcome measures, also showed improvements, for example, an increase in productivity, improved communication between staff and management, reduction in risk factors, the development of new processes and new designs for work environments and activities. Three cases are described from Canada and Japan where the participatory project was led by occupational health teams, suggesting that occupational health practitioners can have an important role to play in participatory ergonomics projects.
Tao Yonghao; Miao Jingtao
Objective: To discuss the scheme and implementing for workstation configuration of medical imaging information system which would be adapted to the practice situation of China. Methods: The workstations were logically divided into PACS workstations and RIS workstations, the former applied to three kinds of diagnostic practice: the small matrix images, large matrix images, and high resolution gray scale display application, and the latter consisted of many different models which depended upon the usage and function process. Results: A dual screen configuration for image diagnostic workstation integrated the image viewing and reporting procedure physically, while the small matrix images as CT or MR were operated on 17 in (1 in = 2.54 cm) color monitors, the conventional X-ray diagnostic procedure was implemented based on 21 in color monitors or portrait format gray scale 2 K by 2.5 K monitors. All other RIS workstations not involved in image process were set up with a common PC configuration. Conclusion: The essential principle for designing a workstation scheme of medical imaging information system should satisfy the basic requirements of medical image diagnosis and fit into the available investment situation
There are so many definitions for ergonomics terms such as human factors, human factors engineering, human engineering, human factors psychology, engineering psychology, applied ergonomics, occupational ergonomics, industrial ergonomics and industrial engineering. The most inclusive terms are ergonomics and human factors. Both represent the study of work and the interaction between people and their work environmental systems. The main objective is especially fitting with the need to design, develop, implement and evaluate human-machine and environment systems that are productive, comfortable, safe and satisfying to use. The work of the ergonomists in Indonesia--most of them are academicians--have one thing in common, i.e. with the appropriate type of ergonomic approaches to interventions; there would be improvements in productivity, quality of working conditions, occupational safety and health (OSH), costs reduction, better environment, and increase in profits. So many researches, training, seminars and socialization about ergonomics and OSH have been done concerning micro-to-macro themes; but it seems that we are practically still running at the same place up to now. In facts, workers are still working using their traditional or obsolete methods in poor working conditions. Accidents are still happening inside and outside industry with the main root-cause being human "unsafe behavior" and errors. Industrial products cannot compete in the global market, and so many manufacturing industries collapsed or relocated to foreign countries. This paper discusses such a roadmap and review what we ergonomists in Indonesia have done and where we are going to? This review will be treated in the field of ergonomics and OSH to take care the future Indonesia challenges. Some of the challenges faced are care for the workers, care for the people, care for the quality and productivity of work, care for the new advanced technologies, care for the environment, and last but not least
Castillo, Juan; Cubillos, A
The recent development of the Colombian legislation, have been identified the need to develop protective clothing to work according to specifications from the work done and in compliance with international standards. These involve the development and design of new strategies and measures for work clothing design. In this study we analyzes the activities of the workers in the electrical sector, the method analyzes the risks activity data in various activities, that activities include power generation plants, local facilities, industrial facilities and maintenance of urban and rural networks. The analyses method is focused on ergonomic approach, risk analysis is done, we evaluate the role of security expert and we use a design algorithm developed for this purpose. The result of this study is the identification of constraints and variables that contribute to the development of a model of analysis that leads to the development the work protective clothes.
Patel, Thaneswer; Sanjog, J.; Karmakar, Sougata
Computer-aided Design (CAD) and Digital Human Modeling (DHM) (specialized CAD software for virtual human representation) technologies endow unique opportunities to incorporate human factors pro-actively in design development. Challenges of enhancing agricultural productivity through improvement of agricultural tools/machineries and better human-machine compatibility can be ensured by adoption of these modern technologies. Objectives of present work are to provide the detailed scenario of CAD and DHM applications in agricultural sector; and finding out means for wide adoption of these technologies for design and development of cost-effective, user-friendly, efficient and safe agricultural tools/equipment and operator's workplace. Extensive literature review has been conducted for systematic segregation and representation of available information towards drawing inferences. Although applications of various CAD software have momentum in agricultural research particularly for design and manufacturing of agricultural equipment/machinery, use of DHM is still at its infancy in this sector. Current review discusses about reasons of less adoption of these technologies in agricultural sector and steps to be taken for their wide adoption. It also suggests possible future research directions to come up with better ergonomic design strategies for improvement of agricultural equipment/machines and workstations through application of CAD and DHM.
Aksoy, O; Ertürk, Z; Oztürk, K; Saltik, H; Ward, J S
A 4-week UNESCO-sponsored mission to the Department of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University in Eastern Turkey, gave an opportunity to apply ergonomics techniques to some aspects of that country's domestic washbasin design. The study was intended to provide experience in questionnaire design and administration, in the application of psycho-physical methods, and to highlight the importance of determining user characteristics and preferences with regard to the built environment. A field study elicited information on dimensions and positioning of existing wash-basins and ancillary equipment and the opinions of users as to the suitability of these features in relation to the activities performed. A laboratory study, using an adjustable rig permitting variation in the heights of basin, taps and mirror/shelf, followed. The data obtained on preferred heights of these items led to the conclusions that basin height should be increased to between 95 and 100 cm to satisfy the majority of users; tap height above the basin should be reduced to about 11 cm; the shelf and lower edge of a mirror sited above the basin should be 136 cm above the floor; and a clear space of 110 cm should be available between the front of the basin and a wall or other obstruction. Suggestions on other design aspects of the bathroom, resulting from the study, are discussed.
Pinheiro, Cristina; da Silva, Fernando Moreira
This paper is based on a research project - Visual Communication and Inclusive Design-Colour, Legibility and Aged Vision, developed at the Faculty of Architecture of Lisbon. The research has the aim of determining specific design principles to be applied to visual communication design (printed) objects, in order to be easily read and perceived by all. This study target group was composed by a selection of socially active individuals, between 55 and 80 years, and we used cultural events posters as objects of study and observation. The main objective is to overlap the study of areas such as colour, vision, older people's colour vision, ergonomics, chromatic contrasts, typography and legibility. In the end we will produce a manual with guidelines and information to apply scientific knowledge into the communication design projectual practice. Within the normal aging process, visual functions gradually decline; the quality of vision worsens, colour vision and contrast sensitivity are also affected. As people's needs change along with age, design should help people and communities, and improve life quality in the present. Applying principles of visually accessible design and ergonomics, the printed design objects, (or interior spaces, urban environments, products, signage and all kinds of visually information) will be effective, easier on everyone's eyes not only for visually impaired people but also for all of us as we age.
Conclusion: Most of the published studies emphasize on application of ergonomic models in healthcare centers since these models may reduce their problems. These ergonomics approaches support patient-centered treatment processes, user-oriented design of medical environments, efficient utilization of resources and increase motivation of clinical staff.
Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne; King, Phyllis; Scheuer, Gina
Examines the physical demands and ergonomic concerns within child care settings. Discusses problem areas and ergonomic recommendations for room design and staff training. Presents important implications for writing job descriptions, determining essential job functions, orienting and training staff, and committing to improving the child care work…
Grozdanovic, Miroljub; Jekic, Savko; Stojiljkovic, Evica
Adequate application of the static and dynamic anthropometric measures of pre-school children in ergonometric design of children's playground equipment should eliminate all dangers and difficulties in their use. Possibilities of injuries, insecure movements, discomfort able positions and some other dangerous actions may be minimized; and safety and health protection of pre-school children will be increased. Children's playground represents a significant space of activity for pre-school children. Therefore, it is necessary to apply ergonomic principles which contribute to the adjustment of the playground elements to children's anatomic features. Based on the results presented in this paper, new constructions were designed and new playgrounds were installed in Serbia. Participants were children from three pre-school age groups: Junior age group (3-4 years of age, 17 children), Medium age group (4-5 years of age, 22 children), and Senior age group (5-6 years of age, 26 children). Thirty-one static anthropometric measures (12 in standing position, 11 in sitting position, 7 related to dimensions of hand, foot an head, with body weight and shoe size) and 15 dynamic anthropometric measures (7 in standing position, 6 in sitting position and 2 dimension of foot and hand) were defined for the study. Measurements were taken using an anthrop-meter, a flexible measuring tape. Equations for ergonomic design of children's playground elements were also defined. Basic statistical data of static and dynamic anthropometric measurements of the pre-school children are presented in this paper, as well as the statistical calculation of the corrective anthropometric measurements. Measurements were performed in "Poletarac" kindergarten, part of the pre-school institution "Radost" in Cacak. Elements of playground equipment in "Bambi" kindergarten in Kragujevac (the Indian tent "wigwam", gate-house, swing and carousel) were designed and built using these parameters. Based on the obtained
Full Text Available The project is presented at a Seeds plant in the region of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, with the purpose of giving proposals for improvements, through different studies, in order to find optimal solutions for workers with better performance time to carry out the corresponding activities. In the company it is necessary to have a work area in which the operator is comfortable, also to protect the health, and to increase the productivity of the same one. For this reason the study was conducted to know the problems that are generated by an inadequate workstation, in order to obtain a better quality and to have the adequate information on how to do the work without risk. In the development of this study, different techniques of ergonomic evaluation were applied, such as Yoshitake, 4 luke points and Corlet & Bishop Mapping for the analysis of fatigue and possible CTD (Cumulative Trauma Disorders. Once analyzed, proceeded to take anthropometric measures for the redesign of the workstation, focusing mainly on the seat of workers.
Turinsky, P.J.; Comes, S.A.
Within the past several years, rapid advances in computer technology have resulted in substantial increases in their performance. The net effect is that problems that could previously only be executed on mainframe computers can now be executed on micro- and minicomputers. The authors are interested in developing an engineering workstation for nuclear fuel management applications. An engineering workstation is defined as a microcomputer with enhanced graphics and communication capabilities. Current fuel management applications range from using workstations as front-end/back-end processors for mainframe computers to completing fuel management scoping calculations. More recently, interest in using workstations for final in-core design calculations has appeared. The authors have used the VAX 11/750 minicomputer, which is not truly an engineering workstation but has comparable performance, to complete both in-core and out-of-core fuel management scoping studies. In this paper, the authors concentrate on our out-of-core research. While much previous work in this area has dealt with decisions concerned with equilibrium cycles, the current project addresses the more realistic situation of nonequilibrium cycles
Alppay, Cem; Bayazit, Nigan
In this paper, we study the arrangement of displays in flight instrument panels of multi-purpose civil helicopters following a user-centered design method based on ergonomics principles. Our methodology can also be described as a user-interface arrangement methodology based on user opinions and preferences. This study can be outlined as gathering user-centered data using two different research methods and then analyzing and integrating the collected data to come up with an optimal instrument panel design. An interview with helicopter pilots formed the first step of our research. In that interview, pilots were asked to provide a quantitative evaluation of basic interface arrangement principles. In the second phase of the research, a paper prototyping study was conducted with same pilots. The final phase of the study entailed synthesizing the findings from interviews and observational studies to formulate an optimal flight instrument arrangement methodology. The primary results that we present in our paper are the methodology that we developed and three new interface arrangement concepts, namely relationship of inseparability, integrated value and locational value. An optimum instrument panel arrangement is also proposed by the researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Robertson, Michelle M; O'Neill, Michael J
Effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention on workers' knowledge and self-reported musculoskeletal pain and discomfort were investigated. An instructional systems design process was used to develop an office ergonomics training program and the evaluation tools used to measure the effectiveness of the training program on workers' office ergonomics knowledge and skills. It was hypothesized that the training and workplace intervention would allow the worker to more effectively use their workplace through increased office ergonomics knowledge and skills. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in workers' office ergonomics knowledge and awareness. Self-reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders significantly decreased for the group who had a workplace change and received ergonomic training relative to a workplace change-only group and a no intervention control group.
Salmon, Paul M; Walker, Guy H; M Read, Gemma J; Goode, Natassia; Stanton, Neville A
The issues being tackled within ergonomics problem spaces are shifting. Although existing paradigms appear relevant for modern day systems, it is worth questioning whether our methods are. This paper asks whether the complexities of systems thinking, a currently ubiquitous ergonomics paradigm, are outpacing the capabilities of our methodological toolkit. This is achieved through examining the contemporary ergonomics problem space and the extent to which ergonomics methods can meet the challenges posed. Specifically, five key areas within the ergonomics paradigm of systems thinking are focused on: normal performance as a cause of accidents, accident prediction, system migration, systems concepts and ergonomics in design. The methods available for pursuing each line of inquiry are discussed, along with their ability to respond to key requirements. In doing so, a series of new methodological requirements and capabilities are identified. It is argued that further methodological development is required to provide researchers and practitioners with appropriate tools to explore both contemporary and future problems. Practitioner Summary: Ergonomics methods are the cornerstone of our discipline. This paper examines whether our current methodological toolkit is fit for purpose given the changing nature of ergonomics problems. The findings provide key research and practice requirements for methodological development.
Full Text Available Taylor's University School of Engineering (Malaysia is a project-based-learning school that puts a conscious effort to educate engineers on the importance of applying ergonomic principles at the conceiving and designing stages of a product life cycle. This paper reports on an innovative approach to teaching ergonomics using the SUCCESS framework (Simple, Unexpected, Credible, Concrete, Emotions, Story, and Simulation. This teaching technique was adopted to engage the hearts and minds of the students and get them to embrace ergonomics as an important skill for engineers. Comparing students’ module evaluation and feedback, both before and after the adoption of the SUCCESS framework showed that students enjoyed the new approach of teaching and found it more fulfilling.
Azzarelli, Luciano; Chimenti, Massimo; Salvetti, Ovidio
The main goals of the Istituto di Elaborazione della Informazione in Task 4., Subtasks 4.3.1 (Image Processing) and 4.3.2 (Workstation Architecture) were the study of thermograms features, the design of the architecture of a customized workstation and the project of specialized algorithms for thermal image analysis. Thermograms features pertain to data acquisition, data archiving and data processing; following general study some basic requirements for the workstation were defined. "Data acqui...
Zink, Klaus J; Fischer, Klaus
The International Ergonomics Association Technical Committee 'Human Factors and Sustainable Development' was established to contribute to a broad discourse about opportunities and risks resulting from current societal 'mega-trends' and their impacts on the interactions among humans and other elements of a system, e.g. in work systems. This paper focuses on the underlying key issues: how do the sustainability paradigm and human factors/ergonomics interplay and interact, and is sustainability necessary as a new approach for our discipline? Based on a discussion of the sustainability concept, some general principles for designing new and enhancing existent approaches of human factors and ergonomics regarding their orientation towards sustainability are proposed. The increasing profile of sustainability on the international stage presents new opportunities for human factors/ergonomics. Positioning of the sustainability paradigm within human factors/ergonomics is discussed. Approaches to incorporating sustainability in the design of work systems are considered.
Partido, Brian B
Due to postural demands, dental professionals are at high risk for developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs). Dental clinicians' lack of ergonomic awareness may impede the clinical application of recommendations to improve their posture. The aim of this study was to determine whether feedback involving photography and self-assessment would improve dental hygiene students' ergonomic scores and accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. The study involved a randomized control design and used a convenience sample of all 32 junior-year dental hygiene students enrolled in the autumn 2016 term in The Ohio State University baccalaureate dental hygiene program. Sixteen students were randomly assigned to each of two groups (control and training). At weeks one and four, all participants were photographed and completed ergonomic self-evaluations using the Modified-Dental Operator Posture Assessment Instrument (M-DOPAI). During weeks two and three, participants in the training group were photographed again and used those photographs to complete ergonomic self-assessments. All participants' pre-training and post-training photographs were given ergonomic scores by three raters. Students' self-assessments in the control group and faculty evaluations of the training group showed significant improvement in scores over time (F(1,60)=4.25, p<0.05). In addition, the accuracy of self-assessment significantly improved for students in the training group (F(1,30)=8.29, p<0.01). In this study, dental hygiene students' self-assessments using photographs resulted in improvements in their ergonomic scores and increased accuracy of their ergonomic self-assessments. Any improvement in ergonomic score or awareness can help reduce the risks for WMSDs, especially among dental clinicians.
Ergonomics is often defined simply as the study of work. Related or synonymous terms include human factors, human engineering, engineering psychology, and others. Occupational ergonomics is a term that has been proposed to describe the study of the working environment, including the physical consequences resulting from having an improperly designed workplace. The routine space working environment presents some problems not found in the typical Earthbound workplace. These include radiation, intravehicular contamination/pollution, temperature extremes, impact with other objects, limited psychosocial relationships, sensory deprivation, and reduced gravity. These are important workplace considerations, and may affect astronauts either directly at work or at some point during their life as a result of their work under these conditions. Some of the major issues associated with each of these hazards are presented.
Full Text Available whether trends exist across jobs that use similar equipment, tools or processes. 23.4.4 Limitations An effective ergonomics hazard identification and risk assessment process should facilitate the classification of possible high risk jobs in a mining... to review the data available, which identify a shop or workplace as a potential ergonomics problem area. It is also useful to become familiar with the processes and job activities that are performed in each work area. Step 2: Conduct a workplace/ work...
Neumann, W Patrick; Ekman, Marianne; Winkel, Jørgen
Understanding the barriers and assists to integrating ergonomics into production system design remains a research issue. An action research case study at Volvo Powertrain/Sweden was conducted. Researchers worked collaboratively with the firm in efforts to improve the company's ability to handle ergonomics in their daily work of improving and developing production systems. Researchers observed and reflected collectively on the change process using field notes and recordings to support their observations. Observed integration barriers included both individual level issues like life events, and organisational aspects such as communication barriers between groups or assignment of tasks to people not involved in decision-making. Observed assists included the 'political reflective navigation' (c.f. Broberg, O., Hermund, I., 2004. The OHS consultant as a 'political reflective navigator' in technological change processes. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33 (4), 315-326) by the project owner to find new ways to overcome barriers and anchor ergonomics into the organisation. While special 'ergonomics' groups did not survive long, progress was observed in including ergonomics in regular design groups. A cross-functional workshop that fostered discussion across organisational boundaries helped shift focus from retrofitting systems to future production systems and improve engagement of engineering teams. Progress was marked by both success and setbacks and full integration appears to require more than 2 years time. It is concluded that support by senior managers should include succession planning for personnel that are key to the change effort.
Bao, Stephen; Silverstein, Barbara; Stewart, Kate
This study evaluated an ergonomics intervention among Nicaraguan coffee harvesting workers, using electromyography and questionnaire survey techniques. Nicaraguan researchers were involved in the study so that they could gain hands-on experience with ergonomics research and applications, and eventually be the specialists conducting ergonomics interventions in Nicaraguan workplaces. Coffee harvesting activities were studied individually and physical hazards were identified accordingly. The results showed decreased muscle loading on the erector spinae muscle and improved comfort reporting in the back region compared to the commonly used baskets. This fulfils the design objective of a newly developed bag that was used in the intervention to reduce physical workload on the coffee harvesting workers. Workers' opinion survey results showed some issues related to the size of the new bag and the lumbar-shoulder belt mechanism. This information can be used in the modification of the bag in the next design. Key players in the process have been identified. Stimulating ergonomics activities in developing countries is suggested by many experts. This study provided an example from coffee workers in Nicaragua. Commonly used job evaluation procedures and physical load quantification methods were used. Ergonomics researchers and practitioners in developing countries may do similar projects on their own in the future.
Munoz, Maria Isabel; Bouldi, Nadia; Barcellini, Flore; Nascimento, Adelaide
This communication deals with the involvement of ergonomists in a research-action design process of a software platform in radiotherapy. The goal of the design project is to enhance patient safety by designing a workflow software that supports cooperation between professionals producing treatment in radiotherapy. The general framework of our approach is the ergonomics management of a design process, which is based in activity analysis and grounded in participatory design. Two fields are concerned by the present action: a design environment which is a participatory design process that involves software designers, caregivers as future users and ergonomists; and a reference real work setting in radiotherapy. Observations, semi-structured interviews and participatory workshops allow the characterization of activity in radiotherapy dealing with uses of cooperative tools, sources of variability and non-ruled strategies to manage the variability of the situations. This production of knowledge about work searches to enhance the articulation between technocentric and anthropocentric approaches, and helps in clarifying design requirements. An issue of this research-action is to develop a framework to define the parameters of the workflow tool, and the conditions of its deployment.
In the last twenty years, terms such as sustainable development, environmental protection, and sustainable design have been widely exploited, often without justification. Does ergonomics have a legitimate need or right to use these terms and to be the part of the process to which they refer? This paper discusses the relationship between ergonomics and the concept of sustainable development and its three elements of sustainability (environmental, social and economic), as the steps ergonomists need to take to secure and strengthen the influence in sustainability topics.
Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.
Ostrom, L.T.; Romero, H.A.; Gilbert, B.G.; Wilhelmsen, C.A.
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory is a Department of Energy facility that performs a variety of engineering and research projects. EG&G Idaho is the prime contractor for the laboratory and, as such, performs the support functions in addition to technical, research, and development functions. As a part of the EG&G Idaho Industrial Hygiene Initiative, ergonomic assessments were conducted at three Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Cafeterias. The purposes of the assessments were to determine whether ergonomic problems existed in the work places and, if so, to make recommendations to improve the work place and task designs. The study showed there were ergonomic problems in all three cafeterias assessed. The primary ergonomic stresses observed included wrist and shoulder stress in the dish washing task, postural stress in the dish washing and food preparation tasks, and back stress in the food handling tasks.
Ashraf A. Shikdar
Full Text Available Ergonomic conditions in small manufacturing industries were investigated. Twenty seven managers of small manufacturing industries participated in the study. Old equipment and machines, poorly designed workplaces, lack of systematic planning, layout and organization, unsafe working conditions and poor environment were found common to these industries. Fifty-nine percent of companies indicated having equipment older than 15 years. Fifty-two percent of company managers reported receiving complaints of fatigue from their workforce, 41% complaints of back pain, and 33% complaints of upper-body pain. Seventy eight percent of companies reported a noisy environment (above 90 dBA while 63% reported a hot environment. Management in 44% of the companies acknowledged failure to ensure safety rules and 48% did not provide training on manual material handling. Lack of skills in ergonomics and training, communication and resources are believed to be some of the factors contributing to the poor ergonomic conditions in a sample of small manufacturing industries in Malaysia.
Lee, Edwin W C; Fok, Joan P C; Lam, Augustine T; Law, Rainbow K Y; Szeto, Grace P Y; Li, Philip P K
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMDs) are recognized as a major source of significant pain and disability in the healthcare sector. However, they are preventable if appropriate surveillance and intervention programs are implemented. The purpose of this paper is to describe the holistic ergonomic approach that was used to address the multifactorial problems encountered by healthcare workers in their daily work. Using participatory ergonomics, healthcare workers in this study teamed up with management and staff with expertise in ergonomic analysis, design, and implementation of remedies. Selected participatory ergonomic intervention programs targeted at an organizational level are elaborated. Interventions included pre-work stretching, workplace surveillance at a psychiatric department, on-site ergonomic teaching for community nurses, and display screen equipment consultancy. Changes in workplace design, equipment re-arrangement, awareness of proper posture, and adoption of good work practices all play important roles in reducing musculoskeletal disorders among healthcare workers. Prompt occupational medicine and rehabilitation services were also provided to complement the work disability prevention process. The impact of the various intervention programs on staff health, costs and productivity of the organization are simultaneously discussed.
