Nigg, Claudio R; Albright, Cheryl; Williams, Rebecca; Nichols, Carol; Renda, Gloria; Stevens, Victor J; Vogt, Thomas M
Worksites provide opportunities to reach more than 60% of adults in the United States, including populations diverse in race, ethnicity, gender, age, occupation, income, and health status. Employers that provide worksite weight management interventions have the potential to reduce sick leave, health care costs, and workers compensation costs, and increase employee morale and worker efficiency. Hotels specifically, represent a broad cross-section of job categories, and most hotels are staffed and operated similarly around the world. However, from our literature review, there have been no investigations of the association between the hotel environment and employees' obesity. For this study, we tested the relationship between environmental factors in hotels and employees' body mass index (BMI). Overall no substantial correlations were found on any environmental variable. However, hotel size affected some relationships. Higher BMI was related to greater number of stairs, stair facilitation, and the healthy eating facilitation variables (excluding nutrition signs or posters) in medium sized hotels. Lower BMI was found with greater stair facilitation in small hotels; and with greater number of physical activity (PA) signs, lunch room nutrition signs, and hotel nutrition signs in large hotels. Unionized status affected only two environmental variables. For unionized hotels, BMI was negatively correlated with PA signs and positively correlated with the healthy eating facilitation. No logical pattern of association was found between workplace environmental factors and hotel employee BMI levels. Further research should investigate the interaction of the size and structure of the workplace with the impact of environmental efforts to reduce overweight and obesity.
... the spread of leaded dust, paint chips, soil and debris shall be used during worksite preparation. (2... preparation. 35.1345 Section 35.1345 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of... protection and worksite preparation. This section establishes procedures for protecting dwelling unit...
Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Takeuchi, Noriko; Morita, Manabu
Gum chewing may relieve stress, although this hypothesis has not been proven. Heart-rate variability (HRV) is commonly used to measure stress levels. However, it is not known if gum chewing modulates HRV under acute stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of gum chewing on HRV under acute stress. A cross-over study involving 47 non-smoking healthy subjects, aged 22-27 years, was carried out. The subjects received a stress procedure with gum chewing (GS group) and without gum chewing (S group). Additionally, the other 20 subjects were allocated to the gum chewing without stress group (G group). The GS and S groups were exposed to noise for 5 min (75 dBA) as stress. Before and after stress exposure/gum chewing, participants completed the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and a single Stress Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) measurement. HRV measurement was performed before and during stress/gum chewing for 5 min. After the stress procedure, VAS score significantly increased in the GS and S groups. During the stress procedure, the GS group showed a significantly lower level of high frequency (HF) and higher levels of low frequency (LF) and LF/HF than the S group. However, there were no significant differences in the scores of the state portion of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s) and VAS between the two stress groups. These findings suggest that gum chewing modulates HRV, but may not relieve acute stress caused by noise.
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Worksite standards. 632.260 Section 632.260 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE AMERICAN EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Summer Youth Employment and Training Programs § 632.260 Worksite standards...
The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was
Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana
Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…
Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J; Otero, Xosé L; Santana-Penín, Urbano
.... This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder...
... physical activity, nutrition, and tobacco use; building a program infrastructure within each worksite for long-term sustainability including evaluation, wellness committees, program champions, and leadership... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthy Worksite Program; Information...
Full Text Available Removable partial denture prostheses are still being used for anatomic, medical and economic reasons. However, the impact on chewing parameters is poorly described. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the impact of removable partial denture prosthesis on masticatory parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen removable partial denture prosthesis (RPDP wearers participated in the study. Among them, 10 subjects were Kennedy Class III partially edentulous and 9 with posterior edentulism (Class I. All presented a complete and full dentate opposing arch. The subjects chewed samples of carrots and peanuts with and without their prosthesis. The granulometry of the expectorated boluses from carrot and peanuts was characterized by median particle size (D50, determined at the natural point of swallowing. Number of chewing cycles (CC, chewing time (CT and chewing frequency (CF=CC/CT were video recorded. RESULTS: With RPDP, the mean D50 values for carrot and peanuts were lower [Repeated Model Procedures (RMP, F=15, p<0.001] regardless of the type of Kennedy Class. For each food, mean CC, CT and CF values recorded decreased (RMP, F=18, F=9, and F=20 respectively, p<0.01. With or without RPD, the boluses' granulometry values were above the masticatory normative index (MNI determined as 4,000 µm. CONCLUSION: RPDP rehabilitation improves the ability to reduce the bolus particle size, but does not reestablish fully the masticatory function. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study encourages the clinical improvement of oral rehabilitation procedure.
Hill, J L; Wilson, K; Harden, S; Almeida, F; Linnan, L; Estabrooks, P A
To determine if worksite social capital predicted retention in a worksite-based weight-loss programme using structural equation modelling. A secondary aim was to determine if worksite social capital was related to changes in weight at 6 months. Overweight or obese employees from 28 worksites enrolled in a larger 12-month worksite weight-loss trial. Workplace social capital was assessed using an eight-item scale specific to the workplace. Weight was measured using a HealthSpot(tm), and change in weight was computed from weigh-ins at baseline and 6 months and reported as pounds (lbs) lost. Retention was defined as those employees who completed a weigh-in at 6 months. Across the trial, N = 1,790; age = 46.6 ± 11; 73% women; 73% White overweight or obese employees participated. The odds of participant attrition were 1.12 times greater with each unit decrease in social capital score at baseline (p 0.05). Increased worksite social capital was predictive of retention in a worksite weight-loss programme. To maximize return on investments for employee wellness and weight-loss programmes, employers may benefit from understanding the facets of the 'social' environment such as social capital that may increase the likelihood of sustained participation.
Nygaard, Rikke; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg
their worksite foodscapes and we will identify barriers that should be taken into account in the planning of food based innovations at worksites. This study shows that the shaping of eating patterns evolves in a complex matrix of cultural, social, mental and ethnic influences and that worksites can play......Eating has an immense impact on our health, and the contribution of research literature that tries to understand and explain our food habits has grown considerably over the past decades. These studies have showed that in our eating behaviour, we interact not only with the physical environment...... but also with the social and mental environment. Food and eating has increasingly become an object of public governance, especially when we are eating out of home as part of our work or educational life. Interventions aiming at improve our eating patterns have become mainstream in many of our everyday life...
Full Text Available This article elaborates on the general aspects and health benefits of chewing gum. Chewing gums have been used since the time of prehistoric man as a source of entertainment and relaxation. It has also become a trendsetter with the teenagers. Currently, the health benefits of chewing gums are being studied and used in the treatment of various diseases. Certain medications have also been included in gums to act as an alternative drug delivery system. These gums have been found to be successful for the treatment of diseases, such as peptic ulcers, upper digestive tract cancer, oral candidiasis, and so on. It helps to relieve symptoms of xerostomia, Parkinsonism, tooth sensitivity after bleaching, and oral malodor. It helps in maintaining oral health, relieves stress, helps in weight loss, and improves alertness. Chewing gum may be distracting and irritating in numerous social environments, including schools, colleges, and the workplace. Research into the social effects of chewing gums is also necessary to further our knowledge into the psychosocial aspects of these gums.
Raísa Coutinho Vitcel
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To obtain reference values of chewing time of several food textures in young adults. METHOD: descriptive study with a quantitative approach that was developed in a clinical reference, being the population composed of 40 young adults between 18-30 years of age, of both genres. As exclusion criteria: those with neuromuscular and / or degenerative diseases or consequences thereof, as well as subjects who were making use of any orthodontic / orthopedic resource. We conducted a dental evaluation, followed by a clinical assessment. One at a time, the following foods were offered: French bread, wafer biscuit, roasted cashews, for voluntary chewing. To measure the food chewing time, we used a stopwatch, and this collection procedure was filmed. Data analysis was performed by means of the SPSS statistics 20.0 (IBM® program. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 between the medians of chewing time of French bread, wafer biscuit and cashew nuts, which were 33.0s (interquartile amplitude 29.0 - 40.0, 10.0s (interquartile amplitude 8.25-12.0 and 18.5s (interquartile amplitude 15.0-23.75, respectively. CONCLUSION: The texture of foods influences the length of mastication. The more rigid is the food, the more cycles and mandibular movements, and therefore the longer the duration of chewing.
Wilson, K.; Harden, S.; Almeida, F.; Linnan, L.; Estabrooks, P. A.
Summary Objective To determine if worksite social capital predicted retention in a worksite‐based weight‐loss programme using structural equation modelling. A secondary aim was to determine if worksite social capital was related to changes in weight at 6 months. Methods Overweight or obese employees from 28 worksites enrolled in a larger 12‐month worksite weight‐loss trial. Workplace social capital was assessed using an eight‐item scale specific to the workplace. Weight was measured using a HealthSpottm, and change in weight was computed from weigh‐ins at baseline and 6 months and reported as pounds (lbs) lost. Retention was defined as those employees who completed a weigh‐in at 6 months. Results Across the trial, N = 1,790; age = 46.6 ± 11; 73% women; 73% White overweight or obese employees participated. The odds of participant attrition were 1.12 times greater with each unit decrease in social capital score at baseline (p 0.05). Conclusions Increased worksite social capital was predictive of retention in a worksite weight‐loss programme. To maximize return on investments for employee wellness and weight‐loss programmes, employers may benefit from understanding the facets of the ‘social’ environment such as social capital that may increase the likelihood of sustained participation. PMID:27812380
In the last decades sugar-free chewing gum has developed in an oral healthcare product, next to the conventional products such as the toothbrush and mouthrinses. In this thesis we investigate the oral health benefits of chewing gum and the effects of additives to chewing gum, such as antimicrobials.
Full Text Available Evidence based public health requires knowledge about successful dissemination of public health measures. This study analyses (a the changes in worksite tobacco prevention (TP in the Canton of Zurich, Switzerland, between 2007 and 2009; (b1 the results of a multistep versus a “brochure only” dissemination strategy; (b2 the results of a monothematic versus a comprehensive dissemination strategy that aim to get companies to adopt TP measures; and (c whether worksite TP is associated with health-related outcomes. A longitudinal design with randomized control groups was applied. Data on worksite TP and health-related outcomes were gathered by a written questionnaire (baseline n=1627; follow-up n=1452 and analysed using descriptive statistics, nonparametric procedures, and ordinal regression models. TP measures at worksites improved slightly between 2007 and 2009. The multistep dissemination was superior to the “brochure only” condition. No significant differences between the monothematic and the comprehensive dissemination strategies were observed. However, improvements in TP measures at worksites were associated with improvements in health-related outcomes. Although dissemination was approached at a mass scale, little change in the advocated adoption of TP measures was observed, suggesting the need for even more aggressive outreach or an acceptance that these channels do not seem to be sufficiently effective.
Full Text Available Research question: 1. What is the prevalence of chewing habits among rural women? 2. What are the factors associated with their use? Objectives: To find out the prevalence of chewing habits and correlates of chewing habits. Design: Cross- sectional descriptive study. Participants: Females aged 15 years and above. Study variables: Age, educational status, marital status, occupation, income, type of family, age of starting habitual chewing persons influencing chewing habits and reasons for continuing the habit. Outcome variable : Chewing habits. Statistical analysis: Chi- square test, Analysis of variance. Odds ratio and Logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of chewing betel quid was 24.6% betel quid with tobacco 13.7% and betel nut 0.2%. Mean age of starting betel quid was 22.7 years and betel quid with tobacco, 16.5 years. Friends were the most influencing persons of starting the habit. The most common reasons for continuing were craving for the substances. There was direct relationship of chewing habits with age and inverse relationship with educational status. The chewing habits were more prevalent among married women and women engaged as agricultural labourers. Conclusion: Chewing betel quid with or without tobacco is a common practice among rural women. It is influenced by socio- cultural factors.
Milov, D E; Andres, J M; Erhart, N A; Bailey, D J
Children have chewed gum since the Stone Age. Black lumps of prehistoric tar with human tooth impressions have been found in Northern Europe dating from approximately 7000 BC (Middle Stone Age) to 2000 BC (Bronze Age). The bite impressions suggest that most chewers were between 6 and 15 years of age. The Greeks chewed resin from the mastic tree (mastic gum). North American Indians chewed spruce gum. The first manufacturing patent for chewing gum was issued in 1869 for a natural gum, chicle, derived from the Sopadilla tree, indigenous to Central America. Chewing gum sold today is a mixture of natural and synthetic gums and resins, with added color and flavor sweetened with corn syrup and sugar. Chewing gum is big business. A significant amount of the $21 billion US candy industry sales is from chewing gums, many of which appeal almost exclusively to children. Despite the history and prevalence of gum chewing, the medical literature contains very little information about the adverse effects of chewing gum. In the present report, we briefly review gum-chewing complications and describe three children who developed intestinal tract and esophageal obstruction as a consequence of swallowing gum.
Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward
Research suggests that there might be a relationship between chew count as well as chewing rate and energy intake. Chewing has been used in wearable sensor systems for the automatic detection of food intake, but little work has been reported on the automatic measurement of chew count or chewing rate. This work presents a method for the automatic quantification of chewing episodes captured by a piezoelectric sensor system. The proposed method was tested on 120 meals from 30 participants using two approaches. In a semi-automatic approach, histogram-based peak detection was used to count the number of chews in manually annotated chewing segments, resulting in a mean absolute error of 10.40% ± 7.03%. In a fully automatic approach, automatic food intake recognition preceded the application of the chew counting algorithm. The sensor signal was divided into 5-s non-overlapping epochs. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to train a artificial neural network (ANN) to classify epochs as "food intake" or "no intake" with an average F1 score of 91.09%. Chews were counted in epochs classified as food intake with a mean absolute error of 15.01% ± 11.06%. The proposed methods were compared with manual chew counts using an analysis of variance (ANOVA), which showed no statistically significant difference between the two methods. Results suggest that the proposed method can provide objective and automatic quantification of eating behavior in terms of chew counts and chewing rates.
Tucha, Oliver; Mecklinger, Lara; Maier, Kerstin; Hammerl, Marianne; Lange, Klaus W
In a study published previously in this journal (Wilkinson et al., 2002), the effect of chewing gum on cognitive functioning was examined. The results of this study indicated that chewing a piece of gum results in an improvement of working memory and of both immediate and delayed recall of words but not of attention. In the present study, memory and a variety of attentional functions of healthy adult participants were examined under four different conditions: no chewing, mimicking chewing movements, chewing a piece of tasteless chewing gum and chewing a piece of spearmint flavoured chewing gum. The sequence of conditions was randomised across participants. The results showed that the chewing of gum did not improve participants' memory functions. Furthermore, chewing may differentially affect specific aspects of attention. While sustained attention was improved by the chewing of gum, alertness and flexibility were adversely affected by chewing. In conclusion, claims that the chewing a gum improves cognition should be viewed with caution.
Virot, Emmanuel; Ma, Grace; Clanet, Christophe; Jung, Sunghwan
Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the -1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the -1/6 power of body mass. These physical constraints frame the -1/4 power law classically inferred from allometry of animal metabolic rates. All of our experimental data stay within these physical boundaries over six orders of magnitude of body mass regardless of food types.
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Kashikura, Kenichi; Nonaka, Hiroi; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru
It has been generally suggested that chewing produces an enhancing effect on cognitive performance-related aspects of memory by the test battery. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that chewing is associated with activation of various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the relation between cognitive performances affected by chewing and the neuronal activity in specified regions in the brain. We therefore examined the effects of chewing on neuronal activities in the brain during a working memory task using fMRI. The subjects chewed gum, without odor and taste components, between continuously performed two- or three-back (n-back) working memory tasks. Chewing increased the BOLD signals in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann's areas 9 and 46) in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during the n-back tasks. Furthermore, there were more prominent activations in the right premotor cortex, precuneus, thalamus, hippocampus and inferior parietal lobe during the n-back tasks after the chewing trial. These results suggest that chewing may accelerate or recover the process of working memory besides inducing improvement in the arousal level by the chewing motion.
Feldman, Robert H. L.
By working with labor unions, health educators have the opportunity to reach worker groups that have been ignored by many worksite health promotion programs. A union-based smoking cessation program is described, and general guidelines for worksite health promotion are given. (IAH)
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Khat is a cultivated plant whose leaves when chewed elevate mood. Unlike the chewing of betel nut, no association between the white oral mucosal lesions in khat users and oral malignancies has been reported. Chewing of khat has been documented in many countries and has increased with worldwide migration. The impact of chewing khat upon the oral mucosa is essentially unknown. Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of oral white changes in chronic khat chewers. Oral mucosal changes in a group of 47 Yemenite Israeli men over 30 years of age, who had chewed khat more than 3 years, were compared to those of 55 Yemenite men who did not chew. Results White lesions were significantly more prevalent in the khat chewers (83% compared to the non chewing individuals (16% (P Discussion This study demonstrated a relationship between khat chewing and oral white lesions, which we attribute to chronic local mechanical and chemical irritation of the mucosa. Our findings also suggest that mucosal changes associated with khat are benign, however, this initial study requires further studies including follow-up of khat users to confirm the current findings, including the likely benign changes associated with chronic use and histologic findings of clinical lesions.
chewing gums are formulated using synthetic or natural elastomers. The synthetic or ... gums with synthetic ingredients and sugar-free coating and the ..... Food Technol 1978;. 32: 62-66. 16. Mehta FM, Trivedi P. Formulation and characterization of biodegradable medicated chewing gum delivery system for motion sickness ...
Chewing gum may have an impact on improved memory during specific tasks of recognition and sustained attention. Research objective was to determine the effect of gum chewing on standardized test scores and math class grades of eighth grade students. Four math classes, 108 students, were randomized i...
Sorensen, G; Pechacek, T; Pallonen, U
The relationship of worksite and occupational norms about smoking to workers' attitudes toward smoking cessation was studied in a defined population. From smokers identified in a self-administered questionnaire circulated to all employees of 10 worksites in suburban Minneapolis, 447 smokers were randomly selected and interviewed. Attitudes and social norms about smoking cessation were compared by occupation and worksite using analysis of covariance, controlling for age, sex, and education. Similarly, the relationships of social norms to attitudes were examined using multiple regression analysis. Interest in quitting smoking, confidence in the ability to quit, and coworker support of prior quit attempts were equally pervasive among workers from blue collar and white collar occupations. Yet substantial differences between worksites in attitudes and norms about smoking cessation suggest the importance of the unique social milieu of individual worksites. Of particular importance is the impact of coworker discouragement of prior quit attempts, which varied across worksites and was directly related to confidence in the ability to quit and the desire to seek formal help in future quit attempts. These findings point to the relevance of intervention programs aimed at changing worksite norms about smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:3963283
Levin, Susan M; Ferdowsian, Hope R; Hoover, Valerie J; Green, Amber A; Barnard, Neal D
To examine whether a worksite nutrition programme using a low-fat vegan diet could significantly improve nutritional intake. At two corporate sites of the Government Employees Insurance Company, employees who were either overweight (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) and/or had type 2 diabetes participated in a 22-week worksite-based dietary intervention study. At the intervention site, participants were asked to follow a low-fat vegan diet and participate in weekly group meetings that included instruction and group support (intervention group). At the control site, participants received no instruction (control group). At weeks 0 and 22, participants completed 3 d dietary records to assess energy and nutrient intake. A total of 109 participants (sixty-five intervention and forty-four control). In the intervention group, reported intake of total fat, trans fat, saturated fat and cholesterol decreased significantly (P vegan nutrition programme increases intakes of protective nutrients, such as fibre, folate and vitamin C, and decreases intakes of total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol.
Full Text Available Research suggests that there might be a relationship between chew count as well as chewing rate and energy intake. Chewing has been used in wearable sensor systems for the automatic detection of food intake, but little work has been reported on the automatic measurement of chew count or chewing rate. This work presents a method for the automatic quantification of chewing episodes captured by a piezoelectric sensor system. The proposed method was tested on 120 meals from 30 participants using two approaches. In a semi-automatic approach, histogram-based peak detection was used to count the number of chews in manually annotated chewing segments, resulting in a mean absolute error of 10.40 % ± 7.03%. In a fully automatic approach, automatic food intake recognition preceded the application of the chew counting algorithm. The sensor signal was divided into 5-s non-overlapping epochs. Leave-one-out cross-validation was used to train a artificial neural network (ANN to classify epochs as “food intake” or “no intake” with an average F1 score of 91.09%. Chews were counted in epochs classified as food intake with a mean absolute error of 15.01% ± 11.06%. The proposed methods were compared with manual chew counts using an analysis of variance (ANOVA, which showed no statistically significant difference between the two methods. Results suggest that the proposed method can provide objective and automatic quantification of eating behavior in terms of chew counts and chewing rates.
Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård
Aims: This paper investigates whether and how worksite nutrition policies can improve employee productivity. Methods: The questions are pursued through a literature review, including a systematic search of literature – combined with literature identified from backward references – on randomized......’ nutritional knowledge, food intake and health and on the firm’s profitability, mainly in terms of reduced absenteeism and presenteeism. Conclusions: Well-targeted and efficiently implemented diet-related worksite health promotion interventions may improve labour productivity by 1%–2%. On larger worksites...
Kister Mateusz P.
Full Text Available Betel quid is one of the most commonly used psychoactive substances in the world, especially among Asian communities, just after caffeine, nicotine and alcohol. The mixture that is chewed usually contains betel leaves, areca nut and slaked lime, nonetheless, its ingredients and the preparation manner tend to vary. Areca nut contains four main alkaloids - arecoline, arecaidyne, guvacine and guvacoline that are responsible for its psychoactive effects. The act of betel chewing might have a negative impact on an overall health and can cause pathological lesions or diseases to develop and/or progress, both directly and indirectly. Also, it may happen that the negative impact of betel chewing on one system might have indirect harmful influence on another. Still an association has been drawn between betel chewing and the presence of metabolic diseases, cancers and proteinuria, as well as cardiovascular disorders - including hypertension, chronic renal failure, diabetics type II and obesity. Likewise, it is a known risk factor in the development of oral and esophagus cancer. Moreover, a correlation between betel chewing and smoking exists in that betel chewing might theoretically hinder the abandonment of tobacco smoking. Tissues of oral cavity and the upper part of digestive system are additionally exposed to the mechanical injuries caused by the areca nut. Therefore, they tend to be the most prone to be pathologically affected by betel quid chewing.
This study assessed 11 determinants of health coaching program participation. A cross-sectional study design used secondary data to assess the role of six employee-level and five worksite-level variables on telephone-based coaching enrollment, active participation, and completion. Data was provided by a national provider of worksite health promotion program services for employers. A random sample of 34,291 employees from 52 companies was selected for inclusion in the study. Survey-based measures included age, gender, job type, health risk status, tobacco risk, social support, financial incentives, comprehensive communications, senior leadership support, cultural support, and comprehensive program design. Gender-stratified multivariate logistic regression models were applied using backwards elimination procedures to yield parsimonious prediction models for each of the dependent variables. Employees were more likely to enroll in coaching programs if they were older, female, and in poorer health, and if they were at worksites with fewer environmental supports for health, clear financial incentives for participation in coaching, more comprehensive communications, and more comprehensive programs. Once employees were enrolled, program completion was greater among those who were older, did not use tobacco, worked at a company with strong communications, and had fewer environmental supports for health. Both worksite-level and employee-level factors have significant influences on health coaching engagement, and there are gender differences in the strength of these predictors.
Johnston, Craig A.; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A.; Moreno, Jennette P.; Foreyt, John P.
Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum…
Towbin, Alexander J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)
When imaged, intraoral chewing gum has the potential to be misdiagnosed. Chewing gum has a characteristic appearance on CT: it is ovoid in shape, hyperdense, and has small internal locules of air. Reports have described the appearance of gum on radiographs and abdominal CT images; however, no reports could be found detailing its appearance within the mouth. This report describes the appearance of intraoral chewing gum as well as the properties of the gum that lead to this appearance. Because of the potential for misdiagnosis, screening for intraoral foreign bodies should be considered prior to imaging. (orig.)
Wu, C D; Darout, I A; Skaug, N
It is generally accepted that oral hygiene maintenance through regular removal of dental plaque and food deposits is an essential factor in the prevention of dental caries and periodontal disease. Methods for oral hygiene vary from country to country and from culture to culture. Despite the widespread use of toothbrushes and toothpastes, natural methods of tooth cleaning using chewing sticks selected and prepared from the twigs, stems or roots from a variety of plant species have been practised for thousands of years in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and the Americas. Selected clinical studies have shown that chewing sticks, when properly used, can be as efficient as toothbrushes in removing dental plaque due to the combined effect of mechanical cleaning and enhanced salivation. It has also been suggested that antimicrobial substances that naturally protect plants against various invading microorganisms or other parasites may leach out into the oral cavity, and that these compounds may benefit the users by protection against cariogenic and periodontopathic bacteria. Some clinical epidemiological studies are in support of this, and many laboratory investigations have suggested the presence of heterogeneous antimicrobial components extractable using different chemical procedures. A few recent studies have identified some of the active antimicrobial compounds. Today, chewing sticks are still used in many developing countries because of religion and or tradition, and because of their availability, low cost and simplicity. The World Health Organization also encourages their use. The Year 2000 Consensus Report on Oral Hygiene states that chewing sticks may have a role to play in the promotion of oral hygiene, and that evaluation of their effectiveness warrants further research.
Full Text Available Current construction worksite layout planning heavily relies on 2D paper media where the worksite planners sketch the future layout adjacent to their real environment. This traditional approach turns out to be ineffective and prone to error because only experienced and well-trained planners are able to generate the effective layout design with paper sketch. Augmented Reality (AR, as a new user interface technology, introduces a completely new perspective for construction worksite planning. This paper disucsses the related AR work and issues in construction and describes the concept and prototype of an AR-based construction planning tool, AR Planner with virtual elements sets and tangible interface. The focus of the paper is to identify and integrate worksite planning rules into the AR planner with the purpose of intelligently preventing potential planning errors and process inefficiency, thus maximizing the overall productivity. Future work includes refining and verifying AR Planner in realistic projects.
Full Text Available Current construction worksite layout planning heavily relies on 2D paper media where the worksite planners sketch the future layout adjacent to their real environment. This traditional approach turns out to be ineffective and prone to error because only experienced and well-trained planners are able to generate the effective layout design with paper sketch. Augmented Reality (AR, as a new user interface technology, introduces a completely new perspective for construction worksite planning. This paper disucsses the related AR work and issues in construction and describes the concept and prototype of an AR-based construction planning tool, AR Planner with virtual elements sets and tangible interface. The focus of the paper is to identify and integrate worksite planning rules into the AR planner with the purpose of intelligently preventing potential planning errors and process inefficiency, thus maximizing the overall productivity. Future work includes refining and verifying AR Planner in realistic projects.
Butler, Carling E; Clark, B Ruth; Burlis, Tamara L; Castillo, Jacqueline C; Racette, Susan B
Workplaces provide ideal environments for wellness programming. The purpose of this study was to explore exercise self-efficacy among university employees and the effects of a worksite wellness program on physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Participants included 121 university employees (85% female). The worksite wellness program included cardiovascular health assessments, personal health reports, 8 weeks of pedometer-based walking and tracking activities, and weekly wellness sessions. Daily step count was assessed at baseline, Week 4, and Week 8. Exercise self-efficacy and CVD risk factors were evaluated at baseline and follow-up. Daily step count increased from 6566 ± 258 (LSM ± SE) at baseline to 8605 ± 356 at Week 4 and 9107 ± 388 at Week 8 (P worksite wellness program was effective for improving physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and CVD risk factors among university employees. Exercise barriers and outcome expectations were identified and have implications for future worksite wellness programming.
... Us Death at the Worksite: Helping Grieving Family Members By Helen Fitzgerald, CT Introduction With heart disease ... more comfortably to bereaved co-workers and family members. Acquaint Yourself with the Process of Grief To ...
Kolbe-Alexander, T.L.; Proper, K.I.; Lambert, E.V.; van Wier, M.F.; van Wier, M.F.; Pillay, J.; Nossel, C.; Adonis, L.; van Mechelen, W.
Background: Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW), a worksite
Hill-Mey, Patricia E.; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Merrill, Ray M.; Reel, Justine; Hyatt-Neville, Beverly; Richardson, Glenn E.
The purpose of this paper is to describe the multifaceted nature and benefits of worksite health promotion programs (WHPPs), with emphasis on the college setting. An assessment of the peer-reviewed literature was conducted of articles published since 2000. Several search engines were accessed and selected key words were used. Most studies examining WHPPs have focused on return on investment and productivity. Research that targets the softer side-benefits of health promotion programs in the workplace is less available. Although the college setting offers some advantages for implementing health promotion programs. They may also have unique challenges due to their large and diverse employee population. There is little research to show the effectiveness and unique challenges of college-based health promotion programs. PMID:25861657
Babu, Abraham Samuel; Madan, Kushal; Veluswamy, Sundar Kumar; Mehra, Rahul; Maiya, Arun G
Worksite health and wellness (WH&W) are gaining popularity in targeting cardiovascular (CV) risk factors among various industries. India is a large country with a larger workforce in the unorganized sector than the organized sector. This imbalance creates numerous challenges and barriers to implementation of WH&W programs in India. Large scale surveys have identified various CV risk factors across various industries. However, there is scarcity of published studies focusing on the effects of WH&W programs in India. This paper will highlight: 1) the current trend of CV risk factors across the industrial community, 2) the existing models of delivery for WH&W in India and their barriers, and 3) a concise evidence based review of various WH&W interventions in India. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Formulation and characterization of caffeine biodegradable chewing gum delivery system for alertness using plasticized poly (D,L-lactic acid) as gum base. ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced ...
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Obata, Takayuki; Takahashi, Hidehiko; Tachibana, Atsumichi; Kuroiwa, Daigo; Takahashi, Toru; Ikehira, Hiroo; Onozuka, Minoru
In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive processing speed, testing the hypothesis that this effect induces higher cognitive performance. Seventeen healthy adults (20-34 years old) were studied during attention task with blood oxygenation level-dependent functional (fMRI) at 3.0 T MRI. The attentional network test (ANT) within a single task fMRI containing two cue conditions (no cue and center cue) and two target conditions (congruent and incongruent) was conducted to examine the efficiency of alerting and executive control. Participants were instructed to press a button with the right or left thumb according to the direction of a centrally presented arrow. Each participant underwent two back-to-back ANT sessions with or without chewing gum, odorless and tasteless to remove any effect other than chewing. Behavioral results showed that mean reaction time was significantly decreased during chewing condition, regardless of speed-accuracy trade-off, although there were no significant changes in behavioral effects (both alerting and conflict effects). On the other hand, fMRI analysis revealed higher activations in the anterior cingulate cortex and left frontal gyrus for the executive network and motor-related regions for both attentional networks during chewing condition. These results suggested that chewing induced an increase in the arousal level and alertness in addition to an effect on motor control and, as a consequence, these effects could lead to improvements in cognitive performance. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lillehoj, Catherine J; Nothwehr, Faryle; Shipley, Kala; Voss, Carol
The worksite food environment, including vending options, has been explored as an important contributor to dietary decisions made every day. The current study describes the vending environment, and efforts to change it, in four Iowa worksites using a series of case studies. Data were gathered by local coordinators as part of the Iowa Community Transformation Grant project. Data were collected from three sources. First, the Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending was used to assess healthy vending options in worksite machines before and after the intervention. Second, employee vending behavior was evaluated with a pre-, post-intervention survey. Items assessed attitudes and behaviors regarding vending, plus awareness and reaction to intervention activities. Third, program coordinators documented vending machine intervention strategies used, such as social marketing materials and product labels. The Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending documented that the majority of vending options did not meet criteria for healthfulness. The vending survey found that employees were generally satisfied with the healthier items offered. Some differences were noted over time at the four worksites related to employee behavior and attitudes concerning healthy options. There were also differences in intervention implementation and the extent of changes made by vending companies. Overall, findings demonstrate that a large percentage of employees are constrained in their ability to access healthy foods due to limited worksite vending options. There also remain challenges to making changes in this environment. Findings have implications for public health practitioners to consider when designing healthy vending interventions in worksites. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Umstattd, M Renée; Baller, Stephanie L; Blunt, Gina H; Darst, Michelle L
The objective of this pilot study was to examine demographic, health, behavioral, and social cognitive correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for physical activity (PA) in middle-age adults. A convenience sample (N = 173) of University employees in the Southeastern U.S. (mean age = 45) was surveyed using an internet-based questionnaire. Measures included perceived worksite environmental support for PA, self-reported minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA, self-regulation, self-efficacy for walking transportation, PA social support, health status, and sociodemographic items. Bivariate and hierarchical regression analyses were computed to examine correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for PA. Bivariate analyses revealed male gender, self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA, self-regulation use, self-efficacy for walking transportation, and PA social support from friends and family as independent, positive correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for PA (P ≤ .05). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed self-regulation use and PA social support from friends as independent, positive correlates of perceived worksite environmental support for PA (final model R² = 20.30%, P ≤ .0001). Although causality cannot be determined, these pilot findings support a social cognitive approach. Further exploration of these relationships is warranted and health educators should consider perceptions of physical and social environments in planning future worksite PA promotion programs.
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Arsky, Gunn Helene; Brandhøj, Mia
of dietary habits of the employees and some experiments with healthier worksite eating schemes. Blue-collar employees, employees with working hours outside normal working hours and employees with shifting worksites are likely to be offered less organised and less healthy food schemes. Worksites experiments...... with healthier worksite eating schemes based on employee participation can change the worksite eating substantially, also at blue-collar worksites. However, the dissemination to other worksites not participating in experiments seems limited. There is need for more research in the embedding of experiments......Purpose - The article aims at reviewing national experiences and policy initiatives within worksite eating in four Nordic countries in order to compare the experiences and identify important lessons and needs for future research, experiments and governmental regulation. Design...
Campbell-Grossman, Christie; Hudson, Diane Brage; Fleck, Margaret Ofe
The purposes of this pilot study were to describe the incidence of chewing tobacco use among rural midwestern adolescents and to describe rural midwestern adolescents' perceptions and knowledge about chewing tobacco use. A Smokeless Tobacco Use Survey was administered to 34 adolescent subjects who attended 5th-8th grades in two rural towns. None of the subjects reported trying chewing tobacco products. However, a group of male subjects who stated they may chew tobacco sometime in the future, performed less well on the test about chewing tobacco facts and perceptions of use, indicating some education needs are warranted. Risk factors and deterrent factors to using chewing tobacco are reported.
Leininger, Lisa; Adams, Kent
Worksite health-promotion programs (WHPPs) are prevalent in a variety of worksite settings, including universities, due to their numerous individual health and organizational benefits. Simultaneously, WHPPs provide many employment opportunities for kinesiology graduates. However, few students graduate with applied experience in worksite health…
Santana-Mora, Urbano; López-Cedrún, José; Mora, María J; Otero, Xosé L; Santana-Penín, Urbano
Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side) and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms) was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003) and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002) were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88) degrees versus 46.16(7.25) degrees; P = .001), and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35) degrees versus 48.32(9.53) degrees P = .036) on the symptomatic side. The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Temporomandibular disorders are the most common cause of chronic orofacial pain, but, except where they occur subsequent to trauma, their cause remains unknown. This cross-sectional study assessed chewing function (habitual chewing side and the differences of the chewing side and condylar path and lateral anterior guidance angles in participants with chronic unilateral temporomandibular disorder. This is the preliminary report of a randomized trial that aimed to test the effect of a new occlusal adjustment therapy. METHODS: The masticatory function of 21 randomly selected completely dentate participants with chronic temporomandibular disorders (all but one with unilateral symptoms was assessed by observing them eat almonds, inspecting the lateral horizontal movement of the jaw, with kinesiography, and by means of interview. The condylar path in the sagittal plane and the lateral anterior guidance angles with respect to the Frankfort horizontal plane in the frontal plane were measured on both sides in each individual. RESULTS: Sixteen of 20 participants with unilateral symptoms chewed on the affected side; the concordance (Fisher's exact test, P = .003 and the concordance-symmetry level (Kappa coefficient κ = 0.689; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 0.99; P = .002 were significant. The mean condylar path angle was steeper (53.47(10.88 degrees versus 46.16(7.25 degrees; P = .001, and the mean lateral anterior guidance angle was flatter (41.63(13.35 degrees versus 48.32(9.53 degrees P = .036 on the symptomatic side. DISCUSSION: The results of this study support the use of a new term based on etiology, "habitual chewing side syndrome", instead of the nonspecific symptom-based "temporomandibular joint disorders"; this denomination is characterized in adults by a steeper condylar path, flatter lateral anterior guidance, and habitual chewing on the symptomatic side.
Steffen, Mark W; Hazelton, Angela C; Moore, Wendy R; Jenkins, Sarah M; Clark, Matthew M; Hagen, Philip T
Unhealthy and inadequate sleep is a common and significant problem impacting absenteeism, presenteeism, health, and productivity. This study aimed at analyzing the effect of a worksite-based healthy sleep program. Retrospective analysis of 53 adult members of a worksite wellness center who participated in an 8-week healthy sleep program and completed pre- and postintervention health behavior questionnaires. Following the intervention participants felt significantly more rested, more confident in their ability to deal with sleep problems, and more knowledgeable about sleep. In addition, they reported a reduction in their stress level, improved quality of life, and increase energy level. These results support the effectiveness of worksite programs designed to promote healthy sleep. Future randomized studies are needed to further investigate the effectiveness and optimal delivery of healthy sleep promotion.
Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena
Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. © 2016 The Author(s).
You will have probably noticed that worksite machinery has been installed opposite CERN’s Gate A. They are carrying out work in preparation for the major tramway worksite that is due to reach CERN in a few weeks’ time. This preliminary work should cause no disruption to traffic. Full information on the tramway worksite adjacent to CERN’s Meyrin site will be published in forthcoming issues of the Bulletin. The traffic arrangements on the outskirts of Meyrin village will be modified with effect from 2 February. The section of the Route de Meyrin between the Avenue de Vaudagne and the roundabout at the intersection with Avenue J.-D.-Maillard/Chemin de la Planche will be closed off to traffic. Access to the Hôpital de la Tour will remain unchanged. Diversion signs to the centre of the village will be in operation. More information at http://www.way-tram.ch
Yoshiyuki Hirano; Minoru Onozuka
Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We ...
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru
.... These findings support the concept that chewing is strongly associated with cognitive function such as learning and memory and keeping and increasing attention . This relationship between chewing and cognitive functions was empirically estimated a long time ago. In 1939, Hollingworth  reported that chewing increased relaxation and the performance of cognitive ...
Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Morando, David; Slomp, Anje M.; van de Belt-Gritter, Betsy; Maitra, Amarnath; Busscher, Henk J.
Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and
Gerlach Anne F; French Simone A; Shimotsu Scott T; Hannan Peter J
Abstract Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument) was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management...
Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.
Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing-gum induced context-dependent memory effect (Baker et al, 2004). At learning and/or recall participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants’ su...
Milleman, Jeffery L; Milleman, Kimberly R; Kleber, Carl J; Proskin, Howard M; Dodds, Michael; Kelley, Michael; Ramirez, Lilian
The purpose of this clinical investigation was to evaluate the effectiveness of a marketed whitening chewing gum compared to a no-gum control in preventing the formation of extrinsic stains on the teeth of stain-forming subjects when chewed over a 12-week period of regular unsupervised use in conjunction with daily tooth brushing. This was a single-center, examiner-blind, randomized, 12-week crossover clinical trial. Stain-forming (after smoking or drinking coffee or tea) adults, starting with a stain-free baseline, either chewed the test gum (Orbit White) unsupervised four times per day, 15 minutes/chew, or used no gum along with daily brushing with a commercially available toothbrush and dentifrice for 12 weeks. At the crossover, all procedures were repeated with subjects assigned the opposite treatment. Extrinsic stain was measured at six and 12 weeks by both the Lobene Stain Index (LSI) and the Modified Lobene Stain Index (MLSI) using separate experienced examiners. After 12 weeks, LSI stain scores showed a significant 25% reduction (p = 0.0008) in new stain formation for subjects using the test chewing gum along with tooth brushing versus tooth brushing alone (no-gum control). The corresponding MLSI stain scores demonstrated a 36% reduction (p teeth. The overall findings of this clinical study demonstrated that regular use of Orbit White chewing gum, soon after smoking or drinking coffee or tea, will supplement daily tooth brushing in preventing unsightly stains from forming on the anterior teeth compared to brushing alone.
Becker, Craig; Rager, Robin C.; Wright, Fred Egbert
Background: To improve global health, the workforce capacity of health promotion professionals must be strengthened through the provision of competencies necessary to deliver effective programs. Purpose: This study provides an updated analysis of the validity of the worksite health promotion (WHP) professional competencies developed in 2000 by the…
Engbers, L.H.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Mechelen, W.
Background: It is now widely believed that health promotion strategies should go beyond education or communication to achieve significant behavioral changes among the target population. Environmental modifications are thought to be an important addition to a worksite health promotion program (WHPP).
Engbers, L.H.; Poppel, van M.N.M.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Mechelen, van W.
BACKGROUND: It is now widely believed that health promotion strategies should go beyond education or communication to achieve significant behavioral changes among the target population. Environmental modifications are thought to be an important addition to a worksite health promotion program (WHPP).
Pratt, Charlotte A; Lemon, Stephenie C; Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Goetzel, Ron; Beresford, Shirley A; French, Simone A; Stevens, Victor J; Vogt, Thomas M; Webber, Larry S
This paper describes the design characteristics of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-funded studies that are testing innovative environmental interventions for weight control and obesity prevention at worksites. Seven separate studies that have a total of 114 worksites ( approximately 48,000 employees) across studies are being conducted. The worksite settings include hotels, hospitals, manufacturing facilities, businesses, schools, and bus garages located across the U.S. Each study uses its own conceptual model drawn from the literature and includes the socio-ecological model for health promotion, the epidemiological triad, and those integrating organizational and social contexts. The interventions, which are offered to all employees, include environmental- and individual-level approaches to improve physical activity and promote healthful eating practices. Environmental strategies include reducing portion sizes, modifying cafeteria recipes to lower their fat contents, and increasing the accessibility of fitness equipment at the workplace. Across all seven studies about 48% (N = 23,000) of the population is randomly selected for measurements. The primary outcome measure is change in BMI or body weight after two years of intervention. Secondary measures include waist circumference, objective, and self-report measures of physical activity, dietary intake, changes in vending machines and cafeteria food offerings, work productivity, healthcare use, and return on investment. The results of these studies could have important implications for the design and implementation of worksite overweight and obesity control programs.
... telework agreement, the following rules apply: (1) If the employee is scheduled to work at least twice each... telework agreement. (3) If an employee covered by a telework agreement does not meet the requirements of...'s telework site. (4) An agency must determine a telework employee's official worksite on a case-by...
Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Carlin, Augustus; Manjunath, Amit K; Reihmer, Joel; Gouda, Gowri B; Ginsberg, Gregory G
Insufficient fasting prior to endoscopic procedures performed under sedation may result in potential aspiration of gastric contents. Fasting as per ASA guidelines is recommended prior to these procedures. However, the effect of chewing gum on fasting status has been a subject of debate and often leads to procedural delays. Evaluation of the effect of chewing gum on the gastric volume and pH. In this randomized controlled prospective observer blinded trail, ASA I-III patients aged more than 18 years scheduled for esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) or a combined EGD and colonoscopy under conscious sedation were studied. Patients randomized to the chewing gum group (Group-C) were allowed to chew gum until just before the start of their procedure; the remaining patients were included into Group-NC. After sedation and endoscope insertion, stomach contents were aspirated under vision of a gastroenterologist (blinded to groups). Volume and pH of gastric contents aspirated from 67 patients (34 in Group-C and 33 in Group-NC) were analyzed. The demographic parameters of the groups were comparable. Gastric volume (median-interquartile range) was statistically higher in Group-C (13 ml (7.75-40.75) vs Group-NC 6 ml (1.00-14.00) (P pH in both groups was comparable: 2.84 ± 2.11 in Group-C and 3.79 ± 2.53 in Group-NC (P = 0.141). Although our results show gastric volume in patients chewing gum was statistically higher, clinical relevance of such a small difference is questionable. Thus patients who chewed gum inadvertently prior to procedure should not be denied or delayed administration of sedative and anesthetic medications.
De Luca-Monasterios, Fiorella; Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; López-López, José
This study aims to estimate the prevalence of oral halitosis in a young population and show the effect of chewing gum on their breath. Prospective, descriptive correlational cross section study. We selected a convenience sample of 121 young individuals and 98 completed the study. It was carried out at the University Dental Hospital-University of Barcelona. The protocol consisted of: questionnaire, oral clinical evaluation, organoleptic tests (OT) and measurement of volatile sulfur compounds (VSC) with sulphide monitoring before and after chewing gum during 15 min, with 2 calibrated investigators. A percentage of 87.8 had adequate oral hygiene, 17.3% reported bad breath and 29.6% had xerostomia. Forty-four subjects had a OT grade ≥2; the agreement of examiners was 75%. The VSC in 53 individuals were ≤100 parts per billion (ppb) and in 45 subjects, it was>100 ppb. A post-reduction of VSC of 17.34% was obtained with a mean decrease of 1.8-9.0 ppb (P=.003). The prevalence of halitosis was 36.7%. The use of chewing gum as an adjunct in cases of halitosis decreases the VSC, improving the perception of others and the patient. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Frank, U.; Brown, M. C.; Foerster, V. E.; Schäbitz, F.
Quasi-continuous variations of the Earth's magnetic field recorded in lake sediments can provide detailed time series describing the evolution of the geomagnetic field. To make robust conclusions about underlying geodynamo processes an improvement in the global coverage of recording sites is required. Current lake data for the late Brunhes are biased towards Europe and North America with only five studies reporting paleomagnetic results from equatorial Africa. We present inclination and relative paleointensity from Chew Bahir, southern Ethiopia; a saline mudflat located in the East African Ridge System, previously covered by a ~2000 km2 lake. Discrete measurements were made on two ten meter cores, which we continuously sub-sampled at 2 cm intervals. Calibrated AMS radiocarbon ages constrain the base of the cores to ~45 ka. NRM was demagnetized in ten steps up to 100 mT and well defined characteristic remanence directions, with MAD Lake Turkana, northern Kenya (~60 km to the southwest of Chew Bahir), and we discuss differences between these records. The ratio of NRM to ARM intensity at 20 mT was used as a proxy for relative paleointensity. Broad similarities in variations in relative paleointensity are seen between Chew Bahir and other globally distributed sites; most evidently through the Holocene. The magnetic mineralogy of the cores has been determined using a number of rock magnetic methods and has been used to assess the fidelity of the paleomagnetic records.
Tokmakci, Mahmut; Zortuk, Mustafa; Asyali, Musa Hakan; Sisman, Yildiray; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Ertas, Elif Tarim
In this study, we have explored the prospect of assessing and following level of total denture adaptation by use of EMG signals recorded during gum chewing. Total of 14 edentulous patients, 6 women and 8 men, with an average age of 63±9 years, were recruited. Separate EMG recordings were obtained from left and right temporalis and masseter muscles of the patients for a period of 10 seconds, while they were chewing a sugar-free gum on their left and right sides. EMG recordings were repeated at three times: before, right after, and six months after the placement of the denture. We have tried to standardize environmental and individual factors during EMG recordings. The EMG data have been pre-processed and analyzed using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and obtained features were statistically evaluated using the paired sample t-test. Chewing activity on the right and left side is analyzed by making comparisons of muscle activity between before and right-after cases and before and six-months-after denture fixation cases. A comparison between right and left side mastication is also made at different time points. We have suggested and implemented a new test and comparison procedure in order to assess adaptation to denture fixation using EMG analysis. In this study, the results indicate that DWT based EMG analysis is instrumental in evaluating denture adaptation and as time progresses the adaptation to denture and hence chewing efficiency increases in patients with total denture replacement.
Stefan W Wessel
Full Text Available Chewing of gum contributes to the maintenance of oral health. Many oral diseases, including caries and periodontal disease, are caused by bacteria. However, it is unknown whether chewing of gum can remove bacteria from the oral cavity. Here, we hypothesize that chewing of gum can trap bacteria and remove them from the oral cavity. To test this hypothesis, we developed two methods to quantify numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum. In the first method, known numbers of bacteria were finger-chewed into gum and chewed gums were molded to standard dimensions, sonicated and plated to determine numbers of colony-forming-units incorporated, yielding calibration curves of colony-forming-units retrieved versus finger-chewed in. In a second method, calibration curves were created by finger-chewing known numbers of bacteria into gum and subsequently dissolving the gum in a mixture of chloroform and tris-ethylenediaminetetraacetic-acid (TE-buffer. The TE-buffer was analyzed using quantitative Polymerase-Chain-Reaction (qPCR, yielding calibration curves of total numbers of bacteria versus finger-chewed in. Next, five volunteers were requested to chew gum up to 10 min after which numbers of colony-forming-units and total numbers of bacteria trapped in chewed gum were determined using the above methods. The qPCR method, involving both dead and live bacteria yielded higher numbers of retrieved bacteria than plating, involving only viable bacteria. Numbers of trapped bacteria were maximal during initial chewing after which a slow decrease over time up to 10 min was observed. Around 10(8 bacteria were detected per gum piece depending on the method and gum considered. The number of species trapped in chewed gum increased with chewing time. Trapped bacteria were clearly visualized in chewed gum using scanning-electron-microscopy. Summarizing, using novel methods to quantify and qualify oral bacteria trapped in chewed gum, the hypothesis is confirmed that chewing
Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher
Two experiments independently investigated the basis of the chewing gum induced context-dependent memory effect. At learning and/or recall, participants either chewed flavourless gum (Experiment 1) or received mint-flavoured strips (Experiment 2). No context-dependent memory effect was found with either flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips, indicating that independently the contexts were insufficiently salient to induce the effect. This is found despite participants' subjective ratings indicating a perceived change in state following administration of flavourless gum or mint-flavoured strips. Additionally, some preliminary evidence for a non-additive facilitative effect of receiving gum or flavour at either learning and/or recall is reported. The findings raise further concerns regarding the robustness of the previously reported context-dependent memory effect with chewing gum.
Almeida, Fabio A; Wall, Sarah S; You, Wen; Harden, Samantha M; Hill, Jennie L; Krippendorf, Blake E; Estabrooks, Paul A
To explore the relationship between worksite physical environment and employee dietary intake, physical activity behavior, and weight status. Two trained research assistants completed audits (Checklist of Health Promotion Environments at Worksites) at each worksite (n = 28). Employees (n = 6261) completed a brief health survey before participation in a weight loss program. Employees' access to outdoor areas was directly associated with lower body mass index (BMI), whereas access to workout facilities within a worksite was associated with higher BMI. The presence of a cafeteria and fewer vending machines was directly associated with better eating habits. Better eating habits and meeting physical activity recommendations were both related to lower BMI. Selected environmental factors in worksites were significantly associated with employee behaviors and weight status, providing additional intervention targets to change the worksite environment and promote employee weight loss.
Haile, Demewoz; Lakew, Yihunie
Background Khat chewing has become a highly prevalent practice and a growing public health concern in Ethiopia. Although there have been many small scale studies, very limited national information has been available in the general population. This study aimed to identify factors associated with khat chewing practice among Ethiopian adults. Methods The study used the 2011 Ethiopian demographic and health survey data. The survey was cross-sectional by design and used a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models with adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to quantify the predictors. Results The overall khat chewing prevalence was 15.3% (95% CI: 14.90–15.71). Regional variation was observed with the highest in Harari [(53.2% (95% CI: 43.04–63.28)] and lowest in Tigray regional state [(1.1% (95% CI: 0.72–1.66)]. Multivariable analysis showed that Islam followers were 23.8 times more likely to chew khat as compared to Orthodox followers. Being a resident in Oromiya, South Nation, Nationalities and People (SNNP), Gambella, Harari and Dire Dawa regions had 1.9, 1.6, 3.1, 5.2 and 3.5 times higher odds of chewing khat as compared to Addis Ababa residents, respectively. Adults in the age group 45–49 years were 3.6 times more likely to chew khat as compared to 15–19 years. The middle and richest wealth quintiles were 1.3 and 1.5 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to the poorest category. Rural residents had 1.3 odds of chewing khat than urban residents. Those individuals who had occupation in sales, agriculture, service sector, skilled and unskilled manual workers were 1.6, 1.3, 2.4, 1.7 and 2.3 times more likely to chew khat, respectively, as compared to those who have no occupation. Females were 77% less likely to chew khat as compared to males. Formerly married and those experienced in child death had 1.4 and 1.2 times higher odds to chew khat as compared
Stojanov, Mladen; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen
Beside the efficient effect on masking cetirizine bitter taste, the cyclodextrins (CDs) as well could have influence on the release from the formulation. In vitro release profiles of cetirizine from compressed chewing gums containing α-, β- and γ-CD were investigated using a three cell chewing...... instead the complexes with respect to release yield. Thus unnecessary expenses for the complex preformulation may be avoided. Keywords: Cetirizine, chewing gum, cyclodextrin, complex, drug release...
