WorldWideScience

Sample records for workplace smoking cessation

  1. Implementation of workplace-based smoking cessation support activities and smoking cessation among employees: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, Anne; Kivimäki, Mika; Oksanen, Tuula; Pentti, Jaana; Heponiemi, Tarja; Väänänen, Ari; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between implementation of workplace smoking cessation support activities and employee smoking cessation. In 2 cohort studies, participants were 6179 Finnish public-sector employees who self-reported as smokers at baseline in 2004 (study 1) or 2008 (study 2) and responded to follow-up surveys in 2008 (study 1; n=3298; response rate = 71%) or 2010 (study 2; n=2881; response rate=83%). Supervisors' reports were used to assess workplace smoking cessation support activities. We conducted multilevel logistic regression analyses to examine changes in smoking status. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, number of cigarettes smoked per day, work unit size, shift work, type of job contract, health status, and health behaviors, baseline smokers whose supervisors reported that the employing agency had offered pharmacological treatments or financial incentives were more likely than those in workplaces that did not offer such support to have quit smoking. In general, associations were stronger among moderate or heavy smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes/day) than among light smokers (<10 cigarettes/day). Cessation activities offered by employers may encourage smokers, particularly moderate or heavy smokers, to quit smoking.

  2. Smoking cessation in workplace settings: quit rates and determinants in a group behaviour therapy programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausherr, Yann; Quinto, Carlos; Grize, Leticia; Schindler, Christian; Probst-Hensch, Nicole

    2017-09-25

    To capitalise on the opportunities that the smoking ban legislation in Switzerland offers for the prevention of tobacco-related diseases, a smoking cessation programme in a workplace setting was developed and implemented in companies across the language and cultural regions of Switzerland. Our goal was to identify factors associated with relapse into smoking that may be overcome during training sessions or that should be considered for the optimisation of future interventions. Between 2006 and 2012, 1287 smokers aged 16 to 68 years voluntarily attended smoking cessation training at their workplace. The intervention was based on a cognitive behavioural group therapy combined with individual proactive telephone counselling. The evaluation consisted of three anonymised questionnaires (pre- and postintervention, and 12-month follow-up). In this prospective cohort study, we investigated the association of smoking quit rates with training and participant characteristics, including withdrawal symptoms, by use of multilevel logistic regression analysis with a random intercept for training courses. The self-reported abstinence rate was 72.4% at the end of the training, and 18.6% 1 year later. The risk of relapse during the training was positively associated with the number of years and daily cigarettes smoked, and negatively with increased appetite, sleeping troubles and satisfaction with learned techniques. Failed abstinence within the first year was associated with younger age, higher numbers of daily smoked cigarettes and unsuccessful recent quit attempts. Our evaluation suggests that younger and more addicted smokers attending smoking cessation trainings may need additional support to achieve long lasting abstinence rates. Offering smoking cessation training in a workplace setting can achieve reasonable long-term quit rates, but a subset of employees needs additional support at the group or personal level. Group behaviour therapy could be an effective method to achieve

  3. Efficacy of Team-Based Financial Incentives for Smoking Cessation in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Hea Yeon; Ha, Jick Hwan; Kang, Hyeon Hui; Kang, Ji Young; Kim, Sung Kyoung; Kim, Myung Sook; Moon, Hwa Sik

    2015-01-01

    Worksite smoking cessation programs offer accessibility of the target population, availability of occupational health support, and the potential for peer pressure and peer support. The purpose of this study was to identify the efficacy of the financial incentives given to various teams in the workplace. St. Paul's Hospital's employees were enrolled. Each team of employees consisted of smoking participants and non-smoking fellow workers from the same department. The financial incentive of 50000 won (about $45) was rewarded to the team for each successful participant-not to individual members-after the first week and then after one month. If the smokers in the team remained abstinent for a longer time period, the team was given an incentive of 100000 won for each successful participant after 3 and 6 months. A total 28 smoking participants and 6 teams were enrolled. Self-reported abstinence rates validated by urinary cotinine test at 3, 6, and 12 months after the initial cessation were 61%, 54%, and 50%, respectively. Smokers with high nicotine dependence scores or those who began participation 1 month after enrollment initiation had a lower abstinence rate at 3 months, but not at 6 and 12 months. Participants who succeeded at smoking cessation at 12 months were more likely to be older and have a longer smoking duration history. The financial incentives given to teams could be promising and effective to improve long-term rates of smoking cessation. This approach could use peer pressure and peer support in the workplace over a longer period. PMID:25510778

  4. Smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur K; Juneja S; Kaushal S

    2008-01-01

    Kirandeep Kaur, Shivani Juneja, Sandeep KaushalDepartment of Pharmacology, Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, IndiaWith reference to the article published under the title "Pharmacologic agents for smoking cessation: A clinical review", we would like to add some information related to smoking cessation therapy among pregnant females. In that article, in the nicotine replacement therapy section, pregnancy has been considered as a contraindication...

  5. [Application of theory of organizational change for smoking cessation in workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jianing; Zheng, Pinpin; Gao, Junling; Fu, Hua

    2010-11-01

    To explore the feasibility and effectiveness of tobacco control program in manufacture workplace with stage theory of organizational change. Community intervention study was carried out among two manufacture plants of a multinational chemical company in Shanghai during 2008 to 2009. Totally 246 employees in control group and 233 in intervention group were involved. The average age was (34.7 +/- 13.2) years old and (31.1 +/- 11.9) years old, respectively. Four stages of the theory of organizational change were implemented in the intervention group. Self-administered questionnaire was employed prior to and after the interventions to collect the data on employees' smoking behaviours such as smoking prevalence, daily cigarette consumption, perception on smoking's health impact, as well as their quitting intention. After six months, urine cotinine test was given to assess the successful cessation. The current smoking prevalence rate in intervention group was reduced from 59.8% before the study to 39.1% in follow-up (P organizational change is feasible to be implemented within tobacco control program in manufacture workplace. Its application has effectiveness to decrease smoking prevalence and daily cigarette consumption with quitting intention raised. Successful cessation result was also indicated.

  6. Association between employer's knowledge and attitude towards smoking cessation and voluntary promotion in workplace: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Li, William Ho Cheung; Suen, Yi Nam; Cheung, Ka Ching; Lau, Oi Sze; Lam, Tai Hing; Chan, Sophia Siu Chee

    2017-01-01

    Workplace smoking cessation (SC) intervention is effective in increasing quit rate but little was known about the factors associated with voluntary SC promotion. Comprehensive smoke-free legislation, including banning smoking in all indoor area of workplaces, has been enforced in Hong Kong. This survey investigated the prevalence of company's compliance with smoke-free legislation and examined the relation between voluntary SC promotion in workplace and employer's knowledge of and attitude towards smoking and SC. Half (50.3%, n = 292) of a convenience sample of companies completed a self-administered questionnaire on company's voluntary SC promotion in the workplace. Factors investigated included company's characteristics (size, type, and number of smoking employees); employers' knowledge of smoking, second-hand smoke and SC effects on health; perceived responsibility in assisting employees to quit smoking and smoking prohibition in workplace (smoke free policy). Logistic regression yielded adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for voluntary SC promotion. A notable proportion of companies (14.7%) showed non-compliance with the smoke free workplace ordinance and only 10% voluntarily promoted SC. Perceived greater negative impact of smoking on the company (adjusted odds ratio[aOR] 1.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.20) and better knowledge of smoking (aOR 1.40, 95%CI 1.00-1.94) were associated with voluntary SC promotion. Positive but non-significant associations were observed between perceived responsibility of assisting employees to quit, workplace smoke free policy and voluntary SC promotion. Company characteristics were generally not associated with voluntary SC promotion except white collar companies were less likely to promote SC (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.08-0.85). This is the first survey on company's SC promotion in the Chinese population. A notable proportion of companies was not compliant with the smoke-free workplace ordinance. Employers with a higher level of

  7. Suitability of a Group Behavioural Therapy Module for Workplace Smoking Cessation Programs in Malaysia: a Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarof, Muhammad Faizal; Ali, Adliah Mhd; Amit, Noh; Bakry, Mohd Makmor; Taha, Nur Akmar

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, data on components suitability the established smoking cessation module is limited. This exploratory study aimed to evaluate the suitability of the components developed in the module for group behavioural therapy in workplace smoking cessation programs. Twenty staff were identified but only eight individuals were selected according to the study criteria during the recruitment period in May 2014. Focus group discussion was conducted to identify themes relevant to the behavioural issues among smokers. Thematic analysis yielded seven major themes which were reasons for regular smoking, reasons for quitting, comprehending smoking characteristics, quit attempt experiences, support and encouragement, learning new skills and behaviour, and preparing for lapse/relapse or difficult situations. As a result, the developed module was found to be relevant and suitable for use based on these themes.

  8. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  9. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    physical nicotine dependence, but also to introduce cognitive behavioural therapy to deal with his or her emotional attachment to smoking.7. Tobacco use ... interventions, the primary healthcare provider can use the 5. As (Figure 1) to help to ...

  10. Promoting smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larzelere, Michele M; Williams, Dave E

    2012-03-15

    Cigarette smoking causes significant morbidity and mortality in the United States. Physicians can use the five A's framework (ask, advise, assess, assist, arrange) to promote smoking cessation. All patients should be asked about tobacco use and assessed for motivation to quit at every clinical encounter. Physicians should strongly advise patients to quit smoking, and use motivational interviewing techniques for patients who are not yet willing to stop smoking. Clinical contacts with unmotivated patients should emphasize the rewards and relevance of quitting, as well as the risks of smoking and anticipated barriers to abstinence. These messages should be repeated at every opportunity. Appropriate patients should be offered pharmacologic assistance in quitting, such as nicotine replacement therapies, bupropion, and varenicline. Use of pharmacologic support during smoking cessation can double the rate of successful abstinence. Using more than one type of nicotine replacement therapy ("patch plus" method) and combining these therapies with bupropion provide additional benefit. However, special populations pose unique challenges in pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. Nicotine replacement therapies increase the risk of birth defects and should not be used during pregnancy. They are usually safe in patients with cardiovascular conditions, except for those with unstable angina or within two weeks of a coronary event. Varenicline may increase the risk of coronary events. Nicotine replacement therapies are safe for use in adolescents; however, they are less effective than in adults. Physicians also should arrange to have repeated contact with smokers around their quit date to reinforce cessation messages.

  11. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  12. Incentives for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael

    2015-05-18

    Material or financial incentives are widely used in an attempt to precipitate or reinforce behaviour change, including smoking cessation. They operate in workplaces, in clinics and hospitals, and to a lesser extent within community programmes. In this third update of our review we now include trials conducted in pregnant women, to reflect the increasing activity and resources now targeting this high-risk group of smokers. To determine whether incentives and contingency management programmes lead to higher long-term quit rates. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO. The most recent searches were in December 2014, although we also include two trials published in 2015. We considered randomised controlled trials, allocating individuals, workplaces, groups within workplaces, or communities to experimental or control conditions. We also considered controlled studies with baseline and post-intervention measures. We include studies in a mixed-population setting (e.g. community-, work-, institution-based), and also, for this update, trials in pregnant smokers. One author (KC) extracted data and a second (JH-B) checked them. We contacted study authors for additional data where necessary. The main outcome measure in the mixed-population studies was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up, and at least six months from the start of the intervention. In the trials of pregnant smokers abstinence was measured at the longest follow-up, and at least to the end of the pregnancy. Twenty-one mixed-population studies met our inclusion criteria, covering more than 8400 participants. Ten studies were set in clinics or health centres, one in Thai villages served by community health workers, two in academic institutions, and the rest in worksites. All but six of the trials were run in the USA. The incentives included lottery tickets or prize draws, cash payments, vouchers for goods and

  13. [Smoking cessation and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Pourrat, O; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Jaafari, N

    2017-10-01

    Active and passive smoking during pregnancy induce several deleterious effects that may have a negative impact on pregnancy progress, fetus development and both mother and newborn health. Smoking cessation should be a rule for any woman as soon as the beginning of her pregnancy, or better in anticipation of a pregnancy when contraception is no more taken. Every caregiver must help every pregnant woman who smokes to quit smoking. Smoking cessation interventions in pregnant women must combine a psychological support (mainly with cognitive behavioral therapy) and nicotine replacement therapy, which can also be used during breast feeding. It is recommended to adjust the dosage of nicotine replacement therapy according to the symptoms of under or over dosage at the end of the first week of use. On the other hand, vareniclin and bupropion are contra-indicated during pregnancy or breast-feeding. Electronic cigarette is not advised during pregnancy. Prevention of smoking relapse in postpartum period is essential since a percentage as high as 50% of women having quit during their pregnancy resume smoking during the 6 months following delivery. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Lung Cancer: Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients. All smokers should be offered behavioral and pharmacotherapy assistance in quitting. Pregnant women who smoke should be offered behavioral methods first. However, if these methods are unlikely to be effective, pharmacotherapy can be offered after a discussion about risks and benefits. The behavioral method with the most evidence of efficacy is group therapy. Nicotine replacement therapy (eg, gums, lozenges, transdermal patches, inhalers, nasal sprays), bupropion SR, and varenicline are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for management of nicotine withdrawal during smoking cessation. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  15. [Medical therapy for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable morbidity and premature death. Physicians are in the unique position to promote smoking cessation and to support patients in quitting smoking is a key task for every single health care provider. Counselling smoking cessation is clearly shown to be both efficient and cost-effective in terms of years of live saved. Nicotine is highly addictive and to achieve long-term abstinence pharmacotherapy is frequently inevitable. Nicotine replacement therapy is efficacious and doubles the odds of permanently abstain from smoking. Further, strong evidence supports the use of buproprion, an atypical antidepressive agent, for quit smoking. Varenicline is the first medication specifically developed for smoking cessation. Varenicline is a partial agonist and antagonist at the nicotinic receptor that reduces craving, withdrawal symptoms and the reinforcing effect of smoking. This review summarises the current clinical data on the pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation and provides practical advice for daily clinical practice.

  16. The role of employers in facilitating smoking cessation ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: Many of the drivers felt that their employers had a role to play in encouraging smoking cessation among staff. The University authorities should build on this and take specific steps to institute a comprehensive workplace antitobacco policy which includes smoking cessation interventions to assist staff who

  17. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Villebro, N

    2005-01-01

    Smokers have a substantially increased risk of intra- and postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence. The preoperative period may be a well chosen time to offer smoking cessation interventions due to increased patient motivation....

  18. Smoking cessation therapy with varenicline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma M Mohanasundaram

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma M Mohanasundaram, Rajinder Chitkara, Ganesh KrishnaDivision of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA, USAAbstract: Smoking cessation is the only available intervention proven to halt progression of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The authors discuss the current existing treatment modalities and the role of a newly approved agent, varenicline, in promotion of smoking cessation. Varenicline is a novel agent that is a centrally acting partial nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. It has both agonistic and antagonistic properties that together are believed to account for reduction of craving and withdrawal as well as blocking the rewarding effects of smoking. Its targeted mechanism of action, better efficacy and tolerability makes varenicline a useful therapeutic option for smoking cessation. In this article, we discuss presently available options for smoking cessation and review the literature on efficacy of varenicline.Keywords: smoking cessation, varenicline, nicotine, receptors, therapy, COPD

  19. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this review...... are to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively, and on the incidence of postoperative complications. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in January 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA......: Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking or the incidence of postoperative complications or both outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The review authors...

  20. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, Nete; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... a smoking cessation intervention, and measured preoperative and long-term abstinence from smoking and/or the incidence of postoperative complications. Data collection and analysis The authors independently assessed studies to determine eligibility. Results were discussed between the authors. Main results...

  1. Update on smoking cessation therapies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Deirdre A

    2009-04-01

    As a reflection of an exponential increase in smoking rates throughout the world during the last century, the economic and human burden of mortality and morbidity related to smoking is now clearly defined. Smoking cessation is associated with health benefits for people of all ages. In this paper we provide a comprehensive review of current licensed pharmacological smoking cessation agents including efficacy and safety profiles, with comparisons of individual therapies available. Furthermore, we offer a prospective on the need for further testing of other agents including novel avenues of therapy.

  2. Expansion of Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Expansionof Medicaid Covered Smoking Cessation Services - Maternal Smoking and Birth Outcomes. To assess whether Medicaid coverage of smoking cessation services...

  3. [Smoking cessation and social deprivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, F; Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Fieulaine, N

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is a major of public health policy issue; one in two lifelong smokers will die from a disease related to tobacco use. In France, smoking is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths every year. The benefits linked to stopping smoking include reduced mortality and morbidity related to the use of tobacco. Recent data show an increase in the prevalence of smoking in the lowest socioeconomic population. Tobacco control needs a better understanding of the determinants of smoking in this population, which are also factors in the failure of cessation attempts. Based on international literature, this review specifies the educational and socioeconomic factors involved in tobacco smoking and in the result of an attempt to quit. Its aim is to propose ways to improve the management of smoking cessation in a socially deprived population. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bracing: What Works?Mind/Body Connection: How Your Emotions Affect Your HealthLow-purine DietHealthy Ways to Gain Weight If You’re Underweight Home Your Health Resources Healthcare Management Self-care Smoking Cessation in Recovering Alcoholics Smoking ...

  5. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana-Barrios, Menfil A; Payne, Drew; Medrano-Juarez, Rita M; Yang, Shengping; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-10-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is increasing, but their use as a smoking-cessation aid is controversial. The reporting of e-cigarette studies on cessation is variable and inconsistent. To date, only 1 randomized clinical trial has included an arm with other cessation methods (nicotine patches). The cessation rates for available clinical trials are difficult to compare given differing follow-up periods and broad ranges (4% at 12 months with non-nicotine e-cigarettes to 68% at 4 weeks with concomitant nicotine e-cigarettes and other cessation methods). The average combined abstinence rate for included prospective studies was 29.1% (combination of 6-18 months׳ rates). There are few comparable clinical trials and prospective studies related to e-cigarettes use for smoking cessation, despite an increasing number of citations. Larger randomized clinical trials are essential to determine whether e-cigarettes are effective smoking-cessation devices. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Interventions for preoperative smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Villebro, N.; Møller, Ann Merete

    2010-01-01

    Background Smokers have a substantially increased risk of postoperative complications. Preoperative smoking intervention may be effective in decreasing this incidence, and surgery may constitute a unique opportunity for smoking cessation interventions. Objectives The objective of this review...... was to assess the effect of preoperative smoking intervention on smoking cessation at the time of surgery and 12 months postoperatively and on the incidence of postoperative complications. Search strategy The specialized register of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group was searched using the free text...... and keywords (surgery) or (operation) or (anaesthesia) or (anesthesia). MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were also searched, combining tobacco- and surgery-related terms. Most recent search April 2010. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials that recruited people who smoked prior to surgery, offered...

  7. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout, G.E.; de Vries, H.; Boudreau, C.; Allwright, S.; McNeill, A.; van den Putte, B.; Fong, G.T.; Willemsen, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the

  8. The Danish Smoking Cessation Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Tønnesen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Danish Smoking Cessation Database (SCDB) was established in 2001 as the first national healthcare register within the field of health promotion. Aim of the database: The aim of the SCDB is to document and evaluate smoking cessation (SC) interventions to assess and improve......, and prognostic factors. The outcome data are smoking status at the end of the programme and after six months and satisfaction with the SC intervention. Validity: Approximately 80-90% of all SC clinics offering systematic face-to-face SC interventions are reporting data to the SCDB. The data completeness...... of the SCDB is very high, at 95-100%. Validation checks have been implemented to ensure high data quality. Conclusion: The SCDB is a well-established clinical database and a priceless tool for monitoring and improving SC interventions in Denmark to identify the best solution to helping smokers become smoke...

  9. Urinary alkalinization and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fix, A J; Daughton, D; Kass, I; Smith, J L; Wickiser, A; Golden, C J; Wass, A R

    1983-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that large doses of a urinary alkalinizing agent reduced cigarette consumption spontaneously among smokers. After establishing a safe daily dose of an alkalinizing agent, sodium bicarbonate, its effect upon smoking cessation rates among 72 enrollees in a smoking cessation program was studied. In the first study, we determined that sodium bicarbonate (3900 mg per day) significantly increased urinary pH (from 6.0 to 6.7) and lowered titratable acidity. Ascorbic acid (1500 mg per day) had no effect of pH or acidity. In a second study, a group given sodium bicarbonate surpassed a placebo control group (who were given 1500 mg per day ascorbic acid) in total daily cigarette reduction after 5 weeks and in week-to-week smoking reduction. The groups did not, however, differ in the number who achieved total abstinence.

  10. Smoking cessation and lung cancer screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Johannes Holst; Tønnesen, Philip; Ashraf, Haseem

    2016-01-01

    Smoking behavior may have a substantial influence on the overall effect of lung cancer screening. Non-randomized studies of smoking behavior during screening have indicated that computer tomography (CT) screening induces smoking cessation. Randomized studies have further elaborated that this effect...... and decrease smoking relapse rate. Also low smoking dependency and high motivation to quit smoking at baseline predicted smoking abstinence in screening trials. Lung cancer screening therefore seems to be a teachable moment for smoking cessation. Targeted smoking cessation counselling should be an integrated...... part of future lung cancer screening trials....

  11. [The ABC of smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölcskei, Pál L; Walden, Kerstin

    2008-05-01

    The professional support increased chances of success for smoking cessation and is an important goal in health politics. A short advice by pharmacists can make a significant contribution to this. This article describes tobacco dependence and the "stages of change-model". Afterwards we explain possible therapies: besides cognitive-behavioral intervention, different forms of medical treatment, e.g. nicotin replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline, will be discussed.

  12. Smoking cessation services in Armenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arusyak Harutyunyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Europe has the highest smoking rates in Europe, yet tobacco dependence treatments are virtually unavailable in many Eastern European countries. Smoking rate among the Armenian men is one of the highest in the European region (63%, 2010. Armenia was the first former soviet union country to accede to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC (2004; soon after that it adopted a national tobacco control law to ban smoking in healthcare, education, culture facilities and public transport. The country also banned tobacco advertising on TV and radio (2002 and on billboards (2006 and introduced larger (30% health warnings on cigarette packs (2006. One of the areas where Armenia’s progress is less than satisfactory is the implementation of the FCTC Article 14. Current situation of smoking cessation services in Armenia will be presented based on the results of qualitative research among primary healthcare physicians and pharmaceutical market research.

  13. Gender and determinants of smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E; Godtfredsen, N

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The less favorable trend in smoking prevalence in women compared to men may be due to lower cessation rates. We analyzed determinants of spontaneous smoking cessation with particular reference to gender differences. METHODS: Data on smoking were collected by questionnaire in three...... the relation of determinants to having quit after 5 and 10-16 years. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting was 12 and 22% at first and second follow-up, respectively. At both reexaminations, quitting smoking was positively associated with male sex and cigar smoking and negatively associated with the amount...... of tobacco smoked, inhalation, and alcohol consumption. Furthermore, in women, smoking cessation was positively associated with level of education and body mass index (BMI). Smoking cessation was not affected by cohabitation status, leisure activity, or bronchitis symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cessation...

  14. Factors Predicting the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Among Occupational Health Nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatdokmaiprai, Kannikar; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; McCullagh, Marjorie; Lagampan, Sunee; Keeratiwiriyaporn, Sansanee

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors predicting occupational health nurses' provision of smoking cessation services. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 254 occupational health nurses in Thailand. Analysis by structural equation modeling revealed that self-efficacy directly and positively influenced smoking cessation services, and mediated the relationship between workplace factors, nurse factors, and smoking cessation services. The final model had good fit to the data, accounting for 20.4% and 38.0% of the variance in self-efficacy and smoking cessation services, respectively. The findings show that self-efficacy is a mediator that influences provision of smoking cessation services by occupational health nurses. Interventions to enhance nurses' self-efficacy in providing smoking cessation services are expected to promote provision of smoking cessation services to workers.

  15. Dental Practitioners and Smoking Cessation in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Keogan

    2015-10-01

    Smoking prevalence is low among dentists in Ireland. Most recognized the need to provide adequate smoking cessation support and advice to patients but felt under-trained to do so. Most were not aware of existing referral pathways to specialist smoking cessation services and, thus, referral rates were low.

  16. Smoking Cessation Failure among Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hye Young; Ko, Sung Hee; Park, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify smoking cessation failure subgroups among Korean adolescents. Participants were 379 smoking adolescents who joined a smoking cessation program. A questionnaire and a cotinine urine test were administered before the program began. Three months after the program ended, the cotinine urine test was repeated. A…

  17. Mass Media for Smoking Cessation in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Laura J.; Bunn, Janice Y.; Flynn, Brian S.; Pirie, Phyllis L.; Worden, John K.; Ashikaga, Takamaru

    2009-01-01

    Theory-driven, mass media interventions prevent smoking among youth. This study examined effects of a media campaign on adolescent smoking cessation. Four matched pairs of media markets in four states were randomized to receive or not receive a 3-year television/radio campaign aimed at adolescent smoking cessation based on social cognitive theory.…

  18. Workplace smoking ban effects on unhappy smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chaisemartin, Clément; Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; le Faou, Anne-Laurence

    2011-09-01

    Economists usually draw a distinction between smokers. They distinguish 'happy addicts' à la Becker-Murphy from 'unhappy addicts' who state that smoking is a mistake and call for some help to quit. When evaluating tobacco control policies, it might be important to distinguish their effects on those two types of population. Indeed, such policies are welfare improving only if they help unhappy addicts to quit. We investigate the effect of the French workplace smoking ban on a sample of presumably 'unhappy addicts', smokers who consult tobacco cessation services. We show that the ban caused an increase in the demand for such services, and that this increase was larger in cold and rainy areas. It also induced an increase in the percentage of successful attempts to quit. Workplace smoking bans might be welfare improving since they seem to help 'unhappy addicts' to reconcile their behavior with their preferences. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Effect of Five Smoking Cessation Pharmacotherapies on Smoking Cessation Milestones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japuntich, Sandra J.; Piper, Megan E.; Leventhal, Adam M.; Bolt, Daniel M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Most smoking cessation studies have used long-term abstinence as their primary outcome measure. Recent research has suggested that long-term abstinence may be an insensitive index of important smoking cessation mechanisms. The goal of the current study was to examine the effects of 5 smoking cessation pharmacotherapies using Shiffman et…

  20. Smoking cessation and response to periodontal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridi, F; Tsantila, S; Pepelassi, E

    2017-09-16

    Smoking has detrimental oral effects. The aim of this study was to review the literature related to the impact of smoking cessation on periodontal health, periodontal disease and periodontal treatment outcome as well as to review the smoking cessation strategies and the dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort. Smoking cessation seems to have a positive effect on the periodontium, to decrease the risk for incidence and progression of periodontitis and to lead to a non-significant trend for greater mean probing depth reductions after non-surgical treatment over a 12-month period. Smoking cessation effect on the periodontium should be further investigated. Dentists should inform their patients on the harmful effect of smoking and the beneficial effect of smoking cessation on oral health. They should advise, motivate and support their patients to quit smoking. Smoking-control strategies should be incorporated in dental practise. The dentist's role in the smoking cessation effort is important. Guidelines on smoking-control strategies applied in the dental office are required. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  2. Functional Health Literacy and Smoking Cessation Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varekojis, Sarah M.; Miller, Larry; Schiller, M. Rosita; Stein, David

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to describe the relationship between functional health literacy level and smoking cessation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: Participants in an inpatient smoking cessation program in a mid-western city in the USA were enrolled and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults was administered while the…

  3. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Allison C; Miceli, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menth...