This paper examines the development of ergonomics in Taiwan by analysing 1404 scientific articles published by 113 permanent members of the Ergonomics Society of Taiwan (EST). Each article was classified by key words and abstract content. Each article was also coded by period of publication (1971-1992 (first period), 1993-1997 (second period), 1998-2002 (third period), 2003-2007 (fourth period), and 2008-2012 (fifth period), and against 13 topic categories. The results show that rate of publication has increased by approximately 100 articles every five years since 1993.The most popular topic was ergonomics assessment and analysis techniques in the first period, force exertion-related research in the second period, product design and evaluation in the third period, occupational safety and health in the fourth period and human-computer interface in the fifth period. Each of these is highly relevant to current contemporary issues around the world. Finally, potential areas for future ergonomics research in Taiwan are discussed. This study investigates the trends in academic papers published by members of the EST. Over time, topics have shifted from ergonomics evaluation methods to occupational safety and health, and human–computer interaction. The findings should be considered as important references for planning the future of ergonomics in Taiwan.
Huda, L. N.; Matondang, R.
Ergonomics can help manufacturing and industrial engineersmaximum work output without physical harm to workers.Physiology, biomechanics, anthropometrics, and allocation are the areas of ergonomics most useful to manufacturing in apllying the concept of Lean and Green in manufacturing. These systems require efficient production and low use of resources such as energy and material. Its philosophy encourage worker to look at waste. This concept is applied in one of national plant of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) that located in North Sumatera. The problem found in the company are the working posture and excessive workload of the workers. These conditions are affects to the their job performance. The study was carried out by evaluated the worker body position using the Work Posture Assesment (WPA) and Biomechanics method. The WPA results shows the operator’s working position was mostly bent more than 30 degrees. This indicates that almost all workers are felt musculoskeletal disorders during work hours. While the biomechanics analysis found the significant relation between the values of Recommended Weight Limit (RWL) and Lifting Index (LI) which the increase of RWL value will decrease the LI value. This indicated that the recommended load for a worker under certain circumstances affects the appointment made so as not to contain the risk of spinal injury. In fact these condition are due to in-efficiency in production which can be maintaned the green design of CPO plant by improving the existing work.
Full Text Available Analyzing human poses with a Kinect is a promising method to evaluate potentials risks of musculoskeletal disorders at workstations. In ecological situations, complex 3D poses and constraints imposed by the environment make it difficult to obtain reliable kinematic information. Thus, being able to predict the potential accuracy of the measurement for such complex 3D poses and sensor placements is challenging in classical experimental setups. To tackle this problem, we propose a new evaluation method based on a virtual mannequin. In this study, we apply this method to the evaluation of joint positions (shoulder, elbow, and wrist, joint angles (shoulder and elbow, and the corresponding RULA (a popular ergonomics assessment grid upper-limb score for a large set of poses and sensor placements. Thanks to this evaluation method, more than 500,000 configurations have been automatically tested, which would be almost impossible to evaluate with classical protocols. The results show that the kinematic information obtained by the Kinect software is generally accurate enough to fill in ergonomic assessment grids. However inaccuracy strongly increases for some specific poses and sensor positions. Using this evaluation method enabled us to report configurations that could lead to these high inaccuracies. As a supplementary material, we provide a software tool to help designers to evaluate the expected accuracy of this sensor for a set of upper-limb configurations. Results obtained with the virtual mannequin are in accordance with those obtained from a real subject for a limited set of poses and sensor placements.
Full Text Available Background and aims :Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs is high among office workers. Long time seated posture, working with computer, repetitive movements and inappropriate environmental conditions may have causal effects in these disorders. High prevalence rate of MSDs makes ergonomics assessment and working conditions improvement necessary. Designing an assessment checklist and calculating ergonomics indices can be useful in this evaluation. This study was conducted with the objectives of determination of prevalence rate, ergonomics assessment of working conditions and determination of factors associated with MSDs among office workers. Methods:In this study 400 randomly selected office workers participated. Nordic musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire was applied to determine prevalence rate of MSDs. Working conditions were assessed by the designed ergonomics checklist and ergonomic risk factors were identified. Data were analyzed using statistical tests including t-test, Chi-square and test of proportion by SPSS software (Version 12.0. Results:The highest prevalence rates of MSDs were reported in lower back and neck regions (49% and 47%, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant association between occurrence of MSDs and calculated ergonomics indices (P<0.05. The mean of ergonomics index among those suffered from MSDs were less than other healthy workers indicating inappropriate ergonomics conditions. Calculation of OR also revealed that ergonomics conditions was associated with MSDs occurrence among workers (P<0.05. Totally, 53.3% of the office workers studied had poor working conditions. Awkward working posture and inappropriate workstation design were recognized as the main risk factors in the office workplace. Conclusion:Most ergonomics problems were originated from bad postures and inappropriate design of workstation. Any interventional program for working conditions improvement should
Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole
Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
This paper reviews the literature comparing the fields of ergonomics and quality, mainly in an industrial context, including mutual influences, similarities and differences. Relationships between ergonomics and the factors: work conditions, product design, ISO 9000, continuous improvements and TQM are reviewed in relation to the consequence, application, and process domains. The definitions of ergonomics and quality overlap substantially. Quality deficiencies, human errors and ergonomics problems often have the same cause, which in many cases can be traced to the design of work, workplace and environment e.g. noise, light, postures, loads, pace and work content. In addition, the possibility of performing to a high standard at work is an important prerequisite for satisfaction and well-being. Contradictions between the two fields have been identified in the view of concepts such as standardization, reduction of variability and copying of best practice, requiring further research. The field of quality would gain by incorporating ergonomics knowledge, especially in the areas of work design and human capability, since these factors are decisive for human performance and also therefore the performance of the systems involved. The field of ergonomics, on the other hand, would benefit from developing a stronger emphasis on methodologies and structures for improvement processes, including a clearer link with leadership and company strategies. Just as important is a further development of practicable participative ergonomics methods and tools for use at workplaces by the workers themselves, in order to integrate the top-down and the bottom-up processes and achieve better impact. Using participative processes for problem-solving and continuous improvement, focusing ergonomics and quality jointly has a great potential for improving working conditions and quality results simultaneously, and satisfying most of the interested parties.
Moreau, Guillaume; Fuchs, Philippe
In the car manufacturing industry the trend is to drastically reduce the time-to-market by increasing the use of the Digital Mock-up instead of physical prototypes. Design review and ergonomic studies are specific tasks because they involve qualitative or even subjective judgements. In this paper, we present IMAVE (IMmersion Adapted to a VEhicle) designed for immersive styling review, gaps visualization and simple ergonomic studies. We show that stereoscopic displays are necessary and must fulfill several constraints due to the proximity and size of the car dashboard. The duration fo the work sessions forces us to eliminate all vertical parallax, and 1:1 scale is obviously required for a valid immersion. Two demonstrators were realized allowing us to have a large set of testers (over 100). More than 80% of the testers saw an immediate use of the IMAVE system. We discuss the good and bad marks awarded to the system. Future work include being able to use several rear-projected stereo screens for doors and central console visualization, but without the parallax presently visible in some CAVE-like environments.
Penteado, Eliane Villas Bôas de Freitas; de França, Maria Goretti; Ramalhoto, Ana Maria de Brito; de Oliveira, Ana Maria; Machado, Bruno Rangel Cortoppassi; Genipapeiro, Joana Angélica Matos
This article discusses the implementation of ergonomics in a service unit of a major company in the energy sector. From the perspective of management, it analyses the process of implementation of ergonomics programmes in four operational areas. The objective was to diagnose the level of implementation of ergonomics. The study is descriptive, undertaken through the interaction with the technical staff of the operational areas involved, incorporating the perception of these role players concerning their work routines. The results indicated significant differences in the level of implementation of the programmes, especially those concerning structural conditions. Important conquests were registered, such as the investment in the training of specialists, the establishment of a facilitator network and the improvement of the standard for the directioning and alignment of the execution of initiatives. The linking in of the programmes with those of occupational health management emphasises its contribution to the safety and well-being of the workforce through interventions aimed mainly at eliminating and reducing ergonomic biomechanical risks. However, the need to broaden and deepen the ergonomic approach regarding organizational and cognitive aspects, as well as the insertion of ergonomics in project design of new work spaces and processes were also identified.
management nor safety organizations expressed any expectations in this area. The study further indicated that effects of ergonomics training in engineering schools were very lim-ited. The engineering cultures in enterprises, together with other organizational factors, are suggested to be of greater......Engineering design is a strong determinant of workplace ergonomics. A survey among 680 engineers in twenty Danish enterprises indicated that engineers are not aware that they influence the work environment of other people. Ergonomics had a low rating among engineers, perhaps because neither...
Fenske, K.R. (ed.); Boxberger, L.M.; Amiot, L.W.; Bretscher, M.E.; Engert, D.E.; Moszur, F.M.; Mueller, C.J.; O' Brien, D.E.; Schlesselman, C.G.; Troyer, L.J.
This Statement of Site Strategy describes the procedure at Argonne National Laboratory for defining, acquiring, using, and evaluating scientific and office workstations and related equipment and software in accord with DOE Order 1360.1A (5-30-85), and Laboratory policy. It is Laboratory policy to promote the installation and use of computing workstations to improve productivity and communications for both programmatic and support personnel, to ensure that computing workstations acquisitions meet the expressed need in a cost-effective manner, and to ensure that acquisitions of computing workstations are in accord with Laboratory and DOE policies. The overall computing site strategy at ANL is to develop a hierarchy of integrated computing system resources to address the current and future computing needs of the laboratory. The major system components of this hierarchical strategy are: Supercomputers, Parallel computers, Centralized general purpose computers, Distributed multipurpose minicomputers, and Computing workstations and office automation support systems. Computing workstations include personal computers, scientific and engineering workstations, computer terminals, microcomputers, word processing and office automation electronic workstations, and associated software and peripheral devices costing less than $25,000 per item.
Antonsanti, P.; Arruat, M.; Bouche, J.M.; Cons, L.; Deloose, Y.; Di Maio, F.
Within the framework of the rejuvenation project of the CERN control systems, commercial workstations have to replace existing home-designed operator consoles. RISC-based workstations with UNIX, X-window TM and OSF/Motif TM have been introduced for the control of the PS complex. The first versions of general functionalities like synoptic display, program selection and control panels have been implemented and the first large scale application has been realized. This paper describes the different components of the workstation environment for the implementation of the applications. The focus is on the set of tools which have been used, developed or integrated, and on how we plan to make them evolve. (author)
Hoffmeister, Krista; Gibbons, Alyssa; Schwatka, Natalie; Rosecrance, John
Ergonomics interventions have the potential to improve operational performance and employee well-being. We introduce a framework for ergonomics climate, the extent to which an organization emphasizes and supports the design and modification of work to maximize both performance and well-being outcomes. We assessed ergonomics climate at a large manufacturing facility twice during a two-year period. When the organization used ergonomics to promote performance and well-being equally, and at a high level, employees reported less work-related pain. A larger discrepancy between measures of operational performance and employee well-being was associated with increased reports of work-related pain. The direction of this discrepancy was not significantly related to work-related pain, such that it didn't matter which facet was valued more. The Ergonomics Climate Assessment can provide companies with a baseline assessment of the overall value placed on ergonomics and help prioritize areas for improving operational performance and employee well-being. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Hamilton, Marvin J.; Sutton, Stewart A.
A prototype integrated environment, the Advanced Satellite Workstation (ASW), which was developed and delivered for evaluation and operator feedback in an operational satellite control center, is described. The current ASW hardware consists of a Sun Workstation and Macintosh II Workstation connected via an ethernet Network Hardware and Software, Laser Disk System, Optical Storage System, and Telemetry Data File Interface. The central objective of ASW is to provide an intelligent decision support and training environment for operator/analysis of complex systems such as satellites. Compared to the many recent workstation implementations that incorporate graphical telemetry displays and expert systems, ASW provides a considerably broader look at intelligent, integrated environments for decision support, based on the premise that the central features of such an environment are intelligent data access and integrated toolsets.
Lee, Mija Ruth; Lee, Gyusung Isaiah
To better understand the ergonomics associated with robotic surgery including physical discomfort and symptoms, factors influencing symptom reporting, and robotic surgery systems components recommended to be improved. The anonymous survey included 20 questions regarding demographics, systems, ergonomics, and physical symptoms and was completed by experienced robotic surgeons online through American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists (AAGL) and Society of Robotic Surgery (SRS). There were 289 (260 gynecology, 22 gynecology-oncology, and 7 urogynecology) gynecologic surgeon respondents regularly practicing robotic surgery. Statistical data analysis was performed using the t-test, χ² test, and logistic regression. One hundred fifty-six surgeons (54.0%) reported experiencing physical symptoms or discomfort. Participants with higher robotic case volume reported significantly lower physical symptom report rates (pergonomic settings not only acknowledged that the adjustments were helpful for better ergonomics but also reported a lower physical symptom rate (pergonomic settings (32.7%), took a break (33.3%) or simply ignored the problem (34%). Fingers and neck were the most common body parts with symptoms. Eye symptom complaints were significantly decreased with the Si robot (pergonomics were microphone/speaker, pedal design, and finger clutch. More than half of participants reported physical symptoms which were found to be primarily associated with confidence in managing ergonomic settings and familiarity with the system depending on the volume of robotic cases. Optimal guidelines and education on managing ergonomic settings should be implemented to maximize the ergonomic benefits of robotic surgery. Copyright © 2017. Asian Society of Gynecologic Oncology, Korean Society of Gynecologic Oncology
Stieber, Michael E.
A Real-Time Workstation for Computer-Aided Control Engineering has been developed jointly by the Communications Research Centre (CRC) and Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB), West Germany. The system is presently used for the development and experimental verification of control techniques for large space systems with significant structural flexibility. The Real-Time Workstation essentially is an implementation of RUB's extensive Computer-Aided Control Engineering package KEDDC on an INTEL micro-computer running under the RMS real-time operating system. The portable system supports system identification, analysis, control design and simulation, as well as the immediate implementation and test of control systems. The Real-Time Workstation is currently being used by CRC to study control/structure interaction on a ground-based structure called DAISY, whose design was inspired by a reflector antenna. DAISY emulates the dynamics of a large flexible spacecraft with the following characteristics: rigid body modes, many clustered vibration modes with low frequencies and extremely low damping. The Real-Time Workstation was found to be a very powerful tool for experimental studies, supporting control design and simulation, and conducting and evaluating tests withn one integrated environment.
Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! •\tErgonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 •\tErgonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive an invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).
Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will receive and invitation via e-mail once your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).
Two sessions of the ERGONOMICS safety course will be held on November 27, 2008, in French and in English. PLEASE SIGN-UP! Ergonomie - Sensibilisation à l’ergonomie bureautique (Nov 27, 08:30-12:30, in French) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M00 Ergonomics - Applying ergonomic principles in the workplace (Nov 27, 13:30-17:30, in English) https://edh.cern.ch/Document/TRN/new?course=077M10 You will be invited by email after your EDH request is completed and fully signed. For further information, please contact Isabelle CUSATO (73811).
Neumann, W P; Dixon, S M; Ekman, M
This paper presents the case for the need for 'Action Research' (AR) approaches to gain understanding of how ergonomics considerations can best be integrated into the design of new work systems. The AR researchers work collaboratively with other stakeholders to solve a real-world problem: gaining insight into the problem and factors influencing solution building from an embedded position in the development process. This experience is interpreted in terms of available theory and can support further theory development. This non-experimental approach can help provide practical new approaches for integrating ergonomics considerations into real work system design processes. The AR approach suffers from a lack of acceptance by conventionally trained scientists. This paper aims to help overcome this weakness by developing the underlying theory and rationale for using AR approaches in ergonomics research. We propose further development of hybrid approaches which incorporate other evaluation techniques to extend the knowledge gains from AR projects. Researchers should engage directly with organisations in ergonomics projects so that they can better understand the challenges and needs of practitioners who are trying to apply available scientific knowledge in their own unique context. Such 'Action Research' could help develop theory and approaches useful to improve mobilisation and application of ergonomics knowledge in organisations.
Beuscart, R. J.; Molenda, S.; Souf, N.; Foucher, C.; Beuscart-Zephir, M. C.
Groupware and new Information Technologies have now made it possible for people in different places to work together in synchronous cooperation. Very often, designers of this new type of software are not provided with a model of the common workspace, which is prejudicial to software development and its acceptance by potential users. The authors take the example of a task of medical co-diagnosis, using a multi-media communication workstation. Synchronous cooperative work is made possible by us...
Erickson, W. K.; Hofman, L. B.; Donovan, W. E.
Difficulties regarding the digital image analysis of remotely sensed imagery can arise in connection with the extensive calculations required. In the past, an expensive large to medium mainframe computer system was needed for performing these calculations. For image-processing applications smaller minicomputer-based systems are now used by many organizations. The costs for such systems are still in the range from $100K to $300K. Recently, as a result of new developments, the use of low-cost microcomputers for image processing and display systems appeared to have become feasible. These developments are related to the advent of the 16-bit microprocessor and the concept of the microcomputer workstation. Earlier 8-bit microcomputer-based image processing systems are briefly examined, and a computer workstation architecture is discussed. Attention is given to a microcomputer workstation developed by Stanford University, and the design and implementation of a workstation network.
In 1983 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) commissioned the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to develop a Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA). The NPA was envisioned as a graphical aid to assist reactor safety analysts in comprehending the results of thermal-hydraulic code calculations. The development was to proceed in three distinct phases culminating in a desktop reactor safety workstation. The desktop NPA is now complete. The desktop NPA is a microcomputer based reactor transient simulation, visualization and analysis tool developed at INEL to assist an analyst in evaluating the transient behavior of nuclear power plants by means of graphic displays. The NPA desktop workstation integrates advanced reactor simulation codes with online computer graphics allowing reactor plant transient simulation and graphical presentation of results. The graphics software, written exclusively in ANSI standard C and FORTRAN 77 and implemented over the UNIX/X-windows operating environment, is modular and is designed to interface to the NRC's suite of advanced thermal-hydraulic codes to the extent allowed by that code. Currently, full, interactive, desktop NPA capabilities are realized only with RELAP5
The application of system technics on ergonomical problems is called system ergonomics. This enables improvements of human reliability by design measures. The precondition for this is the knowledge of how information processing is performed by man and machine. By a separate consideration of sensory processing, cognitive processing, and motory processing it is possible to have a more exact idea of the system element 'man'. The system element 'machine' is well described by differential equations which allow an ergonomical assessment of the manouverability. The knowledge of information processing of man and machine enables a task analysis. This makes appear on one hand the human boundaries depending on the different properties of the task and on the other hand suitable ergonomical solution proposals which improve the reliability of the total system. It is a disadvantage, however, that the change of human reliability by such measures may not be quoted numerically at the moment. (orig.)
Bosma, Jesse; Aarts, Sanne; Jaspers, Joris
Since the da Vinci robotic system was introduced, it has been reported to have ergonomic advantages over conventional laparoscopy (COV). High investments associated with this system challenged us to design a more economical, mechanical alternative for improvement of laparoscopic ergonomics: the Minimally Invasive Manipulator (MIM). An earlier reported MIM prototype was investigated. Its shortcomings were input for the establishment of design criteria for a new prototype. A new prototype was developed, aiming at improved intuitiveness and ergonomics. The handle and instrument tip were redesigned and the parallelogram mechanism was converted from linear moving parts to mainly rotating parts. The new prototype was tested by a panel of experts and novices during an indicative ergonomic experiment. A major advantage of the MIM seems to be the possibility to perform laparoscopic surgery in a sitting position, in line with the working axis, instead of standing at the side of the patient. At an estimated cost level of 10% of the da Vinci system, the MIM can be an economical alternative for the enhancement of laparoscopy ergonomics. However, further development for clinical feasibility is necessary.
Daniela Capri; Eliana Maria dos Santos Bahia; Adilson Luiz Pinto
This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics wer...
Full Text Available One of the sciences which considers to human health, human performance and body activities is Ergonomics. Ergonomics is one of the modern sciences, drawing as much from the field as from the laboratory, and including elements of art and craft as well. Before designing the workplace it is necessary to determine its requirements, i.e., which it is intended for, what are the characteristics of the existing work equipment and the additional tools needed. However, there are some standards and with their application people will prevent the occurrence of modern office diseases. This paper is focused on the positive aspects of ergonomics in improvement of the working environment.
Full Text Available Objective: Musculoskeletal disorders are a major part of occupational diseases in working environments. Prevention of the occurrence of these problems requires the use of ergonomic assessment techniques and intervention to improve working conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in workers in the blast furnace unit and the intervention to reduce the prevalence of these disorders. Materials & Methods: This study conducted on 24 people working in the furnace unit. Medical records of furnace workers were reviewed and Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaires (NMQ was completed. Drilling operation and oxygenation task were assessed by using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and workers were given the necessary training. Work stations of oxygenation for 24 workers were redesign and Drilling operation was mechanized. And employed workers with musculoskeletal disorders were changed. REBA and NMQ were used to reassess the intervention effects. Results: According to medical records and results of NMQ about 37.5 percent of workers had musculoskeletal disorders. REBA final score was 11 and 10 for the drilling and oxygenation tasks respectively. After redesigning the workstation, REBA final score was 5 for the oxygenation task and the drilling operation removed by mechanized. With the amendment procedures of musculoskeletal disorders was reduced 17.5 percent. Conclusion: According to REBA Score, the risk of musculoskeletal disorders was reduced by implementing amendments to the furnace unit and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders also significantly reduced. Keyword: Ergonomic, MSDs, REBA, NMQ, Steel
Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich
Full Text Available The analysis of output and domestic used construction machinery showed that the most vulnerable link remains a problem of underreporting of ergonomics and environmental safety requirements. Compliance with ergonomic requirements enhances the performance of mechanized operations, leading to a decrease in construction costs. Increased environmental requirements reduce the negative impact on air basin. These results suggest the need to improve the structures of building machines. Made recommendations for a comprehensive solution to the problem. The measures to improve environmental safety, ergonomic design requirements of construction machinery, mechanisms of the optimal development of the domestic construction machinery, through the development and implementation of appropriate measures. Keywords: ergonomics of construction equipment, environmental safety of construction equipment
Training Officer, 1975
A discussion with James Crowley of British Steel Corporation on the changing face of ergonomics in practice today and yesterday examines the influence of experimental psychology on the method of study and data collection. The broadening scope of ergonomics from only safety concerns to cost effectiveness and the computer are analyzed. (Author/JB)
Liu, J B; Zhuang, T G
A practical PACS-based Endoscope Image Acquisition Workstation is here introduced. By a Multimedia Video Card, the endoscope video is digitized and captured dynamically or statically into computer. This workstation realizes a variety of functions such as the endoscope video's acquisition and display, as well as the editing, processing, managing, storage, printing, communication of related information. Together with other medical image workstation, it can make up the image sources of PACS for hospitals. In addition, it can also act as an independent endoscopy diagnostic system.