Karami Nogourani M.; Banihashemi M
"nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval) was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index) in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in th...
Lucove, Jaime C; Huston, Sara L; Evenson, Kelly R
To estimate the employed population's exposure to perceived worksite policies and environments hypothesized to promote physical activity and to determine their relationship to leisure-time physical activity. Cross-sectional, random-digit-dial telephone survey. Community. Employed adults (n = 987) in six North Carolina counties. Outcomes included any leisure-time physical activity, recommended physical activity, and work-break physical activity. Perceived worksite policies and environments included on-site fitness facility at work, safe place to walk outside work, paid time for activity, subsidized health-club membership, and flexible work schedule. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the study population and exposure to perceived worksite policies and environments. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate relationships between perceived worksite policies and environments and physical activity, controlling for age, race, sex, educational status, disability, and general health status. Various supportive worksite policies and environments were reported by 15% to 56% of employed participants. Associations between perceived worksite policies and environments and physical activity were strongest for having paid time for non-work-related physical activity, an on-site fitness facility at work, and subsidies for health clubs. Recommended activity was not associated with perceived worksite policies and environments. Worksite policies and environments are promising factors for future study in physical activity promotion. Studies should evaluate these relationships in other populations and explore measurement error in self-reported worksite policies and environments.
French, Michael T.; Zarkin, Gary A.
BACKGROUND: A few recent studies have examined the relationship between mental illness and labor market variables. The findings are inconsistent, however, and leave unanswered many questions concerning both the nature and magnitude of the relationship. AIMS OF THE STUDY: A recently available worksite-based data set is analyzed to explore the relationship between symptoms of emotional and psychological problems and employee absenteeism and earnings among employees at a large US worksite. METHODS: The analysis was based on data collected through a random and anonymous survey of workers at a large US manufacturing worksite. Two measures of absenteeism are combined - days absent during the past 30 days due to sickness or injury and days absent during the past 30 days because the employee did not want to be at work - to create both a dichotomous (i.e., ever absent) and a continuous (i.e., number of days absent) absenteeism variable. Annual earnings were measured as personal earnings from the primary job. Various statistical models were tested to determine the independent and joint (with alcohol and illicit drug use) relationship between symptoms of emotional problems and labor market variables. RESULTS: The analysis consistently finds that workers who report symptoms of emotional/psychological problems have higher absenteeism and lower earnings than otherwise similar coworkers. This finding is robust to model specification and to the inclusion of comorbid conditions such as alcohol and illicit drug use. DISCUSSION: This study contributes new information to the literature in this area by estimating the effects of emotional/psychological symptoms on two important labor market variables: absenteeism and earnings. Several specifications of the absenteeism and earnings equations were estimated to test the independent effect of emotional symptoms and the joint effects of emotional symptoms and other comorbid conditions. The results suggest that employers should consider the
Quest, Bradley W
An independent study was conducted to determine and quantify the oral care benefits of a daily edible dental chew in dogs as measured by plaque and calculus control, gingival indices, and oral malodor. A "clean mouth" test model was used comparing a commercial dry diet and a commercial dry diet plus one dental chew per day. The dental chew tested was representative of a retail canine dental chew. The test dental chew was a green-colored dental dog chew with a flexible texture that can be readily chewed by dogs. They are made with a knuckle bone shape on one end and a toothbrush shape on the other end. Sixty adult dogs were allocated in either control or test groups based on plaque stratification and studied for 28-days. The test group (30 dogs) received a dry diet and 1 dental chew each day. The control group (30 dogs) received the same dry diet only. At the end of the study, measurements of plaque and calculus accumulation and evaluations of oral malodor and gingival heath were performed. Adding a dental chew to the diet resulted in statistically significant reductions in plaque and calculus accumulation, and oral malodor while improving gingival indices.
VanderVeur, Jennifer; Gilchrist, Siobhan; Matson-Koffman, Dyann
Worksite health promotion (WHP) programs can reduce the occurrence of cardiovascular disease risk factors. State law can encourage employers and employer-provided insurance companies to offer comprehensive WHP programs. This research examines state law authorizing WHP programs. Quantitative content analysis. Worksites or workplaces. United States (and the District of Columbia). State law in effect in 2013 authorizing WHP programs. Frequency and distribution of states with WHP laws. To determine the content of the laws for analysis and coding, we identified 18 policy elements, 12 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC) and 6 additional supportive WHP strategies. We used these strategies as key words to search for laws authorizing WHP programs or select WHP elements. We calculated the number and type of WHP elements for each state with WHP laws and selected two case examples from states with comprehensive WHP laws. Twenty-four states authorized onsite WHP programs, 29 authorized WHP through employer-provided insurance plans, and 18 authorized both. Seven states had a comprehensive WHP strategy, addressing 8 or more of 12 HSC elements. The most common HSC elements were weight management, tobacco cessation, and physical activity. Most states had laws encouraging the adoption of WHP programs. Massachusetts and Maine are implementing comprehensive WHP laws but studies evaluating their health impact are needed.
Lin, Chuan-Yi; Young, Yi-Ho
This study investigated the effect of betel nut chewing on the otolithic reflex system. Seventeen healthy volunteers without any experience of chewing betel nut (fresh chewers) and 17 habitual chewers underwent vital sign measurements, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical VEMP (cVEMP) tests prior to the study. Each subject then chewed two pieces of betel nut for 2min (dosing). The same paradigm was repeated immediately, 10min, and 20min after chewing. On a different day, 10 fresh chewers masticated chewing gum as control. Fresh chewers exhibited significantly decreased response rates of oVEMP (53%) and cVEMP (71%) after dosing compared with those from the predosing period. These abnormal VEMPs returned to normal 20min after dosing. In contrast, 100% response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were observed before and after masticating chewing gum. In habitual chewers, the response rates of oVEMP and cVEMP were 32% and 29%, respectively, 20min after dosing. Chewing betel nuts induced a transient loss of the otolithic reflexes in fresh chewers but may cause permanent loss in habitual chewers. Chewing betel nuts can cause a loss of otholitic reflex function. This creates a risk for disturbed balance and malfunction, for instance, during driving. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Background: Khat (Catha edulis) is a psycho-stimulant substance grown and widely chewed in East Africa. The use of Khat leads to a number of health complications however its adverse effects and prevalence are not well studied. Objective: To compare the prevalence of Khat chewing among H. Pylori infected cases and ...
Objective: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use, khat chewing and its associated factors among Hawassa. University students. Methods: ... of these substances. Keywords: Alcohol use, cigarette smoking, university students, substance use, khat chewing. .... Descriptive and summary statistics were done.
Hashii, K; Tomida, M; Yamashita, S
In the shortened dental arch condition, little is known of how patients adapt their jaw function during mastication to the new oral environment. This study aimed to investigate the changes in mandibular movements when the chewing region was changed from the first molar to the first premolar. Thirty clinical residents with natural dentitions were recruited. The subjects were asked to chew a piece of beef jerky using either the first molar or the first premolar on the preferred chewing side. Three-dimensional trajectories of lower incisors and both condyles were analysed using a jaw movement tracking device with six degrees of freedom during the period between the onset and offset of electromyographic bursts from the masseter and anterior temporal muscles. The closing angle of the lower incisors for first premolar chewing was narrower in comparison with that for first molar chewing (p < 0.05). The lengths of the condylar trajectories and the maximum velocities of the condylar movement for first premolar chewing were smaller and slower, respectively, in comparison with those for first molar chewing (both sides; p < 0.01). The mandibular movement during mastication might be changed to adapt the premolar chewing because of a loss of posterior occlusal supports.
Karami Nogourani M
Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Studies show that sucrose containing chewing gums are cariogenic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two commercial chewing gums with and without sucrose on dental plaque accumulation compared with the control group. "nMaterials and Methods: In this clinical study, plaque accumulation during three 7-day periods (with two weeks interval was recorded (Sillness & Loe Index in a group of 23 volunteer male dental students who chewed in the first two periods sugar-free or sugar-containing chewing gums (Olips and Orbit, respectively and in the last period did not chew any gum. Participants were asked to chew daily five gum sticks after meals for about twenty minutes. The data were statistically analyzed using Repeated Measure ANOVA and paired-T test. "nResults: The results showed that chewing any gum even sucrose-containing gum decreased the level of dental plaque accumulation (P<0.001. However, the decreasing effect of sugar-free gums was significantly higher (P<0.001. "nConclusion: Although sugar free gum was more effective than sugar containing gum on reducing dental plaque accumulation, chewing even sugar containing gums could decrease the level of dental plaque.
Chen, Huayue; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Onozuka, Minoru; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Mastication (chewing) is important not only for food intake, but also for preserving and promoting the general health. Recent studies have showed that mastication helps to maintain cognitive functions in the hippocampus, a central nervous system region vital for spatial memory and learning. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent progress of the association between mastication and the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function. There are multiple neural circuits connecting the masticatory organs and the hippocampus. Both animal and human studies indicated that cognitive functioning is influenced by mastication. Masticatory dysfunction is associated with the hippocampal morphological impairments and the hippocampus-dependent spatial memory deficits, especially in elderly. Mastication is an effective behavior for maintaining the hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance, which deteriorates with aging. Therefore, chewing may represent a useful approach in preserving and promoting the hippocampus-dependent cognitive function in older people. We also discussed several possible mechanisms involved in the interaction between mastication and the hippocampal neurogenesis and the future directions for this unique fascinating research. PMID:26078711
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Tetens, Inge
Objective: To analyse the 5-year sustainability of a worksite canteen intervention of serving more fruit and vegetables (F&V). Design: Average F&V consumption per customer per meal per day was assessed in five worksite canteens by weighing F&V served and subtracting waste. Data were collected...
Tamers, Sara L; Beresford, Shirley A A; Cheadle, Allen D; Zheng, Yingye; Bishop, Sonia K; Thompson, Beti
Social support may be associated with improved diet and physical activity-determinants of overweight and obesity. Wellness programs increasingly target worksites. The aim was to evaluate the relationship between worksite social support and dietary behaviors, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI). Baseline data were obtained on 2878 employees from 2005 to 2007 from 34 worksites through Promoting Activity and Changes in Eating, a group-randomized weight reduction intervention in Greater Seattle. Worksite social support, diet, physical activity, and BMI were assessed via self-reported questionnaire. Principal component analysis was applied to workgroup questions. To adjust for design effects, random effects models were employed. No associations were found with worksite social support and BMI, or with many obesogenic behaviors. However, individuals with higher worksite social support had 14.3% higher (95% CI: 5.6%-23.7%) mean physical activity score and 4% higher (95% CI: 1%-7%) mean fruit and vegetable intake compared to individuals with one-unit lower support. Our findings do not support a conclusive relationship between higher worksite social support and obesogenic behaviors, with the exception of physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Future studies are needed to confirm these relationships and evaluate how worksite social support impacts trial outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chipman, Kristi; Litchfield, Ruth
The Affordable Care Act provides impetus for Extension efforts in worksite wellness. The study reported here examined the influence of two worksite wellness interventions, newsletters and individual counseling. Surveys examined dietary and physical activity behaviors of participants pre- and post-intervention (N = 157). Descriptive statistics,…
Senn, M; Baiwog, F; Winmai, J; Mueller, I; Rogerson, S; Senn, N
Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A; Koepsell, Thomas D; Duncan, Glen E; Moudon, Anne Vernez
Understanding mechanisms linking neighborhood context to health behaviors may provide targets for increasing lifestyle intervention effectiveness. Although associations between home neighborhood and obesogenic behaviors have been studied, less is known about the role of worksite neighborhood. To evaluate associations between worksite neighborhood context at baseline (2006) and change in obesogenic behaviors of adult employees at follow-up (2007-2009) in a worksite randomized trial to prevent weight gain. Worksite property values were used as an indicator of worksite neighborhood SES (NSES). Worksite neighborhood built environment attributes associated with walkability were evaluated as explanatory factors in relationships among worksite NSES, diet, and physical activity behaviors of employees. Behavioral data were collected at baseline (2005-2007) and follow-up (2007-2009). Multilevel linear and logistic models were constructed adjusting for covariates and accounting for clustering within worksites. Product-of-coefficients methods were used to assess mediation. Analyses were performed after study completion (2011-2012). Higher worksite NSES was associated with more walking (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03, 1.30, p=0.01). Higher density of residential units surrounding worksites was associated with more walking and eating five or more daily servings of fruits and vegetables, independent of worksite NSES. Residential density partially explained relationships among worksite NSES, fruit and vegetable consumption, and walking. Worksite neighborhood context may influence employees' obesogenic behaviors. Furthermore, residential density around worksites could be an indicator of access to dietary and physical activity-related infrastructure in urban areas. This may be important given the popularity of worksites as venues for obesity prevention efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Movsisyan, Narine K; Thompson, Michael E; Petrosyan, Varduhi
In March 2005, Armenia enacted legislation protecting employees from secondhand smoke. This research was the first attempt to understand the attitudes, beliefs and practices of managers of public and private enterprises regarding smoke-free worksite policies. Mixed methods were used. The study team conducted focus group discussions with worksite administrators to explore their beliefs, attitudes and practices related to worksite smoking. These findings guided development of a quantitative instrument to collect more representative data on the same issues. Using stratified random sampling, 243 worksites were interviewed from June-July 2005, representing state/municipal, health, educational, culture and business institutions in three of Armenia's largest cities. Smoking-related practices differed significantly across institutions. More than half of the managers (55.6%) reported having smoking restrictions at worksites, including 37.0% who reported smoke-free workplaces; however, smoking or the presence of ashtrays was observed in 27.8% of workplaces reported to be smoke-free. A substantial proportion of the administrators favored both banning indoor smoking and allowing smoking in special areas. Only 38.0% of managers were aware of employees' existing legal protections from exposure to secondhand smoke. Knowledge of these regulations was not related to adherence to smoke-free worksite policies. The research also revealed widespread confusion between the concepts of worksite smoking restrictions and smoke-free workplaces. Public awareness campaigns that promote promulgation and enforcement of worksite smoking regulations could increase employee demand for smoke-free worksites. As one of the first studies to investigate smoking-related worksite practices, attitudes and beliefs in former Soviet countries, these findings provide insight into law enforcement processes in economies in transition.
Full Text Available [b]Introduction[/b]. Differences in the risk of being exposed to second-hand smoke (SHS in the workplace may occur not only between countries, but also within a country among socio-economic groups. [b]Objectives. [/b]The aim of the study was to examine the associations of exposure to SHS at worksites with selected factors in non-smoking Romanian employees. [b]Material and Methods[/b]. Data on exposure to SHS at worksites and other characteristics of respondents came from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS. GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults 15 years of age or older, using a standard protocol. [b]Results[/b]. Among 4,517 respondents who completed the questionnaire there were 1,333 subjects, including 859 non-smokers who worked in an indoor area outside the home. The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 31.2% among non-smoking male and 23.9% among non-smoking female employees (p<0.05. Employees with primary education had odds of exposure to SHS at work nearly twice as high, compared to the respondents having high education attainment (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.2–2.9. Moreover, exposure to SHS at worksites was significantly associated with a low level of support for tobacco control policies among workers (OR = 1.8; 95% CI: 1.2–2.8. [b]Conclusions[/b]. In spite of the increasing presence of smoking bans in public and workplaces, enforcement still seems to be unsuccessful in the occupational space in Romania. In order to reduce SHS exposure in workplaces, strengthening support for tobacco control policies is essential.
Renaud, Lise; Kishchuk, Natalie; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil; Téreault, Karine; Leblanc, Marie-Claude
This paper reports on the implementation and results of a three-year comprehensive worksite health promotion program called Take care of your health!, delivered at a single branch of a large financial organization with 656 employees at the beginning of the implementation period and 905 at the end. The program included six educational modules delivered over a three-year period. A global health profile was part of the first and last modules. The decision to implement the program coincided with an overall program of organizational renewal. The data for this evaluation come from four sources: analysis of changes in employee health profiles between the first and last program sessions (n=270); questionnaires completed by participating employees at the end of the program (n=169); organizational data on employee absenteeism and turnover; and qualitative interviews with company managers (n=9). Employee participation rates in the six modules varied between 39% and 76%. The assessment of health profile changes showed a significant increase in the Global Health Score. Participants were significantly more likely to report more frequent physical activity and better nutritional practices. The proportion of smokers among participants was significantly reduced (p = 0.0147). Also reduced significantly between the two measurements were self-assessment of high stress inside and outside the workplace, stress signs, and feelings of depression. Employees were highly satisfied with the program and felt that it had impacts on their knowledge and capacities to manage their health behaviour. During the same period, absenteeism in the organization declined by 28% and turnover by 54%. From the organization's perspective, program implementation was very successful. This study's results are in line with previous findings of significant benefits to organizations and employees from worksite health promotion. The close relationship between the program outcomes and the overall process of
Lemon, Stephenie C; Zapka, Jane; Li, Wenjun; Estabrook, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros; Magner, Robert; Andersen, Victoria; Borg, Amy; Hale, Janet
The worksite represents a promising venue in which to address the issue of obesity. Pair-matched, cluster-RCT. Data were collected from 2005 to 2008 and analyzed in 2008. A random sample of 806 employees was selected to represent the workforce of six hospitals in central Massachusetts. The 2-year ecologic intervention sought to prevent weight gain through changes in worksite weight-related norms using strategies targeted at the organization, interpersonal environment, and employees. The primary outcome was change in BMI at the 12- and 24-month follow-ups. Change in perceptions of organizational commitment to employee health and normative coworker behaviors were secondary outcomes. There was no impact of the intervention on change in BMI from baseline to 12 (beta=0.272; 95% CI=-0.271, 0.782) or 24 months (beta=0.276; 95% CI=-0.338, 0.890) in intention-to-treat analysis. When intervention exposure (scale=0 to 100) was used as the independent variable, there was a decrease of 0.012 BMI units (95% CI=-0.025, 0.001) for each unit increase in intervention participation at the 24-month follow-up. Employees in intervention sites reported significantly greater improvements in perceptions of organizational commitment to employee health at 12 and 24 months compared to control sites, but there was no impact on perceptions of normative coworker behaviors. The intervention had a dose-response relationship with BMI, with positive effects proportional to extent of participation. Although the intervention was able to change organizational perceptions, successfully improving changes in actual and perceived social norms may be needed to achieve population-level impact in complex worksite organizations. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lemon, Stephenie C; Zapka, Jane; Li, Wenjun; Estabrook, Barbara; Magner, Robert; Rosal, Milagros C
To examine the associations of perceptions of organizational commitment to employee health and coworker physical activity and eating behaviors with body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and eating behaviors in hospital employees. Baseline data from 899 employees participating in a worksite weight-gain prevention trial were analyzed. Greater perception of organizational commitment to employee health was associated with lower BMI. Greater perceptions of coworker healthy eating and physical activity behaviors were associated with fruit and vegetable and saturated fat consumption and physical activity, respectively. Improving organizational commitment and facilitating supportive interpersonal environments could improve obesity control among working populations.
Lemon, Stephenie C.; Zapka, Jane; Li, Wenjun; Estabrook, Barbara; Magner, Robert; Rosal, Milagros C.
Objectives To examine the associations of perceptions of organizational commitment to employee health and coworker physical activity and eating behaviors with body mass index (BMI), physical activity and eating behaviors in hospital employees. Methods Baseline data from 899 employees participating in a worksite weight gain prevention trial were analyzed. Results Greater perception of organizational commitment to employee health was associated with lower BMI. Greater perception of coworker healthy eating and physical activity behaviors were associated with fruit and vegetable and saturated fat consumption and physical activity, respectively. Conclusions Improving organizational commitment and facilitating supportive interpersonal environments could improve obesity control among working populations. PMID:19063651
Sorensen, G; Stoddard, A M; Youngstrom, R; Emmons, K; Barbeau, E; Khorasanizadeh, F; Levenstein, C
OBJECTIVES: This report describes local unions' positions on tobacco control initiatives and factors related to these positions. METHODS: A national random sample of local union leaders was surveyed by telephone. RESULTS: Forty-eight percent of local unions supported worksite smoking bans or restrictions, and only 8% opposed both a ban and a restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Support for tobacco control initiatives among local unions was higher than might be expected on the basis of previous evidence. Engaging unions in smoking policy formation is likely to contribute to the larger public health goal of reducing smoking and exposure to second-hand smoke among workers. PMID:10754979
Alexander, R M
The guts of people and animals function like industrial chemical plants. They are assemblies of tubes and tanks in which foods are hydrolysed by enzyme-catalysed reactions, or fermented by microorganisms. Raw materials enter at one end, waste matter is voided at the other, and valuable products are abstracted on the way. A mill at the entrance end reduces the raw materials to small fragments, enabling the reactions to proceed faster. This paper shows how ideas from chemical engineering are guiding research on the gut, giving much clearer understanding of how foods respond to chewing, and of how guts are designed to process different foods. We will discuss the teeth as a grinding mill, and the digestive tube as a chain of chemical reactors.
Full Text Available Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64% showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5% showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23% showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9% showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.
Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Onozuka, Minoru
Chewing is crushing food not only to aid swallowing and digestion, but also to help stress relief and regulate cognitive function, especially in attention. It is well known that chewing gum is used for sleepiness prevention during work, learning, and driving, suggesting a link between chewing and sustained attention. We hypothesized that chewing elevates attention and/or alertness, leading to improvements in cognitive performance. We carried out a systematic review of the PubMed database. We inspected the attributes of effects on attention in studies investigating the effects of chewing on attention or alertness conducted with pre-post design in healthy subjects, except elderly. We identified 151 references, 22 of which were included: 14 (64%) showed positive attributes of effects on attention, 1 (5%) showed negative attributes of effects on attention, 5 (23%) showed both positive and negative attributes of effects on attention, and 2 (9%) showed no significant attributes of effects on attention. Thus, positive attributes of effects of chewing on attention, especially on sustained attention, were shown in over half of the reports. These effects also appeared with improvement in mood and stress relief and were influenced by time-on-task effect. Further studies are needed, but chewing could be useful for modifying cognitive function.
Johnston, Craig A; Tyler, Chermaine; Stansberry, Sandra A; Moreno, Jennette P; Foreyt, John P
Gum chewing has been shown to improve cognitive performance in adults; however, gum chewing has not been evaluated in children. This study examined the effects of gum chewing on standardized test scores and class grades of eighth grade math students. Math classes were randomized to a gum chewing (GC) condition that provided students with gum during class and testing, or a control condition with no gum (NGC). Participants included 108 students. The math sections of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) and the Woodcock Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ-III), and math class grades were used to assess academic performance. Students in the gum chewing condition improved standardized test scores and maintained higher grades in math class compared to those in the no-gum chewing condition. These results are encouraging as gum chewing may be a cost-effective and easily implemented method to increase student performance. NCT00792116. Copyright Â© 2011 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ohara, Yuki; Hirano, Hirohiko; Watanabe, Yutaka; Edahiro, Ayako; Sato, Emiko; Shinkai, Shoji; Yoshida, Hiroto; Mataki, Shiro
Mastication is an important function to maintain, not only for oral health, but also for quality of life. An easy-to-use method to evaluate the chewing ability of elderly people in any environment is necessary. Few studies have discussed the effectiveness of the masseter muscle by palpation. The purpose of this study was to clarify the availability of masseter muscle tension assessment methods by investigating its relationship with oral health status, and comparing it with other methods of assessing chewing ability. This cross-sectional study was carried out with 547 community-dwelling elderly subjects (246 men and 301 women; mean age 73.8 ± 6.2 years) who participated in a comprehensive annual geriatric health examination in 2010 at Kusatsu, Gunma, Japan. Chewing ability was evaluated by masseter muscle tension palpation, differences of masseter muscle thickness, occlusal force, self-reported chewing ability, and the number of remaining and functional teeth. Masseter muscle thickness was measured by ultrasonography. Masseter muscle thickness and occlusal force showed significant differences between males and females. The strength of masseter muscle tension palpation was significantly associated with men's occlusal force, masseter muscle thickness, the number of remaining and functional teeth, and self-reported chewing ability (P muscle thickness, the number of remaining teeth, and self-reported chewing ability and results of palpation (P palpation of masseter muscle tension is a reliable and easy-to-use method to evaluate the chewing ability of elderly people. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.
Elmi, A S
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk.), known in Somalia as "qaad" or "jaad", is a plant whose leaves and stem tips are chewed for their stimulating effect. From the Harar area, khat has been introduced at different times into the present day territories of Somalia, Djibouti, South and North Yemen, Kenya, Madagascar, Tanzania and down to south eastern Africa. The plant, which belongs to the Celestraceae family, grows wild at altitudes of 1500-2000 m above sea level. Among the various compounds present in the plant (more than forty alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, terpenoids, etc.), two phenylalkylamines, namely cathine [+)-norpseudoephedrine) and cathinone [-)S-o-aminopropiophenone) seem to account mostly for the effect. The consumers get a feeling of well-being, mental alertness and excitement. The after effects are usually insomnia, numbness and lack of concentration. The excessive use of khat may create considerable problems of social, health and economic nature. These problems have been summarily reviewed. Khat chewing started at different times in different parts of Somalia. Since World War II, the prevalence of the practice has continuously increased and no social group is excluded. An epidemiological research to compare Northern and Southern regions of Somalia and to obtain a rough estimate of prevalence, definition of social characteristics of the groups of consumers, specification of the motivations, patterns of use and effects during and after consumption has been conducted. Consumers and non-consumers (7485 people) were randomly interviewed in the two regions. Khat consumption in relation to sex, age, occupation and grade of education is presented.
Hipp, J Aaron; Reeds, Dominic N; van Bakergem, Margaret A; Marx, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Pamulapati, Surya C; Hoehner, Christine M
Obesity prevention strategies are needed that target multiple settings, including the worksite. The objective of this study was to assess the state of science concerning available measures of worksite environmental and policy supports for physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE). We searched multiple databases for instruments used to assess worksite environments and policies. Two commonly cited instruments developed by state public health departments were also included. Studies that were published from 1991 through 2013 in peer-reviewed publications and gray literature that discussed the development or use of these instruments were analyzed. Instrument administration mode and measurement properties were documented. Items were classified by general health topic, 5 domains of general worksite strategy, and 19 subdomains of worksite strategy specific to PA or HE. Characteristics of worksite measures were described including measurement properties, length, and administration mode, as well as frequencies of items by domain and subdomain. Seventeen instruments met inclusion criteria (9 employee surveys, 5 manager surveys, 1 observational assessment, and 2 studies that used multiple administration modes). Fourteen instruments included reliability testing. More items were related to PA than HE. Most instruments (n = 10) lacked items in the internal social environment domain. The most common PA subdomains were exercise facilities and lockers/showers; the most common HE subdomain was healthy options/vending. This review highlights gaps in measurement of the worksite social environment. The findings provide a useful resource for researchers and practitioners and should inform future instrument development.
Zhu, Yong; Hollis, James H
Recent research indicates that chewing behavior may influence energy intake and energy expenditure. However, little is known about the relationship between chewing behavior and body weight status. In the present study, 64 fully dentate normal-weight or overweight/obese adults were asked to consume five portions of a test food and the number of chewing cycles, chewing duration before swallowing and chewing rate were measured. Adjusting for age and gender, normal-weight participants used a higher number of chewing cycles (p = 0.003) and a longer chewing duration (p body mass index and the number of chewing cycles (r = -0.296, p = 0.020) and chewing duration (r = -0.354, p = 0.005) was observed. In conclusion, these results suggest that chewing behavior is associated with body weight status in fully dentate healthy adults.
Ishigaki, S; Tanaka, K; Nakatani, E; Yoshikawa, K; Omae, T; Inoue, S; Okuda, T; Akanishi, M; Maruyama, T
This article was aimed to propose a new concept on evaluating electromyographic activities of masticatory muscles during chewing movements viewed from the standpoint of motor skill. Correlation coefficients between the ratio of lateral distance to ten vertical level set at 0.5 mm to 5.0 mm with 0.5 mm step from the end of closing phase and activities of bilateral masseter, anterior and posterior temporalis in each chewing stroke were evaluated using raisin, peanut, soft and hard testing gum in five subjects. Habitual chewing side always demonstrated less numbers of subjects who showed high correlation coefficients especially in the case of soft testing gum.
Richa Anand; Chandan Dhingra; Sumanth Prasad; Ipseeta Menon
The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world...
... constantly craving and chewing ice a sign of anemia? Answers from Ruben A. Mesa, M.D. Possibly. Doctors use the term "pica" ... ice (pagophagia) is often associated with iron deficiency anemia, although the reason is unclear. At least one ...
Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh
.... The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen...
Richa Anand; Chandan Dhingra; Sumanth Prasad; Ipseeta Menon
The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, tw...
Conclusion: Brain laterality can be explained by the side of functional (preference of the hands, eyes, ears, and feet, and survey has a positive correlation with chewing preference side. MAI between the brain dominant and nondominant sides was not significant. This shows that mastication efficiency does not differ between dominant and nondominant sides. So, this study suggests that brain dominance is correlated with chewing preference, but it does not affect efficiency of mastication.
Full Text Available Betel nut (or areca is the fourth most commonly used drug worldwide after tobacco, alcohol, and caffeine. Many chemical ingredients of betel nut are carcinogenic. We examined whether the manipulation of attentional inhibition toward the areca-related stimuli could affect betel-nut chewing time. Three matched groups of habitual chewers were recruited: inhibit-areca, inhibit-non-areca, and control. This study consisted of a Go/No-Go task for inhibition training, followed by a taste test for observing chewing behavior. The Go/No-Go task constituted three phases (pretest, training and posttest. In the taste test, the habitual chewers were asked to rate the flavors of one betel nut and one gum. The purpose (blind to the chewers of this taste test was to observe whether their picking order and chewing time were affected by experimental manipulation. Results from the Go/No-Go task showed successful training. Further, the training groups (the inhibit-areca and inhibit-non-areca groups showed a significant reduction in betel nut chewing time, in comparison to the control group. Since both training groups showed reduced chewing time, the inhibition training may affect general control ability, in regardless of the stimulus (areca or not to be inhibited. Reduced chewing time is important for reducing areca-related diseases.
Gao, Yi-jun; Peng, Hai-yan; Yin, Xiao-min; Wen, Chun-yan; Han, Yu-ling; Xiao, Yan-bo
To investigate the prevalence of betel nut chewing and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) among elementary and middle school students in Loudi city, Hunan province. According to the standard of the third national oral health epidemiological investigation, the subjects were selected through a two-stage random sampling procedure. A face to face questionnaire survey was conducted among students by random sampling from 6 schools, and oral examination was performed to find the prevalence of OSF. Of the 4087 eligible students, 4019 students participated in the survey(98.3%). Among the 4019 students, there were 498 betel nut chewers, the prevalence of betel nut chewing was 12.4%, which was much higher in male than in female students (437/2073, 21.1% vs 61/1946, 3.1%, P nuts increased with increasing grades (P nuts in elementary school obtained betel nuts from their parents (61/126, 48.4%), but most middle school betel nut chewers obtained betel nuts from their friends (88/143, 61.5% and 165/229, 72.1%). Five OSF cases (0.12%) were diagnosed among the 4019 students, all of them were male senior school students. Betel nut chewing was common and OSF cases were found among elementary and middle school students in Loudi city. There were more male than female students who were chewing betel nut.
Kolbe-Alexander Tracy L
Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient PA has been shown to cluster with other CVD risk factors including insufficient fruit and vegetable intake, overweight, increased serum cholesterol concentrations and elevated blood pressure. This paper describes the development of Working on Wellness (WOW, a worksite intervention program incorporating motivational interviewing by wellness specialists, targeting employees at risk. In addition, we describe the evaluation the effectiveness of the intervention among employees at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Methods The intervention mapping (IM protocol was used in the planning and design of WOW. Focus group discussions and interviews with employees and managers identified the importance of addressing risk factors for CVD at the worksite. Based on the employees’ preference for individual counselling, and previous evidence of the effectiveness of this approach in the worksite setting, we decided to use motivational interviewing as part of the intervention strategy. Thus, as a cluster-randomised, controlled control trial, employees at increased risk for CVD (N = 928 will be assigned to a control or an intervention group, based on company random allocation. The sessions will include motivational interviewing techniques, comprised of two face-to-face and four telephonic sessions, with the primary aim to increase habitual levels of PA. Measures will take place at baseline, 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include changes in nutritional habits, serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations, blood pressure and BMI. In addition, healthcare expenditure and absenteeism will be measured for the economic evaluation. Analysis of variance will be performed to determine whether there were significant changes in physical activity habits in the intervention and control groups at 6 and 12 months. Discussion The formative work on which this intervention is based suggests that the strategy of targeting
Weiner, Bryan J; Lewis, Megan A; Linnan, Laura A
.... However, no integrated theory of implementation has emerged from this research. This article describes a theory of the organizational determinants of effective implementation of comprehensive worksite health promotion programs...
van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R L; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J
.... The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention on vigorous physical activity in leisure time, sedentary behavior at work, fruit...
Vuillemin, Anne; Rostami, Cyrus; Maes, Lea; Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Objective: Our aim was to review the effectiveness of physical activity promotion interventions in the worksite setting in Europe in order to identify those studies that had measured obesity-related outcomes...
Nader, Ingo W; Gittler, Georg; Waldherr, Karin; Pietschnig, Jakob
To determine whether chewing of gum facilitates spatial task performance in healthy participants, two behavioral experiments were performed. In the first experiment, spatial task performance of 349 men and women preceding and after treatment administration (saccharated chewing gum, sugar-free chewing gum, no chewing gum) was assessed using effect modeling by means of Item Response Theory. In the second experiment, another 100 participants were either administered sugar-free chewing gum or no chewing gum during spatial task performance. Effects of gum in the second study were assessed by standard means of data analysis. Results indicated no significant effects of either chewing gum or sugar on spatial task performance in either experiment. Our findings are consistent with recent studies investigating the influences of chewing gum on various memory functions, extending them by another measure of cognitive ability. Thus, further doubt is cast on enhancing effects of chewing gum on cognitive task performance. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Hsiu-Min; Liou, Shwu-Ru; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Cheng, Ching-Yu
To understand the relationship of individual characteristics, perceived worksite support and perceived personal creativity to clinical nurses' innovative outcome (receiving the Nursing Innovation Award). Since the idea of applying creativity and innovation to clinical nursing practice and management was first advocated in the Nursing Administration Quarterly in 1982, the topic of nursing innovation has gained worldwide attention. To increase the prevalence of nursing innovation, it is important to identify and understand the related factors that influence nurses' innovative outcome. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 32 award winners and 506 nonawarded clinical nurses in Taiwan. The level of creativity perceived by all participants was moderate-to-high. Individual characteristics (r = 0·61) and worksite support (r = 0·27) were both correlated with perceived creativity. Individual characteristics and worksite support showed some correlation as well (r = 0·21). Individual characteristics and worksite support could predict perceived creativity after controlling for demographic variables, but only individual characteristics had an effect on innovative outcome. Perceived creativity did not have mediation effects either between individual characteristics and innovative outcome or between worksite support and innovative outcome. Clinical nurses' individual characteristics had a direct relationship to innovative outcome, whereas neither worksite support nor creativity was correlated with innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not show effects on innovative outcome, it was related to both perceived creativity and individual characteristics. As suggested by other scholars, there might be other related factors between creativity and innovative outcome. Although worksite support did not have effect on clinical nurses' innovative outcome, it was related to individual characteristics
Leslie, Jodi Haunani; Hughes, Claire Ku‘uleilani; Braun, Kathryn L.
Background Native Hawaiians today face a disproportionately high rate of obesity. The Designing Healthy Worksites (DHW) project investigated existing administrative policies and supports for healthy eating and physical activity at eight Native Hawaiian-serving organizations in Hawai‘i, along with employee preferences for worksite wellness programming. Objectives We describe the process by which Native Hawaiian researchers and community members worked together to gather formative data to design future worksite wellness programs. Methods A Native Hawaiian doctoral student (JHL) and a Native Hawaiian activist (CKH) spearheaded the project, mentored by a Caucasian professor (KLB) who has worked in Hawaii communities for 30 years. Advisors from the worksites supported the use of environmental assessments (n = 36), administrative interviews (n = 33), focus groups (n = 9), and an employee survey (n = 437) to collect data. We used an interactive process of data collection, sharing, and interpretation to assure mutual agreement on conclusions and future directions. Results Worksites were at different stages of readiness for worksite wellness programming, suggesting that a toolkit be developed from which agencies could create a program that fit. Activities preferred by large proportions of employees included support groups, experiential nutrition education (e.g., cooking demonstrations and field trips for smart food shopping), food buying clubs, and administrative policies supporting healthy lifestyles. High participation in data collection and interpretation suggest that our methods fostered enthusiasm for worksite wellness programming and for Native Hawaiians as researchers. The team continues to work together to develop and test interventions to promote worksite wellness. Conclusion Native-directed research that engages administrators and employees in designing programs heightens program acceptability and applicability. PMID:20543487
Vadiveloo, Maya K; Malik, Vasanti S.; Spiegelman, Donna; Walter C. Willett; Mattei, Josiemer
Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012–2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes...
Quinn Griffin, M T; Mott, M; Burrell, P M; Fitzpatrick, J J
Chewing betel nut is a tradition extending from Southeast Asia to the Pacific. Globally, betel nut is the fourth main psychotropic substance containing a stimulant, arecoline, that has a similar effect to nicotine. In Palau, there is broad acceptance of betel nut chewing. One of the largest immigrant groups in Hawaii is the Palauans. Chewing betel nut has significant social implications that make it difficult for those who engage in this practice to separate potential oral disease from the social importance. However, little is known about the social impact of oral disease from chewing betel nut on Palauans in Hawaii. The study aimed to describe the perceptions of betel-chewing Palauans in Hawaii regarding betel nut and to determine the social impact of oral disease among these individuals. Descriptive study conducted on the island of Oahu, Hawaii with 30 adult Palauans. Data were collected using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 to measure perceptions of social impact of oral disease on well-being. Demographic and general health information was collected. Participants perceived little negative social impact of oral disease on well-being. Families, peers and society exert a strong influence on the decision to chew betel nut, a known carcinogen. Participants in this study showed little concern on the impact of betel nut chewing on their oral health. They continue the habit in spite of the awareness of potential for oral disease. Nurses face challenges in educating Palauans about the negative aspects of betel nut, particularly those related to oral health especially when they do not perceive problems. Nurses must be involved in the development of health policies to design and implement strategies to promote behavioural change, and to ensure clinical services that are culturally sensitive to betel nut chewers. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Nordenram, G; Ljunggren, G; Cederholm, T
Chronically ill elderly persons sustain a high risk for protein-energy malnutrition (PEM). In this study we explored some of the complex associations between nutritional status, dental health and cognitive and physical function in 192 nursing home residents (mean age 84+/-8 years, 80% female). Nutrition-related data from the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI) were compiled into a Nutrition Score (NuSc; 0-1 = non-PEM, 2 = risk for PEM, and 3-7 = PEM). Chewing capacity, according to number and condition of occlusal contacts, was determined by a Clinical Dental Functionality score (CDF). The Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS) and activities of daily living (ADL) were determined according to the RAI. Fifty percent of the residents had NuSc > or = 2, and 25% had NuSc > or = 3. One third did not have the dental prerequisites for chewing. i.e., cognitive dysfunction, and over two thirds were severely limited in their ADL activities. Subjects with > or = 4 occlusal contacts, i.e., technical chewing capacity, had better NuSc (1.5+/-1.4) than those not able to chew (2.4+/-1.6, p=0.0005). In univariate logistic regression, the odds for NuSc > or = 2 increased with reduced ADL functions. inability to chew and poor cognition. In multivariate logistic regression, ADL and chewing capacity were significantly related to NuSc > or = 2. When NuSc > or = 3 was chosen as cut-off, only ADL was related to malnutrition. In conclusion, half of this group of nursing home residents appeared to be malnourished, or were at risk for PEM. Reduced physical function was the strongest predictor of PEM, while impaired chewing capacity was associated with risk for PEM.
Heydecke, Guido; Akkad, Ahmed Shadi; Wolkewitz, Martin; Vogeler, Michael; Türp, Jens C; Strub, Joerg R
Complex procedures involving a facebow transfer and the use of lingualised teeth are deemed to have a positive influence on the chewing ability with complete dentures. To determine if patients' ratings of their ability to chew depend on the method of complete denture fabrication. Edentulous patients (n = 20) participated in a within-subject crossover trial. Each patient received two sets of new complete dentures. One pair was manufactured based on intraoral tracing of centric relation and facebow transfer; semi-anatomical teeth with lingualised occlusion denture (LOD) were chosen. The second pair was made using a simplified procedure without facebow transfer; jaw relations were recorded with wax occlusion rims, and anatomical teeth with a first premolar/canine-guidance (CGD) were selected. The dentures were delivered in randomised order, and each was worn for 3 months. Three months after delivery, patients' ratings of each new prosthesis were recorded on visual analogue scales for their ability to chew seven index foods. Repeated measurements analysis of variance was performed to investigate possible carry-over effects accounting for confounding by treatment period. When comparing the two treatments, participants rated their ability to chew in general, to masticate carrots, hard sausage, steak and raw apple in particular, was significantly better with the CGD (anatomical teeth) than with the LOD (p < 0.05). Comprehensive methods for the fabrication of complete dentures including semi-anatomical lingualised teeth and a full registration do not seem to influence the perceived chewing ability, when compared with more simple procedures. Chewing ability for tough foods appears to benefit from the use of anatomical teeth.
Taylor, N; Conner, M.; Lawton, R.
Background. Despite the potential importance of worksite physical activity interventions, reviews suggest there is currently a lack of clarity regarding their effectiveness. Aim. This meta-analysis assessed the effectiveness of worksite interventions designed to promote physical activity and investigate whether (1) interventions explicitly designed based on theory are more effective, and (2) inclusion of specific behaviour change techniques (BCTs) improves effectiveness. Methods. Worksite int...
Gonçalves, T M S V; Vilanova, L S R; Gonçalves, L M; Rodrigues Garcia, R C M
Partial or complete edentulism impairs mastication. However, it is unclear how the chewing cycle is affected by prosthetics. We evaluated the chewing movements of patients fitted with complete (CD) or removable partial denture (RPD). A total of 29 subjects were kinesiographically evaluated during chewing of peanuts and Optocal portions in a random sequence. The subjects were divided into two groups according to prosthesis type. Group RPD was composed of 14 partially edentulous patients using a lower distal extension RPD (mean age 61 ± 8 years), and group CD contained 15 completely edentulous patients using CD (mean age 65·9 ± 7·9 years) in both jaws. Opening, closing, occlusal and masticatory cycle times, movement angle (opening and closing), maximum velocity (opening and closing), total area and chewing cycle amplitudes were evaluated. The results were subjected to anova and Tukey's HSD test at a significance level of 5%. The RPD group exhibited shorter opening and closing phases and masticatory cycle time (P 0·05). RPD wearers use a faster chewing sequence with greater vertical and lateral jaw excursions compared with CD wearers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne; Andersen, Strodel
. Design: A self-administered questionnaire was randomly mailed to 1967 worksite canteen managers. Besides information and characteristics about the canteen and the worksite, the canteen managers specified the menus available. Two different health groups (Healthy and Less Healthy) were defined in three...... Danish worksite canteen managers replied, resulting in a response rate of 29 %. Results: Only 12% of the canteens applied to the Healthy group combining all the three meal categories. In particular, worksites with more than 75% female employees served healthy menus on a frequent basis. The size...
Wei, Yu-Ting; Chou, Yu-Tsung; Yang, Yi-Ching; Chou, Chieh-Ying; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen; Wu, Jin-Shang
Betel nut chewing is associated with certain cardiovascular outcomes. Subclinical atherosclerosis may be one link between betel nut chewing and cardiovascular risk. Few studies have examined the association between chewing betel nut and arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was thus to determine the relationship between betel nut chewing and arterial stiffness in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 7540 eligible subjects in National Cheng Kung University Hospital from October 2006 to August 2009. The exclusion criteria included history of cerebrovascular events, coronary artery disease, and taking lipid-lowering drugs, antihypertensives, and hypoglycemic agents. Increased arterial stiffness was defined as brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) ≥1400cm/s. According to their habit of betel nut use, the subjects were categorized into non-, ex-, and current chewers. The prevalence of increased arterial stiffness was 32.7, 43.3, and 43.2% in non-, ex- and current chewers, respectively (p=0.011). Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that ex-chewers (odds ratio [OR] 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.08-2.65) and current chewers (OR 2.29, 95% CI=1.05-4.99) had elevated risks of increased arterial stiffness after adjustment for co-variables. Both ex- and current betel nut chewing were associated with a higher risk of increased arterial stiffness. Stopping betel nut chewing may thus potentially be beneficial to reduce cardiovascular risk, based on the principals of preventive medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Aston, Louise M; Jebb, Susan A
Public health strategies place increasing emphasis on opportunities to promote healthy behaviours within the workplace setting. Previous research has suggested worksite health promotion programmes have positive effects on physical activity and weight loss, yet little is known regarding their effects on dietary behaviour. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of worksite interventions on employee diets. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LexisNexis) were searched for relevant articles published between 1995 and April 2009. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed English language publications describing a worksite-based health promotion intervention with minimum study duration of eight weeks. All study designs were eligible. Studies had to report one or more diet-related outcome (energy, fat, fruit, or vegetable intakes). Methodological quality was assessed using a checklist that included randomisation methods, use of a control group, and study attrition rates. Sixteen studies were included in the review. Eight programmes focussed on employee education, and the remainder targeted change to the worksite environment, either alone or in combination with education. Study methodological quality was moderate. In general, worksite interventions led to positive changes in fruit, vegetable and total fat intake. However, reliance on self-reported methods of dietary assessment means there is a significant risk of bias. No study measured more robust outcomes such as absenteeism, productivity, or healthcare utilisation. The findings of this review suggest that worksite health promotion programmes are associated with moderate improvement in dietary intake. The quality of studies to date has been frequently sub-optimal and further, well designed studies are needed in order to reliably determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Future programmes to improve employee dietary habits should move beyond individual
Hoehner, Christine M.; Budd, Elizabeth L.; Marx, Christine M.; Dodson, Elizabeth A.; Brownson, Ross C.
Context Worksites represent important venues for health promotion. Development of psychometrically-sound measures of worksite environments and policy supports for physical activity and healthy eating are needed for use in public health research and practice. Objective Assess the test-retest reliability of the Worksite and Energy Balance Survey (WEBS), a self-report instrument for assessing perceptions of worksite supports for physical activity and healthy eating. Design The WEBS included items adapted from existing surveys or new items based on a review of the literature and expert review. Cognitive interviews among 12 individuals were used to test the clarity of items and further refine the instrument. A targeted random-digit-dial telephone survey was administered on two occasions to assess test-retest reliability (mean days between time periods=8; min=5; max=14). Setting Five Missouri census tracts that varied by racial-ethnic composition and walkability Participants Respondents included 104 employed adults (67% White, 64% female, mean age =48.6 years). Sixty-three percent were employed at worksites with 0.6. Items that assessed participation in or use of worksite programs/facilities tended to have lower reliability. Reliability of some items varied by gender, obesity status, and worksite size. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the five scales ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 and 0.63 to 0.84, respectively. Conclusions The WEBS items and scales exhibited sound test-retest reliability and may be useful for research and surveillance. Further evaluation is needed to document the validity of the WEBS and associations with energy balance outcomes. PMID:23529049
Aston Louise M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health strategies place increasing emphasis on opportunities to promote healthy behaviours within the workplace setting. Previous research has suggested worksite health promotion programmes have positive effects on physical activity and weight loss, yet little is known regarding their effects on dietary behaviour. The aim of this review was to assess the effects of worksite interventions on employee diets. Methods Electronic databases (MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, EMBASE, LexisNexis were searched for relevant articles published between 1995 and April 2009. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they were peer-reviewed English language publications describing a worksite-based health promotion intervention with minimum study duration of eight weeks. All study designs were eligible. Studies had to report one or more diet-related outcome (energy, fat, fruit, or vegetable intakes. Methodological quality was assessed using a checklist that included randomisation methods, use of a control group, and study attrition rates. Results Sixteen studies were included in the review. Eight programmes focussed on employee education, and the remainder targeted change to the worksite environment, either alone or in combination with education. Study methodological quality was moderate. In general, worksite interventions led to positive changes in fruit, vegetable and total fat intake. However, reliance on self-reported methods of dietary assessment means there is a significant risk of bias. No study measured more robust outcomes such as absenteeism, productivity, or healthcare utilisation. Conclusions The findings of this review suggest that worksite health promotion programmes are associated with moderate improvement in dietary intake. The quality of studies to date has been frequently sub-optimal and further, well designed studies are needed in order to reliably determine effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Future
Hipp, J Aaron; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Lee, Jung Ae; Marx, Christine M; Yang, Lin; Tabak, Rachel G; Hoehner, Christine; Marquet, Oriol; Brownson, Ross C
This study examined whether specific worksite supports for physical activity (PA) were associated with total and domain-specific PA. A cross-sectional, telephone-based study was conducted in four Missouri, USA, metropolitan areas in 2012 and 2013. Outcome variables included total PA and sub-domains (leisure, work, travel) measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Logistic regression determined odds of meeting PA recommendations, given access to and use of 18 unique PA worksite supports. A subsample of 119 participants also wore hip accelerometry for seven consecutive days and maintained a wear-time diary. Access to worksite supports were associated with odds of meeting objective moderate and vigorous (MV) PA above 150 min per week. Among 2013 survey participants, meeting PA recommendations while performing work-related tasks was significantly associated with several supports (e.g., walking maps, stair prompts), as was meeting recommendations during travel (e.g., flextime for PA, incentives for public transportation, walking/bicycling to work). Access to 11 worksite supports increased odds of meeting PA recommendations through leisure-time PA; five supports were associated with total PA. There were significant differences between access to and use of supports. Using objective MVPA, access to worksite challenges and bike storage were significantly associated with five and three times greater odds of meeting 150 min of MVPA per week, respectively. Worksite wellness plans are increasing across the US and employers are eager for evidence-based supports for increasing PA. This study provides insights into the utility of multiple worksite supports for PA to increase odds that employees meet PA recommendations.
Gerlach Anne F
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present research describes a measure of the worksite environment for food, physical activity and weight management. The worksite environment measure (WEM instrument was developed for the Route H Study, a worksite environmental intervention for weight gain prevention in four metro transit bus garages in Minneapolis-St. Paul. Methods Two trained raters visited each of the four bus garages and independently completed the WEM. Food, physical activity and weight management-related items were observed and recorded on a structured form. Inter-rater reliability was computed at the item level using a simple percentage agreement. Results The WEM showed high inter-rater reliability for the number and presence of food-related items. All garages had vending machines, microwaves and refrigerators. Assessment of the physical activity environment yielded similar reliability for the number and presence/absence of fitness items. Each garage had a fitness room (average of 4.3 items of fitness equipment. All garages had at least one stationary bike and treadmill. Three garages had at least one weighing scale available. There were no designated walking areas inside or outside. There were on average Conclusion The WEM is a reliable measure of the worksite nutrition, physical activity, and weight management environment that can be used to assess changes in the work environment.