  4. Perceptions of smoking cessation among Glasgow's Chinese community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Spence

    2017-10-01

    Smoking-cessation services should consider the culture of this ethnic minority population to improve cessation uptake. Further investigation of this community’s needs and expectations is needed to tailor smoking-cessation interventions for Chinese immigrants in Glasgow.

  5. The public health impact of smoking and smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, I.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the overwhelming evidence that smoking cessation reduces the risk for several chronic diseases, information on the magnitude of these public health benefits is scarce. It has furthermore been suggested that smoking cessation also improves health-related quality of life, but this has not been

  6. Motivational interviewing for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindson-Hawley, Nicola; Thompson, Tom P; Begh, Rachna

    2015-03-02

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a directive patient-centred style of counselling, designed to help people to explore and resolve ambivalence about behaviour change. It was developed as a treatment for alcohol abuse, but may help people to a make a successful attempt to quit smoking. To determine whether or not motivational interviewing (MI) promotes smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for studies using the term motivat* NEAR2 (interview* OR enhanc* OR session* OR counsel* OR practi* OR behav*) in the title or abstract, or motivation* as a keyword. Date of the most recent search: August 2014. Randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing or its variants were offered to tobacco users to assist cessation. We extracted data in duplicate. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. We counted participants lost to follow-up as continuing smoking or relapsed. We performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect Mantel-Haenszel model. We identified 28 studies published between 1997 and 2014, involving over 16,000 participants. MI was conducted in one to six sessions, with the duration of each session ranging from 10 to 60 minutes. Interventions were delivered by primary care physicians, hospital clinicians, nurses or counsellors. Our meta-analysis of MI versus brief advice or usual care yielded a modest but significant increase in quitting (risk ratio (RR) 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16 to 1.36; 28 studies; N = 16,803). Subgroup analyses found that MI delivered by primary care physicians resulted in an RR of 3.49 (95% CI 1.53 to 7.94; 2 trials; N = 736). When delivered by counsellors the RR was smaller (1.25; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.63; 22 trials; N = 13,593) but MI still resulted in higher quit rates than brief advice or usual care. When we

  7. Smoking cessation strategies in patients with COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warnier, Miriam J; van Riet, Evelien E S; Rutten, Frans H

    2013-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the cornerstone of treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of behavioural and pharmacological smoking cessation strategies in COPD patients. MEDLINE was searched from January 2002 to October 2011....... Randomised controlled trials evaluating the effect of smoking cessation interventions for COPD patients, published in English, were selected. The methodological quality of included trials was assessed using the Delphi list by two reviewers independently. The relative risks of smoking cessation due...... to be of acceptable quality. Pharmacological therapy combined with behavioural counselling was more effective than each strategy separately. In COPD patients, the intensity of counselling did not seem to influence the results, nor did the choice of drug therapy make a difference. This systematic review makes clear...

  8. Smoking cessation interventions in cardiovascular patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiggers, L. C. W.; Smets, E. M. A.; de Haes, J. C. J. M.; Peters, R. J. G.; Legemate, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. To review current evidence for the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions in cardiovascular patient populations. Design and materials. Studies were obtained from systematic reviews of the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Review Group. Twelve Cochrane reviews related to secondary

  9. Perioperative smoking cessation in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, M.; Heesemann, Sabine; Tonnesen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The effect of intensive smoking cessation programs on postoperative complications has never before been assessed in soft tissue surgery when smoking cessation is initiated on the day of surgery. Methods: A single-blinded randomized clinical trial conducted at two vascular surgery...... departments in Denmark. The intervention group was offered the Gold Standard Program (GSP) for smoking cessation intervention. The control group was offered the departments' standard care. Inclusion criteria were patients with planned open peripheral vascular surgery and who were daily smokers. According...... intervention and 21 as controls. There was no difference in 30-day complication rates or 6-week abstinence rates between the two groups. Conclusions: A trial assessing the effect of smoking cessation on postoperative complications on the day of soft tissue surgery is still needed. If another trial...

  10. Rapid fall in lung density following smoking cessation in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Saher B; Stavngaard, Trine; Laursen, Lars Christian

    2011-01-01

    Whether smoking-induced lung inflammation subsides after smoking cessation is currently a matter of debate. We used computed tomography (CT) to evaluate the effect of smoking cessation on lung density in patients with COPD....

  11. System change interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dennis; Abramson, Michael J; Bonevski, Billie; George, Johnson

    2017-02-10

    System change interventions for smoking cessation are policies and practices designed by organizations to integrate the identification of smokers and the subsequent offering of evidence-based nicotine dependence treatments into usual care. Such strategies have the potential to improve the provision of smoking cessation support in healthcare settings, and cessation outcomes among those who use them. To assess the effectiveness of system change interventions within healthcare settings, for increasing smoking cessation or the provision of smoking cessation care, or both. We searched databases including the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO in February 2016. We also searched clinical trial registries: WHO clinical trial registry, US National Institute of Health (NIH) clinical trial registry. We checked 'grey' literature, and handsearched bibliographies of relevant papers and publications. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, quasi-RCTs and interrupted time series studies that evaluated a system change intervention, which included identification of all smokers and subsequent offering of evidence-based nicotine dependence treatment. Using a standardized form, we extracted data from eligible studies on study settings, participants, interventions and outcomes of interest (both cessation and system-level outcomes). For cessation outcomes, we used the strictest available criteria to define abstinence. System-level outcomes included assessment and documentation of smoking status, provision of advice to quit or cessation counselling, referral and enrolment in quitline services, and prescribing of cessation medications. We assessed risks of bias according to the Cochrane Handbook and categorized each study as being at high, low or unclear risk of bias. We used a narrative synthesis to describe the effectiveness of the interventions on various outcomes, because of significant heterogeneity among

  12. Training health professionals in smoking cessation (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  13. Training health professionals in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carson, K.V.; Verbiest, M.E.; Crone, M.R.; Brinn, M.P.; Esterman, A.J.; Assendelft, W.J.J.; Smith, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of preventable death world wide. There is good evidence that brief interventions from health professionals can increase smoking cessation attempts. A number of trials have examined whether skills training for health professionals can lead

  14. Hypertension, hemorrhagic stroke and smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Reverte Bernal, María Perpetuo Socorro; Aparicio-Erroz, Sergio; López de la Fuente, Raquel

    2003-01-01

    Smoking cessation is considered as a good solution for stroke prevention. Unfortunately, first-line therapies to reduce cigarette smoking are not always useful. Some clinical effects of these drugs are able to produce cardiovascular adverse events. El artículo trata sobre la hipertensión arterial, las enfermedades cerebrovasculares y el hecho de dejar de fumar.

  15. Telephone counselling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Perera, Rafael; Lancaster, Tim

    2013-08-12

    Telephone services can provide information and support for smokers. Counselling may be provided proactively or offered reactively to callers to smoking cessation helplines. To evaluate the effect of proactive and reactive telephone support via helplines and in other settings to help smokers quit. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register for studies of telephone counselling, using search terms including 'hotlines' or 'quitline' or 'helpline'. Date of the most recent search: May 2013. randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials in which proactive or reactive telephone counselling to assist smoking cessation was offered to smokers or recent quitters. One author identified and data extracted trials, and a second author checked them. The main outcome measure was the risk ratio for abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We selected the strictest measure of abstinence, using biochemically validated rates where available. We considered participants lost to follow-up to be continuing smokers. Where trials had more than one arm with a less intensive intervention we used only the most similar intervention without the telephone component as the control group in the primary analysis. We assessed statistical heterogeneity amongst subgroups of clinically comparable studies using the I² statistic. We considered trials recruiting callers to quitlines separately from studies recruiting in other settings. Where appropriate, we pooled studies using a fixed-effect model. We used a meta-regression to investigate the effect of differences in planned number of calls, selection for motivation, and the nature of the control condition (self help only, minimal intervention, pharmacotherapy) in the group of studies recruiting in non-quitline settings. Seventy-seven trials met the inclusion criteria. Some trials were judged to be at risk of bias in some domains but overall we did not judge the results to be at high risk of bias. Among

  16. Effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, T; Tønnesen, H; Møller, A M

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of preoperative smoking cessation interventions on postoperative complications and smoking cessation itself. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of preoperative smoking cessation interventions....... Trial inclusion, risk of bias assessment and data extraction were performed by two authors. Risk ratios for the above outcomes were calculated and pooled effects estimated using the fixed-effect method. RESULTS: Eleven RCTs were included containing 1194 patients. Smoking interventions were intensive......, medium intensity and less intensive. Follow-up for postoperative complications was 30 days. For smoking cessation it was from the day of surgery to 12 months thereafter. Overall, the interventions significantly reduced the occurrence of complications (pooled risk ratio 0.56 (95 per cent confidence...

  17. A content analysis of popular smartphone apps for smoking cessation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abroms, Lorien C; Lee Westmaas, J; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-01-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012...

  18. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Ramsey, Susan E; Brown, Richard A; LaChance, Heather R; Kahler, Christopher W

    2008-03-01

    Because different psychopathologic components of depressive symptoms may have distinct etiologies, examining their differential effects on smoking cessation may elucidate mechanisms underlying the smoking-depression relationship. Negative affect (NA), somatic features (SF), low positive affect/anhedonia (PA), and interpersonal disturbance (IP) have been identified as unique dimensions of depression that can be measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). This study examined common and unique associations between CESD subscales and baseline smoking characteristics, nicotine withdrawal, and relapse in 157 participants enrolled in a smoking cessation trial for heavy social drinkers. Each dimension was univariately associated with negative and positive reinforcement smoking motives. Only SF had unique relations with tolerance smoking motives and univariate associations with nicotine dependence severity. Only PA predicted cessation-related changes in withdrawal symptoms on quit day. Analyses predicting abstinence at 8, 16, and 26 weeks post quit date showed that NA, SF, and PA each univariately predicted relapse, pspredicted poorer outcomes incrementally to the other dimensions, even when controlling for level of nicotine dependence, smoking frequency, and history of major depression, p = .0018. Interventions targeting anhedonia and low positive affect may be useful for smokers trying to quit.

  19. Dimensions of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Ramsey, Susan E.; Brown, Richard A.; LaChance, Heather R.; Kahler, Christopher W.

    2008-01-01

    Because different psychopathologic components of depressive symptoms may have distinct etiologies, examining their differential effects on smoking cessation may elucidate mechanisms underlying the smoking-depression relationship. Negative affect (NA), somatic features (SF), low positive affect/anhedonia (PA), and interpersonal disturbance (IP) have been identified as unique dimensions of depression that can be measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD). This s...

  20. Smoking cessation intervention in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuz, J

    2002-10-01

    Physicians are in a unique position to advise smokers to quit because of their ability to integrate the various aspects of nicotine dependence. This review provides an overview on interventions with smokers presenting in a primary care setting. Strategies used for smoking cessation counseling differ according to patient's readiness to quit. For smokers who do not intent to quit smoking, physicians should inform and sensitize patients about tobacco use and cessation, especially by personalizing benefits to quit and challenging smokers' beliefs. For smokers who are insecure, physicians should use motivational strategies, such as discussing barriers to cessation and their solutions. For smokers ready to quit, the physician should show strong support, help set a quitting date, prescribe pharmaceutical therapies for nicotine dependence, such as replacement therapy and/or bupropion, with instructions for use, and suggest behavioral strategies to prevent relapse. Copyright 2002 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg

  1. Alcohol consumption and smoking status: the role of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberger, Debra J; Grant, Kathleen

    2004-03-01

    Cigarette smoking is common among persons with alcohol dependence or abuse with as many as 80% of persons who are alcohol dependent also being smokers. Not only is smoking common in persons with heavy alcohol consumption, but also nicotine dependence appears more severe in smokers with a history of alcohol dependence. This combined exposure to both tobacco smoke and alcohol results in major health consequences including additive risks for some diseases such as head and neck cancers. Although modest alcohol consumption has some positive health benefits, smoking typically negates these benefits. The cellular mechanisms impacted by combined smoking and alcohol exposure are poorly understood, but molecular epidemiology approaches are providing insights regarding the importance of effects on oxidant/antioxidant pathways and on metabolic pathways involving the cytochrome P450 system. Given the prevalence of smoking in the alcohol dependent population, smoking cessation in this group has the potential for tremendous impact. In recent years, smoking cessation approaches have been initiated in this population, but much work remains in order to define the optimal smoking cessation strategies for persons in alcohol treatment programs.

  2. [Smoking cessation therapy in thoracic oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppert, A-M; Amrioui, F; Gounant, V; Wislez, M; Bouvier, F; Cadranel, J

    2013-10-01

    In France, the number of tobacco-related deaths is estimated at 73,000 per year, including 44,000 from cancer and more than 20,000 from lung cancer (LC). Smoking cessation is the most effective measure to reduce the epidemic of LC, but it is also important in the management of patients with LC regardless on stage. In localized cancers, continuing to smoke is associated with decreased survival by increasing the risk of recurrence and of developing a second cancer. During the perioperative period, smoking cessation reduces infectious complications and length of hospitalization. At all stages of the cancer, smoking cessation improves dyspnoea and appetite, and reduces fatigue, leading to improved quality of life. Tobacco addiction causes a strong physical, psychological and behavioral dependence, explaining the high rate of recurrence at 1year of approximately 80%. Nicotine replacement therapy is indicated in cases of physical addiction to nicotine. Cognitive behavioral therapy helps the smoker to get rid of the smoking habit and is important in preventing relapse. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective Factors on Unassisted Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Karalezli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the contribution which effective factors on who self-quitting smoking. Methods: The study had been included in over 18 years old people who not received any pharmacological treatment or psychological support. The research was performed at the 95% ±3.09 confidence interval. Age, gender, educational status, occupation, monthly income, smoking situation and effective factors on self-quitting smoking. Results: The participants had been 50.9% (509 male and 49.5 (498 female. Median age was 35 (18-87 years old; female’s median age 35 (18-83 and male’s median age 36 (18-87. From İstanbul 351 (35%, Ankara 301 (30%, Konya 207 (20%, Antalya 148 (15% were people interviewed. This study had been the most effective factor in unassisted smoking cessation one’s own disease. The second factor had been getting fear of sick and third family pressure.The most people had been quit smoking due to diseases of respiratory system. The most fearful disease was cancer. Financial status was forth effective factor on quitting smoking. Conclusion: As a result effective factors on unassisted smoking cessation had been getting fear of sick as well as own disease. Therefore, in the process of quitting smoking, and especially young people in the project will be designed to prevent smoking was thought should be given to these issues. Also important in this regard is increasing the cigarette sales price. The compliance with laws issued to prevent smoking in closed areas, in particular young people can influence their thoughts about the hazards of smoking.

  4. Smoking cessation: significance and implications for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchers, Andrea T; Keen, Carl L; Gershwin, M Eric

    2008-04-01

    A number of people in the USA who are still current smokers remain a staggering figure. Although this number continues to decrease, there is still a considerable amount of second-hand smoke. More importantly and for the purpose of this review, the detrimental effects of passive smoke in children is significant. We will not review the specific health effects of passive smoke, but for pediatricians, in particular, it is important to place in perspective programs that are available to influence the parents of children to stop smoking. Indeed, approximately 25% of all children aged 3-11 live in a household with at least one smoker. Despite the increasing number of communities in the states that have instituted restrictions or complete bans on smoking in the workplace and in many public areas, the principal site of smoking remains the home.

  5. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Helping smokers quit: understanding the barriers to utilization of smoking cessation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollust, Sarah E; Schroeder, Steven A; Warner, Kenneth E

    2008-12-01

    Counseling smokers to quit smoking and providing them with pharmaceutical cessation aides are among the most beneficial and cost-effective interventions that clinicians can offer patients. Yet assistance with quitting is not universally covered by health plans or offered by all clinicians. Analysis of stakeholders' perspectives and interests can identify the barriers to more widespread provision of cessation services and suggest strategies for the public policy agenda to advance smoking cessation. Review of literature and discussions with representatives of stakeholders. All stakeholders-health plans, employers, clinicians, smokers, and the government-face barriers to broader smoking cessation activities. These range from health plans' perceiving that covering counseling and pharmacotherapy will increase costs without producing commensurate health care savings, to clinicians' feeling unprepared and uncompensated for counseling. Like other preventive measures aimed at behavior, efforts directed at smoking cessation have marginal status among health care interventions. State governments can help correct this status by increasing Medicaid coverage of treatment and expanding coverage for state employees. The federal government can promote the adoption of six initiatives recommended by a government subcommittee on cessation: set up a national quit line, develop a media campaign to encourage cessation, include cessation benefits in all federally funded insurance plans, create a research infrastructure to improve cessation rates, develop a clinician training agenda, and create a fund to increase cessation activities through a new $2 per pack cigarette excise tax. Both the federal and state governments can increase cessation by adopting policies such as the higher cigarette tax and laws prohibiting smoking in workplaces and public places. Public policy efforts should assume greater social responsibility for smoking cessation, including more aggressive leadership at the

  7. Long-term effects of a preoperative smoking cessation programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villebro, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Tom; Møller, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation.......Preoperative smoking intervention programmes reduce post-operative complications in smokers. Little is known about the long-term effect upon smoking cessation....

  8. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline®, along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  9. Impact of home and workplace smoking restriction on quitting smoking among adult population in Ukraine in 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belyi, Anton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. Identification of factors associated with successful quitting smoking is necessary to reduce prevalence of smoking. Our analysis assessed the association between home and workplace restrictions of smoking and chances to quit smoking among adult population of Ukraine in 2005.METHODS. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations. Independent variables included home and workplace restrictions of smoking, sex, and age. Outcome variables measured smoking status, where cases were those respondents who stopped smoking, and controls were current daily smokers. Different regression models considered former smokers who quitted at different points in time before the interview.RESULTS. Data analysis demonstrated that, among all smokers, the odds of quitting smoking were increased by 3.4 if smoking at home was restricted, and by 1.4 in case of workplace smoking restriction. In groups of respondents who did not smoke from one to six months and from six months to one year, a significant association was found between smoking cessation and smoking restriction at home. No associations with smoking restriction in workplaces were found in models considering quitters with specific duration of non-smoking.CONCLUSIONS. Ban and restriction of smoking at home can be an important factor for quitting smoking with improved outcome of quitting if a former smoker gets support for several months. Workplace restriction may be a consequence of the fact that ex-smokers find jobs where smoking is forbidden, or create smoke-free workplaces. Because this is a voluntary process of creating clean air workplaces, before smoke-free workplaces are officially established and enforced, they cannot be a factor to influence individual behavior.

  10. Exploring Smoking Cessation Attitudes, Beliefs, and Practices in Occupational Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Ollie; Fortuna, Grace; Weinsier, Stephanie; Campbell, Kay; Cantrell, Jennifer; Furmanski, William L

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore occupational health nurses' attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding the delivery of smoking cessation services to workers. The study included 707 members of the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses (AAOHN) who completed a one-time survey during the fall of 2012. Results indicated that occupational health nurses believed that evidence-based treatments are at least somewhat effective and that they should provide smoking cessation services to their workers; however, a majority of occupational health nurses reported that they did not have appropriate smoking cessation training or guidelines in their workplaces. Occupational health nurses would benefit from training in the use of smoking cessation guidelines and evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, which could be used in their clinical practice. Employers should ensure that workplace policies, such as providing coverage for cessation services, facilitate smokers' efforts to quit. Employers can benefit from many of these policies through cost savings via reduced health care costs and absenteeism. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Association between Positivity and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Caterina Grassi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature documents that personality characteristics are associated with healthy lifestyles, including smoking. Among positive traits, Positivity (POS, defined as a general disposition conducive to facing experience under a positive outlook has shown robust associations with psychological health. Thus, the present study investigated the extent to which POS is able to predict (i relapse after quitting smoking and (ii the desire to smoke again. All participants (481 had previously attended a Group Counselling Program (GCP for Smoking Cessation (from 2005 through 2010. They were contacted through telephone interview. Among participants, 244 were ex-smokers (age: years 56.3±10.08, 52% female and 237 were still-smokers (age: years 55.0±9.63; 63.5% female. The association of POS with “craving to smoke” levels was assessed with multivariate linear regression analysis while controlling also for important differences in personality such as conscientiousness and general self-efficacy, as well as for gender and age. Results showed that POS was significantly and negatively associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Among covariates (i.e., conscientiousness, generalized self-efficacy, gender was associated with smoking status and with craving to smoke. Altogether these findings corroborate the idea that POS plays a significant role in sustaining individuals' efforts to quit smoking.

  12. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  13. Nicotine addiction and smoking cessation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kourakos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco was first reported in the 6th century BC, but the 20th century has been marked by the widespread use of tobacco and the establishment and expansion of large tobacco companies. The public health community did not address initially smoking as harmful and addictive, despite the fact that many other observers of human behavior (authors, psychologists, religious leaders had stressed out its addictive characteristics. In the late 1980s, the acceptance of the addictive nature of tobacco resulted in development of healthcare services aiming at supporting people quit smoking and legislation regarding sale, distribution and advertising of tobacco products. Nicotine dependence is a chronic condition for which effective therapeutic interventions are required. Smokers, unlike other substances addicts, do not recognize their addiction and the nicotine withdrawal syndrome that they experience. For establishing the degree of dependence various tools can be used, such as the method of the 4 Cs (compulsion, control, cutting down, consequences or validated questionnaires (CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine. The main smoking cessation strategies use replacement therapy with various products (patch, gum, etc, medications (bupropion, varenicline and/or counseling. These interventions are clinically efficient but also cost-effective, compared to prevention and treatment of diseases associated with smoking. Smoking cessation interventions should be offered to every smoker and provided by their health insurance.

  14. Corporate smoking cessation on Long Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Tobacco addiction is a treatable health care problem. Employers are experiencing major annual increases in the cost of providing health insurance benefits. The expenditures due to smoking-related diseases are a major contributor to the escalating cost of employer-sponsored health and life benefit plans. An initiative that employers have adopted to help control increases in health care costs as well as improve the lifestyle of employees is the establishment of corporate wellness programs. Programs that promote healthy lifestyles and wellness are connected to the principle that a happy and healthy worker will be more effective and productive. Another dividend of corporate wellness programs is higher employee retention and better employee morale. An earlier study investigated the impact of wellness programs for Long Island employers. One of the major findings of that research was the confirmation of the prevalence of smoking cessation initiatives as components of the successful wellness programs. This article, through analysis of a follow-up survey, confirms that corporate smoking cessation programs have a significant return on investment. Further, the analysis identifies the components of the cessation programs and measures the relative impact of each element.

  15. Smoking cessation and the cardiovascular patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-09-01

    Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality. Our review highlights research from 2013 to 2015 on the treatment of cigarette smoking, with a focus on heart patients and cardiovascular outcomes. Seeking to maximize the reach and effectiveness of existing cessation medications, current tobacco control research has demonstrated the safety and efficacy of combination treatment, extended use, reduce-to-quit strategies, and personalized approaches to treatment matching. Further, cytisine has gained interest as a lower-cost strategy for addressing the global tobacco epidemic. On the harm reduction front, snus and electronic nicotine delivery systems are being widely distributed and promoted with major gaps in knowledge of the safety of long-term and dual use. Quitlines, comparable in outcome to in-person treatment, make cessation counseling available on a national scale, though use rates remain relatively low. Employee reward programs are gaining attention given the high costs of tobacco use to employers; sustaining quit rates postpayment, however, has proven challenging. Evidence-based cessation treatments exist. Broader dissemination, adoption, and implementation are key to addressing the tobacco epidemic. The cardiology team has a professional obligation to advance tobacco control efforts and can play an important role in achieving a smoke-free future.

  16. Inpatient smoking cessation therapy: truth or dare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Gabriela; Schroeder, Yvonne; Schoberberger, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to answer the question to which extent even very heavy nicotine-dependent smokers can benefit from a 3-week inpatient smoking cessation program. A particular focus lies on analyzing the positive effects, which go above and beyond normally anticipated health benefits. This is a descriptive study observing 270 patients over a 1-year period consisting of recruitment, therapy, and two post-therapy follow-up visits at 6-month interval. Gender differences, changes in body weight, and factors relating to addiction and the nicotine withdrawal process are analyzed. In comparing successful participants-post-therapy nonsmokers-with less successful ones, our analysis identifies benefits and advantages an inpatient smoking cessation therapy can bring to even the heaviest smokers. At the 12-month post-therapy follow-up visit, 42.6% of participants were identified as nonsmokers. A total of 34.0% of participants took up smoking again. No data is available on the remaining participants. Nonsmokers experienced significant reduction in nicotine craving and withdrawal symptoms. In terms of body weight, increases were found in both, men and women, nonsmokers and smokers. Successful quitters fail to report of an unbearable strong desire to smoke. Such unfounded fear should be communicated. Weight gain remains an undesired side effect. Hence, it is crucial to diagnose individuals more prone to weight gain and offer coping strategies thus reducing the risk of developing obesity. Nevertheless, the outcome of the study should be an encouragement to also heavy smokers and empower them to undertake smoking cessation.

  17. Mining twitter to understand the smoking cessation barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krittanawong, Chayakrit; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-26

    Smoking cessation is challenging and lack of positive support is a known major barrier to quitting cigarettes. Previous studies have suggested that social influences might increase smokers' awareness of social norms for appropriate behavior, which might lead to smoking cessation. Although social media use is increasing among young adults in the United States, research on the relationship between social media use and smoking cessation is lacking. Twitter has provided a rich source of information for researchers, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in smoking cessation research. To the best of our knowledge, this study conducted a data mining analysis of Twitter to assess barriers to smoking cessation. In conclusion, Twitter is a cost-effective tool with the potential to disseminate information on the benefits of smoking cessation and updated research to the Twitter community on a global scale.