Peres, S Camille; Mehta, Ranjana K; Ritchey, Paul
Software utilizing interaction designs that require extensive dragging or clicking of icons may increase users' risks for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders. The purpose of this research is to develop a Self-report Ergonomic Assessment Tool (SEAT) for assessing the risks of software interaction designs and facilitate mitigation of those risks. A 28-item self-report measure was developed by combining and modifying items from existing industrial ergonomic tools. Data were collected from 166 participants after they completed four different tasks that varied by method of input (touch or keyboard and mouse) and type of task (selecting or typing). Principal component analysis found distinct factors associated with stress (i.e., demands) and strain (i.e., response). Repeated measures analyses of variance showed that participants could discriminate the different strain induced by the input methods and tasks. However, participants' ability to discriminate between the stressors associated with that strain was mixed. Further validation of the SEAT is necessary but these results indicate that the SEAT may be a viable method of assessing ergonomics risks presented by software design. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ergonomics considerations at the stage of product development in industry is a major strategy for prevention of work-related injuries and illnesses among employees at the time of manufacture of new products. This study elucidates some important conditions and possibilities for integrating...... such considerations during the product development process. Special attention is paid to the role of design and production engineers. Based on different understandings of the product development process four approaches to integration of ergonomics are outlined....
Hanson, Margaret A
Addressing the causes and consequences of environmental degradation presents significant challenges for humankind. This paper considers what ergonomics/human factors (E/HF) professionals can contribute to understanding and tackling some of the issues that arise through the movement towards a more environmentally sustainable economy. These issues are considered in relation to work in green industries (specifically, sustainable energy production, recycling and organic food production), and there is a need to ensure that these jobs are safe and healthy; the design of products and systems that are 'environmentally friendly' to facilitate their acceptability and use and how E/HF professionals can contribute to understanding and promoting behavioural change relating to environmental choices. The activities of some international organisations in this area are identified and the potential for E/HF involvement is considered. The implications for the E/HF profession are discussed. This paper considers how ergonomics/human factors professionals can contribute to the movement towards more sustainable and 'environmentally friendly' design and work. Potential challenges and opportunities are discussed in relation to jobs in green industries, products and systems and behaviour change.
Moraes, Berla; Andrade, Valéria Sousa
This article aims to describe step-by-step the implementation of an ergonomics administration system in a company from March 2009 till March 2011 by an occupational therapist specialist in ergonomics based on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines and the Regulatory Norms 17 manual. The process began with the definition of five requisites with bases on the manual of application of the Regulatory Norms 17: survey; materials individual transportation and discharge; workplace furniture; workplace equipments; work environment and organization of the work to be managed with bases on the OSHAS 18001 guidelines. The following steps were established: sensitization of the company high administration, elaboration and institution of an ergonomics politics, development of ergonomics committees, ergonomics analysis of the work with recommendation of ergonomic improvements, implantation of improvements and evaluation or the results. This research experiment suggests the importance not only of a guiding axle but also of a professional qualification and participation of the company on the implementation of an ergonomics management system.
The proceedings contain presentations from ESA 86 which reflect most of the major areas of Ergonomics as it is researched and practised internationally. Highlights include presentations dealing with transport and computer system ergonomics, office furniture and other consumer products, safety at work and executive health. One seminar 'Ergonomics and nuclear power generation', looks at the control systems and its safety in a nuclear power plant. Ergonomics is concerned with the relationship between people and technology: specifically the design of the user interface. Its objective is to enhance efficiency, usability and safety and it is applied to the design of a wide range of industrial and consumer products. However not the least consideration is to achieve as near as possible total wellbeing for the Human Factor
Tosetto, Thaís; Camarotto, João Alberto
The paper presents a correlation between the parameters of classical TRIZ and variables of analysis of the EWA to construct a matrix of contradictions in ergonomics, with the objective of assisting the designing processes in the Brazilian agricultural sector. Given the representativeness of the sector in the economy, the boundary conditions in which the activities are developed and their impact on the health of workers, this proposal should contribute to the development of adaptable solutions and the promotion of Decent Work.
Waters, Thomas R
Healthcare workers who handle and move patients as part of their jobs suffer a disproportionately high number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). The majority of reported work-related MSDs are back pain cases that result in significant numbers of lost work days. It is likely that these lost workdays have a substantial impact on the quality and cost of health care. Patient care ergonomics can reduce the risk of work-related MSDs by helping safety experts design the work so it can be safely performed by most workers. This article provides a general overview of ergonomics--what it is, how it can be used to help design safe work, and why all healthcare workers and administrators should know and understand how excessive work demands can lead to increased risk of work-related MSDs. The article will also explain technological solutions that can be implemented to reduce the risk of work-related MSDs for healthcare workers.
Jones, W. L.
Major areas of research and development in ergonomics technology for space environments are discussed. Attention is given to possible applications of the technology developed by NASA in industrial settings. A group of mass spectrometers for gas analysis capable of fully automatic operation has been developed for atmosphere control on spacecraft; a version for industrial use has been constructed. Advances have been made in personal cooling technology, remote monitoring of medical information, and aerosol particle control. Experience gained by NASA during the design and development of portable life support units has recently been applied to improve breathing equipment used by fire fighters.
Guzman Suárez, Olga Beatriz
Full Text Available RESUMENEn éste artículo se dan a conocer algunas de las aplicaciones más importantes de la ergonomía en Terapia Ocupacional, puesto que a pesar de tener un gran reconocimiento en el sector trabajo, en donde hay un mayor predominio de estudio por parte de la ergonomía, aún se desconocen muchas de las actividades que pueden ser realizadas por éstos profesionales. Terapia Ocupacional abarca el estudio de todas las etapas de la vida del individuo, en cuanto a su desempeño ocupacional se refiere, lo cual garantiza un amplio campo de actuación profesional, que permite profundizar e investigar en diversas áreas, para que desde su experiencia y resultados se facilite el aporte a muchos proyectos de investigación que requieren de conceptos que son transversales a diferentes disciplinas y que pueden constituirse en conocimiento nuevo para la sociedad científica. Con la creación del Grupo de Salud Ocupacional y Ergonomía en la Universidad Manuela Beltrán, se pretende “Desarrollar proyectos de investigación en el campo de la ergonomía, aplicables en los contextos: laboral, escolar, social y familiar; que permitan la adaptación de diferentes entornos al ser humano y a su vez mejorar condiciones tendientes al logro de un óptimo desempeño y productividad”. De esta manera, se inician proyectos de investigación con estudiantes de Terapia Ocupacional, cuyos avances han permitido escribir el presente articulo, se espera además la vinculación de otras áreas para su fortalecimiento. ABSTRACTIn this article they bring themselves to light some of the most important applications of the ergonomics in occupational therapy, since in spite of having a great recognition in the work sector, where there is a greater predominance of study on the part of the ergonomics, still many of the activities they do not know themselves that can be carried out for these professionals. The occupational therapy covers the study of all the phases of the life of
Visser, Steven; van der Molen, Henk F; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W
More than seven out of 10 Dutch construction workers describe their work as physically demanding. Ergonomic measures can be used to reduce these physically demanding work tasks. To increase the use of ergonomic measures, employers and workers have to get used to other working methods and to maintaining them. To facilitate this behavioural change, participatory ergonomics (PE) interventions could be useful. For this study a protocol of a PE intervention is adapted in such a way that the intervention can be performed by an ergonomics consultant through face-to-face contacts or email contacts. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the face-to-face guidance strategy and the e-guidance strategy on the primary outcome measure: use of ergonomic measures by individual construction workers, and on the secondary outcome measures: the work ability, physical functioning and limitations due to physical problems of individual workers. The present study is a randomised intervention trial of six months in 12 companies to establish the effects of a PE intervention guided by four face-to-face contacts (N = 6) or guided by 13 email contacts (N = 6) on the primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and after six months. Construction companies are randomly assigned to one of the guidance strategies with the help of a computer generated randomisation table. In addition, a process evaluation for both strategies will be performed to determine reach, dose delivered, dose received, precision, competence, satisfaction and behavioural change to find possible barriers and facilitators for both strategies. A cost-benefit analysis will be performed to establish the financial consequences of both strategies. The present study is in accordance with the CONSORT statement. The outcome of this study will help to 1) evaluate the effect of both guidance strategies, and 2) find barriers to and facilitators of both guidance strategies. When these strategies are
Fritsch, D.S.; Boxwala, A.A.; Raghavan, S.; Coffee, C.; Major, S.A.; Muller, K.E.; Chaney, E.L.
Purpose/Objective: Workstations designed for portal image interpretation by radiation oncologists provide image displays and image processing and analysis tools that differ significantly compared with the standard clinical practice of inspecting portal films on a light box. An implied but unproved assumption associated with the clinical implementation of workstation technology is that patient care is improved, or at least not adversely affected. The purpose of this investigation was to conduct observer studies to test the hypothesis that radiation oncologists can detect setup errors using a workstation at least as accurately as when following standard clinical practice. Materials and Methods: A workstation, PortFolio, was designed for radiation oncologists to display and inspect digital portal images for setup errors. PortFolio includes tools to enhance images; align cross-hairs, field edges, and anatomic structures on reference and acquired images; measure distances and angles; and view registered images superimposed on one another. In a well designed and carefully controlled observer study, nine radiation oncologists, including attendings and residents, used PortFolio to detect setup errors in realistic digitally reconstructed portal (DRPR) images computed from the NLM visible human data using a previously described approach † . Compared with actual portal images where absolute truth is ill defined or unknown, the DRPRs contained known translation or rotation errors in the placement of the fields over target regions in the pelvis and head. Twenty DRPRs with randomly induced errors were computed for each site. The induced errors were constrained to a plane at the isocenter of the target volume and perpendicular to the central axis of the treatment beam. Images used in the study were also printed on film. Observers interpreted the film-based images using standard clinical practice. The images were reviewed in eight sessions. During each session five images were
Full Text Available Background To date, the majority of interventions have implemented classroom-based physical activity (PA at the elementary level; however, there is both the potential and need to explore student outcomes at high-school level as well, given that very few studies have incorporated classroom-based PA interventions for adolescents. One exception has been the use of bicycle workstations within secondary classrooms. Using bicycle workstations in lieu of traditional chairs in a high school setting shows promise for enhancing adolescents’ physical activity during the school day. Participants and procedure The present study explored the effects of integrating bicycle workstations into a secondary classroom setting for four months in a sample of 115 adolescents using an A-B-A-B withdrawal design. The study took place in one Advanced Placement English classroom across five groups of students. Physical activity outcomes included average heart rate, and caloric expenditure. Behavioural outcomes included percentage of on-task/off-task behaviour and number of teacher prompts in redirecting off-task behaviour. Feasibility and acceptability data of using the bicycle workstations were also collected. Results Findings showed significant improvements in physical activity as measured by heart rate and caloric expenditure, although heart rate percentage remained in the low intensity range when students were on the bicycle workstations. No effects were found on students’ on-task behaviour when using the bicycle workstations. Overall, students found the bikes acceptable to use but noted disadvantages of them as well. Conclusions Using bicycle workstations in high-school settings appears promising for enhancing low-intensity physical activity among adolescents. The limitations of the present study and implications for physical activity interventions in secondary schools are discussed.
Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole
of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models’ high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity......Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full......-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups’ high fidelity of room layout and affordance...
Design in Scandinavia has a long tradition of participation in the development of society. Designers in the Nordic countries have taken pride in concerning themselves with problems of everyday living and the design communities at large have been committed proponents of a socially responsible appr...
Vannier, M W; Conroy, G C
In this paper, the application of biomedical imaging workstations to primatology will be explained and evaluated. The technological basis, computer hardware and software aspects, and the various uses of several types of workstations will all be discussed. The types of workstations include: (1) Simple - these display-only workstations, which function as electronic light boxes, have applications as terminals to picture archiving and communication (PAC) systems. (2) Diagnostic reporting - image-processing workstations that include the ability to perform straightforward manipulations of gray scale and raw data values will be considered for operations such as histogram equalization (whether adaptive or global), gradient edge finders, contour generation, and region of interest, as well as other related functions. (3) Manipulation systems - three-dimensional modeling and computer graphics with application to radiation therapy treatment planning, and surgical planning and evaluation will be considered. A technology of prime importance in the function of these workstations lies in communications and networking. The hierarchical organization of an electronic computer network and workstation environment with the interrelationship of simple, diagnostic reporting, and manipulation workstations to a coaxial or fiber optic network will be analyzed.
Hignett, Sue; Carayon, Pascale; Buckle, Peter; Catchpole, Ken
The past decade has seen an increase in the application of human factors and ergonomics (HFE) techniques to healthcare delivery in a broad range of contexts (domains, locations and environments). This paper provides a state of science commentary using four examples of HFE in healthcare to review and discuss analytical and implementation challenges and to identify future issues for HFE. The examples include two domain areas (occupational ergonomics and surgical safety) to illustrate a traditional application of HFE and the area that has probably received the most research attention. The other two examples show how systems and design have been addressed in healthcare with theoretical approaches for organisational and socio-technical systems and design for patient safety. Future opportunities are identified to develop and embed HFE systems thinking in healthcare including new theoretical models and long-term collaborative partnerships. HFE can contribute to systems and design initiatives for both patients and clinicians to improve everyday performance and safety, and help to reduce and control spiralling healthcare costs. There has been an increase in the application of HFE techniques to healthcare delivery in the past 10 years. This paper provides a state of science commentary using four illustrative examples (occupational ergonomics, design for patient safety, surgical safety and organisational and socio-technical systems) to review and discuss analytical and implementation challenges and identify future issues for HFE.
Brown, R.R.; Gloudeman, J.F.
Recent advances in microprocessor-based computer hardware and associated software provide a basis for the development of a FEM workstation. The key requirements for such a workstation are reviewed and the recent hardware and software developments are discussed that make such a workstation both technically and economically feasible at this time. (orig.)
El-Helaly, Mohamed; Balkhy, Hanan H; Vallenius, Laura
Work-related carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) has been reported in different occupations, including laboratory technicians, so this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and the associated personal and ergonomic factors for CTS among laboratory technicians. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 279 laboratory technicians at King Fahd Hospital, Saudi Arabia, who filled in a self-administered questionnaire, including questions regarding their demographic criteria, occupational history, job tasks, workplace tools, ergonomic factors at work, and symptoms suggestive of CTS. Physical examinations and electrodiagnostic studies were carried out for those who had symptoms suggestive of CTS to confirm the diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed for both personal and physical factors in association with confirmed CTS among laboratory technicians. The prevalence of CTS among the laboratory technicians was 9.7% (27/279). The following were the statistically significant risk factors for CTS among them: gender (all cases of CTS were female, P=0.00), arm/hand exertion (OR: 7.96; 95% CI: 1.84-34.33), pipetting (OR: 7.27; 95% CI: 3.15-16.78), repetitive tasks (OR: 4.60; 95% CI: 1.39-15.70), using unadjustable chairs or desks (OR: 3.35; 95% CI: 1.23-9.15), and working with a biosafety cabinet (OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 1.11-5.59). CTS cases had significant longer work duration (17.9 ± 5.6 years) than CTS non-case (11.5 ± 7.4 yeas) with low OR (1.108). This study demonstrates some personal and ergonomic factors associated with CTS among the laboratory technicians, including female gender, arm/hand exertion, pipetting, repetitive tasks, working with a biosafety cabinet, and an unadjusted workstation.
José Adriano Canton
Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of work spaces designed based on Activity-Centered Ergonomics. The aim was to reflect on the role of Ergonomics in the design of productive situations in order to anticipate and mitigate the emergence of new constraints. This study was developed using a case study from the packaging industry, where an automated line was implemented to mitigate the injuries suffered as result of the manual system. This article was based on the results of an Ergonomic Work Analysis of the solution implemented, and the subsequent analysis of this design process. It was found that the adopted solution does not have enough leeway for dealing with variations inherent to the process, requiring constant interventions in the operation, by the operators in order to free the line to continue work. It was evident that the adopted solution did not involve the participation of important agents such as the operators and the maintenance crew, giving the project a technical vision that was concerned with eliminating the human factor. The conclusion of this study was that the Ergonomics integrated into the project development favors the collective construction of analysis of the research, and consequently, the development of more effective solutions.
Dhara, Prakash C; De, Sujaya; Sengupta, Piyali; Maity, Payel; Pal, Amitava
In India varieties of hand tools have been used to cut the vegetables. Traditional vegetable cutter is a commonly used hand tool which has been used for years in the kitchen. The tool may have some design related problems. The present study was undertaken to reduce those problems. The study objective was to evaluate a new design of traditional vegetable cutters for use in the Indian kitchen. One hundred and fifty Indian women who regularly used a vegetable cutter for cooking purposes participated in this study. The design of the vegetable cutter was modified based on the postural preference of the users and other anthropometric factors including the blade angle, length, breadth and width of the sitting area. The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was assessed by means of a questionnaire for subjects' feedback. New concepts of the design were proposed and a few prototypes were made and were tested by paired comparison using the EMG system. A large number of subjects (61%) used the vegetable cutter while sitting on the floor with folded knees and the prevalence of MSD in most of the body parts was comparatively lower in this posture than that in squatting posture. In the new design, a broad platform was suggested to provide a more comfortable sitting when a subject sits on it with folded knees. For the vegetable cutter, the blade angle was made at 120° with a broad folded wooden base as the final prototype of the cutter. The length, breadth, and thickness of the base were selected based on the results of the anthropometric measurements among the prototypes of the cutters. The selected vegetable cutter showed the least myoelectric activity among the prototypes during cutting vegetables. The modified vegetable cutter appeared to be ergonomically effective, less prone to muscular stress, and compatible for preferred posture of the users.
Dargahi H; Saraji J; Sadr J; Sadri G
Background and Aims: There are several risk factors in dentistry professional environment. Carelessness about occupational health regulation endangers dentist's life. Erconomics in dentistry is a scientific approach which introduces the latest ergonomic principles in dental profession. It discusses about physical and mental stresses. Ergonomic programs eliminate dentist physical and mental challenges and provide practical solution to establish efficient and comforting environment. Materi...
involved in architectural CPD programmes take 'upstream design ownership' and use the model as a ... health and safety (H&S), inclusive of construction ergonomics, the responsibility for ...... Santiago, Chile, 18-20 January. Rotterdam: CIB ...
Mitchell, C. M.; Bocast, A. K.; Stewart, L. J.
The anthropometry, workstation design, and environmental design of control rooms are outlined. The automated interface and VDTs and displays and various modes of communication between the system and the human operator using VDTs are discussed. The man in the loop is examined, the single controller single task framework and multiple controller multiple tasks issues are considered.
Foreman, W.M.; Amann, J.F.; Fu, S.; Kozlowski, T.; Naivar, F.J.; Oothoudt, M.A.; Shelley, F.
Recent advances in Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) workstations have greatly altered the economics of processing power available for experiments. In addition VME interfaces available for many of these workstations make it possible to use them in experiment frontends for filtering and compressing data. Such a second stage trigger has been implemented at LAMPF using a commercially available workstation and VME interface. The implementation is described and measurements of data transfer speeds are presented in this paper
Willis, Charles E.; Leckie, Robert G.; Brink, Linda; Goeringer, Fred
The Telemedicine Spacebridge to Moscow was a series of intercontinental sessions sponsored jointly by NASA and the Moscow Academy of Medicine. To improve the quality of medical images presented, the MDIS Project developed a workstation for acquisition, storage, and interactive display of radiology and pathology images. The workstation was based on a Macintosh IIfx platform with a laser digitizer for radiographs and video capture capability for microscope images. Images were transmitted via the Russian Lyoutch Satellite which had only a single video channel available and no high speed data channels. Two workstations were configured -- one for use at the Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences in Bethesda, MD. and the other for use at the Hospital of the Interior in Moscow, Russia. The two workstations were used may times during 16 sessions. As clinicians used the systems, we modified the original configuration to improve interactive use. This project demonstrated that numerous acquisition and output devices could be brought together in a single interactive workstation. The video images were satisfactory for remote consultation in a grand rounds format.
Jensen, Per Langaa; Broberg, Ole; Møller, Niels
This paper discusses how the ergonomics community can contribute to make ergonomics a strategic element in business decisions on strategy and implementation of strategy. The ergonomics community is seen as a heterogeneous entity made up of educational and research activities in universities......, ergonomists and engineers with ergonomic skills, professional ergonomics and engineering societies, and the complex of occupational health and safety regulation. This community interacts in different ways with companies and hereby influences how companies are dealing with ergonomics. The paper argues...
Shikdar, Ashraf A
The main objective of this research was to conduct an assessment of ergonomic-related problems in oilrigs in a desert environment. A checklist, physical audit and medical records were used in the investigation. The results showed significant health, environment and work-related problems that could be attributed to ergonomic deficiencies in the work system of the oilrig. Some major ergonomic issues identified were hard physical work, back pain, discomfort, hot environment, long shift, and diverse schedule. Ninety-four percent of the employees perceived the workday as very long, 79% were dissatisfied with the work schedule, while 61% of the employees perceived the summer work environment as extremely hot. Ergonomics should be considered in the work system design so as to reduce or eliminate problems in oilrigs in hot desert environments.
Kim, T. W.; Han, S. H.; Park, C. K.
This paper describes three kinds of efforts for the development of PSA workstation in KAERI; Development of a PSA tool, KIRAP, Reliability Database Development, Living PSA tool development. Korea has 9 nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation and 9 NPPs under design or construction. For the NPPs recently constructed or designed, the probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) have been performed by the Government requirements. For these PSAs, the MSDOS version of KIRAP has been used. For the consistent data management and the easiness of information handling needed in PSA, APSA workstation, KIRAP-Win is under development under Windows environment. For the reliability database on component failure rate, human error rate, and common cause failure rate, data used in international PSA or reliability data handbook are collected and processed to use in Korean new plants' PSAs. Finally, an effort for the development of a living PSA tool in KAERI based on dynamic PSA concept is described
Harten, G A; Derks, P M
Following frequent complaints of lower back pain by lathe operators, a working group from the Philips Ergonomics Department have produced a model of an ergonomically improved lathe which ensures a healthy posture for the lathe operator at work. The same healthy posture can be adopted whether the operator is sitting or standing. The operator also has a good view of his work. At least two manufacturers have undertaken to develop this ergonomic lathe.
Ughade, A.V.; Das, R.N.; Ramakrishnan, S.
A review of control rooms of operating nuclear power plants identified many design problems having potential for degrading the performance of operators. Many indications and controls on existing control panels are placed outside the recommended visual and reach envelopes for acceptable operator usage. As a result, the application of human factor principles was found to be needed. This paper describes the design approach for working out the dimensions of main control room panels and console using human engineering principles and recommends the ergonomic dimensions of the main control room panels and console. Further it gives the basis and works out the control tile configurations for 500 MWe PHWR project. It also suggests the use of a full scale mock up for design evaluation and verification. (author). 7 refs., 4 figs
... between you and your job conditions. Examples of ergonomic changes to your work might include Adjusting the position of your computer ... you are safe, comfortable, and less prone to work-related injuries.
Chartrand, G.; Cormell, L.R.; Hahn, R.; Jacobson, D.; Johnstad, H.; Leibold, P.; Marquez, M.; Ramsey, B.; Roberts, L.; Scipioni, B.; Yost, G.P.
This document specifies the requirements for the front-end network of workstations of a distributed computing facility. This facility will be needed to perform the physics and detector simulations for the design of Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) detectors, and other computations in support of physics and detector needs. A detailed description of the computer simulation facility is given in the overall system specification document. This document provides revised subsystem specifications for the network of monitor-less Type 0 workstations. The requirements specified in this document supersede the requirements given. In Section 2 a brief functional description of the facility and its use are provided. The list of detailed specifications (vendor requirements) is given in Section 3 and the qualifying requirements (benchmarks) are described in Section 4
Scarpa, Philip J.; Field, Steven A.