Johnson, A.J.; Miles, C.
The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum, however a context dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous ...
Johnson, Andrew J; Miles, Christopher
The experiment examined the prediction that chewing gum at learning and/or recall facilitated subsequent word recall. Chewing gum at learning significantly impaired recall, indicating that the chewing of gum has a detrimental impact upon initial word encoding. In addition, a context-dependent memory effect was reported for those participants who both learned and recalled in the absence of gum; however, a context-dependent effect was not found with chewing gum. The findings contradict previous research.
Yang, Tsui-Yun; Lin, Hung-Ru
To understand taxi drivers' successful experiences of quitting betel nut chewing. Previous studies verified that betel nut chewing significantly increases the risk of oral cancer. In Taiwan, taxi drivers work for approximately 10-13 hours per day, and 31·7-80% of them choose to chew betel nuts for their invigorating qualities, which enable them to work more hours and receive more income. A qualitative research design was used. This study used the grounded theory method with purposive sampling to perform in-depth interviews with male taxi drivers who had successfully quit betel nut chewing for more than six months. The interviewed participants were 25 taxi drivers aged 45-67 who had chewed betel nuts for an average of 30·9 years. A constant comparative analysis of the 25 interviews revealed six categories, namely the first experience of chewing betel nuts, a part of work and life, perceiving the impact of betel nuts, trying to change, acting to quit betel nut chewing and starting a new life. During the cessation process, taxi drivers tended to be affected by their addiction to chewing betel nuts and the temptation of friends' invitations to chew betel nuts. However, their recognition of the physical effects of betel nut chewing and their sense of responsibility and commitment to family were the critical factors affecting their determination to quit betel nut chewing. Their willpower to not to chew betel nuts and the source of their motivation to exercise self-control also contributed to their success. Healthcare personnel should understand the experiences and perceptions of betel nut chewers, strengthen their understanding of the effects of betel nut chewing on physical health during the cessation period and support their self-efficacy and quitting behaviours with the assistance of significant others. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Friedrich, Stephanie Anagnostopoulos; Silveira, Carina Folgearini; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker
This study aimed to analyze the impact of chewing gum on halitosis parameters. Three databases were searched with the following focused question: 'Can chewing gum additionally reduce halitosis parameters, such as organoleptic scores and volatile sulfur compounds (VSC), when compared to a control treatment'? Controlled clinical trials presenting at least two halitosis measurements (organoleptic scores and/or VSC) were included. Ten studies were included, and different active ingredients were used. One study was performed using a chewing gum without any active ingredient. Chewing gum containing probiotic bacterium was shown to significantly reduce the organoleptic scores. Chewing gums containing zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract as well as allylisothiocyanate (AITC) with zinc lactate significantly reduced the levels of VSC in comparison to a placebo chewing gum. Furthermore, a sodium bicarbonate-containing chewing gum significantly reduced the VSC levels in comparison to rinsing with water. Furthermore, eucalyptus-extract chewing gum showed significant reductions in both organoleptic scores and VSC when compared with a control chewing gum. Chewing gum containing sucrose was able to reduce the VSC levels, in comparison to xylitol and zinc citrate chewing gum, but only for 5 min. It was concluded that chewing gums containing probiotics Lactobaccilus, zinc acetate and magnolia bark extract, eucalyptus-extract, and AITC with zinc lactate may be suitable for halitosis management. However, the low number of included studies and the high heterogeneity among the selected studies may limit the clinical applications of these findings.
van der Bilt, A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068354398; Abbink, J. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186579810
Food properties influence the parameters of the masticatory process, such as jaw movement, muscle activity and chewing rate. Firm foods will require more muscle activity than softer foods. However, the influence of food hardness on chewing rate is ambiguous as both slower and higher chewing rates
Shafique, Kashif; Mirza, Saira Saeed; Vart, Priya; Memon, Abdul Rauf; Arain, Moin Islam; Tareen, Muhammad Farooq; Haq, Zia Ul
Background: Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing
Tucha, Lara; Simpson, William
Recent research examined the effects of chewing gum on attention and reported a significant interaction of gum chewing with time. Using a crossover within-subject design, the present study examined the effect of gum chewing on sustained attention in healthy adults over a period of 30 min. The
Marissa Stroo BS
Full Text Available Worksite medical homes may be a good model for improving employee health. The aim of this study was to compare the likelihood of being seen in the emergency department (ED or being hospitalized by level of use (no use, occasional use, or primary care of a worksite medical home, overall and by type of user (employee, adult dependent, or pediatric dependent. This was a retrospective analysis of claims data, using covariate-adjusted logistic regression models for ED visits and inpatient hospitalizations. Secondary data for the years 2006 to 2008 from a company that offers an on-site health care center (HCC were used. Analyses were based on a data set that combines health plan claims and human resources demographic data. Overall, people who did not use the HCC were more likely to be seen in the ED (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval or CI [1.06, 1.37], P = .005 or to be hospitalized (adjusted OR = 1.58; 95% CI [1.34, 1.86]; P < .0001 compared with those who used the HCC for primary care. Both ED visits and hospitalizations for employees and dependents in this study were lower among those who used the worksite medical home for primary care. Worksite medical homes can improve chronic disease management and thus reduce ED visits and hospitalizations. These findings contribute to growing evidence that worksite medical homes are potentially cost-effective.
Rinaldi-Miles, Anna I; Das, Bhibha M
Physical inactivity is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Worksites provide an ideal environment for physical activity (PA) interventions. Colleges and universities are a unique work venue, with institutions of higher education of varying scope within every state of the United States and worldwide. To explore the institutional influences on worksite PA across multiple universities. Employees from two large, universities (Midwestern and Southern) and a mid-size, university (Midwestern) participated in exploratory research in March/April 2010 and 2013. The Nominal Group Technique (NGT) methodology and the Health Belief Model (HBM) were used to assess perceived influences on employees' engagement in worksite PA. The findings demonstrate that university employees experienced similar factors that influence PA as employees across the different institutions. Specifically, there was an interesting relationship between opportunities for PA and lack of a supportive work culture to promote it. Emphasis on immediate perceived threats to PA inactivity may improve the utility of the HBM for interventions within this context. Further, campus worksite interventions for employees should address barriers such as cost of campus recreation centers and administrative support for engaging in worksite PA as possible cues to action.
Thor Christian Bjørnstad
Full Text Available The aim of this article is to provide insight into how the presence of diverging organizational logics influences the outcome of worksite health promotion projects. The study is based on a one-year qualitative single-case study of the implementation of a health promotional physical exercise program in a transnational transport and logistics company based in Norway. While the program that was implemented was based on dominant logics in Norway, i.e., the emphasis on worker participation and influence, the organizational logics of the transport company defined company–worker relationships in other terms. We found that the logic of a highly specialized work organization that combined strict work distribution with a set of narrowly defined work tasks contradicted the logic that underpinned the health promotional program, and that this contradiction is an important reason why the initiative failed. We therefore conclude that in implementing health promotion projects at the workplace, there is a need to observe the relationship between logics related both to the project and to the organization.
Rammer, H; CERN. Geneva. ST Division
Construction work on the civil engineering contracts at Point 1 and Point 5 started in 1998. The new surface buildings and underground structures are necessary to accommodate the ATLAS and CMS detectors for the LHC Project. The principal underground works at both points consist of two new shafts, two caverns along with a number of small connection tunnels and galleries. At Point 1, the works are 90% complete. Most of the surface buildings as well as the shafts and one of the two new caverns have been completed, and the construction of the second cavern is well underway. At Point 5, the works are 70% complete. Most of the surface buildings as well as the shafts and the pillar have been completed. With excavation of the two large caverns complete, the concreting of the final linings has started. The aim of this paper is to present the status of the civil engineering on these worksites and in particular the challenges encountered constructing the experimental caverns.
The civil-engineering work for the tram-line outside CERN starts on 16 February. The zones affected by the work. The darkest line represents the part of the road where the work will be carried out between March and July 2009.The worksite for the section of tram-line between Meyrin-Village and CERN is entering a new phase. The contractors are to begin by upgrading the underground pipelines to comply with the installation requirements for the tramline track. The next stage will be to install the track itself, which will entail a complete reconstruction of the roadway. In the coming weeks a roundabout will be created in front of Gate A, which will allow CERN personnel travelling towards Saint-Genis-Pouilly to exit via Gate A rather than having to use the car park where the flags are as a thoroughfare. Once the roundabout is complete, it is planned to prohibit direct access to the Route de Meyrin at Gate B via this car park to all traffic ...
We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The worksite cafeteria is a suitable setting for interventions focusing on changing eating behavior, because a lot of employees visit the worksite cafeteria regularly and a variety of interventions could be implemented there. The aim of this paper is to describe the intervention development and design of the evaluation of an intervention to make the purchase behavior of employees in the worksite cafeteria healthier. The developed intervention called “the worksite cafeteria 2.0” consists of a set of 19 strategies based on theory of nudging and social marketing (marketing mix. The intervention will be evaluated in a real-life setting, that is Dutch worksite cafeterias of different companies and with a number of contract catering organizations. Methods/design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT, with 34 Dutch worksite cafeterias randomly allocated to the 12-week intervention or to the control group. Primary outcomes are sales data of selected products groups like sandwiches, salads, snacks and bread topping. Secondary outcomes are satisfaction of employees with the cafeteria and vitality. Discussion When executed, the described RCT will provide better knowledge in the effect of the intervention “the worksite cafeteria 2.0” on the purchasing behavior of Dutch employees in worksite cafeterias. Trial registration Dutch Trial register: NTR5372 .
Velema, Elizabeth; Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M
The worksite cafeteria is a suitable setting for interventions focusing on changing eating behavior, because a lot of employees visit the worksite cafeteria regularly and a variety of interventions could be implemented there. The aim of this paper is to describe the intervention development and design of the evaluation of an intervention to make the purchase behavior of employees in the worksite cafeteria healthier. The developed intervention called "the worksite cafeteria 2.0" consists of a set of 19 strategies based on theory of nudging and social marketing (marketing mix). The intervention will be evaluated in a real-life setting, that is Dutch worksite cafeterias of different companies and with a number of contract catering organizations. The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with 34 Dutch worksite cafeterias randomly allocated to the 12-week intervention or to the control group. Primary outcomes are sales data of selected products groups like sandwiches, salads, snacks and bread topping. Secondary outcomes are satisfaction of employees with the cafeteria and vitality. When executed, the described RCT will provide better knowledge in the effect of the intervention "the worksite cafeteria 2.0" on the purchasing behavior of Dutch employees in worksite cafeterias. Dutch Trial register: NTR5372 .
Backman, Desiree; Gonzaga, Gian; Sugerman, Sharon; Francis, Dona; Cook, Sara
Objective: To examine the impact of fresh fruit availability at worksites on the fruit and vegetable consumption and related psychosocial determinants of low-wage employees. Design: A prospective, randomized block experimental design. Setting: Seven apparel manufacturing and 2 food processing worksites. Participants: A convenience sample of 391…
Abstract. Background: The estimate of the number of people chewing Khat globally ranges from 5 to. 10 million people. Its use may result in a variety of effects due to the different compounds in it with effects on the gastro‑intestinal system and nervous system being the principal ones. Aim: To assess the prevalence, factors, ...
De Zwaan, M
The case of a 19-year-old woman with an eating disorder is presented, whose prime symptom was chewing and spitting out food. She intentionally chose this behaviour as the best strategy to avoid gaining weight while enjoying the taste of large quantities of food. (IntJ Psych Clin Pract 1997; 1: 37-38).
Background: Students' alcohol and khat use have been associated with various health related problems. However, its magnitude and associated factors among Ethiopian students are not yet well documented. Objective: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol use, khat chewing and its associated factors ...
The mineral analysis revealed that the percentage composition of Sodium ion, Potassium ion, Calcium ion, and Zinc ion, in Massularia accumiinata (Pako-Ijebu) is higher than the others. Hence, it is most commonly used in the society. It was also found that chewing sticks contain little or no amount of lead, which is a heavy ...
BACKGROUND: Khat (Catha edulis) contains a psychoactive substance, cathinone, which produces central nervous system stimulation analogous to amphetamine. It is believed that khat chewing has a negative impact on the physical and mental health of individuals as well as the socioeconomic condition of the family and ...
Paulo César Rodrigues Conti
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.
Objective: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Design: College based cross sectional. Setting: Four colleges found in north west Ethiopia namely Gondar College of Medical Sciences, Gondar College of Teachers Education, Bahr Dar University Engineering Faculty, and Bahr ...
... The use of chewing tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products increases the risk of oral cancers — cancer of the mouth, throat, cheek, gums, lips or tongue. There's also an increased risk of cancers of the pancreas and ... Smokeless tobacco increases your risk of developing small white patches ...
Phytochemical screening of the stems of Garcinia kola, Dennettia tripetala, Acioa barteri, Dialium guineense, Maesobotrya barteri, Mallotus oppositifolius and Psidium guajava which are commonly used as chewing sticks in southern Nigeria revealed the presence of bioactive compounds comprising saponins, tannins, ...
Kalaykova, S.I.; Lobbezoo, F.; Naeije, M.
AIMS: To test whether an intensive chewing exercise influences the moment of disc reduction in subjects with or without reports of intermittent locking of the jaw. METHODS: This experimental study included 15 subjects with a reducing anteriorly displaced disc (ADD) and with symptoms of intermittent
Emily E Hammerl
Full Text Available Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.
Hammerl, Emily E; Baier, Melissa A; Reinhard, Karl J
Agave quid chewing is examined as a potential contributing behavior to hunter-gatherer dental wear. It has previously been hypothesized that the contribution of Agave quid chewing to dental wear would be observed in communities wherever phytolith-rich desert succulents were part of subsistence. Previous analysis of coprolites from a prehistoric agricultural site, La Cueva de los Muertos Chiquitos in Durango, Mexico, showed that Agave was a consistent part of a diverse diet. Therefore, quids recovered at this site ought to be useful materials to test the hypothesis that dental wear was related to desert succulent consumption. The quids recovered from the site were found to be largely derived from chewing Agave. In this study, the quids were found to be especially rich in phytoliths, and analysis of dental casts made from impressions left in the quids revealed flat wear and dental attrition similar to that of Agave-reliant hunter-gatherers. Based on evidence obtained from the analysis of quids, taken in combination with results from previous studies, it is determined that Agave quid chewing was a likely contributing factor to dental wear in this population. As such, our method provides an additional avenue of dental research in areas where quids are present.
Sep 4, 2013 ... oxygen species (ROS) in the buccal cavity of chewers . These smokeless products are .... The effect of gutkha and pan masala chewing along with and ... cancer [15,16]. The tobacco-specific nitrosamines can induce miscoding in the DNA that could result in the tumourigenic process in the oral cavity .
Taiwo, O; Xu, H X; Lee, S F
Ten aqueous extracts from wooden chewing sticks widely used in Nigeria for teeth cleaning were studied for antibacterial activities against 25 different bacteria using an agar diffusion assay. The extracts from five sticks, namely Garcinia kola, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens, Sorindeia warneckei and Vitex doniana, exhibited strong activities against a wide spectrum of bacteria including medically and dentally relevant bacteria. Notably, these five chewing stick extracts showed potent activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, and multidrug-resistant Burkholderia cepacia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from Vernonia amygdalina, Fagara zanthoxyloides and Massularia acuminata also showed activities against bacteria significant to periodontal disease. Methanol extracts prepared from G. kola, A. leiocarpus and V. doniana were further fractionated by solvent extraction. Results showed that the antibacterial activities were distributed into different fractions suggesting that the sticks contain different active antibacterial principles. In conclusion, the results showed that most of the Nigerian chewing sticks do contain antibacterial activities which may contribute to the reported anticaries effect of chewing sticks. These sticks may be sources for new lead antibacterial agents for therapeutic or preventive applications. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Conclusion: The prevalence of Khat chewing was fairly high among the students and the majority among them used other substances together with Khat. Spending of a significant amount of money and facing health problems were reported to be consequences of the habit. The college should take steps to make students ...
Davidson, Matthew G
Research has shown that standard chewing gum can affect aspects of both attention and memory. The present study examined the effects of Think Gum®, a caffeinated-herbal chewing gum, on both concentration and memory using a series of paper-based and online testing. Compared to standard chewing gum and a no-gum control, chewing caffeinated-herbal gum during testing improved aspects of memory, but did not affect concentration. The findings suggest that caffeinated-herbal chewing gum is an effective memory aid. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Poulsen, Signe; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
approach to worksite food interventions. METHODS: The article is based on a case study of the design of a canteen takeaway (CTA) scheme for employees at two Danish hospitals. This was carried out as part of a project to investigate the shaping and impact of schemes that offer employees meals to buy......, to take home or to eat at the worksite during irregular working hours. Data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders within the two change processes. Two focus group interviews were also carried out at one hospital and results from a user survey carried out by other...... researchers at the other hospital were included. Theoretically, the study was based on the social constitution approach to change processes at worksites and a co-evolution approach to problem–solution complexes as part of change processes. RESULTS: Both interventions were initiated because of the need...
Sorensen, G; Youngstrom, R; Maclachlan, C; Gibson, S J; Emmons, K; Johnston, D; Levenstein, C
Although worksite smoking restrictions have become increasingly common in recent years, organized labor has generally not been involved in the adoption of these policies; some evidence suggests that unions often oppose the adoption of worksite smoking policies. To contribute to an understanding of labor's role in tobacco control policies, this paper reports the results of a review of 85 arbitration cases and 5 cases of unfair labor practices charges published between 1986 and 1994. In most of the cases reviewed, management unilaterally imposed a new smoking policy, which the union then grieved. Union opposition to the policy generally focused on the process by which the policy was adopted, rather than the content of the policy; the concern was that management had breached its duty to bargain with the union regarding the adoption of the policy. These results underline the importance of joint labor-management actions on worksite tobacco control policies.
Escoffery, Cam; Kegler, Michelle C; Alcantara, Iris; Wilson, Mark; Glanz, Karen
The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States is highest in rural counties. We explored social support, policies, and programmatic resources that encourage more healthful diets and participation in physical activity among employees of small, rural worksites. We conducted in-depth interviews with 33 employed adults aged 50 years or older in rural Georgia about access to healthful foods and opportunities for physical activity at work; conversations about exercise, weight loss, and eating healthfully in general; and worksite nutrition and physical activity programs; and we asked for suggestions for making the worksite more healthful. The research team developed a codebook, and 2 coders coded each transcript. Data were analyzed and reports were generated for thematic analyses. Participants from rural worksites, most with fewer than 50 employees, cited lack of vending machines and cafeterias, health promotion programs to address healthful eating and exercise, and facilities for physical activity as barriers to eating healthfully and engaging in physical activity at work. Many participants reported conversations with coworkers about how to eat more healthfully by making more nutritious choices or preparing food more healthfully. Participants also discussed the importance of engaging in physical activity on their own and gave suggestions on ways to incorporate exercise into their routines. Participants' access to healthful foods at work varied, but barriers such as being too busy, worksite location, and no worksite cafeteria were noted. Some workers reported engaging in physical activity at work, and others reported a heavy workload and lack of time as barriers. Building on the social environment and implementing policies for healthful eating and participation in physical activity may help address obesity prevention in rural workplaces.
Swoboda, Christine; Temple, Jennifer L
Although chewing gum has been considered a potential method for reducing energy intake, little empirical data exist to support this idea. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that chewing gum before eating reduces motivation to eat, hunger, and energy intake. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments in which participants chewed gum prior to completing a food reinforcement task or before all eating occasions for two of three weeks. In Experiment 1, we found that chewing gum had no influence on the reinforcing value of food, but chewing mint gum reduced liking of and energy intake from fruit. In addition, chewing gum reduced self-reported hunger immediately after gum chewing and after eating compared with the no gum condition. In Experiment 2, gum chewing had no significant effect on total energy intake, but participants consumed fewer meals, consumed more energy per meal, and had a lower nutrient adequacy ratio during the gum chewing weeks. These studies provide no evidence that acute or chronic gum chewing reduces hunger or energy intake. In fact, chewing mint-flavored gum may deter consumption of fruit and reduce diet quality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miles, Christopher; Johnson, Andrew J
Two experiments re-examined whether chewing spearmint gum affects initial word learning and/or immediate recall for a word list. Both experiments failed to show effects of chewing gum at learning or recall, nor did they suggest that chewing gum produces a context-dependent memory effect. This was true when extraneous contextual cues at learning and recall were minimised (Experiment 2). Together, the data are inconsistent with [Wilkinson, L., Scholey, A. & Wesnes, K. (2002). Chewing gum selectively improves aspects of memory in healthy volunteers. Appetite, 38, 235-236.] claim that chewing gum aids immediate recall of visually presented words. Our results are consistent with [Baker, J. R., Bezance, J. B., Zellaby, E. & Aggleton, J. P. (2004). Chewing gum can produce context-dependent effects upon memory. Appetite, 43, 207-210.] finding that chewing gum of itself is not a sufficient condition to provoke context-dependent learning with immediate testing.
Smith, Andrew P; Woods, Martin
Recent research has indicated that chewing gum can relieve perceptions of stress in an occupational sample (Smith, 2009). In the present study, 72 students completed 2 weeks of either chewing gum or refraining from chewing gum. They completed scales measuring perceived stress, anxiety, depression, and single item measures of work levels and tiredness. These were completed both pre- and post-treatment. Perceived stress decreased as a function of the amount of gum chewed. The chewing gum condition was also associated with a decrease in not getting enough academic work done. There were no significant effects of chewing gum on mental health outcomes. These results confirm some of findings from previous studies of chewing gum and stress in other samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mahalik, John; Shigaki, Cheryl L; Baldwin, Diana; Johnstone, Brick
Arthritis has a significant effect on the US workforce. Significant economic effects and racial disparities have been found in treatment and health outcomes for persons with arthritis. This literature review focuses on the most commonly studied forms of arthritis, osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), summarizing literature on employability trends, risk factors, and worksite health interventions for these conditions. Recommendations and future implications for research are given in relation to goals from Healthy People 2010. A brief description is provided of a worksite comparative study at the Missouri Arthritis Rehabilitation Research and Training Center (MARRTC), seeking to improve long-term employability and functional outcomes for persons with arthritis.
Lowe, Michael R.; Tappe, Karyn A.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Coletta, Maria C.; Ochner, Christopher N.; Rolls, Barbara J.
Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees’ calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n = 96, BMI = 29.7 ± 6.0 kg/m2) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p <. 01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p < .001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake. PMID:20434060
Georg F. Bauer
Full Text Available
Background: Worksite health promotion (WHP addresses diverse individual and work-related health determinants. Thus, multiple, non-standardized interventions as well as company outcomes other than health have to be considered in WHP research.
Methods: The article builds primarily on published research reviews in WHP and related fields. It discusses key practical and research challenges of the workplace setting. The evidence available on the effectiveness of WHP is summarised and conclusions are drawn for future WHP practice and research.
Results: WHP research on health-oriented, behavioural interventions shows that the level of evidence ranges from suggestive to acceptable for key prevention areas such as physical activity, nutrition, fitness, smoking, alcohol and stress. Such interventions are effective if key conditions are met. Future research is needed on long-term effects, on multi-component programs and on programs, which address environmental determinants of health behaviour as well. Research on work-related determinants of health shows the economic and public health relevance of WHP interventions. Reviews of work-oriented, organisational interventions show that they produce a range of individual and organisational outcomes. However, due to the complexity of the organisational context, the generalisability and predictability of such outcomes remain limited.
Conclusions: WHP research shows success factors of WHP and provides evidence of its effectiveness. In future, the evidence base should be expanded by developing adaptive, company-driven intervention approaches which allow for continuous optimisation of companies from a health perspective. Also, approaches for active dissemination of such a systemic-salutogenic occupational health management approach should be developed to increase the public health impact of WHP.
Park, K K; Schemehorn, B R; Bolton, J W; Stookey, G K
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of chewing a sorbitol gum (Trident) for 10 minutes on interproximal plaque pH changes following ingestion of selected sucrose- or starch-containing foods. The snacks containing predominantly sucrose (and/or simple sugars) were chocolate bar, cream-filled cupcakes, cream-filled sandwich cookie, cherry pie and raisins. The snacks containing predominantly starch were oat cereal, granola bars, pretzels, potato chips and corn chips. Plaque pH responses were monitored using an indwelling wire-telemetry system in five adult panelists. The test design involved two sets of 5 x 5 Latin square randomization in which each set consisted of two series of tests. In the first series of tests, the fasted, resting plaque pH was recorded for 5 minutes, panelists ingested the designated snacks for 2 minutes, and the pH response was monitored for the remainder of a 2-hour period. In the second series of tests, the same procedure was followed through the snack ingestion. After the pH response to the snack was monitored for 15 minutes, the panelists were asked to chew one stick of sorbitol gum for 10 minutes and the pH response was then monitored for the balance of the 2-hour period. Results indicated that both the sugar- and starch-containing snacks tested in this study caused significant decreases in interproximal plaque pH. Chewing a sorbitol gum after ingestion of the snacks significantly reduced the demineralizing potential of the plaque. The chewing of sorbitol gum following the ingestion of snacks can be recommended as an adjunct to other caries-preventive oral hygiene measures.
Huang, Yung-Jui; Jiann, Bang-Ping
Areca nut chewing has been shown to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but its association with erectile dysfunction (ED) has not been investigated. To investigate the association between areca nut chewing and risk of ED. Consecutive men at public health centers for oral malignancy screening or health checkup were invited to complete a questionnaire. The Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM). Of the 2,652 respondents, 1,038 (mean age = 43.8 ± 11.1 years) were eligible for the areca nut chewing group and 1,090 non-areca nut chewers were selected as the age-matched control group. In the areca nut group, the mean duration of chewing was 13.2 ± 9.6 years, 61.7% consumed more than 10 portions per day, and 76.2% used it with betel leaf, 16.7% used it with betel inflorescence, and 7.1% used it with betel leaf and inflorescence. Smoking, alcohol drinking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were more predominant in areca nut chewers compared with controls. ED defined by self-report and by SHIM score was more prevalent in areca nut chewers than in controls (13.7% vs 9.8% and 48.7% vs 43.3%, respectively; P nut use with betel inflorescence was associated with a higher risk of ED (odds ratio = 2.25, 95% confidence interval = 1.55-3.28) with a dose-dependent effect, whereas using it with betel leaf was not (odds ratio = 1.00, 95% confidence interval = 0.79-1.26) after adjustment of possible confounders. Areca nut chewing with betel inflorescence was associated with an increased risk of ED. These findings warrant further studies. Huang Y-J, Jiann B-P. Association of Areca Nut Chewing With Risk of Erectile Dysfunction. Sex Med 2017;5:e163-e168. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hayashi, Fumi; Yoshiike, Nobuo
This quasi-experimental study determined whether the nutrition education program we developed to promote chewing food properly influenced children's chewing habits successfully. Four kindergarten classes in Japan (150 children, aged 5-6 years) were studied; one class received the educational program in the classroom and at home (Group A) and three classes received the program in the classroom only (Group B). The educational program was integrated into the classes' daily curriculum for five weeks. It included storytelling with large picture books, chewing consciously while eating lunch, singing a song with gestures, and greetings before and after meals (both groups). Group A also used a paper textbook and was provided information by the leaflet to encourage guardians to implement the program at home. Chewing habits before and after intervention were evaluated: (1) guardians completed seven questionnaire items related to chewing habits and chewing movement and (2) the number of chews and time spent eating the test meal were measured by a portable chewing sensor. Both approaches improved the children's chewing habits; however, no difference was found between the two groups. We concluded that this intervention could be used to improve chewing habits in young children even without active involvement of their guardians. PMID:27382638
Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh
Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected.
Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh
Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydra...
Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar
Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia–sugar–calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums’ weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Results: Most formulations released 79–83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F19-SC and F20-SC, respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking. PMID:23326788
Paulino, Yvette C; Novotny, Rachel; Miller, Mary Jane; Murphy, Suzanne P
To describe the areca nut/betel quid chewing practices of Micronesian chewers living in Guam. Two studies were conducted using qualitative data from focus groups and quantitative cross-sectional data from the 2007 Guam Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Ten focus groups included 49 men and women aged 18-60 years living in Guam in 2007. Participants were areca nut/betel quid chewers selected to reflect Guam's age and ethnic group (Chamorro, Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese) distributions. Salient themes were extracted from transcripts of the sessions by three expert reviewers. A second method, latent class analysis, was used to identify unique groups of chewers. The groups were then compared on demographics and chewing-related behaviors. Areca nut and betel quid recipes collected from the focus groups showed that Chamorros had a preference for the ripe nut and swallowed the nut, whereas, the Chuukese, Palauan, and Yapese groups preferred the unripe nut and did not swallow it. Similarly, latent class analysis resulted in the identification of two groups of areca nut/betel quid chewers. Group 1 was all Chamorros. Compared to Group 2, the chewers in Group 1 preferred red and ripe nuts, did not add slake lime (calcium hydroxide) or tobacco, and swallowed the masticated areca nut (with or without Piper betle leaf). The quantitative analysis confirmed the qualitative exploration of areca nut/betel quid chewers in Guam, thus providing evidence that chewing practices vary among Micronesian populations. If future research should include an intervention, the differences in chewing practices among Micronesian populations should be taken into consideration to ensure programmatic success.
Norgaard Jensen, L.; Christrup, Lona Louring; Menger, N.
Chewing gum and lozenges were evaluated as delivery systems for noscapine with the aim of developing improved antitussive preparations. The formulations studied were prepared with both the water-soluble hydrochloride salt of noscapine and with the poorly soluble embonate salt and noscapine free b...... in vitro and in vivo and is therefore not a suitable dosage form. Only a lozenge formulation containing noscapine base fulfilled the requirements of taste acceptability and adequate release properties....
Njau, S N
A case of a fatal foreign material aspiration is presented in the following text. A 24-year-old white male died suddenly. A piece of chewing gum lodged in a pool of frothy fluid was revealed at autopsy. Microscopic examinations revealed atelectasia emphysema, eosinophilic exudate and empty spaces. Blood and urine samples were analyzed, for alcohol and drug use by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott AXSYM system. No alcohol or other drugs were detected in blood or urine.
Aslani, Abolfazl; Ghannadi, Alireza; Raddanipour, Razieh
Background: Aloe vera has antioxidant, antiinflammatory, healing, antiseptic, anticancer and antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to design and evaluate the formulation of Aloe vera chewing gum with an appropriate taste and quality with the indications for healing oral wounds, such as lichen planus, mouth sores caused by cancer chemotherapy and mouth abscesses as well as reducing mouth dryness caused by chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: In Aloe vera powder, the carbohydrate content was determined according to mannose and phenolic compounds in terms of gallic acid. Aloe vera powder, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, sweeteners and different flavors were added to the soft gum bases. In Aloe vera chewing gum formulation, 10% of dried Aloe vera extract entered the gum base. Then the chewing gum was cut into pieces of suitable sizes. Weight uniformity, content uniformity, the organoleptic properties evaluation, releasing the active ingredient in the phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) and taste evaluation were examined by Latin square method. Results: One gram of Aloe vera powder contained 5.16 ± 0.25 mg/g of phenolic compounds and 104.63 ± 4.72 mg/g of carbohydrates. After making 16 Aloe vera chewing gum formulations, the F16 formulation was selected as the best formulation according to its physicochemical and organoleptic properties. In fact F16 formulation has suitable hardness, lack of adhesion to the tooth and appropriate size and taste; and after 30 min, it released more than 90% of its drug content. Conclusion: After assessments made, the F16 formulation with maltitol, aspartame and sugar sweeteners was selected as the best formulation. Among various flavors used, peppermint flavor which had the most acceptance between consumers was selected. PMID:26605214
Full Text Available The extraction of aspirated foreign bodies can prove challenging at times, requiring even rigid bronchoscopy. Cryotherapy probes have been reported to help with extraction of foreign bodies. We present a case where successful "cryoextraction" was performed on an aspirated chewing gum. The case highlights the fact that this technique is useful to extract all materials that have water content. This technique can be performed through flexible bronchoscopy and can save patients from more aggressive approaches.
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Lassen, Anne Dahl
There is a strong need for strategies that can help promote healthy eating. The paper explores the shaping of initiatives aimed at promoting and implementing healthy eating in a worksite catering setting by analysing the sustainability of the intervention of healthier eating in a canteen model...
Proper, K.I.; Bruyne, M.C. de; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Beek, A.J. van der; Meerding, W.J.; Mechelen, W. van
Objectives. This study evaluated the impact of worksite physical activity counseling using cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analyses. Methods. Civil servants (N=299) were randomly assigned to an intervention (N=131) or control (N=168) group for 9 months. The intervention costs were compared with
Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Molen, H.F. van der; Bongers, P.M.
This article describes the use of intervention mapping to develop a worksite intervention designed to improve the work ability of construction workers. A six-step methodology was implemented that included the following: needs assessment; preparing matrices of change objectives; selecting
Oude Hengel, K.M.; Joling, C.I.; Proper, K.I.; Blatter, B.M.; Bongers, P.M.
Background. A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program
Oude Hengel, Karen M; Joling, Catelijne I; Proper, Karin I; van der Molen, Henk F; Bongers, Paulien M
The purpose of this study was to apply the Intervention Mapping approach as a framework in the development of a worksite intervention to improve the work ability of construction workers. Development of an intervention by using the Intervention Mapping approach. Construction worksite. Construction workers aged 45 years and older. According to the principles of Intervention Mapping, evidence from the literature was combined with data collected from stakeholders (e.g., construction workers, managers, providers). The Intervention Mapping approach resulted in an intervention with the following components: (1) two individual visits of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2) a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3) two empowerment training sessions to increase the range of influence at the worksite. Application of Intervention Mapping in the development of a worksite prevention program was useful in the construction industry to obtain a positive attitude and commitment. Stakeholders could give input regarding the program components as well as provide specific leads for the practical intervention strategy. Moreover, it also gives insight in the current theoretical and empirical knowledge in the field of improving the work ability of older workers in the construction industry.
Jilcott Pitts, S B; Graham, J; Mojica, A; Stewart, L; Walter, M; Schille, C; McGinty, J; Pearsall, M; Whitt, O; Mihas, P; Bradley, A; Simon, C
Healthy foodservice guidelines are being implemented in worksites and healthcare facilities to increase access to healthy foods by employees and public populations. However, little is known about the barriers to and facilitators of implementation. The present study aimed to examine barriers to and facilitators of implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines in federal worksite and hospital cafeterias. Using a mixed-methods approach, including a quantitative survey followed by a qualitative, in-depth interview, we examined: (i) barriers to and facilitators of implementation; (ii) behavioural design strategies used to promote healthier foods and beverages; and (iii) how implementation of healthy foodservice guidelines influenced costs and profitability. We used a purposive sample of five hospital and four federal worksite foodservice operators who recently implemented one of two foodservice guidelines: the United States Department of Health and Human Services/General Services Administration Health and Sustainability Guidelines ('Guidelines') in federal worksites or the Partnership for a Healthier America Hospital Healthier Food Initiative ('Initiative') in hospitals. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse quantitative survey data. Qualitative data were analysed using a deductive approach. Implementation facilitators included leadership support, adequate vendor selections and having dietitians assist with implementation. Implementation barriers included inadequate selections from vendors, customer complaints and additional expertise required for menu labelling. Behavioural design strategies used most frequently included icons denoting healthier options, marketing using social media and placement of healthier options in prime locations. Lessons learned can guide subsequent steps for future healthy foodservice guideline implementation in similar settings. © 2016 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Steenhuis, I H; Van Assema, P; Glanz, K
The purpose of this study was to assess conditions for the adoption and continued implementation of different healthy nutrition programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, i.e. an educational programme and two environmental programmes (a food labelling programme and a food supply programme). Twenty semi-structured interviews were conducted with representatives of worksite cafeterias and supermarkets. Concepts of theories of diffusion were used as a framework for the study. Questions were formulated about the attributes of the innovation, and organizational and personal characteristics that might influence programme adoption and implementation. Results indicated that educational and environmental programmes in both worksite cafeterias and supermarkets should meet specific requirements regarding programme design, methods and materials in order to be adopted and implemented. Besides, some important implementation strategies of the educational and environmental programmes were identified. It is concluded that it seems feasible to conduct educational and environmental intervention programmes in worksite cafeterias and supermarkets, but that certain conditions for adoption and continued implementation have to be met. Based on the implications of this study, the development of an educational programme, a labelling programme and a food supply programme was completed.
I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); G.J.P. van Breukelen (Gerard); K. Glanz; G.J. Kok (Gerjo); H. de Vries (Hein)
textabstractEnvironmental interventions as labeling of healthy foods and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet the guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias
Hafiidz, J. Mohd; Arifin, K.; Aiyub, K.; Razman, M. R.; Samsurijan, M. S.; Syakir, M. I.
Construction industry is an important sector that contributes to the development of economy and socioeconomy in Malaysia. It is a vital component in achieving the developed country status. However, fatalities in the Malaysian construction industry are a critical problem. Number of fatalities in this industry is the highest compared to other industries registered in Malaysia under the investigation of Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). Worksite element (worksite conditions, poor site management, construction tasks, and equipment & materials) was identified as one category of causes of occupational accidents and illnesses in Malaysian construction industry. The main objective of this study is to understand the perception of local construction personnel in terms of worksite element as causes of occupational accidents and illnesses in Malaysian residential construction industry. 13 housing projects that were registered with Ministry of Urban Wellbeing, Housing and Local Government and being permitted to perform construction work in 2012 were selected in Pulau Pinang to be studied using questionnaire survey. Worksite condition and poor site management was perceived as the most significant with the mean values of 3.68 and 3.61 respectively.
The purpose of this study was to conduct a program evaluation of ACME's worksite weight loss initiative and collect evidence relative to the efficacy of the program. An anonymous online survey was administered to participants of the weight loss initiative. The survey was designed to gather information relative to the research questions, which…
Conclusion: The influential factors of social support and worksite environment could predict the employees' participation in the physical fitness programs and leisure-time physical activities. Health promotion policy and equipment attenuated the negative effects of nonparticipation as well as amplified the positive effects of participation.
Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van
Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,
van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.
Introduction: Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of morbidity. Mindfulness training could be an effective strategy to optimize lifestyle behaviors related to body weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based
Linnan, Laura; Weiner, Bryan; Graham, Amanda; Emmons, Karen
To explore differences in manager beliefs about worksite health promotion programs (HPPs). Cross-sectional written survey. Twenty-four manufacturing worksites, with 11,811 employees and 1719 eligible managers. Sixty-six percent (1133/1719) of managers completed the survey; 1047 managers were categorized by level (169 senior, 567 middle, and 311 line supervisors). Results are reported on overall manager beliefs (and by manager level) about importance, efficacy, barriers, and benefits of HPPs. Multilevel analysis modeled the influence of manager level, age, and experience with HPPs on beliefs about HPPs, while accounting for worksite-level effects. Seventy-five percent of managers believed that offering HPPs is highly important. Eighty percent believed that HPPs improved employee health, 68% believed that they reduced health care costs, and 67% believed that they improved employee morale. Few significant differences by manager level were observed on the perceived importance of health promotion, employer responsibilities for health promotion and protection, and efficacy of health promotion strategies or perceived benefits. Senior managers (vs. line supervisors) were significantly less likely to believe that space or cost was a barrier to offering HPPs and were less likely than middle managers or line supervisors to believe that production conflicts were barriers to offering HPPs. Targeted interventions to address manager beliefs, including differences by age, experience, and manager level, are worth consideration when planning worksite HPPs.
Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; van Dieen, J.H.
Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers
Rasmussen, Charlotte D N; Jørgensen, Marie B; Carneiro, Isabella G
was equally distributed among Danish and immigrant cleaners. This study indicates that a worksite health promotion intervention among a female-dominated, high-risk occupation such as cleaning can be equally appealing for Danes and immigrants. Statement of Relevance: This study provides insight about...
Coenen, P.; Kingma, I.; Boot, C.R.L.; Douwes, M.; Bongers, P.M.; Dieën, J.H. van
Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers
Vermeer, W.M.; Leeuwis, F.H.; Koprulu, S.; Zouitni, O.; Seidell, J.C.; Steenhuis, I.H.M.
Background: In a previous study, the effectiveness of introducing a small meal in addition to the existing size and a proportional pricing strategy have been assessed in Dutch worksite cafeterias. To assess the degree of implementation and to inform the design of future interventions, the present
Full Text Available The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.
Anand, Richa; Dhingra, Chandan; Prasad, Sumanth; Menon, Ipseeta
The habit of chewing betel nut has a long history of use. Betel nut and products derived from it are widely used as a masticatory product among various communities and in several countries across the world. Over a long period, several additives have been added to a simple betel nut preparation; thus, creating the betel quid (BQ) and encompassing chewing tobacco in the preparation. Betel nut has deleterious effects on oral soft tissues. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal diseases, two major oral diseases are less well-documented. Betel-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa have been reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers, a condition called betel chewers mucosa is often found where the quid is placed. Betel nut chewing is implicated in oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and its use along with tobacco can cause leukoplakia, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes. Thus, public health measures to quit betel use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as OSF and oral cancer.
Pascale, Andra Maria; Ruge, Sebastian; Hauth, Steffen; Kordaß, Bernd; Linsen, Lars
Nowadays, CAD/CAM software is being used to compute the optimal shape and position of a new tooth model meant for a patient. With this possible future application in mind, we present in this article an independent and stand-alone interactive application that simulates the human chewing process and the deformation it produces in the food substrate. Chewing motion sensors are used to produce an accurate representation of the jaw movement. The substrate is represented by a deformable elastic model based on the finite linear elements method, which preserves physical accuracy. Collision detection based on spatial partitioning is used to calculate the forces that are acting on the deformable model. Based on the calculated information, geometry elements are added to the scene to enhance the information available for the user. The goal of the simulation is to present a complete scene to the dentist, highlighting the points where the teeth came into contact with the substrate and giving information about how much force acted at these points, which therefore makes it possible to indicate whether the tooth is being used incorrectly in the mastication process. Real-time interactivity is desired and achieved within limits, depending on the complexity of the employed geometric models. The presented simulation is a first step towards the overall project goal of interactively optimizing tooth position and shape under the investigation of a virtual chewing process using real patient data (Fig 1).
Olabanji, S. O.; Makanju, O. V.; Haque, A. M. I.; Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.
PIGE and PIXE techniques were employed for the determination of the major, minor and trace elemental concentrations in chewing sticks of pharmacological importance namely: Butyrospermum paradoxum, Garcinia kola, Distemonanthus benthamianus, Bridelia ferruginea, Anogeissus leiocarpus, Terminalia glaucescens and Fagara rubescens, respectively. The concentration of fluorine which is very important for human dental enamel was specially determined using the 19F(p, p'γ) 19F reaction. For decades these chewing sticks when used alone without toothpastes have proven to be very efficient, effective and reliable in cleaning the teeth of many people particularly in Nigeria and some other countries in Africa. The teeth of users are usually very strong, clean, fresh and devoid of germs and caries. Even with the advent of modern toothpastes with special additions of fluorine, the use of these popular and efficient chewing sticks is still unabated. Many people including the elite use them solely, a few others combine their use with modern toothpastes and brush. Proton beams produced by the 7 MV CN and 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerators at INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), Padova, Italy were used for the PIGE and PIXE analysis, respectively. Results of this novel study are presented and discussed.
Trivedy, C R; Craig, G; Warnakulasuriya, S
Deleterious effects of areca nut on oral soft tissues are published extensively in the dental literature. Its effects on dental caries and periodontal tissues, two major oral diseases, are less well researched. Areca-induced lichenoid lesions mainly on buccal mucosa or tongue are reported at quid retained sites. In chronic chewers a condition known as betel chewer's mucosa, a discoloured areca nut-encrusted change, is often found where the quid particles are retained. Areca nut chewing is implicated in oral leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, both of which are potentially malignant in the oral cavity. Oral cancer often arises from such precancerous changes in Asian populations. In 1985 the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence to conclude that areca chewing may directly lead to oral cancer. There is, however, new information linking oral cancer to pan chewing without tobacco, suggesting a strong cancer risk associated with this habit. Public health measures to quit areca use are recommended to control disabling conditions such as submucous fibrosis and oral cancer among Asian populations.
Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus is common after cholecystectomy, causes gas retension, distention, nausea, vomiting, and even pain. Chewing gum is a type of sham feeding that may reduce the duration of postoperative ileus. This study determines the effect of chewing gum in the immediate postoperative period to facilitate ileus recovery following cholecystectomy. Material & Methods: This is a randomized controlled trial in 2009. Twenty-four patients undergoing cholecystectomy and they divided in to two equal groups (n=12. Patients in group A chewed sugarless gum there time after surgery, each time 20 miniutes in 4, 10 and 18 hours after finishing sugery. Demographics, intraoperative, and postoperative care data did not reveal any significant difference between two groups. The data resending the first passage of flatus, defecation and bowel sound in every 2 hours for each patient completed in questioning. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version-13.5 and student t-test. Results: The first bowel sound heard 3 ±1.3 and 2.8 ±1.3 hours post-operatively in cases and controls, respectively. The above findings were not significant between two groups. Furthermore gas passing reported at 18.3±10.5 and 36.28±12.6 hours post-operation in case and control groups respectively. The first defecation was occured at 36.8 ±21.7 and 69.5 ±19.2 hours after operation in case and control groups, respectively
Hoehner, Christine M; Budd, Elizabeth L; Marx, Christine M; Dodson, Elizabeth A; Brownson, Ross C
Worksites represent important venues for health promotion. Development of psychometrically sound measures of worksite environments and policy supports for physical activity and healthy eating are needed for use in public health research and practice. Assess the test-retest reliability of the Worksite and Energy Balance Survey (WEBS), a self-report instrument for assessing perceptions of worksite supports for physical activity and healthy eating. The WEBS included items adapted from existing surveys or new items on the basis of a review of the literature and expert review. Cognitive interviews among 12 individuals were used to test the clarity of items and further refine the instrument. A targeted random-digit-dial telephone survey was administered on 2 occasions to assess test-retest reliability (mean days between time periods = 8; minimum = 5; maximum = 14). Five Missouri census tracts that varied by racial-ethnic composition and walkability. Respondents included 104 employed adults (67% white, 64% women, mean age = 48.6 years). Sixty-three percent were employed at worksites with less than 100 employees, approximately one-third supervised other people, and the majority worked a regular daytime shift (75%). Test-retest reliability was assessed using Spearman correlations for continuous variables, Cohen's κ statistics for nonordinal categorical variables, and 1-way random intraclass correlation coefficients for ordinal categorical variables. Test-retest coefficients ranged from 0.41 to 0.97, with 80% of items having reliability coefficients of more than 0.6. Items that assessed participation in or use of worksite programs/facilities tended to have lower reliability. Reliability of some items varied by gender, obesity status, and worksite size. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the 5 scales ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 and 0.63 to 0.84, respectively. The WEBS items and scales exhibited sound test-retest reliability and may be useful for research and
Lassen, Anne Dahl; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard
) changes in employees' dietary habits derived from 4 d pre-coded food diaries of a group of employees at the worksites (paired-data structure); and (ii) the canteen nutrition environment as identified by aggregating chemical nutritional analysis of individual canteen lunches (different participants...... at baseline and at endpoint). Setting. Eight blue-collar worksites (five of these with canteens). Subject. Employees. Results. In the intervention group (n 102), several significant positive nutritional effects were observed among employees, including a median daily decrease in intake of fat (—2.2% E, P = 0...... in the intervention group (median difference 11% E, P blue-collar worksites. Copyright © The Authors 2010....
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Andersen, Jens Strodl
of the worksite was positively correlated with more healthy meal options Furthermore, the present study suggest.,, I positive relationship between corporate financial support and the availability of healthy meal options Conclusions Among the selected variables Studied, workforce gender, company size and corporate...... financial support were significant predictors of the availability of healthy meal options in worksite canteens. Mole research is needed oil the role that variance in organisation environment. plays for the potential of worksite intervention, to male a difference in terms of healthy eating...
Proper Karin I
Full Text Available Abstract Background A worksite prevention program was developed to promote the work ability of construction workers and thereby prolong a healthy working life. The objective of this paper is to present the design of a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of that intervention program compared with usual care for construction workers. Methods The study is designed as a randomized controlled trial with a follow-up of one year. Employees eligible for this study are construction workers performing actual construction work. The worksite intervention will be compared with usual care. This intervention was developed by using the Intervention Mapping approach and consists of the following components: (1 two individual training sessions of a physical therapist to lower the physical workload, (2 a Rest-Break tool to improve the balance between work and recovery, and (3 two empowerment training sessions to increase the influence of the construction workers at the worksite. Outcome measures are assessed at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. The primary outcome measures of this study are work ability and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcome measures include need for recovery, musculoskeletal complaints, work engagement and self efficacy. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the company perspective. Moreover, a process evaluation will be conducted. Discussion The feasibility of the intervention and the study has been enhanced by creating an intervention program that explicitly appeals to construction workers and will not interfere too much with the ongoing construction. The feasibility and effectiveness of this worksite prevention program will be investigated by means of an effect- and a process evaluation. If proven effective, this worksite prevention program can be implemented on a larger scale within the construction industry. Trial Registration NTR1278
Crespo, Noe C; Sallis, James F; Conway, Terry L; Saelens, Brian E; Frank, Lawrence D
Examine associations between worksite physical activity promotion strategies and employees' physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Cross-sectional. Seattle-King County, Washington and Baltimore, Maryland-Washington, D.C. regions. Adults working outside the home (n = 1313). Mean age was 45 ± 10 years, 75.8% of participants were non-Hispanic white, 56% were male, and 51% had income ≥$70,000/year. Participants reported demographic characteristics and presence/absence of nine physical activity promotion environment and policy strategies in their work environment (e.g., showers, lockers, physical activity programs). A worksite physical activity promotion index was a tally of strategies. Total sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) min/d were objectively assessed via 7-day accelerometry. Total job-related physical activity minutes and recreational physical activity minutes were self-reported with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equations evaluated the association of the worksite promotion index with physical activity and sedentary behavior, adjusting for demographics. A higher worksite promotion index was significantly associated with higher total sedentary behavior (β = 3.97), MVPA (β = 1.04), recreational physical activity (β = 1.1 and odds ratio = 1.39; away from work and at work, respectively) and negatively with job-related physical activity (β = .90). Multiple worksite physical activity promotion strategies based on environmental supports and policies may increase recreational physical activity and should be evaluated in controlled trials. These findings are particularly important given the increasingly sedentary nature of employment.