  18. Individual behavioural counselling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Tim; Stead, Lindsay F

    2017-03-31

    Individual counselling from a smoking cessation specialist may help smokers to make a successful attempt to stop smoking. The review addresses the following hypotheses:1. Individual counselling is more effective than no treatment or brief advice in promoting smoking cessation.2. Individual counselling is more effective than self-help materials in promoting smoking cessation.3. A more intensive counselling intervention is more effective than a less intensive intervention. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register for studies with counsel* in any field in May 2016. Randomized or quasi-randomized trials with at least one treatment arm consisting of face-to-face individual counselling from a healthcare worker not involved in routine clinical care. The outcome was smoking cessation at follow-up at least six months after the start of counselling. Both authors extracted data in duplicate. We recorded characteristics of the intervention and the target population, method of randomization and completeness of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. In analysis, we assumed that participants lost to follow-up continued to smoke. We expressed effects as a risk ratio (RR) for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and the GRADE approach. We identified 49 trials with around 19,000 participants. Thirty-three trials compared individual counselling to a minimal behavioural intervention. There was high-quality evidence that individual counselling was more effective than a minimal contact control (brief advice, usual care, or provision of self-help materials) when pharmacotherapy was not offered to any participants (RR 1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 to 1.77; 27 studies, 11,100 participants; I 2 = 50%). There was

  19. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Stead, Lindsay F; Car, Josip

    2010-09-08

    The Internet has become a regular part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It now offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, with additional searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was in June 2010. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet-based intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control or a different Internet site or programme. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardised form. We selected smoking cessation outcomes at short term (one to three months) and long term (6 months or more) follow up, and reported study effects as a risk ratio with 95% confidence intervals. Only limited meta-analysis was performed, as the heterogeneity of the data for populations, interventions and outcomes allowed for very little pooling. Twenty trials met the inclusion criteria. There were more female than male participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Ten trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet based smoking cessation intervention or to a no intervention control. Six of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and three recruited adolescents. Two trials of the same intensive automated intervention in populations of adult who smoked showed significantly increased cessation compared to printed self-help materials at 12 months. In one

  20. [Progression of coronary sclerosis after smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzlaff, P; Amende, I

    1994-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is an established risk factor for the development of coronary artery disease, but whether cessation of heavy smoking influences progression of coronary artery disease is unclear. In 390 patients (359 men, 31 women; 52.4 +/- 6.7 SD years) with coronary artery disease, two coronary angiograms were performed at an interval of 62.4 +/- 23.5 months. Smoking habits were obtained by questionnaires. Progression of coronary artery disease was defined as the sum of new stenoses, progression of existing stenoses and new coronary occlusions. Multivariate classification analyses of risk factor profile revealed cigarette smoking (amount per day and length of time) as the most relevant factor for progression of coronary artery disease. Non-smokers had a progression score of 0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.63-1.28) over the observation period. Former smokers (20.2 +/- 11.8 cigarettes/day for 19.4 +/- 7.6 years) who quit about 10 years before the first angiogram showed a progression of 2.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.77-2.63; p < 0.01) compared to non-smokers. Those smokers (23.8 +/- 9.2 cigarettes/day for 31.3 +/- 7.0 years) who quit at the time of the first angiogram showed a progression of 2.47 (95% confidence interval: 1.97-2.97; p < 0.001). Current smokers (20.5 +/- 9.7 cigarettes/day for 34.8 +/- 8.5 years) had a progression of 3.17 (95% confidence interval: 2.35-3.99; p < 0.001). The data indicate that former heavy cigarette smoking continues to act as a significant risk factor for progression of coronary artery disease even after cessation. This does not mean that current cigarette smokers should not stop.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. It's Your Business...Smoking Policies for the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This brochure was written to help those considering a workplace smoking policy. It begins with a set of facts about workplace smoking and discusses legislation in various states concerning smoking at work. The health consequences of involuntary smoking are also explored. Other sections examine the need for workplace smoking policies, how employees…

  2. Developing a Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimer, Pip; Stamp, Lisa K; Stebbings, Simon; Cameron, Vicky; Kirby, Sandra; Croft, Suzanne; Treharne, Gareth J

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is associated with an increased risk of comorbidities in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and may reduce the efficacy of anti-rheumatic therapies. Smoking cessation is therefore an important goal in RA. Our previous qualitative research identified five RA-related barriers to smoking cessation: lack of support; limited knowledge of the relationship between smoking and RA; uncontrolled pain; inability to exercise; and using smoking as a coping strategy. The aim of this article is to describe the process of developing a smoking cessation intervention for RA patients based on these themes. A comprehensive review of the literature on smoking cessation was undertaken. A tailored smoking cessation programme was designed to address each RA-specific barrier. A meeting was convened with key staff of Arthritis New Zealand to develop a consensus on feasible design to deliver a smoking cessation programme based on existing best practice and smoking cessation resources, and tailored within existing Arthritis New Zealand service delivery frameworks. A three-month intervention was designed to be delivered by trained arthritis educators, with the following key components: nicotine replacement therapy for eight weeks; a telephone or face-to-face interview with each patient to determine their individual specific RA-related barriers to smoking cessation; and individualized education and support activities which addressed these barriers. The intervention also included three follow-up telephone calls; a support website; and 12 weekly smoking cessation advice emails. A RA-specific smoking cessation invention was developed, matching support to specific issues within each patient's experience. A pilot study is in progress to evaluate the programme's efficacy. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    .003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts......BACKGROUND: The aim was to study the effect of a multimodal smoking cessation intervention regimen on a number of pregnant smokers. METHODS: A prospective intervention study was designed where participants were allocated to intervention or control based on their birth date. The study included 647...... pregnant smokers. The intervention group (n = 327) received initial individual smoking cessation counseling supplemented by an invitation to join, individually or in a group, a smoking cessation program with nicotine replacement therapy as a voluntary option. Intervention was designed as an integral part...

  4. Group behaviour therapy programmes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Carroll, Allison J; Lancaster, Tim

    2017-03-31

    Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016. Randomized trials that compared group therapy with self-help, individual counselling, another intervention or no intervention (including usual care or a waiting-list control). We also considered trials that compared more than one group programme. We included those trials with a minimum of two group meetings, and follow-up of smoking status at least six months after the start of the programme. We excluded trials in which group therapy was provided to both active therapy and placebo arms of trials of pharmacotherapies, unless they had a factorial design. Two review authors extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the interventions provided to the groups and the controls, including programme length, intensity and main components, the outcome measures, method of randomization, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up in participants smoking at baseline. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically-validated rates where available. We analysed participants lost to follow-up as continuing smokers. We expressed effects as a risk ratio for cessation. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect (Mantel-Haenszel) model. We assessed the quality of evidence within each study and comparison, using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and GRADE criteria. Sixty-six trials met our inclusion criteria for one or more of the comparisons in the review. Thirteen trials compared a group programme with a self

  5. Best Practices for Smoking Cessation Interventions in Primary Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McIvor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Canada, smoking is the leading preventable cause of premature death. Family physicians and nurse practitioners are uniquely positioned to initiate smoking cessation. Because smoking is a chronic addiction, repeated, opportunity-based interventions are most effective in addressing physical dependence and modifying deeply ingrained patterns of beliefs and behaviour. However, only a small minority of family physicians provide thorough smoking cessation counselling and less than one-half offer adjunct support to patients.

  6. Reversal of Smoking Effects on Chronic Rhinosinusitis after Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Katie M; Hoehle, Lloyd; Bergmark, Regan W; Caradonna, David S; Gray, Stacey T; Sedaghat, Ahmad R

    2017-10-01

    Objective To understand whether the impact of smoking on chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is reversible after smoking cessation. Study Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Academic tertiary care rhinology clinic. Subjects and Methods A total of 103 former-smoker CRS patients and 103 nonsmoker CRS patients were prospectively recruited. The primary outcome measure was sinonasal symptom severity measured with the 22-item Sinonasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22), and secondary outcome measures were general health-related quality of life (QOL) measured with the 5-dimensional EuroQol visual analog scale (EQ-5D VAS) and patient-reported CRS-related antibiotic and oral corticosteroid usage in the past year. Outcome measures were compared between cohorts and checked for association with time since cessation of smoking for former smokers. Results Compared with nonsmokers, former smokers had worse SNOT-22 score ( P = .019) and EQ-5D VAS score ( P = .001) and reported using more CRS-related antibiotics ( P = .003) and oral corticosteroids in the past year ( P = .013). In former smokers, every year was associated with a statistically significant improvement in SNOT-22 score (β = -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91 to -0.05; P = .032), EQ-5D VAS score (β = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.02-0.91; P = .046), and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use (relative risk = 0.95; 95% CI, 0.91-0.98; P = .001). Given the differences in our study outcome measures between former smokers and nonsmokers, we estimate that the reversible impacts of smoking on CRS may resolve after 10 to 20 years. Conclusions CRS patients who are former smokers have worse sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related medication usage than nonsmokers. Every year since cessation of smoking is associated improvements in sinonasal symptomatology, QOL, and CRS-related oral corticosteroid use, potentially reaching nonsmoker levels after 10 to 20 years.

  7. Multimodal intervention raises smoking cessation rate during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2003-01-01

    rates during pregnancy were significantly higher in the intervention group (14%) than in the group receiving usual care (5.0%) (p test). Cotinine-validated cessation rates during pregnancy were significantly higher among the former (7%) than the latter (2%) (p = 0...... of the midwives' prenatal care. All pregnant smokers in the usual care group (n = 320) received standard counseling from a midwife. Outcome was self-reported smoking cessation in the 37th week of pregnancy and the reported cessation was validated by cotinine saliva concentration. RESULTS: Self-reported cessation.......003). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for smoking cessation was 4.20 (95% CI 2.13-8.03). Logistic regression analysis showed a significant positive association of smoking cessation with low caffeine consumption in pregnancy, many years in school, no exposure to passive smoking outside the home, and previous attempts...

  8. Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Kryss; Higgins, Helen

    1997-01-01

    Ten sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics considered predictors of difficulty with smoking cessation in patients with coronary artery disease are reviewed. The compounding effects of nicotine addiction are discussed. Consideration of these factors may result in individualized programs for smoking cessation. A brief overview…

  9. Determinants of Smoking Cessation among Adolescents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panday, Saadhna; Reddy, S. Priscilla; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Bergstrom, Erik; de Vries, Hein

    2005-01-01

    Data is required on the motivational determinants of smoking cessation among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents in South Africa. The I-Change Model was used to explore the determinants of smoking cessation among a sample of 1267 Black African, Colored and White Grade 9-11 monthly smokers and former smokers in the Southern Cape-Karoo region.…

  10. [Effects of physical activity on tobacco craving for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2016-06-01

    One in two people who smoke for their whole lifetime will die from a disease related to tobacco use. The smoking habit is sustained by nicotine dependence, which makes smoking cessation very difficult because of withdrawal syndrome and craving (urge to smoke without delay). The aim of this review was to evaluate the impact of physical activity interventions to reduce tobacco craving in smoking cessation. It included 18 randomized controlled trials, which incorporated physical activity. Seventeen of the 18 trials demonstrate the effectiveness of the physical activity in reducing tobacco craving. The consistency of these results constitutes solid evidence of the importance of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation. Advice to increase physical activity should therefore be given during quit attempts and should be incorporated into smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Passive Smoking in the Workplace: Selected Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Office of Technology Assessment.

    This report provides information about the health effects of passive smoking, the types of policies that are in force in the public and private sectors to control workplace smoking, and the costs and effects of those policies. The executive summary briefly highlights the three major areas of the report: (1) a review of the studies of health…

  12. Smoking Cessation 1 Year or More: Experiences of Successful Quitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPiazza, Jennifer T; Naegle, Madeline

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focused on the experience of maintaining cessation for a year or longer, and recidivism rates for smoking cessation are estimated at 50% to 97%. As cigarette smoking is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, there is a critical need for more knowledge about maintaining smoking cessation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to explore the lived experience of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation for a year or more. Using Streubert's nurse-developed descriptive phenomenological method, seven adults who sustained cessation for 1.5 to 18 years, after repeated relapses, were interviewed about their experience of sustaining cessation. Data collection included interviews, field notes, and a reflexive journal. Phenomenological analysis involved dwelling intensely with the data, extracting parts of the transcript, and identifying codes and themes, defined by Streubert as essences, common to all participants' descriptions of the experience of sustained cessation. Through this inductive process, the investigator ascertained relationships among the essences, forming the basis for a formalized, exhaustive description of the experience. Six essences captured participants' experiences of maintaining cigarette smoking cessation: (a) breaking free, (b) developing an olfactory aversion, (c) reframing, (d) learning through relapse, (e) reclaiming acceptance, and (f) self-transformation. The findings suggest that maintaining cessation for a year or more is shaped by biological, psychological, and social conditions, as reflected in the essences. The essences coalesced to a tipping point of motivation and conditions leading to sustained behavior change, allowing participants to maintain cessation.

  13. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  14. Suicide Prevention Referrals in a Mobile Health Smoking Cessation Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofferson, Dana E; Hamlett-Berry, Kim; Augustson, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Automated mobile health (mHealth) programs deliver effective smoking cessation interventions through text message platforms. Smoking is an independent risk factor for suicide, so the Department of Veterans Affairs incorporated information about the Veterans Crisis Line into its SmokefreeVET smoking cessation text messaging program. Almost 7% of all SmokefreeVET enrollees have accessed this information. Because of the reach and automated nature of this and similar programs, we recommend including a referral to a suicide prevention hotline for all smoking cessation mHealth interventions.

  15. Long term effects of smoking cessation in hospitalized schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masatoshi; Kishida, Ikuko; Suda, Akira; Shiraishi, Yohko; Fujibayashi, Mami; Taguri, Masataka; Ishii, Chie; Ishii, Norio; Moritani, Toshio; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2017-03-07

    The prevalence of smoking in patients with schizophrenia is higher than that in the general population and is an important medical issue. Short-term smoking cessation tends to worsen psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia but decreases sympathetic nervous system activity and improves plasma cholesterol levels in healthy people. Few studies have assessed the long-term effects of smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia. Subjects were 70 Japanese patients with schizophrenia (38 smokers, 32 non-smokers). We compared the following clinical parameters between the two groups at baseline (before smoking cessation) and in each group separately between baseline and at three years after smoking cessation: autonomic nervous system activity, plasma cholesterol levels, body weight, drug therapy, and Global Assessment of Functioning scores. We also compared the mean changes in clinical parameters throughout this study between the groups at both time points. Autonomic nervous system activity was assessed by power spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Parasympathetic nervous system activity and the doses of antiparkinsonian drugs in smokers were significantly higher than those in non-smokers at baseline. Smoking cessation was associated with significantly decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and decreased doses of antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs at three years after smoking cessation. However, there was no significant difference in the mean change in clinical factors scores, except for Global Assessment of Functioning scores, between smokers and non-smokers at three years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that smoking reduces both autonomic nervous system activity and the effectiveness of drug therapy with antipsychotics and antiparkinsonian drugs in patients with schizophrenia, but that both factors could be ameliorated over the long term by smoking cessation. Taken together with the findings of previous studies, smoking

  16. Exercise-based smoking cessation interventions among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Sarah E; Ciccolo, Joseph T; Ussher, Michael; Marcus, Bess H

    2013-01-01

    Although smoking rates are lower among women than men, women are less likely to quit smoking in cessation trials. This is in part due to their tendency to smoke to help prevent or mitigate negative mood/affect, depression and/or postcessation weight gain. Exercise helps to alleviate women's fear of postcessation weight gain and reduces their cessation-related mood symptoms, making it a theoretically ideal smoking cessation intervention for women. In addition, short bouts of exercise decrease cigarette cravings and withdrawal symptoms among temporarily abstinent smokers. However, results from exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to date have been mostly nonsignificant. This paper describes the theoretical mechanisms (psychological, behavioral, physiological and neurobiological) and practical reasons underlying our belief that exercise-based smoking cessation interventions should not yet be abandoned despite their current paucity of supporting evidence. It also presents ideas for modifying future exercise-based smoking cessation interventions to increase adherence and, as a result, more accurately evaluate the effect of exercise on smoking cessation.

  17. Smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Kaldan, Gudrun

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite smoking and risky alcohol drinking being modifiable risk factors for cancer as well as postoperative complications, perioperative cessation counselling is often ignored. Little is known about how cancer patients experience smoking and alcohol interventions in relation to surgery....... The study also provides knowledge about the intervention in the STOP-OP study and will help guide the design of future smoking and alcohol cessation studies aimed at cancer patients undergoing surgery....

  18. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Healing and Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-14

    1~] conc;lucted a literature review on the effect of cigarette smoking on periodontal surgical interventions and found all but one study showed... interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2012. 5: p. Cd001837. 18. Fini, M., et al. , Harmful...following fracture: a systematic review. J Bone Joint Surg Am, 2014. 96(8): p. 674-81. Nasell, H., et al., Effect of smoking cessation intervention on

  19. Applying the performance partnership model to smoking cessation: lessons learned by the smoking cessation leadership center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revell, Connie C; Meriwether, Margaret B

    2011-11-01

    A wide array of partners can be convened around a single measurable outcome, such as driving down smoking prevalence, through the use of an innovative approach called the performance partnership model. This approach has certain key characteristics that make it different from ordinary coalition building, such as following four steps leading to a baseline, a target, an action plan, and an impact measurement plan. It also employs great speed and focus to keep partners engaged, and it has led to demonstrable progress on smoking cessation nationwide.

  20. Effects of Smoking Cessation Media and Community Campaigns in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Sung, Hai-Yen; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Feng, Tzung-Yee; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effects of a smoking cessation campaign. Data from the 2010-2011 Taiwan Adult Tobacco Surveys were analyzed. The study was set among a nationally representative sample of adults in Taiwan. The surveys included 16,282 and 16,886 adults in 2010 and 2011, respectively, while our analyses focused on current smokers, 2518 and 2507 adults in 2010 and 2011, respectively. In 2010 the Taiwanese government launched a national smoking cessation campaign through mass media in conjunction with community-based smoking cessation programs throughout the nation. Outcome variables include awareness of cessation services, quit attempts, intention to quit, and use of quitting method. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to analyze data. The implementation of the national smoking cessation campaign was associated with an increase in awareness of cessation services (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20-1.53), in quit attempts (OR = 1.12; 95% CI = 1.01-1.25), in use of unassisted quitting methods (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.13-1.72), and in intention to quit smoking (OR = 1.15; 95% CI = 1.02-1.30). The implementation of the national smoking cessation campaign through media and community programs was effective in increasing smokers' awareness of cessation services, quit attempts, and intention to quit.

  1. Nicotine receptor partial agonists for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cahill

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nicotine receptor partial agonists may help people to stop smoking by a combination of maintaining moderate levels of dopamine to counteract withdrawal symptoms (acting as an agonist and reducing smoking satisfaction (acting as an antagonist. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of this review is to assess the efficacy and tolerability of nicotine receptor partial agonists, including cytisine, dianicline and varenicline for smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('cytisine' or 'Tabex' or 'dianicline' or 'varenicline' or 'nicotine receptor partial agonist' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The register is compiled from searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Web of Science using MeSH terms and free text to identify controlled trials of interventions for smoking cessation and prevention. We contacted authors of trial reports for additional information where necessary. The latest update of the specialized register was in December 2011. We also searched online clinical trials registers. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials which compared the treatment drug with placebo. We also included comparisons with bupropion and nicotine patches where available. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data on the type of participants, the dose and duration of treatment, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow-up. The main outcome measured was abstinence from smoking at longest follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence, and preferred biochemically validated rates where they were reported. Where appropriate we pooled risk ratios (RRs, using the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. MAIN RESULTS: Two recent cytisine trials (937 people

  2. Determination and support as successful factors for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echer, Isabel Cristina; Barreto, Sérgio Saldanha Menna

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze determination and support as successful factors for smoking cessation. Qualitative study in which 16 individuals from Porto Alegre, Brazil, who had ceased smoking for more than six months, with score > or = 5 according to Fagerström scale, were interviewed. Information was examined through Content Analysis according to the following steps: pre-analysis, material investigation and result treatment. Smoking cessation was a consequence of a group of factors, with determination (the will to cease smoking and the difficulty to cease smoking) and the received support (occupational; family; social, and spiritual, and through a specific course and support groups) as the focus of this article. The results suggest that the smoker's determination to cease smoking together with the support of society segments and the benefits from that are helpful factors in the smoking cessation process.

  3. Smoking Cessation in Adolescents: targeted approaches that work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Susan; DiFranza, Joseph R; Jayasuriya, Geshani; Marshall, Tracey; Shah, Smita

    2017-03-01

    Smoking Cessation in adolescents can be considered in a developmental context to enable the clinician to individualise the appropriate assessment and management of the young person they are seeing whether it is in a primary or tertiary care setting. Adolescence is a time of rapid neurocognitive and hormonal change with these factors affected by personality and behavioural factors as well as family, cultural and psychosocial context. Adolescents are uniquely vulnerable to smoking initiation and nicotine addiction throughout these years. Increased awareness of the risks of smoking and using opportunities to assess and intervene regarding smoking cessation are integral to clinical practice for all clinicians seeing young people. This review will discuss the demographics of adolescent smoking, risk factors, assessing smoking and nicotine addiction, the importance of brief interventions, the evidence base for appropriate interventions, particularly in high risk groups and will emphasise innovative training for health professionals in adolescent smoking cessation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civljak, Marta; Stead, Lindsay F; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2013-07-10

    The Internet is now an indispensable part of daily life for the majority of people in many parts of the world. It offers an additional means of effecting changes to behaviour such as smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register. There were no restrictions placed on language of publication or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in April 2013. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials. Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. Two authors independently assessed and extracted data. Methodological and study quality details were extracted using a standardized form. We extracted smoking cessation outcomes of six months follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Clinical and statistical heterogeneity limited our ability to pool studies. This updated review includes a total of 28 studies with over 45,000 participants. Some Internet programmes were intensive and included multiple outreach contacts with participants, whilst others relied on participants to initiate and maintain use.Fifteen trials compared an Internet intervention to a non-Internet-based smoking cessation intervention or to a no-intervention control. Ten of these recruited adults, one recruited young adult university students and two recruited adolescents. Seven of the trials in adults had follow-up at six months or longer and compared an Internet intervention to usual care or printed self help. In a post hoc subgroup analysis, pooled results from three trials that compared

  5. Barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation among Latino adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter-Pokras, Olivia D; Feldman, Robert H; Kanamori, Mariano; Rivera, Ivonne; Chen, Lu; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Nodora, Jesse; Noltenius, Jeannette

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have found that Latinos who smoke are less likely than non-Latino white smokers to use pharmaceutical aids such as nicotine replacement therapies or to receive physician advice to stop smoking. This qualitative study further explored barriers and facilitators to smoking cessation among Latino adults in Maryland. Five Spanish-language focus groups were conducted in September 2008 in Maryland with Latino current smoker and ex-smoker men and women (n = 55). Participants were recruited through flyers, information sheets, and site visits at community health clinics and Latino events, and were predominately of Central American origin. Personal health concerns were the main reason to quit smoking; impact on children and family health and role model pressure were frequently mentioned. Barriers to quit smoking included environmental temptation and social factors, emotional pressure, addiction, and habitual behavior. Respondents mostly relied on themselves for cessation, with little use of cessation products or other medications, or awareness of available services. Social influence serves both as a strong motivation for Latinos to quit smoking and as a source of temptation to continue smoking. Favored by both current smokers and ex-smokers, lay health promoters are effective agents to reach Latinos with smoking cessation interventions. In addition, the low use of cessation services could be improved by increasing awareness and availability of Spanish-language cessation services.

  6. Smoking cessation after an acute coronary syndrome: immediate quitters are successful quitters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snaterse, M.; Scholte Op Reimer, W. J. M.; Dobber, J.; Minneboo, M.; ter Riet, G.; Jorstad, H. T.; Boekholdt, S. M.; Peters, R. J. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention guidelines stress the importance of smoking cessation and recommend intensive follow-up. To guide the development of such cessation support strategies, we analysed the characteristics that are associated with successful smoking cessation after an

  7. Relationship between job strain and smoking cessation: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouvonen, A; Vahtera, J; Väänänen, A; De Vogli, R; Heponiemi, T; Elovainio, M; Virtanen, M; Oksanen, T; Cox, S J; Pentti, J; Kivimäki, M

    2009-04-01

    To examine whether job strain (ie, excessive demands combined with low control) is related to smoking cessation. Prospective cohort study of 4928 Finnish employees who were baseline smokers. In addition to individual scores, coworker-assessed work unit level scores were calculated. A multilevel logistic regression analysis, with work units at the second level, was performed. At follow-up, 21% of baseline smokers had quit smoking. After adjustment for sex, age, employer and marital status, elevated odds ratios (ORs) for smoking cessation were found for the lowest vs the highest quartile of work unit level job strain (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.17 to 1.75) and for the highest vs the lowest quartile of work unit level job control (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.31 to 1.96). After additional adjustment for health behaviours and trait anxiety, similar results were observed. Further adjustment for socioeconomic position slightly attenuated these associations, but an additional adjustment for individual strain/control had little effect on the results. The association between job strain and smoking cessation was slightly stronger in light than in moderate/heavy smokers. The results for individual job strain and job control were in the same direction as the work unit models, although these relationships became insignificant after adjustment for socioeconomic position. Job demands were not associated with smoking cessation. Smoking cessation may be less likely in workplaces with high strain and low control. Policies and programs addressing employee job strain and control might also contribute to the effectiveness of smoking cessation interventions.

  8. The Value of Biosamples in Smoking Cessation Trials: A Review of Genetic, Metabolomic, and Epigenetic Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Nancy L; Baurley, James W; Bergen, Andrew W; David, Sean P; Elliott, Hannah R; Foreman, Marilyn G; Kaprio, Jaakko; Piasecki, Thomas M; Relton, Caroline L; Zawertailo, Laurie; Bierut, Laura J; Tyndale, Rachel F; Chen, Li-Shiun

    2017-05-03

    Evidence is emerging that certain genotypes and biomarkers are associated with smoking cessation success and efficacy of smoking cessation treatments. We review key findings that open potential avenues for personalizing smoking cessation treatment according to an individual's genetic or metabolic profile. These results provide important incentive for smoking cessation researchers to collect biosamples and perform genotyping in research studies and clinical trials.