The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Environmental Health (EH) contractor performs ergonomic evaluations under its Ergonomic Program. Any KSC employee may request one or the reviewing physician may request one for a patient during a visit to an onsite medical facility. As part of the ergonomic evaluation, recommendations are given to the patient to help reduce any ergonomic problems they experience. The recommendations, if implemented, are successful in the majority of KSC patients; however, a group of patients do not seem to improve. Those who don't improve may be identified by reevaluations, which are performed to implement maximum resolution of ergonomic problems.
To achieve ergonomics awareness in 3 subsidiary companies, an intervention team was formed. The aims of this study were to implement basic ergonomics through a participatory ergonomics intervention process that can support a continuous learning process and lead to an improvement in health and safety as well as in the work systems in the organization. The findings of this study (i.e., method, continuous learning and integration) were key to making the participatory ergonomics intervention successful. Furthermore, 4 issues of the ergonomics checkpoints (i.e., work schedules, work tasks, healthy work organization and learning) for assessing the work system were found suitable for both changing work schedules and for improving the work system. This paper describes the result of this project and also the experiences gained and the conclusions reached from using the International Labour Office's ergonomics checkpoints in the industries of industrially developing country.
Lepoutre, F. X.; Cloup, P.; Guerra, T. M.
The ergonomic analysis of a control or a supervision workstation for a vehicle or a process, necessitates to take into account the biomecanical visuo-postural system. The measurements, which are necessary to do, must give informations about the spatial direction of the limbs, the dorsal shape, eventually the eyes direction, and the postural evolution during the working time. More, the smallness of the work station, the backrest and sometime a vibratory environment made use specific, strong and small devices wich do not disturb the operator. The measurement system which we propose is made of an optical device. This system is studied in relation with the french "Institute de Recherche pour les Transports" for an ergonomic analysis of a truck cabin. The optical device consists on placing on the body of the driver on particular places materializing specially members and trunck joint points, some drops which reflect the infra-red raies coming from a specific light. Several cameras whose relative positions depend on the experiment site, transmit video signals to the associated treatment systems which extract the coordinates (Xi, Yi) of each drop in the observation scope of any camera. By regrouping the informations obtained from every view, it is possible to obtain the spatial drop position and then to restore the individual's posture in three dimensions. Therefore, this device doesn't enable us, in consideration of the backrest, to analyse the dorsal posture, which is important with regard to dorsal pains frequency. For that reason, we complete the measurements by using a "curvometer". This device consists of a flexible stick fixed upon the individual back with elastic belts, whose distorsions (curvature in m-1) are measured, in the individual's sagittal plane, with 4 strain gauges pairs; located approximately at the level of vertebra D1, D6, D10 and L3. A fifth measurement, concerning the inclination (in degree) of the lower part of the stick, makes it is possible to
Stewart, R.P.; Peterson, C.E.; Agee, L.J.
Computing technology is undergoing significant changes with respect to engineering applications in the electric utility industry. These changes result mainly from the introduction of several UNIX workstations that provide mainframe calculational capability at much lower costs. The workstations are being coupled with microcomputers through local area networks to provide engineering groups with a powerful and versatile analysis capability. PEGASYS, the Professional Engineering Graphic Analysis System, is a software package for use with engineering analysis codes executing in a workstation environment. PEGASYS has a menu driven, user-friendly interface to provide pre-execution support for preparing unput and graphical packages for post-execution analysis and on-line monitoring capability for engineering codes. The initial application of this software is for use with RETRAN-02 operating on an IBM RS/6000 workstation using X-Windows/UNIX and a personal computer under DOS
Montelongo, S.; Hunt, D.N.
The Nuclear Chemistry Division of Lawrence Livermore National laboratory is in the midst of upgrading its radiation counting facilities to automate data acquisition and quality control. This upgrade requires control of a pulse height analyzer (PHA) from an interactive LSI-11/23 workstation running RSX-11M. The PHA is a micro-computer based multichannel analyzer system providing data acquisition, storage, display, manipulation and input/output from up to four independent acquisition interfaces. Control of the analyzer includes reading and writing energy spectra, issuing commands, and servicing device interrupts. The analyzer communicates to the host system over a 9600-baud serial line using the Digital Data Communications link level Protocol (DDCMP). We relieved the RSX workstation CPU from the DDCMP overhead by implementing a DEC compatible in-house designed DMA serial line board (the ISL-11) to communicate with the analyzer. An RSX I/O device driver was written to complete the path between the analyzer and the RSX system by providing the link between the communication board and an application task. The I/O driver is written to handle several ISL-11 cards all operating in parallel thus providing support for control of multiple analyzers from a single workstation. The RSX device driver, its design and use by application code controlling the analyzer, and its operating environment will be discussed
As interventional cardiology can induce high doses not only for patients but also for the personnel, the delimitation of regulated areas (or zoning) and workstation analysis (dosimetry) are very important in terms of radioprotection. This paper briefly recalls methods and tools for the different steps to perform zoning and workstation analysis. It outlines the peculiarities of interventional cardiology, presents methods and tools adapted to interventional cardiology, and then discusses the same issues but for workstation analysis. It also outlines specific problems which can be met, and their possible adapted solutions
Full Text Available This final paper aimed to analyze the real ergonomics of a university library from Florianópolis and compare it with the ergonomics perceived by the user to perform an ergonomic diagnosis. In order to meet this goal two specific goals were established such as: describe the physical and environmental aspects of the library related to the real ergonomics and verify the actual perception of users about the library. As a theoretical approach, aspects of ergonomics and environmental ergonomics were contextualized and linked to the library and the university library. Referring to the methodology, the Ergonomical Assessment of the Built Environment was used as a reference. The study subjects comprised a sample of 15, among students and library staff. In the results obtained, when related to the physical-environmental analysis of the library, it was found that there are some aspects that differ from the regulatory standards and that also fall short in relation to feedback from users. Aspects such as lighting and noise were cited as unsatisfactory, but the temperature factor was analyzed as satisfactory.
Lucas Quaresemin de Oliveira
Full Text Available The application of ergonomics is critical so that you can get a suitable working environment for professional, it is safe, healthy and comfortable. The objective was to identify whether the dental students followed the principles of ergonomics during clinical visits, evaluating, through photographs, compliance with ergonomic principles applied in dental practice, and finally identify the most affected sites by RSI / WMSDs of students enrolled in the dental clinic of the Faculdade IMED. Snapshots were made and only considered the position of the student operator, the same taken by the researcher using the mobile device. For each clinical procedure were taken two photographs in hidden angles to the student operator so that it did not change its ergonomic position to be observed. After obtaining the photos, they were evaluated and classified in scores from 0 to 3 according to the adequacy of the work placement, and then inserted into Excel and later in a database (SPSS 15.0. The following work is a cross-sectional, observational study, they were conducted in dental clinics IMED college. Among the 66 respondents, 14 were male and 52 female. It was found that 57 (86,3% reported feeling pain somewhere in the body, being the most affected sites neck (36.4%, and consecutively lower back (30.3% and higher than the back (27.3%. The results of the 63 procedures performed by the photographic shots were classified as “inadequate” in 49 procedures, “partially adequate” in 12 and “impossible to evaluate” in 2 procedures. The research results have shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal pain and do not follow the ergonomic principles, emphasizing the need for more attention to ergonomics of the students.
Fleer, Paul; Gauthier-Green, Erin
Describes the use of ergonomics to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders such as back pain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Describes ergonomics and how to identify ergonomic problems, conduct a job hazard analysis, and develop solutions. Also lists common ergonomic errors in schools. Provides an ergonomic checklist for employees…
Barsnick, Lance E.; Zalk, David M.; Perry, Catherine M.; Biggs, Terry; Tageson, Robert E.
A hand-held ergonomic material-handling device capable of moving heavy objects, such as large waste containers and other large objects requiring mechanical assistance. The ergonomic material-handling device can be used with neutral postures of the back, shoulders, wrists and knees, thereby reducing potential injury to the user. The device involves two key features: 1) gives the user the ability to adjust the height of the handles of the device to ergonomically fit the needs of the user's back, wrists and shoulders; and 2) has a rounded handlebar shape, as well as the size and configuration of the handles which keep the user's wrists in a neutral posture during manipulation of the device.
Ferrer, Nicole; Villarouco, Vilma
Research in the field of Ergonomics of the Built Environment has been developed with a view to consolidating studies in this area, the objective of which is to provide evidence that the joint participation of users and designers on drawing up projects is important. In this context, the theme of this study is to investigate the interactions between users and the environment in a university library. To do so, well-established techniques from Ergonomics, Architecture and Environmental Psychology were used to make a functional and behavioral evaluation to identify the level of user satisfaction in six libraries in the various study centers of the Federal University of Pernambuco in Recife, northeast Brazil, so as to identify the strengths and also weaknesses in these spatial structures.
Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Busti, Daniele; Zanuso, Silvano
We assessed whether the use of an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad, during the preacher arm curl exercise, could significantly reduce the excessive shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis induced by the standard flat pad built into the existing preacher arm curl equipment. A 3D motion capture system and inclinometers were used to measure shoulder protraction and thoracic kyphosis in 15 subjects performing preacher arm curl with a plate-loaded machine provided with the standard flat pad. The same measures were repeated after replacing the flat pad with a new ergonomic pad, specifically designed to accommodate the thorax profile and improve body posture. Pad replacement significantly (p ergonomic pad may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort and reduce the risk of injury. Practitioner summary: We have designed an ergonomic thorax stabilisation pad for the preacher arm curl exercise. The new ergonomic pad improves the poor posture conditions induced by the standard flat pad and may potentially allow a more effective training, prevent musculoskeletal discomfort, improve the breathing function and reduce the risk of injury.
Mahmud, Norashikin; Kenny, Dianna Theadora; Md Zein, Raemy; Hassan, Siti Nurani
Background: Musculoskeletal disorders are commonly reported among computer users. This study explored whether these disorders can be reduced by the provision of ergonomics education. Methods: A cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in which 3 units were randomised for intervention and received training, and 3 units were given a leaflet. The effect of intervention on workstation habits, musculoskeletal disorders, days and episodes of sick leave, and psychological well-being were assessed. Results: A significant improvement in workstation habits was found, and the differences remained significant at the follow-up time point for keyboard, mouse, chair, and desk use. The largest reduction in the percentage of musculoskeletal disorders was in the neck region (−42.2%, 95% CI −60.0 to −24.4). After adjusting for baseline values, significant differences were found at the follow-up time point in the neck, right shoulder, right and left upper limbs, lower back, and right and left lower limbs. No significant differences were found for the days and episodes of sick leave or the psychological well-being among workers after the intervention. Conclusion: Consistent reductions were observed for all musculoskeletal disorders at the follow-up time point, although the difference was not statistically significant for the upper back. The improvements in the musculoskeletal disorders did not translate into fewer days lost from work or improved psychological well-being. PMID:22135582
Ng, Yee Guan; Shamsul Bahri, Mohd Tamrin; Irwan Syah, Md Yusoff; Mori, Ippei; Hashim, Zailina
Production agriculture is commonly associated with high prevalence of ergonomic injuries, particularly during intensive manual labor and during harvesting. This paper intends to briefly describe an overview of oil palm plantation management highlighting the ergonomics problem each of the breakdown task analysis. Although cross-sectional field visits were conducted in the current study, insight into past and present occupational safety and health concerns particularly regarding the ergonomics of oil palm plantations was further exploited. Besides discussion, video recordings were extensively used for ergonomics analysis. The unique commodity of oil palm plantations presents significantly different ergonomics risk factors for fresh fruit bunch (FFB) cutters during different stages of harvesting. Although the ergonomics risk factors remain the same for FFB collectors, the intensity of manual lifting increases significantly with the age of the oil palm trees-weight of FFB. There is urgent need to establish surveillance in order to determine the current prevalence of ergonomic injuries. Thereafter, ergonomics interventions that are holistic and comprehensive should be conducted and evaluated for their efficacy using approaches that are integrated, participatory and cost-effective.
Full Text Available This research was conducted to study ergonomic aspect from University of Indonesia bicycle in virtual environment. Software Jack 6.0 was used to analyze it. PEI was used as approach that integrated the results of three methods: Lower Back Analysis, Ovako Working Posture Analysis, and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment. The research objective is to evaluate existing design of University of Indonesia bicycle and to determine the most ergonomic redesign which concern with handlebar height and saddle height modification. The result showed that the most ergonomic design of University of Indonesia bicycle is the one with the highest handlebar height (22 cm and the lowest saddle height (11 cm.
Gordon, Claire C; Bradtmiller, Bruce
Well-designed office workspaces require good anthropometric data in order to accommodate variability in the worker population. The recent obesity epidemic carries with it a number of anthropometric changes that have significant impact on design. We examine anthropometric change among US civilians over the last 50 years, and then examine that change in a subset of the US population--the US military--as military data sets often have more ergonomic dimensions than civilian ones. The civilian mean stature increased throughout the period 1962 to 2006 for both males and females. However, the rate of increase in mean weight was considerably faster. As a result, the male obesity rate changed from 10.7% in 1962 to 31.3% in 2006. The female change for the same period was 15.8% to 33.2%. In the Army, the proportion of obesity increased from 3.6% to 20.9%, in males. In the absence of national US ergonomic data, we demonstrate one approach to tracking civilian change in these dimensions, applying military height/weight regression equations to the civilian population estimates. This approach is useful for population monitoring but is not suitable for establishing new design limits, as regression estimates likely underestimate the change at the ends of the distribution.
Andersen, Simone Nyholm
Participatory ergonomics simulations, taking place in simulation labs, have the tendency to get detached from the surrounding design process, resulting in a knowledge gap. Few studies in the human factors and ergonomics field have applied knowledge management based object concepts in the study...... of knowledge generation and transfer over such gaps. This paper introduces the concept of knowledge object to identify the roles of objects in an exploratory case study of five participatory simulation activities. The simulations had the purpose of contributing to room design of a new Danish hospital....... The analysis showed sequences and transitions of the knowledge objects revealing the process behind the knowledge interpretations and development of the future hospital rooms. Practitioner Summary: When planning participatory simulation in a lab context, the ergonomist should consider the role of objects...
Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user's processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user's perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user's ''model of the world,'' in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more
Mebarki, Bouhafs; El-Bachir, Tebboune Cheikh
The growing need in Algeria to develop ergonomics knowledge and practice in industry was behind the initiative to develop a training and research project within the ergonomics laboratory at Oran University. Since 2005 the laboratory team is running an academic option master in work design and ergonomics. The evaluation of the academic master in 2010 revealed the acute need of the local industry for professional competences in ergonomic and work psychology. A professional training master program in "ergonomics & work psychology" was then developed in partnership with local industry, five European Universities and six Universities from three Maghreb countries. Research projects were initiated around the two training programs, in conjunction with a number of ergonomics dissemination and promotion activities. Preliminary results of the project are presented and discussed in relation to the local context, and in the light of similar cases in Industrially Developing Countries.
Rosenblatt, Peter L; McKinney, Jessica; Adams, Sonia R
To review elements of an ergonomic operating room environment and describe common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture during laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Descriptive video based on clinical experience and a review of the literature (Canadian Task Force classification III). Community teaching hospital affiliated with a major teaching hospital. Gynecologic surgeons. Demonstration of surgical ergonomic principles and common errors in surgical ergonomics by a physical therapist and surgeon. The physical nature of surgery necessitates awareness of ergonomic principles. The literature has identified ergonomic awareness to be grossly lacking among practicing surgeons, and video has not been documented as a teaching tool for this population. Taking this into account, we created a video that demonstrates proper positioning of monitors and equipment, and incorrect and correct ergonomic positions during surgery. Also presented are 3 common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture: forward head position, improper shoulder elevation, and pelvic girdle asymmetry. Postural reset and motion strategies are demonstrated to help the surgeon learn techniques to counterbalance the sustained and awkward positions common during surgery that lead to muscle fatigue, pain, and degenerative changes. Correct ergonomics is a learned and practiced behavior. We believe that video is a useful way to facilitate improvement in ergonomic behaviors. We suggest that consideration of operating room setup, proper posture, and practice of postural resets are necessary components for a longer, healthier, and pain-free surgical career. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maldonado-Macías, Aidé; Realyvásquez, Arturo; Hernández, Juan Luis; García-Alcaraz, Jorge
Manufacturing industry workers who repair computers may be exposed to ergonomic risk factors. This project analyzes the tasks involved in the computer repair process to (1) find the risk level for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and (2) propose ergonomic interventions to address any ergonomic issues. Work procedures and main body postures were video recorded and analyzed using task analysis, the Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) postural method, and biomechanical analysis. High risk for MSDs was found on every subtask using REBA. Although biomechanical analysis found an acceptable mass center displacement during tasks, a hazardous level of compression on the lower back during computer's transportation was detected. This assessment found ergonomic risks mainly in the trunk, arm/forearm, and legs; the neck and hand/wrist were also compromised. Opportunities for ergonomic analyses and interventions in the design and execution of computer repair tasks are discussed.
J. Dul (Jan); W.P. Neumann (Patrick)
textabstractManagers usually associate ergonomics with occupational health and safety and related legislation, not with business performance. In many companies, these decision makers seem not to be positively motivated to apply ergonomics for reasons of improving health and safety. In order to
Becker, G.; Bohr, E.; Thau, G.
This report describes the findings of a study on the present status and possible improvements in the design of nuclear power plant control rooms according to ergonomic principles and criteria. The findings have been acquired by observing the performance of control room operators, by interviewing operators and management personnel, and by analyzing major characteristics of the man-machine interface. The methods currently used for developing and designing control rooms have also been examined, and the pertinent scientific and technical literature has been reviewed. The results of the study indicate that there is a growing awareness and consideration of physical factors affecting operator performance and reliability whereas less attention is paid to the essential cognitive characteristics of work in the control room. The tasks of operators thus may contain avoidable hindrances and error possibilities that may adversely affect their contribution to reliable plant operation. Major areas of possible ergonomic advancements are set out in the study, and most of them are discussed in depth. Ergonomic requirements are identified for further improving the situation, and approaches, ways and means for solving of mitigating individual problems are indicated wherever possible. A more deliberate consideration of factors affecting operator performance and reliability is suggested, based on a systems ergonomics approach. Design objectives and criteria as well as specific design recommendations for individual areas are given separately. In conclusion, gaps in our existing knowledge are identified which require further research. (orig.) [de
Full Text Available In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Deng, Li; Wang, Guohua; Yu, Suihuai
In order to consider the psychological cognitive characteristics affecting operating comfort and realize the automatic layout design, cognitive ergonomics and GA-ACA (genetic algorithm and ant colony algorithm) were introduced into the layout design of human-machine interaction interface. First, from the perspective of cognitive psychology, according to the information processing process, the cognitive model of human-machine interaction interface was established. Then, the human cognitive characteristics were analyzed, and the layout principles of human-machine interaction interface were summarized as the constraints in layout design. Again, the expression form of fitness function, pheromone, and heuristic information for the layout optimization of cabin was studied. The layout design model of human-machine interaction interface was established based on GA-ACA. At last, a layout design system was developed based on this model. For validation, the human-machine interaction interface layout design of drilling rig control room was taken as an example, and the optimization result showed the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Fialho, Patrícia Bhering; Minette, Luciano José; de Torres, Fernanda Freitas Costa
The furniture ergonomic evaluation was carried out through the use of questionnaires and forms in industries. For the ergonomic product analysis, it was used the methodology "Object Ergonomics - Ergonomic System Technical Reading" (design goals and management actions), and measurements of products. The values achieved were compared with the standard dimensions, and the compliance or non-compliance of the furniture to it was assessed. In relation to the dimensions of the bed, the following variables did not comply with the norms: external and internal length, external and internal width, height and width of the sidebar and distance to the floor. The dimensions of these variables were above the recommended values. The double bed was inadequate for management actions and maintenance. Since the kitchen cabinet is a product that went through physical testing and follows national standards; the finish used is powder coating. The kitchen cabinet proved to be appropriate in all design requirements and for management actions. Both furniture pieces were inadequate, considering the difficulty for maintenance when a product or part of it was damaged. It was recommended the creation of regulatory standards for the production of safe and comfortable furniture.
Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012
"Ergonomics" is a body of knowledge about human abilities and limitations and how these abilities and limitations should be applied to the design of equipment, machinery, and other devices to ensure safe, comfortable and effective use. Most homes and schools today are equipped with computers for student use. Backpacks have become the…
Ratib, Osman M.; Huang, H. K.
The purpose of this project is to develop a low cost workstation for quantitative analysis of multimodality images using a Macintosh II personal computer. In the current configuration the Macintosh operates as a stand alone workstation where images are imported either from a central PACS server through a standard Ethernet network or recorded through video digitizer board. The CALIPSO software developed contains a large variety ofbasic image display and manipulation tools. We focused our effort however on the design and implementation ofquantitative analysis methods that can be applied to images from different imaging modalities. Analysis modules currently implemented include geometric and densitometric volumes and ejection fraction calculation from radionuclide and cine-angiograms Fourier analysis ofcardiac wall motion vascular stenosis measurement color coded parametric display of regional flow distribution from dynamic coronary angiograms automatic analysis ofmyocardial distribution ofradiolabelled tracers from tomoscintigraphic images. Several of these analysis tools were selected because they use similar color coded andparametric display methods to communicate quantitative data extracted from the images. 1. Rationale and objectives of the project Developments of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) in clinical environment allow physicians and radiologists to assess radiographic images directly through imaging workstations (''). This convenient access to the images is often limited by the number of workstations available due in part to their high cost. There is also an increasing need for quantitative analysis ofthe images. During thepast decade
Long, Jennifer; Long, Airdrie
Ergonomics is a holistic discipline encompassing a wide range of special interest groups. The role of an ergonomics consultant is to provide integrated solutions to improve comfort, safety and productivity. In Australia, there are two types of consultants--generalists and specialists. Both have training in ergonomics but specialist knowledge may be the result of previous education or work experience. This paper presents three projects illustrating generalist and specialist (visual ergonomics) consultancy: development of a vision screening protocol, solving visual discomfort in an office environment and solving postural discomfort in heavy industry. These case studies demonstrate how multiple ergonomics consultants may work together to solve ergonomics problems. It also describes some of the challenges for consultants, for those engaging their services and for the ergonomics profession, e.g. recognizing the boundaries of expertise, sharing information with business competitors, the costs-benefits of engaging multiple consultants and the risk of fragmentation of ergonomics knowledge and solutions. Since ergonomics problems are often multifaceted, ergonomics consultants should have a solid grounding in all domains of ergonomics, even if they ultimately only practice in one specialty or domain. This will benefit the profession and ensure that ergonomics remains a holistic discipline.