Hernandez, Brenda Y; Zhu, Xuemei; Goodman, Marc T; Gatewood, Robert; Mendiola, Paul; Quinata, Katrina; Paulino, Yvette C
Oral cancers are attributed to a number of causal agents including tobacco, alcohol, human papillomavirus (HPV), and areca (betel) nut. Although betel nut chewing has been established as an independent cause of oral cancer, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis are poorly understood. An investigation was undertaken to evaluate the influence of betel nut chewing on the oral microbiome and oral premalignant lesions. Study participants were recruited from a dental clinic in Guam. Structured interviews and oral examinations were performed. Oral swabbing and saliva samples were evaluated by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3- V5 region of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene and genotyped for HPV. One hundred twenty-two adults were enrolled including 64 current betel nut chewers, 37 former chewers, and 21 with no history of betel nut use. Oral premalignant lesions, including leukoplakia and submucous fibrosis, were observed in 10 chewers. Within-sample bacterial diversity was significantly lower in long-term (≥10 years) chewers vs. never chewers and in current chewers with oral lesions vs. individuals without lesions. Between-sample bacterial diversity based on Unifrac distances significantly differed by chewing status and oral lesion status. Current chewers had significantly elevated levels of Streptococcus infantis and higher and lower levels of distinct taxa of the Actinomyces and Streptococcus genera. Long-term chewers had reduced levels of Parascardovia and Streptococcus. Chewers with oral lesions had significantly elevated levels of Oribacterium, Actinomyces, and Streptococcus, including Streptococcus anginosus. In multivariate analyses, controlling for smoking, oral HPV, S.anginosus, and S. infantis levels, current betel nut chewing remained the only predictor of oral premalignant lesions. Our study provides evidence that betel nut chewing alters the oral bacterial microbiome including that of chewers who develop oral premalignant lesions. Nonetheless, whether microbial changes
Endo, Hiroshi; Ino, Shuichi; Fujisaki, Waka
Elderly individuals whose ability to chew and swallow has declined are often restricted to unpleasant diets of very soft food, leading to a poor appetite. To address this problem, we aimed to investigate the influence of altered auditory input of chewing sounds on the perception of food texture. The modified chewing sound was reported to influence the perception of food texture in normal foods. We investigated whether the perceived sensations of nursing care foods could be altered by providing altered auditory feedback of chewing sounds, even if the actual food texture is dull. Chewing sounds were generated using electromyogram (EMG) of the masseter. When the frequency properties of the EMG signal are modified and it is heard as a sound, it resembles a "crunchy" sound, much like that emitted by chewing, for example, root vegetables (EMG chewing sound). Thirty healthy adults took part in the experiment. In two conditions (with/without the EMG chewing sound), participants rated the taste, texture and evoked feelings of five kinds of nursing care foods using two questionnaires. When the "crunchy" EMG chewing sound was present, participants were more likely to evaluate food as having the property of stiffness. Moreover, foods were perceived as rougher and to have a greater number of ingredients in the condition with the EMG chewing sound, and satisfaction and pleasantness were also greater. In conclusion, the "crunchy" pseudo-chewing sound could influence the perception of food texture, even if the actual "crunchy" oral sensation is lacking. Considering the effect of altered auditory feedback while chewing, we can suppose that such a tool would be a useful technique to help people on texture-modified diets to enjoy their food. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abdeta, Tilahun; Tolessa, Daniel; Adorjan, Kristina; Abera, Mubarek
Background Recently, khat chewing has become a common practice among high school, college, and university students. Regular khat chewing is thought to be a predisposing factor for different physical and mental health problems. It can lead to absenteeism from work and classes. In Ethiopia, to our knowledge no published study has investigated khat withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, withdrawal symptoms, and associated factors of khat chewing amo...
Karami-Nogourani, Maryam; Kowsari-Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini-Beheshti, Mozhgan
Background: Chewing sugar-free gums is a convenient way to increase salivary flow. Salivary flow increases in response to both gustatory (taste) and mechanical (chewing) stimuli, and chewing gum can provide both of these stimuli. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of five different flavors of sugar-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH. Materials and Methods: Fifteen dental students volunteered at the same time on six consecutive days, to collect one minute u...
Catarina Ribeiro Barros de ALENCAR
Full Text Available Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control. Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day. After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm. Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05. Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss.
Aguirre Siancas, E E
Since the relationship between chewing and cognitive functions has not been fully elucidated, this study aimed to determine the impact of chewing behaviour on spatial learning and memory in albino male BALB/c mice. Twenty mice aged 8 weeks were divided into 2 equal groups. The regular chewing group was fed with uncrushed grains (the same diet given to all 20 mice since they were weaned) and the limited chewing group was fed with crushed grains. At 16 weeks of age, the mice were evaluated over 5 days, including a 4-day acquisition phase prior to a probe test of spatial learning and memory in the Morris water maze on the fifth day. A comparison of the regular chewing group and the limited chewing group found no significant differences in either the acquisition phase or the probe test. However, there were significant differences in the acquisition phase for just the regular chewing group when comparing results from the first day to those from the other 3 days. The results suggest that regular chewing affects spatial learning and memory since mice in the regular chewing group decreased their times to find the hidden platform during the acquisition phase. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Nagai, H; Shibata, H; Haga, H; Ueno, M; Suyama, Y; Yasumura, S; Matsuzaki, T; Sakihara, S; Taira, K
The purpose of the present study is to investigate the relationship of chewing ability to nutrient and food intakes in the community elderly. Subjects consisted of 145 elderly residents (56 males, 89 females) ranging in age from 65 to 79 years, living at home in a village of Okinawa Prefecture. Chewing ability was divided into two categories: being able to chew ordinary foods was defined as "good", and being able to chew only soft foods as "bad". To determine quantitative food intakes 24-hour dietary records were utilized which were confirmed by nutritionists during interviews. Good chewing ability was found in 82.1% for males and 83.1% for females with no statistically significant difference concerning age or sex. Teeth status was significantly related to chewing ability. For both males and females, protein intake was lower in the group with bad chewing ability than in the good group. Only in males intakes of total energy, fats, Ca, and Fe were lower in the group with bad chewing ability. Concerning food items, intakes of dark green and yellow vegetables and fat in males, and intake of rice in females, were lower in the group with bad chewing ability.
Volkert, Valerie M; Peterson, Kathryn M; Zeleny, Jason R; Piazza, Cathleen C
Children with feeding disorders often cannot or do not chew when presented with table food. Children with chewing deficits also often swallow the bite before masticating it appropriately, which we will refer to as early swallowing. In the current study, we evaluated a clinical protocol to increase chews per bite, assess mastication, and eliminate early swallowing with three children with feeding disorders. The current study adds to a small body of literature on chewing and mastication of children with feeding disorders. Suggestions for future research are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.
de ALENCAR, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; de OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Cristina; MAGALHÃES, Ana Carolina; BUZALAF, Marília Afonso Rabelo; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; RIOS, Daniela
Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive enamel loss. Material and Methods: During three experimental crossover phases (one phase per group) of seven days each, eight volunteers wore palatal devices with human enamel blocks. The groups were: GI – Sugar free chewing gum with CPP-ACP; GII – Conventional sugar free chewing gum; and GIII – No chewing gum (control). Erosive challenge was extraorally performed by immersion of the enamel blocks in cola drink (5 min, 4x/day). After each challenge, in groups CPP and No CPP, volunteers chewed one unit of the corresponding chewing gum for 30 minutes. Quantitative analysis of enamel loss was performed by profilometry (µm). Data were analyzed by Repeated-Measures ANOVA and Tukey’s test (p0.05). Conclusion The CPP-ACP chewing gum was not able to enhance the anti-erosive effect of conventional chewing gum against enamel loss. PMID:28678944
Sayed Abolfazl Mostafavi
Conclusion: Metfornin chewing gum had suitable appearance and appropriate invitro characteristics that fallow the pharmacopeia suggestions. This chewable gum showed bitterness suppression with a suitable release rate.
Lillehoj, Catherine J; Daniel-Ulloa, Jason D; Nothwehr, Faryle
This study describes results of community and worksite assessments of physical activity policies and environmental strategies in 26 Iowa counties. Community coalition members completed the Community Health Assessment and Group Evaluation tool. The study explored findings using descriptive statistics and examined rural-urban differences in two of the five assessed sectors: community and worksites. Lower community scores (ie, needing improvement) were found for complete streets, bicycle use, and street calming. Higher scores (ie, identified strengths) were found for land use plans, maintain parks, and sidewalks Americans with Disabilities Act compliant. Worksites scored lower on promote stairwells, encourage non-motorized commuting, and implement activity breaks but higher on subsidize gym membership and provide area for physical activity. No rural-urban differences were found. Results identify opportunities to enhance community and worksite policies and environmental strategies to increase physical activity.
Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun
Objectives The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel. Methods We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Ch...
Gånedahl, H; Zsaludek Viklund, P; Carlén, K; Kylberg, E; Ekberg, J
In Sweden, a work-site wellness programme implies reimbursing some of the expenses for health-promoting activities. Although work-site wellness programmes are readily available in Sweden, a large number of employees elect not to participate. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of physical activity, self-reported general health assessment and self-efficacy with participation in a work-site wellness programme. A cross-sectional study design was used. An online questionnaire was distributed to employees of a manufacturing company with 2500 employees in southwest Sweden. Those who took advantage of the work-site wellness programme assessed their general health as better and had higher assessment of physical activity. The study showed that being enlisted also implies a higher level of physical activity and general health; however, the effect sizes of these correlations were small. Self-efficacy, i.e. perceived behavioural control, was not associated with participation in the work-site wellness programme. However, self-efficacy was correlated with both general health assessment and physical activity. A regression analysis to determine explanatory contributions to the general health assessment score showed no significant contribution from participation in a work-site wellness programme, but was instead explained by perceived behavioural control and physical activity. Given the small effect size of the difference in physical activity between participators and non-participators in the work-site wellness programme, it is probable that only a small proportion of participators changed their health-promoting activities as a result of the work-site wellness programme. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue
To explore the betel nut chewing prevalence among students, analyze the probability and the odds ratio of ex-chewers and current chewers, as well as the correlation between parental behavior characteristics and those of adolescents chewing betel nut. A cross-sectional survey was designed and 10,288 Taiwanese students answered the questionnaires in 2002. A structured questionnaire included information about betel nut chewing behavior among the adolescent students, sociodemographic data, and the betel nut chewing practice among parents or classmates. Samples were randomly chosen from each cluster of different types of schools in various areas. Three different grade levels of the first, second, and third grade (ages 16-18 years) were selected. Frequency distribution was used to analyze the prevalence among adolescent students, and Chi-square tests were used to compare the differences of betel nut chewing behavior among genders and the effect of parental behavior and socioeconomic factors. Logistic regression was used to analyze the odds ratio of the prevalence of adolescent students' betel nut chewing in the different types of schools and by gender. When the parents' marriage was not successful, or was of a lower social status, a higher incidence of adolescent betel nut chewing was observed. It was easy to experience betel nut chewing in adolescence if either parent chewed betel nut. The prevalence of betel nut chewing among male students was higher than female students and among vocational school students than general school students. The odds ratio of agricultural school students to general school students was highest of all the ex-chewers and current chewers from different types of schools. Betel nut chewing behavior is related to the effect of parental behavior on adolescent students. Apparently, it is indicated that there is a significant intergenerational effect of the parent's behavior on their children's behavior.
Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
The challenge of public health nutrition in relation to worksite settings is to improve access to healthier meal options – especially for the groups with a lower educational level. Strategies changing the dietary environment such as increasing the availability of healthy food and reducing barriers...... towards healthy eating may help consumers change dietary behavior and meet the guidelines for a healthy diet. The sustainability of interventions is found to be a central challenge in public health promotion not only related to the worksite setting, but in health promotion in general. Relatively few...... empirical studies are published in this area. Many health interventions fail to consider the interventions as complex systems that interact dynamically with the key stakeholders and the setting and the broader community. The experiences regarding healthy eating interventions in Denmark and internationally...
Roessler, K K; Rugulies, R; Bilberg, R
PURPOSE: To investigate whether a work-site strength-training program has a positive effect on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled trial among laboratory technicians implementing neck and shoulder exercises for pain relief...... change in any of the four variables in the training group from baseline to follow-up (all p ≥ 0.39). When we used MANOVA to test for between-group effects over time, we did not find any statistically significant result (all p > 0.14). CONCLUSIONS: This study does not provide evidence for an effect...... of a work-site strength-training program on self-reported psychosocial workplace factors and job satisfaction....
Sjogren, K; Ruben, J; Lingstrom, P; Lundberg, AB; Birkhed, D
The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of sugar-free chewing gums containing fluoride (F) and urea in an intra-oral experimental caries model. Placebo chewing gums (without any active ingredient) and no gum served as controls. Fifteen subjects participated in a cross-over,
Full Text Available Introduction: Habitual unilateral chewing develops subconsciously and serves as an example for lateral preference. This study aims to assess the possible impact of chewing side preference to facial asymmetry, temporomandibular joint (TMJ and oral hygiene and existence of any link between the preferred chewing side (PCS and handedness. Materials and Methods: A 2-month cross-sectional (observational study was performed on 76 healthy dentate subjects [24 males (31.6% and 52 females (68.4%] with a mean age of 20.8 ± 1.5 years who participated in this study according to the selection criteria. Results: A total of 75 subjects out of 76 (98.6% were observed to have a PCS. Out of them, 38 chewed on their right and 37 on the left side. Of the 74 right-handed subjects, 48.6% chewed on the right, 50% on the left and 1.4% chewed equally on both the sides. Conclusion: Chewing side preference has a detrimental effect on the TMJ of the corresponding side and is also related to lateral facial asymmetry, which suggests that examination and recording of chewing side preference merit consideration in routine dental examination and treatment planning.
Chen, Han-Ying; Waigandt, Alex C.
The prevalence of betel nut chewing among junior high school students is highest in the eastern region of Taiwan (Lin, 1990). Although there is some research on the prevalence rate, little effort has been paid to developing a classification of betel nut chewing behavior applicable to adolescents. Eight-hundred and forty-three students, including…
Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue
Purpose: This study was to explore the effect of preventive health education intervention in the knowledge, attitude, practice of betel nut chewing, and self-efficacy of anti-betel nut chewing for adolescent students. Methods: One hundred eighty-six indigenous samples were recruited, and divided into experimental and control groups. The…
Schmalz, Mark S.; Helal, Abdelsalam; Mendez-Vasquez, Andres
The detection of food consumption is key to the implementation of successful behavior modification in support of dietary monitoring and therapy, for example, during the course of controlling obesity, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease. Since the vast majority of humans consume food via mastication (chewing), we have designed an algorithm that automatically detects chewing behaviors in surveillance video of a person eating. Our algorithm first detects the mouth region, then computes the spatiotemporal frequency spectrum of a small perioral region (including the mouth). Spectral data are analyzed to determine the presence of periodic motion that characterizes chewing. A classifier is then applied to discriminate different types of chewing behaviors. Our algorithm was tested on seven volunteers, whose behaviors included chewing with mouth open, chewing with mouth closed, talking, static face presentation (control case), and moving face presentation. Early test results show that the chewing behaviors induce a temporal frequency peak at 0.5Hz to 2.5Hz, which is readily detected using a distance-based classifier. Computational cost is analyzed for implementation on embedded processing nodes, for example, in a healthcare sensor network. Complexity analysis emphasizes the relationship between the work and space estimates of the algorithm, and its estimated error. It is shown that chewing detection is possible within a computationally efficient, accurate, and subject-independent framework.
Background: Catha edulis chewing is common in Kenya and is a daily activity in Meru. According to the National Authority for the Campaign against Alcohol and Drug Abuse (NACADA) 2012 drug-use study, there are 1.6 million Catha edulis users in Kenya. The habit of khat chewing is widespread with a deep-rooted ...
Chewing of gum has been favoured by many people because of its beneficial effects. The objective of this study was therefore to determine the difference between the oral hygiene status, organoleptic assessment, self perception of malodour as well as the mouth- air volatile sulphur compound concentration of chewing gum ...
Song, Youn Joo; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Young-Chul
Recent studies suggest that chewing and spitting out food may be associated with severe eating-related pathology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between chewing and spitting, and other symptoms of eating disorders. We hypothesized that patients who chew and spit as a compensatory behavior have more severe eating-related pathology than patients who have never engaged in chewing and spitting behavior. We divided 359 patients with eating disorders into two groups according to whether they engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior to lose weight or not. After comparing eating-related pathology between the two groups, we examined factors associated with pathologic eating behaviors using logistic regression analysis. Among our 359 participants, 24.5% reported having engaged in chewing and spitting as a compensatory behavior. The chewing and spitting (CHSP+) group showed more severe eating disorder symptoms and suicidal behaviors. This group also had significantly higher scores on subscales that measured drive for thinness, bulimia, and impulse regulation on the EDI-2, Food Craving Questionnaire, Body Shape Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Inventory. Chewing and spitting is a common compensatory behavior among patients with eating disorders and is associated with more-pathologic eating behaviors and higher scores on psychometric tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andrew P. Allen
Full Text Available Recent evidence has indicated that chewing gum can enhance attention, as well as promoting well-being and work performance. Four studies (two experiments and two intervention studies examined the robustness of and mechanisms for these effects. Study 1 investigated the acute effect of gum on mood in the absence of task performance. Study 2 examined the effect of rate and force of chewing on mood and attention performance. Study 3 assessed the effects of chewing gum during one working day on well-being and performance, as well as postwork mood and cognitive performance. In Study 4, performance and well-being were reported throughout the workday and at the end of the day, and heart rate and cortisol were measured. Under experimental conditions, gum was associated with higher alertness regardless of whether performance tasks were completed and altered sustained attention. Rate of chewing and subjective force of chewing did not alter mood but had some limited effects on attention. Chewing gum during the workday was associated with higher productivity and fewer cognitive problems, raised cortisol levels in the morning, and did not affect heart rate. The results emphasise that chewing gum can attenuate reductions in alertness, suggesting that chewing gum enhances worker performance.
van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R L; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J
Overweight and obesity are associated with an increased risk of morbidity. Mindfulness training could be an effective strategy to optimize lifestyle behaviors related to body weight gain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention on vigorous physical activity in leisure time, sedentary behavior at work, fruit intake and determinants of these behaviors. The control group received information on existing lifestyle behavior- related facilities that were already available at the worksite. In a randomized controlled trial design (n = 257), 129 workers received a mindfulness training, followed by e-coaching, lunch walking routes and fruit. Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 and 12 months using questionnaires. Physical activity was also measured using accelerometers. Effects were analyzed using linear mixed effect models according to the intention-to-treat principle. Linear regression models (complete case analyses) were used as sensitivity analyses. There were no significant differences in lifestyle behaviors and determinants of these behaviors between the intervention and control group after 6 or 12 months. The sensitivity analyses showed effect modification for gender in sedentary behavior at work at 6-month follow-up, although the main analyses did not. This study did not show an effect of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention on lifestyle behaviors and behavioral determinants after 6 and 12 months. The effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention as a health promotion intervention for all workers could not be established.
Ndukwe, Kizito Chioma; Okeke, Iruka N; Lamikanra, Adebayo; Adesina, Simeon K; Aboderin, Oliadipo
This aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity in extracts obtained from various Nigerian chewing sticks. Aqueous extracts from seventeen chewing sticks and the fruit of C. ferruginea, one fruit used in oral hygiene in Nigeria, were screened for antibacterial activity against type cultures of Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Eleven of the test extracts showed activity against at least two of these referenced organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these eleven extracts against clinical isolates from orofacial infection were determined. All the extracts demonstrated activity against Staphylococcal and Streptococcal isolates. Over half of the extracts were active against Enterobacteriaceae and obligate anaerobic isolates, including Prevotella melaninogenica, Porphyromonas gigivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcus prevotii. Extracts of the Vitellaria paradoxa root, Bridellia ferruginea stem and twigs, Garcinia cola stem, Terminalia glaucescens root, Morinda lucida root, and Cnestis ferruginea fruit showed appreciable activity against all classes of bacterial isolates. The extracts of these plants may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of orofacial infections.
Yashiro, K; Takagi, M; Takada, K
Indices such as smoothness, movement time, peak velocity, and symmetry of the velocity profile have been shown to be effective in explaining the degree of skilfulness of human saccadic eye, limb, and jaw motions. We investigated whether adult subjects with mandibular prognathism show impaired smoothness of the masticatory jaw movements. Forty-nine adults with skeletal Class III malocclusions and 52 healthy adults with acceptably good occlusions were selected respectively as Test and Control subjects. Subjects of the Test Group were subdivided into two groups: Class III(closed) showed full occlusal contact between the upper and lower teeth at the habitual intercuspal position, whereas Class III(open) showed inability of occlusal contact between the upper and lower anterior teeth. Each subject was asked to chew a piece of chewing gum. The normalised jerk-cost (NJC), movement duration, and tangential velocity profile during jaw-closing movements were compared between groups. Test Groups showed greater NJC (P Control Group did. Class III(closed) showed greater NJC (P Control Group. The jaw movement skilfulness of the prognathic patients decreases most drastically with existence of malocclusal contact between upper and lower anterior teeth. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kathryn M. Ross
Full Text Available Background. Worksite wellness programs typically produce modest weight losses. We examined whether an efficacious Internet behavioral weight loss program could be successfully implemented in a worksite setting. Methods. Participants were 75 overweight or obese employees/dependents of a large healthcare system who were given access to a 12-week Internet-based, multicomponent behavioral weight loss program. Assessments occurred at baseline, Month 3 (end of intervention, and Month 6 (follow-up. Results. Retention was excellent (93% at Month 3 and 89% at Month 6. Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated that participants lost an average (±SE of -5.8±.60 kg from baseline to Month 3 and regained 1.1±.31 kg from Month 3 to Month 6; overall, weight loss from baseline to Month 6 was -4.7±.71 kg, p<.001. Men lost more weight than women, p=.022, and individuals who had a college degree or higher lost more weight than those with less education, p=.005. Adherence to viewing lessons (8 of 12 and self-monitoring (83% of days was excellent and significantly associated with weight loss, ps<.05. Conclusions. An Internet-based behavioral weight management intervention can be successfully implemented in a worksite setting and can lead to clinically significant weight losses. Given the low costs of offering this program, it could easily be widely disseminated.
Patricia J Neafsey
Full Text Available Patricia J Neafsey1,2, Gregory Lutkus2, Jessica Newcomb2, Elizabeth Anderson1,21Center for Health Intervention and Prevention (CHIP; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USAAbstract: A Next Generation Personal Education Program (PEP-NG that captures self-reported medication behaviors and delivers a tailored educational intervention on a touchscreen interface was piloted with 11 adults with hypertension, aged 45–60 years, in a worksite setting. A time series design with multiple institution of treatment (four visits over three months was employed. Blood pressure (BP, self-medication behaviors, self-efficacy, and knowledge for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors were assessed at each of four visits. Satisfaction was assessed once at visit 4. Measures pre-PEP (visit 1 to visit 4 were compared with paired t-tests. The adverse self-medication behavior risk score decreased significantly from visit 1 to visit 4 (p < 0.05 with a medium effect size. Both knowledge and self-efficacy for avoiding adverse self-medication behaviors increased significantly (p < 0.05 with large effect sizes. All six participants not at BP goal (<140/90 mmHg on visit 1 were at goal by visit 4. User satisfaction was high as assessed by both quantitative measures and qualitative interviews. These positive results suggest the PEP could play a central role in worksite wellness programs aimed at workers with hypertension.Keywords: hypertension, worksite, information technology, tailored intervention
Della, Lindsay J; DeJoy, David M; Goetzel, Ron Z; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Wilson, Mark G
Describe the development of the leading by example (LBE) instrument. A total of 135 responses from employees of a private corporation working at 11 different worksites were factor analyzed in 2005. Exploratory factor analysis was used to obtain an initial factor structure. Factor validity was evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis methods. A second sample was collected in 2006 from the same population (N = 178) and was used to confirm the factor structure via confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's alpha and item-total correlations provided information on the reliability of the factor subscales. Four subscales were identified: business alignment with health promotion objectives, awareness of the health-productivity link, worksite support for health promotion, and leadership support for health promotion. Factor by group comparisons revealed that the initial factor structure was effective in detecting differences in organizational support for health promotion across different employee groups. Management support for health promotion can be assessed using the LBE, a brief self-report questionnaire. Researchers can use the LBE to diagnose, track, and evaluate worksite health promotion programs.
Hall, Michael Edward; Bergman, Randall J; Nivens, Samantha
This study explores the relationship between organizational health climate and worksite health promotion program participation, specifically engaging individuals who are unlikely to make positive health behavior choices on their own. Participants consisted of employees at three separate furniture-manufacturing facilities completing a voluntary survey. Using responses (n = 349) from the health climate instrument, which is a measure of the collective attitudes, beliefs, and readiness to change a health behavior, this study identified two factors that were significant contributors to worksite health promotion program participation. Health norms, the collective attitudes regarding healthy lifestyle, as measured by the subscales-health scale and intention to make a behavior change-and "optimistic bias," the overassessment of one's personal health, were found to be predictors of participation. Additionally, significant (p organizational support of the health behavior change. The findings suggest that the organization's health norms and self-assessed health are associated with the worker's motivation to become involved with health promotion interventions. Offering worksite health screenings and advanced programming and creating a culture of health at work can help address program participation. © 2013 Society for Public Health Education.
Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun
Targeting consumers who consume lunches at their worksite cafeterias would be a valuable approach to reduce sodium intake in South Korea. To assess the relationships between socio-demographic factors, consumer satisfaction, attitudes, barriers and the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. We implemented a cross-sectional research, analyzing data from 738 consumers aged 18 years or older (327 males and 411 females) at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We used the ordinary least squares regression analysis to determine the factors related to overall satisfaction with sodium-reduced meal. General linear models with LSD tests were employed to examine the variables that differed by the frequency of sodium-reduced meal intake. Most subjects always or usually consumed the sodium-reduced meal (49%), followed by sometimes (34%) and rarely or never (18%). Diverse menus, taste and belief in the helpfulness of the sodium-reduced meal significantly increased overall satisfaction with the sodium-reduced diet (P menu diversity' (4.01 points), 2) 'active promotion' (3.97 points), 3) 'display of nutrition labels in a visible location' (3.96 points), 4) 'improvement of taste' (3.88 points), and 5) 'education of sodium-reduction self-care behaviors' (3.82 points). Dietitians could lead consumers to choose sodium-reduced meals by improving their taste and providing diverse menus for the sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias.
Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sugita, Daisuke; Matsuo, Koichiro
As mastication progresses, little is known about the occurrence of the stage II transport (oro-pharyngeal bolus transport). This study aimed to investigate the relationship between stage II transport and bolus aggregation in the pharynx and the number of chewing strokes. Twenty-five clinical residents with natural dentitions were recruited. The subjects were asked to chew gummy jelly with their preferred rhythm and to swallow the bolus at their preferred timing. To investigate stage II transport and bolus aggregation in the pharynx, a transnasal endoscope was used. The number of chewing strokes was measured by electromyographic activity from the masseter muscle. The mean numbers of chewing strokes of pre-stage II transport and post-stage II transport were 29.8 and 8.1, respectively; the difference was significant (pmastication, and that stage II transport and bolus aggregation in the pharynx are related to the number of chewing strokes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Dongen, Johanna M; Proper, Karin I; van Wier, Marieke F; van der Beek, Allard J; Bongers, Paulien M; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W
The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011. Additionally, we searched for articles by reviewing references, searching authors' databases, and contacting authors of included studies. Two researchers independently selected articles. Articles had to include a cost-effectiveness and/or cost-utility analysis comparing a worksite physical activity and/or nutrition program to usual care or an abridged version of the program. Data were extracted on study characteristics and results. Two researchers independently assessed the risk of bias using the Consensus on Health Economic Criteria list (CHEC-list). Ten studies (18 programs) were included. More than 50% of the studies fulfilled 11 (58%) of the 19 CHEC-list items. From various perspectives, worksite nutrition and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=6) were more costly and more effective in reducing body weight than usual care. When only intervention costs were considered, most worksite nutrition (N=4/5) and worksite physical activity and nutrition programs (N=5/6) were more costly and more effective in reducing cholesterol level and cardiovascular disease risks, respectively. The cost-effectiveness of more costly and more effective programs depends on the "willingness to pay" for their effects. It is unknown how much decision-makers are willing to pay for reductions in body weight, cholesterol level, and cardiovascular disease risks. Therefore, conclusions about the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs cannot be made. There is substantial need for improvement of the methodological quality of studies and particular emphasis should be placed on the handling of uncertainty.
van Empelen Pepijn
Full Text Available Abstract Background The workplace has been identified as a promising setting for health promotion, and many worksite health promotion programmes have been implemented in the past years. Research has mainly focused on the effectiveness of these interventions. For implementation of interventions at a large scale however, information about (determinants of participation in these programmes is essential. This systematic review investigates initial participation in worksite health promotion programmes, the underlying determinants of participation, and programme characteristics influencing participation levels. Methods Studies on characteristics of participants and non-participants in worksite health promotion programmes aimed at physical activity and/or nutrition published from 1988 to 2007 were identified through a structured search in PubMed and Web of Science. Studies were included if a primary preventive worksite health promotion programme on PA and/or nutrition was described, and if quantitative information was present on determinants of participation. Results In total, 23 studies were included with 10 studies on educational or counselling programmes, 6 fitness centre interventions, and 7 studies examining determinants of participation in multi-component programmes. Participation levels varied from 10% to 64%, with a median of 33% (95% CI 25–42%. In general, female workers had a higher participation than men (OR = 1.67; 95% CI 1.25–2.27], but this difference was not observed for interventions consisting of access to fitness centre programmes. For the other demographic, health- and work-related characteristics no consistent effect on participation was found. Pooling of studies showed a higher participation level when an incentive was offered, when the programme consisted of multiple components, or when the programme was aimed at multiple behaviours. Conclusion In this systematic review, participation levels in health promotion interventions
Dorji, Nidup; Pacheun, Oranut; Boonshuyar, Chaweewon
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of betel quid chewing and related factors including general characteristics, behavioral pattern, perception and social influences among health care providers in Thimphu, Bhutan. A self-administered questionnaire was handed to 478 health care providers working in different units of health care centers in Thimphu during June-July 2010. A total of 391 (81.8%) questionnaires were returned. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. The prevalence of current betel quid chewers among this group was 26.6%. Males chewed betel quid more than females (29.5%, 23.9% respectively). Forty-two percent of current chewers had no specific reasons for chewing betel quid, although 18.2% declared that they were addicted. Both friends and family members were key persons involved in influencing betel quid chewing. Marital status was significantly associated with betel quid chewing, married health care providers being 2 times more likely to chew betel quid (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.02-4.28) than those of single marital status. Similarly, those coming from West Bhutan, were 2 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 2.71, 95% CI = 1.32-5.55) than other regions. Health care providers from families with more than half of their members chewing betel quid were 14 times more likely to be currently chewing it (OR = 14.52, 95% CI = 6.02-35.04) than families having none of their members chewing it. Health care smokers were more likely to chew betel quid than non-smoking ones (p-value = 0.012). Also occasional drinkers were 3 times more likely to be currently using betel quid (OR = 3.52, 95% CI = 1.78-6.96). Those who perceived a high barrier to quit chewing were about 2.6 times more likely to be current chewers of betel quid, than those who perceived less of a barrier to quit (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.21-5.67). The present study revealed betel quid chewing prevalence rate of 26.6%. Of the various factors
Abdeta, Tilahun; Tolessa, Daniel; Adorjan, Kristina; Abera, Mubarek
Recently, khat chewing has become a common practice among high school, college, and university students. Regular khat chewing is thought to be a predisposing factor for different physical and mental health problems. It can lead to absenteeism from work and classes. In Ethiopia, to our knowledge no published study has investigated khat withdrawal symptoms. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the prevalence, withdrawal symptoms, and associated factors of khat chewing among regular undergraduate students on the main campus of Jimma University in Ethiopia. The institution-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in January 2016. Data were collected from 651 main campus regular undergraduate students with a structured, self-administered questionnaire, entered into Epidata 3.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for Windows. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to explore associations and identify variables independently associated with khat chewing. The study found that the lifetime and current prevalence of khat chewing among students were 26.3% (95% CI: 24.3, 28.3) and 23.9% (95% CI: 21.94, 25.86), respectively. About 25.7% of students started chewing after joining university, and 60.5% of these students started during their first year. The main reason given for starting khat chewing was for study purposes (54.6%), followed by socialization purposes (42.3%). Among current khat chewers, 72.9% reported that they had chewed khat for 1 year or more and 68.2% reported that they had experienced various withdrawal symptoms. The most frequently reported withdrawal symptoms were feeling depressed, craving, and feeling fatigued. Being male, attending a place of worship daily/2-3 times per week, cannabis use, smoking cigarettes, and having family members currently chewing khat were independently associated with khat chewing. This study found that large numbers of university students were currently chewing khat. In this study withdrawal symptoms
Recent research suggests that chewing gum may increase alertness and lead to changes in cognitive performance. The present study examined effects of chewing gum on these functions within the context of a single study. This study had four main aims. The first was to examine whether chewing gum improved learning and memory of information in a story. The second aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved test performance on a validated intellectual task (the Alice Heim task). A third aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved performance on short memory tasks (immediate and delayed recall of a list of words, delayed recognition memory, retrieval from semantic memory, and a working memory task). The final aim was to determine whether chewing gum improved mood (alertness, calm and hedonic tone). A cross-over design was used with gum and no-gum sessions being on consecutive weeks. In each week, volunteers attended for two sessions, two days apart. The first session assessed mood, immediate recall of information from a story and performance on short memory tasks. The second session assessed mood, delayed recall of information from a story and performance of an intelligence test (the Alice Heim test). There were no significant effects of chewing gum on any aspect of recall of the story. Chewing gum improved the accuracy of performing the Alice Heim test which confirms the benefits of gum on test performance seen in an earlier study. Chewing gum had no significant effect on the short memory tasks. Chewing gum increased alertness at the end of the test session in both parts of the study. This effect was in the region of a 10% increase and was highly significant (P < 0.001). The results of this study showed that chewing gum increases alertness. In contrast, no significant effects of chewing gum were observed in the memory tasks. Intellectual performance was improved in the gum condition. Overall, the results suggest further research on the alerting effects of
Full Text Available Chewing gum has been reported to enhance bowel function. However, the efficacy remains unclear for women undergoing cesarean delivery. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy of chewing gum for recovering intestinal function following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library were searched to identify English language randomized controlled trials comparing chewing gum with other procedures for promoting the recovery of intestinal function after cesarean delivery. Two of the authors independently extracted data from the eligibility studies, and Review Manager Version 5.2 was used to pool the data. Finally, five randomized controlled trials involving 882 patients were included and all the trials were considered as at high risk of bias. The pooled findings showed that chewing gum after cesarean delivery can significantly shorten the time to first flatus [standardized mean difference (SMD = −0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.01 to −0.14; p < 0.001]; time to first hearing of normal intestinal sounds (SMD = −0.69; 95% CI = −1.20 to −0.17; p = 0.009; I² = 92%. Time to the first defecation (SMD = −0.53; 95% CI = −1.61 to −0.07; p = 0.07; I² = 92% and length of hospital stay (SMD = −0.59; 95% CI = −1.18 to 0.00; p = 0.05; I² = 93% were also reduced in the chewing gum group; however, these results were not statistically significant. The current evidence suggests that chewing gum has a positive effect on intestinal function recovery following cesarean delivery in the early postoperative period. However, more large-scale and high-quality randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm these results.
Lee, Jounghee; Park, Sohyun
The sodium content of meals provided at worksite cafeterias is greater than the sodium content of restaurant meals and home meals. The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between sodium-reduction practices, barriers, and perceptions among food service personnel. We implemented a cross-sectional study by collecting data on perceptions, practices, barriers, and needs regarding sodium-reduced meals at 17 worksite cafeterias in South Korea. We implemented Chi-square tests and analysis of variance for statistical analysis. For post hoc testing, we used Bonferroni tests; when variances were unequal, we used Dunnett T3 tests. This study involved 104 individuals employed at the worksite cafeterias, comprised of 35 men and 69 women. Most of the participants had relatively high levels of perception regarding the importance of sodium reduction (very important, 51.0%; moderately important, 27.9%). Sodium reduction practices were higher, but perceived barriers appeared to be lower in participants with high-level perception of sodium-reduced meal provision. The results of the needs assessment revealed that the participants wanted to have more active education programs targeting the general population. The biggest barriers to providing sodium-reduced meals were use of processed foods and limited methods of sodium-reduced cooking in worksite cafeterias. To make the provision of sodium-reduced meals at worksite cafeterias more successful and sustainable, we suggest implementing more active education programs targeting the general population, developing sodium-reduced cooking methods, and developing sodium-reduced processed foods.
VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Linde, Jennifer A; Harnack, Lisa J; Stovitz, Steven D; Jeffery, Robert W
Some evidence suggests that physical activity programs mainly attract employees who are already active. This study examined the degree to which baseline physical activity was associated with enrollment in worksite walking clubs. All variables were measured at baseline. Walking club participation was measured over 2 years. There were 642 individuals from 3 worksites with complete data available for logistic regression analyses. Baseline physical activity [OR (95% CI)=1.00 (0.99, 1.01)] was not a significant predictor of walking club participation. Participants who were older [OR=1.03 (1.01, 1.04)] or indicated more social support for physical activity [OR=1.13 (1.02, 1.25)] had significantly higher odds of participation relative to those who were younger or indicated less social support, respectively. In addition, men [OR=-0.25 (0.18, 0.36)] and employees from the second worksite [OR=-0.41 (0.25, 0.67)] had significantly lower odds of participation relative to women and employees from the first or third worksites, respectively. Sensitivity analyses arrived at similar conclusions. Worksite walking clubs were appealing across varying levels of physical activity. Future research should improve marketing and program design to engage harder-to-reach segments of the workforce, particularly young men and those with limited social support.
Allen, D T; Voytovich, M C; Allen, J C
This case report illustrates the need to consider temporal arteritis in the differential diagnosis of jaw or tooth pain. This disease affects the cranial arteries, more frequently in women and usually in those older than age 60 years, causing jaw pain, visual symptoms, headache, scalp pain and sometimes blindness. A 71-year-old man had jaw pain that increased with chewing and speaking, scalp tenderness and dimming vision. A temporal artery biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Treatment with decreasing amounts of oral steroids over 23 months was successful in relieving his signs and symptoms and in saving his vision. Patients with this disease may seek care from their dentist first. Jaw or tooth pain is the most reliable clinical symptom in the diagnosis of temporal arteritis. Diagnosis and timely referral for treatment with oral steroids can prevent blindness.
Appel, H M; Cocroft, R B
Plant germination and growth can be influenced by sound, but the ecological significance of these responses is unclear. We asked whether acoustic energy generated by the feeding of insect herbivores was detected by plants. We report that the vibrations caused by insect feeding can elicit chemical defenses. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) rosettes pre-treated with the vibrations caused by caterpillar feeding had higher levels of glucosinolate and anthocyanin defenses when subsequently fed upon by Pieris rapae (L.) caterpillars than did untreated plants. The plants also discriminated between the vibrations caused by chewing and those caused by wind or insect song. Plants thus respond to herbivore-generated vibrations in a selective and ecologically meaningful way. A vibration signaling pathway would complement the known signaling pathways that rely on volatile, electrical, or phloem-borne signals. We suggest that vibration may represent a new long distance signaling mechanism in plant-insect interactions that contributes to systemic induction of chemical defenses.
Tschannen, Mattias P; Glück, Ulrich; Bircher, Andreas J; Heijnen, Ingmar; Pletscher, Claudia
Thaumatin is a sweetener and flavor modifier commonly used in the food industry. Likewise, gum arabic is widely used as a food stabilizer and thickening agent. We report here that a powder mixture composed of 10% thaumatin and 90% gum arabic led to allergic symptoms in the upper airways in occupationally exposed individuals: four of eight workers of a chewing gum factory exposed to this powder mixture had pronounced rhinitis. A positive skin prick test result for pure thaumatin was obtained in all four individuals with rhinitis of whom two also had a positive skin prick test result for pure gum arabic and gum arabic-specific IgE. Subsitution of a powdered thaumatin with a liquid form reduced symptoms among the rhinitic workers. Although gum arabic is a well-known potential allergen, we were unable to find prior documentation of allergic symptoms to thaumatin when it is used in the food industry. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Polland, K E; Higgins, F; Orchardson, R
Gum chewing for 20 min causes an increase in salivary flow rate and salivary pH. Most people chew gum for longer than 20 min, and our aim was to determine how whole mouth salivary flow rate and pH might adapt during prolonged gum chewing. Resting saliva was collected over 5 min; gum-stimulated saliva was collected at intervals during 90 min, chewing a single pellet (1.5 g) of mint-flavoured, sugar-free gum (n = 19). Subjects chewed at their own preferred rate and style. Both salivary flow rate and pH were increased above resting levels for the entire 90 min. The salivary flow was significantly greater (anovaP chewing. The saliva pH remained significantly higher (P pH even after 90-min chewing. When the experiment was repeated with the gum pellets replaced at 30 and 60 min (n = 9), similar increases in salivary flow rate and pH were found. In the latter experiment, there was no evidence of any cumulative effects on flow or pH. The persistent increase in salivary pH in particular could be beneficial to oral and dental health.
Farooq, Muhammad; Sazonov, Edward
Several methods have been proposed for automatic and objective monitoring of food intake, but their performance suffers in the presence of speech and motion artifacts. This work presents a novel sensor system and algorithms for detection and characterization of chewing bouts from a piezoelectric strain sensor placed on the temporalis muscle. The proposed data acquisition device was incorporated into the temple of eyeglasses. The system was tested by ten participants in two part experiments, one under controlled laboratory conditions and the other in unrestricted free-living. The proposed food intake recognition method first performed an energy-based segmentation to isolate candidate chewing segments (instead of using epochs of fixed duration commonly reported in research literature), with the subsequent classification of the segments by linear Support Vector Machine models. On participant level (combining data from both laboratory and free-living experiments), with 10-fold leave-one-out cross-validation, chewing were recognized with average F-score of 96.28% and the resultant area under the curve was 0.97, which are higher than any of the previously reported results. A multivariate regression model was used to estimate chew counts from segments classified as chewing with an average mean absolute error of 3.83% on participant level. These results suggest that the proposed system is able to identify chewing segments in the presence of speech and motion artifacts, as well as automatically and accurately quantify chewing behavior, both under controlled laboratory conditions and unrestricted free-living.
Franke, Adrian A; Mendez, Ana Joy; Lai, Jennifer F; Arat-Cabading, Celine; Li, Xingnan; Custer, Laurie J
Betel nut chewing causes cancer in humans, including strong associations with head and neck cancer in Guam. In the search for biomarkers of betel chewing we sought to identify chemicals specific for the 3 most commonly consumed betel preparations in Guam: nut ('BN'), nut + Piper betle leaf ('BL'), and betel quid ('BQ') consisting of nut + lime + tobacco + Piper betle leaf. Chemicals were extracted from the chewing material and saliva of subjects chewing these betel preparations. Saliva analysis involved protein precipitation with acetonitrile, dilution with formic acid followed by LCMS analysis. Baseline and chewing saliva levels were compared using t-tests and differences between groups were compared by ANOVA; p < 0.05 indicated significance. Predominant compounds in chewing material were guvacine, arecoline, guvacoline, arecaidine, chavibetol, and nicotine. In chewing saliva we found significant increases from baseline for guvacine (BN, BQ), arecoline (all groups), guvacoline (BN), arecaidine (all groups), nicotine (BQ), and chavibetol (BL, BQ), and significant differences between all groups for total areca-specific alkaloids, total tobacco-specific alkaloids and chavibetol. From this pilot study, we propose the following chemical patterns as biomarkers: areca alkaloids for BN use, areca alkaloids and chavibetol for BL use, and areca alkaloids plus chavibetol and tobacco-specific alkaloids for BQ use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bongard, Stephan; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa
Khat (Catha edulis, Forsk) is a drug widely used in countries around the Red Sea (East-Africa and Arabian Peninsula). In Germany khat chewing is illegal but nevertheless an often observed habit in immigrants from this region. This study investigates the interrelation between immigrants acculturation processes and traditional khat chewing habits. Sixty-one khat chewers (14 female) from East-African countries were interviewed about their khat chewing habits and acculturation strategy using standardized questionnaires. Results indicate that immigrants׳ khat chewing behaviors are similar to what is common in countries with traditional khat use. But khat chewing tended to be less among immigrants who were relatively more oriented towards their cultures of origin. Chewing khat was subjectively considered to help coping with problems, to forget bad memories and to concentrate better. It was concluded that khat chewing serves a functional use of coping with stressful events in the present or in the past within this sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Komagamine, Y; Kanazawa, M; Minakuchi, S; Uchida, T; Sasaki, Y
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory performance as determined using a colour-changeable chewing gum and mandibular movements. Subjects comprised 45 fully dentate adults (23 men, 22 women; mean age, 28·1 years). The gum was chewed for a specified number of chewing strokes (20, 40, 60, 80, 120 or 160 strokes) without any instructions as to chewing side. A colourimeter was used to measure L*, a* and b* values (CIE-L*a*b* colour system) for the chewed gum, then the difference between two colours in the CIE-L*a*b* colour space (ΔE) for each number of chewing strokes was calculated according to a formula. Index of masticatory performance (ΔE60) for each subject was obtained using ΔE for 20, 40, 60, 80, 120 and 160 strokes. Mandibular movements were recorded using an opto-electric system with six degrees of freedom. Twelve parameters of mandibular movements relating to amplitude, duration, velocity and angle were computed for each cycle, and mean values for 10 cycles (from cycle 11 to 20) were calculated separately. Stepwise multiple regression analysis identified maximum closing velocity and closing angle as predictors accounting for 18% of the variation in ΔE60. These results suggest that lower angles of approach to intercuspation and faster speed during closing duration are associated with colour changes in the colour-changeable chewing gum. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Macura-Karbownik, Anna; Chladek, Grzegorz; Żmudzki, Jarosław; Kasperski, Jacek
Thermoplastic materials, such as acetal (AC) and polyamide (PA), constitute an alternative to polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) based resins as the materials for removable partial dentures. However, none of the previous studies compared chewing efficiency and occlusal forces in the wearers of dentures made of various materials. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine and compare the chewing efficiency and occlusal forces in PMMA, PA and AC RPDs' wearers. The hypothesis was that the type of denture base material shows a significant effect on chewing efficiency (expressed as a degree of food fragmentation) and occlusal force. The experiment included the group of 30 patients using removable partial dentures. The dentures made of PMMA, acetal and polyamide were tested in each patient. Each denture was worn for 90 days, with a random sequence of the denture manufacturing and insertion. After 7, 30 and 90 days of each denture wear, chewing efficiency coefficient was determined with the aid of a sieving method, and occlusal force was measured with a dynamometer. The use of dentures made of PMMA or acetal was reflected by a marked increase in chewing efficiency and occlusal force. None of these parameters changed significantly with the time of denture wear. Moreover, no significant correlation was found between chewing efficiency and occlusal forces. Denture base material exerts significant effects on the degree of food fragmentation and the level of occlusal forces. The use of dentures and clasps made of materials with lower modulus of elasticity is associated with lower chewing efficiency and lower occlusal forces.
Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Delva, W.; Moyer, E.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, Z.-J.; Lu, C.-Y.; Wu, S.-Z.; Nadisauskiene, R.J.; Temmerman, M.; Degomme, O.
Background: We conducted a comparative study in worksites to assess the impact of sexual health promoting interventions on contraceptive use among female rural-to-urban migrants. Study design: In Qingdao ten manufacturing worksites were randomly allocated to a standard package of interventions (SPI)
Yamasaki, Yo; Kuwatsuru, Rika; Tsukiyama, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Oki, Kyosuke; Koyano, Kiyoshi
The aim of this study was to examine the validity of objective assessment of actual chewing side by measurement of electromyographic (EMG) activity of the bilateral masseter muscles upon chewing test foods. The sample consisted of 19 healthy, dentate individuals. The subjects were asked to chew three types of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky, and chewing gum) for 10 strokes on the right side and then on the left side, and instructed to perform maximum voluntary clenching for 3s, three times. EMG activity from the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The data were collected in three different days. The root mean square EMG amplitude obtained from the maximum clenching task was used as the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Then, the level of amplitude against the MVC (%MVC) was calculated for the right and left sides on each stroke. The side with the larger %MVC value was judged as the chewing side, and the concordance rates (CRs) for the instructed chewing side (ICS) and the judged chewing side (JCS) were calculated. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) of the CRs were calculated to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. High CRs between the ICS and JCS for each test food were recognized. There were significant ICCs for beef jerky (R=0.761, P<0.001) and chewing gum (R=0.785, P<0.001). The results suggested that the measurement of EMG activity from the bilateral masseter muscles may be a useful method for the objective determination of the actual chewing side during mastication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karami Nogourani, Maryam; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Kowsari Isfahan, Raha; Hosseini Beheshti, Mozhgan
Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR) and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women) healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for...
The results of a national survey of determinants of drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing behaviors are analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate whether drinking, smoking and betel-nut chewing are influenced by a variety of religions based on Taiwan data. Our results suggest that Buddhism, Taoism and practitioners of Chinese folk region are positively associated with heavy betel nut chewing while the religion effects on heavy smoking and drinking are statistically insignificant. Our findings on religion effects in Taiwan can be a valuable reference for comparison in Christian and western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Overman, Amy A; Sun, Justin; Golding, Abbe C; Prevost, Darius
This study examined the effect of chewing gum on memory when flavor is held constant. Four separate groups of participants (total n=101) completed a word recall task. At learning and recall, participants either chewed a piece of gum or sucked a sweet. Each participant completed the memory task twice, once with abstract words and once with concrete words. A significant effect of word type (concrete vs. abstract) was found, however recall performance was not improved by matched oral activity at learning and recall. The results cast further doubt on the ability of chewing gum to induce context-dependent memory effects.
Christrup, Lona Louring; Angelo, H.R.; Bonde, J.
Methadone administered in chewing gum in doses of 16.7-22.6 mg to seven patients in a study using an open balanced cross-over design, was compared with 20 mg of methadone given perorally as tablets. There was no significant difference in the AUC/D obtained after administration of chewing gum...... and tablets (p>0.05). It is concluded that the chewing gum formulation should be considered for further testing with respect to suppression of abstinence syndrome in narcotic addicts....
Rubio, Nelida Cristina; Thurmann, Denise; Krumbiegel, Franziska; Pragst, Fritz
Hygrine (HYG) and cuscohygrine (CUS) are natural alkaloids of coca leaves but are not found in illicit cocaine seizures. Therefore, they were proposed as markers for coca chewing in contrast to cocaine abuse in urine and hair testing. In order to examine at which step of the illegal cocaine production these compounds are lost, coca leaves were processed according to an authentic procedure by extraction with lime and kerosene, re-extraction with sulphuric acid, and precipitation of coca paste with ammonia. Non-extracted and extracted coca leaves, acidic extract and coca paste were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for cocaine, ecgonine methyl ester (EME), cinnamoylcocaine (CIN), HYG, and CUS. It follows from the results that under these conditions, HYG and CUS are extracted only to a minor extent by kerosene and are not precipitated from the acidic re-extract in the coca paste. Due to this behaviour in illegal cocaine production, they fulfil the conditions as markers for coca chewing in an optimal way. However, for unambiguous discrimination between coca chewing and cocaine abuse in human samples, additional markers of manufactured cocaine are required. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Keukenmeester, R S; Slot, D E; Rosema, N A M; Van Loveren, C; Van der Weijden, G A
The objective of this study was to test the effect of sugar-free chewing gum sweetened with xylitol or maltitol compared to the use of a gum base or no gum on gingivitis and plaque scores under both brushing and non-brushing circumstances. The design of the study was a four-group, double-blinded, randomized controlled study with a 3-week duration. In each group, the participants did not brush the teeth in the lower jaw designated to develop experimental gingivitis, while maintaining normal oral hygiene procedures in the upper jaw. After professional dental prophylaxis, the participants were allocated into one of four groups (xylitol, maltitol, gum base or no gum). Chewing gum was used five times a day for 10 min. 220 participants completed the study and provided evaluable data. The increase in bleeding on marginal probing (BOMP) and plaque scores (PS) in the non-brushed (lower) jaw with experimental gingivitis was significant in all groups (P gingivitis scores compared to chewing gum base. The difference when compared to the group not using gum was not significant. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla
Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and 7 weeks after introduction of five reduced-size entrées in a worksite lunch cafeteria and for 3 weeks before and 4 weeks after introduction of five reduced-size dinner entrées in a restaurant setting. Full-size entrées were available throughout the entire study periods. A worksite cafeteria and a commercial upscale restaurant in a large US Midwestern metropolitan area. Adult worksite employees and restaurant patrons. Reduced-size entrées accounted for 5·3-12·8 % and 18·8-31·3 % of total entrées selected in the worksite and restaurant settings, respectively. Food waste, energy intake and intakes of total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, Na, fibre, Ca, K and Fe were significantly lower when both full- and reduced-size entrées were served in the worksite setting and in the restaurant setting compared with when only full-size entrées were served. A relatively small proportion of reduced-size entrées were selected but still resulted in reductions in overall energy and nutrient intakes. These outcomes could serve as the foundation for future studies to determine strategies to enhance acceptance of reduced-portion menu items in restaurant settings.