  9. Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma M J; Dalili, Michael N; Semwal, Monika; Civljak, Marta; Sheikh, Aziz; Car, Josip

    2017-09-04

    Tobacco use is estimated to kill 7 million people a year. Nicotine is highly addictive, but surveys indicate that almost 70% of US and UK smokers would like to stop smoking. Although many smokers attempt to give up on their own, advice from a health professional increases the chances of quitting. As of 2016 there were 3.5 billion Internet users worldwide, making the Internet a potential platform to help people quit smoking. To determine the effectiveness of Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation, whether intervention effectiveness is altered by tailoring or interactive features, and if there is a difference in effectiveness between adolescents, young adults, and adults. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, which included searches of MEDLINE, Embase and PsycINFO (through OVID). There were no restrictions placed on language, publication status or publication date. The most recent search was conducted in August 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Participants were people who smoked, with no exclusions based on age, gender, ethnicity, language or health status. Any type of Internet intervention was eligible. The comparison condition could be a no-intervention control, a different Internet intervention, or a non-Internet intervention. To be included, studies must have measured smoking cessation at four weeks or longer. Two review authors independently assessed and extracted data. We extracted and, where appropriate, pooled smoking cessation outcomes of six-month follow-up or more, reporting short-term outcomes narratively where longer-term outcomes were not available. We reported study effects as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI).We grouped studies according to whether they (1) compared an Internet intervention with a non-active control arm (e.g. printed self-help guides), (2) compared an Internet intervention with an active control arm (e.g. face-to-face counselling), (3) evaluated the

  10. Comparative impact of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in three European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Hein; Boudreau, Christian; Allwright, Shane; McNeill, Ann; van den Putte, Bas; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Willemsen, Marc C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the differential impact of comprehensive and partial smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation. This study aimed to examine the impact of comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in Ireland and England, and partial hospitality industry legislation in the Netherlands on quit attempts and quit success. Methods: Nationally representative samples of 2,219 adult smokers were interviewed in three countries as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Europe Surveys. Quit attempts and quit success were compared between period 1 (in which smoke-free legislation was implemented in Ireland and the Netherlands) and period 2 (in which smoke-free legislation was implemented in England). Results: In Ireland, significantly more smokers attempted to quit smoking in period 1 (50.5%) than in period 2 (36.4%) (p < 0.001). Percentages of quit attempts and quit success did not change significantly between periods in the Netherlands. English smokers were significantly more often successful in their quit attempt in period 2 (47.3%) than in period 1 (26.4%) (p = 0.011). In the first period there were more quit attempts in Ireland than in England and fewer in the Netherlands than in Ireland. Fewer smokers quitted successfully in the second period in both Ireland and the Netherlands than in England. Conclusion: The comprehensive smoke-free legislation in Ireland and England may have had positive effects on quit attempts and quit success respectively. The partial smoke-free legislation in the Netherlands probably had no effect on quit attempts or quit success. Therefore, it is recommended that countries implement comprehensive smoke-free legislation. PMID:22294778

  11. The internet and the industrial revolution in smoking cessation counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.

  12. A rural Appalachian faith-placed smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, Nancy E; Bundy, Henry E; Baeker Bispo, Jordan A; Studts, Christina R; Shelton, Brent J; Fields, Nell

    2015-04-01

    Although health promotion programming in faith institutions is promising, most faith-based or placed health projects focus on diet, exercise, or cancer screening and many have been located in urban environments. This article addresses the notable absence of faith programming for smoking cessation among underserved rural US residents who experience tobacco-related health inequities. In this article, we describe our faith-oriented smoking cessation program in rural Appalachia, involving 590 smokers in 26 rural churches randomized to early and delayed intervention groups. We present three main themes that account for participants' positive evaluation of the program; the program's ability to leverage social connections; the program's convenience orientation; and the program's financial support for smoking cessation. We also present themes on the roles of faith and church in smoking cessation programming, including some mixed perceptions on smoking stigma and comfort in church settings; challenges in faith-placed smoking cessation recruitment; and the positive perception of such programming by church leaders. We conclude that faith-placed smoking cessation programs offer great potential, although they must be administered with great sensitivity to individual and community norms.

  13. Smoking Cessation Counseling Beliefs and Behaviors of Outpatient Oncology Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhauer, Suzanne C.; Tooze, Janet A.; Blackstock, A. William; Spangler, John; Thomas, Leslie; Sutfin, Erin L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Many cancer patients continue to smoke after diagnosis, increasing their risk for treatment complications, reduced treatment efficacy, secondary cancers, and reduced survival. Outpatient oncology providers may not be using the “teachable moment” of cancer diagnosis to provide smoking cessation assistance. Providers and Methods. Physicians and midlevel providers (n = 74) who provide outpatient oncology services completed an online survey regarding smoking cessation counseling behaviors, beliefs, and perceived barriers. Outpatient medical records for 120 breast, lung, head and neck, colon, prostate, and acute leukemia cancer patients were reviewed to assess current smoking cessation assessment and intervention documentation practices. Results. Providers reported commonly assessing smoking in new patients (82.4% frequently or always), but rates declined at subsequent visits for both current smokers and recent quitters. Rates of advising patients to quit smoking were also high (86.5% frequently or always), but oncology setting. PMID:22334454

  14. Feasibility of School-Based Smoking Cessation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Amaya; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study surveyed Australian adolescents about smoking cessation behavior, analyzing previous quitting experience and intentions to quit. Previous quitters and those who intended to quit were significantly more likely to consider cessation assistance options acceptable than nonquitters and nonintenders. Saving money was an important variable in…

  15. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  16. Influence of having a psychiatric diagnosis on smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Javier Ayesta

    2017-05-01

    Since the characteristics associated with smoking in these patients are not alone responsible for the cessation differences, this seems to suggest that the own psychiatric condition is also responsible for it.

  17. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. “Hike up yer Skirt, and Quit.” What Motivates and Supports Smoking Cessation in Builders and Renovators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim L. Bercovitz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Construction-related occupations have very high smoking prevalence rates and are an identified priority population for efforts to promote cessation. This study sought to identify the smoking cessation supports and services which best suited this workforce group, and to identify gaps in reach of preventive health services. We performed qualitative text analysis on pre-existing conversations about smoking cessation among workers in this sector. The material appeared on a discussion forum about residential construction from 1998 and 2011. Roughly 250 unique user names appeared in these discussions. The qualitative analysis addressed knowledge, motivation, environmental influences, and positive and negative experiences with supports for cessation. Self-identified smokers tended to want to quit and described little social value in smoking. Actual quit attempts were attributed to aging and tangible changes in health and fitness. Peer-to-peer social support for cessation was evident. Advice given was to avoid cigarettes and smokers, to focus on personal skills, personal commitment, and the benefits of cessation (beyond the harms from smoking. Many discussants had received medical support for cessation, but behavioural counselling services appeared underutilized. Our findings support efforts toward more complete bans on workplace smoking and increased promotion of available behavioural support services among dispersed blue-collar workers.

  19. Cell Phone-Based Expert Systems for Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Veteran population so that we can do a gender comparison with statistical power (see Appendix). Progress this Period (See Gantt chart in Appendix...Help us test an online smoking cessation program designed for Veterans and get up to $75 in online gift cards. www. txtresearch . org J APPROVED...get up to $75 in online gift cards. www. txtresearch . org JUL 0 5 2011 Iraq/Afghanistan Veteran? Help us test an online smoking cessation

  20. Smoking Cessation: Services and Applications for Mobile Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaliakos, Antonios; Pliakos, Ioannis; Chardalias, Kostis; Charalampidou, Martha; Diomidous, Marianna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present mobile health applications which help individuals to change their smoking habit. An online search on scientific databases and mobile application stores was conducted to collect information about m-Health and the smoking cessation. 12 papers found discussing about mobile applications and solutions for quit smoking referred to 4 different technological approaches. Based on the research results, mobile devices and their applications constitute an excellent mean that can help smokers by providing counseling and give them the necessary motivation to smoking cessation.

  1. Women Smoking Cessation and Disadvantage:A Mixed Methods Investigation of the Factors Influencing Smoking Cessation in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, F E

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundWomen are less likely than men to successfully quit smoking when using NHScessation services (The Information Centre, 2012, ICD, 2011).MethodsThe research used mixed methods and consisted of two studies. Study one was asecondary data analysis of service use data from cessation services in Glasgow, North Cumbria and Nottingham. The study examined whether women had lower cessation outcomes compared to men. Further analyses explored whether women using cessation support differed from m...

  2. College Smoking Policies and Smoking Cessation Programs: Results of a Survey of College Health Center Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Henry; Kelley, Kathleen; Seibring, Mark; Kuo, Meichun; Rigotti, Nancy A.

    2001-01-01

    Surveyed college health center directors about policies addressing smoking and availability of smoking cessation programs. Though 85 percent considered students' smoking a problem, only 81 percent of colleges prohibited smoking in all public areas, and only 27 percent banned smoking in all indoor areas. Though over half of the schools offered…

  3. Vape, quit, tweet? Electronic cigarettes and smoking cessation on Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Tempel, Jan; Noormohamed, Aliya; Schwartz, Robert; Norman, Cameron; Malas, Muhannad; Zawertailo, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Individuals seeking information about electronic cigarettes are increasingly turning to social media networks like Twitter. We surveyed dominant Twitter communications about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation, examining message sources, themes, and attitudes. Tweets from 2014 were searched for mentions of e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. A purposive sample was subjected to mixed-methods analysis. Twitter communication about e-cigarettes increased fivefold since 2012. In a sample of 300 tweets from high-authority users, attitudes about e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids were favorable across user types (industry, press, public figures, fake accounts, and personal users), except for public health professionals, who lacked consensus and contributed negligibly to the conversation. The most prevalent message themes were marketing, news, and first-person experiences with e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids. We identified several industry strategies to reach Twitter users. Our findings show that Twitter users are overwhelmingly exposed to messages that favor e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids, even when disregarding commercial activity. This underlines the need for effective public health engagement with social media to provide reliable information about e-cigarettes and smoking cessation online.

  4. High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E

    2016-05-01

    Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Y.; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L.; Mull, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Materials and Methods: Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Results: Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Conclusions: Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms. PMID:26171733

  6. Predictors of Utilization of a Novel Smoking Cessation Smartphone App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Emily Y; Vilardaga, Roger; Heffner, Jaimee L; Mull, Kristin E; Bricker, Jonathan B

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the characteristics of high and low utilizers of smartphone applications (apps) for smoking cessation would inform development of more engaging and effective apps, yet no studies to date have addressed this critical question. Informed by prior research on predictors of cessation Web site utilization, this study examines the degree to which baseline demographic factors (gender, age, and education), smoking-related factors (smoking level and friends' smoking), and psychological factors (depression and anxiety) are predictive of utilization of a smartphone app for smoking cessation called SmartQuit. Data came from 98 participants randomized to SmartQuit as part of a pilot trial from March to May 2013. We used negative binomial count regressions to examine the relationship between user characteristics and utilization of the app over an 8-week treatment period. Lower education (risk ratio [RR]=0.492; p=0.021), heavier smoking (RR=0.613; p=0.033), and depression (RR=0.958; p=0.017) prospectively predicted lower app utilization. Women (RR=0.320; p=0.022), those with lower education (RR=0.491; p=0.013), and heavier smokers (RR=0.418; p=0.039) had lower utilization of app features known to predict smoking cessation. Many of the predictors of utilization of smoking cessation apps are the same as those of cessation Web sites. App-delivered smoking cessation treatment effectiveness could be enhanced by focusing on increasing engagement of women, those with lower education, heavy smokers, and those with current depressive symptoms.

  7. Evidence-based smoking cessation and the family doctor

    OpenAIRE

    Sammut, Mario R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In Malta smoking is widespread and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Family doctors are well-placed to provide smoking cessation advice to their patients. Objective The aim of this review is to assist family doctors in helping their patients quit smoking by informing them of evidence-based therapies. Method The online Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews within the Cochrane Library was searched for metaanalyses and systematic reviews related to various smoking...

  8. Continuous-time system identification of a smoking cessation intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, Kevin P.; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.; Piper, Megan E.

    2014-07-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major global public health issue and the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Toward a goal of designing better smoking cessation treatments, system identification techniques are applied to intervention data to describe smoking cessation as a process of behaviour change. System identification problems that draw from two modelling paradigms in quantitative psychology (statistical mediation and self-regulation) are considered, consisting of a series of continuous-time estimation problems. A continuous-time dynamic modelling approach is employed to describe the response of craving and smoking rates during a quit attempt, as captured in data from a smoking cessation clinical trial. The use of continuous-time models provide benefits of parsimony, ease of interpretation, and the opportunity to work with uneven or missing data.

  9. Evaluation of a Pharmacist and Nurse Practitioner Smoking Cessation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Zubair; Pogge, Elizabeth; Boomershine, Virginia

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a smoking cessation program led by a pharmacist and a nurse practitioner. During a 6-month period, patients attended 7 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a pharmacist and 1 to 2 one-on-one face-to-face smoking cessation counseling sessions with a nurse practitioner. The primary outcome was smoking cessation point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date. Secondary outcomes included medication adherence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, nicotine dependence at baseline versus program end, and patient satisfaction. Nine (47%) of 19 total participants completed the program. Seven of the 9 patients who completed the program were smoke-free upon study completion. Point prevalence rates at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date were 66%, 77%, and 77%, respectively, based on patients who completed the program. Medication adherence rates were 88.6%, 54.6%, and 75% at months 1, 3, and 5 post-quit date, respectively. Based on the Fagerstrom test, nicotine dependence decreased from baseline to the end of the study, 4.89 to 0.33 ( P < .001). Overall, participants rated the program highly. A joint pharmacist and nurse practitioner smoking cessation program can assist patients in becoming smoke-free.

  10. Lung Cancer Screening and Smoking Cessation Clinical Trials: SCALE Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Anne M; Rothman, Alexander J; Almirall, Daniel; Begnaud, Abbie; Chiles, Caroline; Cinciripini, Paul M; Fu, Steven S; Graham, Amanda L; Lindgren, Bruce R; Melzer, Anne C; Ostroff, Jamie S; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Taylor, Kathryn L; Toll, Benjamin A; Zeliadt, Steven B; Vock, David M

    2017-10-04

    National recommendations for lung cancer screening for former and current smokers aged 55-80 years with a 30-pack year smoking history create demand to implement efficient and effective systems to offer smoking cessation on a large scale. These older, high-risk smokers differ from participants in past clinical trials of behavioral and pharmacologic interventions for tobacco dependence. There is a gap in knowledge about how to best design systems to extend reach and treatments to maximize smoking cessation in the context of lung cancer screening. Eight clinical trials, seven funded by the National Cancer Institute and one by the VHA, address this gap and form the Smoking Cessation within the Context of Lung Cancer Screening (SCALE) collaboration. This paper describes methodological issues related to the design of these clinical trials: clinical workflow, participant eligibility criteria, screening indication (baseline or annual repeat screen), assessment content, interest in stopping smoking, and treatment delivery method and dose, all of which will affect tobacco treatment outcomes. Tobacco interventions consider the "teachable moment" offered by lung cancer screening, how to incorporate positive and negative screening results, and coordination of smoking cessation treatment with clinical events associated with lung cancer screening. Unique data elements, such as perceived risk of lung cancer and costs of tobacco treatment are of interest. Lung cancer screening presents a new and promising opportunity to reduce morbidity and mortality from lung cancer that can be amplified by effective smoking cessation treatment. SCALE teamwork and collaboration promises to maximize knowledge gained from the clinical trials.

  11. Changes in cardio-ankle vascular index in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noike, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Keijirou; Sugiyama, Yuukou; Iizuka, Takuo; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Mao; Hirano, Keiichi; Suzuki, Masayo; Mikamo, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Takahiro; Shirai, Kohji

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effect of smoking and smoking cessation on cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). The subjects were 82 smokers (77 men, 64+/-10 years) and 20 non-smokers (18 men, 61+/-7 years). CAVI was measured every 3 months and CAVI severity was classified into 3 levels. Decreased, unchanged, and increased CAVI severity levels were coded as "improvement," "no change," and "exacerbation," respectively. Smoking status was coded as "success" for complete abstinence, "partial success" for a reduced number of cigarettes, and "failure" for an unchanging number of cigarettes. Compared with non-smokers, smokers showed a higher CAVI (p<0.05) prior to smoking cessation. Post-cessation, CAVI improved from 9.4 to 8.6 (p<0.01) in "success" cases (n=22), and the significant pre-cessation difference from non-smokers (n=20, CAVI=8.8) disappeared. With regard to the change in CAVI severity of each smoking status, "improvement" occurred in 17%, 24%, and 68% of "failure" (n=35), "partial success" (n=25), and "success" (n=22) groups, respectively, and the "success" group was significantly higher than the other two groups. The study showed that CAVI was increased by smoking, and complete smoking cessation improved CAVI.

  12. Evaluation of smoking cessation intervention in patients with chronic diseases in smoking cessation clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changxi; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qinghui; An, Huaijie; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fan; Zhang, Li; He, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of psychological intervention and psychological plus drug intervention on smoking cessation among male smokers with single chronic diseases. A total of 509 male smokers were divided into psychological group (n = 290) and psychological plus drugs (n = 219) groups according to their will. The physicians provided free individual counseling and follow-up interviews with brief counseling for all the subjects. In addition to mental intervention, patients in psychological plus drug group also received bupropion hydrochloride or varenicline tartrate to quit smoking. Outcomes were self-reported, regarding the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate and continuous abstinence rates at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up period. Data analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis. With regards to the 3 follow-up time points, 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rate in psychological plus drugs group was all higher than that in the psychological intervention group. Additionally, the 3-month continuous abstinence rate (21.4%) of the 6-month follow-up in the psychological group was not significantly higher than that (26.9%) in the psychological plus drugs group (P >.05 for all). Fagerström test score, stage of quitting smoking, perceived confidence or difficulty in quitting, and chronic disease types were independently correlated with 3-month continuous abstinence in the 6-month follow up (P intervention and psychological plus drugs intervention exerted good effects on smoking cessation in a short time (1 month). Nevertheless, the advantages did not appear during long-time (6 months) follow-up. PMID:29049178

  13. Evaluation of smoking cessation intervention in patients with chronic diseases in smoking cessation clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Changxi; Wu, Lei; Liu, Qinghui; An, Huaijie; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fan; Zhang, Li; He, Yao

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of psychological intervention and psychological plus drug intervention on smoking cessation among male smokers with single chronic diseases.A total of 509 male smokers were divided into psychological group (n = 290) and psychological plus drugs (n = 219) groups according to their will. The physicians provided free individual counseling and follow-up interviews with brief counseling for all the subjects. In addition to mental intervention, patients in psychological plus drug group also received bupropion hydrochloride or varenicline tartrate to quit smoking. Outcomes were self-reported, regarding the 7-day point prevalence on abstinence rate and continuous abstinence rates at 1-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up period. Data analyses were performed using intention-to-treat analysis and per protocol analysis.With regards to the 3 follow-up time points, 7-day point-prevalence abstinence rate in psychological plus drugs group was all higher than that in the psychological intervention group. Additionally, the 3-month continuous abstinence rate (21.4%) of the 6-month follow-up in the psychological group was not significantly higher than that (26.9%) in the psychological plus drugs group (P >.05 for all). Fagerström test score, stage of quitting smoking, perceived confidence or difficulty in quitting, and chronic disease types were independently correlated with 3-month continuous abstinence in the 6-month follow up (P intervention and psychological plus drugs intervention exerted good effects on smoking cessation in a short time (1 month). Nevertheless, the advantages did not appear during long-time (6 months) follow-up.

  14. Gender Differences in Smoking Behavior in a University Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates gender differences in smoking behavior by observing 292 men and 648 women smoking in a university workplace. Finds that men take longer breaks, smoke more cigarettes, and inhale more often than women. (MW)

  15. [Pilot project smoke-free workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lötscher, R

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 SAN had acquired wide experience with firms which had introduced rules about smoking, governing where and when smoking is permitted at the workplace. A dossier was produced, based on this expertise, with the title: "Smoke-free Workplaces". A pilot project, taking Zurich as a model, was intended to demonstrate how health-promoting measures could be successfully put into effect in the context of smoking. The results of experimentation with six different, interlocking measures were collated, and evaluated with a view to their implementation throughout the whole of Switzerland. The basic components covered the three areas of Information, Raising Awareness, and Motivation, and focussed particularly on the following six points: Information materials; text/cartoons for internal company PR use; bids to wean people off smoking; the "5-day-campaign" (a communication game, 5 min. a day); an information event raising the interest of the personnel on to a wide range of possibilities: Information, experience the reactions of your body on tobacco-smoke, expositions, opinion-walls. And sixth: advice on strategy for employers and personnel managers.

  16. [Smoking cessation in older smokers. A retrospective study in 181 older smokers managed in a smoking cessation clinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croizet, A; Perriot, J; Merson, F; Aublet-Cuvelier, B

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is a factor associated with premature death, including in older people. Stopping smoking reduces related mortality even after the age of 60. The aim of this study, conducted in a smoking cessation clinic, was to describe the characteristics of these older smokers and their quit attempts. A retrospective study was performed from the patient files of a smoking cessation clinic between 1999/01/01 and 2009/12/31; "older" smokers (≥60 years; n=181) were compared to "young" smokers (<60 years; n=1425). Compared to young smokers, older smokers had a higher frequency of cardio-pulmonary diseases (82.3 % vs. 46.7 %; P<0.0001) and current depressions (45.3% vs. 35.7%; P=0.012); their abstinence rate at 12 months was higher (44.2% vs. 32.9%; P=0.0025). An age over 60 years was associated with a higher success rate (OR=1.83; CI 95%: 1.29-2.59). Cessation smoking attempts are as likely to be successful in older smokers as in younger smokers. Physicians should advise and assist older smokers to quit and if necessary refer them to smoking cessation clinics. Smoking cessation guidelines therefore will apply without reserve in seniors. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors associated with smoking cessation in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dependent populations was also demonstrated in the USA,5 suggesting that this vulnerable population may require focused interventions for smoking cessation. Although alcohol abuse remains high in South Africa,6 limited data are available on the relationship between alcohol abuse and smoking in South. Africa.

  18. Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Development of a School Nurse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Greg; O'Connell, Meghan; Cross, Donna

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a range of strategies to engage and to enhance secondary school nurse involvement in teenage smoking prevention and cessation. School nurses were willing to assist students to quit smoking, but they felt unprepared. Information provided by nurses involved in a three-stage review,…

  19. February 2014 Phoenix pulmonary journal club: smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Evins AE, Cather C, Pratt SA, et al. Maintenance treatment with varenicline for smoking cessation in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2014;311(2:145-54. It is estimated that > 50% of people with mental illness smoke cigarettes. Pharmacotherapy with varenicline has been shown to reach an abstinence rate of 24% at 12 weeks when compared to placebo at 5%. Once off pharmacotherapy, the maintenance of smoking cessation decreases to 12% at 6 months. This study examined whether a prolonged maintenance course of varenicline over 40 weeks is associated with increased rates of smoking cessation. The study was a randomized double blind placebo-controlled trial done in 10 community centers. 203 patients met inclusion criteria and entered a 12 week smoking cessation program with varenicline and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT. 87 patients completed the initial smoking cessation to continue onto the maintenance phase. Patients were randomized to receive ...

  20. Varenicline for smoking cessation: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kirandeep; Kaushal, Sandeep; Chopra, Sarvesh C

    2009-02-01

    Smoking is the leading preventable risk to human health. Various agents have been used to promote smoking cessation, but none has had long-term efficacy. Varenicline, a new nicotinic ligand based on the structure of cytosine, was approved by the US Food amd Drug Administration for use as a smoking cessation aid. The aims of this review were to provide an overview on the mechanism of action and preclinical and clinical data of the new drug, varenicline, and to discuss the current and future impact of varenicline as a treatment for smoking cessation. MEDLINE, BIOSIS, and Google scholar databases were searched (March 1, 2007-July 1, 2008) using the terms varenicline, smoking cessation, and nicotinic receptors. Full-text articles in English were selected for reference, and articles presenting the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, and data from preclinical and clinical trials were included. The initial literature search yielded 70 papers. A total of 20 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Varenicline, an α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, inhibits dopaminergic activation produced by smoking and decreases the craving and withdrawal syndrome that accompanies cessation attempts. In Phase III clinical trials, the carbon monoxide-confirmed 4-week continuous abstinence rates were significantly higher with varenicline than with buproprion sustained release or placebo for weeks 9 through 12. Varenicline has been found to be well tolerated, with nausea being the most commonly reported (28.1%) adverse event. Varenicline is the first drug for smoking cessation that has been found to have significant effectiveness in long-term relapse prevention (up to 52 weeks). Varenicline, with its unique profile of agonist and antagonist properties, increased cessation rates (both short- and long-term) compared with both placebo and bupropion sustained release.

  1. Positive affect and mood management in successful smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bränström, Richard; Penilla, Carlos; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2010-01-01

    To examine the influence of positive affect and mood-management in the completion and success of an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. Participants were recruited online (n = 1000) and randomized to 4 different interventions. Half of the participants received a mood-management tool. Retention was predicted by positive affect at 3 and 12 months. There was a higher 12-month abstinence rate among those who were assigned to the mood-management intervention and had initial low positive affect. The study supports the inclusion of mood-management tools in smoking cessation interventions and indicates that positive affect increases persistence to quit smoking.

  2. Comparing tailored and untailored text messages for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, Lise; Ringgaard, L W; Dalum, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to compare the effectiveness of untailored text messages for smoking cessation to tailored text messages delivered at a higher frequency. From February 2007 to August 2009, 2030 users of an internet-based smoking cessation program with optional text message support aged 15-25 years were...... consecutively randomized to versions of the program that offered either tailored or untailored text messages. Thirty-day point abstinence from smoking was measured self-reportedly at 12-months follow-up. Response rates were 36.3% and 38.1% in the tailored and untailored group, respectively. We analyzed...

  3. Smoking Cessation Intervention After Ischemic Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack. A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). METHODS: Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were...... randomized to minimal smoking cessation intervention or intensive smoking cessation intervention. All patients attended a 30-min individual counseling by the study nurse. Patients randomized to intensive smoking cessation intervention also participated in a 5-session outpatient smoking cessation program...... by an authorized smoking cessation instructor, a 30-min outpatient visit after 6 weeks, and 5 telephone counseling sessions by the study nurse. Free samples of nicotine replacement therapy were offered as part of the intensive smoking cessation program. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were determined by self...

  4. Tobacco smoking cessation management: integrating varenicline in current practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence M Galanti

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Laurence M GalantiClinique Universitaire UCL, Mont-Godinne, Yvoir, BelgiumAbstract: Tobacco smoking is widespread and is one of the world’s most prevalent modifiable risk factors for morbidity and mortality. It is important to facilitate smoking cessation better in order to reduce the health consequences of tobacco use. The most effective approach assisting smokers in their quit attempts combines both pharmacotherapy and nonpharmacological interventions. This review summarizes the latest international epidemiological data available on tobacco use, considers the associated effects on health, and reviews existing policies against tobacco use. Among the interventions for smoking cessation, the three major pharmacotherapies (which have demonstrated efficacy when combined with behavioral support are discussed: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, and varenicline. As the newest pharmacotherapy made available in this area, particular consideration is given to varenicline, and a review of our clinical experience is offered.Keywords: tobacco smoking cessation, nicotinic substitution, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, varenicline

  5. mHealth for Smoking Cessation Programs: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koel Ghorai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available mHealth transforms healthcare delivery around the world due to its affordability and right time availability. It has been used for delivery of various smoking cessation programs and interventions over the past decade. With the proliferation of smartphone usage around the world, many smartphone applications are being developed for curbing smoking among smokers. Various interventions like SMS, progress tracking, distractions, peer chats and others are being provided to users through smartphone applications. This paper presents a systematic review that analyses the applications of mobile phones in smoking cessations. The synthesis of the diverse concepts within the literature on smoking cessations using mobile phones provides deeper insights in the emerging mHealth landscape.