Garcia, P P N S; Gottardello, A C A; Wajngarten, D; Presoto, C D; Campos, J A D B
The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the experiences of students enrolled in the last year of dentistry school with ergonomic practice. This is a qualitative, observational and cross-sectional study, with a non-probabilistic sample design. The sample comprised students enrolled in the last year of dentistry in Araraquara-UNESP (n = 29). The data were collected by means of open semi-structured and individual interviews, captured by a digital voice recorder. The students were interviewed in their own university at a time that was previously scheduled, and care was taken to provide a private and welcoming environment to carry out the interviews. A script containing questions related to practices in ergonomics was prepared at the university. Data analysis was carried out using the qualitative-quantitative Collective Subject Discourse technique with the aid of Qualiquantisoft ® software program. It was found that more than half of the students (58.6%) believe that adopting an ergonomic posture is important to prevent future problems, pain and occupational diseases, and 62.1% of the students confirm having difficulties in adopting ergonomic postures due to the types of treatment required and the regions of the mouth being treated. The main reasons stated for the fact that their colleagues do not adopt ergonomic postures are lack of attention, practice and forgetfulness (44.8%) and difficulty in visualising the operatory field or the procedure performed (27.6%). It is possible to conclude that the students interviewed know ergonomic principles and their importance in occupational health. However, they found it difficult to put these principles into practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Santos, Isaac Jose Antonio Luquetti dos; Vidal, Mario Cesar Rodriguez
A nuclear control room is a complex system that controls a thermodynamic process used to produce electrical energy. The operators interact with the control room through interfaces that have significant implications to nuclear plant safety and influence the operator activity. The TMI (Three Mile Island) accident demonstrated that only the anthropometric aspects were not enough for an adequate nuclear control room design. The studies showed that the accident was aggravated because the designers had not considered adequately human factor aspects. After TMI accident, the designers introduce in the nuclear control room development only human factors standards and human factors guidelines. The ergonomics approaches was not considered. Our objective is introduce in nuclear control room design and nuclear control room evaluation, a methodology that. includes human factors standards, human factors guidelines and ergonomic approaches, the operator activity analysis. (author)
Williams, D O
I. What mainframes? - The surgeon-general has determined that you shall treat all costs with care ( continental effects, discounts assumed, next month's or last month's prices, optimism of the reporter. II. Typical mainframe hardware III. Typical mainframe software IV. What workstations? VI. Typical workstation hardware VII. Typical workstation software VIII. Titan vs PDP-7s XIX.Historic answer X. Amdahl's Law....
Illankoon, Prasanna; Abeysekera, John; Singh, Sarbjeet
Detecting abnormal machine conditions is of great importance in an autonomous maintenance environment. Ergonomic aspects can be invaluable when detection of machine abnormalities using human senses is examined. This research outlines the ergonomic issues involved in detecting machine abnormalities and suggests how ergonomics would improve such detections. Cognitive Task Analysis was performed in a plant in Sri Lanka where Total Productive Maintenance is being implemented to identify sensory types that would be used to detect machine abnormalities and relevant Ergonomic characteristics. As the outcome of this research, a methodology comprising of an Ergonomic Gap Analysis Matrix for machine abnormality detection is presented.
Lin, Michael Y; Barbir, Ana; Dennerlein, Jack T
A standing computer workstation has now become a popular modern work place intervention to reduce sedentary behavior at work. However, user's interaction related to a standing computer workstation and its differences with a sitting workstation need to be understood to assist in developing recommendations for use and set up. The study compared the differences in upper extremity posture and muscle activity between user-selected sitting and standing workstation setups. Twenty participants (10 females, 10 males) volunteered for the study. 3-D posture, surface electromyography, and user-reported discomfort were measured while completing simulated tasks with each participant's self-selected workstation setups. Sitting computer workstation associated with more non-neutral shoulder postures and greater shoulder muscle activity, while standing computer workstation induced greater wrist adduction angle and greater extensor carpi radialis muscle activity. Sitting computer workstation also associated with greater shoulder abduction postural variation (90th-10th percentile) while standing computer workstation associated with greater variation for should rotation and wrist extension. Users reported similar overall discomfort levels within the first 10 min of work but had more than twice as much discomfort while standing than sitting after 45 min; with most discomfort reported in the low back for standing and shoulder for sitting. These different measures provide understanding in users' different interactions with sitting and standing and by alternating between the two configurations in short bouts may be a way of changing the loading pattern on the upper extremity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Roberta Zulfhi Surya
Ergonomic Function Deployment (Efd Application In Coconut Grater Redesign For HousewifeAbstract. Pulverizing (coconut grated is one of daily kitchen worksconducted by housewives. A common existing coconut grater which is available on the market is normally works using a crank system. Housewives have complaints of pain in the limbs, especially the hands, waist and back after using this grater. This study aims to improve the design of coconut grater with Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD based system and determine the housewife musculoskeletal decline as users. Further, to examine pulverizing time difference after redesign. The study was conducted at RT. 001 RW. 005 West Tembilahan Hulu village, subdistrict Tembilahan Indragiri Hilir. The method use in this study is same design subject (treatment by subjects design with co added Colton equation. Atotal of 12 housewives were used and subjected to the calculation. A grater redesign with EFD system was obtained by creating House of Ergonomic (HOE matrices and determining the anthropometric data. Whilst musculoskeletal disorders were obtained by generating Nordic Body Map (NBMworksheets questionnaire. Moreover, pulverizing time was obtained by testing coconut graterused before and after redesign. Results of the study showed that the redesign tool based on Ergonomic Function Deployment (EFD systemwasfound to be more convenient form which five ergonomics aspects required was fulfilled: effective, convenient, safe, healthy, and efficient (ENASE. Housewife musculoskeletal complaints decreased by 0.285% or 17.39%. This study also shows that coconut pulverizing time is 5 minutes faster and increased by 30.10% after redesigning the coconut grater crank system.
Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong
Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs.
Kim, Tae Un; Han, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kil You; Yang, Jun Eon; Jeong, Won Dae; Chang, Seung Cheol; Sung, Tae Yong; Kang, Dae Il; Park, Jin Hee; Lee, Yoon Hwan; Hwang, Mi Jeong.
Advanced Research Group of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute has been developing the Probabilistic Safety Assessment(PSA) workstation KIRAP from 1992. This report describes the recent development activities of PSA workstation KIRAP. The first is to develop and improve the methodologies for PSA quantification, that are the incorporation of fault tree modularization technique, the improvement of cut set generation method, the development of rule-based recovery, the development of methodology to solve a fault tree which has the logical loops and to handle a fault tree which has several initiators. These methodologies are incorporated in the PSA quantification software KIRAP-CUT. The second is to convert PSA modeling softwares for Windows, which have been used on the DOS environment since 1987. The developed softwares are the fault tree editor KWTREE, the event tree editor CONPAS, and Data manager KWDBMAN for event data and common cause failure (CCF) data. With the development of PSA workstation, it makes PSA modeling and PSA quantification and automation easier and faster. (author). 8 refs
Weiler, Monica R; Lavender, Steven A; Crawford, J Mac; Reichelt, Paul A; Conrad, Karen M; Browne, Michael W
This study explored factors contributing to intervention adoption decisions among Emergency Medical Service (EMS) workers. Emergency Medical Service workers (n = 190), from six different organisations, participated in a two-month longitudinal study following the introduction of a patient transfer-board (also known as slide-board) designed to ease lateral transfers of patients to and from ambulance cots. Surveys administered at baseline, after one month and after two months sampled factors potentially influencing the EMS providers' decision process. 'Ergonomics Advantage' and 'Patient Advantage' entered into a stepwise regression model predicting 'intention to use' at the end of month one (R (2 )= 0.78). After the second month, the stepwise regression indicated only two factors were predictive of intention to use: 'Ergonomics Advantage,' and 'Endorsed by Champions' (R (2 )= 0.58). Actual use was predicted by: 'Ergonomics Advantage' and 'Previous Tool Experience.' These results relate to key concepts identified in the diffusion of innovation literature and have the potential to further ergonomics intervention adoption efforts. Practitioner Summary. This study explored factors that potentially facilitate the adoption of voluntarily used ergonomics interventions. EMS workers were provided with foldable transfer-boards (slideboards) designed to reduce the physical demands when laterally transferring patients. Factors predictive of adoption measures included perceived ergonomics advantage, the endorsement by champions, and prior tool experience.
Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin; Tauro, Sandeep
We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials.......We are developing a Next Generation BioPhotonics Workstation to be applied in research on regulated microbial cell growth including their underlying physiological mechanisms, in vivo characterization of cell constituents and manufacturing of nanostructures and meta-materials....
Bielski, A; Lohmann, C P; Maier, M; Zapp, D; Nasseri, M A
Surgery using a robotic system has proven to have significant potential but is still a highly challenging task for the surgeon. An eye surgery assistant has been developed to eliminate the problem of tremor caused by human motions endangering the outcome of ophthalmic surgery. In order to exploit the full potential of the robot and improve the workflow of the surgeon, providing the ability to change control parameters live in the system as well as the ability to connect additional ancillary systems is necessary. Additionally the surgeon should always be able to get an overview over the status of all systems with a quick glance. Therefore a workstation has been built. The contribution of this paper is the design and the implementation of an intuitive graphical user interface for this workstation. The interface has been designed with feedback from surgeons and technical staff in order to ensure its usability in a surgical environment. Furthermore, the system was designed with the intent of supporting additional systems with minimal additional effort.
Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-tech...
Full Text Available Modern engineer training is not conceivable without knowledge of work psychology and ergonomics. In this paper, we would like to outline the situation of work psychology and ergonomics as well as their changes in Hungary. The technical approach to health and safety is linked to human health care, and, through that, to ergonomics. The traditional notion of ergonomics is the 'ergonomics of scales, levers and pedals', which has now become a field of research helping the development of socio-technical systems. Here, we present the developmental stages of ergonomics, divided into six periods, first, and then the relationship between environmental ergonomics and health and safety. In the last chapter, I shall expound a few details from Hungarian investigations in work psychology, as well as from the activity of prominent academic circles at certain universities.
Nobrega, Suzanne; Kernan, Laura; Plaku-Alakbarova, Bora; Robertson, Michelle; Warren, Nicholas; Henning, Robert
Growing interest in Total Worker Health ® (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design. Program success depended on organizational commitment to regular design team meetings with a trained facilitator, the availability of subject matter experts on ergonomics and health to support the design process, and retraining whenever committee turnover occurred. A two committee structure (employee Design Team, management Steering Committee) provided advantages over a single, multilevel committee structure, and enhanced the planning, communication, and teamwork skills of participants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kernan, Laura; Plaku-Alakbarova, Bora; Robertson, Michelle; Warren, Nicholas; Henning, Robert
Growing interest in Total Worker Health® (TWH) programs to advance worker safety, health and well-being motivated development of a toolkit to guide their implementation. Iterative design of a program toolkit occurred in which participatory ergonomics (PE) served as the primary basis to plan integrated TWH interventions in four diverse organizations. The toolkit provided start-up guides for committee formation and training, and a structured PE process for generating integrated TWH interventions. Process data from program facilitators and participants throughout program implementation were used for iterative toolkit design. Program success depended on organizational commitment to regular design team meetings with a trained facilitator, the availability of subject matter experts on ergonomics and health to support the design process, and retraining whenever committee turnover occurred. A two committee structure (employee Design Team, management Steering Committee) provided advantages over a single, multilevel committee structure, and enhanced the planning, communication, and team-work skills of participants. PMID:28166897
Walker, Guy H; Stanton, Neville A; Salmon, Paul M; Jenkins, Daniel P; Rafferty, Laura
Since 1958 more than 80 journal papers from the mainstream ergonomics literature have used either the words 'complex' or 'complexity' in their titles. Of those, more than 90% have been published in only the past 20 years. This observation communicates something interesting about the way in which contemporary ergonomics problems are being understood. The study of complexity itself derives from non-linear mathematics but many of its core concepts have found analogies in numerous non-mathematical domains. Set against this cross-disciplinary background, the current paper aims to provide a similar initial mapping to the field of ergonomics. In it, the ergonomics problem space, complexity metrics and powerful concepts such as emergence raise complexity to the status of an important contingency factor in achieving a match between ergonomics problems and ergonomics methods. The concept of relative predictive efficiency is used to illustrate how this match could be achieved in practice. What is clear overall is that a major source of, and solution to, complexity are the humans in systems. Understanding complexity on its own terms offers the potential to leverage disproportionate effects from ergonomics interventions and to tighten up the often loose usage of the term in the titles of ergonomics papers. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: This paper reviews and discusses concepts from the study of complexity and maps them to ergonomics problems and methods. It concludes that humans are a major source of and solution to complexity in systems and that complexity is a powerful contingency factor, which should be considered to ensure that ergonomics approaches match the true nature of ergonomics problems.
Full Text Available Introduction: A high percentage of musculoskeletal disorders in workplaces occur due to awkward posture and non-ergonomic design of the work stations for lifting and carrying of materials. To avoid these injuries, jobs should be designed in a way that ergonomics risk factors are controlled properly. The aim of this study was to utilize ergonomics interventions to minimize ergonomics risk factors in bag packing unit in a mineral processing plant. Material and Method: This cross sectional study was carried out among 20 workers of bag packing unit. Camera recording of working postures, evaluation of medical records, interview, and REBA technique were used to identify the ergonomic risk factors. Interventions included changing the conveyor belt height and the use of spring pallets (spring table. Data were analyzed using Paired T-Test by SPSS software version 18. Result: Before implementing ergonomics intervention, a total of 75% of evaluated postures by REBA technique obtained score of 8-10 (very high risk level and 25% had score of 11-15 (very high risk level that correspond to the action level 3 and 4, respectively. Following the implementation of ergonomics interventions, a total of 90% of the analyzed postures showed action level 2 (moderate risk level and the remainder 10 percent of evaluated postures showed high risk level. Comparison of REBA technique scores before and after implementing interventions showed a significant difference (P-value < 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, the implementation of ergonomics interventions has remarkably decreased the required action level and it may be able to improve work-related postures.
Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson
The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products.
Jorritsma, Wiard; Cnossen, Fokie; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Van Ooijen, Peter M. A.
Objectives: To determine the number, nature and severity of usability issues radiologists encounter while using a commercially available radiology workstation in clinical practice, and to assess how well the results of a pre-deployment usability evaluation of this workstation generalize to clinical
Rodríguez Mondelo, Pedro Manuel
Conté: 1. Fundamentos. 2. Confort y estrés térmico. La obra ofrece una visión general de los aspectos básicos de la ergonomía. Está dividida en ocho capítulos, que abordan los temas de relaciones dimensionales, relaciones informáticas y de control, relaciones ambientales, gasto energético y capacidad de trabajo físico y trabajo mental. El libro pretende ser una guía básica para aquellas personas que se inicien en el apasionante campo de la ergonomía.
Luana Kelle Batista Moura
Full Text Available Objective: To learn the social representations of ergonomic risk prepared by dental students. Methodology: This exploratory study, subsidized the Theory of Social Representations, with 64 dental students of an educational institution, by means of interviews. The data were processed in Alceste4.8 and lexical analysis done by the descending hierarchical classification. Results: In two categories: knowledge about exposure to ergonomic risk end attitude of students on preventing and treating injuries caused by repetitive motion. For students, the ergonomic risk is related to the attitude in the dental office. Conclusion: Prevention of ergonomic risk for dental students has not been incorporated as a set of necessary measures for their health and the patients, to prevent ergonomic hazards that can result in harm to the patient caused by work-related musculoskeletal disorder, which is reflected in a lower quality practice.
Liang, Liang; Hu, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xiangyun
Dealing with the difficulties of integrating various medical image viewing and processing technologies with a variety of clinical and departmental information systems and, in the meantime, overcoming the performance constraints in transferring and processing large-scale and ever-increasing image data in healthcare enterprise, we design and implement a flexible, usable and high-performance architecture for medical image workstations. This architecture is not developed for radiology only, but for any workstations in any application environments that may need medical image retrieving, viewing, and post-processing. This architecture contains an infrastructure named Memory PACS and different kinds of image applications built on it. The Memory PACS is in charge of image data caching, pre-fetching and management. It provides image applications with a high speed image data access and a very reliable DICOM network I/O. In dealing with the image applications, we use dynamic component technology to separate the performance-constrained modules from the flexibility-constrained modules so that different image viewing or processing technologies can be developed and maintained independently. We also develop a weakly coupled collaboration service, through which these image applications can communicate with each other or with third party applications. We applied this architecture in developing our product line and it works well. In our clinical sites, this architecture is applied not only in Radiology Department, but also in Ultrasonic, Surgery, Clinics, and Consultation Center. Giving that each concerned department has its particular requirements and business routines along with the facts that they all have different image processing technologies and image display devices, our workstations are still able to maintain high performance and high usability.
Duckwitz, Sönke; Flemisch, Frank; Frenz, Martin; Kuz, Sinem; Mertens, Alexander; Mütze-Niewöhner, Susanne
These proceedings summarize the best papers in each research area represented at the 2016 Annual Meeting of the German Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, held at Institute of Industrial Engineering and Ergonomics of RWTH Aachen University from March 2-4. The meeting featured more than 200 presentations and 36 posters reflecting the diversity of subject matter in the field of human and industrial engineering. This volume addresses human factors and safety specialists, industrial engineers, work and organizational psychologists, occupational medicines as well as production planners and design engineers.
Drucker, L; Amaral, M; Carvalheira, C
This work studies biomechanical hazards to which the workforce of Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia Industrial (Inmetro) is exposed. It suggests a model for ergonomic evaluation of work, based on the concepts of resilience engineering which take into consideration the institute's ability to manage risk and deal with its consequences. Methodology includes the stages of identification, inventory, analysis, and risk management. Diagnosis of the workplace uses as parameters the minimal criteria stated in Brazilian legislation. The approach has several prospectives and encompasses the points of view of public management, safety engineering, physical therapy and ergonomics-oriented design. The suggested solution integrates all aspects of the problem: biological, psychological, sociological and organizational. Results obtained from a pilot Project allow to build a significant sample of Inmetro's workforce, identifying problems and validating the methodology employed as a tool to be applied to the whole institution. Finally, this work intends to draw risk maps and support goals and methods based on resiliency engineering to assess environmental and ergonomic risk management.
Vincent, Christopher James; Li, Yunqiu; Blandford, Ann
Manufacturers of interactive medical devices, such as infusion pumps, need to ensure that devices minimise the risk of unintended harm during use. However, development teams face challenges in incorporating Human Factors. The aim of the research reported here was to better understand the constraints under which medical device design and development take place. We report the results of a qualitative study based on 19 semi-structured interviews with professionals involved in the design, development and deployment of interactive medical devices. A thematic analysis was conducted. Multiple barriers to designing for safety and usability were identified. In particular, we identified barriers to communication both between the development organisation and the intended users and between different teams within the development organisation. We propose the use of mediating representations. Artefacts such as personas and scenarios, known to provide integration across multiple perspectives, are an essential component of designing for safety and usability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
Nataya Charoonsri R
Berdasarkan pada penilaian REBA, diindikasikan stasiun kerja 2, terutama sekali dalam proses perakitan mempunyai nilai REBA tertinggi yaitu 11 dan digolongkan level resiko sangat tinggi. Sementara itu berdasarkan pada kuesioner Nordic Body Map ditunjukan sebagian besar masalah terdapat di pinggang, leher bagian atas, bahu kanan,dan lengan bagian atas yang kiri dan kanan. Berdasar analisa metoda pekerjaan ditemukan cycle time 138,78 detik dengan ketidakseimbangan antara tangan kiri dan kanan . Tangan kiri menganggur atau berada pada posisi statis selama 89.72 detik.Terdapat resiko ergonomi yang memerlukan intervensi ergonomi untuk mengurangi kondisi tidak nyaman pada pekerja dan resiko ergonomi sehingga produktivitas dapat meningkatkan. Kata kunci : REBA, Nordic Body Map, resiko ergonomi PT X is a manufacturer company which has specialization in diffuser production. Production process in each workstation were held mostly in the floor with sitting or squatting position. The job was categorized light work but repetitive and in long duration. Moreover there were not supported with good work facilities causes increasing in risk of ergonomic exposure. There are three workstations which are workstation 1 consists of cutting, assembling, dripping body of diffuser and welding, workstation 2 consists of cutting the bosy of diffuser, assembling and dripping the flap,and workstation 3 consisst of assembling the body and the flap. Based on REBA scoring, there was indicated workstation 2, particularly in assembling process, had the highest REBA score, 11 and categorized in very high risk level. Meanwhile based on Nordic body map questionnaire was indicated the most problem were are waist,upper neck, right shoulder,and left and right upper arm. Based on work method analysis was found cycle time 138,78 second with unbalance between right and left hand.Left hand was idle or in static position for 89.72 second.There was identified risk of ergonomic which needs
This report covers the examination of course Degree of Bachelor of Science in Innovation and Design MSGC12. The course is given on the Innovation and Design Program at the Faculty of Health, Science and Technology at Karlstad University. The course corresponds to 22.5 credits and extends over the spring semester in 2017. Examiner is Leo de Vin and supervisor is Kristina Gullander. The project is carried out on behalf of Support Design AB, which manufactures and distributes handmade ergonomic ...
Broberg, Ole; Seim, Rikke; Andersen, Vibeke
How can a macro-ergonomic framework developed in academia be “transferred” to ergonomic practitioners and become a new work practice? The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon experiences from an interactive research program in which this transferral was tested by two consecutive approaches......” with the researchers and other practitioners; 3) paying attention to the organizational settings of the ergonomic practitioner to make sure that a new work practice is implemented in the organization and not only by a single practitioner....... and interpretation of results when applying the new concept to a real case in a company; 2) the concept is introduced to practitioners, after which they try to practice the concept in a normal consultancy situation, and afterwards have the opportunity to reflect upon their experiences in a “learning space...
Full Text Available Laparoscopic surgery provides patients with less painful surgery but is more demanding for the surgeon. The increased technological complexity and sometimes poorly adapted equipment have led to increased complaints of surgeon fatigue and discomfort during laparoscopic surgery. Ergonomic integration and suitable laparoscopic operating room environment are essential to improve efficiency, safety, and comfort for the operating team. Understanding ergonomics can not only make life of surgeon comfortable in the operating room but also reduce physical strains on surgeon.
Wanyonyi, Nancy; Frantz, Jose; Saidi, Hassan
Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain are part of the common work-related musculoskeletal disorders with a large impact on the affected person. Despite having a multifactorial aetiology, ergonomic factors play a major role thus necessitating workers' education. To determine the prevalence of ergonomic-related LBP and neck pain, and describe the effect of a knowledge-based ergonomic intervention amongst administrators in Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. This study applied a mixed method design utilizing a survey and two focus group discussions (FGD). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 208 participants through systematic sampling. A one hour knowledge-based ergonomic session founded on the survey results was thereafter administered to interested participants, followed by two FGDs a month later with purposive selection of eight participants to explore their experience of the ergonomic intervention. Quantitative data was captured and analyzed using SPSS by means of descriptive and inferential statistics, whereas thematic content analysis was used for qualitative data. Most participants were knowledgeable about ergonomic-related LBP and neck pain with a twelve month prevalence of 75.5% and 67.8% respectively. Continual ergonomic education is necessary for adherence to health-related behaviours that will preventwork-related LBP and neck pain.
Good, Walter F.; Herron, John M.; Maitz, Glenn S.; Gur, David; Miller, Stephen L.; Straub, William H.; Fuhrman, Carl R.
We designed and implemented a high-resolution video workstation as the central hardware component in a comprehensive multi-project program comparing the use of digital and film modalities. The workstation utilizes a 1.8 GByte real-time disk (RCI) capable of storing 400 full-resolution images and two Tektronix (GMA251) display controllers with 19" monitors (GMA2O2). The display is configured in a portrait format with a resolution of 1536 x 2048 x 8 bit, and operates at 75 Hz in a noninterlaced mode. Transmission of data through a 12 to 8 bit lookup table into the display controllers occurs at 20 MBytes/second (.35 seconds per image). The workstation allows easy use of brightness (level) and contrast (window) to be manipulated with a trackball, and various processing options can be selected using push buttons. Display of any of the 400 images is also performed at 20MBytes/sec (.35 sec/image). A separate text display provides for the automatic display of patient history data and for a scoring form through which readers can interact with the system by means of a computer mouse. In addition, the workstation provides for the randomization of cases and for the immediate entry of diagnostic responses into a master database. Over the past year this workstation has been used for over 10,000 readings in diagnostic studies related to 1) image resolution; 2) film vs. soft display; 3) incorporation of patient history data into the reading process; and 4) usefulness of image processing.