Linde Jennifer A
Full Text Available Abstract Background U.S. adults are at unprecedented risk of becoming overweight or obese, and most scientists believe the primary cause is an obesogenic environment. Worksites provide an opportunity to shape the environments of adults to reduce obesity risk. The goal of this group-randomized trial was to implement a four-component environmental intervention at the worksite level to positively influence weight gain among employees over a two-year period. Environmental components focused on food availability and price, physical activity promotion, scale access, and media enhancements. Methods Six worksites in a U.S. metropolitan area were recruited and randomized in pairs at the worksite level to either a two-year intervention or a no-contact control. Evaluations at baseline and two years included: 1 measured height and weight; 2 online surveys of individual dietary intake and physical activity behaviors; and 3 detailed worksite environment assessment. Results Mean participant age was 42.9 years (range 18-75, 62.6% were women, 68.5% were married or cohabiting, 88.6% were white, 2.1% Hispanic. Mean baseline BMI was 28.5 kg/m2 (range 16.9-61.2 kg/m2. A majority of intervention components were successfully implemented. However, there were no differences between sites in the key outcome of weight change over the two-year study period (p = .36. Conclusions Body mass was not significantly affected by environmental changes implemented for the trial. Results raise questions about whether environmental change at worksites is sufficient for population weight gain prevention. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00708461
Steenhuis, Ingrid; Van Assema, Patricia; Van Breukelen, Gerard; Glanz, Karen; Kok, Gerjo; De Vries, Hein
Environmental interventions such as labeling and an increased availability of healthy foods may help consumers to meet guidelines for a healthy diet. This article describes a study into the effectiveness of two environmental programs to be used in worksite cafeterias along with an educational program. The aim of the interventions was to reduce fat intake, and to increase fruit and vegetable intake. In the labeling program, low-fat products were labeled. The food supply program comprised an increased availability of low-fat products and fruits and vegetables in worksite cafeterias. The educational program consisted of information about healthy nutrition through brochures, table tents, a self-help manual and posters. The design consisted of a pre-test-post-test experimental control group design, with four conditions: the educational program; the food supply program plus educational program; the labeling program plus educational program; and a control group. Seventeen worksites were randomly assigned to one of the four research conditions. Total fat, fruit and vegetable intake was measured with a quantitative, self-administered food frequency questionnaire (35 questions). Intake during lunch was measured by asking respondents to write down which food items they had purchased during their last lunch in the cafeteria. Furthermore, sales data for some targeted product categories were collected (milk, butter, cheese, meat products, desserts). For the whole study population, no significant effects on consumption data were found for any of the programs. The data showed a beneficial and significant treatment effect of the labeling program on total fat intake for respondents who believed they ate a high-fat diet. Sales data revealed a significant effect of the labeling program on desserts, but not for the other products.
Brace, Andrea M; Padilla, Heather M; DeJoy, David M; Wilson, Mark G; Vandenberg, Robert J; Davis, Marsha
Weight management programs are becoming increasingly common in workplace settings; however, few target middle-aged men. The purpose of this article is to describe the process evaluation of a worksite translation of the Diabetes Prevention Program in a predominantly middle-aged male population. The translated program, FUEL Your Life, was largely self-directed, with support from peer health coaches and occupational health nurses. The RE-AIM (Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance) framework was used to examine the factors that influenced program implementation using data from an environmental assessment, participant surveys, peer health coach surveys, and occupational health nurse interviews. An overwhelming majority of the employees who enrolled in the study were overweight or obese (92%). Overall, the program was effective for weight maintenance; those with higher levels of participation and engagement had better weight loss outcomes. The peer health coach and family elements of the intervention were underused. The program was successful in reaching the intended population; however, the program had limited success in engaging this population. Not surprisingly, weight loss was a function of participant engagement and participation. Increasing participant engagement and participation is important to the success of weight management interventions translated to the worksite setting. Garnering buy-in and support from management can serve to increase the perceived importance of weight management in worksites. With management support, weight management protocols could be integrated as a component of the mandatory safety and health assessments already in place, fostering promotion of healthy weight in the workforce. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.
Hunt, M K; Fagan, P; Lederman, R; Stoddard, A; Frazier, L; Girod, K; Sorensen, G
To present feasibility data on SMART, the first teen worksite behavioural tobacco control intervention. This phase II study was designed to estimate the efficacy and feasibility of a small scale, randomised, controlled intervention. This study, addressing youths aged 15-18 years, was implemented in four intervention and five control grocery stores that had an average of 44 eligible teens. The tobacco use cessation and prevention interventions were based on social influences and peer leader models. Employee break rooms served as centres both for interactive activities including open houses, teen advisory boards, peer leader interviews, games and contests; and non-interactive interventions including bulletin boards and table tents with health messages and home mailings. MAIN PROCESS MEASURES: Project staff collected process data on the extent of implementation of intervention activities, participation rates in activities, and contacts with peer leaders. On the final survey, teens reported on awareness of, participation in, and motivation for participating in project activities. Indicators of feasibility were identified and discussed, including the number of activities implemented, teen participation, management support, cost, and barriers to and facilitators of implementation. During the 12 month intervention, a mean of 24.1 interactive activities and 55.3 non-interactive activities were implemented, and a mean 14.2% participation rate per activity per site was achieved. Eighty four per cent of teens reported being aware of SMART, and 39% reported participating in interactive and 67% in non-interactive activities. Teen smoking cessation rates in worksite programmes might be improved if they are conducted in companies where there is job stability and if teen programmes are part of worksite-wide tobacco control programmes that include both teens and adults.
Chapman, Larry S; Pelletier, Kenneth R
This paper provides an (OHE) overview of a population health management (PHM) approach to the creation of optimal healing environments (OHEs) in worksite and corporate settings. It presents a framework for consideration as the context for potential research projects to examine the health, well-being, and economic effects of a set of newer "virtual" prevention interventions operating in an integrated manner in worksite settings. The main topics discussed are the fundamentals of PHM with basic terminology and core principles, a description of PHM core technology and implications of a PHM approach to creating OHEs.
Lassen, Anne Dahl; Hansen, K.S.; Trolle, Ellen
: Fifteen randomly chosen worksite canteens in Denmark: eight canteens serving buffet style and seven canteens with an A la carte line. Subjects: one hundred and eighty randomly chosen employees having lunch at the worksite canteens. Results: The average percentage energy from fat was 37 +/- 12 among men...... of the food for both genders. Conclusion: The results highlight the possibilities of promoting healthy food choices in the catering sector and the need to identify models of healthy catering practice. Serving buffet style appears to be a promising strategy in order to increase fruit and vegetable consumption...
Full Text Available The World Health Organisation (WHO and other internationally active Worksite Health Promotion (WHP organizations co-ordinately aim to implement a healthy lifestyle by health programmes. They also specify general principles to prevent the mass occurrence of non-infectious diseases in the world. Recommended programs are in developed countries usually implemented by administrative institutions and authorities and their results are evaluated. This paper aims to evaluate the implementation of recommended programmes in the Czech Republic by specific aspects - cultural, legislative, medical, economic etc. The paper is an introductory study in a complex and comprehensive interdisciplinary field of human health in the context of workplace and sustainable social development.
Full Text Available Raj Padwal,1 Mohammad Rashead,2 Jonathan Snider,2 Louise Morrin,2 Agnes Lehman,2 Norm RC Campbell3 1Department of Medicine, Alberta Diabetes Institute and Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, 2Cardiovascular Health and Stroke Strategic Clinical Network of Alberta Health Services, 3Department of Medicine, Community Health Sciences and Physiology and Pharmacology, O’Brien Institute of Public Health and Libin Cardiovascular Institute of Alberta, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada Background: Established cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent and contribute substantially to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality because they remain uncontrolled in many Canadians. Worksite-based cardiovascular risk factor screening and management represent a largely untapped strategy for optimizing risk factor control.Methods: In a 2-phase collaborative demonstration project between Alberta Health Services (AHS and the Alberta Newsprint Company (ANC, ANC employees were offered cardiovascular risk factor screening and management. Screening was performed at the worksite by AHS nurses, who collected baseline history, performed automated blood pressure measurement and point-of-care testing for lipids and A1c, and calculated 10-year Framingham risk. Employees with a Framingham risk score of ≥10% and uncontrolled blood pressure, dyslipidemia, or smoking were offered 6 months of pharmacist case management to optimize their risk factor control.Results: In total, 87 of 190 (46% employees volunteered to undergo cardiovascular risk factor screening. Mean age was 44.5±11.9 years, 73 (83.9% were male, 14 (16.1% had hypertension, 4 (4.6% had diabetes, 12 (13.8% were current smokers, and 9 (10% had dyslipidemia. Of 36 employees with an estimated Framingham risk score of ≥10%, 21 (58% agreed to receive case management and 15 (42% attended baseline and 6-month follow-up case management visits. Statistically significant
Korshøj, Mette; Krustrup, Peter; Jørgensen, Marie Birk; Prescott, Eva; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Skotte, Jørgen Henrik; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas
Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise "60 min per week". Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health, and additionally decrease the objectively
Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I) a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II) an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect the cardiovascular health
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is unevenly distributed among occupational groups. The working environment, as well as lifestyle and socioeconomic status contribute to the disparity and variation in prevalence of these risk factors. High physical work demands have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality, contrary to leisure time physical activity. High physical work demands in combination with a low cardiorespiratory fitness infer a high relative workload and an excessive risk for cardiovascular mortality. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine whether a worksite aerobic exercise intervention will reduce the relative workload and cardiovascular risk factors by an increased cardiorespiratory fitness. Methods/design A cluster-randomized controlled trial is performed to evaluate the effect of the worksite aerobic exercise intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors among cleaners. Cleaners are eligible if they are employed ≥ 20 hours/week, at one of the enrolled companies. In the randomization, strata are formed according to the manager the participant reports to. The clusters will be balanced on the following criteria: Geographical work location, gender, age and seniority. Cleaners are randomized to either I a reference group, receiving lectures concerning healthy living, or II an intervention group, performing worksite aerobic exercise “60 min per week”. Data collection will be conducted at baseline, four months and 12 months after baseline, at the worksite during working hours. The data collection will consist of a questionnaire-based interview, physiological testing of health and capacity-related measures, and objective diurnal measures of heart rate, physical activity and blood pressure. Primary outcome is cardiorespiratory fitness. Discussion Information is lacking about whether an improved cardiorespiratory fitness will affect
Conclusions: Prevalences of betel nut chewing and smoking are high among male Taiwanese prisoners before imprisonment. The association of use of these two substances among Taiwanese inmates was significant in a time-dependent manner.
Haahr, Anne-Mette; Bardow, A.; Thomsen, C.E.
masseter muscle activity (MMA), chewing force (CFO), and saliva flow rate (SFR), may also play a role. In 10 healthy young males, the retronasal expired air of menthol and menthone from peppermint-flavoured (2%) chewing gum was determined as functions of CF, SFR, MMA, and CFO. The experimental setup......, the concentration of flavour compounds in the expired air depended primarily on MMA and CF, becoming higher with increased MMA and CF. The concentration of flavour compounds in saliva depended primarily on SFR and the duration of the chewing task, becoming lower with high SFR and prolonged chewing duration....... An increased volume of saliva in the mouth seemed to keep more flavour compounds in the aqueous phase, thereby diminishing the release via the retronasal route. In conclusion, flavour release to the retronasal compartment was dependent on MMA and CF and influenced by the volume of saliva present in the mouth....
Aim: The aim of this work is development and evaluation of chlorhexidine medicated chewing gums by different methods and to study the influence of different plasticizers and methods on physicochemical...
Witter, A. E.
The experiment to measure concentration of Photophysical Characterization(BHT) and determine percent recovery in chewing gum is described. The results demonstrated that over time, the concentration of BHT in the extract decreased owing to aerial oxidation.
Background. This study investigated the association between betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were perform...
tion between nut chewing and cheek cancer. The odds ratio (OR) for oral cancer in WOlllen 25 years and older who only chewed the nut was 43,9 and the attributable risk (AR) 0,89 (89%). With tobacco the OR increases to 47,42 and the AR to. 0,91 (91%). The data showed that the areca nut habit with or without tobacco use ...
Chaudhary, Shivang A; Shahiwala, Aliasgar F
Common cold is the most frequently recurring disease in the world and is a leading cause of doctor visits and missed days from school and work. Cold reliever medicated chewing gum (MCG) will be a definitive patient acceptable solution for this condition. Anti-allergic, cetirizine (CTZ) is a BCS class-I (highly soluble and highly permeable) non-sedating antihistaminic drug and this study was based on the hypothesis that CTZ as a BCS class I drug will be easily released from chewing gum into the salivary fluid within few minutes of chewing and can be easily permeated from oral mucosa by the pressure created by the chewing action and absorbed to a larger extent into the systemic circulation. Therefore, ultimately patients will get quick relief from symptoms of common cold with greater compliance compared to other conventional dosage forms. This study mainly focuses on taste masking of CTZ by inclusion complexation method, its formulation development in the MCG form and its quality and performance evaluation with the study of potential factors affecting drug release by 3(2) full factorial experimental design. A "chew out" study is carried out to assess in vivo drug release from MCG, in which residual amount is extracted from the chewed sample. Formulation ingredients, such as elastomers, softeners, bulking agents, play an important role in the feel of the final product and its consistency; while sweeteners and flavors play a very essential character in its sensory properties. Interindividual variation in chewing frequency and chewing intensity is the main factor which affects release of active ingredient from MCG; while salivary dilution and involuntary swallowing are main reasons for variability in the absorption site, i.e., either from buccal mucosa or from gastrointestinal tract.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid is the fourth most common used substance in the world after tobacco, alcohol and caffeine. Although factors related to betel quid chewing or cessation of behaviors were reported previously, few studies simultaneously compared both behaviors in the same population. In addition, it is essential to consider time-to-event concept, since the chance of developing or stopping habit may vary over time. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk factors for commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviors in a time-to-event setting. Methods A stratified multi-stage cluster sampling with selection probabilities proportional to size (PPS was designed for Taiwanese adults with aged 18 years old and above. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to compare and calculate the hazard rate ratios for related factors to commencement or cessation of chewing habits. Results In Taiwan, men had a higher betel quid chewing rate (M: 20.9%, W: 1.2%, but woman chewers had a lower cessation rate (M: 27.5%, W: 12.7%. The hazard rate ratio (HRR of having chewing habit changed from 4.22 (men vs women univariately to 1.38 multivariablely, which indicated gender differences were confounded by other factors. In multivariable analysis, the risk factors of gender, education and ethnicity were significantly associated with both starting and cessation of betel quid chewing behavior. The factors of occupation, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking were only associated with starting habit. Conclusion Commencement or cessation of chewing behavior involves a scenario of time, hence it is preferable to use a time-to-event approach for the comparison. The cessation rates of betel quid chewing were decreasingly associated with the daily consumption of betel quid. Hence, reducing of daily amount in betel quid cessation program may be associated with future stopping habit.
S H Subba
Full Text Available Background: Smokeless tobacco is found to be as addictive and harmful as smoking but have not been explored into, especially among youth. Objectives: This study was conducted to find the prevalence of tobacco chewing among college students in Nepal and the factors that have influence over their use. Study design: A cross-sectional study with a self-administered questionnaire. Materials and Methods: Five colleges of different streams in Pokhara city were selected for the study. A total of 816 students participated. The study was conducted during the period of May 2006-February 2007, using a semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire. Results: Overall prevalence of ever tobacco chewing was 21.3% (males 30.2% and females 10.9% among the youth with average age of initiation 15.7 years. Pan masala and gutka were used by 63.6% and frequency of use varied widely and only 5.7% said they were daily users. Reasons cited for chewing were most commonly ′just like it′ or ′friends chew′. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed age, ever smoking status, being ever alcoholic, and having friends or family members who chewed were significantly associated with students′ tobacco chewing. Almost one-tenth of the students believed they were addicted to chewing tobacco and 42.5% of them had tried to quit the habit. Conclusion: The study shows a high prevalence of tobacco chewing by Nepali youth. Important factors that influenced the habit were having chewer friends, their own smoking and alcohol status and having family members who chewed. It is pertinent to consider these when formulating cessation and prevention programs
Irmak, Özgür; Yaman, Batu Can; Lee, Dong Yong; Orhan, Ekim Onur; Mante, Francis K; Ozer, Fusun
This study evaluated the effect of simulated chewing forces on the flexural strength of fiber reinforced posts (FRPs). Four different brands of FRPs were selected as main group for the study: RelyX Fiber Post (RX), IceLight (ICE), Unicore Posts (UC), FlouroPost (FP). Ten posts in each main group didn't receive any aging process and tested as baseline (BL), other ten posts were subjected to simulated chewing forces/mechanical aging (MA) as follows: Post spaces were prepared in acrylic with drill. Depth of preparation was adjusted to leave 4-mm coronal part of posts protruding from canals. Coronal parts were incrementally restored with resin-composite (Clearfil Majesty Posterior A2, Kuraray, Osaka, Japan). Prepared samples were subjected to chewing cycles in a chewing simulator (Chewing Simulator CS-4, Mechatronik, Germany). Flexural strengths of all groups were measured with three-point bending test. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). After MA, flexural strengths of all posts were significantly decreased when compared with BL for all FRPs tested (p 0.05). It may be concluded that chewing forces on post-core systems may reduce the flexural strengths of FRPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ho, Ming-Chou; Wang, Chin-Kun
The betel nut is a common stimulant in many Asian countries. We employed the masking task developed by Enns and Di Lollo (Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 4, 345-352, 1997) to investigate the effects of betel nuts on sensory and attentional processing. In the masking task, participants needed to identify a target that was masked by either a contour mask or an object mask. Sensory processing was assessed by examining target identification in the contour mask condition when the target was presented only centrally, whereas attentional processing was assessed by examining target identification in the object mask condition when the target was presented randomly in either a central or a parafoveal location. The results showed that chewing betel nut and chewing gum produced significant contour masking with a large effect size, similar to the pure control condition, in which participants chewed nothing, and the placebo control condition, in which what participants chewed was disguised. This suggests that neither betel nut nor gum affects sensory processing. Alternatively, betel nut chewing could produce a reduction in object masking for the habitual chewers and the nonchewers, suggesting an effect of betel nut on attentional processing. This concentrated attention was also observed in the placebo control condition; thus, it cannot be exclusively driven by the expectation effect. Also, chewing per se reduced the attentional distribution foveally.
Wang, Su-Chen; Tsai, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Shun-Te; Hong, Yu-Jue
To investigate the prevalence of betel nut chewing and related factors among adolescent students in general, manufacturing, commercial, agricultural and medical technology schools in Taiwan. To make suggestions regarding how health authorities can reduce the number of students taking up the habit. A cross-sectional survey was designed, and 10,288 students answered the questionnaire. Significantly more male than female students were betel nut chewers. The less urbanized areas were also associated with a higher prevalence of the habit. The prevalence of the habit grew with increasing age. By analysing betel nut chewing behaviour, it was found that most students started chewing betel nuts because of curiosity, and most obtained betel nuts from their friends and classmates. Betel nut chewing behaviour is definitely related to peer pressure. Most betel nut chewers did not realize that withdrawal could lead to physiological reactions, and they were ignorant of any risk to health even though they were compulsive betel nut chewers. The health-harming behaviours of both smoking and drinking were found in many betel nut chewers, particularly smoking. This study confirmed the need for a health education programme dealing with the health risks of betel nut chewing for students at risk. The health authorities could also develop a programme for betel nut chewing among Taiwan's adolescent students, emphasizing the dangers of this habit.
Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to find the extent of caries prevalence and DMF-T index in Papuan’s students with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Dormitory Bandung, 2007. Betel chewing habit is a chewing action of Areca nut (Areca Catechu Linn, Betel leaves (Piper Betel Folia, Betel fruit (Piper Betle Linn, lime talk (Calcium Hydroxide, and after chew to spent out of the mouth. The research is a descriptive research using the survey technique. Research samples are determined by purposive sampling, and a number of 80 samples are collected, consisting of Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Bandung between 18-to-30 years of age. Research results indicated that caries prevalence is 98.75% with a DMF-T index of 5.46. The conclusion of the reseach is that the caries prevalence and the DMF-T in Papuan’s student with betel chewing habit in Cilaki Papuan’s Student Dormitory Bandung, 2007, is in the high category.
Murphy, Kelle L; Herzog, Thaddeus A
Areca nut (betel nut) is chewed by an estimated 10% of the world's population which is equivalent to about 600 million people. It is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has been linked to various types of oral cancer. Chewing areca predominates in South and South East Asia, East Africa, and the Western Pacific and has important social and cultural implications. The purpose of the pilot study was twofold: (1) to examine sociocultural factors that affect why people on Guam chew betel nut, their chewing behaviors, perceptions of risks, probability of changing behaviors, and methods that could be used to reduce use or quit; and (2) to pilot two surveys (one for chewers and one for ex-chewers) to be used in a larger study in the future. A mixed methods design was employed that included surveys pertaining to their status (chewer or ex-chewer) and in-depth interviews. A total of 30 adults participated in this pilot study: adult betel nut chewers (n = 15) and ex-chewers (n = 15). Chewing betel nut is a learned behavior, embedded within the culture, and is viewed as an important cultural identifier. Socially, chewing is viewed as positive. Chewers stated that they were not as aware of health issues; however, ex-chewers stated health reasons for quitting.
Full Text Available Flavor perception, the integration of taste and odor, is a critical factor in eating behavior. It remains unclear how such sensory signals influence the human brain systems that execute the eating behavior.WE TESTED CEREBRAL BLOOD FLOW (CBF IN THE FRONTAL LOBES BILATERALLY WHILE SUBJECTS CHEWED THREE TYPES OF GUM WITH DIFFERENT COMBINATIONS OF TASTE AND ODOR: no taste/no odor gum (C-gum, sweet taste/no odor gum (T-gum, and sweet taste/lemon odor gum (TO-gum. Simultaneous recordings of transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD and near infrared spectrometer (NIRS were used to measure CBF during gum chewing in 25 healthy volunteers. Bilateral masseter muscle activity was also monitored.We found that subjects could discriminate the type of gum without prior information. Subjects rated the TO-gum as the most flavorful gum and the C-gum as the least flavorful. Analysis of masseter muscle activity indicated that masticatory motor output during gum chewing was not affected by taste and odor. The TCD/NIRS measurements revealed significantly higher hemodynamic signals when subjects chewed the TO-gum compared to when they chewed the C-gum and T-gum.These data suggest that taste and odor can influence brain activation during chewing in sensory, cognitive, and motivational processes rather than in motor control.
Ali Kaid Al-Sharabi
Full Text Available This study assessed the effect of qat chewing on periodontal health, independent of other risk factors. Four hundred qat chewers and 100 nonchewers (20–50 years were included. Demographic data and detailed information about chewing and smoking were obtained. Periodontal status was assessed using Community Periodontal Index (CPI and clinical attachment loss (CAL. The qat chewers were older, included more males and smokers, and had worse oral hygiene but higher education levels; the majority were heavy chewers (mean duration of 14.45 years and frequency of 6.10 days/week. Regression analysis identified age, oral hygiene, education level, and cigarette smoking as independent predictors of periodontal destruction. Adjusted for these, qat chewing showed marginally significant association only with CAL (OR = 4.7; P=0.049. The chewing sides showed significantly higher scores than the nonchewing sides; however, equal scores on both sides or lower scores on the chewing sides (possibly no or beneficial effect were still observed in 50% of the chewers. Heavy qat chewing is shown here as an independent risk factor for attachment loss. However, the possibility that the habit may have beneficial effects in a subset of the chewers cannot be excluded. A holistic model that resolves the existing contradiction is presented.
Blume, Jennifer L.
Operability is a driving requirement for next generation space launch vehicles. Launch site ground operations include numerous operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform preflight maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To promote operability, a Design Quality Evaluation Survey based on Universal Design framework was developed to support Human Factors Engineering (HFE) evaluation for NASA s launch vehicles. Universal Design per se is not a priority for launch vehicle processing however; applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which promotes operability. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey incorporates and tailors the seven Universal Design Principles and adds new measures for Safety and Efficiency. Adapting an approach proven to measure Universal Design Performance in Product, each principle is associated with multiple performance measures which are rated with the degree to which the statement is true. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several launch vehicle ground processing worksite analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability.
Williams, Andrew E; Stevens, Victor J; Albright, Cheryl L; Nigg, Claudio R; Meenan, Richard T; Vogt, Thomas M
We assessed the effectiveness of a worksite management intervention (the 3W program) for overweight and obese hotel employees. The program was tested in a 2-year cluster-randomized trial involving 30 hotels that employed nearly 12,000 individuals. All participating hotels were on Oahu, Hawaii. The intervention was implemented within hotel worksites. Participants were included in the analysis if they had an initial body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25, were assessed at least twice, were not missing other data needed for the analysis, and did not switch to employment at a hotel in a different experimental condition. Of the 6519 employees we assessed, data from 1207 individuals (intervention: 598; control: 610) met these criteria and contributed to the analysis. The intervention had two components: (1) group meetings and (2) a workplace environment intervention. Weight and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were measured at three annual assessments. The effect of the intervention on change in BMI and WHtR was estimated in hierarchical mixed regression models using full maximum likelihood to estimate model parameters. The effects on change in BMI and WHtR were in the expected direction but were not statistically significant. The 3W program was not effective. The low intensity of the intervention may have contributed to its ineffectiveness.
van Wier, Marieke F; van Dongen, J M Hanneke; van Tulder, Maurits W
The unhealthy lifestyle of many Dutch employees may negatively influence their health in general as well as their ability to work. Worksite physical activity, nutrition or combination programmes could improve employee health and, as a consequence of this, reduce costs due to illness absenteeism, early retirement, and health care use. In this article, we present current scientific research in terms of health-related effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and the financial return of these programmes. There is moderate evidence that programmes aimed at nutrition, as well as combined nutrition-and-physical activity programmes, do result in modest improvements in weight-related outcomes and the consumption of fruit, vegetables and fat after 6-12 months. There is also moderate evidence that physical fitness programmes improve physical activity and fitness in the short term. The programmes result in financial returns for the employer, but this conclusion is based on non-randomised studies. No firm conclusions can be drawn regarding their cost-effectiveness. Wide implementation of singular worksite physical activity, nutrition or combination programmes is therefore currently discouraged. It would probably be more effective and economical to set up a broad range of interventions and measures. This requires more research, however, as well as more opportunities for offering tailor-made programmes.
Vuillemin, Anne; Rostami, Cyrus; Maes, Lea; Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Van Lenthe, Frank J; Brug, Johannes; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Oppert, Jean-Michel
Our aim was to review the effectiveness of physical activity promotion interventions in the worksite setting in Europe in order to identify those studies that had measured obesity-related outcomes and to evaluate how external validity of the findings had been assessed. We conducted a review of studies conducted in Europe, published up to December 2009. We assessed levels of evidence regarding effectiveness and analysed external validity using the RE-AIM framework. Studies included (n = 33) were divided in 6 intervention categories. Moderate evidence of effectiveness was found for physical fitness outcomes with exercise training interventions and for physical activity outcomes with active commuting interventions. There was no or inconclusive evidence for obesity-related outcomes for all intervention categories. For external validity, elements receiving the least attention (Active commuting and exercise training appear as promising approaches to promote physical activity or fitness in the workplace. The effect of interventions on obesity-related outcomes remains to be further investigated. There is a need to better report elements of generalizability and dissemination for translation into practice of worksite physical activity interventions. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Mayer, John M; Nuzzo, James L
Firefighting is a dangerous occupation with a high incidence of low back pain and injury. Abnormal back muscle function and morphology has been linked to low back pain and poor physical performance. The effect of exercise training on back muscle size and symmetry has not been investigated in firefighters. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of worksite exercise training for eliciting lumbar multifidus muscle hypertrophy in firefighters. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy, career firefighters (n=64) from a medium-sized fire department. Participants were randomized by fire station to exercise training (n=36) (supervised back and core exercise performed on duty, 2X/week, 24 weeks) or control (n=28). The cross-sectional area (CSA) of the L4 and L5 lumbar multifidus muscle was assessed with ultrasonography at baseline and following the intervention. At 24 weeks, no significant differences were noted between the groups in the adjusted (by baseline scores and body mass) L4 and L5 lumbar multifidus muscle CSA and asymmetry values. A worksite exercise training program targeting the back and core is not effective for eliciting hypertrophy of the lumbar multifidus muscle in healthy firefighters.
Nassar, Omar H; Aklan, Hameed M
Khat, a type of plant that grows in Yemen and some African countries like Somalia, Ethiopia and Kenya, is considered to be addictive and contains some stimulating substances that may affect different body organs. This study was conducted to identify the causes of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate the effect of chewing Khat on this disease in Yemenis. A total of 236 patients who were treated at University of Science and Technology Hospital and complained of ED were examined with penile Doppler ultrasonography (US). Biodata and health data were collected from the patients' records and via mobile interviews. The causes of ED were psychological causes (72%), venous leakage (19%) and arterial disease (9%). Psychological ED was most common in 15-29-year-olds, while pathological ED increased with increasing age (p=0.041). Heart diseases and diabetes showed a significant association with pathological ED (p0.05). Psychological problems are the main causes of ED among Yemenis especially in the younger age group. It is too early to exclude Khat as a factor contributing to this health problem, and this topic warrants further case-control studies with a larger sample size.
O'Rorke, Michael; Murray, Liam; Su, Tin Tin
Background. Despite the significant burden of cervical cancer, Malaysia like many middle-income countries relies on opportunistic cervical screening as opposed to a more organized population-based program. The aim of this study was to ascertain the effectiveness of a worksite screening initiative upon Papanicolaou smear test (Pap test) uptake among educated working women in Malaysia. Methods. 403 female teachers who never or infrequently attended for a Pap test from 40 public secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur were recruited into a cluster randomized trial conducted between January and November 2010. The intervention group participated in a worksite cervical screening initiative whilst the control group received usual care from the existing cervical screening program. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the impact of the intervention program on Pap smear uptake after 24 weeks of followup. Results. The proportion of women attending for a Pap test was significantly higher in the intervention than in the control group (18.1% versus 10.1%, P value < 0.05) with the worksite screening initiative doubling the Pap smear uptake, adjusted odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI: 1.29–4.62). Conclusion. Worksite health promotion interventions can effectively increase cervical smear uptake rates among eligible workers in middle-income countries. Policy makers and health care providers in these countries should include such interventions in strategies for reducing cervical cancer burden. This trial is registered with IRCT201103186088N1. PMID:24073411
Strijk, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Mechelen, W. van; Beek, A.J. van der
Objective A worksite lifestyle intervention aiming to improve lifestyle behaviors could be an effective tool to keep older workers vital, and thereby prolong their labor participation. This study evaluates the effectiveness of such an intervention on vitality, work engagement, productivity and sick
van Dongen, Johanna M; Proper, Karin I.; van Wier, Marieke F; Van Der Beek, Allard J.; Bongers, Paulien M.; van Mechelen, Willem; van Tulder, Maurits W
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. METHODS: We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January
Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.
Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…
Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Lemke, Michael; Sönmez, Sevil; Hege, Adam
Background: Commercial trucker health is a vital public health concern. Enhanced understanding of the multiplicity, diversity, interdependence, and complexity of policies, resources, and stakeholders relevant to healthful living in trucking worksites can guide future interventions. Purpose: This article examines how the environmental attributes of…
Weinhold, Kellie R.; Marrero, David G.; Nagaraja, Haikady N.; Focht, Brian C.; Gascon, Gregg M.
Introduction Working adults spend much time at the workplace, an ideal setting for wellness programs targeting weight loss and disease prevention. Few randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of worksite diabetes prevention programs.This study evaluated the efficacy of a worksite lifestyle intervention on metabolic and behavioral risk factors compared with usual care. Methods A pretest–posttest control group design with 3-month follow-up was used. Participants with prediabetes were recruited from a university worksite and randomized to receive a 16-week lifestyle intervention (n = 35) or usual care (n = 34). Participants were evaluated at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Dietary intake was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and level of physical activity by accelerometers. Repeated measures analysis of variance compared the change in outcomes between and within groups. Results Mean (standard error [SE]) weight loss was greater in the intervention (−5.5% [0.6%]) than in the control (−0.4% [0.5%]) group (P worksite intervention improved metabolic and behavioral risk factors among employees with prediabetes. The long-term impact on diabetes prevention and program sustainability warrant further investigation. PMID:26605710
Weinhold, Kellie R; Miller, Carla K; Marrero, David G; Nagaraja, Haikady N; Focht, Brian C; Gascon, Gregg M
Working adults spend much time at the workplace, an ideal setting for wellness programs targeting weight loss and disease prevention. Few randomized trials have evaluated the efficacy of worksite diabetes prevention programs. This study evaluated the efficacy of a worksite lifestyle intervention on metabolic and behavioral risk factors compared with usual care. A pretest-posttest control group design with 3-month follow-up was used. Participants with prediabetes were recruited from a university worksite and randomized to receive a 16-week lifestyle intervention (n = 35) or usual care (n = 34). Participants were evaluated at baseline, postintervention, and 3-month follow-up. Dietary intake was measured by a food frequency questionnaire and level of physical activity by accelerometers. Repeated measures analysis of variance compared the change in outcomes between and within groups. Mean (standard error [SE]) weight loss was greater in the intervention (-5.5% [0.6%]) than in the control (-0.4% [0.5%]) group (P worksite intervention improved metabolic and behavioral risk factors among employees with prediabetes. The long-term impact on diabetes prevention and program sustainability warrant further investigation.
Onufrak, Stephen J; Watson, Kathleen B; Kimmons, Joel; Pan, Liping; Khan, Laura Kettel; Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Park, Sohyun
To examine the workplace food and physical activity (PA) environments and wellness culture reported by employed United States adults, overall and by employer size. Cross-sectional study using web-based survey on wellness policies and environmental supports for healthy eating and PA. Worksites in the United States. A total of 2101 adults employed outside the home. Survey items were based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Worksite Health ScoreCard and Checklist of Health Promotion Environments and included the availability and promotion of healthy food items, nutrition education, promotion of breast-feeding, availability of PA amenities and programs, facility discounts, time for PA, stairwell signage, health promotion programs, and health risk assessments. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the prevalence of worksite environmental and facility supports by employer size (physically active and 17.6% reported worksite exercise facilities. Wellness programs were reported by 53.2% working for large employers, compared to 18.1% for smaller employers. Employee reports suggested that workplace supports for healthy eating, PA, and wellness were limited and were less common among smaller employers. © The Author(s) 2016.
Dongen, J.M. van; Proper, K.I.; Wier, M.F. van; Beek, A.J. van der; Bongers, P.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Tulder, M.W. van
Objective The aim of this study was to appraise and summarize the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of worksite physical activity and/or nutrition programs. Methods We searched EMBASE, MEDLINE, SportDiscus, PsycInfo, NIOSHTIC-2, NHSEED, HTA, and Econlit for studies published up to 14 January 2011.
Strijk, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; van Mechelen, W.; van der Beek, A.J.
Objective A worksite lifestyle intervention aiming to improve lifestyle behaviors could be an effective tool to keep older workers vital, and thereby prolong their labor participation. This study evaluates the effectiveness of such an intervention on vitality, work engagement, productivity and sick
Lee-Kwan, Seung Hee; Pan, Liping; Kimmons, Joel; Foltz, Jennifer; Park, Sohyun
Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption is high among U.S. adults and is associated with obesity. Given that more than 100 million Americans consume food or beverages at work daily, the worksite may be a venue for interventions to reduce SSB consumption. However, the level of support for these interventions is unknown. We examined associations between workday SSB intake and employees' support for worksite wellness strategies (WWSs). We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Web-based annual surveys that gather information on health-related attitudes and behaviors. Study setting was the United States. A total of 1924 employed adults (≥18 years) selected using probability-based sampling. The self-reported independent variable was workday SSB intake (0, food/drink, (3) available healthy options, and (4) less available SSB. Multivariable logistic regression was used to control for sociodemographic variables, employee size, and availability of cafeteria/vending machine. About half of employees supported accessible free water (54%), affordable healthy food/drink (49%), and available healthy options (46%), but only 28% supported less available SSB. Compared with non-SSB consumers, daily SSB consumers were significantly less supportive of accessible free water (adjusted odds ratio, .67; p < .05) or less available SSB (odds ratio, .49; p < .05). Almost half of employees supported increasing healthy options within worksites, although daily workday SSB consumers were less supportive of certain strategies. Lack of support could be a potential barrier to the successful implementation of certain worksite interventions.
Dongen, J.M. van; Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Bosmans, J.E.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Tulder, M.W. van; Wier, M.F. van
Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness and return-on-investment analysis comparing a mindfulness-based worksite intervention to usual practice. Methods: Two hundred fifty-seven governmental research institute employees were randomized to the intervention or control
Stepanova, O N
The data on the fauna, abundance and prevalence of chewing lice collected from 360 specimens of 13 sedentary species of passerine birds in Yakutia are given. A total of 3206 chewing lice specimens belonging to 27 species of 6 genera were found. Most explored bird species were infested with several chewing lice species. We assume exchanges of parasites could take place between some bird species in the region explored.
Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. RESULT: The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79. The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08, than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31 ( P <0.001. Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001, friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001, gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001, and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001. CONCLUSION: A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.
Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel
The use of Khat leaves (Catha edulis) in Jazan, southwest of KSA, is prevalent among all segments of the population. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence and predictors of Khat chewing among intermediate and secondary school students of Jazan region. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in late 2011 in Jazan region. A random sample of 3923 students was selected from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools representing the different educational sectors of the region. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test and logistic regression were performed to examine the prevalence, associations and predictors of Khat chewing. The overall Khat chewing prevalence among students was 20.5% (95% C.I.: 19.27-21.79). The prevalence was significantly higher among males, at 33.1% (95% CI: 31.16-35.08), than among females 4.3% (95% C.I.: 3.39-5.31) ( P <0.001). Univariate analysis revealed that gender, age, academic performance, friends' smoking and Khat chewing, and students' smoking status were associated with a significantly high risk of Khat chewing ( P <0.001 for all). The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggested that the most important independent predictors of Khat chewing among the students in our sample were students' smoking status (OR = 13.02, P <0.001), friends' use of Khat (OR = 5.65, P <0.001), gender (OR = 4.62, P <0.001), and friend's use of tobacco (OR = 1.43, P <0.001). A significant percentage of students chew Khat. The abuse of Khat is significantly associated with gender, peer influence, and cigarette smoking. Intervention programs are needed to create awareness among school students and to reduce the prevalence of the habit and its unfavorable consequences.
Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A
Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.
Chang, W-C; Hsiao, C-F; Chang, H-Y; Lan, T-Y; Hsiung, C-A; Shih, Y-T; Tai, T-Y
The research aimed at examining betel nut chewing and other risk factors associated with obesity among Taiwanese male adults. The research analyzed the data obtained by the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan that covered all the administrative divisions in Taiwan. Multistage stratified systematic sampling design was adopted for survey. All members of a sampled household received the interview. The research analyzed questionnaires answered by nonaboriginal male respondents aged between 20 and 59 years old, and the total number of samples analyzed read 6126. Since very few female subjects chewed betel nut, they were excluded from the analysis. Criteria of obesity was defined as body mass index > or = 27 kg/m2. The variables incorporated for analysis included the respondents' status of betel nut chewing, age, educational background, presence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus, drinking and smoking status, exercise status, and demand for physical strength at job. Generalized estimating equations model was employed to estimate the odd ratios (with 95% CI) of obesity of each independent variable. Approximately 16.2% of respondents were obese. The distribution of betel nut chewing was current chewers 15.9%, ex-chewers 4.3%, and nonchewers 79.8%. After controlling above-mentioned independent variables, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, betel nut chewing, never exercising, and sedentary jobs were closely associated with obesity. The research found that betel nut chewing closely associated with obesity. The increased appetite of betel nut chewers is speculated as the underlying cause. The prospective study is needed to clarify this issue. In addition to increasing the risk of developing oral cancer, betel nut chewing seemed to be related with another health hazard: obesity.
Melanson, Kathleen J; Kresge, Daniel L
The impact of chewing gum on fasting appetite or meal intake has not been studied. We tested the hypothesis that chewing gum would decrease lunch intake after a controlled breakfast, and reduce hunger in fasting and fed states. Seventeen males and sixteen females (21.4 ± 6.3y, BMI 23.8 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study in which subjects chewed sugar-free gum a total of 1 h on the test day (GC), and did not chew gum on a control day (NG). The 1 h of gum chewing included 20 min while fasting, and two 20-min sessions between breakfast and lunch. Subjects rated their appetite and mood on visual analog scales. After completing the fasting measures, subjects consumed a breakfast shake containing 30% of their measured resting energy expenditure. Three hours later they consumed an ad libitum lunch with water. Fasting ratings of hunger were lower in GC than NG (t = 2.66, p = 0.01). Subjects consumed significantly less pasta (41 g, 68 kcals, t = 2.32, p = 0.03) during GC than NG. In conclusion, gum chewing decreased fasting hunger ratings and lunch energy consumed. Chewing gum may be a useful tool impacting energy balance in this population. Longer studies, especially in other populations, will be required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fukatsu, H; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Tanaka, N; Matsuno, K; Sakai, T
It is known that solid food is transported to the pharynx actively in parallel to it being crushed by chewing and mixed with saliva in the oral cavity. Therefore, food bolus formation should be considered to take place from the oral cavity to the pharynx. In previous studies, the chewed food was evaluated after the food had been removed from the oral cavity. However, it has been pointed out that spitting food out of the oral cavity interferes with natural food bolus formation. Therefore, we observed food boluses immediately before swallowing using an endoscope to establish a method to evaluate the food bolus-forming function, and simultaneously performed endoscopic evaluation of food bolus formation and its relationship with the number of chewing cycles. The subject was inserted the endoscope nasally and instructed to eat two coloured samples of boiled rice simultaneously in two ingestion conditions ('as usual' and 'chewing well'). The condition of the food bolus was graded into three categories for each item of grinding, mixing and aggregation and scored 2, 1 and 0. The score of aggregation was high under both ingestion conditions. The scores of grinding and mixing tended to be higher in subjects with a high number of chewing cycles, and the score of aggregation was high regardless of the number of chewing cycles. It was suggested that food has to be aggregated, even though the number of chewing cycles is low and the food is not ground or mixed for a food bolus to reach the swallowing threshold. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ladapo, Joseph A; Elliott, Marc N; Bogart, Laura M; Kanouse, David E; Vestal, Katherine D; Klein, David J; Ratner, Jessica A; Schuster, Mark A
To examine the cost and cost-effectiveness of implementing Talking Parents, Healthy Teens, a worksite-based parenting program designed to help parents address sexual health with their adolescent children. We enrolled 535 parents with adolescent children at 13 worksites in southern California in a randomized trial. We used time and wage data from employees involved in implementing the program to estimate fixed and variable costs. We determined cost-effectiveness with nonparametric bootstrap analysis. For the intervention, parents participated in eight weekly 1-hour teaching sessions at lunchtime. The program included games, discussions, role plays, and videotaped role plays to help parents learn to communicate with their children about sex-related topics, teach their children assertiveness and decision-making skills, and supervise and interact with their children more effectively. Implementing the program cost $543.03 (standard deviation, $289.98) per worksite in fixed costs, and $28.05 per parent (standard deviation, $4.08) in variable costs. At 9 months, this $28.05 investment per parent yielded improvements in number of sexual health topics discussed, condom teaching, and communication quality and openness. The cost-effectiveness was $7.42 per new topic discussed using parental responses and $9.18 using adolescent responses. Other efficacy outcomes also yielded favorable cost-effectiveness ratios. Talking Parents, Healthy Teens demonstrated the feasibility and cost-effectiveness of a worksite-based parenting program to promote parent-adolescent communication about sexual health. Its cost is reasonable and is unlikely to be a significant barrier to adoption and diffusion for most worksites considering its implementation. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of chewing on stress-induced long-term depression (LTD and anxiogenic behavior. Experiments were performed in adult male rats under three conditions: restraint stress condition, voluntary chewing condition during stress, and control condition without any treatments except handling. Chewing ameliorated LTD development in the hippocampal CA1 region. It also counteracted the stress-suppressed number of entries to the center region of the open field when they were tested immediately, 30 min, or 60 min after restraint. At the latter two poststress time periods, chewing during restraint significantly increased the number of times of open arm entries in the elevated plus maze, when compared with those without chewing. The in vivo microdialysis further revealed that extracellular dopamine concentration in the ventral hippocampus, which is involved in anxiety-related behavior, was significantly greater in chewing rats than in those without chewing from 30 to 105 min after stress exposure. Development of LTD and anxiolytic effects ameliorated by chewing were counteracted by administering the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist SCH23390, which suggested that chewing may activate the dopaminergic system in the ventral hippocampus to suppress stress-induced anxiogenic behavior.
Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use
Duruk, Nazike; Eşer, Ismet
The study was conducted to determine the effect of chewing gum during hemodialysis on dry mouth and its symptoms. The imposition of fluid restriction and the use of medications that reduce saliva production may lead to dry mouth. This study is a randomized, controlled, single-blind, crossover experimental study. The subjects consisted of 61 hemodialysis patients recruited from 4 dialysis centers in southern Turkey. The data were collected using a Patient Identification Form, a Form for Assessing the Symptoms of Dry Mouth, and a Patient Follow-up Form. Saliva samples were obtained for analysis of flow rates. The salivary flow rates of the patients increased during the first hour on the day when gum was chewed, and this increase was statistically significant. However, no significant difference was found between the salivary flow rates at the 0- and 4-hour time points on the day when gum was chewed (P > .05). In addition, the salivary pH values were in the normal range on both days, although the pH values tended to be more acidic on the day when gum was not chewed. Overall, it was found that chewing gum for 15 minutes each hour during a hemodialysis session did not increase the saliva amount, maintain the pH value of the saliva within a normal range, or control dry mouth symptoms.
Gianmaria Fabrizio Ferrazzano
Full Text Available Chewing gums may be particularly effective means for delivering and maintaining bioactive molecules, included in the gum formulation, able to have an anti-cariogenic effect. The purposes of this study were: to develop novel chewing gums containing quercetin (Qt; to evaluate their release using in vivo trial; finally, to test their in vivo antibacterial effect against oral Streptococcus mutans strains. A preliminary study was performed to produce new gums, enriched with the polyphenol quercetin. Then, a first in vivo experimental study was assessed to test the percentages of Qt released in the saliva of young volunteers. Moreover, a second clinical trial was performed to analyze the antibacterial capability of these enriched chewing gums against S. mutans strains after 14 days of daily consumption. The release analysis showed that a more effective release of Qt occurs in the first minutes of chewing, and it does not change saliva pH values. Moreover, Qt included in gums demonstrates an effective antibacterial activity, showing a reduction of the concentration of S. mutans strains in saliva samples, especially after 7 days. Qt included in experimental chewing gums could be efficiently released into the oral cavity and could promote an effective anti-caries concentration in volunteer’s saliva, without changing salivary pH values.
Stephens, Richard; Tunney, Richard J
This study tests the hypothesis that chewing gum leads to cognitive benefits through improved delivery of glucose to the brain, by comparing the cognitive performance effects of gum and glucose administered separately and together. Participants completed a battery of cognitive tests in a fully related 2 x 2 design, where one factor was Chewing Gum (gum vs. mint sweet) and the other factor was Glucose Co-administration (consuming a 25 g glucose drink vs. consuming water). For four tests (AVLT Immediate Recall, Digit Span, Spatial Span and Grammatical Transformation), beneficial effects of chewing and glucose were found, supporting the study hypothesis. However, on AVLT Delayed Recall, enhancement due to chewing gum was not paralleled by glucose enhancement, suggesting an alternative mechanism. The glucose delivery model is supported with respect to the cognitive domains: working memory, immediate episodic long-term memory and language-based attention and processing speed. However, some other mechanism is more likely to underlie the facilitatory effect of chewing gum on delayed episodic long-term memory.
Zink, Katherine D; Lieberman, Daniel E
The origins of the genus Homo are murky, but by H. erectus, bigger brains and bodies had evolved that, along with larger foraging ranges, would have increased the daily energetic requirements of hominins. Yet H. erectus differs from earlier hominins in having relatively smaller teeth, reduced chewing muscles, weaker maximum bite force capabilities, and a relatively smaller gut. This paradoxical combination of increased energy demands along with decreased masticatory and digestive capacities is hypothesized to have been made possible by adding meat to the diet, by mechanically processing food using stone tools, or by cooking. Cooking, however, was apparently uncommon until 500,000 years ago, and the effects of carnivory and Palaeolithic processing techniques on mastication are unknown. Here we report experiments that tested how Lower Palaeolithic processing technologies affect chewing force production and efficacy in humans consuming meat and underground storage organs (USOs). We find that if meat comprised one-third of the diet, the number of chewing cycles per year would have declined by nearly 2 million (a 13% reduction) and total masticatory force required would have declined by 15%. Furthermore, by simply slicing meat and pounding USOs, hominins would have improved their ability to chew meat into smaller particles by 41%, reduced the number of chews per year by another 5%, and decreased masticatory force requirements by an additional 12%. Although cooking has important benefits, it appears that selection for smaller masticatory features in Homo would have been initially made possible by the combination of using stone tools and eating meat.
Addai, Frederick Kwaku; Nuamah, Isaac Kwasi K; Parkins, Grace E
A popular variety of wood, pieces of which are chewed as an oral hygiene practice in Southern Ghana, was tested for its capacity to reverse experimentally lowered pH of saliva. This was done to determine whether (Garcinia manii) stick-chewing neutralizes acidogenic challenge to teeth, and thereby potentially affords dental caries prevention benefit. Seventy-two volunteer medical students gave (baseline) saliva samples by spitting 3-4 times into a 25 ml conical flask. They then rinsed their mouths with a five-percent aqueous solution of glucose. Subsequent to the glucose rinse, half of the subjects (chewers), pre-selected by drawing lots, chewed a popular chewing stick Garcinia manii for five minutes, while the other half (controls) did not. The pH of saliva samples given by the volunteers at various time intervals was measured using a Kent EIL 7020 pH meter, and the results were analysed by the Analysis of Variance (Anova) method. As expected, saliva pH was reduced in both groups after the glucose rinse, but increased significantly faster in stick chewers compared with controls. It is suggested from this study that brief (Garcina manii) stick-chewing confers a caries prevention/control benefit by reversing acidogenic challenge to teeth.
Yoshida, E; Fueki, K; Igarashi, Y
The purpose of this study was to clarify whether masticatory movements during chewing of a wax cube associate with food mixing ability. Twenty-six dentate subjects (mean age 25.3 years) were directed to chew a two-coloured paraffin wax cube for 10 strokes on preferred chewing side. Mixing Ability Index (MAI) was determined from the colour mixture and shape of the chewed wax cube. MAI was employed as an estimate of food mixing ability. Mandibular movements during chewing of the wax cube were recorded using a six-degrees-of freedom jaw movements recording system, and motion of a lower incisal point of the mandible was computed. Twelve parameters of masticatory movements in relation to mandibular excursion, angle, velocity, cycle duration, duration of each phase were measured for each masticatory cycle. In addition, unilateral maximum biting was performed, and the maximum force during biting was measured using a force-transducer. A multiple regression analysis identified vertical amplitude, closing duration, closing angle and maximum bite force as significant predictors accounting for 63% of inter-subject variation (adjusted R(2)) in the MAI (P movements seem to have an influence on the MAI in dentate subjects.