  6. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  7. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  8. Smoking cessation medications and cigarettes in Guatemala pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viteri, Ernesto; Barnoya, Joaquin; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Solorzano, Pedro J

    2012-09-01

    Guatemala, a party to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), is obliged to promote the wider availability of smoking cessation treatment and to restrict tobacco advertising. Pharmacies are fundamental in providing smoking cessation medications but also might increase the availability of cigarettes. To assess availability of cessation medications and cigarettes and their corresponding advertising in Guatemala pharmacies. In Guatemala City a representative sample was selected from a list of registered pharmacies classified by type (non-profit, chain, independent). In addition, all pharmacies in the neighbouring town of Antigua were included for comparison. Trained surveyors used a checklist to characterise each pharmacy with respect to availability and advertising of cessation medications and cigarettes. A total of 505 pharmacies were evaluated. Cessation medications were available in 115 (22.8%), while cigarettes were available in 29 (5.7%) pharmacies. When available, medications were advertised in 1.7% (2) and cigarettes in 72.4% (21) of pharmacies. Chain pharmacies were significantly more likely to sell cessation medications and cigarettes, and to advertise cigarettes than were non-profit and independent pharmacies. Most pharmacies in Guatemala do not stock cessation medications or cigarettes. Cigarette advertising was more prevalent than advertising for cessation medications. FCTC provisions have not been implemented in Guatemala pharmacies.

  9. National Survey of Smoking and Smoking Cessation Education Within UK Midwifery School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jane; Harris, James M; Lorencatto, Fabiana; McEwen, Andy; Duaso, Maria J

    2017-05-01

    Smoking in pregnancy in the United Kingdom remains prevalent (11%). To encourage and support pregnant smokers to quit, midwives must be adequately trained to do so. Substantial curricular gaps have been identified in the smoking cessation training of medical, nursing, and optometry schools. This study aimed to identify the extent of smoking cessation training and assessment in UK midwifery schools. All UK undergraduate midwifery schools (n = 53) were invited to complete a web-based survey of their curricular coverage and assessment related to smoking cessation, and perceived barriers to delivering smoking cessation training. Twenty-nine (55%) midwifery schools responded. Most teaching was completed in the initial year of study. All reported teaching the harmful effects of tobacco use. The majority of respondents (83%) reported training students in brief intervention delivery and ways to assist quit attempts. Only 24% of schools in this study included relapse prevention in their curriculum. The most frequently reported barriers to teaching smoking cessation were "lack of knowledge amongst staff" (17%), "no space in a crowded curriculum" (17%), and "administrative problems" (13%). Midwifery schools are teaching the harmful effects of smoking and providing training on brief interventions. However, in some schools student midwives are not being sufficiently trained on relapse prevention or assessed in the practical skills necessary for delivering evidence-based interventions. Midwifery schools should revise the content and delivery of smoking cessation training to ensure midwives are equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills to contribute to the challenge of smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  10. The influence of smoking cessation on hemodynamics and arterial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Shmuel; Isakov, Irina; Golzman, Boris; Kogan, Jacob; Turkot, Svetlana; Peled, Ronit; Yosefy, Chaim

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with consistent changes in small arteries and arterioles. Recently, arterial compliance was determined in smokers; however, the effect of smoking cessation on arterial compliance has not yet been investigated. The objective of the study was to assess how smoking cessation, achieved with use of behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, influences vascular compliance and arterial stiffness in smokers. In an open-label study, 60 habitual smokers were treated for 2 months with buproprion 300 mg per day and personal and group conversations in order to facilitate smoking cessation. Hemodynamic variables, including vascular compliance and augmentation index (AI), were measured twice, at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Of the 60 smokers, 35 stopped smoking and 25 failed at the end of the 2-month treatment period. Of the 35 who were initially successful, 12 went back to smoking, and thus only 23 remained nonsmokers at the end of 6 months. Smoking cessation was accompanied by significantly lower arterial pressure and heart rate but by weight gain. Among the 23 subjects who stopped smoking for 6 months capacitive compliance (C(1)) did not change but oscillatory compliance (C(2)) rose significantly (from 5.1 +/-2.3 to 6.3 +/-3.0 p<0.01), and AI decreased significantly (from 63.1 +/-22 to 50.6 +/-17 p<0.05), whereas in smokers who still smoked after this period, both C(1) and C(2) and augmentation index did not change significantly from their basal values. The authors conclude that smoking cessation improves arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index, owing mainly to increasing the small artery compliance, which is known to be an early index of endothelial damage.

  11. [Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Roberta de Paiva; Chaves, Erika de Cássia Lopes; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Silva, Andréia Maria; Moreira, Denis da Silva; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking) and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research). Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002), in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050) and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025). Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  12. Contributions of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta de Paiva Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the contribution of auriculotherapy in smoking cessation. Method Double-blind randomized controlled trial, conducted with 30 smokers allocated into two groups: Experimental Group (21 participants received 10 sessions of auriculotherapy at specific points for smoking and Control Group (nine participants received auriculotherapy in points that have no effect on the focus of research. Results Auriculotherapy contributed in reducing the number of cigarettes smoked in 61.9% of participants (p=0.002, in reducing the difficult to abstain from smoking in places where it is forbidden by 38% (p=0.050 and in not smoking when ill 23.8% (p=0.025. Conclusion Given the efficacy only in terms of reducing the number of cigarettes smoked and other parameters, we suggest that future studies consider the use of auriculotherapy combined with other treatment methods, in order to achieve better results in cessation/abstinence.

  13. Occupational and worksite norms and attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, G; Pechacek, T; Pallonen, U

    1986-01-01

    The relationship of worksite and occupational norms about smoking to workers' attitudes toward smoking cessation was studied in a defined population. From smokers identified in a self-administered questionnaire circulated to all employees of 10 worksites in suburban Minneapolis, 447 smokers were randomly selected and interviewed. Attitudes and social norms about smoking cessation were compared by occupation and worksite using analysis of covariance, controlling for age, sex, and education. Similarly, the relationships of social norms to attitudes were examined using multiple regression analysis. Interest in quitting smoking, confidence in the ability to quit, and coworker support of prior quit attempts were equally pervasive among workers from blue collar and white collar occupations. Yet substantial differences between worksites in attitudes and norms about smoking cessation suggest the importance of the unique social milieu of individual worksites. Of particular importance is the impact of coworker discouragement of prior quit attempts, which varied across worksites and was directly related to confidence in the ability to quit and the desire to seek formal help in future quit attempts. These findings point to the relevance of intervention programs aimed at changing worksite norms about smoking and smoking cessation. PMID:3963283

  14. Helping people stop smoking in workplaces: an alternative path

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Osman

    2016-03-01

    Initiated by Prof Bertrand Dautzenberg 10 years ago "OFT" and then "OFT Conseil" have been developing different plans to address those smokers where they are working and encourage them to stop. The fact is that many medium and large size companies want their staff to stop smoking to keep people in good health, to protect the image of the company or for any other reason. We are generally commissioned by the Occupational Health Doctors or by Human Resources Managers to intervene. Each year OFT tobaccologists are working in some 75 to 100 companies. OFT and later OFT Conseil have developed a 3 steps programme especially addressed to workplaces. The 3 steps are complementary although not mandatory: 1. Group meeting with smokers to raise awareness of well-being after stopping 2. Individual interview to provide a diagnosis and build up an individual cessation programme 3. A smoking cessation protocol based on 6 to 10 consultations over 6 to 8 months. This plan is financed by the companies and followed only by graduated tobaccologists. The success rate in average is more or less 50% to 60% in the best cases.

  15. Nonjudging facet of mindfulness predicts enhanced smoking cessation in Hispanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Claire Adams; Houchins, Sean C; Stewart, Diana W; Chen, Minxing; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Cano, Miguel Ángel; Heppner, Whitney L; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Wetter, David W

    2015-12-01

    Although most smokers express interest in quitting, actual quit rates are low. Identifying strategies to enhance smoking cessation is critical, particularly among underserved populations, including Hispanics, for whom many of the leading causes of death are related to smoking. Mindfulness (purposeful, nonjudgmental attention to the present moment) has been linked to increased likelihood of cessation. Given that mindfulness is multifaceted, determining which aspects of mindfulness predict cessation could help to inform interventions. This study examined whether facets of mindfulness predict cessation in 199 Spanish-speaking smokers of Mexican heritage (63.3% male, mean age of 39 years, 77.9% with a high school education or less) receiving smoking cessation treatment. Primary outcomes were 7-day abstinence at weeks 3 and 26 postquit (biochemically confirmed and determined using an intent-to-treat approach). Logistic random coefficient regression models were utilized to examine the relationship between mindfulness facets and abstinence over time. Independent variables were subscales of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (Observing, Describing, Acting With Awareness, Nonjudging, and Nonreactivity). The Nonjudging subscale (i.e., accepting thoughts and feelings without evaluating them) uniquely predicted better odds of abstinence up to 26 weeks postquit. This is the first known study to examine whether specific facets of mindfulness predict smoking cessation. The ability to experience thoughts, emotions, and withdrawal symptoms without judging them may be critical in the process of quitting smoking. Results indicate potential benefits of mindfulness among smokers of Mexican heritage and suggest that smoking cessation interventions might be enhanced by central focus on the Nonjudging aspect of mindfulness. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Workshop on Smoking Cessation for Pharmacy Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittoun, Renee; Saini, Bandana

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To develop, implement, and evaluate a targeted educational intervention focusing on smoking cessation with final-year undergraduate pharmacy students. Design. A smoking-cessation educational workshop entitled Smoking Cessation in Pharmacy (SCIP) was designed on the principles of adult learning and implemented with a full cohort of final-year undergraduate pharmacy students at the University of Sydney. A previously validated questionnaire testing the knowledge and attitudes of respondents was administered both before and after implementation of the designed workshop to evaluate changes resulting from the intervention. Informal feedback was obtained from students. Assessment. Pre-course mean total knowledge and attitude scores calculated were 65.8±9.1 and 86.4±12.1, respectively. The post-course mean total knowledge score was 74.9±8.1, and the attitude score was 88.8±9.1 Improvement in knowledge and attitudes was significant (p<0.05). Conclusion. Educational interventions for pharmacy students designed with careful attention to pedagogic principles can improve knowledge about evidence-based smoking-cessation strategies and enhance positive attitudes to pharmacist roles in smoking cessation. PMID:24249860

  17. Community pharmacists' involvement in smoking cessation: familiarity and implementation of the National smoking cessation guideline in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandström Patrick

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines on smoking cessation (SC emphasize healthcare cooperation and community pharmacists' involvement. This study explored the familiarity and implementation of the National SC Guideline in Finnish community pharmacies, factors relating to Guideline familiarity, implementation and provision of SC services. Methods A nationwide mail survey was sent to a systematic, sample of community pharmacy owners and staff pharmacists (total n = 2291. Response rate was 54% (n = 1190. Factors related to the SC Guideline familiarity were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis. Results Almost half (47% of the respondents (n = 1190 were familiar with the SC Guideline and familiarity enhanced Guideline implementation. The familiarity was associated with the respondents' perceptions of their personal SC skills and knowledge (OR 3.8; of customers' value of counseling on nicotine replacement therapy (NRT (OR 3.3; and regular use of a pocket card supporting SC counseling (OR 3.0. Pharmacists' workplaces' characteristics, such as size and geographical location were not associated with familiarity. In addition to recommending NRT, the pharmacists familiar with the Guideline used more frequently other Guideline-based SC methods, such as recommended non-pharmacological SC aids, compared to unfamiliar respondents. Conclusions SC Guideline familiarity and implementation is crucial for community pharmacists' involvement in SC actions in addition to selling NRT products. Pharmacists can constitute a potential public health resource in SC easily accessible throughout the country.

  18. Identifying multi-level culturally appropriate smoking cessation strategies for Aboriginal health staff: a concept mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Anna P; Cargo, Margaret; Stewart, Harold; Chong, Alwin; Daniel, Mark

    2013-02-01

    Aboriginal Australians, including Aboriginal Health Workers (AHWs), smoke at rates double the non-Aboriginal population. This study utilized concept mapping methodology to identify and prioritize culturally relevant strategies to promote smoking cessation in AHWs. Stakeholder participants included AHWs, other health service employees and tobacco control personnel. Smoking cessation strategies (n = 74) were brainstormed using 34 interviews, 3 focus groups and a stakeholder workshop. Stakeholders sorted strategies into meaningful groups and rated them on perceived importance and feasibility. A concept map was developed using multi-dimensional scaling and hierarchical cluster analyses. Ten unique clusters of smoking cessation strategies were depicted that targeted individuals, family and peers, community, workplace and public policy. Smoking cessation resources and services were represented in addition to broader strategies addressing social and environmental stressors that perpetuate smoking and make quitting difficult. The perceived importance and feasibility of clusters were rated differently by participants working in health services that were government-coordinated compared with community-controlled. For health service workers within vulnerable populations, these findings clearly implicate a need for contextualized strategies that mitigate social and environmental stressors in addition to conventional strategies for tobacco control. The concept map is being applied in knowledge translation to guide development of smoking cessation programs for AHWs.

  19. Evidence-based smoking cessation for college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Karen M; Fallin, Amanda; Ridner, S Lee

    2012-03-01

    Despite a strong stance by the American College Health Association and years of prevention and control efforts on US college campuses, smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke remain a problem among college students. This article provides an overview of what is known about cigarette smoking in this population as well as existing interventions for smoking prevention, cessation, and exposure to secondhand smoke on college campuses. Strategies to reduce tobacco use are presented, many of which have been demonstrated to be effective in the short-term. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Self-medication in smoking cessation among smokers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałucka, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization defines self-medication by using OTC (over-the-counter) to treatment diseases or symptoms recognized by yourself without pay a visit to the doctor's office. Increasing availability of OTC medicines cause that Poles are more and more willing to take self-medication, even when they want to smoking cessation. The aim of the study was to investigate what nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation without prescription were chosen by smokers, who wanted without help to smoking cessation. The study included 323 people (68.1% were men and 31.9% women). The average age of respondents was 49 +/-11 years. The average pack-years in the study group was 17. The research tool was the author's questionnaire, which was distributed among patients for self- fulfillment. Subjects were divided into three groups: group I up to 10 pack-years (average 7.5 pack-year), group II between-11-20 pack-years (average 15.5 pack-year), group III--between 21-35 pack-year (average 28.5 pack-year). All subjects, at least once in their lives, bought OTC for self-medication nicotine addiction. Among the respondents in I and II group the most often chose the nicotine replacement therapy in the form of chewing gum, and in III group Cytisine tablets and pills nicotine (pself-medication. A strong self-motivation to smoking cessation was declared by 78.3% of respondents. On the other hand, Schneider test was positive in only 5% of patients. Smokers want to own attempt to smoking cessation by using nicotine preparations without a prescription, should be aware that self-assessment of readiness to smoking cessation is not a real preparation to quit smoking addiction. All the more should consult a doctor if subsequent attempts fail.

  1. 78 FR 13236 - TRICARE: Smoking Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Cessation, one comment was received from a retiree who was upset that he might be forced to pay more for..., except that the following are not excluded: (i) Services provided by a certified marriage and family...

  2. Ear Acupressure for Smoking Cessation: A Randomised Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony L. Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the efficacy and safety of ear acupressure (EAP as a stand-alone intervention for smoking cessation and the feasibility of this study design. Adult smokers were randomised to receive EAP specific for smoking cessation (SSEAP or a nonspecific EAP (NSEAP intervention which is not typically used for smoking cessation. Participants received 8 weekly treatments and were requested to press the five pellets taped to one ear at least three times daily. Participants were followed up for three months. Primary outcome measures were a 7-day point-prevalence cessation rate confirmed by exhaled carbon monoxide and relief of nicotine withdrawal symptoms (NWS. Intention-to-treat analysis was applied. Forty-three adult smokers were randomly assigned to SSEAP (n=20 or NSEAP (n=23 groups. The dropout rate was high with 19 participants completing the treatments and 12 remaining at followup. One participant from the SSEAP group had confirmed cessation at week 8 and end of followup (5%, but there was no difference between groups for confirmed cessation or NWS. Adverse events were few and minor.

  3. Parents who quit smoking and their adult children's smoking cessation: a 20-year follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bricker, J.B.; Otten, R.; Liu, J.L.; Peterson, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Aims - Extending our earlier findings from a longitudinal cohort study, this study examines parents' early and late smoking cessation as predictors of their young adult children's smoking cessation. Design - Parents' early smoking cessation status was assessed when their children were aged 8 years;

  4. Finnish Dentists Find Smoking Cessation Important but Seldom Offer Practical Support for Their Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grönholm, A; Litkey, D; Jokelainen, J; Keto, J; Pöyry, M; Linden, K; Heikkinen, A M

    2017-12-01

    To investigate Finnish dentists' smoking cessation related attitudes, consultation practices and familiarity with the local treatment guideline on smoking cessation. An online questionnaire was sent to 1740 dentists, which corresponds to 39% of dentists in Finland. A total of 456 dentists responded (response rate 26%), of whom 435 (95%) were clinicians. The dentists' smoking cessation practices were also compared to ones reported in a previous study in Finnish physicians. Dentists found smoking cessation important and often discussed and recommended quitting to the patients, but concrete withdrawal actions were seldom provided. The local treatment guideline on smoking cessation was actively utilized by 36% of the dentists. Adherence to the guideline was associated with higher rates of smoking cessation activities and success in them. Smoking cessation activity among dentists was significantly lower than in Finnish physicians. In accordance with the literature, among dentists, the most common barriers for smoking cessation were lack of time (44%) and education (42%). Although smoking cessation is discussed with patients, dentists are less active in taking concrete actions to support the patient on withdrawal. Adherence to the local treatment guideline was associated with better capabilities in dealing with tobacco withdrawal and a more active role in smoking cessation. The results suggest that more education on the local smoking cessation treatment guideline and cessation intervention is needed in order to overcome the remaining barriers to promoting effective smoking cessation in dental practice. Copyright© 2017 Dennis Barber Ltd.

  5. Dental patients' perceptions and motivation in smoking cessation activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Pia; Johannsen, Annsofi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate smokers' perceptions of and motivation for smoking cessation activities in dentistry. MATERIALS AND METHODS PATIENTS: who smoked were consecutively recruited from general as well as specialist dental care clinics in Sweden. After a dental visit the patients completed a questionnaire about self-perceived oral health, smoking habits, motivation, reasons to quit and not to quit smoking, support to quit, smoking cessation activities and questions about smoking asked by dentists and dental hygienists. The sample consisted of 167 adult patients (≥ 20 years) who smoked daily. During the last 6 months, 81% of the patients had experienced oral health problems. The most common complaints were discolourations of the teeth, periodontal problems and dry mouth (38%, 36% and 33%, respectively). Improved general health was a major reason to quit smoking (89%). It was also stated that it was important to avoid oral health problems. 71% of the patients preferred to quit by themselves and 16% wanted support from dentistry. High motivation to quit smoking was reported by 20%. Occurrence of periodontitis during the last 6 months was significantly associated with being highly motivated to stop smoking (OR = 3.0, 95% CI = 1.03-8.55). This study revealed that, although it was important to quit smoking to avoid oral health problems, the patients were not aware that tobacco cessation activities can be performed in dentistry. Periodontal problems seem to be the most motivating factor among the patients who were highly motivated to stop smoking.

  6. Systematic review of social media interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naslund, John A; Kim, Sunny Jung; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; McCulloch, Laura J; Brunette, Mary F; Dallery, Jesse; Bartels, Stephen J; Marsch, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Popular social media could extend the reach of smoking cessation efforts. In this systematic review, our objectives were: 1) to determine whether social media interventions for smoking cessation are feasible, acceptable, and potentially effective; 2) to identify approaches for recruiting subjects; and 3) to examine the specific intervention design components and strategies employed to promote user engagement and retention. We searched Scopus, Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Central, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science through July 2016 and reference lists of relevant articles. Included studies described social media interventions for smoking cessation and must have reported outcomes related to feasibility, acceptability, usability, or smoking-related outcomes. We identified 7 studies (all were published since 2014) that enrolled 9755 participants (median=136 [range 40 to 9042]). Studies mainly used Facebook (n=4) or Twitter (n=2), and emerged as feasible and acceptable. Five studies reported smoking-related outcomes such as greater abstinence, reduction in relapse, and an increase in quit attempts. Most studies (n=6) recruited participants using online or Facebook advertisements. Tailored content, targeted reminders, and moderated discussions were used to promote participant engagement. Three studies found that active participation through posting comments or liking content may be associated with improved outcomes. Retention ranged from 35% to 84% (median=70%) across the included studies. Our review highlights the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of social media interventions for smoking cessation. Future research should continue to explore approaches for promoting user engagement and retention, and whether sustained engagement translates to clinically meaningful smoking cessation outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effectiveness of smoking cessation programs for seriously mentally ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Linde, Juan M

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have supported the significant association between mental illness and smoking habit, with relative independence of socio-cultural factors. The aim of this study was to review effective strategies for smoking cessation of adults with major depression, schizophrenia and psychosis. An extensive literature search was performed in Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library, Center for Reviews and Dissemination, ECRI, clinicaltrials.gov, UK National Research Register, Current Controlled Trials, Trip Database, NLM Gateway, Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs)), TESEO, Dialnet, Lilacs, SciELO, EMI, Doyma, and Catalogue et Index des Sites Medical Francophones. We selected all systematic reviews, comprehensive reports, clinical trials, observational studies and recommendations, which had evaluated smoking cessation programs in patients with severe mental illness. Few studies focusing on smoking cessation in severe mental illness were found. In the treatment of smokers who suffer these mental disorders, it is recommended to increase and prolong the treatment period, to implement joint psychoeducation techniques, cognitive-behavioral techniques and the use of any drug treatment that helps to control and / or reduce the occurrence of relapses in tobacco consumption or baseline psychiatric symptoms. However, there is great heterogeneity in the recommendations given by the studies. It remains unclear whether people with severe mental illness could benefit from access to smoking cessation treatments. In the best of the scenarios, it was seen that drug therapy and psychosocial interventions have indicated abstinence at 6 months for a few patients.

  8. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    .... To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation...

  9. Effects of Nicotine Dependence and Depressive Symptoms on Smoking Cessation: A Longitudinal Study Among Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherphof, C.S.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Harakeh, Z.; Raaijmakers, Q.A.W.; Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to hamper successful smoking cessation in adolescents. Nicotine dependence and depression are highly comorbid, but the relation between depression and smoking cessation is not yet fully understood. Therefore, the present study examines both the longitudinal

  10. Effect of Smoking Cessation on Gestational and Postpartum Weight Gain and Neonatal Birth Weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Kjærgaard, Hanne; Damm, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight.......To examine the association among smoking cessation, gestational and postpartum weight gain, and neonatal birth weight....

  11. Smoking cessation after 12 months with multi-component therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Antònia; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose Maria; Marquilles, Emili; Rubio, Lídia; Fu, Marcela; Fernández, Esteve

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. One of the priorities of public health programmes is the reduction of its prevalence, which would involve millions of people quitting smoking, but cessation programs often have modest results, especially within certain population groups. The aim of this study was to analyze the variables determining the success of a multicomponent therapy programme for smoking cessation. We conducted the study in the Smoking Addiction Unit at the Hospital of Manresa, with 314 patients (91.4% of whom had medium or high-level dependency). We observed that higher educational level, not living with a smoker, following a multimodal programme or smoking cessation with psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment are relevant factors for quitting smoking. Abstinence rates are not associated with other factors, such as sex, age, smoking behaviour characteristics or psychiatric history. The combination of pharmacological and psychological treatment increased success rates in multicomponent therapy. Psychological therapy only also obtained positive results, though somewhat more modest.

  12. Impact of the 2009 Taiwan tobacco hazards prevention act on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Sung, Hai-Yen; Zhu, Shu-Hong; Chiou, Shu-Ti

    2014-01-01

    In January 2009, the government of Taiwan amended the 1997 Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act by extending smoke-free areas to include almost all enclosed work-places and public places, adding graphic health warnings to cigarette packages, totally banning tobacco advertisements, promotion and sponsorship and increasing tobacco taxes. This study examined the impact of the 2009 amended Act on smoking cessation in Taiwan. Taiwan Adult Tobacco Surveys 2007 and 2010, each with a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 years and older (n = 16 588, and n = 16 295, respectively). All recent active smokers (current smokers plus former smokers who quit smoking within the past 12 months) were used for the analyses (n = 3783 in 2007, and n = 2777 in 2010). Quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate (defined as having succeeded in quitting for at least 3 months) among recent active smokers were compared between the pre-Act (2007) and post-Act (2010) periods. The quit attempt rate increased significantly from 39.4% in 2007 to 42.9% in 2010. The annual cessation rate increased significantly from 7.1 to 8.9%. A multivariate analysis, controlling for demographic characteristics, showed that the implementation of the 2009 Act was associated with an increase in the quit attempt rate [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-1.25] and the annual cessation rate (OR = 1.28; 95% CI = 1.08-1.53). The comprehensive tobacco control programme introduced in 2009 in Taiwan, which combined smoke-free legislation with a tobacco tax increase, graphic health warning labels and a total ban on tobacco advertisements, was associated with increases in quit attempt rate and annual cessation rate. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  13. Adolescents' rationalizations to continue smoking: The role of disengagement beliefs and nicotine dependence in smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Eijnden, R.J.J.M. van den; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2009-01-01

    Adult smokers were found to reduce cognitive dissonance regarding their smoking behaviour by adhering to rationalizations or justifications to continue smoking, also known as disengagement beliefs. These beliefs were found to be an important barrier with regard to smoking cessation practices.

  14. Determinants of smoking status : cross-sectional data on smoking initiation and cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.J.M.; Tijhuis, M.; Surtees, P.G.; Ormel, J.

    Background: Cigarette smoking is known to increase the risk of chronic disease. Improved understanding of factors that contribute to smoking initiation and cessation may help to underpin strategies that lead to smoking behavior change. Methods: Cross-sectional data obtained from 11 967 men and

  15. Exploring the views of healthcare professionals on increasing smoking cessation advice for patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Ho ShuYing; McGee Hannah; McElvaney Noel G; Doyle Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background: Smoking cessation advice provided by healthcare professionals can be effective in increasing smoking cessation among patients. Any successful intervention will require staff knowledge of local barriers to implementation. However, the views of Irish healthcare professionals on increasing the provision of smoking cessation advice and the associated barriers remain unexplored. Aims: To explore the views of Irish healthcare professionals on barriers to increasing smoking cessation ...