Trageser, Katherine H.
This paper provides an overview of the design and fabrication associated with upgrades for the Medical Operations Workstation in the Habitat Demonstration Unit. The work spanned a ten week period. The upgrades will be used during the 2011 Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) field campaign. Upgrades include a deployable privacy curtain system, a deployable tray table, an easily accessible biological waste container, reorganization and labeling of the medical supplies, and installation of a retractable camera. All of the items were completed within the ten week period.
Lawton, Cindy M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
Ergonomic injury and radiation exposure are two safety concerns for the Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This facility employs the largest number of gloveboxes (GB) at LANL with approximately 6000 gloves installed. The current GB glove design dates back to the 1960’s and is not based on true hand anatomy, revealing several issues: short fingers, inappropriate length from the wrist to finger webbing, nonexistent joint angles and incorrect thumb placement. These design flaws are directly related to elbow (lateral epicondylitis) and thumb (DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis) injuries. The current design also contributes to increased wear on the glove, causing unplanned glove openings (failures) which places workers at risk of exposure. An improved glovebox glove design has three significant benefits: 1) it will reduce the risk of injury, 2) it will improve comfort and productivity, and 3) it will reduce the risk of a glovebox failures. The combination of these three benefits has estimated savings of several million dollars. The new glove design incorporated the varied physical attributes of workers ranging from the 5th percentile female to the 95th percentile male. Anthropometric hand dimensions along with current GB worker dimensions were used to develop the most comprehensive design specifications for the new glove. Collaboration with orthopedic hand surgeons also provided major contributtions to the design. The new glovebox glove was developed and manufactured incorporating over forty dimensions producing the most comprehensive ergonomically sound design. The new design received a LANL patent (patent attorney docket No: LANS 36USD1 “Protective Glove”, one of 20 highest patents awarded by the Richard P. Feynman Center for Innovation. The glove dimensions were inputed into a solid works model which was used to produce molds. The molds were then shipped to a glove manufacturer for production of the new glovebox gloves. The new
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To extend an existing computer programme for the evaluation and design of shift schedules (BASS 3 by integrating workload as well as economic aspects. METHODS: The redesigned prototype BASS 4 includes a new module with a suitable and easily applicable screening method (EBA for the assessment of the intensity of physical, emotional and cognitive workload components and their temporal patterns. Specified criterion functions based on these ratings allow for an adjustment of shift and rest duration according to the intensity of physical and mental workload. Furthermore, with regard to interactive effects both workload and temporal conditions, e.g. time of day, are taken into account. In a second new module, important economic aspects and criteria have been implemented. Different ergonomic solutions for scheduling problems can now also be evaluated with regard to their economic costs. RESULTS: The new version of the computer programme (BASS 4 can now simultaneously take into account numerous ergonomic, legal, agreed and economic criteria for the design and evaluation of working hours. CONCLUSIONS: BASS 4 can now be used as an instrument for the design and the evaluation of working hours with regard to legal, ergonomic and economic aspects at the shop floor as well as in administrative (e.g. health and safety inspection and research problems.OBJETIVOS: Expandir um programa computacional existente para planejamento e avaliação dos horários de turnos (BASS 3 por meio da incorporação da carga de trabalho e características econômicas. MÉTODOS: O protótipo BASS 4 contém um novo módulo com um método de triagem (EBA conveniente e de fácil aplicação para a avaliação da intensidade dos componentes físico, emocional e cognitivo da carga de trabalho e seus padrões temporais. O uso de critérios específicos com base nestas avaliações possibilita ajustar a duração do turno e do descanso de acordo com a intensidade da carga de
Chen, Yi-Chun; Huang, Ting-Yuan; Lee, Tsung-Xian; Sun, Ching-Cherng
To investigate the legibility and visual comfort of LED traffic signs, an ergonomic experiment is performed on four custom-designed LED traffic signs, including three self-luminous ones as LED lightbox, LED backlight and regional LED backlight, and one non-self-luminous sign with external LED lighting. The four signs are hanged side-by-side and evaluated by observers through questionnaires. The signage dimension is one-sixth of the real freeway traffic signs, and the observation distance is 25 m. The luminance of three self-luminous signs is 216 cd/m2. The illuminance of external LED lighting is 400 lux on the traffic sign. The ambient illuminance is 2.8 and 6.0 lux in two rounds. The results show that self-luminous traffic signs provide superior legibility, visual comfort and user preference than the non-self-luminous one. Among the three self-luminous signs, regional LED backlight is most susceptible to the ambient illumination. LED lightbox has significantly better preference score than LED backlight under darker ambient lighting. Only LED lightbox has significantly better visual comfort than external LED lighting in the brighter environment. Based on the four LED traffic signs evaluated in this study, we suggest LED lightbox as the prior choice. Further investigations on the effect of ambient illumination and other designs of self-luminous traffic signs are in progress.
Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi
.... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...
Most designers are not schooled in the area of human-interaction psychology and therefore tend to rely on the traditional ergonomic aspects of human factors when designing complex human-interactive workstations related to reactor operations. They do not take into account the differences in user information processing behavior and how these behaviors may affect individual and team performance when accessing visual displays or utilizing system models in process and control room areas. Unfortunately, by ignoring the importance of the integration of the user interface at the information process level, the result can be sub-optimization and inherently error- and failure-prone systems. Therefore, to minimize or eliminate failures in human-interactive systems, it is essential that the designers understand how each user`s processing characteristics affects how the user gathers information, and how the user communicates the information to the designer and other users. A different type of approach in achieving this understanding is Neuro Linguistic Programming (NLP). The material presented in this paper is based on two studies involving the design of visual displays, NLP, and the user`s perspective model of a reactor system. The studies involve the methodology known as NLP, and its use in expanding design choices from the user`s ``model of the world,`` in the areas of virtual reality, workstation design, team structure, decision and learning style patterns, safety operations, pattern recognition, and much, much more.
Beek, A.J. van der; IJmker, S.
This chapter discusses the physical ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders and summarizes the Triennial International Ergonomics Association (IEA) World Congress 2006-IEA2006-highlights on physical ergonomics and work-related MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs). Two general trends are observed.
Knothe, F.; Goehlich, D.; Orschel, G.; Parnow, A. [DaimlerChrysler AG (Germany)
The new S-Class is taking off with a demonstrative overall concept, trendsetting safety and the highest degree of driving comfort. Agility and driving dynamics resulting from a harmonic interaction of design, technology and ergonomics provide a maximum comfort. (orig.)
Bennett, C; Alexandre, M; Jacobs, K
Ergonomics risk factors apply to everybody. Numerous adults have experienced disabling injuries related to use of computers and other forms of technology. Now children are using technology even more than adults. Increasingly ergonomics risk factors are being recognized as present in the world of children. Outreach to schools and the surrounding community by employers may help protect the future work force. A growing body of researchers believe that children can benefit from the early introduction of ergonomics awareness and preventative measures. While individual representatives of the educational system may embrace the concept of introducing ergonomics into the classroom, a number of barriers can prevent implementation of integrated programs. Some of the barriers to introducing ergonomics in schools have been absence of a tie to educational standards, the existing demands on teaching hours, and the absence of easily executable lesson plans. Ergonomics is rarely included in teacher training and professional ergonomics expertise is needed for the development of a class-based program. As part of Strategic Vision plan for 2025, a National Laboratory identified community outreach and the future workforces as key areas for initiatives. A series of hands-on interactive modules have been developed by professional ergonomics specialists. They are being tested with elementary, middle and high school students. Where possible, the content has been tied to the educational standards in the State of California in the USA. Currently the modules include grip strength, effective breathing, optimal keyboard and mouse positions, optimizing chairs, posture and movement, backpack safety and safe lifting. Each module takes the students through a related activity or experience. An individual worksheet asks them questions about the experience and guides them to consider implications in their activities of daily living. A module on hearing is under development. The goal is to have a
Recently, the effort in carrying out an integrated ergonomics approach known as "SHIP" (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach has been intensively undertaken in Bali with the aim of sustaining improvements being done. The People's Consultative Assembly of the Republic of Indonesia issued for the 1999-2004 period a "SHIP" Act on the Macro Guidelines of Tourism Development in which ergonomics and other factors must be considered comprehensively to attain sustainable development in tourism. Therefore the night and shift work that is recently increasingly applied in the tourism industry must also be designed and organized through this approach. In fact, however, economic factors have still been the predominant reason for workers to accept any type of night and shift work decided by the management, without taking into account possible impacts and consequences. For example, rapid forward rotation schemes seem more adapted to the hotel industry instead of traditional 6-6-6 rotation. Further, inter-city bus drivers are approved to work a 24-hour shift followed by one day off. These drivers often work an additional risky night shift after two consecutive night shifts so as to meet needed expenses for the family. Cultural or religious activities still presented constraints for workers as they carried out subsequently the night work. Therefore, proactive steps should be taken in a timely manner through the integrated SHIP approach in designing night and shift work so as to achieve work schedules compatible with both social life of shiftworkers and business concerns.
Thatcher, Andrew; Waterson, Patrick; Todd, Andrew; Moray, Neville
In his 1993 IEA keynote address, Neville Moray urged the ergonomics discipline to face up to the global problems facing humanity and consider how ergonomics might help find some of the solutions. In this State of Science article we critically evaluate what the ergonomics discipline has achieved in the last two and a half decades to help create a secure future for humanity. Moray's challenges for ergonomics included deriving a value structure that moves us beyond a Westernised view of worker-organisation-technology fit, taking a multidisciplinary approach which engages with other social and biological sciences, considering the gross cross-cultural factors that determine how different societies function, paying more attention to mindful consumption, and embracing the complexity of our interconnected world. This article takes a socio-historical approach by considering the factors that influence what has been achieved since Moray's keynote address. We conclude with our own set of predictions for the future and priorities for addressing the challenges that we are likely to face. Practitioner Summary: We critically reflect on what has been achieved by the ergonomics profession in addressing the global challenges raised by Moray's 1993 keynote address to the International Ergonomics Association. Apart from healthcare, the response has largely been weak and disorganised. We make suggestions for priority research and practice that is required to facilitate a sustainable future for humanity.
Ergonomic evaluation of subjects involved in orange handling operation in Kano State was conducted. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated, where they were found to vary with age amongst the subjects selected. 20th and 80th percentiles of the dimensions were computed and recommended for usage in design of ...
Sang D. Choi
Full Text Available This review paper discusses the ergonomic challenges associated with laparoscopy in the operating room (OR and summarizes the practical ergonomic solutions. The literature search was conducted in the fields of laparoscopy and applied ergonomics. Findings indicated that laparoscopic OR staff (surgeons, perioperative nurses and technicians commonly experienced physical and mental ergonomic risks while working in prolonged static and awkward body positions. This study highlighted the need for more ergonomic interventions in OR environment in order to improve the efficiency of laparoscopy. Ergonomic solutions included utilizing adjustable equipment, placing computer peripherals in optimal locations, providing ergonomic instruments, and improving communication. Understanding the job- or task-related ergonomic risks and hazards could help identify intervention requirements to meet the challenges associated with increased dependency on advanced high technology in the OR.
Hu, Hui-Min; Ding, Li; Chen, Shou-Ping; Yang, Chun-Xin; Yuan, Xiu-Gan
This paper investigates functional relationships between some of the key ergonomics indexes in manual performance, and attempts to condense the ergonomics appraisal indexes system and thus evaluate hand performance wearing EVA (extravehicular activity) glove, design and improve EVA glove's performance. Four types of ergonomics indexes were studied, i.e., dexterity, tactile sensibility (TS), strength and fatigue. Two test items of insert sticks into a holes-board (ISIHB) and nuts-bolts assembly task (NBAT) were used to measure dexterity, while shape discrimination (SD) was employed for TS, and grip force (GF) for strength and fatigue. The variables measured in this investigation included accomplishing time (AT) of ISIHB and NBAT, correct rate (CR) of SD, maximal grip force (MGF), instant grip force (IGF) and endurance time of grip force (ETGF). Experiments were conducted on 31 undergraduates (eight female and 23 male) with two experiment conditions of bare-hand group and gloved hand group. Results demonstrated that dexterity and TS performance of gloved hand group declined significantly compared with those of bare-hand group (pfatigue between two conditions (p>0.05). Four effective functional relationships were developed between four pairs of ergonomics indexes in bare-hand group. In gloved hand group, in addition to above-mentioned four pairs of relationships, another formula was found, which was y^=0.02061+0.01233x ( p<0.01, dexterity and TS).
O'Connor, Denise; Page, Matthew J; Marshall, Shawn C; Massy-Westropp, Nicola
Non-surgical treatment, including ergonomic positioning or equipment, are sometimes offered to people experiencing mild to moderate symptoms from carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The effectiveness and duration of benefit from ergonomic positioning or equipment interventions for treating CTS are unknown. To assess the effects of ergonomic positioning or equipment compared with no treatment, a placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register (14 June 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2011, Issue 2, in The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (1966 to June 2011), EMBASE (1980 to June 2011), CINAHL Plus (1937 to June 2011), and AMED (1985 to June 2011). We also reviewed the reference lists of randomised or quasi-randomised trials identified from the electronic search. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing ergonomic positioning or equipment with no treatment, placebo or another non-surgical intervention in people with CTS. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of included studies. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the primary and secondary outcomes. We pooled results of clinically and statistically homogeneous trials, where possible, to provide estimates of the effect of ergonomic positioning or equipment. We included two trials (105 participants) comparing ergonomic versus placebo keyboards. Neither trial assessed the primary outcome (short-term overall improvement) or adverse effects of interventions. In one small trial (25 participants) an ergonomic keyboard significantly reduced pain after 12 weeks (MD -2.40; 95% CI -4.45 to -0.35) but not six weeks (MD -0.20; 95% CI -1.51 to 1.11). In this same study, there was no difference between ergonomic and standard keyboards in hand function at six or 12 weeks or palm
Despite the development and availability of ergonomic measures in the construction industry, the number of construction workers reporting high physical work demands remains high. A reduction of the high physical work demands can be achieved by using ergonomic measures. However, these ergonomic
The relationship between research and practice in ergonomics and human factors has rarely been addressed in the literature. This presents specific problems for researchers when seeking to relate their work to the research community. Equally, practitioners are often frustrated by the lack of appropriate research to meet their needs. This paper seeks to identify current drivers for ergonomics research along with an analysis of how these are changing. Specifically, the use of bibliometric data to assess research output and its impact on a multi-disciplinary subject such as ergonomics is examined. Areas where action may be required to stimulate better research and improved practice are proposed. These include a greater role for the practitioner in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the evidence base for practice with, in particular, practitioners becoming more active in determining research priorities. It is concluded that combined effort is needed by researcher and practitioner communities to enable and promote a more effective understanding of the true impact of ergonomics across industry and society. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: The relationship between ergonomics research and practice is examined. Research 'drivers' are identified, including the influence of bibliometric data. Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed. The role of practitioners in completing the circle of knowledge and improving the ergonomics evidence base is stressed, as is the need to promote the impact of ergonomics across society.
Christman, Marissa St John [Los Alamos National Laboratory
Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.
Christman, Marissa St; Land, Whitney Morgan
Determine an ergonomic glovebox glove port center line location which will be used for standardization in new designs, thus allowing for predictable human work performance, reduced worker exposure to radiation and musculoskeletal injury risks, and improved worker comfort, efficiency, health, and safety.
Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.
Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Madeleine, Pascal
The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes, and the cardiovascular load was estimated by electrocardiogram. Ergonomics sessions resulted in lower muscular load, a more complex pattern of muscular activity, lower range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk as well as lower cardiovascular load compared with non-ergonomics sessions (p ergonomics guidelines during cleaning tasks. This study investigated the effects of following instructive ergonomics guidelines during cleaning tasks (daily curriculum of cleaning including mopping, sweeping, changing trash bins and cleaning of desks and blackboards). Following the ergonomics guidelines reduces the general workload and induces a more complex pattern of muscular activity. The study contributes with novel knowledge concerning ergonomics guidelines and work techniques.
Duffy, Vincent G
Based on recent research, this book discusses how to improve quality, safety, efficiency, and effectiveness in patient care through the application of human factors and ergonomics principles. It provides guidance for those involved with the design and application of systems and devices for effective and safe healthcare delivery from both a patient and staff perspective. Its huge range of chapters covers everything from the proper design of bed rails to the most efficient design of operating rooms, from the development of quality products to the rating of staff patient interaction. It considers
Jensen, Per Langaa
Under the label 'participatory ergonomics' the idea of establishing changes in working conditions through participatory approaches has been a central issue within ergonomics. Tools and procedures have been developed and demonstrated beneficial. But how this approach can be established as the way...
Amsaleg , Laurent; Gruber , Olivier; Franklin , Michael
Projet RODIN; We describe an efficient server-based algorithm for garbage collecting object-oriented databases in a workstation/server environment. The algorithm is incremental and runs concurrently with client transactions, however, it does not hold any locks on data and does not require callbacks to clients. It is fault tolerant, but performs very little logging. The algorithm has been designed to be integrated into existing OODB systems, and therefore it works with standard implementation ...
Botter, J.; Burford, E.M.; Commissaris, D.; Könemann, R.; Mastrigt, S.H.V.; Ellegast, R.P.
The aim of this research paper was to investigate the effect, both biomechanically and physiologically, of two dynamic workstations currently available on the commercial market. The dynamic workstations tested, namely the Treadmill Desk by LifeSpan and the LifeBalance Station by RightAngle, were
Frank Peters; Patrick Patterson
The goal of this project was to make improvements to the production systems of the steel casting industry through ergonomic improvements. Because of the wide variety of products, the wide range of product sizes, and the relatively small quantities of any particular product, manual operations remain a vital part of the production systems of the steel casting companies. Ergonomic improvements will assist the operators to more efficiently and consistently produce quality products
Ergonomics is “the scientific study of people at work,” with the goal of reducing stress and eliminating injuries associated with overused muscles, bad posture, and repeated tasks, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) states that working ergonomically reduces muscle fatigue, increases
Cardoso, Michelle; McKinnon, Colin; Viggiani, Dan; Johnson, Michel J; Callaghan, Jack P; Albert, Wayne J
A postural evaluation during a prolonged driving task was conducted to determine the ergonomic validity of a new freely adjustable truck seat prototype. Twenty participants were recruited to perform two 2-h simulated driving sessions. Postures were assessed using motion capture, accelerometers and pressure pads. Subjective discomfort was also monitored in 15-min increments using ratings of perceived discomfort (RPD) and the Automotive Seating Discomfort Questionnaire. Participants had a more neutral spine posture during the first hour of the drive and reported lower RPDs while sitting in the prototype. Pairing the gluteal backrest panel with the adjustable seat pan helped reduce the average sitting pressure. The industry-standard truck seat may lead to the development of poor whole body posture, and the proposed ergonomic redesign of a new truck seat helped improve sitting posture and reduce perceived discomfort. Practitioner Summary: A new freely adjustable truck seat prototype was compared to an Industry standard seat to assess hypothesised improvements to sitting posture and discomfort for long haul driving. It was found that the adjustable panels in the prototype helped promote spine posture, reduce sitting pressure and improved discomfort ratings.
Nicklas, L.D.; Atkins, R.W.; Setia, S.V.; Wang, P.Y. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)
This paper describes the design and implementation of a solution to the constrained 2-D cutting stock problem on a cluster of workstations. The constrained 2-D cutting stock problem is an irregular problem with a dynamically modified global data set and irregular amounts and patterns of communication. A replicated data structure is used for the parallel solution since the ratio of reads to writes is known to be large. Mutual exclusion and consistency are maintained using a token-based lazy consistency mechanism, and a randomized protocol for dynamically balancing the distributed work queue is employed. Speedups are reported for three benchmark problems executed on a cluster of workstations interconnected by a 10 Mbps Ethernet.
Concevoir des objets techniques pour une population normale, c’est-à-dire comprenant aussi des personnes handicapées ou très âgées Designing technological devices for a normal population, namely also including disabled people and the elderly. Contribution of ergonomics Contribution of ergonomics Diseñar objetos técnicos para una población normal, es decir incluyendo personas discapacitadas o adultos mayores. Contribución de la ergonomía
Full Text Available Les technologies peuvent être des obstacles redoutables pour les personnes handicapées ou très âgées, ou au contraire apporter des solutions efficaces aux problèmes que rencontrent ces personnes. Ceci concerne les objets ordinaires de la vie courante, mais aussi les aides techniques spécialisées, le logement, le transport public, les postes de travail, etc. Beaucoup de réaménagements spéciaux ou d’aides techniques particulières ne seraient pas nécessaires si la conception initiale des objets ou services destinés au grand public tenait compte de l’existence de personnes handicapées ou très âgées dans la population générale. L’ergonomie peut contribuer à la conception d’objets techniques et de services plus facilement utilisables par des personnes handicapées.Technologies can be formidable obstacles for disabled people or the elderly, or inversely, can also provide effective solutions to the problems that these people encounter. This involves all the usual objects of daily life, but also assistive devices, lodging, public transportation, workstations, etc.Many special redesigns or particular assistive devices would be unnecessary if the initial design of objects or services intended for the general public had taken into account disabled people or the elderly in the general population. Ergonomics can contribute to the design of assistive devices and services more easily usable by handicapped peopleLas tecnologías pueden constituir obstáculos temibles para las personas discapacitadas o de edad muy avanzada, o al contrario, pueden solucionar de un modo eficaz los problemas que estas personas encuentran. Esta problemática concierne los objetos ordinarios de la vida diaria, pero también las ayudas técnicas especializadas, el espacio habitacional, el transporte público, los puestos de trabajo, etc. Muchas adaptaciones especiales o ayudas técnicas especializadas no serían necesarias si el diseño inicial de los
Wood, R.T.; Knee, H.E.; Mullens, J.A.; Munro, J.K. Jr.; Swail, B.K.; Tapp, P.A.
The increasing use of computer technology in the US nuclear power industry has greatly expanded the capability to obtain, analyze, and present data about the plant to station personnel. Data concerning a power plant's design, configuration, operational and maintenance histories, and current status, and the information that can be derived from them, provide the link between the plant and plant staff. It is through this information bridge that operations, maintenance and engineering personnel understand and manage plant performance. However, it is necessary to transform the vast quantity of data available from various computer systems and across communications networks into clear, concise, and coherent information. In addition, it is important to organize this information into a consolidated, structured form within an integrated environment so that various users throughout the plant have ready access at their local station to knowledge necessary for their tasks. Thus, integrated workstations are needed to provide the inquired information and proper software tools, in a manner that can be easily understood and used, to the proper users throughout the plant. An effort is underway at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address this need by developing Integrated Workstation functional requirements and implementing a limited-scale prototype demonstration. The integrated Workstation requirements will define a flexible, expandable computer environment that permits a tailored implementation of workstation capabilities and facilitates future upgrades to add enhanced applications. The functionality to be supported by the integrated workstation and inherent capabilities to be provided by the workstation environment win be described. In addition, general technology areas which are to be addressed in the Integrated Workstation functional requirements will be discussed
Franssila, Heljä; Okkonen, Jussi; Savolainen, Reijo
Information ergonomics is an evolving application domain of ergonomics focusing on the management of workload in the real-world contexts of information-intensive tasks. This study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, five key dimensions of information ergonomics were identified: contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity. In total, 24 measures focusing on the above dimensions were constructed. The measures include, for example, the number of fragmented work tasks per work day. The measures were preliminarily tested in two Finnish organisations, making use of empirical data gathered by interviews, electronic questionnaires and log data applications tracking work processes on personal computers. The measures are applicable to the evaluation of information ergonomics, even though individual measures vary with regard to the amount of work and time needed for data analysis. Practitioner Summary: The study introduces a method for the evaluation of information ergonomics in knowledge work. To this end, 24 measures were constructed and tested empirically. The measures focus on contextual factors of knowledge work, multitasking, interruptions at work, practices for managing information load, and perceived job control and productivity.