Amtha, Rahmi; Razak, Ishak Abduk; Basuki, Bastaman; Roeslan, Boedi Oetomo; Gautama, Walta; Puwanto, Denny Joko; Ghani, Wan Maria Nabillah; Zain, Rosnah Binti
This study aimed to determine the association between tobacco consumption (kretek) and betel quid chewing with oral cancer risk. A total of 81 cases of oral cancers were matched with 162 controls in this hospital-based study. Information on sociodemographic characteristics and details of risk habits (duration, frequency and type of tobacco consumption and betel quid chewing) were collected. Association between smoking and betel quid chewing with oral cancer were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Slightly more than half of the cases (55.6%) were smokers where 88.9% of them smoked kretek. After adjusting for confounders, smokers have two fold increased risk, while the risk for kretek consumers and those smoking for more than 10 years was increased to almost three-fold. Prevalence of betel quid chewing among cases and controls was low (7.4% and 1.9% respectively). Chewing of at least one quid per day, and quid combination of betel leaf, areca nut, lime and tobacco conferred a 5-6 fold increased risk. Smoking is positively associated with oral cancer risk. A similar direct association was also seen among betel quid chewers.
van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R L; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multi-component health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness...
I.H.M. Steenhuis; P. van Assema (Patricia); A. Reubsaet; G.J. Kok (Gerjo)
textabstractThis article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programs and a educational nutrition program, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programs had no effect on consumers’ eating behavior. Consequently, the more
Recent research suggests that chewing gum may improve aspects of cognitive function and mood. There is also evidence suggesting that chewing gum reduces stress. It is important, therefore, to examine these two areas and to determine whether contextual factors (chewing habit, type of gum, and personality) modify such effects. The aims of the present study were: (i) to determine whether chewing gum improved mood and mental performance; (ii) to determine whether chewing gum had benefits in stressed individuals; and (iii) to determine whether chewing habit, type of gum and level of anxiety modified the effects of gum. A cross-over study involving 133 volunteers was carried out. Each volunteer carried out a test session when they were chewing gum and without gum, with order of gum conditions counterbalanced across subjects. Baseline sessions were conducted prior to each test session. Approximately half of the volunteers were tested in 75 dBA noise (the stress condition) and the rest in quiet. Volunteers were stratified on chewing habit and anxiety level. Approximately, half of the volunteers were given mint gum and half fruit gum. The volunteers rated their mood at the start and end of each session and had their heart rate monitored over the session. Saliva samples were taken to allow cortisol levels (good indicator of alertness and stress) to be assayed. During the session, volunteers carried out tasks measuring a range of cognitive functions (aspects of memory, selective and sustained attention, psychomotor speed and accuracy). Chewing gum was associated with greater alertness and a more positive mood. Reaction times were quicker in the gum condition, and this effect became bigger as the task became more difficult. Chewing gum also improved selective and sustained attention. Heart rate and cortisol levels were higher when chewing which confirms the alerting effect of chewing gum. Overall, the results suggest that chewing gum produces a number of benefits that are
Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul
In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.
Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke
. The few analyses which have been conducted show that negative and long-term stress, where the employee lack influence and control on own work may cause health problems and changes in body weight, so that slim persons become slimmer and the obese become more obese. A small interview survey shows...... research is the influence of the worksite eating on work and work environment. The survey showed social inequalities in relation to health, like in many other countries. A national dietary survey has shown that persons with long education eat more health and is more interested in health food. Research...... is also showing a correlation between diet and other aspects of life style: if a person has health dietary habits it is more likely that the person also has a high level of physical activity, does not smoke and does not have a high consumption of alcohol....
Tucker, Sharon J; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Murphy, Justyne N; Thompson, Warren G; Weymiller, Audrey J; Lohse, Christine; Levine, James A
Hospital nurses who are working mothers are challenged to maintain their personal health and model healthy behaviors for their children. This study aimed to develop and test an innovative 10-week worksite physical activity intervention integrated into the work flow of hospital-based nurses who were mothers. Three volunteer adult medical-surgical nursing units participated as intervention units. Fifty-eight nurses (30 intervention and 28 control) provided baseline and post-intervention repeated measurements of physical activity (steps) and body composition. Intervention participants provided post-intervention focus group feedback. For both groups, daily steps averaged more than 12,400 at baseline and post-intervention. No significant effects were found for physical activity; significant effects were found for fat mass, fat index, and percent fat (p working mothers. Future research is warranted with a larger sample, longer intervention, and additional measures. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.
Burton, Wayne N; Chen, Chin-Yu; Li, Xingquan; Erickson, Denise; McCluskey, Maureen; Schultz, Alyssa
This study is an analysis of a workplace diabetes management program offered to employees of a Fortune 100 financial services corporation located in the United States. The 12-month worksite-based educational program was for employees who were at risk for diabetes, had prediabetes, or were diagnosed with diabetes. This employed population, with health benefits, generally had acceptable control of their diabetes at the start of the program. They statistically improved most self-efficacy measures, but improvement in biometric tests at 6 and 12 months were not significantly different from baseline. Mean hemoglobin A1c at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months was 7.2%, 7.2%, and 7.3%, respectively. At 12 months, about 40% of preprogram survey participants completed all screenings and the post-program questionnaire. Disease management programs at the workplace can be an important component in helping employees enhance their knowledge of diabetes and maintain and improve their health.
Tanagra, Dimitra; Panidis, Dimitris; Tountas, Yannis; Remoudaki, Elina; Alexopoulos, Evangelos C
To estimate the effectiveness of a short-term educational-counseling worksite program focused on lipid intake, by monitoring the possible change on nutrition knowledge and eating habits. an 8-week educational program based on the Health Belief Model was implemented in a honey packaging and sales company in Greece. 20 out of the 29 employees initially enrolled completed the program. Knowledge level and eating habits were evaluated prior and after the intervention by the "Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire" and the "Food Habits Questionnaire". ANOVA, Spearman rho test and paired Wilcoxon test were employed in statistical analysis. Non smokers and those with higher educational level had healthier eating habits. Knowledge following the intervention was significantly improved concerning recommendations and basic food ingredients but as far as eating habits were concerned, scores were not improved significantly, while intake of fried food was increased. Short-term interventions may produce substantial improvement in knowledge but not necessarily modifications in unhealthy eating habits.
Buller, David B; Andersen, Peter A; Walkosz, Barbara J; Scott, Michael D; Cutter, Gary R; Dignan, Mark B; Zarlengo, Elizabeth M; Voeks, Jenifer H; Giese, Aimee J
Health communication campaigns intended to reduce chronic and severe exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight and prevent skin cancer are a national priority. Outdoor workers represent an unaddressed, high-risk population. Go Sun Smart (GSS), a worksite sun safety program largely based on the diffusion-of-innovations theory, was evaluated in a pair-matched, group-randomized, pretest-posttest controlled design enrolling employees at 26 ski areas in Western North America. Employees at the intervention ski areas were more aware of GSS (odds ratio [OR] = 8.27, p .05) of reduced sunburning in a mediational analysis. Analyses of nonrespondents, including intent-to-treat analyses, further supported the success of GSS.
Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L; Wingo, Brooks C; Knight, Bern'Nadette; Jefferson, Wendy K; Ard, Jamy D
To describe the development of a culturally appropriate worksite health promotion program (WHPP) designed to promote increased physical activity and improved nutrition in a high risk group of African American women. The program was based on EatRight, which is a lifestyle-oriented weight control program that focuses on food volume, rather than calories. Formative research included four nominal group technique (NGT) sessions conducted with 14 African American women from the selected worksite to gather input on job factors that affected their weight and daily life factors that affected their amount of physical activity. Their responses were used to adapt existing EatRight materials to target areas of special need for this unique group. Themes emerged from the NGT sessions that indicated stress at work and an environment of unhealthy eating, in addition to social eating and lack of social support for healthy eating added to unhealthy eating patterns at work. In response to physical activity, the primary themes included lack of time to exercise, stress of multiple family roles and responsibilities, and perceived physical barriers to physical activity. Based on the NGT themes, EatRight materials were adapted and additional topics (e.g., increasing social support, overcoming limitations, and time management) were included to develop a WHPP that addressed issues that the participants identified as relevant for their work and home lives. Conducting the NGT sessions and EatRight classes in the work environment, we were able to provide a convenient, familiar environment which fostered social support among participants. We believe that a culturally appropriate modification of EatRight holds great promise in addressing health disparities seen among African American women by offering education on lifestyle changes that will decrease weight through nutrition and physical activity.
Nyssa T. Hadgraft
Full Text Available Sedentary behavior is highly prevalent in office-based workplaces; however, few studies have assessed the attributes associated with this health risk factor in the workplace setting. This study aimed to identify the correlates of office workers' objectively-assessed total and prolonged (≥30 min bouts workplace sitting time. Participants were 231 Australian office workers recruited from 14 sites of a single government employer in 2012–13. Potential socio-demographic, work-related, health-related and cognitive-social correlates were measured through a self-administered survey and anthropometric measurements. Associations with total and prolonged workplace sitting time (measured with the activPAL3 were tested using linear mixed models. Worksites varied significantly in total workplace sitting time (overall mean [SD]: 79% [10%] of work hours and prolonged workplace sitting time (42% [19%], after adjusting for socio-demographic and work-related characteristics. Organisational tenure of 3–5 years (compared to tenure >5 years was associated with more time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time, while having a BMI categorised as obese (compared to a healthy BMI was associated with less time spent in total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Significant variations in sitting time were observed across different worksites of the same employer and the variation remained after adjusting for individual-level factors. Only BMI and organisational tenure were identified as correlates of total and prolonged workplace sitting time. Additional studies are needed to confirm the present findings across diverse organisations and occupations.
Vermeer, W M; Steenhuis, I H M; Leeuwis, F H; Heymans, M W; Seidell, J C
Environmental interventions directed at portion size might help consumers to reduce their food intake. To assess whether offering a smaller hot meal, in addition to the existing size, stimulates people to replace their large meal with a smaller meal. Longitudinal randomized controlled trial assessing the impact of introducing small portion sizes and pricing strategies on consumer choices. In all, 25 worksite cafeterias and a panel consisting of 308 consumers (mean age=39.18 years, 50% women). A small portion size of hot meals was offered in addition to the existing size. The meals were either proportionally priced (that is, the price per gram was comparable regardless of the size) or value size pricing was employed. Daily sales of small and the total number of meals, consumers' self-reported compensation behavior and frequency of purchasing small meals. The ratio of small meals sales in relation to large meals sales was 10.2%. No effect of proportional pricing was found B=-0.11 (0.33), P=0.74, confidence interval (CI): -0.76 to 0.54). The consumer data indicated that 19.5% of the participants who had selected a small meal often-to-always purchased more products than usual in the worksite cafeteria. Small meal purchases were negatively related to being male (B=-0.85 (0.20), P=0.00, CI: -1.24 to -0.46, n=178). When offering a small meal in addition to the existing size, a percentage of consumers that is considered reasonable were inclined to replace the large meal with the small meal. Proportional prices did not have an additional effect. The possible occurrence of compensation behavior is an issue that merits further attention.
Vermeer, W M; Leeuwis, F H; Koprulu, S; Zouitni, O; Seidell, J C; Steenhuis, I H M
In a previous study, the effectiveness of introducing a small meal in addition to the existing size and a proportional pricing strategy have been assessed in Dutch worksite cafeterias. To assess the degree of implementation and to inform the design of future interventions, the present study aimed to describe the process evaluation of both interventions. Process evaluation components from Baranowski and Stables, and Rogers (i.e. Recruitment, Maintenance, Context, Resources, Implementation, Exposure, Contamination, and Continued use) were chosen as a theoretical basis. The process evaluation involved qualitative (e.g. structured observations, semi-structured interviews) and quantitative data (e.g. consumer questionnaires) collected from 17 intervention and eight control worksite cafeterias. In all intervention cafeterias, two portion sizes were offered. The pricing instructions were followed in 13 intervention cafeterias. The cafeterias managers indicated that they did not consider offering large and small meals as being complex, risky or time-consuming to implement. Some managers perceived the consumer demand as high, others as (too) low. One year after the study had ended, nine of the intervention cafeterias had continued (at least partly) to follow the protocol. Offering a smaller portion size in addition to the existing size, as well as proportional pricing, was generally implemented as prescribed by the protocol and can be considered promising in terms of continued use. However, additional efforts are needed to make the intervention more effective in motivating consumers to replace their large portion with a small portion. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2011 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Full Text Available Introduction: Study on the effect of topically applied mutanase on plaque formation and caries in rats showed strong inhibition of dental caries. Furthermore, it has been shown that the presence of mutanase in dental plaque may affect the synthesis and structure of sticky, extracellular glucans. The Hypothesis: Mutanase can be easily added to gum base. After chewing of mutanase-containing chewing gum, the enzyme will be released into the oral cavity. Mutanase will hydrolyze sticky, extracellular glucans, e.g., mutan inhibiting cariogenic bacteria to cohere/adhere and form plaque. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: The main challenge with this hypothesis is the source of mutanase. It can be obtained from Paenibacillus sp. MP-1 or Trichoderma harzianum F-340. Directly compressible medicated chewing gum bases can be used to avoid inactivation of mutanase during the manufacturing process.
Neyraud, Eric; Prinz, Jon; Dransfield, Eric
Salt perception impacts on food acceptability and nutrition and depends upon salt release from foods that was determined in situ during mastication of chewing gum with up to 10% (1800 mmol/kg) added NaCl. The mechanical action of chewing increased salivation, which was further increased by the presence of salt, particularly above 180 mmol NaCl/kg gum or above 100 mM NaCl in saliva. The average resting salivary flow rate was 1 ml/min, increasing to 4 and 6 ml/min with gums containing low and high salt, respectively. Thus, stimulation of salivation by salt occurred at a concentration well above the taste threshold of 20 mM NaCl. NaCl concentration in nonstimulated saliva was about 10 mM and increased to 500 mM after 30 s chewing of the 10% NaCl gum and returned to near nonstimulated levels after 4 min chewing. Changes in pH of saliva were more gradual, increasing to a maximum at about 2 min and remaining elevated after 4 min. Salty taste was related to the free chloride ion concentration in saliva irrespective of the initial salt concentration in the gum with an indication of adaptation after 3 min chewing. During chewing, salty taste increased ahead of the increase in salivary conductivity and the salt concentration in the sublingual saliva varied in a cyclic fashion about every 20 s. This is consistent with a cyclic swallowing of saliva and replacement with newly secreted saliva of low salt content and mastication releasing further salt from the gum.
Betel nut chewing is associated with oral cancers and diabetes. This study investigated whether betel nut chewing could be associated with hypertension in Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The data of a total of 81,226 (37,226 men and 44,000 women) patients with T2DM obtained from a cross-sectional telephone survey in a national sample of diabetic patients in Taiwan were analyzed. Hypertension was defined by a positive history or reported systolic blood pressure>or=140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure>or=90 mmHg. Analyses were performed in separate sexes with consideration paid to the potential confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, body mass index and smoking. The prevalences of betel nut chewing in men and women were 20.4% and 1.1%, respectively. Betel nut chewing was more common in the younger age groups of the male sex. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios for hypertension in chewers vs. non-chewers were 1.067 (1.007-1.131) and 1.897 (1.534-2.346) for men and women, respectively. In multiple linear regression, although no adjustment was made for the use of antihypertensive agents, betel nut chewing was significantly associated with blood pressure, with regression coefficients of 0.958+/-0.163 (SEM) for systolic and 0.441+/-0.108 for diastolic blood pressure in men; and the respective values for women were 1.805+/-0.618 and 1.198+/-0.393. In conclusion, betel nut chewing was significantly associated with hypertension in Taiwanese patients with T2DM and the association was stronger in women.
Joubert, Marianne; Septier, Chantal; Brignot, Hélène; Salles, Christian; Panouillé, Maud; Feron, Gilles; Tournier, Carole
During chewing, saliva helps in preparing the food bolus by agglomerating the formed particles, and it initiates enzymatic food breakdown. However, limited information is actually available on the adaptation of saliva composition during the oral processing of complex foods, especially for foods that are sensitive to salivary enzymes. We addressed this question in the context of starch-based products and salivary alpha-amylase. The objectives were two-fold: (1) to determine if salivary alpha-amylase secretion can be modulated by the bread type and (2) to evaluate the contribution of the oral phase in bread enzymatic breakdown. Mouthfuls of three different wheat breads (industrial, artisan and whole-meal breads) were chewed by twelve subjects. Saliva samples were collected at rest and at different times corresponding to 33, 66 and 100% of the individual's chewing sequence. Alpha-amylase activity and total protein content were determined for all saliva samples that were collected. Additionally, the salivary maltose concentration was measured as a marker of bread enzymatic digestion. Boluses were collected at the swallowing time to evaluate the saliva uptake. Chewing industrial bread induced higher saliva uptake than the other breads despite a similar chewing duration. The evolution of salivary amylase activity tended to depend on the type of bread and was highly influenced by a large degree of inter- and intra-subject variability. The protein and maltose concentration steadily increased during chewing as a result of bread breakdown. The salivary protein concentration was mainly affected by the release of the water-soluble proteins of the bread. The salivary maltose concentration was found to be significantly lower for the whole-meal bread. When considering the weight of the mouthful, enzymatic breakdown was found to be most efficient for the breads ranking from industrial > artisan > whole-meal.
Shu, Chen-bin; Tao, Dan-ying; Wang, Shun; Feng, Xi-ping
The aim of the study was to evaluate the change of plaque pH after chewing 2 kinds of gums. The investigation consisted of 8 healthy subjects (aged 23-27 years, 4 males and 4 females) who refrained from toothbrushing for 24 hours before the test. The pH of dental plaque was measured using a Beetrode pH microelectrode before and after sucrose challenge with a 10% sucrose solutions at 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes as the baseline data. One week later the pH of dental plaque was measured again before the rinse and then the subjects rinsed with a 10% sucrose solutions. After 1 minute the sugar-free chewing gum was given and started to chew for 5, 10, 15, 20 minutes. The pH of dental plaque was measured at the same time on the non-chewing side. One week later the same test was carried out but the chewing gum was changed to tea polyphenol gum. Dental plaque pH value were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and SNK using SPSS 10.0 software package. Compared with the baseline chewed either tea polyphenol gum or sugar-free gum could increase the plaque pH recovery due to the sucrose rinsing challenge and it could maintain the dental plaque pH above the resting value. There was no statistically significant difference between tea polyphenol gum and sugar-free gum (P>0.05). Both gums can increase the plaque pH and decrease the risk of caries.
Kotb El-Sayed MI
Full Text Available Mohamed-I Kotb El-Sayed, Hatem-K Amin Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Ain Helwan, Helwan, Cairo, Egypt Background: The current study’s aim is to evaluate the possible interaction effects of khat chewing on treatment of paranoid schizophrenic patients.Patients and methods: In the study group, 42 male subjects suffered from paranoid schizophrenia and were classified according to their khat chewing habits into two subgroups: either khat-chewer subgroup (SKc; n=21; r=11, h=10 or non-khat-chewer subgroup (SNKc; n=21, r=11, h=10. Each subgroup was further subdivided according to type of treatment into r (risperidone and h (haloperidol. Healthy male subjects (37 were subdivided into healthy khat-chewer as positive controls (HKc, n=17 and healthy non-khat-chewer as negative controls (HNKc, n=20. Plasma dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC, homovanillic acid, 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, epinephrine, and norepinephrine were estimated.Results: ANOVA and post hoc analysis showed that dopamine was illustrating significant elevation in all khat chewing groups. DOPAC was illustrating significant decrease in all khat chewing groups with an interesting outcome showing significant increase in DOPAC in SNKcr group due to risperidone effect. Homovanillic acid, serotonin, hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and norepinephrine were illustrating significant elevations in all khat chewing groups. Epinephrine was illustrating significant elevation in all chewers than non-chewers groups. Unexpected significant decrease in epinephrine in the SNKcr group indicated that risperidone drug is decreasing epinephrine through indirect mechanism involving calcium.Conclusion: Khat chewing in schizophrenic patients is contraindicated because it aggravates the disease symptoms, attenuates all used treatment medications, and deteriorates all biochemical markers of the patients. Keywords
Sazonov, Edward; Schuckers, Stephanie; Lopez-Meyer, Paulo; Makeyev, Oleksandr; Sazonova, Nadezhda; Melanson, Edward L.; Neuman, Michael
A methodology of studying of ingestive behavior by non-invasive monitoring of swallowing (deglutition) and chewing (mastication) has been developed. The target application for the developed methodology is to study the behavioral patterns of food consumption and producing volumetric and weight estimates of energy intake. Monitoring is non-invasive based on detecting swallowing by a sound sensor located over laryngopharynx or by a bone conduction microphone and detecting chewing through a below-the-ear strain sensor. Proposed sensors may be implemented in a wearable monitoring device, thus enabling monitoring of ingestive behavior in free living individuals. In this paper, the goals in the development of this methodology are two-fold. First, a system comprised of sensors, related hardware and software for multimodal data capture is designed for data collection in a controlled environment. Second, a protocol is developed for manual scoring of chewing and swallowing for use as a gold standard. The multi-modal data capture was tested by measuring chewing and swallowing in twenty one volunteers during periods of food intake and quiet sitting (no food intake). Video footage and sensor signals were manually scored by trained raters. Inter-rater reliability study for three raters conducted on the sample set of 5 subjects resulted in high average intra-class correlation coefficients of 0.996 for bites, 0.988 for chews, and 0.98 for swallows. The collected sensor signals and the resulting manual scores will be used in future research as a gold standard for further assessment of sensor design, development of automatic pattern recognition routines, and study of the relationship between swallowing/chewing and ingestive behavior. PMID:18427161
Wessel, Stefan W; van der Mei, Henny C; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W J; Busscher, Henk J
Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral biofilm. Chewing of sugar-free gum yields oral health benefits that include clearance of food debris, reduction in oral dryness, increase of biofilm pH and remineralization of enamel. These basic effects of chewing gum are attributed to increased mastication and salivation. Active ingredients incorporated in chewing gums aim to expand these effects to inhibition of extrinsic tooth stain and calculus formation, enhanced enamel remineralization, reduction of the numbers of bacteria in saliva and amount of oral biofilm, neutralization of biofilm pH, and reduction of volatile sulfur compounds. Evidence for oral-health benefits of chewing gum additives is hard to obtain due to their relatively low concentrations and rapid wash-out. Clinical effects of gum additives are overshadowed by effects of increased mastication and salivation due to the chewing of gum and require daily chewing of gum for prolonged periods of time. Future studies on active ingredients should focus on specifically targeting pathogenic bacteria, whilst leaving the healthy microbiome unaffected.
Wessel, Stefan W.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Maitra, Amarnath; Dodds, Michael W. J.; Busscher, Henk J.
Introduction: Over the years, chewing gum has developed from a candy towards an oral health-promoting nutraceutical. This review summarizes evidence for the oral health benefits of chewing gum, emphasizing identification of active ingredients in gum that facilitate prevention and removal of oral
Tasaka, Akinori; Kikuchi, Manaki; Nakanishi, Kousuke; Ueda, Takayuki; Yamashita, Shuichiro; Sakurai, Kaoru
The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between masticatory function-related factors (masticatory performance, occlusal contact area, maximum bite force, number of chewing strokes, and muscle activity) and the stress-relieving effects of chewing. A total of 28 healthy male subjects were instructed to rest or chew for 10min after 30min of stress loading with arithmetic calculations. Their stress state was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels. Saliva was collected at three time points: before stress loading, immediately after stress loading, and 10min after stress loading. Compared to resting, chewing produced a significantly greater reduction in the rate of change in salivary cortisol levels 10min after stress loading. A negative correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and the number of chewing strokes. No significant correlation was observed between the rate of decrease in salivary cortisol levels and other measurement items. In healthy dentulous people, the number of chewing strokes has been shown to be a masticatory function-related factor that affects stress relief from chewing, suggesting the possibility that more appropriate chewing would produce a greater effect psychological stress relief. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de ALENCAR, Catarina Ribeiro Barros; de OLIVEIRA, Gabriela Cristina; MAGALH?ES, Ana Carolina; BUZALAF, Mar?lia Afonso Rabelo; MACHADO, Maria Aparecida de Andrade Moreira; HON?RIO, Heitor Marques; RIOS, Daniela
Abstract Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) is able to increase salivary calcium and phosphate levels at an acidic pH. Previous studies demonstrated that a CPP-ACP chewing gum was able to enhance the re-hardening of erosion lesions, but could not diminish enamel hardness loss. Therefore, there is no consensus regarding the effectiveness of CPP-ACP on dental erosion. Objective This in situ study investigated the ability of a CPP-ACP chewing gum in preventing erosive e...
Weijenberg, Roxane Anthea Francesca
The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes) are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain. PMID:26090381
Roxane Anthea Francesca Weijenberg
Full Text Available The acute effects of chewing gum on cognitive performance, stress, and pain have been intensively studied in the last decade. The results have been contradicting, and replication studies proved challenging. Here, we review some of the recent findings of this topic and explore possible explanations for these discrepancies by incorporating knowledge derived from studies into oral habits and bruxism. Both stress and cerebral functional specialization (i.e., the involvement of specific brain structures in distinctive cognitive processes are hypothesized to play a major role in the underlying physiological mechanisms of the diverse effects of chewing gum on cognition, stress, and pain.
Figueiras, Joao; Grønbæk, Lars Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter
of wearable GPS receivers and electronic fences strategically placed at the worksite. The proposed data fusion algorithm comprises a Kalman Filter (KF) for filtering GPS observations and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for fusion with fence data. A Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) mechanism is used to handle......Safety-critical applications often use position information as a mean of assessing the safety level of people. For this reason, such information is required to be precise in terms of accuracy and timeliness. This paper regards position mechanisms for personalized warning systems for railway workers...... multiple workers within the worksite as a mean to compensate the inability of the fence to distinguish the workers. The proposed solution is analyzed under experimental setups. The obtained results outperformed a GPS-only solution and the previously proposed solution by reducing or even removing false...
Figueiras, Joao; Gronbaek, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter
of wearable GPS receivers and electronic fences strategically placed at the worksite. The proposed data fusion algorithm comprises a Kalman Filter (KF) for filtering GPS observations and a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) for fusion with fence data. A Multiple-Hypothesis Tracking (MHT) mechanism is used to handle......Safety-critical applications often use position information as a mean of assessing the safety level of people. For this reason, such information is required to be precise in terms of accuracy and timeliness. This paper regards position mechanisms for personalized warning systems for railway workers...... multiple workers within the worksite as a mean to compensate the inability of the fence to distinguish the workers. The proposed solution is analyzed under experimental setups. The obtained results outperformed a GPS-only solution and the previously proposed solution by reducing or even removing false...
Fessia, P; Bozzini, D; Cruikshank, P; Jacquemod, A; Maan, W; Musso, A; Oberli, L; Poncet, A; Russenschuck, Stephan; Savary, F; Struik, M; Tock, J Ph; Tommasini, D; Völlinger, C; Kotarba, A; Olek, S; Sulek, Z; Grimaud, A; Vaudaux, L
The interconnections of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) continuous cryostat have been completed in fall 2007: 1695 interconnections magnet to magnet and 224 interconnections between the continuous cryostat and the cryogenic distribution line have been executed along the 27 km of the LHC. The very tight schedule, the complexity of the interconnection sequence, the strict quality standards applied have required the creation of an ad hoc organization in order to steer and coordinate the activities on the worksite dispersed along the whole accelerator ring. The concatenation of construction and test phases carried out by CERN staff, CERN collaborating institutes and contractors have led to the necessity of a common approach and of a very effective information flow. In this paper, after having recalled the main technical challenges, we review the organizational choices that have been taken and we briefly analyze the development of the worksite in term of allocated resources and production.
Berkowitz, Sarah; Marquart, Len; Mykerezi, Elton; Degeneffe, Dennis; Reicks, Marla
Objective Large portion sizes in restaurants have been identified as a public health risk. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether customers in two different food-service operator segments (non-commercial worksite cafeteria and commercial upscale restaurant) would select reduced-portion menu items and the impact of selecting reduced-portion menu items on energy and nutrient intakes and plate waste. Design Consumption and plate waste data were collected for 5 weeks before and...
Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark
The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Nagat Mohamed Amer
Full Text Available AIM: The study aimed to assess worksite health education workshops as a successful tool for health promotion of employees. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A one day workshop was held for individuals engaged in research activities in the National research Centre of Egypt at the worksite. Its main objective was to highlight the nature, causes, symptoms and management of job stress. Participants were asked to fill a personality assessment sheet, a self-reported questionnaire for job satisfaction. Other questionnaires for assessment of falsification of type and some socio-demographic data were filled by the attendants. A concise survey was introduced at the end of the workshop for feedback collection. RESULTS: Attendants of the workshop were 36 subjects mainly females (94.4%. Mean age was 40.5 years with 63.9% of participants at their postdoctoral studies stage. Participants were at midway in the scale of job satisfaction (3.3 and did not suffer from falsification (0.3. The feedback survey score (11.5 showed great acceptance for the intervention. Special interest in the topic of stress was reported by 35.1% of attendants who found it the best item in the workshop and the interactive manipulation came next as declared by 18.9% of the participants. CONCLUSION: Worksite health education workshops seem to be a successful practice for empowerment in the Egyptian workplace.
Vyth, Ellis L; Van Der Meer, Esther W C; Seidell, Jacob C; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M
By both increasing the availability of healthy foods and labeling these products with the Choices logo, caterers may facilitate employees to make a healthier choice in their worksite cafeterias. The aim of this study was to explore which attributes influence the implementation of the Choices logo in worksite cafeterias in the Netherlands. Questionnaires were completed by catering managers of 316 cafeterias of two large caterers in the Netherlands (response rate 49.8%). Attributes from the Diffusion of Innovations Theory were used to investigate whether they could predict implementation. Compatibility (consistency with the beliefs of the catering manager; OR = 1.52), voluntariness (perception of the implementation as voluntary; OR = 0.50), result demonstrability (ability to communicate the implementation; OR = 1.52) and complexity in the sense of time (time needed for implementation; OR = 0.70) were the best predictors for the frequency of offering fresh Choices products (all significant). For the frequency of using Choices promotion material, voluntariness (OR = 0.54), result demonstrability (OR = 1.51) and relative advantage (perceived advantage of the implementation; OR = 1.44) were the best predictors (all significant). In conclusion, this study provides unique insights into which perceived attributes influence the implementation of a nutrition logo in worksite cafeterias. To increase the implementation, the Choices logo should be consistent with catering managers' ideas about healthy food, the workload of implementing the logo should be limited and it could be recommended to incorporate the logo in the health policy of the caterer.
Kline, M L; Snow, D L
This study examines the effectiveness of a 15-session worksite coping skills intervention aimed at modifying work- and family-related risk and protective factors and at reducing negative health outcomes among mothers employed in secretarial positions. A sample of 142 mothers employed at one of four corporate worksites was assessed at pretest, immediately following the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up using multiple self-report measures. Results showed that at immediate posttest, intervention participants reported significantly lower employee role stress, higher social support from work sources, and lower levels of alcohol and tobacco use. They also tended to report less use of avoidance coping and lower psychological symptomatology. At 6-month follow-up, intervention participants reported significantly lower work-family and work environment stress, higher social support from work sources, less avoidance coping, and lower psychological symptomatology. Attrition analyses provided support for the external and internal validity of the study findings. Results were discussed in relation to issues of longitudinal prevention research and worksite-based interventions.
Núñez-de la Mora, Alejandra; Chatterton, Robert T; Mateo, Esnar T; Jesmin, Fahmida; Bentley, Gillian R
The measurement of steroids in saliva is both simple and non-invasive and has been widely used in field and clinical-based research. The observance of particular cultural practices by some populations, however, may hamper accurate hormonal analyses. The present study evaluated the effects of one such practice-the chewing of betel nut-on the accurate measurement of salivary progesterone and estradiol. A time series experiment was conducted among Bangladeshi women who are regular users of betel nut. Salivary steroids were analyzed by radioimmunoassay in samples collected prior to and then 30, 60, 120, and 240 min following betel quid use. Results show no significant difference between basal steroid levels and those obtained 60, 120, and 240 min after chewing betel nut. We conclude that with specific collection protocols that take into account time since chewing, salivary steroid analyses can be undertaken in populations among whom the practice of chewing betel nut is endemic. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Yongxiu, Du; Dongye, Sun; Xinchun, Jian; Qiuhua, Mao; Yanan, Cheng; Pu, Xu
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of chewing fresh or dried betel nut on the inci-dence and canceration of oral mucosa disease in Haikou City in Hainan Province. Through a survey questionnaire, clinical examination, and regular follow-up, we collected clinical data from 1 722 cases and divided them into two groups, among which 704 of the afflicted people chew dried betel nut, whereas the other 1 018 chew fresh betel nut. The data were statistically analyzed using different variables which included age, number, time of onset of the disease, and the cancerous condition associated with common oral mucosa disease, including oral submucous fibrosis (OSF), oral leukoplakia (OLK), and oral Lichen planus (OLP). 1) The study found no significant difference in the prevalence of oral mucosa diseases between the dried betel nut group (n=704) and fresh betel nut group (n=1 018) among the 1 722 cases (P>0.05), but the peak age of oral mucosal disease was more advanced in the dried betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut group was significantly higher than that in the fresh betel nut group (Pbetel nut is more pathogenic and carcinogenic than chewing fresh betel nut. The extremely harmful components of the dried betel nut synergistically play a vital role in the occurrence and carcinogenesis of oral mucosal diseases.
Background. This study investigated the association between betel nut chewing and subclinical ischemic heart disease (IHD) in Taiwanese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were performed considering confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and metabolic control status. Results. Betel nut chewers were younger and had higher prevalence of smoking (86.7% versus 60.5%), higher body mass index, poorer glycemic control, and higher prevalence of subclinical IHD (28.9% versus 16.6%). Patients with subclinical IHD were older and had higher prevalence of betel nut chewing (18.0% versus 9.9%). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for subclinical IHD for chewers versus nonchewers was 4.640 (1.958-10.999). The adjusted odds ratios in younger or older patients divided by the median age of 63 years were similar: 4.724 (1.346-16.581) and 4.666 (1.278-17.028), respectively. Conclusions. Betel nut chewing is significantly associated with increased risk of subclinical IHD.
Shinga-Ishihara, C; Nakai, Y; Milgrom, P; Söderling, E; Tolvanen, M; Murakami, K
To assess mutans streptococci (MS) during xylitol gum chewing (mean 3.8 g/day, 2.9 times/day) for 13 months and then for 15 months after the intervention, Japanese mothers with high salivary MS were randomized into two groups...
Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Lienhard, Charles
The diversity of feeding apparatuses in insects far exceeds that observed in any other animal group. Consequently, tracking mouthpart innovation in insects is one of the keys toward understanding their diversification. In hemipteroid insects (clade Paraneoptera or Acercaria: lice, thrips, aphids, cicadas, bugs, etc.), the transition from chewing to piercing-and-sucking mouthparts is widely regarded as the turning point that enabled hyperdiversification of the Hemiptera, the fifth largest insect order. However, the transitional process from chewing to piercing-and-sucking in the Paraneoptera was hitherto completely unknown. In this paper, we report a well preserved mid Cretaceous amber fossil of the paraneopteran insect family Archipsyllidae and describe it as Mydiognathus eviohlhoffae gen. et sp. n. This species has elongate mandibles and styliform laciniae similar to Hemiptera but retains functional chewing mouthparts. A number of morphological characters place the Archipsyllidae as the sister group of the thrips plus hemipterans, which strongly suggests that the mouthparts of M. eviohlhoffae represent a transitional condition from primitive chewing to derived piercing-and-sucking mouthparts. The clade composed of Archipsyllidae, thrips, and hemipterans is here named Pancondylognatha, a new supra-ordinal taxon. Based on newly obtained information, we also assess the monophyly of the Paraneoptera, which was called into question by recent phylogenomic analyses. A phylogenetic analysis that includes Mydiognathus strongly supports the monophyly of the Paraneoptera.
Keller, Mette K; Bardow, Allan; Jensdottir, Thorbjörg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chewing gums containing probiotic bacteria on oral malodour. The null hypothesis was that no difference would be displayed compared with placebo gums. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy young adults with self-reported malodorous morning breath completed...
Wilson, Andrew; Kim, Wonsun; Raudenbush, Bryan
The purpose of the study is to investigate if the effects of chewing cinnamon flavored gum can increase mood, feeling and spelling acquisition. 5th grade students (n = 22) at Ilshin elementary school in South Korea served as participants. The same students were required to take 4 spelling tests with 1 given every day over the course of 4 days. For…
Bots, CP; Brand, HS; Veerman, ECI; Valentijn-Benz, M; Van Amerongen, BM; Amerongen, AVN; Valentijn, RM; Vos, PI; Bijlsma, JA; ter Wee, PM
Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White(TM)) and a
Bots, Casper P.; Brand, Henk S.; Veerman, Enno C. I.; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; van Amerongen, Barbara M.; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V.; Valentijn, Robert M.; Vos, Pieter F.; Bijlsma, Joost A.; Bezemer, Pieter D.; ter Wee, Piet M.
Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a
Jensen, L.M.; Markussen, B.; Nielsen, N.I.
Previously, a linear relationship has been found between net energy intake (NEI) and dietary chewing index (CI) of the diet for different types of cattle. Therefore, we propose to generalize and calibrate this relationship into a new model for direct prediction of NEI by dairy cows from CI values...
Recent reports suggest that enhancement of memory performance while chewing gum is a fairly robust phenomenon. The processes underlying the effect are not known, but may involve glucose delivery, context-dependent effects and arousal mechanisms amongst others. This brief commentary outlines the main findings from these studies and raises some issues regarding interpretation, methodology and future research directions.
BACKGROUND: The relationship between tooth loss and nutritional intake is important. As people age, their diminished physical capacity and decreased income adversely affect their ability to maintain their teeth. The aim of the study was to assess and compare the chewing ability, oral health related quality of life and ...
Weijenberg, R.A.F.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Visscher, C.M.; Gorissen, T.; Yoshida, E.; Lobbezoo, F.
Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital
Brøkner, Christine; Nørgaard, Peder; Eriksen, Lis
The aims of the present experiment were to study the effect of grain type and processing on chewing activity in horses. Three adult trotters (Exp.I) and 3 adult Icelandic horses (Exp.II) were fed 3 daily meals during 3 consecutive days in two 3 x 3 completely randomized block design experiments...
Kolmann, Matthew A; Welch, Kenneth C; Summers, Adam P; Lovejoy, Nathan R
Chewing, characterized by shearing jaw motions and high-crowned molar teeth, is considered an evolutionary innovation that spurred dietary diversification and evolutionary radiation of mammals. Complex prey-processing behaviours have been thought to be lacking in fishes and other vertebrates, despite the fact that many of these animals feed on tough prey, like insects or even grasses. We investigated prey capture and processing in the insect-feeding freshwater stingray Potamotrygon motoro using high-speed videography. We find that Potamotrygon motoro uses asymmetrical motion of the jaws, effectively chewing, to dismantle insect prey. However, CT scanning suggests that this species has simple teeth. These findings suggest that in contrast to mammalian chewing, asymmetrical jaw action is sufficient for mastication in other vertebrates. We also determined that prey capture in these rays occurs through rapid uplift of the pectoral fins, sucking prey beneath the ray's body, thereby dissociating the jaws from a prey capture role. We suggest that the decoupling of prey capture and processing facilitated the evolution of a highly kinetic feeding apparatus in batoid fishes, giving these animals an ability to consume a wide variety of prey, including molluscs, fishes, aquatic insect larvae and crustaceans. We propose Potamotrygon as a model system for understanding evolutionary convergence of prey processing and chewing in vertebrates. © 2016 The Author(s).
Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E.
Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva
Montes-Gonzalez, Ingrid; Cintron-Maldonado, Jose A.; Perez-Medina, Ilia E.; Montes-Berrios, Veronica; Roman-Lopez, Saurie N.
In this Activity, students perform several solubility tests using common food items such as chocolate, chewing gum, water, sugar, and oil. From their observations during the Activity, students will initially classify the substances tested as soluble or insoluble. They will then use their understanding of the chemistry of solubility to classify the…
Full Text Available Chewing lice were collected from small shorebirds (Charadriformes: Scolopacidae overwintering in foraging grounds of coastal Ecuador. On 27 occasions at least one louse (3.7% was collected from six host species. Based on external morphological characters, at least two species of chewing lice could be preliminary identified (family: Menoponidae, including Actornithophilus umbrinus(Burmeister, 1842 and Austromenopon sp. A. umbrinus was found in the Western Sandpiper (Calidris mauri, Least Sandpiper (C. minutilla, Stilt Sandpiper (C. himantopus, Semipalmated Plover (Charadrius semipalmatus and Wilson's phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor, whileAustromenopon sp. is presumably the first record collected from the Surfbird (Aphriza virgata. These findings indicate that the distribution of these chewing lice species covers at least the regions around the equator (latitude 0° until the Arctic in the north, but probably also includes the entire winter distribution area of the host species. This is the first study of chewing lice from Ecuador's mainland coast and more research is required to understand the host-parasite ecology and ectoparasitic infection in shorebirds stopping over the region.
Aderinokun, G A; Lawoyin, J O; Onyeaso, C O
This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect on gingival health and oral hygiene of two chewing sticks, commonly used in a Yoruba community in Nigeria. Sixty, 12-year old primary school pupils participated in the study. After baseline data were collected on the status of oral hygiene and gingival health, complete prophylaxis was carried out on all the children. They were then divided into three groups to which toothbrushes, Pako Ijebu (Massularia acuminata) and Orin Ayan (Distemonanthus benthamianus) were assigned. They received instructions and supervision appropriate to the implement they were provided with. At the expiration of the six weeks intervention period, post-intervention readings were taken. There was no significant difference in the oral hygiene status between those using the toothbrush and those using the chewing sticks. Slight improvements were detected in the gingival status of those using the chewing sticks relative to those in the group using toothbrush. The best score was recorded among those using the Orin Ayan (D. Benthamianus). These differences were however not statistically significant. Even though an association between gingival health and use of these chewing sticks could not be drawn, it is suggested that further studies be conducted in this area.
Ozcan, M; Kulak, Y; Kazazoglu, E
Aim: To compare the potential efficacy of two prototype chewing gums in extrinsic stain removal on natural teeth. Setting: Dental school clinics. Design: Double-blind, two groups, parallel design. Participants: 76 adult volunteers (32m, 44f, mean age: 20.6 years old). Methods: Oral hard and soft
Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel
Khat is a well-known natural stimulant from the Catha edulis plant and is widely used in certain Red Sea countries, including Yemen and the province of Jazan in Saudi Arabia. Jazan is located in the southwestern part of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia adjacent to Yemen, where the practice of khat chewing is deeply rooted throughout the entire population. The main objective of this paper was to assess the association between family background, i.e., parent and sibling khat use, and adolescents' khat chewing behavior in Jazan. Other variables were also tested for association, including parents' education levels, family income, and peer influence. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample (n = 4,100) of intermediate and upper secondary school students of Jazan. The participants were selected using a three-stage cluster random sampling. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics, a chi-squared test, and logistic regression were performed to examine the associations and predictors of khat chewing. A total of 3,923 students of both genders from 72 intermediate and upper secondary schools in Jazan were involved in this study. Of these participants, 42.8% (1,678) were from intermediate schools and 43.8% (1,717) were females. The prevalence of current khat chewing among the students was 20.5% (95% confidence interval (CI) 19.27-21.79) and was significantly higher for males at 33.1% (95% CI 31.16-35.08) than for females, of whom 4.3% (95% CI 3.39-5.31) (P < 0.001) chew khat. The multivariate logistic regression analysis suggests that the most important independent predictors of student khat chewing included the students' smoking status (odds ratio (OR) = 14.03, P < 0.001), a friend using khat (OR = 5.65, P < 0.001), a sister using khat (OR = 2.04, P < 0.05), a father using khat (OR = 1.45, P < 0.001), and a brother using khat (OR = 1.56, P < 0.05). The
Dudefoi, William; Terrisse, Hélène; Popa, Aurelian Florin; Gautron, Eric; Humbert, Bernard; Ropers, Marie-Hélène
Titanium dioxide is a metal oxide used as a white pigment in many food categories, including confectionery. Due to differences in the mass fraction of nanoparticles contained in TiO2, the estimated intakes of TiO2 nanoparticles differ by a factor of 10 in the literature. To resolve this problem, a better estimation of the mass of nanoparticles present in food products is needed. In this study, we focused our efforts on chewing gum, which is one of the food products contributing most to the intake of TiO2. The coatings of four kinds of chewing gum, where the presence of TiO2 was confirmed by Raman spectroscopy, were extracted in aqueous phases. The extracts were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) to establish their chemical composition, crystallinity and size distribution. The coatings of the four chewing gums differ chemically from each other, and more specifically the amount of TiO2 varies from one coating to another. TiO2 particles constitute the entire coating of some chewing gums, whereas for others, TiO2 particles are embedded in an organic matrix and/or mixed with minerals like calcium carbonate, talc, or magnesium silicate. We found 1.1 ± 0.3 to 17.3 ± 0.9 mg TiO2 particles per piece of chewing gum, with a mean diameter of 135 ± 42 nm. TiO2 nanoparticles account for 19 ± 4% of all particles, which represents a mass fraction of 4.2 ± 0.1% on average. The intake of nanoparticles is thus highly dependent on the kind of chewing gum, with an estimated range extending from 0.04 ± 0.01 to 0.81 ± 0.04 mg of nano-TiO2 per piece of chewing gum. These data should serve to refine the exposure scenario.
Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Thangjam, Rajendra; Roy, Ambuj; Singh, Sandeep; Ramakrishnan, Lakshmy; Seth, Sandeep; Narang, Rajiv; Bhargava, Balram
Tobacco use is highly prevalent in India, with almost half of adult men consuming tobacco in either smoke or smokeless forms (particularly chewing). Although cigarette smoking is known to produce acute hemodynamic effects, there is a lack of data concerning such effects of chewing tobacco. The aim of this study was to determine the acute hemodynamic and coronary vasomotor effects of chewing tobacco. Twelve habitual tobacco chewers (mean ± SD age 51.3 ± 6.9 years) undergoing elective coronary angiography were included in the study. Following coronary angiography, a 7F thermodilution Swan Ganz continuous cardiac output pulmonary artery catheter was used to continuously measure the right heart pressures and cardiac output. Having obtained baseline hemodynamic data, 1g of tobacco was given to be chewed. Subsequently, hemodynamic data were obtained periodically over a period of 60 minutes. A repeat left coronary injection was performed, 10 minutes after giving the tobacco, in the right anterior oblique view to estimate the diameter of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery by quantitative coronary angiography. Chewing tobacco led to a significant acute increase in heart rate (from 68.3 ± 12.4 beats/min to 80.6 ± 14.6 beats/min, peaking at 10 minutes) and cardiac output (from 3.8 ± 0.45 L/min to 4.7 ± 0.64 L/min, peaking at 15 minutes). There were no significant changes in the right atrial, pulmonary artery, or wedge pressures and hence no change in the pulmonary vascular resistance. More importantly, chewing tobacco was associated with coronary vasoconstriction (proximal LAD diameter change from 3.17 ± 0.43 mm to 2.79 ± 0.37 mm; p-value 0.02; mid LAD diameter change from 2.75 ± 0.36 mm to 2.40 ± 0.22 mm; p-value 0.03). Chewing smokeless tobacco leads to coronary vasoconstriction and also produces significant hemodynamic alterations. These changes may have a bearing on excess vascular disease.
Hu, Sindy; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Hwang, Guey-Shyang; Chen, Szu-Tah; Kuo, Song-Bor; Chen, Yifen; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu
Betel nut is the second largest economic food product in Taiwan. In Southeast Asia, the habit of chewing betel nut seems to be highly correlated with oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Oral submucous fibrosis is characterized by abnormal accumulation of oral submucous collagen fibers and limitation of mouth opening. Although the mechanism responsible for tissue damage is still unknown, prolonged irritation caused by betel nut and tobacco is considered to be a major factor contributing to the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. The effect of betel nut chewing on immune system remains unknown. Present study aims to investigate the change of plasma hormones including cortisol, testosterone, and inflammatory cytokine concentrations in male chewing betel nut compared with normal subjects. Heparinized blood was obtained from control group (normal young+mid-aged individuals), betel nut-chewing, and oral cancer male subjects. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital. Written informed consent was granted by the patients. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were detected by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-15, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were analyzed by ELISA with commercial monoclonal capture antibodies and polyclonal detection antibodies. The median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α were 3.14pg/ml, 3.14pg/ml, and 6.85pg/ml, respectively, in patients with oral cancer, compared with median plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α concentration of 2.64pg/ml, 5.86pg/ml, and 5.38pg/ml, respectively, in patients with betel nut-chewing habit. In contrast, the median concentrations of plasma IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α in mid-aged males (aged 30-50) were 7.00pg/ml, 10.64pg/ml, and 31.73pg/ml, respectively, compared with median plasma concentration of IL-1β, IL-15, and TNF-α of 4.48pg/ml, 33.36pg
Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA
Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches
Maryam Karami Nogourani
Full Text Available Chewing gum increases salivary flow rate (SFR and pH, but differences in preferences of gum flavor may influence SFR and pH. The aim of this paper was to assess the effect of five different flavors of sucrose-free chewing gum on the salivary flow rate and pH in healthy dental students in Isfahan, Iran. Fifteen (7 men and 8 women healthy dental student volunteers collected unstimulated saliva and then chewed one of five flavored gums for 6 min. The whole saliva was collected and assessed for 6 consecutive days. After unstimulated saliva was collected, stimulated saliva was collected at interval of 0-1, 1–3, and 3–6 minutes after the start of different flavored chewing gums. The SFR and salivary pH were measured. The SFR increased in all five flavored gums at 1, 3, and 6 minutes after start of chewing gums (<0.001. The flow rate of all products reached peak in the 1st minute of stimulation, except spearmint-flavored gums which reached peak in the 6th minute. In the 1st minute, the strawberry-flavored gums showed the highest SFR. During 1–3 minutes, strawberry- and apple-flavored gums showed higher SFR, respectively. Only the spearmint- and cinnamon-flavored gum significantly increased salivary pH. Gum flavored can affect the SFR and pH and special flavors can be advised for different individuals according to their oral conditions.
Al Moaleem, Mohammed M; Okshah, Abdulmajeed S; Al-Shahrani, Ahid A; Alshadidi, Abdulkhaliq Ali F; Shaabi, Fawzia I; Mobark, Abdulaziz H; Mattoo, Khurshid A
The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular joint disorders (TMDs) among undergraduate medical students in the presence of khat chewing over a period of time. Totally, 186 medical college students (age Fonseca's anamnestic index and its questionnaire, which is composed of 10 questions and classifies the severity of TMDs. The obtained data were coded and entered into Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program for analysis using chi-square test at significance level of 5%. Most of the participants were male (68.8%) students and older than 20 years (63%). Those who reported with khat chewing comprised 31.7%. From the total samples, only 38.0% was classified as having mild TMD and 0.50% were classified as having severe TMD. Poor dental articulation, grinding of teeth, headaches, tense personalities, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) clicking were the most common clinical findings. The mean scores showed no significant difference among gender (p < 0.29) and the khat chewing (p < 0.531) groups for the 10 questions. However, it showed significant difference among age groups (p < 0.025). The majority of subjects complained of mild TMD, while only a few cases showed a moderate TMD among different age groups. The most frequently reported dysfunctions were related to poor dental articulation and grinding of the teeth, frequent headaches, the clicking of joint, and tense personalities. No significant difference was found between gender and khat and nonkhat chewing groups. Khat chewing is a parafunctional habit and affects dental occlusion (especially cuspal wear) in terms of anterior guidance. Such alterations in occlusion are known to be one of the causative (predisposing) factors of TMD.