  16. Smoking cessation intervention after ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner Frandsen, Nicole; Sørensen, Margit; Hyldahl, Tanja Kirstine; Henriksen, Rikke Mitzi; Bak, Søren

    2012-04-01

    Smoking cessation is widely recommended for secondary stroke prevention. However, little is known about the efficacy of smoking cessation intervention after stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Ninety-four smokers under age 76, admitted with ischemic stroke or TIA were randomized to minimal smoking cessation intervention or intensive smoking cessation intervention. All patients attended a 30-min individual counseling by the study nurse. Patients randomized to intensive smoking cessation intervention also participated in a 5-session outpatient smoking cessation program by an authorized smoking cessation instructor, a 30-min outpatient visit after 6 weeks, and 5 telephone counseling sessions by the study nurse. Free samples of nicotine replacement therapy were offered as part of the intensive smoking cessation program. Smoking cessation rates at 6 months were determined by self-report and verified by measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Fewer patients than expected were recruited, which renders this report a pilot study. The 6-month self-reported smoking cessation rate was 37.8% in the minimal intervention group and 42.9% in the intensive intervention group. Smoking cessation rates verified by exhaled CO levels in the minimal intervention group and the intensive intervention group were 28.9% and 32.7%, respectively. No difference was found between the two groups (χ(2) = 0.16, p = .69). Overall smoking cessation rates were moderate and comparable to the results from other studies. Intensive smoking cessation intervention was not superior to short smoking cessation intervention. Thus, other factors than intensity of smoking cessation intervention might influence the smoking cessation rates after stroke or TIA.

  17. The total lifetime health cost savings of smoking cessation to society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Gitte Susanne; Prescott, Eva; Sørensen, Thorkild I A

    2005-01-01

    Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined.......Smoking cessation has major immediate and long-term health benefits. However, ex-smokers' total lifetime health costs and continuing smokers' costs remain uncompared, and hence the economic savings of smoking cessation to society have not been determined....

  18. Interventions to facilitate smoking cessation | Okuyemi | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... therefore, pharmacotherapy is recommended for smokers who are willing to attempt cessation, unless medical contraindications exist. The pharmacologic agents approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treatment of tobacco dependence include bupropion (a non-nicotine therapy) and nicotine replacement ...

  19. Assessing the impact of a respiratory diagnosis on smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexandra

    2017-07-27

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of respiratory diagnoses on smoking cessation. A total of 229 current and former smokers, with and without respiratory diagnoses completed an anonymous online questionnaire assessing how their smoking habit changed when diagnosed with various respiratory conditions. Among all participants the most common reason for quitting smoking was to reduce the risk of health problems in general. In those with a chronic respiratory diagnosis, this was their most common reason for quitting. Motivation to quit smoking, scored by participants on a scale of 0-10, increased at the time of diagnosis then further increased after diagnosis of a chronic respiratory condition but declined after diagnosis of an acute respiratory condition. The research had a small sample size so further research is required. However, important themes are highlighted with the potential to influence clinical practice. All clinicians should receive training to promote cessation at the time of diagnosing respiratory conditions.

  20. How to address smoking cessation in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Sánchez, M; Martinez, E

    2015-04-01

    Tobacco consumption is the modifiable risk factor contributing most to the development of non-AIDS-defining events among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Clinicians' awareness of this problem is critical and not yet adequate. Practical information issued by public health authorities or contained in experts' clinical guidelines regarding how to address smoking cessation in PLWHA is scarce. The aim of this review is to provide physicians with comprehensive and practical information regarding how to identify HIV-positive patients willing to stop smoking and those more likely to succeed, how to choose the most suitable strategy for an individual patient, and how to help the patient during the process. In the light of current evidence on the efficacy and benefits of stopping smoking in PLWHA, physicians must actively pursue smoking cessation as a major objective in the clinical care of PLWHA. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  1. Smoking Cessation through Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Bal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is one of the most common addictions with devastating biopsychosocial consequences. Both medical treatment and pschotherapy are utilized in smoking cessation. Acceptance and commitment therapy holds the notion that smoking cessation rates are determined not so much by the negative affect and withdrawal symptoms per se, but by the avoidant and inflexible responding style. Acceptance and commitment therapy, through targeting the avoidance of internal stimuli and concomitant inflexible responding pattern, has yielded successful results.This article presents application of acceptance and commitment therapy step by step to a chronic smoker who quitted smoking at the end of therapy sessions. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 841-846

  2. Electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tool: are we there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sohini; Drummond, M Bradley

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is rapidly increasing, with many users reporting trying e-cigarettes as a method to quit combustible cigarettes. This review highlights recently published studies assessing the use of e-cigarettes as a tool for cessation of combustible cigarettes. When evaluating data from four randomized controlled trials and multiple cohort studies, differential association between e-cigarette use and cessation rates was seen. Cessation rates are highest in UK cohort studies and in studies using a multifaceted approach, such as with the addition of varenicline. The largest evidence base is derived from observational cohort studies. Overall, the current evidence remains too small for conclusive results regarding efficacy of e-cigarettes for combustible cessation. There does appear to be a consistent reduction in daily combustible cigarette use in regular e-cigarette users. Currently, there are conflicting data which can be used to support or dismiss e-cigarettes as a tool for smoking cessation. As larger population-based studies become available, the potential harms and benefits of e-cigarettes will become clearer. In the short term, shared decision-making with combustible cigarette users will be imperative when considering e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation tool.

  3. Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malas, Muhannad; van der Tempel, Jan; Schwartz, Robert; Minichiello, Alexa; Lightfoot, Clayton; Noormohamed, Aliya; Andrews, Jaklyn; Zawertailo, Laurie; Ferrence, Roberta

    2016-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been steadily increasing in popularity among smokers, most of whom report using them to quit smoking. This study systematically reviews the current literature on the effectiveness of e-cigarettes as cessation aids. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ERIC, ROVER, Scopus, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, the Ontario Tobacco Research Unit (OTRU) library catalogue, and various gray literature sources. We included all English-language, empirical quantitative and qualitative papers that investigated primary cessation outcomes (smoking abstinence or reduction) or secondary outcomes (abstinence-related withdrawal symptoms and craving reductions) and were published on or before February 1, 2016. Literature searches identified 2855 references. After removing duplicates and screening for eligibility, 62 relevant references were reviewed and appraised. In accordance with the GRADE system, the quality of the evidence in support of e-cigarettes' effectiveness in helping smokers quit was assessed as very low to low, and the evidence on smoking reduction was assessed as very low to moderate. The majority of included studies found that e-cigarettes, especially second-generation types, could alleviate smoking withdrawal symptoms and cravings in laboratory settings. While the majority of studies demonstrate a positive relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation, the evidence remains inconclusive due to the low quality of the research published to date. Well-designed randomized controlled trials and longitudinal, population studies are needed to further elucidate the role of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation. This is the most comprehensive systematic evidence review to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and smoking cessation among smokers. This review offers balanced and rigorous qualitative and quantitative analyses of published evidence on the effectiveness of e-cigarette use for smoking

  4. Success of smoking cessation interventions during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, Anick; Zhao, Jin-Ping; Sheehy, Odile

    2016-11-01

    Smoking during pregnancy is a modifiable risk factor associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Smoking during pregnancy has been shown to increase the risk of spontaneous abortion, prematurity, low birthweight, congenital malformations, and sudden infant death syndrome. Despite the fact that it is well known that smoking can lead to adverse pregnancy outcomes, 13-25% of pregnant women overall continue to smoke during this critical period. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of gestational use of bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy on the risk of the following: (1) smoking cessation, (2) prematurity, and (3) small for gestational age. Women included in the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort who filled the annual autoadministered questionnaire between Jan. 1, 1998, and June 30, 2009, were studied. Smokers before gestation with a pregnancy resulting in a live birth comprised the study population. Three mutually exclusive study groups were formed among those who smoked at the beginning of pregnancy: gestational users of nicotine patch replacement therapy, bupropion, and smokers who did not use nicotine patch replacement therapy or bupropion. Rate of smoking cessation during pregnancy as well as the risk of prematurity and small for gestational age were studied. Of the 1288 women who met inclusion criteria, 900 were smokers, 72 were bupropion users, and 316 were nicotine patch replacement therapy users. Bupropion and nicotine patch replacement therapy use during pregnancy were associated with higher rates of smoking cessation: 81% in the bupropion group; 79% for nicotine patch replacement therapy; and 0% in those not using buproprion or nicotine patch replacement therapy. After discontinuing smoking cessation medications, 60% of bupropion users and 68% of nicotine patch replacement therapy users did not smoke again during and after pregnancy. Adjusting for potential confounders, nicotine patch replacement therapy use was associated with a lower

  5. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Recommendations to improve smoking cessation outcomes from people with lung conditions who smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Masefield

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to gain insight into the impact of lung conditions on smoking behaviour and smoking cessation, and identify recommendations for smoking cessation and professional-patient communications. The study was led by the European Lung Foundation in collaboration with the European Respiratory Society Task Force on “Statement on smoking cessation on COPD and other pulmonary diseases and in smokers with comorbidities who find it difficult to quit”. A web-based observational cross-sectional questionnaire was developed from a patient-centered literature review. Topics covered were: cohort characteristics; perspectives on smoking cessation; interactions with healthcare professionals; and recommendations to improve cessation outcomes. The questionnaire was disseminated via existing patient and professional networks and social media channels. The survey was available online for a period of 4 months in 16 languages. The data were analysed as a whole, not by country, with thematic analysis of the open responses. Common characteristics were: male (54%; age 40–55 years (39%; 11–20 cigarettes a day (39%; smokes within 30 min of waking (61%; and has made 1–5 cessation attempts in the previous 12 months (54%. 59% had tried cessation treatments, but, of these, 55% had not found any treatments helpful. Recommendations were: earlier intervention; discussion of the patient's smoking beliefs, behaviours and motivation; giving constructive advice; understanding addiction; informed decision-making; and treatment options. Areas for new and further research have been highlighted through exploring the smoking cessation perspectives and recommendations of people with lung conditions in Europe who smoke.

  7. A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial of Auricular Acupuncture in Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Peng Wu

    2007-08-01

    Conclusion: Our results showed that auricular acupuncture did not have a better efficacy in smoking cessation compared to sham acupuncture. Combined acupuncture with behavior counseling or with nicotine replacement therapy should be used in further smoking cessation trials to enhance the success rate of smoking cessation.

  8. Brief smoking cessation intervention in relation to breast cancer surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Thordis; Tønnesen, Hanne; Okholm, Mette

    2010-01-01

    Smokers are more prone to develop postoperative complications. Smoking cessation intervention beginning 4-8 weeks prior to surgery improves the postoperative outcome. Cancer patients, however, often undergo surgery less than 4 weeks after diagnosis. The primary objective of this study was therefore...... to examine if a brief smoking cessation intervention shortly before breast cancer surgery would influence postoperative complications and smoking cessation....

  9. Smoking cessation and attempted cessation among adults in the United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Goren

    Full Text Available With growing recognition of stagnant rates of attempted cigarette smoking cessation, the current study examined demographic and psychometric characteristics associated with successful and attempted smoking cessation in a nationally representative sample. This additional understanding may help target tobacco cessation treatments toward sub-groups of smokers in order to increase attempts to quit smoking.Data were used from the 2011 U.S. National Health and Wellness Survey (n = 50,000.Current smoking status and demographics, health characteristics, comorbidities, and health behaviors.In 2011, 18%, 29%, and 52% of U.S. adults were current, former, or never smokers, respectively. Over one quarter (27% of current smokers were attempting to quit. Current smokers (vs. others were significantly more likely to be poorer, non-Hispanic White, less educated, ages 45-64, and uninsured, and they had fewer health-conscious behaviors (e.g., influenza vaccination, exercise. Attempting quitters vs. current smokers were significantly less likely to be non-Hispanic White and more likely to be younger, educated, insured, non-obese, with family history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and they had more health-conscious behaviors.Smokers, attempting quitters, and successful quitters differ on characteristics that may be useful for targeting and personalizing interventions aiming to increase cessation attempts, likelihood, and sustainability.

  10. Smoking-Related Behaviors and Effectiveness of Smoking Cessation Therapy Among Prisoners and Prison Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Onur; Turan, Pakize Ayse

    2016-04-01

    Smoking is a serious problem in prisons. This work aimed to assess smoking-related behaviors and the effectiveness of tobacco cessation therapy in prison. This study includes four visits to a prison in Bolvadin-Afyon, Turkey. Pharmacologic options for tobacco cessation were offered to the participants who wanted to quit smoking. One hundred seventy-nine subjects (109 prisoners and 70 prison staff) with 68.7% current smokers were included. There was an increase of cigarette smoking in 41.8% (the most common reason was stress) and decrease in 18.7% (the most common reason was health problems) of the participants after incarceration. Fifty-nine participants accepted the offered tobacco cessation treatment. Only 2 participants started their planned medications, but they could not quit smoking. The most common reason for failed attempts to quit was the high prices of cessation therapies. Factors like stress and being in prison may provoke smoking. A smoking ban does not seem to be a total solution for preventing tobacco use in prisons. Tobacco cessation programs may be a better option. Cost-free cessation medications may increase quitting rates among prisoners and prison staff. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Outcome research methodology of smoking cessation trials (1994-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Lori B; Sobell, Linda Carter; Prevo, Melissa H; Toll, Benjamin A; Gutwein, Cindy Levin; Sobell, Mark B; Hyman, Scott M

    2004-05-01

    Although several reviews of smoking cessation trials have been published, none have specifically evaluated the adequacy of the studies' reporting practices in terms of describing the intervention and outcome variables used. This review evaluates the reporting procedures of 109 smoking cessation trials published in English language peer-reviewed publications from 1994 through 1998. MedLine and PsychLIT searches were used to identify potential studies. Each study was evaluated as to whether the following information was reported: (a) demographic characteristics, (b) pretreatment smoking variables, (c) study characteristics, (d) descriptions of the clinical trial, (e) follow-up procedures, and (f) posttreatment outcome measures. Although some areas of methodological strength were identified, inadequate reporting of pre- and posttreatment demographic and smoking variables was also evident. Based on this review, several areas in need of further research are identified and discussed. Lastly, consistent with other recent reviews of smoking cessation trials, this review concluded that the smoking field should consider delineating a uniform set of assessment and outcome measures and a minimum follow-up interval.

  12. Committee Opinion No. 721 Summary: Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is the one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States, and is associated with maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. The physical and psychologic addiction to cigarettes is powerful; however, the compassionate intervention of the obstetrician-gynecologist can be the critical element in prenatal smoking cessation. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment or referral has been proved to increase quit rates. A short counseling session with pregnancy-specific educational materials and a referral to the smokers' quit line is an effective smoking cessation strategy. The 5A's is an office-based intervention developed to be used under the guidance of trained practitioners to help pregnant women quit smoking. Knowledge of the use of the 5A's, health care support systems, and pharmacotherapy add to the techniques providers can use to support perinatal smoking cessation. The use of alternative forms of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and vaping, have increased substantially in recent years, but there are little data regarding the health effects of these agents, either in the general population or in pregnant women specifically.

  13. Committee Opinion No. 721: Smoking Cessation During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Smoking is the one of the most important modifiable causes of poor pregnancy outcomes in the United States, and is associated with maternal, fetal, and infant morbidity and mortality. The physical and psychologic addiction to cigarettes is powerful; however, the compassionate intervention of the obstetrician-gynecologist can be the critical element in prenatal smoking cessation. An office-based protocol that systematically identifies pregnant women who smoke and offers treatment or referral has been proved to increase quit rates. A short counseling session with pregnancy-specific educational materials and a referral to the smokers' quit line is an effective smoking cessation strategy. The 5A's is an office-based intervention developed to be used under the guidance of trained practitioners to help pregnant women quit smoking. Knowledge of the use of the 5A's, health care support systems, and pharmacotherapy add to the techniques providers can use to support perinatal smoking cessation. The use of alternative forms of nicotine, such as e-cigarettes and vaping, have increased substantially in recent years, but there are little data regarding the health effects of these agents, either in the general population or in pregnant women specifically.

  14. Adolescent smoking cessation services of school-based health centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, James H; Yingling, Faith; Dake, Joseph A; Telljohann, Susan K

    2003-04-01

    A national sample of 390 junior and senior high school-based centers were mailed an 18-item survey to assess their institutional stages of change regarding smoking cessation education, referral, and prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) services and their perceived barriers and benefits regarding the provision of these services. Nearly half were in the maintenance stage for cessation education programs, one-third were in maintenance stage for referral services, and 12% were in the maintenance stage for NRT. The most frequently cited perceived benefits included an increased awareness of short- and long-term effects of smoking (education programs and referral services) and increasing student access to cessation methods (NRT). The greatest barriers cited were a lack of financial resources (education programs), problems with student transportation (referral services), and staff not having the authority to provide prescription services (NRT). School-based centers can do more to help stop adolescents from using tobacco.

  15. [Smoking cessation--a central role for physicians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornuz, J

    2005-09-01

    Physicians are in a unique position to advice smokers to quit by the ability to integrate the various aspects of nicotine dependence. This review provides an overview of intervention with smokers presenting in a primary care setting. Strategies used for smoking cessation counseling differed according to patient's readiness to quit. For smokers who do not intend to quit smoking, physicians should inform and sensitize patients about tobacco use and cessation, especially by personalizing benefits to quit and challenging smokers 'beliefs. For smokers who are dissonant, physicians should use motivational strategies, such as discussing barriers to cessation and their solutions. For smokers ready to quit, the physician should show strong support, help set a quit date, prescribe pharmaceutical therapies for nicotine dependence, such as replacement therapy and/or bupropion, with instructions for use, and suggest behavioral strategies to prevent relapse.

  16. Persistent smoking rate after coronary revascularization and factors related to smoking cessation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Kudret; Sezai Yildiz, Süleyman; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Çetin, Sükrü; Sigirci, Serhat; Kilci, Hakan; Aksan, Gökhan; Helvaci, Füsun; Gürdal, Ahmet; Balaban Kocas, Betül; Arslan, Sükrü; Orta Kiliçkesmez, Kadriye

    2017-11-22

    Although smoking is an established risk factor for coronary artery disease, smoking cessation efforts, as part of a lifestyle change, have been disappointing so far. Therefore, assessing current smoking trends and identifying patients who are at risk of smoking continuation is of paramount importance. In this study, our aim was to assess current smoking rates after coronary revascularization as of 2017, and to define factors that potentially affect smoking cessation. Overall, 350 patients who had undergone coronary revascularization, either by percutaneous coronary intervention or bypass surgery were included in this cross-sectional, observational study. Patients were queried for various sociodemographic characteristics and smoking habits. Disease related data were obtained from the hospital archives. The overall smoking rate was 57% after coronary revascularization. Age, bypass surgery and the occurrence of in-hospital adverse events were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation in multivariate analysis. Despite efforts, smoking rates after coronary intervention remain substantially high. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach to smoking cessation that incorporates cardiac rehabilitation programs and medications should be implemented in clinical practice.

  17. Beliefs and experiences regarding smoking cessation among American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana; Fu, Steven S; Joseph, Anne M; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Solomon, Jody; van Ryn, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    A dearth of information exists about American Indians' views about smoking and cessation. We present results from six focus groups conducted among current and former smokers from American Indian communities in the Minneapolis/St. Paul metropolitan area, as part of a larger qualitative study. Findings indicate that, although smoking is common and acceptable among this population, many would like to quit. The majority of focus group participants attempted cessation without the aid of counseling and pharmacotherapy. Many held negative attitudes toward pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, including worries about side effects, skepticism about effectiveness, and dislike of medications in general. Negative attitudes were grounded partly in a lack of trust in conventional medicine and, for some, were related to historic and continuing racism. Participants also reported a lack of information about tobacco dependence treatment from health care providers, including information about the functional benefits of such treatment. Nonetheless, participants thought smokers might try pharmacotherapy if it was made more accessible in their community and if community members could offer word-of-mouth testimonials regarding its effectiveness. Results point to the need for community- and peer-based smoking cessation treatment in the American Indian community, including accurate information from trusted sources.

  18. Smoking Intervention: A Combination Therapy Approach to Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Penny Neathery

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of the Start SMART smoking cessation program which combines nicotine withdrawal therapy with behavior modification. The Start SMART program provides seven, intensive one-hour group sessions that are shown to be a most effective intervention with a specific population--motivated, yet highly dependent smokers. (GLR)

  19. Predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Identification of the predictors of treatment success in smoking cessation may help healthcare workers to improve the effectiveness of attempts at quitting. Objective. To identify the predictors of success in a randomised controlled trial comparing varenicline alone or in combination with nicotine replacement ...

  20. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  1. Cost-effectiveness of varenicline for smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Smoking cessation therapies are among the most cost-effective preventive healthcare measures. Varenicline is a relatively new drug developed especially for this purpose, and it has been shown to achieve better quit rates than nicotine replacement therapies and the non-nicotine-based drug, bupropion...

  2. Styles of Physician Advice about Smoking Cessation in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Leigh; DiClemente, Carlo C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether young adult cigarette smokers who were in the precontemplation and contemplation stages of change for smoking cessation would differ in their evaluations of vignettes depicting 2 types of physician advice. Participants: Fifty-seven young adult cigarette smokers who were undergraduate students (49.1% female, mean age =…

  3. Smoking Cessation Quitlines in Europe: Matching Services to Callers' Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, Marc C.; van der Meer, Regina M.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Telephone quitlines offer a wide range of services to callers, including advice and counsel, and information on pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. But, little is known about what specific quitline services are offered to smokers and whether these services are appropriately

  4. A content analysis of popular smartphone apps for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C; Lee Westmaas, J; Bontemps-Jones, Jeuneviette; Ramani, Rathna; Mellerson, Jenelle

    2013-12-01

    Smartphone applications (apps) are increasingly available for smoking cessation. This study examined the content of popular apps for smoking cessation for both iPhone and Android operating systems in February 2012. A total of 252 smoking-cessation apps were identified for the iPhone and 148 for the Android. Across both operating systems, the most popular apps were identified (n=47 for the iPhone and n=51 for the Android) and analyzed for their (1) approach to smoking cessation and (2) adherence to an index based on the U.S. Public Health Service's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence. Where available, apps were coded for frequency of downloads. The analysis took place in 2012. Overall, popular apps have low levels of adherence, with an average score of 12.9 of a possible 42 on the Adherence Index. No apps recommended calling a quitline, and only a handful of apps recommended using approved medications (4.1%). Android apps in the sample were downloaded worldwide between 310,800 and 1,248,000 times per month. For both the iPhone and Android, user ratings were positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. For the iPhone, display order was also positively associated with scores on the Adherence Index. Apps could be improved by better integration with the Clinical Practice Guidelines and other evidence-based practices. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, R.; van der Galien, O.P.; Smeets, H.M.; Hollinga, A.P.D.; Bosmans, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. Methods: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  6. Effectiveness of pharmacotherapy in behavioural therapeutic smoking cessation programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostveen, Rosan; van der Galiën, Onno P; Smeets, Hugo M; Hollinga, Anne P D; Bosmans, Judith E

    BACKGROUND: In 2011, pharmacotherapy as a part of smoking cessation treatment was reimbursed through the basic health insurance in the Netherlands. We examine the (cost)-effectiveness of pharmacotherapy added to behavioural therapy. METHODS: An observational study was conducted using data from the

  7. Dynamics of smoking-induced genome-wide methylation changes with time since smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Florence; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Castagné, Raphaële; Campanella, Gianluca; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Severi, Gianluca; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Lund, Eiliv; Vineis, Paolo; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2015-04-15

    Several studies have recently identified strong epigenetic signals related to tobacco smoking. However, an aspect that did not receive much attention is the evolution of epigenetic changes with time since smoking cessation. We conducted a series of epigenome-wide association studies to capture the dynamics of smoking-induced epigenetic changes after smoking cessation, using genome-wide methylation profiles obtained from blood samples in 745 women from 2 European populations. Two distinct classes of CpG sites were identified: sites whose methylation reverts to levels typical of never smokers within decades after smoking cessation, and sites remaining differentially methylated, even more than 35 years after smoking cessation. Our results suggest that the dynamics of methylation changes following smoking cessation are driven by a differential and site-specific magnitude of the smoking-induced alterations (with persistent sites being most affected) irrespective of the intensity and duration of smoking. Analyses of the link between methylation and expression levels revealed that methylation predominantly and remotely down-regulates gene expression. Among genes whose expression was associated with our candidate CpG sites, LRRN3 appeared to be particularly interesting as it was one of the few genes whose methylation and expression were directly associated, and the only gene in which both methylation and gene expression were found associated with smoking. Our study highlights persistent epigenetic markers of smoking, which can potentially be detected decades after cessation. Such historical signatures are promising biomarkers to refine individual risk profiling of smoking-induced chronic disease such as lung cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Smoking cessation strategies for patients with asthma: improving patient outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perret JL

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer L Perret,1–3 Billie Bonevski,4 Christine F McDonald,2,3,5 Michael J Abramson6,7 1Allergy and Lung Health Unit, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 2Institute for Breathing & Sleep, Melbourne, VIC, 3Department of Respiratory and Sleep Medicine, Austin Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, 4School of Medicine & Public Health, University of Newcastle, NSW, 5Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, 6School of Public Health & Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, 7Allergy, Immunology & Respiratory Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Smoking is common in adults with asthma, yet a paucity of literature exists on smoking cessation strategies specifically targeting this subgroup. Adverse respiratory effects from personal smoking include worse asthma control and a predisposition to lower lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Some data suggest that individuals with asthma are more likely than their non-asthmatic peers to smoke regularly at an earlier age. While quit attempts can be more frequent in smokers with asthma, they are also of shorter duration than in non-asthmatics. Considering these asthma-specific characteristics is important in order to individualize smoking cessation strategies. In particular, asthma-specific information such as “lung age” should be provided and longer-term follow-up is advised. Promising emerging strategies include reminders by cellular phone and web-based interventions using consumer health informatics. For adolescents, training older peers to deliver asthma education is another promising strategy. For smokers who are hospitalized for asthma, inpatient nicotine replacement therapy and counseling are a priority. Overall, improving smoking cessation rates in smokers with asthma may rely on a more personalized approach, with the potential for substantial health benefits to individuals and the population at large

  9. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. METHODS The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. RESULTS The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. CONCLUSIONS The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. PMID:27849293

  10. Measurement and definition for smoking cessation intervention research: the Smoke-Free Families experience

    OpenAIRE

    Melvin, C.; Tucker, P.