Yang, Kun; Perez, Manuela; Hossu, Gabriela; Hubert, Nicolas; Perrenot, Cyril; Hubert, Jacques
In robotic surgery, the professional ergonomic habit of using an armrest reduces operator fatigue and increases the precision of motion. We designed and validated a pressure surveillance system (PSS) based on force sensors to investigate armrest use. The objective was to evaluate whether adding an alarm to the PSS system could shorten ergonomic training and improve performance. Twenty robot and simulator-naïve participants were recruited and randomized in two groups (A and B). The PSS was installed on a robotic simulator, the dV-Trainer, to detect contact with the armrest. The Group A members completed three tasks on the dV-Trainer without the alarm, making 15 attempts at each task. The Group B members practiced the first two tasks with the alarm and then completed the final tasks without the alarm. The simulator provided an overall score reflecting the trainees' performance. We used the new concept of an "armrest load" score to describe the ergonomic habit of using the armrest. Group B had a significantly higher performance score (p ergonomic errors and accelerated professional ergonomic habit acquisition. The combination of the PSS and alarm is effective in significantly shortening the learning curve in the robotic training process.
The welding workstation usually generates intense heat during operations, which may affect the welder's health if not properly controlled, and can also affect the performance of the welder at work. Consequently, effort to control the conditions of the welding workstation is essential, and is therefore pursued in this paper.
Joseph, Bradley S
The use of ergonomic principles in automobile assembly and manufacturing operations has become an important part of a comprehensive health and safety process as well as an integral part of the engineering systems. Ford Motor Company has developed an ergonomics process to manage issues related to injury and illness (e.g., musculoskeletal diseases) and to ensure the appropriate use of human resources on the plant floor. The ergonomics programme uses joint labour and management teams to identify and evaluate jobs and develop and implement solutions. This paper summarises the efforts of the Ford Motor Company in implementing and maintaining the programme. Key strategies are outlined that provide important links to internal organisational units that are critical to fully utilise the ergonomics process. In addition, the paper outlines differences between proactive and reactive efforts and shows the importance of using the information generated by the initiatives for process improvement.
Sliter, Michael; Yuan, Zhenyu
With growing concerns over the obesity epidemic in the United States and other developed countries, many organizations have taken steps to incorporate healthy workplace practices. However, most workers are still sedentary throughout the day--a major contributor to individual weight gain. The current study sought to gather preliminary evidence of the efficacy of active workstations, which are a possible intervention that could increase employees' physical activity while they are working. We conducted an experimental study, in which boredom, task satisfaction, stress, arousal, and performance were evaluated and compared across 4 randomly assigned conditions: seated workstation, standing workstation, cycling workstation, and walking workstation. Additionally, body mass index (BMI) and exercise habits were examined as moderators to determine whether differences in these variables would relate to increased benefits in active conditions. The results (n = 180) showed general support for the benefits of walking workstations, whereby participants in the walking condition had higher satisfaction and arousal and experienced less boredom and stress than those in the passive conditions. Cycling workstations, on the other hand, tended to relate to reduced satisfaction and performance when compared with other conditions. The moderators did not impact these relationships, indicating that walking workstations might have psychological benefits to individuals, regardless of BMI and exercise habits. The results of this study are a preliminary step in understanding the work implications of active workstations. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Van't Hullenaar, C D P; Mertens, A C; Ruurda, J P; Broeders, I A M J
Training in robot-assisted surgery focusses mainly on technical skills and instrument use. Training in optimal ergonomics during robotic surgery is often lacking, while improved ergonomics can be one of the key advantages of robot-assisted surgery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether a brief explanation on ergonomics of the console can improve body posture and performance. A comparative study was performed with 26 surgical interns and residents using the da Vinci skills simulator (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, CA). The intervention group received a compact instruction on ergonomic settings and coaching on clutch usage, while the control group received standard instructions for usage of the system. Participants performed two sets of five exercises. Analysis was performed on ergonomic score (RULA) and performance scores provided by the simulator. Mental and physical load scores (NASA-TLX and LED score) were also registered. The intervention group performed better in the clutch-oriented exercises, displaying less unnecessary movement and smaller deviation from the neutral position of the hands. The intervention group also scored significantly better on the RULA ergonomic score in both the exercises. No differences in overall performance scores and subjective scores were detected. The benefits of a brief instruction on ergonomics for novices are clear in this study. A single session of coaching and instruction leads to better ergonomic scores. The control group showed often inadequate ergonomic scores. No significant differences were found regarding physical discomfort, mental task load and overall performance scores.
Dekker, Sidney W A; Hancock, Peter A; Wilkin, Peter
Technology offers a promising route to a sustainable future, and ergonomics can serve a vital role. The argument of this article is that the lasting success of sustainability initiatives in ergonomics hinges on an examination of ergonomics' own epistemology and ethics. The epistemology of ergonomics is fundamentally empiricist and positivist. This places practical constraints on its ability to address important issues such as sustainability, emergence and complexity. The implicit ethical position of ergonomics is one of neutrality, and its positivist epistemology generally puts value-laden questions outside the parameters of what it sees as scientific practice. We argue, by contrast, that a discipline that deals with both technology and human beings cannot avoid engaging with questions of complexity and emergence and seeking innovative ways of addressing these issues. Ergonomics has largely modelled its research on a reductive science, studying parts and problems to fix. In sustainability efforts, this can lead to mere local adaptations with a negative effect on global sustainability. Ergonomics must consider quality of life globally, appreciating complexity and emergent effects of local relationships.
Genaidy, Ash M; Sequeira, Reynold; Rinder, Magda M; A-Rehim, Amal D
There is a need to integrate both macro- and micro-ergonomic approaches for the effective implementation of interventions designed to improve the root causes of problems such as work safety, quality and productivity in the enterprise system. The objective of this study was to explore from an ergonomics perspective the concept of business sustainability through optimising the worker-work environment interface. The specific aims were: (a) to assess the working conditions of a production department work process with the goal to jointly optimise work safety, quality and quantity; (b) to evaluate the enterprise-wide work process at the system level as a social entity in an attempt to trace the root causes of ergonomic issues impacting employees throughout the work process. The Work Compatibility Model was deployed to examine the experiences of workers (that is, effort, perceived risk/benefit, performance and satisfaction/dissatisfaction or psychological impact) and their associations with the complex domains of the work environment (task content, physical and non-physical work environment and conditions for learning/growth/development). This was followed by assessment of the enterprise system through detailed interviews with department managers and lead workers. A system diagnostic instrument was also constructed from information derived from the published literature to evaluate the enterprise system performance. The investigation of the production department indicated that the stress and musculoskeletal pain experienced by workers (particularly on the day shift) were derived from sources elsewhere in the work process. The enterprise system evaluation and detailed interviews allowed the research team to chart the feed-forward and feedback stress propagation loops in the work system. System improvement strategies were extracted on the basis of tacit/explicit knowledge obtained from department managers and lead workers. In certain situations concerning workplace human
Journal Homepage Image. Ergonomics SA (esa) provides a medium for publication of material relevant to occupational conditions and needs in Southern Africa at a time of change unparalleled in history. To this end the journal accepts articles in the following categories: research papers, review articles, conceptual theories, ...
Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.
Physical ergonomics deals with the physical load on the human body when performing activities like work, sports, jobs at home or dealing with products. With regard to the exposure to physical loads and its potential effects on the human body, the presented framework is helpful. In this article we
Full Text Available Considering the need of flexibility in any manufacturing process, the choice of the supply method of an assembly workstation can be a decision with instead influence on its performances. Using dynamic simulation, this article wants to compare the effect on a workstation cycle time of three different supply methods: supply on stock, supply in “Strike Zone” and synchronous supply. This study is part of an extended work that has the aim of compering by 3D layout design and dynamic simulation, different supply methods on an assembly line performances.
Principal Contact. Mrs June McDougall. Rhodes University. Department of Human Kinetics and Ergonomics. P.O. Box 94. Rhodes University. Grahamstown. 6140. Phone: +27 46 6038471. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ...
Johnson, Kenneth A.
Self-report ergometric inventories can provide valuable information to employers and can serve as a means of intervention to improve employee attributes. Based on the science of ergonomics (a science that studies the natural laws of work in order to maximize human efficiency in job performance), such an inventory focuses on the interaction of the…
Ghosh, Subrata; Bagchi, Anandi; Sen, Devashish; Bandyopadhyay, Pathikrit
Ergonomics is becoming a subject of applying fundamentals on anthropocentric dimensions for holistic welfare. The so-called conflict between Basic science and Applied research finds one of its edges in Ergonomics. Be it cutting-edge technology or frontiers of scientific innovation-all start from understanding basic scientific aptitude and skill, and the best way to get familiar with the situation is practicing basic science again and again at a regular basis. Ergonomics is diversified in such...
Lange-Morales, Karen; Thatcher, Andrew; García-Acosta, Gabriel
In this paper, we analyse two approaches that attempt to address how a human factors and ergonomics (HFE) perspective can contribute to the sustainability of the human race. We outline the principles, purposes and fields of application of ergoecology and green ergonomics, and thereafter deal with their context of emergence, and the overlaps in purpose, and principles. Shared values are deduced and related to socio-technical principles for systems' design. Social responsibility and environmental/ecospheric responsibility are the leading threads of ergoecology and green ergonomics, giving rise to the values of: respect for human rights, respect for the Earth, respect for ethical decision-making, appreciation of complexity, respect for transparency and openness, and respect for diversity. We discuss the consequences of considering these values in HFE theory and practice.
Looze, M.P. de; Koningsveld, E.P.A.; Fritzsche, L.; O'Sullivan, L.; Levizzari, A.
Ergonomic measures to reduce or eliminate the risks for developing musculoskeletal disorders, usually affects the performance at work as well, e.g. productivity or quality. The costs and benefits that can be associated with ergonomic measures are highly diverse in nature. Prior to investing in any
In a complex industrial environment, ergonomics must be combined with management science and systems analysis to produce a program which can create effective change and improve safety performance. We give an overview of such an approach, namely System Safety, so that its ergonomic content may be seen
Full Text Available Nowadays the most competitive companies are always innovative, renewable and able to be ‘the best’ in something. But what does one of the most important resources – the human resource – need to achieve a high level of success in his or her workplace? He needs a creative workplace environment where he feels himself in safe, has inspiration and meets challenges. Ergonomics is a human centred science. The ergonomists are focused on the interfaces of the individual person and his or her narrow or wide work environment. Ergonomists typically have not been trained in management or business administration. The business-oriented topics such as cost justification and cost–benefit analysis have not been a part of their curricula. Not surprisingly, instead of presenting the projects to the management in the language of business, they make a great effort to improve engineering design, health and safety, and the quality of work life on. Regardless of the benefits that may be realized from ergonomic improvements, managers are usually willing to provide funds for the intervention unless there is a clear economic benefit to be derived. The ergonomics projects do result in significant economic benefits if they are properly planned and implemented.
Helali, Faramarz; Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Shahnavaz, Houshang
In industrially developing countries, a few ergonomists have directed great efforts towards developing ergonomics awareness among managers and workers in organizations. There is little research on the degree of their success, though. Furthermore, access of organizations to ergonomics knowledge is usually very difficult, especially in industrially developing countries. Thus, building ergonomics awareness is certainly the first phase of the process. Three companies from one industry (44 people: 14 females and 30 males) participated in a project aimed at improving their work system. At the beginning, we needed to create a common goal and ensure participation with appropriate ergonomics tools. The findings of this study were the key issue for the ergonomics intervention (i.e., a shared vision, awakened need of change and learning). Further, to build ergonomics awareness and develop a continuous learning process in the company, it was necessary to use more ergonomics tools through workers' participation in different workplaces.
Ojo, Samson O; Bailey, Daniel P; Chater, Angel M; Hewson, David J
Active workstations have been recommended for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace. It is important to understand if the use of these workstations has an impact on worker productivity. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance. A total of 3303 articles were initially identified by a systematic search and seven articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. A quality appraisal was conducted to assess risk of bias, confounding, internal and external validity, and reporting. Most of the studies reported cognitive performance as opposed to productivity. Five studies assessed cognitive performance during use of an active workstation, usually in a single session. Sit-stand desks had no detrimental effect on performance, however, some studies with treadmill and cycling workstations identified potential decreases in performance. Many of the studies lacked the power required to achieve statistical significance. Three studies assessed workplace productivity after prolonged use of an active workstation for between 12 and 52 weeks. These studies reported no significant effect on productivity. Active workstations do not appear to decrease workplace performance.
Full Text Available This article extends an approach to simulate and control anthro- pomorphic kinematics as multiagent-systems. These "anthro- pomorphic multiagent-systems" have originally been developed to control coordinated multirobot systems in industrial applica- tions, as well as to simulate humanoid robots. Here, we apply the approach of the anthropomorphic multiagent-systems to propose a "Virtual Human" - a model of human kinematics - to analyze ergonomic conditions at manual workplaces. Ergonom- ics provide a wide range of methods to evaluate human postures and movements. By the simulation and animation of the Virtual Human we develop examples of how results from the field of ergonomics can help to consider the human factor during the design and optimization phases of production lines.
Raffenetti, R C [Computing Services-Support Services Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)
1 - Description of program or function: The SCWEB (Scientific Workstation Evaluation Benchmark) software includes 16 programs which are executed in a well-defined scenario to measure the following performance capabilities of a scientific workstation: implementation of FORTRAN77, processor speed, memory management, disk I/O, monitor (or display) output, scheduling of processing (multiprocessing), and scheduling of print tasks (spooling). 2 - Method of solution: The benchmark programs are: DK1, DK2, and DK3, which do Fourier series fitting based on spline techniques; JC1, which checks the FORTRAN function routines which produce numerical results; JD1 and JD2, which solve dense systems of linear equations in double- and single-precision, respectively; JD3 and JD4, which perform matrix multiplication in single- and double-precision, respectively; RB1, RB2, and RB3, which perform substantial amounts of I/O processing on files other than the input and output files; RR1, which does intense single-precision floating-point multiplication in a tight loop, RR2, which initializes a 512x512 integer matrix in a manner which skips around in the address space rather than initializing each consecutive memory cell in turn; RR3, which writes alternating text buffers to the output file; RR4, which evaluates the timer routines and demonstrates that they conform to the specification; and RR5, which determines whether the workstation is capable of executing a 4-megabyte program
Eyal, Levy; Ribak, Joseph; Badihi, Yehuda
remote online ergonomic assessment in the office environment as compared to face-to-face ergonomic assessment and examination of the applicability of remote online ergonomic assessment to office workers. 40 employees from a large Israeli hi-tech company were ergonomically assessed per the University of California computer usage checklist, according to the two assessment types (face-to-face and remote). An additional Ergonomist "assessor 2" examined the credibility of the process. Research hypothesis 1 was verified: 21 out of 22 questions (95.45%) from the checklist indicated compatibility between "assessor 1" to the "Gold Standard" at an 80% level. Research hypothesis 2: examining the credibility between the assessors with regard to remote assessment. This hypothesis was partially verified, the correlation between the assessors was measured at 0.54. Research hypothesis 3: examining the extent of deviation of natural posture between distal body parts assessment (distant from the center of the body) and proximal body parts (close to the center of the body). This hypothesis was clearly verified. It has been proven that there is statistical significance between the results. The current research has proved that there is an additional method to assess musculoskeletal disorders risk factors remotely online at office environment.
Molen, H.F. van der; Sluiter, J.K.; Hulshof, C.T.J.; Vink, P.; Duivenbooden, J.C. van; Holman, R.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.
The objective of this study was to examine the effect of a participatory ergonomics (PE) implementation strategy on the use of ergonomic measures reducing the physical work demands of construction work. The ergonomic measures consisted of adjusting working height (two measures) and mechanising the
Odunaiya, Nse A; Owonuwa, Dolapo D; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O
Ergonomically unsuitable school furniture is frequently considered one of the major causes of severe posture problems in adulthood. This study was designed to determine the ergonomic suitability of educational furniture in the lecture theaters at the University of Ibadan to serve as a case study. Sample of convenience was used to select participants for this study. The lecture theaters were selected based on their capacity, design, and dimension. A total of 240 students (120 males and 120 females) participated in this study. The ergonomic suitability of lecture theaters was determined by analyzing the mismatches between student anthropometric dimensions and furniture dimensions, and also by analyzing the design and orientation of the lecture theaters. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, range, and median. The results showed that there was a significant difference in height between males and females but no significant difference between other anthropometric variables measured. About 20% of the participants had a fitting seat height, while seat height was unsuitable for the remaining 80.4%. On the other hand, 23.3% had a fitting seat depth, while it was unsuitable for 76.7% of the participants, and 99.6% of the participants had fitting desk clearance but 0.4% found it unsuitable. A total of 25.8% of the participants had a fitting desk height, while 74.2% of the students found it unsuitable. It was concluded that the furniture in the lecture theaters at the university studied was not ergonomically suitable for the students. Hence it is recommended that further studies, including more universities across a wide spectrum of society, should be performed to determine the effect of furniture on student health, and the need to adopt the use of adjustable furniture in lecture theaters to prevent health hazards that may occur secondary to the use of unsuitable furniture. PMID:24511247
What's the number 1 threat to young students using computers today? According to Dan Odell, Microsoft's in-house ergonomist, when he asked parents this very question, "the things they were most concerned about were online predators and people taking advantage of their kids. Ergonomics was fairly far down the list." Unfortunately, that…
Ratib, Osman M.; Huang, H. K.
A multimodality picture archiving and communication system (PACS) is in routine clinical use in the UCLA Radiology Department. Several types workstations are currently implemented for this PACS. Among them, the Apple Macintosh II personal computer was recently chosen to serve as a desktop workstation for display and analysis of radiological images. This personal computer was selected mainly because of its extremely friendly user-interface, its popularity among the academic and medical community and its low cost. In comparison to other microcomputer-based systems the Macintosh II offers the following advantages: the extreme standardization of its user interface, file system and networking, and the availability of a very large variety of commercial software packages. In the current configuration the Macintosh II operates as a stand-alone workstation where images are imported from a centralized PACS server through an Ethernet network using a standard TCP-IP protocol, and stored locally on magnetic disk. The use of high resolution screens (1024x768 pixels x 8bits) offer sufficient performance for image display and analysis. We focused our project on the design and implementation of a variety of image analysis algorithms ranging from automated structure and edge detection to sophisticated dynamic analysis of sequential images. Specific analysis programs were developed for ultrasound images, digitized angiograms, MRI and CT tomographic images and scintigraphic images.
Sammito, Massimo; Millán, Claudia; Frieske, Dawid; Rodríguez-Freire, Eloy; Borges, Rafael J; Usón, Isabel
ARCIMBOLDO solves the phase problem at resolutions of around 2 Å or better through massive combination of small fragments and density modification. For complex structures, this imposes a need for a powerful grid where calculations can be distributed, but for structures with up to 200 amino acids in the asymmetric unit a single workstation may suffice. The use and performance of the single-workstation implementation, ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, on a pool of test structures with 40-120 amino acids and resolutions between 0.54 and 2.2 Å is described. Inbuilt polyalanine helices and iron cofactors are used as search fragments. ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES can also run on a single workstation to solve structures in this test set using precomputed libraries of local folds. The results of this study have been incorporated into an automated, resolution- and hardware-dependent parameterization. ARCIMBOLDO has been thoroughly rewritten and three binaries are now available: ARCIMBOLDO_LITE, ARCIMBOLDO_SHREDDER and ARCIMBOLDO_BORGES. The programs and libraries can be downloaded from http://chango.ibmb.csic.es/ARCIMBOLDO_LITE.
Beyers, C.J.; Bogie, K.D.
The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms
Fridge, Ernest M., III; Pitman, Charles L.
The Advanced Software Development Workstation (ASDW) task is researching and developing the technologies required to support Computer Aided Software Engineering (CASE) with the emphasis on those advanced methods, tools, and processes that will be of benefit to support all NASA programs. Immediate goals are to provide research and prototype tools that will increase productivity, in the near term, in projects such as the Software Support Environment (SSE), the Space Station Control Center (SSCC), and the Flight Analysis and Design System (FADS) which will be used to support the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Goals also include providing technology for development, evolution, maintenance, and operations. The technologies under research and development in the ASDW project are targeted to provide productivity enhancements during the software life cycle phase of enterprise and information system modeling, requirements generation and analysis, system design and coding, and system use and maintenance. On-line user's guides will assist users in operating the developed information system with knowledge base expert assistance.
Montierth, L.M.; Briggs, J.B.
The advent of economical, high-speed workstations has placed on the criticality engineer's desktop the means to perform computational analysis that was previously possible only on mainframe computers. With this capability comes the need to modify and maintain criticality codes for use on a variety of different workstations. Due to the use of nonstandard coding, compiler differences [in lieu of American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standards], and other machine idiosyncrasies, there is a definite need to systematically test and benchmark all codes ported to workstations. Once benchmarked, a user environment must be maintained to ensure that user code does not become corrupted. The goal in creating a workstation version of the criticality safety analysis sequence (CSAS) codes in SCALE 4.0 was to start with the Cray versions and change as little source code as possible yet produce as generic a code as possible. To date, this code has been ported to the IBM RISC 6000, Data General AViiON 400, Silicon Graphics 4D-35 (all using the same source code), and to the Hewlett Packard Series 700 workstations. The code is maintained under a configuration control procedure. In this paper, the authors address considerations that pertain to the installation and benchmarking of CSAS
This paper describes an application-specific engineering workstation designed and developed to analyze imagery sequences from a variety of sources. The system combines the software and hardware environment of the modern graphic-oriented workstations with the digital image acquisition, processing and display techniques. The objective is to achieve automation and high throughput for many data reduction tasks involving metric studies of image sequences. The applications of such an automated data reduction tool include analysis of the trajectory and attitude of aircraft, missile, stores and other flying objects in various flight regimes including launch and separation as well as regular flight maneuvers. The workstation can also be used in an on-line or off-line mode to study three-dimensional motion of aircraft models in simulated flight conditions such as wind tunnels. The system's key features are: 1) Acquisition and storage of image sequences by digitizing real-time video or frames from a film strip; 2) computer-controlled movie loop playback, slow motion and freeze frame display combined with digital image sharpening, noise reduction, contrast enhancement and interactive image magnification; 3) multiple leading edge tracking in addition to object centroids at up to 60 fields per second from both live input video or a stored image sequence; 4) automatic and manual field-of-view and spatial calibration; 5) image sequence data base generation and management, including the measurement data products; 6) off-line analysis software for trajectory plotting and statistical analysis; 7) model-based estimation and tracking of object attitude angles; and 8) interface to a variety of video players and film transport sub-systems.