Tai, Tsai-Sung; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Liu, Wen-Hsin; Hsu, Yueh-Han
Studies have associated betel nut chewing with cancers, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disorders, chronic kidney disease, and proteinuria. This study investigated whether hyperuricemia is associated with betel nut chewing in men who participated in a health check-up program. From hospital records, we identified a total of 11,991 men who participated in the health check-up program from 2003 to 2009. They were divided into hyperuricemic group and non-hyperuricemic group. Laboratory tests, medical history, and status of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and betel nut chewing were compared between the 2 groups. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of hyperuricemia in association with betel nut consumption and other factors. Compared with the non-hyperuricemic group, the hyperuricemic group was slightly older (59.4 vs. 58.6 years) but less prevalent with betel nut use (11.8 vs. 13.6%, p = 0.003). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that hyperuricemia was negatively associated with betel nut chewing (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84), older age (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.93), and diabetes mellitus (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.50-0.64). On the other hand, hyperuricemia was positively associated with body mass index (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.62-1.90), drinking (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.25-1.49), hypertension (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.30-1.52), mixed hyperlipidemia (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.54), chronic kidney disease (OR 3.28, 95% CI 2.94-3.65), and proteinuria (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38). Smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia had no significant association with hyperuricemia. Our data suggest that betel nut chewing is negatively associated with hyperuricemia.
Full Text Available Background: Long-term adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco are well established, however, the effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamic have not been studied. We intended to analyze the acute effect of chewing tobacco on coronary microcirculation and hemodynamics in habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease undergoing elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled seven habitual tobacco chewers with stable coronary artery disease with single vessel disease or double vessel disease satisfying the criteria for elective PCI. Patients were instructed to keep 1 g of crushed dried tobacco leaves in the mouth after a successful PCI. Lesion in last stented vessels was evaluated for fractional flow reserve (FFR, coronary flow reserve (CFR, and index of microcirculatory resistance (IMR post-PCI, after 15 min and 30 min of tobacco chewing along with the measurement of serum cotinine levels. Results: Oral tobacco led to high levels of cotinine in the majority of patients. There was an insignificant rise in heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure following tobacco consumption. Baseline CFR (median 1.6, range 1.1–5.5 was low in tobacco chewers after PCI even after optimum FFR (0.9 ± 0.05 in the majority of patients suggesting abnormal microvascular hemodynamics (high IMR in 3 patients, overall median 14.2, range 7–36.2. However, there was no significant change in the estimated CFR or IMR values following tobacco chewing. One patient had bradycardia and hypotension which may be related to vagal reaction or acute nicotine poisoning. Conclusion: Tobacco chewers have abnormal coronary microcirculation hemodynamics even following a successful PCI. However, the coronary micocirculation and hemodynamics do not change acutely following tobacco chewing despite high serum cotinine concentrations.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. METHOD: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. RESULTS: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings.
Pedroni-Pereira, Aline; Araujo, Darlle Santos; Scudine, Kelly Guedes de Oliveira; Prado, Daniela Galvão de Almeida; Lima, Débora Alves Nunes Leite; Castelo, Paula Midori
Physiological and behavioral aspects of masticatory function may have an impact on nutritional status, which has been little studied. The aim was to perform a comprehensive evaluation of objective, subjective and behavioral aspects of masticatory function in 231 adolescents, aged 14-17 years and compare these parameters between normal-weight (n = 115) and adolescents with overweight/obesity (n = 116). Objective aspects were examined by the Oro-facial Myofunctional Evaluation-expanded protocol (OMES-e), determining the masticatory type, chewing time/frequency, abnormal movements, and other; masticatory performance (color changeable chewing gum) and bite force were also explored. The subjective and behavioral evaluations were assessed using the Quality of Mastication Function Questionnaire, which explores the masticatory behavior and frequency/intensity of difficulty in chewing different types of foods. Results were submitted to normality tests, Chi-square, unpaired t-test and Mann-Whitney. A multiple linear regression model was used to evaluate which of the variables under study contributed to the variation in Percent Body Fat (α = 0.05). The results showed that OMES-e total score differed significantly between groups, that is, individuals with overweight showed more changes in oro-facial myofunctional aspects than normal-weight ones. Unilateral mastication was more frequent among females with overweight/obesity. They also showed greater difficulty on Habits and Fruit domains, reporting the need of adding sauce to the meal to facilitate swallowing and peeling and cutting fruit (apples) in small pieces in order to better chew them. OMES-e total score also showed a significant relationship with Percent Body Fat. Masticatory performance evaluated by chewing gum and bite force did not differ between groups. This study showed that adolescents with excess weight presented changes in masticatory behavior and greater difficulty in performing the masticatory function
Full Text Available Abstract Background Areca nut, the seed of fruit of an oriental palm, known as Areca catechu, is commonly chewed in many countries. Diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, oropharyngeal and oesophageal cancers have been associated with areca nut chewing and the mechanism by which areca nut chewing increases the risk of systemic diseases remains elusive. We hypothesize that systemic inflammation may be elevated among areca nut users, which is linked with many systemic diseases. Therefore, this present study was conducted to examine the systemic inflammation among areca nut chewers and healthy controls. Methods This was an observational cross sectional study carried out on areca nut chewers and healthy individuals in Karachi, Pakistan. Participants were selected from a region of the city by invitation request sent from door to door. Information was collected regarding the socio-demographic profile and the pattern of use, and a blood sample was obtained to measure the level of C-reactive protein (CRP. We carried out multiple logistic regressions to investigate the association between socio-demographic profile, areca nut chewing and CRP levels. Results We carried out final analysis on 1112 individuals of which 556 were areca nut chewers and 556 were the age, gender and area matched controls. Areca nut chewers had a significantly higher proportion of men (15.1%, n = 84 who had an elevated CRP (>10 mg/dl as compared to controls (5.2%, n = 29. Multivariate analyses showed that areca nut chewers had significantly higher odds of an elevated CRP (OR = 3.23, 95% CI 2.08-5.02, p value Conclusions Areca nut chewing has a significant association with systemic inflammation. Further work is required to confirm that systemic inflammation is the main pathway by which areca nut use increases the risk of systemic diseases.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel quid chewing is a common habit widely practiced in Southern Asian populations. However, variations are seen in the content of a betel quid across the different countries. Factors associated with commencement and cessation of this habit has been numerously studied. Unfortunately, data on Malaysian population is non-existent. This study aims to determine the factors associated with the inception and also cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour among Malaysian adults. Method This study is part of a nationwide survey on oral mucosal lesions carried out among 11,697 adults in all fourteen states in Malaysia. The questionnaire included sociodemographic information and details on betel quid chewing habit such as duration, type and frequency. The Kaplan-Meier estimates were calculated and plotted to compare the rates for the commencement and cessation of betel quid chewing behaviour. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios for factors related to commencement or cessation of this habit. Results Of the total subjects, 8.2% were found to be betel quid chewers. This habit was more prevalent among females and, in terms of ethnicity, among the Indians and the Indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak. Cessation of this habit was more commonly seen among males and the Chinese. Females were found to be significantly more likely to start (p Conclusion Factors that influence the development and cessation of this behaviour are gender, age, ethnicity, and also history of smoking habit while frequency and type of quid chewed are important factors for cessation of this habit.
Mickenautsch, Steffen; Leal, Soraya Coelho; Yengopal, Veerasamy; Bezerra, Ana Cristina; Cruvinel, Vanessa
Objective: To appraise existing evidence for a therapeutic / anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum for patients. Method: 9 English and 2 Portuguese databases were searched using English and Portuguese keywords. Relevant articles in English, German, Portuguese and Spanish were included for review. Trials were excluded on lack of randomisation, control group, blinding and baseline data, drop out rate >33%, no statistical adjustment of baseline differences and no assessment of clinically important outcomes. Reviews were excluded on lack of information, article selection criteria, search strategy followed, search keywords, searched databases or lack of study-by-study critique tables. In cases of multiple reports from the same study, the report covering the longest period was included. Two reviewers independently reviewed and assessed the quality of accepted articles. Results: Thirty-nine articles were included for review. Thirty were excluded and 9 accepted. Of the 9 accepted, 2 trials of reasonable and good evidence value did not demonstrate any anti-cariogenic effect of sugar-free chewing gum. However, 7 articles, with 1 of strong, and 6 of good evidence value, demonstrated anti-cariogenic effects of chewing Sorbitol, Xylitol or Sorbitol/Xylitol gum. This effect can be ascribed to saliva stimulation through the chewing process, particularly when gum is used immediately after meals; the lack of sucrose and the inability of bacteria to metabolize polyols into acids. Conclusion: The evidence suggests that sugar-free chewing gum has a caries-reducing effect. Further well-designed randomised trials are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:19089107
Vadiveloo, Maya K; Malik, Vasanti S; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C; Mattei, Josiemer
Worksite cafeterias are compelling venues to improve diet quality through environmental changes. We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012-2015) were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software. Consumer responses were queried using online surveys; open-ended responses were analyzed using NVivo. Differences in sales and nutrient content pre-post menu redesign were tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Gross sales of entrées (61 vs. 222 servings/month; p = 0.01) and side dishes (120 vs. 365 servings/month; p = 0.001) increased more than three-fold post-menu changes. Revenue from entrées (312 vs. 1144 USD/month; p = 0.01) and side dishes (238 vs. 914 USD/month; p = 0.001) also increased; per entrée, consumers purchased significantly more unsaturated fat (5 g), and less saturated fat (3 g) and sodium (100 mg). For side dishes, they purchased fewer calories (48 kcal) and unsaturated fat (2.9 g), but more fiber (1.8 g), and sodium (260 mg). Four themes emerged from consumer responses: the importance of 1) variety, novelty, choice; 2) cost, affordability, value; 3) health; and 4) food quality, taste. Menu redesign can improve nutrient content, while also increasing sales and revenue. Multi-dimensional assessment of the nutritional, consumer, and retailer implications is desirable practice for enacting similar environmental changes.
Moore, Michael; Hasler-Nguyen, Nathalie; Saroea, Geoffrey
Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B) on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C) and human saliva (D). Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances) using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*), red-green (a) and yellow-blue (b). Medicated chewing gums (A and B) removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C) had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Extrinsic staining of teeth may result from the deposition of a variety of pigments into or onto the tooth surface, which originate mainly from diet or from tobacco use. More recently, clinical studies have demonstrated the efficacy of some chewing gums in removing extrinsic tooth staining. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of two nicotine medicated chewing gums (A and B on stain removal in an in vitro experiment, when compared with a confectionary whitening chewing gum (C and human saliva (D. Methods Bovine incisors were stained by alternating air exposure and immersion in a broth containing natural pigments such as coffee, tea and oral microorganisms for 10 days. Stained enamel samples were exposed to saliva alone or to the test chewing gums under conditions simulating human mastication. The coloration change of the enamel samples was measured using a spectrophotometer. Measurements were obtained for each specimen (average of three absorbances using the L*a*b scale: lightness (L*, red-green (a and yellow-blue (b. Results Medicated chewing gums (A and B removed a greater amount of visible extrinsic stain, while the confectionary chewing gum with a whitening claim (C had a milder whitening effect as evaluated by quantitative and qualitative assessment. Conclusion The tested Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT chewing gums were more effective in the removal of the extrinsic tooth stain. This visible improvement in tooth whitening appearance could strengthen the smokers' motivation to quit smoking.
Sote, E O
Various researchers have advocated the use of chewing sticks in community oral health programmes because they are readily available, cheaper than the toothbrush and paste, and are found to possess antiplaque properties. Oral health education is essential for enlightenment on good oral health maintenance. The study was thus aimed at educating children on how to maintain a good oral health (including the efficient use of various oral hygiene implements) and noting the impact on their gingival health. 120 school children with no gingival disease, aged 12 to 14 years, participated in the study. They were all examined intra-orally and their plaque scores were recorded. After two weeks of oral health education programmes, they were randomly assigned into three equal groups, each group using either the toothbrush/paste, the Massularia acuminata chewing stick or the Sorindeia warneckei chewing stick for three months. Their plaque scores and gingivitis incidence were recorded. 36.0% had gingivitis, 2.0% had periodontitis with pocketing greater than or equal to 5 mm, and about 3.0% had gingival recession. More toothbrush users than the chewing stick users in the study had gingivitis (P less than .05). The inherent danger in introducing unfamiliar oral hygiene procedures to children without close monitoring is highlighted. Whatever mode of oral hygiene is adopted for use in children, adequate supervision by knowledgeable parents and teachers, and close monitoring by oral health personnel is mandatory in order to ensure effective use.
Kleber, C J; Davidson, K R; Rhoades, M L
The purpose of this human clinical study was to determine whether a commercial chewing gum containing 5% sodium bicarbonate (ARM & HAMMER DENTAL CARE The Baking Soda Gum [AHDC]) was effective in removing dental plaque when used as a supplement to regular toothbrushing by children. Healthy children (N = 28, average age = 11 years) were randomly distributed into 2 groups. One group was instructed to chew 2 tablets of AHDC chewing gum for 20 minutes 2 times each day (after lunch and dinner) in addition to their normal toothbrushing regimen. The other group used a sugarless mint tablet twice daily during the same period in addition to toothbrushing. After 1 week of using their assigned product, all participants were again examined for oral health and plaque. After a 1-week washout period, subjects were crossed over to the opposite group. Among the 21 participants completing the study, the AHDC chewing gum significantly (P plaque by 15% after 1 week compared to the mint tablet control, as measured by the Modified Quigley-Hein Plaque Index. When longitudinally compared to the baseline plaque scores, the gum resulted in a significant (P plaque on the teeth. Subanalysis of the data showed that the AHDC chewing gum was particularly effective on the lingual surfaces and the posterior teeth and least effective on the facial surfaces of the anterior teeth, which do not readily come into direct contact with the gum during mastication. The bicarbonate gum demonstrated significant plaque reduction in all other areas of the mouth, even on tooth surfaces not directly contacted during chewing. Compliance with the chewing gum regimen was excellent, and oral health exams did not indicate any adverse events among children using either the chewing gum or mint tablets. In this study, regular use of AHDC chewing gum was safe and effective in removing dental plaque and served as a significant complement to the daily toothbrushing regimen of children.
Full Text Available Stress is prevalent in human life and threatens both physical and mental health; stress coping is thus of adaptive value for individual's survival and well-being. Although there has been extensive research on how the neural and physiological systems respond to stressful stimulation, relatively little is known about how the brain dynamically copes with stress evoked by this stimulation. Here we investigated how stress is relieved by a popular coping behavior, namely, gum chewing. In an fMRI study, we used loud noise as an acute stressor and asked participants to rate their feeling of stress in gum-chewing and no-chewing conditions. The participants generally felt more stressful when hearing noise, but less so when they were simultaneously chewing gum. The bilateral superior temporal sulcus (STS and the left anterior insula (AI were activated by noise, and their activations showed a positive correlation with the self-reported feeling of stress. Critically, gum chewing significantly reduced the noise-induced activation in these areas. Psychophysiological interaction (PPI analysis showed that the functional connectivity between the left AI and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC was increased by noise to a lesser extent when the participants were chewing gum than when not chewing gum. Dynamic causality modeling (DCM demonstrated that gum chewing inhibited the connectivity from the STS to the left AI. These findings demonstrate that gum chewing relieves stress by attenuating the sensory processing of external stressor and by inhibiting the propagation of stress-related information in the brain stress network.
Jensen, M E
Interproximal wire-telemetric plaque pH data were obtained from five volunteers after they ate milk chocolate bars, raisins, chocolate wafer cookies with cream filling, cupcakes with icing and cream filling, and cherry pies. All the foods produced rapid decreases in plaque pH for extended periods. In a second set of test sessions, volunteers chewed sugarless gum for 10 minutes, starting 15 minutes after they ate the snack food. In all cases, the gum chewing caused a rapid increase in plaque pH. The pH remained at a level considered safe for teeth for 30 minutes after chewing the gum.
Lin, Wen-Yuan; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Tsai-Chung; Li, Chia-Ing; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Cheng-Chieh
Betel nut chewing has been reported to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The reason is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between betel nut chewing and general obesity (BMI ≥25kg/m2) and central obesity (waist circumference (WC) ≥90 cm). A total of 1,049 male subjects, aged ≥40 years, were recruited from Taichung city in Taiwan in 2004. The relationships between betel nut chewing and general and central obesity were studied by multiple l...
Patrícia Coelho de Soárez
Full Text Available SUMMARY Objective: Despite the progress in the implementation of health promotion programs in the workplace, there are no questionnaires in Brazil to assess the scope of health promotion interventions adopted and their scientific basis. This study aimed to translate into Brazilian Portuguese and culturally adapt the CDC Worksite Health ScoreCard (HSC questionnaire. Method: The HSC has 100 questions grouped into twelve domains. The steps are as follows: translation, reconciliation, back-translation, review by expert panel, pretesting, and final revision. The convenience sample included 27 individuals from health insurance providers and companies of various sizes, types and industries in São Paulo. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: The average age of the sample was 38 years, most of the subjects were female (21 of 27, and were responsible for programs to promote health in these workplaces. Most questions were above the minimum value of understanding set at 90%. The participants found the questionnaire very useful to determine the extent of existing health promotion programs and to pinpoint areas that could be developed. Conclusion: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the HSC questionnaire may be a valid measure and useful to assess the degree of implementation of health promotion interventions based on evidence in local health organizations.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43–8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30–9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16–2.73) and 1.63 (1.02–2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34–20.80) and 10.17 (4.46–22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population. PMID:27709845
Yasin, Siti Munira; Retneswari, Masilamani; Moy, Foong Ming; Koh, David; Isahak, Marzuki
There is an unclear relationship between smoker's early motivation and success rates. Here we aimed to explore the correlates of motivation and smoking abstinence and relapse in worksite smoking cessation programmes. This prospective cohort study involved employees from two major public universities in Malaysia. Participants were actively recruited into a smoking cessation programme. At the start of treatment, participants were administered a questionnaire on sociodemographic variables, smoking habits and 'stage of change'. Behaviour therapy with free nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was given as treatment for two months. A similar stage of change questionnaire was given at six months, and their smoking status was determined. There were 185 smokers from both Universities, who joined the programme. At six months, 24 smokers reported sustained abstinence while the others had relapsed. Prior to the programme, the majority of smokers were seriously planning on quitting (59.5%--preparation stage), but over a third had no plans to quit (35.5%--contemplation stage). There was no significant difference noted in changes of motivation stage among the relapsers and the non quitters. In addition, logistic regression showed that sustained abstinence was not predicted by pre-session motivation stage, but this did predict higher relapse for the participants, compared to those in the preparation stage. It is possible to help smokers in the lower motivation groups to quit, provided extra caution is taken to prevent relapse. Healthcare providers' recruitment strategies for cessation programmes should thus encompass smokers in all motivation stages.
Jensen, Elizabeth; Dumas, Bonnie P; Edlund, Barbara J
This pilot project aimed to improve depression symptoms and quality-of-life measures for individuals in a worksite disease management program. Two hundred forty-three individuals were invited to participate, out of which 69 enrolled. The participants had a history of diabetes, hypertension, or hyperlipidemia, and demonstrated depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). The project consisted of counseling sessions provided every 2 to 4 weeks by a family nurse practitioner. PHQ-9 scores and those of an instrument that measures quality of life, the Veteran's Rand-12 (VR-12), were compared pre-intervention and post-intervention to evaluate the effectiveness of the project. PHQ-9 and VR-12 Mental Health Component (MHC) scores improved significantly after 3 months of nurse practitioner-led individual counseling sessions. This project demonstrated that depression screening and therapeutic management, facilitated by a nurse practitioner, can improve depression and perceived quality of life in individuals with hypertension, hyperlipidemia, or type 2 diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).
Herbert, R; White, R
Prince Edward Island experiences a higher-than-average death rate from cardiovascular disease. The Prince Edward Island Heart Health Program is a health promotion/disease prevention research project of Health Canada and the Prince Edward Island Department of Health and Social Services. This paper describes and evaluates a worksite program, based on the principles of community mobilization, that was initiated with the Civil Service Commission of the Prince Edward Island government. The building of a partnership, the risk appraisal session administered in the workplace, the establishment of an Employee Wellness Committee, and subsequent programming which has occurred in the workplace were the key components in the process. Collaboration with the partner agency and participation of employees in the planning process has resulted in the delivery of programs which could not have been achieved by one of the agencies alone, without many additional resources. It is hoped that these characteristics of collaboration and employee participation will also result in sustainability of this initiative when PEI Heart Health is no longer involved.
Ansmann, L; Jung, J; Nitzsche, A; Pfaff, H
Worksite health management (WHM) can positively influence employee health and performance. However, it has not yet been comprehensively implemented in companies. This study aims to identify the role of organisational structures in the implementation of WHM. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected on the companies' WHM and the organisational structure. Out of 522 randomly selected companies within the German information technology and communication (ITC) sector, one managing director for each company was being questioned through telephone interviews. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted. The results of the study reveal that the implementation of WHM is positively correlated with a large company size (OR 2.75; 95%-CI 1.10-6.88) and with the existence of an employee representation (OR 2.48; 95%-CI 1.54-3.98). Other structural characteristics, such as the employment of a company physician, the percentage of temporary workers as well as the staff's age and sex distribution do not seem to have a significant impact on the implementation of WHM. The results indicate that the implementation of WHM can only be explained to a certain degree by organisational structures. However, the findings highlight the fact that companies with few structural resources are in particular need of tailored support when implementing WHM. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Cahalin, Lawrence P; Kaminsky, Leonard; Lavie, Carl J; Briggs, Paige; Cahalin, Brendan L; Myers, Jonathan; Forman, Daniel E; Patel, Mahesh J; Pinkstaff, Sherry O; Arena, Ross
The development and implementation of worksite health and wellness programs (WHWPs) in the United States (US) hold promise as a means to improve population health and reverse current trends in non-communicable disease incidence and prevalence. However, WHWPs face organizational, economic, systematic, legal, and logistical challenges which have combined to impact program availability and expansion. Even so, there is a burgeoning body of evidence indicating WHWPs can significantly improve the health profile of participating employees in a cost effective manner. This foundation of scientific knowledge justifies further research inquiry to elucidate optimal WHWP models. It is clear that the development, implementation and operation of WHWPs require a strong commitment from organizational leadership, a pervasive culture of health and availability of necessary resources and infrastructure. Since organizations vary significantly, there is a need to have flexibility in creating a customized, effective health and wellness program. Furthermore, several key legal issues must be addressed to facilitate employer and employee needs and responsibilities; the US Affordable Care Act will play a major role moving forward. The purposes of this review are to: 1) examine currently available health and wellness program models and considerations for the future; 2) highlight key legal issues associated with WHWP development and implementation; and 3) identify challenges and solutions for the development and implementation of as well as adherence to WHWPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stiehl, Emily; Shivaprakash, Namrata; Thatcher, Esther; Ornelas, India J; Kneipp, Shawn; Baron, Sherry L; Muramatsu, Naoko
To determine: (1) What research has been done on health promotion interventions for low-wage workers and (2) what factors are associated with effective low-wage workers' health promotion programs. This review includes articles from PubMed and PsychINFO published in or before July 2016. Study Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria: The search yielded 130 unique articles, 35 met the inclusion criteria: (1) being conducted in the United States, (2) including an intervention or empirical data around health promotion among adult low-wage workers, and (3) measuring changes in low-wage worker health. Central features of the selected studies were extracted, including the theoretical foundation; study design; health promotion intervention content and delivery format; intervention-targeted outcomes; sample characteristics; and work, occupational, and industry characteristics. Consistent with a scoping review, we used a descriptive, content analysis approach to analyze extracted data. All authors agreed upon emergent themes and 2 authors independently coded data extracted from each article. The results suggest that the research on low-wage workers' health promotion is limited, but increasing, and that low-wage workers have limited access to and utilization of worksite health promotion programs. Workplace health promotion programs could have a positive effect on low-wage workers, but more work is needed to understand how to expand access, what drives participation, and which delivery mechanisms are most effective.
Kimathi, Amber N; Gregoire, Mary B; Dowling, Rebecca A; Stone, Marcelle K
The objectives of this study were to determine customer satisfaction with a healthful options food station offered in a worksite cafeteria and document the financial contribution of such a station. The healthful options station featured daily entrées with fewer than 500 calories and less than 30% of calories from fat. Questionnaires from 655 (24.5% response) employees and students provided data on satisfaction with and usage of the station. The majority of the respondents who had purchased from the healthful options station were female (77.3%), white (51.6%), aged 30 to 50 years (52.0%), and had annual incomes of $60,000 to $100,000 (29.3%) or $20,000 to $39,999 (22.2%). Sales and gross profit from the healthful options station were compared to those of the comfort station. Customers were satisfied with attributes of the healthful options station (means >3 on a 5-point scale). Results of paired t tests suggested that customers who had purchased from the healthful options station rated the station significantly (Pfood presentation, food quality, overall quality of the cafeteria, length of line, and food choices available compared to their ratings for the cafeteria in general. The healthful options station generated average daily sales of $458 and gross profit of $306. However, the sales and gross profit were significantly (P<0.05) less than the comparison comfort station.
Van Hoecke, Ann-Sophie; Seghers, Jan; Boen, Filip
To evaluate the impact of footprints on stair climbing in different settings. Interrupted time-series design. A company (stair/elevator choice) and a mall (stair/escalator choice). Employees (n = 5676) and visitors of the mall (n = 12 623). An intervention comprising 3 consecutive phases was implemented-(1) footprints leading to the stairs were stuck on the floor, (2) a health message referring to the footprints was introduced, and (3) passersby were congratulated for their increased stair use. Stair climbing was observed before (ie, baseline), during, and 6 to 13 weeks after (ie, follow-up) the intervention. Proportions of stair climbers were compared using χ2 analyses. The footprints resulted in a closely significant increase in stair climbing in the company (from 27.7% at baseline to 31.2% in phase 1). However, they did not produce any effect in the mall. Introducing a health message yielded an additional 12.4% increase in stair climbing in the company and a significant 11.4% increase in the mall (22.3% in phase 2). Congratulating people did not further increase stair climbing. At follow-up, the proportions of stair climbers dropped but still exceeded baseline. Footprints tend to increase stair climbing in a worksite setting with a stair/escalator choice but not in a public setting with a stair/elevator choice. Adding a meaningful message seems essential to obtain stronger and longer term effects.
Van Calster, L; Van Hoecke, A-S; Octaef, A; Boen, F
This study evaluated the effects of improving the visibility of the stairwell and of displaying a video with a stair climbing model on climbing and descending stair use in a worksite setting. Intervention study. Three consecutive one-week intervention phases were implemented: (1) the visibility of the stairs was improved by the attachment of pictograms that indicated the stairwell; (2) a video showing a stair climbing model was sent to the employees by email; and (3) the same video was displayed on a television screen at the point-of-choice (POC) between the stairs and the elevator. The interventions took place in two buildings. The implementation of the interventions varied between these buildings and the sequence was reversed. Improving the visibility of the stairs increased both stair climbing (+6%) and descending stair use (+7%) compared with baseline. Sending the video by email yielded no additional effect on stair use. By contrast, displaying the video at the POC increased stair climbing in both buildings by 12.5% on average. One week after the intervention, the positive effects on stair climbing remained in one of the buildings, but not in the other. These findings suggest that improving the visibility of the stairwell and displaying a stair climbing model on a screen at the POC can result in a short-term increase in both climbing and descending stair use. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Coenen, Pieter; Kingma, Idsart; Boot, Cécile R L; Douwes, Marjolein; Bongers, Paulien M; van Dieën, Jaap H
Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimated the risk of MSP (neck, shoulder or low-back pain) using a three-point scale (high, moderate and low risk) after observing a video of randomly selected workers representing a task group. Associations of the estimated risk of pain and reported pain during a three-year follow-up were assessed using logistic regression. Estimated risk of neck and shoulder pain did (odds ratio, OR: 1.45 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.01-2.08); 1.64 (95% CI: 1.05-2.55)), however, estimated risk of low-back pain did not significantly predict pain (OR: 1.27 (95% CI: 0.91-1.79)). The results show that observers were able to estimate the risk of shoulder and neck pain, whereas they found it difficult to estimate the risk of low-back pain. Practitioner Summary: Work-related musculoskeletal pain risk assessments by observers are often used in ergonomic practice. We showed that observers were able to estimate shoulder and neck pain risk, but had difficulties to estimate the risk of low-back pain. Therefore, observers' risk estimates might provide a useful method for musculoskeletal pain risk assessments.
Full Text Available No previous large-scale research has reported the association of chewing areca nut (AN with proteinuria. The aim of this study was to investigate such an association in men over a 7-year study. In this cross-sectional research, we retrospectively reviewed the records of health check-ups in a community hospital setting from 2003 to 2009. Laboratory tests, medical histories, and the status of smoking cigarettes, drinking alcohol, and chewing AN were obtained for each participant. Proteinuria was defined as having +/– or heavier protein response (including +/– to 4+ in a urine test performed by an automated chemical analyzer. We compared characteristics in participants with and without proteinuria, and analyzed the adjusted risk for proteinuria with chewing AN in middle-aged men. We also compared the changes in adjusted risk for proteinuria under a stricter definition of proteinuria (≥ 1+ proteinuria. There were 11,991 men with a mean age of 58.94 ± 12.06 years. The prevalence of proteinuria in AN chewers was 13.7%, and 11.2% for non-chewers (p = 0.005. Of the 1381 participants with proteinuria, the proportion chewing AN was 15.3%, and 12.6% for those without proteinuria (p = 0.005. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis with three different levels of adjustment models, with adjustment factors for age, drinking, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, body mass index, chronic kidney disease, anemia, liver dysfunction, and hyperuricemia, the odds ratios of proteinuria for chewing AN were 1.61, 1.55 and 1.40 (all p = 0.000. With the stricter definition of proteinuria, the odds ratios became weaker (1.40, 1.36 and 1.19; p = 0.009, 0.029 and 0.24. We concluded that chewing AN was independently associated with risk of proteinuria in middle-aged Chinese men.
Conclusion: The results indicated that areca nut chewing might significantly enhance CAL in the population. Improved oral hygiene, fewer additives, and reduced use of areca nut would significantly reduce CAL, which should be encouraged for chewers.
Malmkvist, Jens; Palme, Rupert; Svendsen, Pernille Maj
We investigated whether provision of additional appetitive and consummatory elements of foraging reduces baseline stress and abnormal behaviour – in terms of fur-chewing and stereotypic behaviour – in farmed mink. We studied 200 juveniles (n = 100 females and 100 males) during the 5-month growth......; (iii) CONS, chunky feed (parts up to 42 mm), replacing conventional feed; (iv) BOTH, access to both biting ropes and chunky feed. In growing mink, biting ropes reduced fur-chewing (P = 0.044) and chunky feed reduced stereotypic behaviour (P = 0.038) and fur-chewing in female mink (P = 0.019). During......, stereotypic behaviour was reduced by provision of chunky feed, increasing the consummatory element in daily foraging. Fur-chewing was reduced upon access to either biting ropes or chunky feed in female mink throughout the study. Our findings support frustrated foraging, mainly consummatory, behind abnormal...
Lassen, Anne Dahl; Thorsen, Anne Vibeke; Trolle, Ellen
Objective: To investigate changes in the consumption of fruits and vegetables in work-site canteens using the tools of continuous quality improvement, and to gain knowledge of practical strategies being effective in increasing the consumption. Design: Study design included baseline data collection...... per lunch meal served per customer (net weight; potatoes not included). Setting: Five workplaces in Denmark: a military base, an electronic component distributor, a bank, a town hall and a waste-handling facility. Subjects: Work-site canteen managers, staff and customers. Results: There were...... significant increases in the total consumption of fruits and vegetables for all five work-site canteens from baseline to end-point, 70 g per customer on average (67, 54, 39, 88 and 103 g, respectively). The follow-up data collection showed that the canteens either maintained or significantly increased...
Weis Robert M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Specific glutamates in the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs of Escherichia coli are modified during sensory adaptation. Attractants that bind to MCPs are known to increase the rate of receptor modification, as with serine and the serine receptor (Tsr, which contributes to an increase in the steady-state (adapted methylation level. However, MCPs form ternary complexes with two cytoplasmic signaling proteins, the kinase (CheA and an adaptor protein (CheW, but their influences on receptor methylation are unknown. Here, the influence of CheW on the rate of Tsr methylation has been studied to identify contributions to the process of adaptation. Results Methyl group incorporation was measured in a series of membrane samples in which the Tsr molecules were engineered to have one available methyl-accepting glutamate residue (297, 304, 311 or 493. The relative rates at these sites (0.14, 0.05, 0.05 and 1, respectively differed from those found previously for the aspartate receptor (Tar, which was in part due to sequence differences between Tar and Tsr near site four. The addition of CheW generated unexpectedly large and site-specific rate increases, equal to or larger than the increases produced by serine. The increases produced by serine and CheW (added separately were the largest at site one, ~3 and 6-fold, respectively, and the least at site four, no change and ~2-fold, respectively. The rate increases were even larger when serine and CheW were added together, larger than the sums of the increases produced by serine and CheW added separately (except site four. This resulted in substantially larger serine-stimulated increases when CheW was present. Also, CheW enhanced methylation rates when either two or all four sites were available. Conclusion The increase in the rate of receptor methylation upon CheW binding contributes significantly to the ligand specificity and kinetics of sensory adaptation. The synergistic effect of
Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev
construct a more robust design space according to Quality by Design (QbD) formulation development principles. In the current study we present a case study on the development of spray dried microparticles comprising nicotine bitartrate and hypromellose or alginate polymer, for incorporation into medicated...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....
Dias, R S; Patino, H O; López, S; Prates, E; Swanson, K C; France, J
The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between chewing behavior, digestibility, and digesta passage kinetics in steers fed oat hay at restricted and ad libitum intakes. Four Hereford steers, with an initial average BW of 136 kg, were used in an experiment conducted as a balanced 4 × 4 Latin square with 4 treatments (levels of intake) and 4 periods. Animals were fed lopsided oat hay (Avena strigosa Schreb.) at 4 levels of intake (as a percentage of BW): 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and ad libitum. Digestibility, chewing behavior, and digesta passage kinetic measurements were recorded during the experimental period. Chewing rates during eating and ruminating [(chews•min(-1))/g of DMI•kg(-1) of BW•d(-1)] decreased (P = 0.018 and P = 0.032, respectively) with increased DMI (g•kg(-1) of BW•d(-1)), whereas total chewing and total time spent on each chewing activity increased. Calculated total energy expended by the chewing activity was 4.2, 4.4, 5.2, and 5.3% of ME intake for DMI of 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5% of BW and ad libitum, respectively, indicating that adjustments in animal chewing behavior may be a mechanism of reducing energy expenditure when forages are fed at restricted intake. Hay digestibility decreased (P 0.05). The latter was correlated with rumen volume (r = 0.803). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that animals fed at restricted intake increased chewing rate when eating and ruminating, which, along with a longer digesta retention time, contributed to enhance feed digestibility.
Choi, Chang-Yong; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.
Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution of ...... domestic or captive animals may provide biased information on the occurrence, prevalence, host selection, and host-ectoparasite interactions from those on wild hosts.......Chewing lice (Phthiraptera) that parasitize the globally threatened swan goose Anser cygnoides have been long recognized since the early 19th century, but those records were probably biased towards sampling of captive or domestic geese due to the small population size and limited distribution...
Betel nut chewing is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a recent prevalence study in Taiwan. The present study further investigated its link with the incidence of newly diagnosed T2DM during the years 1992-1996. Population-based datasets of a sample of 93,484 out of 256,036 diabetic patients from 66 medical settings using the National Health Insurance scheme covering > 96% of the population, published population prevalence of betel nut chewing and the governmental census of national population were used for calculation of odds ratios, incidence rates and incidence rate ratios between chewers and never-chewers in the male population for the year 1992 to 1996. Ever chewers among the diabetic patients were younger, more obese and had higher prevalence of parental diabetes than never-chewers (all p values betel nut is associated with newly diagnosed T2DM, supporting the suggestion that the habit is diabetogenic.
Kemoli, A M; van Amerongen, W E; de Soet, J J
The use of Chewing sticks (Miswaki) in the third world for control of dental plaque is very popular. Some of the studies that have been conducted on this subject have reported marked decrease in the incidences of dental caries and periodontal diseases in the users of Miswaki, when compared to the users of the conventional toothbrush living under similar conditions. Various mechanisms by which the Miswaki contributes to this phenomenon have been suggested. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in vitro, the anti-microbial action, the potential acid buffer capacity and fluoride content of crude aqueous extracts of eight commonly used chewing sticks from three regions in Kenya. The results obtained in the study, showed that one of the Miswaki had remarkable antibiotic activity against three stains of oral bacteria. Three of the Miswaki had significant acid buffer capacity. None of the eight Miswaki showed any significant fluoride release.
Tian, Jun; Chen, Xin-shan; Wang, Rui-dong
To establish a HPLC method for determining the content of free salicylic acid in chewing aspirin tablets. The determination was conducted on a HPLC column (C(18), 150 mm x 4.6 mm x 5 microm) with methanol-water-glacial acetic acid (8.0 5.5 1.0) as the mobile phase and the detection wavelength of 302 nm. The calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 2.65 to 31.77 microg/ml (r=0.999 97) of salicylic acid. The average recovery rate was 100.21% with relative standard deviation of 0.53% (n=6). HPLC is quick and accurate of determining the content of free salicylic acid for chewing aspirin tablets.
Mankodi, S M; Conforti, N; Berkowitz, H
A 14-week, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted with 126 healthy volunteers to compare the efficacy of twice-daily use of 3 baking soda-containing chewing gums in removing natural tooth stain when used in conjunction with a program of regular oral hygiene. All 3 chewing gums significantly reduced extrinsic stain (P Baking Soda Gum (AHDC) reduced dental stain by 70.8%, compared to reductions of 71.9% and 65.3%, after use of 2 experimental gum formulations. Whitened appearance improved by 1.73 shade tabs using AHDC gum, and up to 2.49 shade tabs with the experimental formulations. These results suggest that the use of baking soda-containing gum after meals, in conjunction with good oral hygiene, can improve both extrinsic dental staining and the whitened appearance of teeth.
Wang, X P; Zhong, B; Chen, Z K; Stewart, M E; Zhang, C; Zhang, K; Ni, J; Dodds, M W J; Hanley, A B; Miller, L E
This was a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study stratified by age and gender with the objective of determining the relationship between gum chewing history, salivary flow, and dental caries severity in adults. We enrolled 191 subjects aged 18-65 years who underwent assessments for gum chewing history, unstimulated salivary flow rate, salivary pH, and caries severity. Unstimulated salivary flow rate tended to decline with increasing age (p = 0.04), and significant differences in unstimulated salivary flow rate were also found for males (0.58 ± 0.32 ml/min) versus females (0.48 ± 0.30 ml/min) (p = 0.02). Weekly gum chewing frequency was greater in younger subjects (p = 0.001) while no age group differences were noted in pieces per day or chewing duration. Gum chewing habits were similar in males and females. A multivariate model demonstrated that only days per week chewing gum (p chewing gum was negatively associated with ICDAS (p = 0.004), indicating that caries severity increased with age, and that days of chewing provided an inverse effect, with increased days of chewing being associated with decreased severity of caries. Overall, a history of frequent gum chewing is associated with higher unstimulated salivary flow rate and lower caries severity. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Jung, Julia; Nitzsche, Anika; Neumann, Melanie; Wirtz, Markus; Kowalski, Christoph; Wasem, Jürgen; Stieler-Lorenz, Brigitte; Pfaff, Holger
The Worksite Health Promotion Capacity Instrument (WHPCI) was developed to assess two key factors for effective worksite health promotion: collective willingness and the systematic implementation of health promotion activities in companies. This study evaluates the diagnostic qualities of the WHPCI based on its subscales Health Promotion Willingness and Health Promotion Management, which can be used to place companies into four different categories based on their level of health promotion capacity. Psychometric evaluation was conducted using exploratory factor and reliability analyses with data taken from a random sample of managers from n = 522 German information and communication technology (ICT) companies. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were conducted to determine further diagnostic qualities of the instrument and to establish the cut-off scores used to determine each company's level of health promotion capacity. The instrument's subscales, Health Promotion Willingness and Health Promotion Management, are based on one-dimensional constructs, each with very good reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83/0.91). ROC analyses demonstrated satisfactory diagnostic accuracy with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.76 (SE = 0.021; 95% CI 0.72-0.80) for the Health Promotion Willingness scale and 0.81 (SE = 0.021; 95% CI 0.77-0.86) for the Health Promotion Management scale. A cut-off score with good sensitivity (71%/76%) and specificity (69%/75%) was determined for each scale. Both scales were found to have good predictive power and exhibited good efficiency. Our findings indicate preliminary evidence for the validity and reliability of both subscales of the WHPCI. The goodness of each cut-off score suggests that the scales are appropriate for determining companies' levels of health promotion capacity. Support in implementing (systematic) worksite health promotion can then be tailored to each company's needs based on their current capacity level.
LaMontagne, A D; Barbeau, E; Youngstrom, R A; Lewiton, M; Stoddard, A M; McLellan, D; Wallace, L M; Sorensen, G
(1) To develop a transparent and broadly applicable method for assessing occupational safety and health (OSH) programmes or management systems; (2) to assess OSH programmes in a sample of manufacturing worksites; and (3) to determine whether a management focused occupational health intervention results in greater improvement in OSH programmes compared to minimal intervention controls. OSH programmes were assessed using an adaptation of the US Occupational Safety & Health Administration's 1995 Program Evaluation Profile. Scores were generated from 91 binary indicator variables grouped under four "Essential Elements". Essential Element scores were weighted to contribute to an overall programme score on a 100 point scale. Seventeen large manufacturing worksites were assessed at baseline; 15 sites completed the 16 month intervention and follow up assessments. There was considerable variation in Essential Element scores across sites at baseline as judged by our instrument, particularly in "management commitment and employee participation" and "workplace analysis". Most sites scored highly on "hazard prevention and control" and "training and education". For overall OSH programme scores, most sites scored in the 60-80% range at baseline, with four sites scoring below 60%, suggesting weak programmes. Intervention sites showed greater improvements than controls in the four programme elements and in overall programme scores, with significantly greater improvements in "management commitment and employee participation". The OSH programme assessment method used is broadly applicable to manufacturing work settings, and baseline profiles suggest needs for improvement in OSH programmes in most such worksites. Despite a small sample size, results showed that sustained management focused intervention can result in improvement in these OSH programme measures.
Batra, Payal; Das, Sai Krupa; Salinardi, Taylor; Robinson, Lisa; Saltzman, Edward; Scott, Tammy; Pittas, Anastassios G; Roberts, Susan B
We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a lifestyle intervention for weight loss in worksites. This research was part of a randomized controlled trial of a 6-month weight loss intervention versus a wait-listed control in 4 Massachusetts worksites. The intervention emphasized reducing energy intake by adherence to portion-controlled menu suggestions, and assessments were obtained in 95 participants at baseline and 6 months including non-fasting body weight, food cravings (Craving Inventory and Food Craving Questionnaire for state and trait) and the eating behavior constructs restraint, disinhibition and hunger (Eating Inventory). There were statistically significant reductions in all craving variables in the intervention group compared to the controls. Within the intervention group, changes in craving-trait were significantly associated with weight loss after controlling for baseline weight, age, gender and worksite. However, in a multivariate model with craving-trait and eating behaviors (restraint, disinhibition and hunger), hunger was the only significant predictor of weight change. In contrast to some previous reports of increased food cravings with weight loss in lifestyle interventions, this study observed a broad reduction in cravings associated with weight loss. In addition, greater reductions in craving-trait were associated with greater weight change, but craving-trait was not a significant independent correlate of weight change when hunger was included in statistical models. Studies are needed to examine the effectiveness of hunger suppressing versus craving-suppressing strategies in lifestyle interventions for obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mache, Stefanie; Jensen, Sarah; Linnig, Stefan; Jahn, Reimo; Steudtner, Mirco; Ochsmann, Elke; Preuß, Geraldine
Worksite health promotion programs have been identified as strongly effective in decreasing body weight and increasing awareness and change in health behavior. Aim of this study is to determine the effects of a multi-component intervention in workplace health promotion. In a controlled study trail, 1,573 workers of a logistics company had the chance to participate in a one year worksite health promotion program. Main elements of the multi-component intervention were physical activity training in combination with nutrition counseling. Employees completed a questionnaire at baseline and then again after twelve month. Main outcome variables were changes in body weight and health behaviors. Secondary outcomes were subjective health indicators. Our results showed preliminary improvements in physical activity and eating behavior among normal weight and overweight/obesity weight groups. No significant weight reduction could be found, only a minimal reduction of BMI. The reduction was larger in the overweight group. Workers considered overweight or obese showed significantly greater body weight loss and changes in eating behavior than workers with a normal weight status. Workers with obesity/overweight scored their general health status significantly lower than their colleagues with normal weight status. No significant improvements were found for overall perception of health status between baseline and follow-up in the BMI-groups. This 12-month intervention-control study suggests that a well-implemented multi-component workplace health promotion program may support substantial change in health behavior (e.g. nutrition and physical activity). It is indicated that overweight employees may especially profit from such worksite health promotion. An investigation of long-term effects of this multi-component intervention is strongly recommended.
Wang, Tsu-Nai; Huang, Ming-Shyan; Lin, Meng-Chih; Duh, Tsai-Hui; Lee, Chih-Hung; Wang, Chin-Chou; Chen, Ping-Ho; Chiang, Shang-Lun; Sheu, Chau-Chyun; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Stewart, Robert
Background Betel nut is commonly used in many countries. Despite evidence suggesting an association with asthma, few studies have investigated the connection between betel nut use and asthma; thus, the underlying mechanism for the association with asthma is also unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between betel chewing and asthma as well as the associations of plasma arecoline (a biomarker for exposure) and eotaxin-1 (a potential mediator) with asthma and lung function. Methods We recruited 600 hospital-based asthmatic patients and 1200 age- and gender-matched community controls in southern Taiwan. To clarify the mechanism of action for eotaxin-1 in the association between betel chewing and asthma, we also designed an in vitro experiment to study the functional associations between arecoline exposure and eotaxin-1 levels. Results A significant association was found between asthma and current betel chewing (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI = 1.12–3.76), which was independent of potential confounders but was attenuated following adjustment for eotaxin-1. Arecoline and eotaxin-1 levels were positively correlated (Spearman r = 0.303, p = 0.02), while arecoline and arecaidine were negatively correlated with lung function. Functionally, arecoline alone does not induce eotaxin-1 release in vitro from dermal and gingival fibroblasts. However, in the presence of IL-4 and TNF-alpha, arecoline at 100 μg/ml induced more eotaxin-1 release than arecoline at 0 μg/ml (2700±98 pg/ml vs 1850±142 pg/ml, p = 0.01 in dermal fibroblast cells, and 1489±78 pg/ml vs 1044±95 pg/ml, p = 0.03 in gingival fibroblast cells, respectively). Conclusion Betel chewing is associated with asthma in this population, with arecoline induction of eotaxin-1 supported as a plausible causal pathway. PMID:24658613
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Betel nut is commonly used in many countries. Despite evidence suggesting an association with asthma, few studies have investigated the connection between betel nut use and asthma; thus, the underlying mechanism for the association with asthma is also unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between betel chewing and asthma as well as the associations of plasma arecoline (a biomarker for exposure and eotaxin-1 (a potential mediator with asthma and lung function. METHODS: We recruited 600 hospital-based asthmatic patients and 1200 age- and gender-matched community controls in southern Taiwan. To clarify the mechanism of action for eotaxin-1 in the association between betel chewing and asthma, we also designed an in vitro experiment to study the functional associations between arecoline exposure and eotaxin-1 levels. RESULTS: A significant association was found between asthma and current betel chewing (adjusted odds ratio 2.05, 95% CI = 1.12-3.76, which was independent of potential confounders but was attenuated following adjustment for eotaxin-1. Arecoline and eotaxin-1 levels were positively correlated (Spearman r = 0.303, p = 0.02, while arecoline and arecaidine were negatively correlated with lung function. Functionally, arecoline alone does not induce eotaxin-1 release in vitro from dermal and gingival fibroblasts. However, in the presence of IL-4 and TNF-alpha, arecoline at 100 μg/ml induced more eotaxin-1 release than arecoline at 0 μg/ml (2700±98 pg/ml vs 1850±142 pg/ml, p = 0.01 in dermal fibroblast cells, and 1489±78 pg/ml vs 1044±95 pg/ml, p = 0.03 in gingival fibroblast cells, respectively. CONCLUSION: Betel chewing is associated with asthma in this population, with arecoline induction of eotaxin-1 supported as a plausible causal pathway.
Scott M., Fitzpatrick; Greg C., Nelson; Ryan, Reeves; Department of Sociology and Anthropology, North Carolina State University; Department of Anthropology, University of Oregon; Department of Anthropology, University of Montana
The chewing of betel nut (Areca catechu) has been a cultural tradition for thousands of years in south and southeast Asia. This custom later spread to Oceania during the Austronesian expansion around 6000 B.P. Although betel stained teeth and remnants of Areca and associated ingredients have been documented from archaeological contexts in Micronesia, the dispersal and antiquity of betel nut in the region has not been synthesized. In this paper we describe the archaeological and paleoenvironme...
Moreno Hay, Isabel; Sánchez Sánchez, Teresa; Ardizone García, Ignacio; Aneiros, Fernando; Celemín Viñuela, Alicia
The aim of this study is to determine the influence of Angle molar class, presence of a posterior crossbite, anterior guidance, as well as gender in the muscular activity of the masticatory system in a population of healthy dental students. Study design: Surface electromyography recordings are made for the masseter, anterior and posterior temporalis and digastric muscles; in three different tests: clenching at maximum intercuspation, swallowing and chewing. Results: The results obtained s...
Mónica R Carvalho
Full Text Available The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing insects, whose richness and mouthpart convergence have obscured their value for understanding past and present herbivore diversity. We hypothesized that the correlation of leaf-chewing damage types (DTs and damage maker richness is directly observable in living forests. Using canopy access cranes at two lowland tropical rainforest sites in Panamá to survey 24 host-plant species, we found significant correlations between the numbers of leaf chewing insect species collected and the numbers of DTs observed to be made by the same species in feeding experiments, strongly supporting our hypothesis. Damage type richness was largely driven by insect species that make multiple DTs. Also, the rank-order abundances of DTs recorded at the Panamá sites and across a set of latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene fossil floras were highly correlated, indicating remarkable consistency of feeding-mode distributions through time. Most fossil and modern host-plant pairs displayed high similarity indices for their leaf-chewing DTs, but informative differences and trends in fossil damage composition became apparent when endophytic damage was included. Our results greatly expand the potential of insect-mediated leaf damage for interpreting insect herbivore richness and compositional heterogeneity from fossil floras and, equally promisingly, in living forests.
Carvalho, Mónica R; Wilf, Peter; Barrios, Héctor; Windsor, Donald M; Currano, Ellen D; Labandeira, Conrad C; Jaramillo, Carlos A
The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing insects, whose richness and mouthpart convergence have obscured their value for understanding past and present herbivore diversity. We hypothesized that the correlation of leaf-chewing damage types (DTs) and damage maker richness is directly observable in living forests. Using canopy access cranes at two lowland tropical rainforest sites in Panamá to survey 24 host-plant species, we found significant correlations between the numbers of leaf chewing insect species collected and the numbers of DTs observed to be made by the same species in feeding experiments, strongly supporting our hypothesis. Damage type richness was largely driven by insect species that make multiple DTs. Also, the rank-order abundances of DTs recorded at the Panamá sites and across a set of latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene fossil floras were highly correlated, indicating remarkable consistency of feeding-mode distributions through time. Most fossil and modern host-plant pairs displayed high similarity indices for their leaf-chewing DTs, but informative differences and trends in fossil damage composition became apparent when endophytic damage was included. Our results greatly expand the potential of insect-mediated leaf damage for interpreting insect herbivore richness and compositional heterogeneity from fossil floras and, equally promisingly, in living forests.