    2000-01-01

    The measures, definitions, and processes used in the Smoke-Free Families clinical trials to assure consistent measurement and reporting of various aspects of the trials are described. Definitions of current smokers at different points in the pregnancy, levels of addiction, biological verification, cessation, stages of change, and intervention approaches are presented along with the rationale underlying their adoption and development.


Keywords: smoking cessation; pregnancy; clinical trials; ...

  11. A randomized controlled trial of directive and nondirective smoking cessation coaching through an employee quitline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walton Sumner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Telephone quitlines can help employees quit smoking. Quitlines typically use directive coaching, but nondirective, flexible coaching is an alternative. Call-2-Quit used a worksite-sponsored quitline to compare directive and nondirective coaching modes, and evaluated employee race and income as potential moderators. Methods An unblinded randomized controlled trial compared directive and nondirective telephone coaching by trained laypersons. Participants were smoking employees and spouses recruited through workplace smoking cessation campaigns in a hospital system and affiliated medical school. Coaches were four non-medical women trained to use both coaching modes. Participants were randomized by family to coaching mode. Participants received up to 7 calls from coaches who used computer assisted telephone interview software to track topics and time. Outcomes were reported smoking abstinence for 7 days at last contact, 6 or 12 months after coaching began. Both worksites implemented new tobacco control policies during the study. Results Most participants responded to an insurance incentive introduced at the hospital. Call-2-Quit coached 518 participants: 22 % were African-American; 45 % had incomes below $30,000. Income, race, and intervention did not affect coaching completion rates. Cessation rates were comparable with directive and nondirective coaching (26 % versus 30 % quit, NS. A full factorial logistic regression model identified above median income (odds ratio = 1.8, p = 0.02, especially among African Americans (p = 0.04, and recent quit attempts (OR = 1.6, p = 0.03 as predictors of cessation. Nondirective coaching was associated with high cessation rates among subgroups of smokers reporting income above the median, recent quit attempts, or use of alternative therapies. Waiting up to 4 weeks to start coaching did not affect cessation. Of 41 highly addicted or depressed smokers who had never quit

  12. Impact of Smoking Cessation Counseling Prior to Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Sina; Nguyen, Long-Co; Chan, Vanessa; Saleh, Jamal; Bozic, Kevin J

    2017-03-01

    Perioperative smoking has been linked to surgical complications including poor wound healing, infection, myocardial infarction, prolonged length of stay, need for mechanical ventilation, and death. This study evaluated the effectiveness of preoperative counseling on smoking cessation for patients undergoing elective total joint arthroplasty. Thirty smokers with hip or knee osteoarthritis seeking hip or knee replacement surgery were enrolled prospectively. Interventions included counseling, referrals to smoking cessation programs including the California Smokers' Helpline and the Fontana Tobacco Treatment Program, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or instructing patients quit through the "cold turkey" method of abstinence. Patients were scheduled for surgery if they demonstrated abstinence from smoking, confirmed via expired carbon monoxide (CO) breath testing. Short- and long-term smoking cessation rates were evaluated. Thirty patients were enrolled; 21 patients (70%) passed the CO test, whereas 9 patients (30%) failed or did not follow up with a CO test. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) quit using the "cold turkey" method, 5 of 21 patients (24%) quit using NRT, and 3 of 21 patients (14%) quit using outpatient treatment programs. Eighteen of 21 patients (86%) who quit smoking underwent surgery, and 14 patients had surgery within 6 months of smoking abstinence. Nine of the 14 patients (64%) remained smoke-free 6 months postoperatively confirmed through telephone questionnaire. These results suggest that elective surgery offers a strong incentive for patients to quit smoking, and surgeons can play a role offering a teachable moment and motivating this potentially life-altering behavioral change. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e323-e328.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Smoking Cessation in Cardiac Patients: The Influence of Action Plans, Coping Plans and Self-Efficacy on Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoog, Natascha; Bolman, Catherine; Berndt, Nadine; Kers, Esther; Mudde, Aart; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cessation is the most effective action for cardiac patients who smoke to improve their prognosis, yet more than one-half of cardiac patients continue to smoke after hospital admission. This study examined the influence of action plans, coping plans and self-efficacy on intention to quit and smoking cessation in cardiac patients. Cardiac…

  14. [The motivational week: A new approach in smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssens, L; Lustygier, V; Ansseau, M; Thiebaut, I; Thimpont, J

    2017-03-01

    Smoking cessation is complex and challenging. The motivational week is a multidisciplinary approach that has been established in order to increase the chances of quitting smoking. The purpose of this study was to determine the rates of abstinence achieved and the predictive factors for quitting. Clinical data, smoking status, levels of dependence and motivation as well as rates of continuous abstinence in the short and long-term of all patients who participated in the motivational week were analysed. Two hundred and thirteen patients were included. The mean age was 49.8 years (10.6). The rates of continuous abstinence were 40.4% at 6 months, 29.1% at 12 months and 21.6% at 2 years. Using logistic regression, having depression or a history of depression was associated with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation: OR: 0.32 [95%CI: 0.16-0.76; P=0.003] at 6 months, OR: 0.35 [95%CI: 0.16-0.77; P=0.009] at 12 months and OR: 0.27 [95%CI: 0.11-0.65; P=0.004] at 2 years. The motivational week seems to be an approach which is effective long-term and could be used in smoking cessation. This study confirms that depression is an unfavourable factor for quitting. Copyright © 2016 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. HIV Care Initiation: A Teachable Moment for Smoking Cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Frank, Summer G; Savin, Micah J; Waters, Andrew J; Li, Yisheng; Chen, Sixia; Fletcher, Faith E; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2017-09-25

    Tobacco use among persons living with HIV represents an important risk factor for poor treatment outcomes, morbidity, and mortality. Thus, efforts designed to inform the development of appropriate smoking cessation programs for this population remains a public health priority. To address this need, a study was conducted to longitudinally assess the relationship between intention to quit smoking and cessation over the 12 month period following initiation of HIV care. Patients initiating HIV care at a large inner city safety net clinic were enrolled (n=378) in a 12-month prospective study. Audio computer-assisted self-interviews were conducted at baseline, and at 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month post enrollment, and HIV-related clinical data were collected from participants' electronic medical records. Variables of interest included intention to quit smoking, 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence (biochemically verified), and stage of HIV. Data were collected in Houston, Texas from 2009 to 2015. The sample was 75% male and 62% Black. Findings indicated that intention to quit smoking increased between baseline and 3 months, and subsequently trended downward from 3 to 12 months. Results from linear and generalized linear mixed models indicated that participants with advanced HIV disease (vs. not advanced) reported significantly (p<.05) higher intention to quit smoking at 3-, 6-, and 12-months post study enrollment. A similar though non-significant pattern was observed in the smoking abstinence outcome. HIV treatment initiation appears to be associated with increases in intention to quit smoking thus serves as a potential teachable moment for smoking cessation intervention. This study documents significant increases in intention to quit smoking in the 3-month period following HIV care initiation. Moreover, quit intention trended downward following the 3-month follow-up until the 12-month follow-up. In addition, a marked effect for HIV disease stage was observed, whereby

  16. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... behaviour was evaluated from questionnaires at baseline and at follow up 10 years later. SETTING: County of Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 2554 subjects from the original sample of 4581 were successfully followed. This study deals with the 1365 subjects who were smokers at the first examination. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption...

  17. Smoking habits of factory workers and their thoughts about cessation of smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülay Yılmazel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine smoking habits, levels of nicotine dependence, thoughts about smoking and smoking cessation of workers. Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted by volunteer 200 workers from cement and sugar factories in 2014 Çorum. The data was collected through a 40-item questionnaire form questioning smoking habits, thoughts about smoking and cessation of workers. To determine nicotine dependence Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Test was used. Results: Among workers, smoking prevalence was 38.0%, the mean age to start smoking was 18.82 ± 4.01 years. The rate of smoking during the 11 and over years was 88.2% and smoking 11 cigarettes in a day was 60.5%. In addition, the rate of smokers regret for smoking was 93.4% while the rate of want to quit smoking was 63.2%, attempts to quit smoking was 68.4. A significant proportion of smokers were concerned about the deterioration of their health. Despite the high awareness among smokers, thoughts preventing to quit smoking were found to be commonly. The 29.0% of the workers were low, 3.9% of were moderate and 67.1% of were high level of addicted to nicotine. Workers dependency levels varied significantly depending on the number of cigarettes consumed in a day (p=0.004. The proportion of workers took recommendations from health care personnel about smoking cessation was low. Almost none of the workers had never been trained in smoking cessation. Conclusion: In this study, the rate of smoking and nicotine dependence levels in factory workers were found to be high.

  18. Inflammatory changes in the airways of mice caused by cigarette smoke exposure are only partially reversed after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraneveld Aletta D

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco smoking irritates and damages the respiratory tract and contributes to a higher risk of developing lung emphysema. At present, smoking cessation is the only effective treatment for reducing the progression of lung emphysema, however, there is hardly anything known about the effects of smoking cessation on cytokine and chemokine levels in the airways. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported in vivo study in which cytokine profiles were determined after cessation of cigarette smoke exposure. Methods The severity of airway remodeling and inflammation was studied by analyzing alveolar enlargement, heart hypertrophy, inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and lung tissue and by determining the cytokine and chemokine profiles in the BALF of A/J mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 20 weeks and 8 weeks after smoking cessation. Results The alveolar enlargement and right ventricle heart hypertrophy found in smoke-exposed mice remained unchanged after smoking cessation. Although the neutrophilic inflammation in the BALF of cigarette smoke-exposed animals was reduced after smoking cessation, a sustained inflammation in the lung tissue was observed. The elevated cytokine (IL-1α and TNF-α and chemokine (CCL2 and CCL3 levels in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice returned to basal levels after smoking cessation, while the increased IL-12 levels did not return to its basal level. The cigarette smoke-enhanced VEGF levels did not significantly change after smoking cessation. Moreover, IL-10 levels were reduced in the BALF of smoke-exposed mice and these levels were still significantly decreased after smoking cessation compared to the control animals. Conclusion The inflammatory changes in the airways caused by cigarette smoke exposure were only partially reversed after smoking cessation. Although smoking cessation should be the first step in reducing the progression of lung emphysema, additional

  19. [Smoking cessation in smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G

    2014-12-01

    One out of two smokers who smoke throughout their lifetime will die from a disease related to smoking. Tobacco smoking therefore represents a major global public health issue. Smoking is the leading cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Projections for 2020 indicate that by then, COPD will have become the third cause of death and the fifth cause of disability worldwide. Stopping smoking reduces the risk of developing COPD and is an essential treatment for this inflammatory disease. Smoking cessation decreases the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, number of hospitalizations, and decline in FEV1, as well as exacerbation frequency and overall mortality. Among the patients, 38-77% with COPD are smokers. Their daily cigarette consumption and level of nicotine dependence are often high. The combination of high intensity behavioral interventions and medication treatments (nicotine replacement therapy, varenicline, bupropion) is the most effective strategy for smokers with COPD. In contrast, behavioral interventions without medication are not more effective than simple advice to stop. Two factors seem to predict the success of the attempt to quit in smokers with COPD: a strong motivation to quit and the use of smoking cessation medications. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngmee; Cho, Won-Kyung

    2014-11-01

    Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking. A total of 7,839 males, aged 19-65 years, were included in this cross-sectional study. The outcome measures were the success and failure rates in smoking cessation, sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, health behaviors, perceived health status, quality of life, and mental health. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine the various factors associated with smoking cessation success. The cessation success and failure rates were 45.5% and 54.5%, respectively. Smoking cessation was related to older age, marriage, higher income, smoking larger amounts of cigarettes, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, cancer history, better mental health, and higher levels of quality of life, after controlling for multiple variables. Second-hand smoke exposure at home and using nicotine replacement therapy were associated with a lower likelihood of smoking cessation. A smoke-free environment, use of willpower, alcohol abstinence, and better stress management are important for smoking cessation. Unlike previous studies, not using nicotine replacement therapy and higher levels of daily cigarette consumption were associated with successful smoking cessation, suggesting that motivation appears to be important to smoking cessation in Korean adult male population.

  1. Smoking cessation affects the natural history of COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai J

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiu-Wu Bai,1 Xiao-xin Chen,2 Shengsheng Liu,3 Li Yu,1 Jin-Fu Xu11Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Second Peoples Hospital of Nantong, Nantong, Jiangsu Province, 3Department of Tuberculosis, Anhui Chest Hospital, Hefei, Anhui Province, People’s Republic of China Background: Cigarette smoking is the most commonly encountered and readily identifiable risk factor for COPD. However, it is not clear which quantitative factors related to smoking influence the prognosis of COPD patients.Methods: A total of 204 patients with a long-term history of smoking were enrolled into this study and followed up for 5 years. Patients were divided into “death” or “survival” groups based on follow-up results and “quitting-smoking” or “continuing-smoking” groups based on whether they gave up smoking.Results: Patients in the death group had a longer smoking time, lower prevalence of quitting smoking, later onset of COPD symptoms, older age at quitting smoking, lower forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 % predicted, and lower ratio of FEV1/forced vital capacity. Age, age at quitting smoking, and FEV1% predicted were independently associated with mortality from COPD. Compared to the continuing-smoking group, the quitting-smoking group had a lower mortality rate, longer course of COPD, earlier onset of COPD symptoms, and lower residual volume percent predicted. During the 5-year follow-up, 113 deaths were recorded (quitting-smoking group: n=92; 40 deaths; continuing-smoking group: n=112; 73 deaths. The mortality risk remained significantly higher in the continuing-smoking group than the quitting-smoking group (log-rank test, 13.59; P=0.0002.Conclusion: Smoking time may be related to the mortality rate from COPD. Smoking cessation has the greatest capacity to influence the natural history of COPD.Keywords: chronic

  2. Association of smoking status, cumulative smoking, duration of smoking cessation, age of starting smoking, and depression in Korean adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Woo-Jun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98 for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48 for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16 for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54 for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09. No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females.

  3. National Survey of the Smoking Cessation Services in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pucchio, Alessandra; Pizzi, Enrica; Carosi, Giordano; Mazzola, Monica; Mattioli, Donatella; Pacifici, Roberta; Pichini, Simona

    2009-01-01

    This investigation is aimed at providing information about structural and organizational characteristics of smoking cessation services (SCS) set up within the Italian National Health Service. Local health units and hospitals are the main institutions connected with SCS which are mainly located within the Department of Drug Addiction and the Department of Lung and Breath Care. SCS provide different tobacco-use cessation programs. Although pharmacotherapy is always used, a combination of therapeutic treatments is highly preferred. This study shows the importance of maintaining a national coordination among different SCS supporting their activity and encouraging the start up of additional services throughout the country. PMID:19440422

  4. Reasons for quitting cigarette smoking and electronic cigarette use for cessation help

    OpenAIRE

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A

    2014-01-01

    Despite the lack of clarity regarding their safety and efficacy as smoking cessation aids, electronic or e-cigarettes are commonly used to quit smoking. Currently little is understood about why smokers may use e-cigarettes for help with smoking cessation compared to other, proven cessation aids. This study aimed to determine the reasons for wanting to quit cigarettes that are associated with the use of e-cigarettes for cessation help versus the use of conventional Nicotine Replacement Therapy...

  5. The relative role of nicotine dependence and smoking-related cognitions in adolescents’ process of smoking cessation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluates the role of distinct components of nicotine dependence (craving, withdrawal, behavioural dependence) in comparison to smoking-related cognitions (attitudes, perceived social approval, self-efficacy) in adolescent smoking cessation. In the process towards smoking

  6. Cessation of smoking after first-ever stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Søren; Sindrup, Søren Hein; Alslev, Torben

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cessation of smoking is widely recommended in patients with stroke to reduce the risk of myocardial infarction and recurrent stroke, but little is known regarding how patients modify their smoking habits after a stroke. We used data from a prospective follow-up study...... to assess modification of smoking habits and to identify predictors of persistent smoking after first-ever stroke. METHODS: All patients admitted to the only neurology department of Funen County (465 000 inhabitants) with first-ever stroke from August 1, 1999, to January 31, 2001, were prospectively...... identified. A comprehensive structured interview was completed both during hospitalization and at 6-month follow-up. The interview comprised questions on education, occupation, marital status, lifestyle, concomitant diseases, and functional disability. We estimated the relative risk of persistent smoking...

  7. Methods for smoking cessation and treatment of nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbani, Aracy Pereira Silveira; Montovani, Jair Cortez

    2005-01-01

    Smoking is related to 30% of cancer deaths. It is a risk factor for respiratory tract, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, uterine cervix, kidney and bladder carcinomas. Nicotine induces tolerance and addiction by acting on the central dopaminergic pathways, thus leading to pleasure and reward sensations within the limbic system. It stimulates the central nervous system (CNS), enhances alertness and reduces the appetite. A 50% reduction of nicotine consumption may trigger withdrawal symptoms in addicted individuals: anxiety, anger, sleep disorders, hunger, cognitive dysfunction and cigarette craving. Medical advice is the cornerstone of smoking cessation. Pharmacotherapy of nicotine addiction comprises first-line (bupropion and nicotine replacement therapy) and second-line (clonidine and nortriptyline) drugs. Bupropion is a non-tricyclic antidepressant that inhibits dopamine uptake, whose contraindications are: epilepsy, eating disorders, uncontrolled hypertension, recent alcohol abstinence and current therapy with MAO inhibitors. Nicotine replacement therapy can be done with patches or gums. Counseling groups and behavioral interventions are efficacious. The effects of acupuncture on smoking cessation are not fully elucidated. Prompt smoking cessation or gradual reduction strategies have similar success rates.

  8. Smoking cessation: which aids are worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W; Bootsma, G P; Heijdra, Y F; van Spiegel, P I; Wollersheim, H

    2000-11-01

    Smoking is a major preventable health risk in western society. In the Netherlands, it is held responsible for 86 and 36% of annual mortality from lung cancer and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Nevertheless about 33% of Dutch people smoke. Only 2% of smokers quit successfully after being advised to stop once by a physician. Although the medical profession should play a leading role in campaigns to stop smoking, general practitioners advise only 10% of their smokers to quit. An overview was made of the various aids that can be used to support attempts to quit smoking. Three aids: supportive schedules, nicotine replacement and bupropion chloride had proven long-term effectiveness in up to 5-10, 3-13 and 11-15% of the subjects, respectively. In conclusion, supportive counselling combined with nicotine substitutes or bupropion chloride is the most worthwhile intervention to support quitting attempts. Wider application of this strategy is expected to have major implications on morbidity (50% myocardial infarct risk reduction) and mortality in the Netherlands.

  9. A Proactive Smoking Cessation Intervention for Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Smokers: The Role of Smoking-Related Stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Patrick; Fu, Steven S; Nelson, David; Clothier, Barbara; Saul, Jessie E; Widome, Rachel; Danan, Elisheva R; Burgess, Diana J

    2017-04-08

    Smoking de-normalization has been paralleled by reduced smoking prevalence, but smoking rates among socioeconomically disadvantaged populations remain high. The social unacceptability of smoking has also led to increased perceptions of smoking-related stigma. By examining how smoking stigma influences cessation intervention effectiveness, we can better tailor interventions to socioeconomically disadvantaged smokers. Data are from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of a proactive cessation intervention on abstinence. Current smokers enrolled in Minnesota Health Care Programs were randomized to proactive outreach (n=1200) or usual care (n=1206). The intervention included mailings, telephone outreach, counseling, and access to free cessation treatments. Using baseline measurements, groups with lower (n=1227) and higher (n=1093) perceived stigma were formed. Intervention, stigma, and their interaction term were added to a logistic regression modeling abstinence at 12-months. Lower perceived smoking-related stigma was associated with less support for quitting, lower rates of physician quitting advice, and less motivation for quitting. A logistic regression modeling abstinence found a significant intervention x stigma interaction. The proactive intervention was more effective among smokers with lower perceived smoking-related stigma (OR 1.94, 95% CI, 1.29-2.92) than those with higher perceived smoking-related stigma (OR 1.04, 95% CI, 0.70-1.55). Smokers with lower perceived smoking-related stigma had social environments that were conducive to smoking, received less physician advice to quit and were less motivated to quit than higher stigma smokers. Despite these barriers, the intervention was more effective for lower stigma smokers, suggesting that proactive outreach is an efficient treatment for these hard-to-reach smokers. Smoking de-normalization has led to increased perceptions of smoking-related stigma among many smokers; however, little is

  10. Multi-level, cross-sectional study of workplace social capital and smoking among Japanese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Etsuji; Fujiwara, Takeo; Takao, Soshi; Subramanian, S V; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2010-08-17

    Social capital is hypothesized to be relevant to health promotion, and the association between community social capital and cigarette smoking has been examined. Individual-level social capital has been found to be associated with smoking cessation, but evidence remains sparse on the contextual effect of social capital and smoking. Further, evidence remains sparse on the association between smoking and social capital in the workplace, where people are spending an increasing portion of their daily lives. We examined the association between workplace social capital and smoking status among Japanese private sector employees. We employed a two-stage stratified random sampling procedure. Of the total of 1,800 subjects in 60 companies, 1,171 (men/women; 834/337) employees (65.1%) were identified from 46 companies in Okayama in 2007. Workplace social capital was assessed in two dimensions; trust and reciprocity. Company-level social capital was based on inquiring about employee perceptions of trust and reciprocity among co-workers, and then aggregating their responses in order to calculate the proportion of workers reporting mistrust and lack of reciprocity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to explore whether individual- and company-level social capital was associated with smoking. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals (CIs) for current smoking were obtained. Overall, 33.3% of the subjects smoked currently. There was no relationship between individual-level mistrust of others and smoking status. By contrast, one-standard deviation change in company-level mistrust was associated with higher odds of smoking (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.46) even after controlling for individual-level mistrust, sex, age, occupation, educational attainment, alcohol use, physical activity, body mass index, and chronic diseases. No clear associations were found between lack of reciprocity and smoking both at the individual- and

  11. Reduction in oxidatively generated DNA damage following smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freund Harold G

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is a known cause of cancer, and cancer may be in part due to effects of oxidative stress. However, whether smoking cessation reverses oxidatively induced DNA damage unclear. The current study sought to examine the extent to which three DNA lesions showed significant reductions after participants quit smoking. Methods Participants (n = 19 in this study were recruited from an ongoing 16-week smoking cessation clinical trial and provided blood samples from which leukocyte DNA was extracted and assessed for 3 DNA lesions (thymine glycol modification [d(TgpA]; formamide breakdown of pyrimidine bases [d(TgpA]; 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine [d(Gh] via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Change in lesions over time was assessed using generalized estimating equations, controlling for gender, age, and treatment condition. Results Overall time effects for the d(TgpA (χ2(3 = 8.068, p fpA (χ2(3 = 8.477, p h (χ2(3 = 37.599, p gpA and d(PfpA lesions show relatively greater rebound at Week 16 compared to the d(Gh lesion (88% of baseline for d(TgpA, 64% of baseline for d(PfpA, vs 46% of baseline for d(Gh. Conclusions Overall, results from this analysis suggest that cigarette smoking contributes to oxidatively induced DNA damage, and that smoking cessation appears to reduce levels of specific damage markers between 30-50 percent in the short term. Future research may shed light on the broader array of oxidative damage influenced by smoking and over longer durations of abstinence, to provide further insights into mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis.

  12. Smoking status and smoking cessation intervention among U.S. adults hospitalized for asthma exacerbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Jane C; Hasegawa, Kohei; Probst, Beatrice D; Mould-Millman, Nee-Kofi; Silverman, Robert A; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-07-01

    In a previous multicenter study during 1999-2000, we found a high prevalence of smoking among patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbations (35%) and suboptimal smoking cessation efforts. There have been no recent multicenter efforts to examine the smoking status and implementation of smoking cessation efforts among patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbation. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking and the proportion and characteristics of patients who received an inpatient smoking cessation intervention. We conducted a secondary analysis of a 25-center observational study, which included 597 U.S. adults hospitalized for asthma exacerbation during 2012-2013. Among the analytic cohort, 215 (36%) were current smokers. In the multivariable model, compared with patients with private health insurance, those with public health insurance (odds ratio [OR] 1.71 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.06-2.77]) or no health insurance (OR 1.75 [95% CI, 1.02-2.99]) were more likely to be current smokers. By contrast, patients with a previous evaluation by an asthma specialist in the past 12 months (OR 0.49 [95% CI, 0.28-0.86]) and use of inhaled corticosteroids (OR 0.63 [95% CI, 0.43-0.93]) were less likely to be current smokers. Among current smokers, only 55% received smoking cessation interventions during their hospitalization. In the multivariable model, current smokers who had public health insurance (OR 0.25 [95% CI, 0.07-0.82]) or no health insurance (OR 0.26 [95% CI, 0.07-0.94]) were less likely to receive inpatient smoking cessation interventions compared with those with private health insurance. Our findings showed a persistently high prevalence of smokers among U.S. patients hospitalized for asthma exacerbations and an underutilized opportunity to provide this at-risk population with smoking cessation interventions.

  13. [Bupropion: an effective new aid for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijdra, Y F; van Spiegel, P I; Bootsma, G P; van den Berkmortel, F P; Wollersheim, H

    2000-11-04

    Smoking is responsible for a substantial percentage of the total morbidity and mortality in western society. In the Netherlands 34% of the population smoke. A considerable part of the smokers tried to stop smoking, but did not succeed. Since December 1999 a new type of anti-smoke therapy is available; bupropion chloride (Zyban). With this treatment an improvement in success ratio in comparison with placebo is described of 11-15% after a year in a healthy population. Combined with nicotine patches this percentage was 20%. These percentages are higher than those of nicotine replacement therapy alone (3-13%). It is very important that effects of bupropion are tested in high-risk patients with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases as these groups may benefit most from cessation of smoking. Especially in the COPD group cessation of smoking makes a more substantial contribution to improvement of the disease process than the medication now available. Therefore, it might be considered to prescribe bupropion under strict control in this group even now, before definitive research results are obtained.