Samson O. Ojo
Full Text Available Active workstations have been recommended for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace. It is important to understand if the use of these workstations has an impact on worker productivity. The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of active workstations on workplace productivity and performance. A total of 3303 articles were initially identified by a systematic search and seven articles met eligibility criteria for inclusion. A quality appraisal was conducted to assess risk of bias, confounding, internal and external validity, and reporting. Most of the studies reported cognitive performance as opposed to productivity. Five studies assessed cognitive performance during use of an active workstation, usually in a single session. Sit-stand desks had no detrimental effect on performance, however, some studies with treadmill and cycling workstations identified potential decreases in performance. Many of the studies lacked the power required to achieve statistical significance. Three studies assessed workplace productivity after prolonged use of an active workstation for between 12 and 52 weeks. These studies reported no significant effect on productivity. Active workstations do not appear to decrease workplace performance.
Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole
Ergonomics are rarely addressed directly in the design and re-design of workspaces in Denmark. Often architects, engineers and other actors design the workspaces on the basis of for example spatial, technological or finan-cial considerations, thereby making ergonomics a by-product of the design...... process. However, by introducing ergonomists in the role of ‘workspace de-signers’ early in the design process, ergonomic considerations as well as the involvement of employees, can be integrated in the design process. In this article we demonstrate the use of the workspace design approach in a case study...... where an industrial manufacturer is undergoing a major technological change: going from labour intensive manual work to a highly automated production. The workspace design team, which included the company’s OHS consultant, designed the intervention as a participatory design process by using visually...
Carter, D.; Metzinger, R.; Proulx, R.; Cefola, P.
Future Flight Dynamics systems should take advantage of the possibilities provided by current and future generations of low-cost, high performance workstation computing environments with Graphical User Interface. The port of the existing mainframe Flight Dynamics systems to the workstation environment offers an economic approach for combining the tremendous engineering heritage that has been encapsulated in these systems with the advantages of the new computing environments. This paper will describe the successful transition of the Draper Laboratory R&D version of GTDS (Goddard Trajectory Determination System) from the IBM Mainframe to the Unix workstation environment. The approach will be a mix of historical timeline notes, descriptions of the technical problems overcome, and descriptions of associated SQA (software quality assurance) issues.
Vater, L. [Ergonomie/Gefahrstoffe, Vattenfall Europe Mining AG, Senftenberg (Germany)
Ergonomically designed driver's cabs also contribute directly to the increase in safety at work. In the course of the electrical re-design of the open-cast mining machines new drivers' cabs, which eliminate ergonomic deficits, were used. Other important aspects in addition to the improvements in the environmental factors noise, vibration and dust, are in particular the visibility conditions, visualisation of process data and monitoring as well as operating concepts. Taking into account the different types of machine drivers' cabs with a modified basic design and bearing design are used. Optimisation of the installation of the monitors and the basic structuring of the control panels was carried out. In addition to the increase in the effectiveness of control another aim is to minimise faulty operation by the driver when changing machines frequently. (orig.)
Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis
Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.
Miller, Linda; Dorsey, Julie; Jacobs, Karen
Protecting and conserving environmental resources is a global concern. Over the past decade, a number of certification processes have emerged to help designers and operators of buildings assess the potential impact of a building on the environment. Certifications such as the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) consider the environmental impact through the lifecycle of a building, but may not be considering the people that construct and utilize it. It is important to remember the human factor. Considering the human factor throughout the lifecycle is crucial to ensure individuals are protected during construction and in operation in the built environment. The paper highlights how ergonomics can be integrated into the life cycle of a building to promote sustainability goals for both the human factor and the environment. A case study approach will be used to illustrate how ergonomics was integrated into a LEED renovation and expanded into its daily operations on a large university campus..
Ergonomics are an essential safety factor in controlling automated processes. It has to be taken into account in three stages: information presentation, information perception and information treatment
Witt, Robert M.; Burt, Robert W.
Graphical User Interfaced (GUI) workstations are now available from commercial vendors. We recently installed a GUI workstation in our nuclear medicine reading room for exclusive use of staff and resident physicians. The system is built upon a Macintosh platform and has been available as a DELTAmanager from MedImage and more recently as an ICON V from Siemens Medical Systems. The workstation provides only display functions and connects to our existing nuclear medicine imaging system via ethernet. The system has some processing capabilities to create oblique, sagittal and coronal views from transverse tomographic views. Hard copy output is via a screen save device and a thermal color printer. The DELTAmanager replaced a MicroDELTA workstation which had both process and view functions. The mouse activated GUI has made remarkable changes to physicians'' use of the nuclear medicine viewing system. Training time to view and review studies has been reduced from hours to about 30-minutes. Generation of oblique views and display of brain and heart tomographic studies has been reduced from about 30-minutes of technician''s time to about 5-minutes of physician''s time. Overall operator functionality has been increased so that resident physicians with little prior computer experience can access all images on the image server and display pertinent patient images when consulting with other staff.
Ehmann, Peter J; Brush, Christopher J; Olson, Ryan L; Bhatt, Shivang N; Banu, Andrea H; Alderman, Brandon L
This study aimed to examine the effects of self-selected low-intensity walking on an active workstation on executive functions (EF) in young and middle-age adults. Using a within-subjects design, 32 young (20.6 ± 2.0 yr) and 26 middle-age (45.6 ± 11.8 yr) adults performed low-intensity treadmill walking and seated control conditions in randomized order on separate days, while completing an EF test battery. EF was assessed using modified versions of the Stroop (inhibition), Sternberg (working memory), Wisconsin Card Sorting (cognitive flexibility), and Tower of London (global EF) cognitive tasks. Behavioral performance outcomes were assessed using composite task z-scores and traditional measures of reaction time and accuracy. Average HR and step count were also measured throughout. The expected task difficulty effects were found for reaction time and accuracy. No significant main effects or interactions as a function of treadmill walking were found for tasks assessing global EF and the three individual EF domains. Accuracy on the Tower of London task was slightly impaired during slow treadmill walking for both age-groups. Middle-age adults displayed longer planning times for more difficult conditions of the Tower of London during walking compared with sitting. A 50-min session of low-intensity treadmill walking on an active workstation resulted in accruing approximately 4500 steps. These findings suggest that executive function performance remains relatively unaffected while walking on an active workstation, further supporting the use of treadmill workstations as an effective approach to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time in the workplace.
Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen
The aim was to investigate the effect of ergonomics guidelines on muscular activity, postural and cardiovascular load during cleaning. Eighteen cleaners performed 10 min of cleaning tasks in two locations; three min in a laboratory and seven min in a lecture room. All participants performed...... the task with or without focusing on ergonomics guidelines (ergonomics/non-ergonomics session). Bipolar surface electromyography was recorded bilaterally from upper trapezius and erector spinae muscles. A tri-axial accelerometer package was mounted on the low back (L5-S1) to measure postural changes......, and the cardiovascular load was estimated by electrocardiogram. Ergonomics sessions resulted in lower muscular load, a more complex pattern of muscular activity, lower range of motion and angular velocity of the trunk as well as lower cardiovascular load compared with non-ergonomics sessions (p ...
Santos, Isaac J.A.L. dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.; Oliveira, Mauro V.; Fernandes, Nelson; Oliveira, Helio C.L.; Grecco, Claudio H.S.; Mol, Antonio C.A.; Augusto, Silas C.; Teixeira, Douglas V.; Ferraz, Fernando T.
Ergonomics is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system. Ergonomics contributes to the design and evaluation of tasks, jobs, products, environments and systems in order to make them compatible with the needs, abilities and limitations of people. In the safe operation of nuclear power plant the performance of the control room crews plays an important role. In this respect, well-designed human-system interfaces (HSI) are crucial for safe and efficient operation of the plant, reducing the occurrence of incidents, accidents and the risks for human error. The aim of this paper is to describe a case study in which a methodological framework was applied to redesign advanced interfaces of a nuclear simulator. (author)
Laing, A C; Cole, D C; Theberge, N; Wells, R P; Kerr, M S; Frazer, M B
A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory in which an ergonomics change team was formed, composed of members from management, the organized labour union and the research team. It was hypothesized that the participatory nature of this change process would result in enhanced worker perceptions of workplace communication dynamics, decision latitude and influence, which in conjunction with anticipated mechanical exposure reductions would lead to reduced worker pain severity. Utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group, a quasi-experimental design was employed with a longitudinal, repeat questionnaire approach to document pre-post intervention changes. Nine participatory activities (psychosocial interventions) were implemented as part of the process. Communication dynamics regarding ergonomics were significantly enhanced at the intervention plant compared to the referent plant. However, there were no significantly different changes in worker perceptions of decision latitude or influence between the two plants, nor did pain severity change. Possible explanations for these results include limited intervention intensity, context and co-intervention differences between the two plants, high plant turnover reducing the statistical power of the study and lack of sensitivity and specificity in the psychosocial measures used. Further research should include the development of psychosocial tools more specific to participatory ergonomic interventions and the assessment of the extent of change in psychosocial factors that might be associated with improvements in pain.
Bernardes, João Marcos; Wanderck, Claudia; Moro, Antônio Renato Pereira
This paper gives an overview of a participatory ergonomic intervention aimed at reducing low back pain cases in the dispatch department of a catalogue and e-commerce retail company. Based on the findings of the ergonomic analysis and design committee, the company's own employees redesigned the assembly line's layout. As a result of these changes two job tasks that involved manual material handling of boxes, identified by the revised NIOSH equation as posing an increased risk for lifting-related low back pain, were totally eliminated, and the employees responsible for moving boxes from the end of the assembly line to pallets on the ground were given more control over their jobs, and these jobs were also enriched with a new, less heavy task. These results demonstrate that participatory ergonomic interventions are a viable and effective strategy to reduce the exposure to work-related physical and psychosocial risk factors for low back pain.
Madhwani, Kishore P; Nag, P K
The purpose of this study was to evaluate web-based Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) intervention on office ergonomics - a unique method for prevention of musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) - in corporate offices that influences behavior modification. With the increasing use of computers, laptops and hand-held communication devices globally among office employees, creating awareness on office ergonomics has become a top priority. Emphasis needs to be given on maintaining ideal work postures, ergonomic arrangement of workstations, optimizing chair functions, as well as performing desk stretches to reduce MSD arising from the use of these equipment, thereby promoting safe work practices at offices and home, as in the current scenario many employees work from home with flexible work hours. Hence, this justifies the importance of our study. To promote safe working by exploring cost-effective communication methods to achieve behavior change at distant sites when an on-site visit may not be feasible. An invitation was sent by the Medical and Occupational Health Team of a multinational corporation to all employees at their offices in Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Malaysia to take up an online Nordic questionnaire, a screening tool for musculoskeletal symptoms, shared in local languages on two occasions - baseline evaluation ( n = 240) and a follow-up evaluation after 3 months ( n = 203). After completing the baseline questionnaire, employees were immediately trained on correct postures and office ergonomics with animation graphics. The same questionnaire was sent again after a 12-week gap only to those employees who responded to the baseline questionnaire on initial assessment. Data collected were analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 software and variables were compared using odds ratio as well as Chi-square test. Of the 203 employees who responded, 47.35% had some musculoskeletal symptoms. Among them 58.7% had lower back pain
As the worldwide business competition gets tougher every year, companies have to compound their strategies in keeping their best talents within the organization. One of the essential keys in keeping their best employees is through the consideration of ergonomic aspects for the office design. One of the advantages of following ergonomic workplace is that it aids to minimize the harmful effects of carelessness, damage to equipment, or even injury to death to employees. The main objectives of th...
Lu, Chih-Wei; Yao, Chia-Chun; Kuo, Chein-Wen
The thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) has been used all over the world. Although the manufacture process of TFT-LCD was highly automated, employees are hired to do manual job in module assembly process. The operators may have high risk of musculoskeletal disorders because of the long work hours and the repetitive activities in an unfitted work station. The tools of this study were questionnaire, checklist and to evaluate the work place design. The result shows that the participants reported high musculoskeletal disorder symptoms in shoulder (59.8%), neck (49.5%), wrist (39.5%), and upper back (30.6%). And, to reduce the ergonomic risk factors, revising the height of the work benches, chairs and redesigning the truck to decrease the chance of unsuitable positions were recommended and to reduce other ergonomics hazards and seta good human machine interface and appropriate job design.
Fritzsche, Lars; Wegge, Jürgen; Schmauder, Martin; Kliegel, Matthias; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut
Prior research suggests that ergonomics work design and mixed teams (in age and gender) may compensate declines in certain abilities of ageing employees. This study investigates simultaneous effects of both team level factors on absenteeism and performance (error rates) over one year in a sample of 56 car assembly teams (N = 623). Results show that age was related to prolonged absenteeism and more mistakes in work planning, but not to overall performance. In comparison, high-physical workload was strongly associated with longer absenteeism and increased error rates. Furthermore, controlling for physical workload, age diversity was related to shorter absenteeism, and the presence of females in the team was associated with shorter absenteeism and better performance. In summary, this study suggests that both ergonomics work design and mixed team composition may compensate age-related productivity risks in manufacturing by maintaining the work ability of older employees and improving job quality.
Boxwala, Aziz A.; Chaney, Edward L.; Fritsch, Daniel S.; Friedman, Charles P.; Rosenman, Julian G.
Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to design and implement a prototype physician workstation, called PortFolio, as a platform for developing and evaluating, by means of controlled observer studies, user interfaces and interactive tools for analyzing and managing digital portal images. The first observer study was designed to measure physician acceptance of workstation technology, as an alternative to a view box, for inspection and analysis of portal images for detection of treatment setup errors. Methods and Materials: The observer study was conducted in a controlled experimental setting to evaluate physician acceptance of the prototype workstation technology exemplified by PortFolio. PortFolio incorporates a windows user interface, a compact kit of carefully selected image analysis tools, and an object-oriented data base infrastructure. The kit evaluated in the observer study included tools for contrast enhancement, registration, and multimodal image visualization. Acceptance was measured in the context of performing portal image analysis in a structured protocol designed to simulate clinical practice. The acceptability and usage patterns were measured from semistructured questionnaires and logs of user interactions. Results: Radiation oncologists, the subjects for this study, perceived the tools in PortFolio to be acceptable clinical aids. Concerns were expressed regarding user efficiency, particularly with respect to the image registration tools. Conclusions: The results of our observer study indicate that workstation technology is acceptable to radiation oncologists as an alternative to a view box for clinical detection of setup errors from digital portal images. Improvements in implementation, including more tools and a greater degree of automation in the image analysis tasks, are needed to make PortFolio more clinically practical
Haines, H.; Wilson, J.R.; Vink, P.; Koningsveld, E.
Participatory ergonomics is reported in an increasing number of case studies, but there is little evidence of emerging supportive theory and relatively little generic advice or guidance. The paper describes an effort to provide clarity and organization to the field of participatory ergonomics. A
The aim of this thesis was to promote and “refresh” the good ergonomics in nursing for Suomikoti in Sweden. The author noticed the need for re-education or “refreshment” of the nursing ergonomics among the permanent personnel as well updating knowledge of functioning of the existing assistive devices. Suomikoti has already a good and comprehensive transfer and ergonomics education and practical training for new employees arranged by their own physiotherapist and occupational therapist. It cov...
Stanton, NA; Baber, C
Since its inception, just after the Second World War, ergonomics research has paid special attention to the issues surrounding human control of systems. Command and Control environments continue to represent a challenging domain for Ergonomics research. We take a broad view of Command and Control research, to include C2 (Command and Control), C3 (Command, Control and Communication), and C4 (Command, Control, Communication and Computers) as well as human supervisory control paradigms. This spe...
Monroe, Kimberly; Fick, Faye; Joshi, Madina
Process improvement initiatives are receiving renewed attention by large corporations as they attempt to reduce manufacturing costs and stay competitive in the global marketplace. These initiatives include 5S, Six Sigma, and Lean. These programs often take up a large amount of available time and budget resources. More often than not, existing ergonomics processes are considered separate initiatives by upper management and struggle to gain a seat at the table. To effectively maintain their programs, ergonomics program managers need to overcome those obstacles and demonstrate how ergonomics initiatives are a natural fit with continuous improvement philosophies.
Garneau, Christopher J; Parkinson, Matthew B
The size and shape of users are an important consideration for many products and environments. Designers and engineers in many disciplines must often accommodate these attributes to meet objectives such as fit and safety. When practitioners have academic training in addressing these issues, it is typically through courses in Human Factors/Ergonomics (HF/E). This paper investigates education related to physical accommodation and offers suggestions for improvement. A survey was conducted wherein 21 instructors at 18 universities in the United States provided syllabi for 29 courses, which were analysed to determine topics related to anthropometry and resources used for the courses. The results show that within the U.S., anthropometry is covered in the majority of courses discussing physical ergonomics, but important related concepts were often omitted (e.g., digital human modelling, multivariate accommodation and variability across global populations). Curricula could be improved by incorporating more accurate anthropometry, multivariate problems and interactive online tools. This paper describes a study investigating collegiate ergonomics courses within the U.S. in the area of physical accommodation. Course schedules and texts were studied for their treatment of several topics related to accommodating the spatial requirements (anthropometry) of users. Recommendations are made for improving course curricula.
Oladeinde, B H; Ekejindu, I M; Omoregie, R; Aguh, O D
Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT(®). Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated.
Allaire, Saralynn J; Backman, Catherine L; Alheresh, Rawan; Baker, Nancy A
Prior articles in this series on employment and arthritis have documented the major impact arthritis and other rheumatic conditions have on employment. As expected, physically demanding job tasks, including hand use, are substantial risk factors for work limitation. Computer use has been increasing. People with arthritis may choose occupations involving extensive computer use to avoid occupations with other physical demands. But studies show many people with arthritis conditions have difficulty using computers.Ergonomic assessment and implementation helps relieve the physical and other demands of jobs. The Ergonomic Assessment Tool for Arthritis (EATA) is specifically for people with arthritis conditions. Since the EATA can be conducted off worksite, it is feasible to use with workers not wishing to disclose their condition to their employer. Available research supports the effectiveness of ergonomic intervention as a viable method to reduce work limitation for persons with arthritis. Some workers will need additional vocational intervention to remain employed long term. However, ergonomic intervention is a useful first step, as it promotes awareness of arthritis effects on work activities. Assisting workers with arthritis or other rheumatic conditions to use ergonomics to enhance their ability to work well should be an important aspect of managing these conditions.
Guo, M J; Liu, J J; Yao, H Y
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are most commonly seen in all the occupational non-fatal injuries and illnesses for workers, especially those who are involved in labor-intensive industries. Participatory ergonomics is frequently used to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. This paper gives an overview of a historical perspective on the use of participatory ergonomics approach in reducing the health effects of labor-intensive industries. Progress, barriers and facilitators on the organization, implementation and evaluation of participatory ergonomics programs are studied. Participatory ergonomics seems a successful method to develop, prioritize measures to prevent MSDs. Participatory ergonomics can help industries reduce musculoskeletal injuries and disorders, improve workplace condition and promote health conditions of the workers.
The requirements on planning and construction of control boards including ergonomic-technical designing are specified in this rule. The specifications put the requirements on the design of place, process and environment of work, which are mentioned in the sections 90 and 91 of the labor-management relations act, into more concrete terms for the safety-relevant control panels as work places in a nuclear power station. The work places at control panels are not considered as video workstations in the sense of the 'Safety Rules for Video Workstations in the Office Sector' published by the General Association of the Industrial Trade Associations. The requirements are based on the operation and information technology realized at present in control panels of stationary nuclear power plants. (orig./HP) [de
Richardson, Miles; Maspero, Marta; Golightly, David; Sheffield, David; Staples, Vicki; Lumber, Ryan
Nature is presented as a new paradigm for ergonomics. As a discipline concerned with well-being, the importance of natural environments for wellness should be part of ergonomics knowledge and practice. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being. Further, an emerging body of research has found relationships between well-being and a connection to nature, a concept that reveals the integrative character of human experience which can inform wider practice and epistemology in ergonomics. Practitioners are encouraged to bring nature into the workplace, so that ergonomics keeps pace with the move to nature-based solutions, but also as a necessity in the current ecological and social context. Practitioner Summary: Nature-based solutions are coming to the fore to address societal challenges such as well-being. As ergonomics is concerned with well-being, there is a need for a paradigm shift in the discipline. This position is supported by providing a concise summary of the evidence of the value of the natural environment to well-being.
Fostervold, Knut Inge; Watten, Reidulf G; Volden, Frode
The literature discussing visual ergonomics often mention that human vision is adapted to light emitted by the sun. However, theoretical and practical implications of this viewpoint is seldom discussed or taken into account. The paper discusses some of the main theoretical implications of an evolutionary approach to visual ergonomics. Based on interactional theory and ideas from ecological psychology an evolutionary stress model is proposed as a theoretical framework for future research in ergonomics and human factors. The model stresses the importance of developing work environments that fits with our evolutionary adaptations. In accordance with evolutionary psychology, the environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) and evolutionarily-novel environments (EN) are used as key concepts. Using work with visual display units (VDU) as an example, the paper discusses how this knowledge can be utilized in an ergonomic analysis of risk factors in the work environment. The paper emphasises the importance of incorporating evolutionary theory in the field of ergonomics. Further, the paper encourages scientific practices that further our understanding of any phenomena beyond the borders of traditional proximal explanations.
and production engineers regarding information sources in problem solving, communication pattern, perception of ergonomics, motivation and requests to support tools and methods. These differences and the social and organizational contexts of the development process must be taken into account when considering......A cross-sectional case study was performed in a large company producing electro-mechanical products for industrial application. The purpose was to elucidate conditions and strategies for integrating ergonomics into the product development process thereby preventing ergonomic problems at the time...... of manufacture of new products. In reality the product development process is not a rational problem solving process and does not proceed in a sequential manner as decribed in engineering models. Instead it is a complex organizational process involving uncertainties, iterative elements and negotiation between...
This paper describes the different strategic understanding from getting ergonomics intervention programmes' conversations to 'Tip', including minimizing strategies; tipping point strategies; and maximizing strategies from building ergonomics intervention techniques. Those have indicated to different recognitions: 1) when amplification of the 'problem' is necessary; 2) when amplification of the 'tipping point' is necessary, and 3) when amplification of the 'success' is necessary. The practical applications and implications of the ergonomics intervention techniques are drawn from the findings of framing positive questions: 1) what is successful ergonomics intervention technique right now (Appreciative)? 2) What do we need to change for a better future (Imagine)? 3) How do we do this (Design)? 4) Who takes action and with what consequences (Act)? This requires re-framing of the ergonomics intervention techniques in an appreciative way, because of, the future action needs to be inspired by those things that participants feel are worth valuing, worth celebrating and sustaining.
This is a report of an ongoing R ampersand D project which is investigating the use of standard UNIX workstations for the real-time data acquisition from a major new experimental initiative, the SLAC B Factory (PEP II). For this work an IBM RS/6000 workstation running the AIX operating system is used. Real-time extensions to the UNIX operating system are explored and performance measured. These extensions comprise a set of AIX-specific and POSIX-compliant system services. Benchmark comparisons are made with embedded processor technologies. Results are presented for a simple prototype on-line system for laboratory-testing of a new prototype drift chamber