Jayalekshmi, P A; Gangadharan, P.; Akiba, S; Nair, R R K; Tsuji, M; Rajan, B
This study examined oral cancer in a cohort of 78?140 women aged 30?84 years in Karunagappally, Kerala, India, on whom baseline information was collected on lifestyle, including tobacco chewing, and sociodemographic factors during the period 1990?1997. By the end of 2005, 92 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry. Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and income, showed that oral cancer incidence was strongly related to daily fre...
de Bree, L C J; Bodelier, A G L; Verburg, G P
Fasciola hepatica is a worldwide distributed zoonotic trematode incidentally infecting humans. Although often symptomatic, fascioliasis can cause a wide spectrum of disease. The diagnosis can be established by stool examination detecting ova of the parasite, although serological testing has a higher sensitivity and specificity in the acute phase of disease. This case presents a 24-year-old Somalian man admitted with jaundice and abdominal discomfort due to fascioliasis after chewing khat. The patient was treated successfully with a single dose of triclabendazole.
Liao, Chun-Ta; Wallace, Christopher G; Lee, Li-Yu; Hsueh, Chuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Wang, Hung-Ming; Ng, Shu-Hang; Lin, Chih-Hung; Tsao, Chung-Kan; Chen, I-How; Huang, Shiang-Fu; Kang, Chung-Jan; Yen, Tzu-Chen
We sought to investigate whether there is evidence of field cancerization in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) enrolled in a betel quid chewing area. We also assessed whether betel quid chewing is an independent risk factor for field cancerization in OSCC patients. We retrospectively examined the records of 1570 OSCC patients who underwent radical tumor resection between 1996 and 2011. A total of 1243 study participants (79%) had a positive history of betel quid chewing before surgery. Of the 767 patients treated with surgery alone, 599 (78%) were preoperative chewers, whereas a history of preoperative betel quid chewing was identified in 644 (80%) of the 803 patients who received adjuvant therapy. The 5-year control, survival, and second primary tumors (SPTs) rates served as the main outcome measures. Regardless of the treatment modality, more than 70% of the SPTs were located in the oral cavity or soft palate. Despite a similar risk profile in terms of tumor depth, lymph node metastasis, and pathological margin status, preoperative chewers showed a significantly higher incidence of 5-year SPTs and local recurrences compared with non-chewers. Moreover, multivariate analysis demonstrated that preoperative betel quid chewing was an independent prognostic factor for 5-year local control and SPTs occurrence rates. Our results demonstrate that preoperative betel quid chewers had a higher incidence of local recurrence and SPTs than non-chewers, suggesting that field cancerization may occur in OSCC patients with a history of betel quid chewing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shoi, K; Fueki, K; Usui, N; Taira, M; Wakabayashi, N
It is well known that shortened dental arch decreases masticatory function. However, its potential to change brain activity during mastication is unknown. The present study investigates the effect of a shortened posterior dental arch with mandibular removable partial dentures (RPDs) on brain activity during gum chewing. Eleven subjects with missing mandibular molars (mean age, 66.1 years) on both sides received experimental RPDs with interchangeable artificial molars in a crossover trial design. Brain activity during gum chewing with RPDs containing (full dental arch) and lacking artificial molars (shortened dental arch) was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, masticatory function was evaluated for each dental arch type. Food comminuting and mixing ability and the perceived chewing ability were significantly lower in subjects with a shortened dental arch than those with a full dental arch (P < 0.05). Brain activation during gum chewing with the full dental arch occurred in the middle frontal gyrus, primary sensorimotor cortex extending to the pre-central gyrus, supplementary motor area, putamen, insula and cerebellum. However, middle frontal gyrus activation was not observed during gum chewing with the shortened dental arch. These results suggest that shortened dental arch affects human brain activity in the middle frontal gyrus during gum chewing, and the decreased middle frontal gyrus activation may be associated with decreased masticatory function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pedersen, Mogens T; Blangsted, Anne K.; Andersen, Lars L.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of two contrasting physical activity worksite interventions versus a reference intervention (REF) on various health outcomes. METHODS: A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted with specific resistance training (SRT), all-round physical exercise (APE...... uptake (APE) increased approximately 10%. CONCLUSIONS: Worksite intervention with both SRT as well as APE is recommended, since these activities compared with REF resulted in clinically relevant reductions of cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome-related risk factors as well as musculoskeletal pain...... symptoms, in combination with minor increases in physical capacity....
Kovari, Helena; Pienihäkkinen, Kaisu; Alanen, Pentti
The use of toothbrushes in daycare centers has been questioned because of the possibility of infections spreading through unsupervised brushing. Several field studies have demonstrated a caries-preventive effect of xylitol chewing gum--a measure that could be a practical way of taking care of oral hygiene during daycare hours without brushing. A community trial was conducted in Savonlinna, Finland to test the caries-preventive effect of xylitol chewing gum at these centers. A total of 921 children were recruited. The daycare centers were randomly distributed to xylitol chewing gum or brushing groups. An additional 270 children who had not been in daycare centers were later organized into an external reference group in order to check whether the children in the daycare centers were representative of all children in Savonlinna. The results revealed a statistically significant but clinically small difference between the xylitol and brushing groups in favor of the xylitol group. Many families used the daycare services irregularly. Changes in workplace, periods of unemployment, the birth of other children in the family, etc., affect the likelihood of families keeping their children in a daycare center for many years. Despite the fact that conditions were not optimal, oral health status in the xylitol group was a little bit better than in the control group. The use of xylitol can therefore be recommended, especially if the personnel do not have the possibility to supervise the brushing.
Methods. A total of 394 male patients aging ≥45 years and without previous heart disease were studied. Among them 349 had no habit of chewing betel nut and 45 possessed the habit for ≥5 years. Subclinical IHD was diagnosed by a Minnesota-coded resting electrocardiogram and was present in 71 cases. Statistical analyses were performed considering confounding effects of age, diabetic duration, smoking, body mass index, blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and metabolic control status. Results. Betel nut chewers were younger and had higher prevalence of smoking (86.7% versus 60.5%, higher body mass index, poorer glycemic control, and higher prevalence of subclinical IHD (28.9% versus 16.6%. Patients with subclinical IHD were older and had higher prevalence of betel nut chewing (18.0% versus 9.9%. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for subclinical IHD for chewers versus nonchewers was 4.640 (1.958–10.999. The adjusted odds ratios in younger or older patients divided by the median age of 63 years were similar: 4.724 (1.346–16.581 and 4.666 (1.278–17.028, respectively. Conclusions. Betel nut chewing is significantly associated with increased risk of subclinical IHD.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel nut chewing is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM in a recent prevalence study in Taiwan. The present study further investigated its link with the incidence of newly diagnosed T2DM during the years 1992-1996. Methods Population-based datasets of a sample of 93,484 out of 256,036 diabetic patients from 66 medical settings using the National Health Insurance scheme covering > 96% of the population, published population prevalence of betel nut chewing and the governmental census of national population were used for calculation of odds ratios, incidence rates and incidence rate ratios between chewers and never-chewers in the male population for the year 1992 to 1996. Results Ever chewers among the diabetic patients were younger, more obese and had higher prevalence of parental diabetes than never-chewers (all p values Conclusions Chewing betel nut is associated with newly diagnosed T2DM, supporting the suggestion that the habit is diabetogenic.
Konečná, Martina; Urlacher, Samuel S
Cultural practices may compromise the accuracy of salivary hormone measurements and must be considered when designing human biology research protocols. This study aims to evaluate the acute effect of one common human practice-chewing betel nut-on the measurement of salivary cortisol levels under field conditions. Data were collected from 17 adult habitual betel nut users (males = 11; females = 6; mean age = 32.8 years) from a small rural community in Papua New Guinea. Saliva was collected in time series from each participant before and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 min after chewing betel nut. Samples were analyzed by radioimmunoassay and cortisol levels were compared across time using linear mixed effects modeling. Measured mean cortisol concentration fell nearly 40% immediately following betel nut use and remained significantly below baseline levels for the following 45 min (all P 0.16). Chewing betel nut is associated with a transient but significant reduction in measured levels of salivary cortisol. Future research must take this into account in populations where betel nut use is prevalent. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans produces a leukotoxin that activates a pro-inflammatory death of human monocytes/macrophages. A specific clone of this bacterium (JP2 has a 530-base pair deletion in the leukotoxin promoter gene and significantly enhanced expression of leukotoxin. This specific clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans is common in some African populations and has a strong association with periodontal attachment loss in adolescents in these populations. Chewing sticks of plant origin are commonly used as oral hygiene tool in Africa, but their role as a therapeutic agent in periodontal disease is poorly investigated. Results Ethanol extracts were made from 7 common plants used as chewing sticks in West-Africa. None of the tested extracts inhibited growth of A. actinomycetemcomitans. However, extracts from Psidium guajava (Guava completely neutralized the cell death and pro-inflammatory response of human leukocytes induced by the leukotoxin. None of the six other tested chewing stick extracts showed this effect. Conclusions The discovery that extracts from Guava efficiently neutralizes A. actinomycetemcomitans leukotoxicity might lead to novel therapeutic agents and strategies for prevention and treatment of aggressive forms of periodontitis induced by infections with the highly leukotoxic JP2 clone of this bacterium.
Simone Guimarães Farias Gomes
Full Text Available Craniofacial dimensions influence oral functions; however, it is not known whether they are associated with function asymmetry. The objective of this study was to evaluate chewing side preference and lateral asymmetry of occlusal contact area and bite force of individuals with different craniofacial patterns. Seventy-eight dentate subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the VERT index as follows: (1 mesofacial, (2 brachyfacial and (3 dolichofacial. Chewing side preference was evaluated using jaw tracking equipment, occlusal contact area was measured by silicon registration of posterior teeth, and bite force was measured unilaterally on molar regions using 2.25 mm-thick sensors. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA on Ranks, Student's t-test, and Mann-Whitney tests at a 5% significance level. Mesofacial, brachyfacial, and dolichofacial subjects presented more occlusal contact area on the left side. Only dolichofacial subjects showed lateral asymmetry for bite force, presenting higher force on the left side. No statistically significant differences were found for chewing side preference among all groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that craniofacial dimensions play a role in asymmetry of bite force. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01286363.
S. M. Sarid Ullah
Full Text Available In the present study an efficient and easy method was followed for the isolation of DNA from meristem cylinder in five chewing sugarcane varieties, namely Amrita, Bomaby, Babulal (Co.527, Q83 and Misrimala. The quality and quantity of DNA were assured by visual estimation using agarose gel electrophoresis and UV spectrophotometry. The highest amount of DNA was retrieved from the Amrita (3250 ng/ml and the lowest amount was attained from the variety Q83 (1450 ng/ml. The amount of recovered DNA was enough for PCR amplification and marker studies such as random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD. Using RAPD markers, bands obtained from fingerprinting (190 bp to 1200 bp showed 73.5% polymorphism. The dendrogram, based on linkage distance using unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means (UPGMA, indicated segregation of the five chewing varieties of sugarcane into two main clusters. Amrita, Bombay and Misrimala were grouped in cluster 1 (C1 followed by sub-clusters. Babulal and Q83 were grouped in cluster 2 (C2. The results of the present investigation also revealed that the twenty RAPD primers were able to identify and classify the chewing sugarcane varieties based on their genetic relationship.
de Souza, Raphael Freitas; Marra, Juliê; Pero, Ana Carolina; Regis, Rômulo Rocha; Compagnoni, Marco Antonio; Paleari, André Gustavo
To evaluate the pattern of maxillary complete denture movement during chewing for free-end removable partial dentures (RPD) wearers, compared to maxillary and mandibular complete denture wearers. Eighteen edentulous participants (group I) and 10 volunteers with bilateral posterior edentulous mandibles (group II) comprised the sample. Measures of mean denture movement and its variability were obtained by a kinesiographic instrument K6-I Diagnostic System, during the mastication of bread and a polysulphide block. Data were analysed using two-way ANOVA (alpha = 0.05). Upper movement during chewing was significantly lower for group II, regardless of the test food. The test food did not influence the vertical or lateral position of the denture bases, but more anterior dislocation was found when polysulphide blocks were chewed. Group II presented lower intra-individual variability for the vertical axis. Vertical displacement was also more precise with bread as a test food. It can be concluded that mandibular free-end RPD wearers show smaller and more precise movements than mandibular complete denture wearers.
Varriale, Frank J
Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned) dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal) jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions.
Weijenberg, R A F; Scherder, E J A; Visscher, C M; Gorissen, T; Yoshida, E; Lobbezoo, F
Many techniques are available to assess masticatory performance, but not all are appropriate for every population. A proxy suitable for elderly persons suffering from dementia was lacking, and a two-colour chewing gum mixing ability test was investigated for this purpose. A fully automated digital analysis algorithm was applied to a mixing ability test using two-coloured gum samples in a stepwise increased number of chewing cycles protocol (Experiment 1: n = 14; seven men, 19-63 years), a test-retest assessment (Experiment 2: n = 10; four men, 20-49 years) and compared to an established wax cubes mixing ability test (Experiment 3: n = 13; 0 men, 21-31 years). Data were analysed with repeated measures anova (Experiment 1), the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC; Experiment 2) and Spearman's rho correlation coefficient (Experiment 3). The method was sensitive to increasing numbers of chewing cycles (F5,65 = 57·270, P = 0·000) and reliable in the test-retest (ICC value of 0·714, P = 0·004). There was no significant correlation between the two-coloured gum test and the wax cubes test. The two-coloured gum mixing ability test was able to adequately assess masticatory function and is recommended for use in a population of elderly persons with dementia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ratnasari, A; Hasegawa, K; Oki, K; Kawakami, S; Yanagi, Y; Asaumi, J-I; Minagi, S
The purpose of this study was to reveal the relationship between chewing-side preference and anterior disc displacement (ADD) of the TMJ. Thirty-two healthy subjects with ages ranging from 26 to 34 years were selected from volunteer students at the Okayama University Dental School. Subjects were asked to chew freely with two kinds of test foods, beef jerky (hard food) and chiffon cake (soft food), thus expecting different amounts of mechanical loading on the TMJ. One, 4, and 7 s after starting the mastication, subjects were asked to open their mouth momentarily to have a digital image of their mouth taken. The bolus placement area was measured by processing the digital images, calculated as the number of pixel of bolus area. Area asymmetry index was used for the determination of preferred chewing side (PCS). Oblique sagittal MRI scanning in the closed mouth position was taken to evaluate the articular disc position. In asymptomatic subjects with ADD, a significant predominance of the PCS on the ipsilateral side of ADD was observed during the mastication of hard food. On the contrary, no correlation was found between unilateral ADD and PCS for the soft food. From the results of this study, it is suggested that ADD is the associating factor of PCS for hard food. Therefore, it would be necessary to break down the concept of PCS into at least two categories, one for hard food and one for soft food, considering the mechanical loading on the TMJ. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Tarkowska, Agnieszka; Katzer, Lukasz; Ahlers, Marcus Oliver
Previous research determined the relevance of masticatory performance with regard to nutritional status, cognitive functions, or stress management. In addition, the measurement of masticatory efficiency contributes to the evaluation of therapeutic successes within the stomatognathic system. However, the question remains unanswered as to what extent modern techniques are able to reproduce the subtle differences in masticatory efficiency within various patient groups. The purpose of this review is to provide an extensive summary of the evaluation of masticatory performance by means of a color-changeable chewing gum with regard to its clinical relevance and applicability. A general overview describing the various methods available for this task has already been published. This review focuses in depth on the research findings available on the technique of measuring masticatory performance by means of color-changeable chewing gum. Described are the mechanism and the differentiability of the color change and methods to evaluate the color changes. Subsequently, research on masticatory performance is conducted with regard to patient age groups, the impact of general diseases and the effect of prosthetic and surgical treatment. The studies indicate that color-changeable chewing gum is a valid and reliable method for the evaluation of masticatory function. Apart from other methods, in clinical practice this technique can enhance dental diagnostics as well as the assessment of therapy outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frank J. Varriale
Full Text Available Extensive oral processing of food through dental occlusion and orbital mandibular movement is often cited as a uniquely mammalian trait that contributed to their evolutionary success. Save for mandibular translation, these adaptations are not seen in extant archosaurs or lepidosaurs. In contrast, some ornithischian dinosaurs show evidence of precise dental occlusion, habitual intraoral trituration and complex jaw motion. To date, however, a robust understanding of the diversity of jaw mechanics within non-avian dinosaurs, and its comparison with other vertebrates, remains unrealized. Large dental batteries, well-developed dental wear facets, and robust jaws suggests that neoceratopsian (horned dinosaurs were capable chewers. But, biomechanical analyses have assumed a relatively simple, scissor-like (orthal jaw mechanism for these animals. New analyses of dental microwear, presented here, show curvilinear striations on the teeth of Leptoceratops. These features indicate a rostral to caudal orbital motion of the mandible during chewing. A rostrocaudal mandibular orbit is seen in multituberculates, haramiyid allotherians, and some rodents, and its identification in Leptoceratops gracilis is the first evidence of complex, mammal-like chewing in a ceratopsian dinosaur. The term circumpalinal is here proposed to distinguish this new style of chewing from other models of ceratopsian mastication that also involve a palinal component. This previously unrecognized complexity in dinosaurian jaw mechanics indicates that some neoceratopsian dinosaurs achieved a mammalian level of masticatory efficiency through novel adaptive solutions.
Ghasemi, Elnaz; Mazaheri, Romina; Tahmourespour, Arezoo
In addition to improving gastrointestinal health and intestinal microflora, probiotic bacteria have been recently suggested to decrease cariogenic agents in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums on reducing salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. This randomized clinical trial recruited 50 female students with over 10(5) colony forming units S. mutans per milliliter of their saliva. The participants were randomly allocated to two equal groups to receive either probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 andBifidobacteriumbifidum ATCC 29521 (200 g daily) or xylitol-containing chewing gums (two gums three times daily after each meal; total xylitol content: 5.58 g daily) for three weeks. At baseline and one day, two weeks, and four weeks after the interventions, saliva samples were cultured on mitis-salivarius-bacitracin agar and salivary S. mutans counts were determined. Data were analyzed with independent t-tests, analysis of variance, and Fisher's least significant difference test. In both groups, S. mutans counts on the first day, second week, and fourth weeks after the intervention were significantly lower than baseline values (P yogurt consumers, the difference between the two groups was not statistically significant. Probiotic yogurt and xylitol-containing chewing gums seem to be as effective in reduction of salivary S. mutans levels. Their constant long-term consumption is thus recommended to prevent caries.
Full Text Available Background: The higher incidence of dental erosion in children and teenagers possibly reflects a high intake of acidic food and beverages as well as a more frequent diagnosis on this condition. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the erosive potential of acidic filling of chewing gum in primary and permanent enamel. Methods and Materials: Eighty enamel blocks (40 primary and 40 permanent teeth were used and randomly distributed into eight groups. Groups were divided according to types of dental substrates (permanent or primary, frequency of exposure to the acidic substance (2X or 4X/day, and concentration (pure or diluted. Exposure time to the acidic content of the chewing gum was five minutes under agitation, during five days. Results: All groups showed a significant decrease in surface microhardness (P < 0.001. There was neither any significant difference in the frequency of exposure to the acidic content nor to the types of dental substrates. There was a statistically significant difference between D1 (pure, 2X/day and D2 (diluted, 2X/day (P = 0.002, D3 (pure, 4X/day and D4 (diluted, 4X/day (P = 0.009 regarding the concentration, then the diluted acid content was associated with a greater decrease in microhardness. Conclusion: It is concluded that the acidic filling of a chewing gum reduced the microhardness of primary and permanent enamel.
Blume, Jennifer L.
Operability is a driving requirement for NASA's Ares 1 launch vehicle. Launch site ground operations include several operator tasks to prepare the vehicle for launch or to perform maintenance. Ensuring that components requiring operator interaction at the launch site are designed for optimal human use is a high priority for operability. To support design evaluation, the Ares 1 Upper Stage (US) element Human Factors Engineering (HFE) group developed a survey based on the Universal Design approach. Universal Design is a process to create products that can be used effectively by as many people as possible. Universal Design per se is not a priority for Ares 1 because launch vehicle processing is a specialized skill and not akin to a consumer product that should be used by all people of all abilities. However, applying principles of Universal Design will increase the probability of an error free and efficient design which is a priority for Ares 1. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey centers on the following seven principles: (1) Equitable use, (2) Flexibility in use, (3) Simple and intuitive use, (4) Perceptible information, (5) Tolerance for error, (6) Low physical effort, (7) Size and space for approach and use. Each principle is associated with multiple evaluation criteria which were rated with the degree to which the statement is true. All statements are phrased in the utmost positive, or the design goal so that the degree to which judgments tend toward "completely agree" directly reflects the degree to which the design is good. The Design Quality Evaluation Survey was employed for several US analyses. The tool was found to be most useful for comparative judgments as opposed to an assessment of a single design option. It provided a useful piece of additional data when assessing possible operator interfaces or worksites for operability
Lowe, Michael R; Tappe, Karyn A; Butryn, Meghan L; Annunziato, Rachel A; Coletta, Maria C; Ochner, Christopher N; Rolls, Barbara J
Modifying the food environment is a promising strategy for promoting healthier eating behavior. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional and weight changes in a program that used worksite cafeterias to reduce employees' calorie content of purchased foods and improve their macronutrient intake. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1) only environmental change (i.e., the introduction of 10 new low-energy-density (ED) foods and provision of labels for all foods sold at lunch, which listed ED, calories, and macronutrient content) or 2) the environmental change plus pricing incentives for purchasing low-ED foods and education about low-ED eating delivered in four, 1-hour group sessions. Participant lunch choices were monitored electronically at the point of purchase for 3 months before the intervention was instituted (i.e., the baseline period) and for 3 months afterward (i.e., intervention period). Participants were adults (n=96, BMI=29.7+/-6.0 kg/m(2)) who regularly ate lunch at their workplace cafeteria. There was no difference between groups in total energy intake over the study period. Across groups, energy and percent of energy from fat decreased and percent of energy from carbohydrate increased from baseline to the intervention period (all p<.01). Follow-up analyses, conducted by averaging Baseline Months 1 and 2 and comparing them to Intervention Month 3 as a conservative estimate of overall impact of the intervention, indicated that change in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake remained significant (p<.001). Providing nutrition labels and reducing the ED of selected foods was associated with improved dietary intake. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maya K. Vadiveloo
We conducted a pre-post study to evaluate how a cafeteria-initiated grill menu redesign influenced sales, revenue, and nutrient content of foods purchased. Secondly, we evaluated consumer opinions about menu changes to inform practices for worksite environment interventions. Monthly sales data (2012–2015 were used to compute gross sales and revenue of entrées and side dishes pre-post menu changes. Alternative protein sources replaced red meat; nutrient composition and nutrients purchased were compared using Food Pro software. Consumer responses were queried using online surveys; open-ended responses were analyzed using NVivo. Differences in sales and nutrient content pre-post menu redesign were tested with Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests. Gross sales of entrées (61 vs. 222 servings/month; p = 0.01 and side dishes (120 vs. 365 servings/month; p = 0.001 increased more than three-fold post-menu changes. Revenue from entrées (312 vs. 1144 USD/month; p = 0.01 and side dishes (238 vs. 914 USD/month; p = 0.001 also increased; per entrée, consumers purchased significantly more unsaturated fat (5 g, and less saturated fat (3 g and sodium (100 mg. For side dishes, they purchased fewer calories (48 kcal and unsaturated fat (2.9 g, but more fiber (1.8 g, and sodium (260 mg. Four themes emerged from consumer responses: the importance of 1 variety, novelty, choice; 2 cost, affordability, value; 3 health; and 4 food quality, taste. Menu redesign can improve nutrient content, while also increasing sales and revenue. Multi-dimensional assessment of the nutritional, consumer, and retailer implications is desirable practice for enacting similar environmental changes.
González Pericot, N., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: email@example.com [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: email@example.com [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)
Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.
Full Text Available Chronic disease rates have become more prevalent in the modern American workforce, which has negative implications for workplace productivity and healthcare costs. Offering workplace health interventions is recognized as an effective strategy to reduce chronic disease progression, absenteeism, and healthcare costs as well as improve population health. This review documents intervention and evaluation strategies used for health promotion programs delivered in workplaces. Using predetermined search terms in five online databases, we identified 1,131 published items from 1995 to 2014. Of these items, 27 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria; reporting data from completed United States-based workplace interventions that recruited at-risk employees based on their disease or disease-related risk factors. A content rubric was developed and used to catalogue these 27 published field studies. Selected workplace interventions targeted obesity (n = 13, cardiovascular diseases (n = 8, and diabetes (n = 6. Intervention strategies included instructional education/counseling (n = 20, workplace environmental change (n = 6, physical activity (n = 10, use of technology (n = 10, and incentives (n = 13. Self-reported data (n = 21, anthropometric measurements (n = 17, and laboratory tests (n = 14 were used most often in studies with outcome evaluation. This is the first literature review to focus on interventions for employees with elevated risk for chronic diseases. The review has the potential to inform future workplace health interventions by presenting strategies related to implementation and evaluation strategies in workplace settings. These strategies can help determine optimal worksite health programs based on the unique characteristics of work settings and the health risk factors of their employee populations.
Gingerich, Stefan B; Anderson, David R; Koland, Heidi
To examine the impact of financial incentives on behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Retrospective cohort study conducted to observe the relationship between financial incentives and behavior change program registration, completion, and risk improvement rates. Large public- or private-sector employers. Twenty-four organizations (n = 511,060 eligible employees) that offered comprehensive worksite health promotion (WHP) programs. Financial incentives offered for completion of a behavior change program as part of a WHP program. Behavior change program registration and completion data were obtained from standard reports. Company-level risk change was calculated from the average per-person number of risks on baseline and follow-up health risk assessments. Incentive design was determined from questionnaires completed by WHP program managers. Average registration rates, program completion rates, and risk improvement rates were compared using t-tests for companies that did versus did not offer incentives. Comparisons were also made between companies with incentives of less than $100 and those with incentives of $100 or more. Correlations between incentive value and outcome variables were assessed using Pearson correlations. Companies that offered incentives had significantly higher health coaching completion rates than companies not offering an incentive (82.9% vs. 76.4%, respectively, p = .017) but there was no significant association with registration (p = .384) or risk improvement rates (p = .242). Incentive values were not significantly associated with risk improvement rates (p = .240). Offering incentives for completing behavior change programs may increase completion rates, but increased health improvement does not necessarily follow.
Katcher, Heather I; Ferdowsian, Hope R; Hoover, Valerie J; Cohen, Joshua L; Barnard, Neal D
Vegetarian and vegan diets are effective in preventing and treating several chronic diseases. However, their acceptability outside a clinical trial setting has not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to determine the acceptability of a worksite vegan nutrition program and its effects on health-related quality of life and work productivity. Employees of a major insurance corporation with a body mass index > or =25 kg/m(2) and/or a previous diagnosis of type 2 diabetes received either weekly group instruction on a low-fat vegan diet (n = 68) or received no diet instruction (n = 45) for 22 weeks. The vegan group reported improvements in general health (p = 0.002), physical functioning (p = 0.001), mental health (p = 0.03), vitality (p = 0.004), and overall diet satisfaction (p vegan group also reported a decrease in food costs (p = 0.003), and increased difficulty finding foods when eating out (p = 0.04) compared with the control group. The vegan group reported a 40-46% decrease in health-related productivity impairments at work (p = 0.03) and in regular daily activities (p = 0.004). A worksite vegan nutrition program is well-accepted and can be implemented by employers to improve the health, quality of life, and work productivity of employees.
Jeffery, R W; Forster, J L; Snell, M K
Thirty-six individuals participated in a worksite weight-loss program in which the central component was a self-motivation program of biweekly payroll deductions refunded contingent on meeting self-selected weight-loss goals. Half were assigned to early treatment and the remainder to a delayed treatment control group. Nine additional individuals also enrolled at the time of delayed treatment and were included in descriptive analyses of factors associated with weight loss. Results showed low program attrition over 6 months (6%) and mean weight losses (12.3 lb) that are competitive with those obtained in clinical settings. Although not different at baseline, participants in the delayed treatment group lost more than twice as much weight as those in the early treatment condition. This difference was interpreted as either a strong seasonal effect or a critical mass effect related to the proportion of employees at the worksite participating in the program. We conclude that self-motivation programs for health behavior change using the payroll system as an organization framework offer a promising new methodology for promoting healthful behaviors in work settings.
Balaguier, Romain; Madeleine, Pascal; Rose-Dulcina, Kévin; Vuillerme, Nicolas
In viticulture, the prevalence of low back pain is particularly high among vineyard workers exposed to sustained and awkward postures. One promising setting for low back pain prevention resides in the implementation of workplace physical activity. This nonrandomized pilot study aims at evaluating the effects of a worksite supervised adapted physical activity program among 17 vineyard workers volunteered to enter either an intervention group (n = 10) or a control group (n = 7).The intervention group followed a physical activity program for 8 weeks involving (1) 15 minutes of warm-up every working day and (2) two weekly 1-hour adapted physical activity sessions targeting trunk muscle endurance and flexibility. The control group was advised to continue normal physical activity. Evaluations were carried out at weeks 0, 4, 8, and 12. Physical capacity was assessed using flexibility tests for the trunk, along with trunk muscle flexor and extensor endurance tests. Finally, pain sensitivity was evaluated by assessing pressure pain thresholds over 14 anatomical locations in the low back region. For the intervention group, the endurance of the trunk extensor and flexor significantly increased from baseline to week 8 as well as the pressure pain thresholds. No change was observed for the control group over the same period. These encouraging results in combination with the high adherence rate set interesting foundations for the promotion of worksite supervised adapted physical activity and, most likely, offer a new promising approach to prevent low back pain among vineyard workers.
Lin, Wen-Yuan; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Li, Tsai-Chung; Li, Chia-Ing; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lin, Cheng-Chieh
Betel nut chewing has been reported to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The reason is unclear. In this study, we investigated the association between betel nut chewing and general obesity (BMI>or=25 kg/m2) and central obesity (waist circumference (WC)>or=90 cm). A total of 1,049 male subjects, aged>or=40 years, were recruited from Taichung city in Taiwan in 2004. The relationships between betel nut chewing and general and central obesity were studied by multiple linear and logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of current and former betel nut chewing was 7.0 and 10.5% in our male Taiwanese cohort. Current/former betel nut chewers had a higher prevalence of general and central obesity when compared with individuals who had never chewed betel nut. Adjusted for age, diabetes, hypertension, lipids, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity, income, and education level, the odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence intervals) of general and central obesity among the lower consumption of betel nut chewers were 1.78 (1.07, 2.96) and 1.19 (0.70, 2.02), respectively, compared to 2.01 (1.18, 3.41) and 1.89 (1.10, 3.23), respectively, among higher consumption chewers compared to individuals who had never chewed betel nut. The increasing ORs of general and central obesity with higher betel nut consumption revealed dose-response effects. Using multiple linear regression analyses, after adjusting for potential confounders, betel nut consumption was statistically significantly associated with BMI and WC. In conclusion, betel nut chewing was independently associated with general and central obesity in Taiwanese men. Dose-response effects of the association between betel nut consumption and general obesity as well as central obesity were found.
Lin, Wen-Yuan; Chiu, Tai-Yuan; Lee, Long-Teng; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Huang, Chih-Yang; Huang, Kuo-Chin
Betel nut chewing is related to several kinds of cancer, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Whether it is associated with a greater risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality, however, remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the association between betel nut chewing and CVD and all-cause mortality. A baseline cohort of 56,116 male participants > or = 20 y old were recruited from 4 nationwide health screening centers in Taiwan in 1998 and 1999. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of CVD and all-cause mortality for betel nut chewers during an 8-y follow-up period. There were 1549 deaths during the follow-up period, 309 of which were due to CVD. After adjustment for age, body mass index, diabetes, hypertension, lipids, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, income, and education level, the RRs (95% CI) of CVD and all-cause mortality among the former betel nut chewers were 1.56 (1.02, 2.38) and 1.40 (1.17, 1.68), respectively, and those among current chewers were 2.02 (1.31, 3.13) and 1.40 (1.16, 1.70), respectively, compared with persons who had never chewed betel quid. Current and former betel nut chewers had a higher risk of CVD mortality (RR: 2.10; P betel nut chewing was associated with greater CVD and all-cause mortality. Betel nut chewing was independently associated with a greater risk of CVD and all-cause mortality in Taiwanese men. Regular screening for betel nut chewing history may help prevent excess deaths in the future. An anti-betel nut chewing program is urgently warranted for current chewers.
Häggman-Henrikson, B; Eriksson, P O; Nordh, E; Zafar, H
This study evaluated the applicability of skin- and teeth-attached reflex markers fixed to the mandible and the head for optoelectronic recording of chewing movements. Markers were attached to the upper and lower incisors and to the skin on the forehead, the bridge of the nose, the tip of the nose and the chin in seven subjects. Chewing movements were recorded in three dimensions using a high-resolution system for wireless optoelectronic recording. Skin markers were systematically displaced due to skin stretch. The largest displacement was observed for the chin marker, whereas minor displacement was found for markers located on the forehead and the bridge of the nose. In repeated recordings, the smallest intra-individual variation in displacement was found for the marker on the bridge of the nose. In spite of relatively large displacement for the chin marker, the temporal estimates of the mandibular movement were not affected. Teeth markers were found to significantly increase the vertical mouth opening, although the duration of the chewing cycle was unaffected. This indicates an increase in chewing velocity. We suggest that markers located on the bridge of the nose are acceptable for recordings of chewing movements. Skin markers on the chin can be reliably used for temporal analysis. They are also acceptable for spatial analysis if an intra-individual variability of 2 mm is allowed. Teeth-attached markers may significantly influence the natural chewing behavior. Thus, both types of marker systems have advantages as well as disadvantages with regard to the accuracy of the chewing movement analysis. Selection of a marker system should be based on the aims of the study.
Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya
Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
B P Santhosh
Full Text Available Aim: Caries clinical trials of sugar-free chewing gum have shown that the gum is noncariogenic and in fact has anticariogenic effect through the stimulation of saliva. Sugar-free gums, therefore, may be an excellent delivery vehicle for safe and effective additive, capable of promoting enamel remineralization. Casein phosphopeptide - amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP nanocomplexes incorporated into sugar-free chewing gum have shown to remineralize enamel subsurface lesions in situ. So this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of CPP-ACP containing sugar-free chewing gum on salivary concentration of calcium and phosphorous. Materials and Methods : Unstimulated saliva from each 24 selected subjects was collected. Then each subject was given two pellets of chewing gum containing CPP-ACP and asked to chew for a period of 20 min, after which saliva samples were collected from each individual. Once all the samples were collected they were assessed for calcium and phosphorous concentration using affiliated reagent kits and photometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data obtained were analyzed using student′s paired t test. Results: Significant difference was found in the calcium and phosphorus concentration of saliva before and after chewing CPP-ACP containing chewing gum. Conclusions: Chewing of CPP-ACP containing chewing gum showed a significant increase in the salivary concentration of calcium for a prolonged period of time hence it may help in the remineralization of tooth surfaces.
van Dongen, J.M.; Proper, K.I.; van Wier, M.F.; van der Beek, A.J.; Bongers, P.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van Tulder, M.W.
Summary: This systematic review summarizes the current evidence on the financial return of worksite health promotion programmes aimed at improving nutrition and/or increasing physical activity. Data on study characteristics and results were extracted from 18 studies published up to 14 January 2011.
Gao, X.; Xu, L.; Lu, C.; Wu, J.; Wang, Z.; Decat, P.; Zhang, W.-H.; Chen, Y.; Moyer, E.; Wu, S.; Minkauskiene, M.; van Braeckel, D.; Temmerman, M.
Background: The sexual and reproductive health (SRH) knowledge and attitudes of female migrant workers are far from optimum in China. A worksite-based intervention program on SRH-related knowledge, attitude and practice (SRH KAP) modification may be an effective approach to improve the SRH status
Coffeng, J.K.; Boot, C.R.L.; Duijts, S.F.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effectiveness of a worksite social and physical environment intervention on need for recovery (i.e., early symptoms of work-related mental and physical fatigue), physical activity and relaxation. Also, the effectiveness of the separate interventions was investigated.
Steenhuis, I; van Assema, P; Reubsaet, A; Kok, G
This article describes the process evaluation of two environmental programmes and an educational nutrition programme, implemented at supermarkets and worksite cafeterias. Studies conducted earlier, indicated that the programmes had no effect on consumers' eating behaviour. Consequently, the more specific purpose of the present study was to identify explanations for the ineffectiveness of the programmes and to formulate recommendations for future programmes. The environmental programmes included labelling of healthy products and increasing the range of healthy foods on offer. The education programme consisted of several elements, such as brochures and a self-help guide. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 managers of supermarkets and worksite cafeterias where the programmes were implemented. Although materials were not always entirely compatible with the different supermarkets and worksite cafeterias, the degree of implementation was satisfactory. According to the managers, the programmes were not striking enough, the labelling would have been more effective if it had discriminated between different brands of a product, and the number of new products was too small compared with the total range of foods on offer. The findings suggest that programmes should be promoted intensively. Furthermore, the relevant manufacturers and wholesalers supplying worksite cafeterias should be encouraged to increase their range of suitable low-fat products. Finally, the feasibility and possible effects of brand-specific labelling should be investigated further.
Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-related multicomponent health promotion intervention on work engagement, mental health, need for recovery and mindfulness. Methods: In a randomized controlled trial design, 257 workers of two
Linnan, Laura A; Emmons, Karen M; Klar, Neil; Fava, Joseph L; LaForge, Robert G; Abrams, David B
The impact of worksite intervention studies is maximized when reach and enrollment are high and attrition is low. Differences in reach, enrollment, and retention were investigated by comparing 2 different employee recruitment methods for a home-based cancer-prevention intervention study. Twenty-two worksites (N = 10,014 employees) chose either active or passive methods to recruit employees into a home-based intervention study. Reach (e.g., number of employees who gave permission to be called at home), Enrollment (e.g., number of employees who joined the home intervention study), and Attrition (e.g., number who did not complete the 12- and 24-month follow-ups) were determined. Analysis at the cluster level assessed differences between worksites that selected active (n = 12) versus passive (n = 10) recruitment methods on key outcomes of interest. Employees recruited by passive methods had significantly higher reach (74.5% vs. 24.4% for active) but significantly lower enrollment (41% vs. 78%) and retention (54% vs. 70%) rates (all ps employee sample. Passive (vs. active) recruitment methods hold advantages for increased reach and the ability to retain a more representative employee sample. Implications of these results for the design of future worksite studies that involve multilevel recruitment methods are discussed.
Coffeng, J.K.; Boot, C.R.L.; Duijts, S.F.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; van Mechelen, W.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a worksite social and physical environment intervention on need for recovery (i.e., early symptoms of work-related mental and physical fatigue), physical activity and relaxation. Also, the effectiveness of the separate interventions was investigated.
S.J.W. Robroek (Suzan); F.J. Bredt (Folef); A. Burdorf (Alex)
textabstractCardiovascular disease is the leading cause of disability and mortality in most Western countries. The prevalence of several risk factors, most notably low physical activity and poor nutrition, is very high. Therefore, lifestyle behaviour changes are of great importance. The worksite
Vilardaga, Roger; Luoma, Jason B; Hayes, Steven C; Pistorello, Jacqueline; Levin, Michael E; Hildebrandt, Mikaela J; Kohlenberg, Barbara; Roget, Nancy A; Bond, Frank
Although work-site factors have been shown to be a consistent predictor of burnout, the importance of mindfulness and values-based processes among addiction counselors has been little examined. In this study, we explored how strongly experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment related to burnout after controlling for well-established work-site factors (job control, coworker support, supervisor support, salary, workload, and tenure). We conducted a cross-sectional survey among 699 addiction counselors working for urban substance abuse treatment providers in six states of the United States. Results corroborated the importance of work-site factors for burnout reduction in this specific population, but we found that mindfulness and values-based processes had a stronger and more consistent relationship with burnout as compared with work-site factors. We conclude that interventions that target experiential avoidance, cognitive fusion, and values commitment may provide a possible new direction for the reduction of burnout among addiction counselors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Numerous worksite health promotion program (WHPPs) have been implemented the past years to improve employees’ health and lifestyle (i.e., physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol use and relaxation). Research primarily focused on the effectiveness of these WHPPs. Whereas process evaluations provide essential information necessary to improve large scale implementation across other settings. Therefore, this review aims to: (1) further our understanding of the quality of process evaluations alongside effect evaluations for WHPPs, (2) identify barriers/facilitators affecting implementation, and (3) explore the relationship between effectiveness and the implementation process. Methods Pubmed, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and Cochrane (controlled trials) were searched from 2000 to July 2012 for peer-reviewed (randomized) controlled trials published in English reporting on both the effectiveness and the implementation process of a WHPP focusing on physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol use, healthy diet and/or relaxation at work, targeting employees aged 18-65 years. Results Of the 307 effect evaluations identified, twenty-two (7.2%) published an additional process evaluation and were included in this review. The results showed that eight of those studies based their process evaluation on a theoretical framework. The methodological quality of nine process evaluations was good. The most frequently reported process components were dose delivered and dose received. Over 50 different implementation barriers/facilitators were identified. The most frequently reported facilitator was strong management support. Lack of resources was the most frequently reported barrier. Seven studies examined the link between implementation and effectiveness. In general a positive association was found between fidelity, dose and the primary outcome of the program. Conclusions Process evaluations are not systematically performed alongside effectiveness studies for WHPPs. The quality
Arain, Sadaf S; Kazi, Tasneem G; Arain, Asma J; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Muhammad B; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H; Arain, Mariam S
Several studies have reported that the chewing habit of smokeless tobacco (SLT) has been associated with oral cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the trace levels of lead (Pb) in biological samples (blood, scalp hair) of oral cancer patients and referents of the same age group (range 30-60 years). As the concentrations of Pb are very low in biological samples, so a simple and efficient ionic liquid-based microextraction in a single syringe system has been developed, as a prior step to determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In this procedure, the hydrophobic chelates of Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) were extracted into fine droplets of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate [C4MIM][PF6] within a syringe while using Triton X-114 as a dispersant. Factors influencing the microextraction efficiency and determination, such as pH of the sample, volume of [C4MIM][PF6] and Triton X-114, ligand concentration, and incubation time, were studied. To validate the proposed method, certified reference materials were analyzed and the results of Pb(2+) were in good agreement with certified values. At optimum experimental values of significant variables, detection limit and enhancement factor were found to be 0.412 μg/L and 80, respectively. The coexisting ions showed no obvious negative outcome on Pb preconcentration. The proposed method was applied satisfactorily for the preconcentration of Pb(2+) in acid-digested SLT and biological samples of the study population. It was observed that oral cancer patients who consumed different SLT products have 2-3-fold higher levels of Pb in scalp hair and blood samples as compared to healthy referents (p < 0.001). While 31.4-50.8% higher levels of Pb were observed in referents chewing different SLT products as compared to nonconsumers (p < 0.01).
Ouanes, Jean-Pierre P; Bicket, Mark C; Togioka, Brandon; Tomas, Vicente Garcia; Wu, Christopher L; Murphy, Jamie D
To determine if preoperative gum chewing affects gastric pH and gastric fluid volume. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources included Cochrane, PubMed, and EMBASE databases from inception to June 2012 and reference lists of known relevant articles without language restriction. Randomized controlled trials in which a treatment group that chewed gum was compared to a control group that fasted were included. Relevant data, including main outcomes of gastric fluid volume and gastric pH, were extracted. Four studies involving 287 patients were included. The presence of chewing gum was associated with small but statically significant increases in gastric fluid volume (mean difference = 0.21 mL/kg; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.39; P = .03) but not in gastric pH (mean difference = 0.11 mL/kg; 95% confidence interval, -0.14 to 0.36; P = .38). Gastric fluid volume and gastric pH remained unchanged in subgroup analysis by either sugar or sugarless gum type. Chewing gum in the perioperative period causes small but statically significant increases in gastric fluid volume and no change in gastric pH. The increase in gastric fluid most likely is of no clinical significance in terms of aspiration risk for the patient. Elective surgery should not necessarily be canceled or delayed in healthy patients who accidentally chew gum preoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ayana, Andualem Mossie; Mekonen, Zeleke
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing habit is being a hot issue of discussion nation wide. This habit is spreading at an alarming rate among the young generation, especially in high schools and higher institutions, where there are intensive academic activities. Students in colleges and universities commonly use khat, hoping that it improves their academic performance. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat chewing and its impact on academic performance. A cross sectional study was conducted, in January 2002, on a representative sample of 500 students selected by systematic random sampling technique from a total of 2073 students who stayed in the university at least two years. Out of these, 76.91% were males, 59.53% were Orthodox believers, 70.98% were between 16 and 25 years old, and 49.15% were Amhara in their ethnic background. The current prevalence of khat chewing was estimated to be 24.79%. In this study, 27% of male students, 46.74% of Muslim students and 31.30% of Oromo students were found to be khat chewers. Khat chewing has a significant association with high income (p family and among friends have also a positive association with khat chewing habit. The mean cummulative grade point average (CGPA) of non-chewers was found to be significantly higher (p academic performance.
Tramonti Fantozzi, Maria Paola; De Cicco, Vincenzo; Barresi, Massimo; Cataldo, Enrico; Faraguna, Ugo; Bruschini, Luca; Manzoni, Diego
Trigeminal input to the ascending activating system is important for the maintenance of arousal and may affect the discharge of the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC), whose activity influences both vigilance state and pupil size, inducing mydriasis. For this reason, pupil size evaluation is now considered an indicator of LC activity. Since mastication activates trigeminal afferent neurons, the aims of the present study, conducted on healthy adult participants, were to investigate whether chewing a bolus of different hardness may: (1) differentially affect the performance on a cognitive task (consisting in the retrieval of specific target numbers within numerical matrices) and (2) increase the dilatation of the pupil (mydriasis) induced by a haptic task, suggesting a change in LC activation. Results show that chewing significantly increased both the velocity of number retrieval (without affecting the number of errors) and the mydriasis associated with the haptic task, whereas simple task repetition did not modify either retrieval or mydriasis. Handgrip exercise, instead, significantly decreased both parameters. Effects were significantly stronger and longer lasting when subjects chewed hard pellets. Finally, chewing-induced improvements in performance and changes in mydriasis were positively correlated, which suggests that trigeminal signals enhanced by chewing may boost the cognitive performance by increasing LC activity.
Maria Paola Tramonti Fantozzi
Full Text Available Trigeminal input to the ascending activating system is important for the maintenance of arousal and may affect the discharge of the noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus (LC, whose activity influences both vigilance state and pupil size, inducing mydriasis. For this reason, pupil size evaluation is now considered an indicator of LC activity. Since mastication activates trigeminal afferent neurons, the aims of the present study, conducted on healthy adult participants, were to investigate whether chewing a bolus of different hardness may: (1 differentially affect the performance on a cognitive task (consisting in the retrieval of specific target numbers within numerical matrices and (2 increase the dilatation of the pupil (mydriasis induced by a haptic task, suggesting a change in LC activation. Results show that chewing significantly increased both the velocity of number retrieval (without affecting the number of errors and the mydriasis associated with the haptic task, whereas simple task repetition did not modify either retrieval or mydriasis. Handgrip exercise, instead, significantly decreased both parameters. Effects were significantly stronger and longer lasting when subjects chewed hard pellets. Finally, chewing-induced improvements in performance and changes in mydriasis were positively correlated, which suggests that trigeminal signals enhanced by chewing may boost the cognitive performance by increasing LC activity.
Leclercq, Ségolène; Blancher, Guillaume
The respective effects of chewing activity, aroma release from a gelled candy, and aroma perception were investigated. Specifically, the study aimed at 1) comparing an imposed chewing and swallowing pattern (IP) and free protocol (FP) on panelists for in vivo measurements, 2) investigating carryover effects in sequential eating, and 3) studying the link between instrumental data and their perception counterpart. Chewing activity, in-nose aroma concentration, and aroma perception over time were measured by electromyography, proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry, and time intensity, respectively. Model gel candies were flavored at 2 intensity levels (low-L and high-H). The panelists evaluated 3 sequences (H then H, H then L, and L then H) in duplicates with both IP and FP. They scored aroma intensity over time while their in-nose aroma concentrations and their chewing activity were measured. Overall, only limited advantages were found in imposing a chewing and swallowing pattern for instrumental and sensory data. In addition, the study highlighted the role of brain integration on perceived intensity and dynamics of perception, in the framework of sequential eating without rinsing. Because of the presence of adaptation phenomena, contrast effect, and potential taste and texture cross-modal interaction with aroma perception, it was concluded that dynamic in-nose concentration data provide only one part of the perception picture and therefore cannot be used alone in prediction models.
Piancino, Maria Grazia; Bracco, Pietro; Vallelonga, Teresa; Merlo, Andrea; Farina, Dario
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of bolus hardness on the kinematic of mastication and jaw-elevator muscle activity in subjects with normal dental occlusion and function. The mandibular motion and the surface EMG envelope of the masseter and temporalis anterior muscles were assessed in twelve subjects during mastication of a soft and hard bolus of the same size. When chewing the hard bolus, the chewing pattern in the frontal plane was significantly higher and wider, with smaller closure angle and higher peak velocity than when chewing the soft bolus. EMG peak amplitude of both the masseter and anterior temporalis muscles was higher for the side of the bolus but the contralateral side increased its activity significantly more than the ipsilateral side when the hardness of the bolus increased (for the masseter, mean+/-SD: 130.4+/-108.1% increase for the contralateral side and 29.6+/-26.9% for the ipsilateral side). Moreover, the peak EMG activity for both muscles occurred more distant from the closure point with hard bolus. The increased activity of the contralateral side may help maintaining the mandibular equilibrium, with indirect participation to the power stroke generated by the chewing-side masseter. The results provide kinematic and EMG adaptations to bolus hardness in healthy subjects and can be used as normative data in the development of methods for early diagnosis of impaired chewing function.
Full Text Available Background: Postoperative ileus (POI usually delays the postoperative recovery after open colectomy. Gum chewing may facilitate bowel motility through cephalic-vagal stimulation. Bowel sounds, the time to first postoperative flatus and defecation, the common nursing outcomes of bowel motility, has not been investigated in Thai patients. This study examines the effect of gum chewing on bowel motility in colorectal cancer patients after open colectomy. Methods: A single blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with 32 patients in experimental and 32 patients in control groups. The experimental group chewed a piece of sugar-free gum with a fruity flavor for 20 minutes each time, three times a day starting from the first postoperative day till the date of first oral liquid received, while the control group receive routine care. Results: The bowel sounds of the experimental group after chewing gum significantly increased more than those of the control group (p = 0.00. The time to the first postoperative flatus in the experimental group was significantly shorter than that in the control group; likewise the first postoperative defecation was also shorter (p = 0.04, p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusion: Gum chewing is helpful in stimulating bowel motility measured by an increase in bowel sounds and in reduced times to first postoperative flatus and defecation. This nursing intervention may be used for stimulating bowel motility in patients with colorectal cancer after an open colectomy.
Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Wadhwa, Sham Kumar, E-mail: email@example.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Naveed, E-mail: email@example.com [Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam Abbas [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jamil Ahmed, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Qadir, E-mail: email@example.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kolachi, Nida Fatima [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Department of Mathematics and Basic Sciences, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)
Epidemiologic studies suggest that zinc (Zn) deficiency and high accumulation of cadmium (Cd) may be associated with increased risk of cancer. The incidence of mouth cancer has increased among females, who possess habits of chewing tobacco with gradients (areca nut and betel quid) and smoking tobacco in Pakistan. In present study, we measured the concentration of Cd and Zn in 96 mouth cancer patients (MCPs) and 110 female controls/referents (67 smoker and chewing tobacco), while 43 have none of smoking and chewing tobacco habits, belongs to different cities of Pakistan. Both controls and patients have same age group (ranged 35-65 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The Zn and Cd were determined by flame/graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion method. The Cd/Zn ratio in both biological samples was also calculated. The results of this study showed that the mean value of Zn was lower, while the mean concentration of Cd was higher in the blood and scalp hair samples of MCPs as compared to control subjects (p < 0.001). The controls chewing and smoking tobacco have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to those have not smoking or chewing tobacco (p < 0.012). The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in MCPs than control subjects. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking, deficiency of Zn and cancer risk.