  14. Dynamics of smoking-induced genome-wide methylation changes with time since smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guida, Florence; Sandanger, Torkjel M; Castagné, Raphaële; Campanella, Gianluca; Polidoro, Silvia; Palli, Domenico; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Severi, Gianluca; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Georgiadis, Panagiotis; Vermeulen, Roel C H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; Lund, Eiliv; Vineis, Paolo; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have recently identified strong epigenetic signals related to tobacco smoking. However, an aspect that did not receive much attention is the evolution of epigenetic changes with time since smoking cessation. We conducted a series of epigenome-wide association studies to capture the

  15. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; McRobbie, Hayden; Bullen, Chris; Rodgers, Anthony; Gu, Yulong

    2016-04-10

    Access to mobile phones continues to increase exponentially globally, outstripping access to fixed telephone lines, fixed computers and the Internet. Mobile phones are an appropriate and effective option for the delivery of smoking cessation support in some contexts. This review updates the evidence on the effectiveness of mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions. To determine whether mobile phone-based smoking cessation interventions increase smoking cessation in people who smoke and want to quit. For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register in April 2015. We also searched the UK Clinical Research Network Portfolio for current projects in the UK, and the ClinicalTrials.gov register for ongoing or recently completed studies. We searched through the reference lists of identified studies and attempted to contact the authors of ongoing studies. We applied no restrictions on language or publication date. We included randomised or quasi-randomised trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention for smoking cessation. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Review authors extracted information on risk of bias and methodological details using a standardised form. We considered participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow-up to be smoking. We calculated risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for each included study. Meta-analysis of the included studies used the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect method. Where meta-analysis was not possible, we presented a narrative summary and descriptive statistics. This updated search identified 12 studies with six-month smoking cessation outcomes, including seven studies completed since the previous review. The

  16. Does deterioration in mental health after smoking cessation predict relapse to smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gemma; McNeill, Ann; Aveyard, Paul

    2015-11-20

    It is possible that some people who quit smoking experience improved mental health after cessation and therefore remain abstinent, whereas other people who quit may experience worse mental health after cessation and therefore be more likely to relapse to smoking. Thus, in this study we aimed to examine the association between an enduring change in mental health following the cessation period and future risk of relapse. A secondary analysis of prospective data pooled from five placebo-controlled randomised trials for smoking reduction conducted in Europe, USA and Australia. Change in mental health (SF-36, scored 0-100) was measured from baseline to four months for those who were biologically-validated as point-prevalence abstainers at four month follow-up. Thereafter we assessed whether relapse to smoking by 12 months was more likely in those whose mental health had worsened between baseline and four months compared with those who saw no change or an improvement. After adjustment for baseline mental health and other major covariates, there was no greater tendency to relapse at 12 months for those whose mental health worsened after cessation compared with those who had no change or an improvement. The odds ratio and 95% confidence interval was 1.01 (0.97 to 1.05). People whose mental health worsens after smoking cessation are at no greater risk of subsequent relapse to smoking than those whose mental health stays the same or improves.

  17. The reference group perspective for smoking cessation: an examination of the influence of social norms and social identification with reference groups on smoking cessation self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe J

    2013-03-01

    This study proposed the Reference Group Perspective for smoking cessation, examining smokers' identification with three reference groups: best friends, colleagues, and family members, and hypothesizing that identification with each group would moderate the relationship between injunctive and descriptive norms of the group and smoking cessation self-efficacy. Results of an online questionnaire (N = 208) indicated that injunctive and descriptive norms of all three reference groups significantly affected smoking cessation self-efficacy, and this relationship was moderated by identification. Injunctive norms were stronger in predicting smoking cessation self-efficacy than descriptive norms, with injunctive norms of family members and descriptive norms of best friends having the most significant effect. Positive attitude toward smoking was also significantly associated with smoking cessation self-efficacy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Toward precision smoking cessation treatment II: Proximal effects of smoking cessation intervention components on putative mechanisms of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Megan E; Cook, Jessica W; Schlam, Tanya R; Smith, Stevens S; Bolt, Daniel M; Collins, Linda M; Mermelstein, Robin; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2017-02-01

    Understanding how smoking cessation treatments exert their effects can inform treatment development and use. Factorial designs allow researchers to examine whether multiple intervention components affect hypothesized change mechanisms, and whether the affected mechanisms are related to cessation. This is a secondary data analysis of smokers recruited during primary care visits (N=637, 55% women, 87% white) who were motivated to quit. Participants in this fractional factorial experiment were randomized to one level of each of six intervention factors: Prequit Nicotine Patch vs None, Prequit Nicotine Gum vs None, Preparation Counseling vs None, Intensive In-Person Counseling vs Minimal, Intensive Phone Counseling vs Minimal, and 16 vs 8 Weeks of Combination Nicotine Replacement (nicotine patch+nicotine gum). Data on putative mechanisms (e.g., medication use, withdrawal, self-efficacy) and smoking status were gathered using daily assessments and during follow-up assessment calls. Some intervention components influenced hypothesized mechanisms. Prequit Gum and Patch each reduced prequit smoking and enhanced prequit coping and self-efficacy. In-Person Counseling increased prequit motivation to quit, postquit self-efficacy, and postquit perceived intratreatment support. Withdrawal reduction and reduced prequit smoking produced the strongest effects on cessation. The significant effect of combining Prequit Gum and In-Person Counseling on 26-week abstinence was mediated by increased prequit self-efficacy. This factorial experiment identified which putative treatment mechanisms were influenced by discrete intervention components and which mechanisms influenced cessation. Such information supports the combined use of prequit nicotine gum and intensive in-person counseling as cessation interventions that operate via increased prequit self-efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The alternative five-factor model of personality, nicotine dependence and relapse after treatment for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieva, Gemma; Valero, Sergi; Bruguera, Eugeni; Andión, Óscar; Trasovares, M Victoria; Gual, Antoni; Casas, Miquel

    2011-10-01

    Personality is one of several factors that have been related to the initiation, maintenance and cessation of smoking. This paper aims to analyze the relationship between the alternative five-factor model of personality (AFFM), nicotine dependence (ND), nicotine use (NU) and cessation after twelve months of a cognitive-behavioral therapy combined with medication. In this prospective study, a sample of 103 smokers who were taking part in a workplace smoking cessation intervention, answered the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire. ND and NU were measured with the Fagerström Test for the Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD), respectively. Tobacco cessation was self-reported at twelve months follow-up and biologically confirmed. Results varied according to gender. In men, low scores on Sociability predicted high ND and large number of CPD. In addition, low scores on Sensation Seeking and high scores on Impulsivity predicted also a high smoking rate at baseline. No personality traits were found to explain ND in women, but high Impulsivity-Sensation Seeking and General Activity predicted high CPD. Predictors of cessation also differed by gender. Apart from FTND level, high levels on Impulsivity predicted relapse in males. In women, high levels on Sociability predicted relapse. This model correctly classified two thirds of abstainers and relapsers for men and three fourths for women at 12months. Furthermore an interaction between personality and gender was observed. The AFFM appears to have a substantial power for predicting cessation. Personality assessment when beginning treatment for smoking cessation could allow incorporating strategies to improve outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of electronic health records to support smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Raymond; Solberg, Leif; Fiore, Michael

    2014-12-30

    Health information systems such as electronic health records (EHR), computerized decision support systems, and electronic prescribing are potentially valuable components to improve the quality and efficiency of clinical interventions for tobacco use. To assess the effectiveness of electronic health record-facilitated interventions on smoking cessation support actions by clinicians, clinics, and healthcare delivery systems and on patient smoking cessation outcomes. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We searched for studies published between January 1990 and July 2014. We included both randomized studies and non-randomized studies that reported interventions targeting tobacco use through an EHR in healthcare settings. The intervention could include any use of an EHR to improve smoking status documentation or cessation assistance for patients who use tobacco, either by direct action or by feedback of clinical performance measures. Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of wide variation in measurement of outcomes, we were not able to conduct a meta-analysis. We included six group randomized trials, one patient randomized study, and nine non-randomized observational studies of fair to good quality that tested the use of an existing EHR to improve documentation and/or treatment of tobacco use. None of the studies included a direct assessment of patient quit rates. Overall, these studies found only modest improvements in some of the recommended clinician actions on tobacco use. Documentation of tobacco status and referral to cessation counselling appears to increase following EHR modifications designed to prompt the recording and treating of tobacco use at healthcare visits. There is a need for

  1. Smoking Cessation and the Microbiome in Induced Sputum Samples from Cigarette Smoking Asthma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Munck

    Full Text Available Asthma is a common disease causing cough, wheezing and shortness of breath. It has been shown that the lung microbiota in asthma patients is different from the lung microbiota in healthy controls suggesting that a connection between asthma and the lung microbiome exists. Individuals with asthma who are also tobacco smokers experience more severe asthma symptoms and smoking cessation is associated with improved asthma control. In the present study we investigated if smoking cessation in asthma patients is associated with a change in the bacterial community in the lungs, examined using induced sputum. We found that while tobacco smokers with asthma have a greater bacterial diversity in the induced sputum compared to non-smoking healthy controls, smoking cessation does not lead to a change in the microbial diversity.

  2. The awareness of patients with non - muscle invasive bladder cancer regarding the importance of smoking cessation and their access to smoking cessation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Emrah; Tuken, Murat; Colakerol, Aykut; Serefoglu, Ege Can

    2017-01-01

    Smoking is the most important risk factor for bladder cancer and smoking cessation is associated with reduced risk of tumor recurrence and progression. The aim of this study is to assess the awareness of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) patients regarding the importance of smoking cessation, determine their access to smoking cessation programs and the effects of smoking cessation on recurrence rates of NMIBC. NMIBC patients who were followed with cystoscopy were included in the study. Their demographic properties were recorded, along with their smoking habits, awareness regarding the effects of smoking on bladder cancer and previous attempts for smoking cessation. Moreover, the patients were asked whether they applied for a smoking cessation program. Recurrence of bladder cancer during the follow-up period was also noted. A total of 187 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 64.68±12.05 (range: 15-90) and the male to female ratio was 167/20. At the time of diagnosis, 114 patients (61.0%) were active smokers, 35 patients (18.7%) were ex-smokers and 38 patients (20.3%) had never smoked before. After the diagnosis, 83.3% of the actively smoking patients were advised to quit smoking and 57.9% of them quit smoking. At the time of the study, 46.52% of the NMIBC patients were aware of the link between smoking and bladder cancer, whereas only 4.1% of the smoking patients were referred to smoking cessation programs. After a mean follow-up of 32.28±11.42 months, 84 patients (44.91%) had recurrence; however, current smoking status or awareness of the causative role of smoking on NMIBC did not affect the recurrence. In our study group, the majority of the NMIBC patients were not aware of the association between smoking and bladder cancer. Although most of the physicians advised patients to quit smoking, a significant amount of the patients were still active smokers during follow-up. Only a small proportion of patients were referred to smoking

  3. A comparison of time-varying covariates in two smoking cessation interventions for cardiac patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prenger, Hendrikje Cornelia; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; Bolman, Catherine; Ruitenbeek-Wiggers, L.; de Vries, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the time-varying contribution of social cognitive determinants of smoking cessation following an intervention on cessation. Secondary analyses were performed on data from two comparable randomized controlled trials on brief smoking cessation interventions for

  4. Supporting smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Peian; Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Pan; YU, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Na; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China. Methods In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to...

  5. Predictors of Successful Smoking Cessation after Inpatient Intervention for Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Eugene; Jo, Jun-Yong; Ahn, Ah-Leum; Oh, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jae-Kyung; Cho, Dong-Yung; Kweon, Hyuk-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Background Smoking is a well-known risk factor of cancer, chronic disease, and cerebrovascular disease. Hospital admission is a good time to quit smoking but patients have little opportunity to take part in an intensive smoking cessation intervention. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors of successful smoking cessation among stroke patients who undergo an intensive cessation intervention during the hospitalization period. Methods Thirty-nine male smokers who were admitted wit...

  6. The Association Between Body Image and Smoking Cessation Among Individuals Living with HIV/AIDS

    OpenAIRE

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J.; Arduino, Roberto C.; Gritz, Ellen R.

    2007-01-01

    Lower smoking cessation rates are associated with body image concerns in the general population. This relationship is particularly important to study in individuals living with HIV/AIDS due to alarmingly high smoking rates and considerable bodily changes experienced with HIV disease progression and treatment. The association between body image and smoking cessation rates was examined among individuals living with HIV/AIDS participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Body image concerns ...

  7. Reach and uptake of Internet- and phone-based smoking cessation interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov-Ettrup, L S; Dalum, P; Ekholm, O

    2014-01-01

    To study whether demographic and smoking-related characteristics are associated with participation (reach) in a smoking cessation trial and subsequent use (uptake) of two specific smoking interventions (Internet-based program and proactive telephone counseling)....

  8. Physician advice on avoiding secondhand smoke exposure and referrals for smoking cessation services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruger Judy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Secondhand smoke (SHS exposure causes premature death and disease. Eliminating smoking in indoor spaces is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure, and also contributes to helping smokers quit smoking. Primary health care providers can play an important role in advising nonsmoking patients to avoid SHS exposure, cautioning current smokers against exposing others to SHS, and referring tobacco users to cessation programs. Methods The purpose of this paper is to examine primary care provider (obstetricians/gynecologists, pediatricians, and general practitioners advice regarding SHS exposure and referral to cessation programs. Using data from the 2008 DocStyles survey (n = 1,454, we calculated the prevalence and adjusted odds ratios for offering patients advice regarding SHS exposure and referring adults who smoked or used other tobacco products to a cessation program. Results The current study found that among a convenience sample of primary care providers, 94.9% encouraged parents to take steps to protect children from SHS exposure, 86.1% encouraged smokers to make their homes and cars smoke-free, and 77.4% encouraged nonsmokers to avoid SHS exposure. Approximately 44.0% of primary care providers usually or always referred patients who smoked or used tobacco products to cessation programs such as a quitline, a group cessation class, or one-on-one counseling. Conclusion Findings from a convenience sample of primary care providers who participated in a web-based survey, suggests that many primary care providers are advising parents to protect children from SHS exposure, encouraging patients who smoke to maintain smoke-free homes and cars, and advising smokers on ways to avoid exposing others to SHS. Healthcare providers are encouraged to advise patients to avoid SHS exposure and to refer patients who use tobacco products to cessation services.

  9. Smoking cessation in smoke-free prisons: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djachenko, Ashleigh; St John, Winsome; Mitchell, Creina

    2016-12-19

    Purpose Prisoners are vulnerable to tobacco addiction and have a smoking prevalence significantly higher than that of the general community. The context of this study was the implementation of a "smoke-free prisons" policy, which imposed forced smoking cessation onto the Queensland, Australian prison population. The study asked the question: "What are the psychosocial processes in which male prisoners engage during smoking cessation in a smoke-free environment?" Design/methodology/approach Qualitative interviews were conducted with 15 prisoners in South-east Queensland smoke-free correctional centres. Grounded theory methodology was applied to construct a theory of the processes of smoking cessation. Findings The constructed theory was named Engaging with Quitting. In this model, prisoners proceed through a cycle of evaluations, adjustments and reflections on their reality as related to the smoke-free prison. The study gives first-hand accounts of the prisoners' use (and abuse) of nicotine replacement therapy. Three personality typologies emerged from the data: The Angry Smoker, the Shifting Opportunist and the Optimistic Quitter. Research limitations/implications This qualitative study makes no claim of generalisability and cannot be taken to represent all prisoners. Females, youths and culturally diverse prisoners were not represented in the sample. Practical implications Smoking cessation in prisons must be recognised as an ongoing process, rather than a discrete event. A coordinated approach between custodial and health authorities is required to minimise maladaptive coping strategies. Originality/value This study provides a descriptive account of the processes prisoners undertake during involuntary smoking cessation and has described the manner in which prisoners manufacture home-made tobacco from nicotine patches. The study has produced an original theory named Engaging with Quitting.

  10. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Haskins, Brianna L.; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relatio...

  11. Plasma suPAR is lowered by smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Ladelund, Steen; Sørensen, Lars Tue

    2016-01-01

    , in smokers, predictive of long-term lung cancer development. Whether smoking cessation impacts the suPAR level is unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-eight smokers were randomized into three groups of 16: (i) continued to smoke 20 cigarettes per day, (ii) refrained from smoking and used transdermal...... nicotine patches and (iii) refrained from smoking and used placebo patches. Nonsmokers were included for comparison. suPAR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: At baseline, the suPAR level was significantly higher in the 48 smokers (median 3·2 ng mL, IQR (2·5-3·9)) than...... in 46 never smokers (1·9 ng/mL (1·7-2·2)). In smokers randomized to smoking cessation, suPAR levels after 4 weeks of stopping were decreased and no longer significantly different from the never smokers values. SuPAR decreased in both those who received a placebo as well as nicotine patch. Interestingly...

  12. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation: pharmacological principles and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Luquiens, Amandine; Berlin, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Strategies for assisting smoking cessation include behavioural counselling to enhance motivation and to support attempts to quit and pharmacological intervention to reduce nicotine reinforcement and withdrawal from nicotine. Three drugs are currently used as first line pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion and varenicline. Compared with placebo, the drug effect varies from 2.27 (95% CI 2.02, 2.55) for varenicline, 1.69 (95% CI 1.53, 1.85) for bupropion and 1.60 (95% CI 1.53, 1.68) for any form of nicotine replacement therapy. Despite some controversy regarding the safety of bupropion and varenicline, regulatory agencies consider these drugs as having a favourable benefit/risk profile. However, given the high rate of psychiatric comorbidity in dependent smokers, practitioners should closely monitor patients for neuropsychiatric symptoms. Second-line pharmacotherapies include nortriptyline and clonidine. This review also offers an overview of pipeline developments and issues related to smoking cessation in special populations such as persons with psychiatric comorbidity and pregnant and adolescent smokers. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  13. Electronic cigarettes: do they have a role in smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Lauren E; O'Dell, Katie A; Schepers, Jacqueline S

    2012-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes have gained popularity among patients as a smoking cessation aid despite not being approved or supported for this purpose by the United States Food and Drug Administration due to concerns with poor manufacturing practices and the presence of known carcinogens in the limited products that they tested. A few studies have evaluated the effects of electronic cigarettes on plasma nicotine levels and heart rate but found negligible effects. Safety data are mainly limited to surveys in which patients report only minor side effects, such as mouth and throat irritation, headache, vertigo, and nausea. The efficacy of electronic cigarettes has been evaluated in studies in which patients report great success with being able to cut back or stop tobacco cigarette consumption. However, many of these studies introduce bias due to recruiting on e-cigarette Web sites and having tobacco cigarette use self-reported by the participant rather than objectively tested. A few studies have formally evaluated nicotine craving when using electronic cigarettes with mixed results. Although patients support the use of electronic cigarettes in smoking cessation, more formal studies on safety and efficacy should be completed in order to determine whether these products have a role in smoking cessation.

  14. A systematic review of smartphone applications for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskins, Brianna L; Lesperance, Donna; Gibbons, Patric; Boudreaux, Edwin D

    2017-06-01

    Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the USA. However, limited data exists regarding smoking cessation mobile app quality and intervention effectiveness. Innovative and scalable interventions are needed to further alleviate the public health implications of tobacco addiction. The proliferation of the smartphone and the advent of mobile phone health interventions have made treatment more accessible than ever. The purpose of this review was to examine the relation between published scientific literature and available commercial smartphone health apps for smoking cessation to identify the percentage of scientifically supported apps that were commercially available to consumers and to determine how many of the top commercially available apps for smoking cessation were supported by the published scientific literature. Adhering to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, apps were reviewed in four phases: (1) identified apps from the scientific literature, (2) searched app stores for apps identified in the literature, (3) identified top apps available in leading app stores, and (4) determined which top apps available in stores had scientific support. Seven articles identified six apps with some level of scientific support, three (50%) were available in at least one app store. Conversely, among the top 50 apps suggested by each of the leading app stores, only two (4%) had any scientific support. While half of the scientifically vetted apps remain available to consumers, they are difficult to find among the many apps that are identified through app store searches.

  15. Alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Lucy; Ling, Pamela M

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the frequency of alternative tobacco product use (loose leaf, moist snuff, snus, dissolvables, electronic cigarettes [e-cigarettes]) among smokers and the association with quit attempts and intentions. A nationally representative probability-based cross-sectional survey of 1836 current or recently former adult smokers was completed in November 2011. Multivariate logistic regressions evaluated associations between alternative tobacco product use and smoking cessation behaviors. Of the smokers, 38% had tried an alternative tobacco product, most frequently e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco product use was associated with having made a quit attempt, and those intending to quit were significantly more likely to have tried and to currently use the products than were smokers with no intentions to quit. Use was not associated with successful quit attempts. Interest in future use of alternative tobacco products was low, except for e-cigarettes. Alternative tobacco products are attractive to smokers who want to quit smoking, but these data did not indicate that alternative tobacco products promote cessation. Unsubstantiated overt and implied claims that alternative tobacco products aid smoking cessation should be prohibited.

  16. The influence of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moorman, M.; van den Putte, B.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the combined effect of message framing, intention to quit smoking, and nicotine dependence on the persuasiveness of smoking cessation messages. Pre- and post-message measures of quit intention, attitude toward smoking cessation, and perceived behavioral control were taken in two

  17. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C M E; Egan, B; Cawley, S; Kennedy, R; Sheehan, S R; Turner, M J

    2017-06-09

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  18. A National Audit of Smoking Cessation Services in Irish Maternity Units

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2017-06-01

    There is international consensus that smoking cessation in the first half of pregnancy improves foetal outcomes. We surveyed all 19 maternity units nationally about their antenatal smoking cessation practices. All units recorded details on maternal smoking at the first antenatal visit. Only one unit validated the self-reported smoking status of pregnant women using a carbon monoxide breath test. Twelve units (63%) recorded timing of smoking cessation. In all units women who reported smoking were given verbal cessation advice. This was supported by written advice in 12 units (63%), but only six units (32%) had all midwives trained to provide this advice. Only five units (26%) reported routinely revisiting smoking status later in pregnancy. Although smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcomes, smoking cessation services are inadequate in the Irish maternity services and there are variations in practices between hospitals.

  19. Complete Workplace Indoor Smoking Ban and Smoking Behavior among Male Workers and Female Nonsmoking Workers’ Husbands: A Pseudo Cohort Study of Japanese Public Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Tabuchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pseudo cohort study using national cross-sections (2001, 2004, 2007, and 2010 was conducted to examine differences in smoking prevalence under different smoking ban policies such as a complete workplace indoor smoking ban (early or recent implementation and a partial smoking ban among male public workers and husbands of female nonsmoking public workers. The effectiveness of smoking bans was estimated by difference-in-differences (DID with age group stratification. The results varied considerably by age and implementation period. Although DID estimates (positive value of DID estimate represents smoking cessation percentage for both smoking bans on total male smoking were not significant, the over-40 age group indicated a significant DID estimate of 5.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 9.8 for the recent smoking ban. For female workers' husbands' smoking, the over-40 age group indicated positive, but not significant, DID estimates for the early and recent smoking bans of 7.2 (−4.7, 19.2 and 8.4 (−2.0, 18.7, respectively. A complete indoor workplace smoking ban, particularly one recently implemented among public office workers aged over 40, may reduce male workers' smoking and female workers' husbands' smoking compared with a partial smoking ban, but the conclusion remains tentative because of methodological weaknesses in the study.

  20. Assessing motivation to smoking cessation in hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Sánchez, Juana María; Canca-Sánchez, José Carlos; Rivas-Ruiz, Francisco; Martín-García, Mónica; Lorente Márquez, Celia; Timonet-Andreu, Eva María

    To assess motivation to quit smoking in patients admitted to an acute care hospital, determine predictors of readiness to change, and identify a risk group that requires targeted motivational interviewing. A cross-sectional descriptive study. A retrospective study was performed on the medical records of 248 patients aged >18 years with smoking habits admitted to the medical and surgery units of a district hospital between May 2014 and April 2015. The data collected included sociodemographic data, data on respiratory function, number of cigarettes smoked per day, motivation to quit smoking, patient-reported readiness to quit, history of respiratory diseases and previous admissions. The Richmond test revealed that 54% of patients (n=134) were poorly motivated to quit smoking vs. 11.74% (n=29) who reported to be highly motivated. The group of patients who reported to be willing to receive support (n=77) was prevailingly composed of men (p=.009) admitted to a medical care unit (p=.026) -mainly the Unit of Cardiology (51%)- who smoked 11/29 cigarettes/day (p=.015). Dyspnoea at admission, a history of respiratory disease and previous admissions for respiratory problems were not predictors of readiness to quit. This study identifies a risk group of patients with respiratory disease, low motivation to quit smoking and poor readiness to receive smoke cessation support, that should be the target of motivational approaches to behavior change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. A health sciences student-run smoking cessation clinic experience within a homeless population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Kelsey; Tsu, Laura; Hormann, Sabrina; Giang, Kevin; Bills, April; Early, Nicole; Jackowski, Rebekah

    The primary objective is to describe a professional and graduate student-run approach to smoking cessation education combined with motivational interviewing and pharmacotherapy in regard to the frequency of follow-up with a smoking cessation quitline program in the homeless population. The secondary objective is to assess participants' self-reported level of confidence, knowledge, and willingness to quit before and after participation in the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Homeless shelter in Phoenix, Arizona. A previously established professional and graduate student-led clinic focused on providing a wide variety of free health services to homeless populations at a homeless shelter. One service not offered was smoking cessation support; thus, a student-run smoking cessation clinic was established. Patients were provided smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy by health sciences professional and graduate students. Patients were then given a 2-week supply of nicotine replacement therapy and referred to the state's smoking cessation quitline. The impact of multiple concomitant smoking cessation strategies provided by students within a homeless population has not been studied previously. A 10-day post-referral status update on the success of contact with patients was provided to study investigators from the smoking cessation quitline. Surveys were also used to assess the patient's self-reported level of perceived benefit with the student-run smoking cessation clinic. Of the 139 unique patients, 19 (13.7%) successfully contacted the smoking cessation quitline. Patients reported high baseline confidence, knowledge, and willingness related to quit attempts; they reported a small improvement in reported values after participation in the student-run clinics. In the homeless population, smoking cessation education, motivational interviewing, and pharmacotherapy had a low follow-up frequency with a smoking cessation quitline, but

  2. Smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Smriti; Gupta, Michael K; Strychowsky, Julie E; Sommer, Doron D

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate tobacco smoking cessation interventions and cessation rates in the oncology population through a systematic review and meta-analysis. The literature was searched using PubMed, Google Scholar, Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library (inception to October 2012) by 3 independent review authors. Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective cohort (PCs) studies evaluating tobacco smoking cessation interventions with patients assigned to a usual care or an intervention group. The primary outcome measure was smoking cessation rates. Two authors extracted data independently for each study. When applicable, disagreements were resolved by consensus. The systematic review identified 10 RCTs and 3 PCs. Statistical analysis was conducted using StatsDirect software (Cheshire, UK). Pooled odds ratios (ORs) for smoking cessation interventions were calculated in 2 groups based on follow-up duration. The therapeutic interventions included counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion, and varenicline. Smoking cessation interventions had a pooled odds ratio of 1.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.909-2.64) for patients in the shorter follow-up group and 1.31 (95% CI, 0.931-1.84) in the longer follow-up group. Smoking cessation interventions in the perioperative period had a pooled odds ratio of 2.31 (95% CI, 1.32-4.07). Our systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrate that tobacco cessation interventions in the oncology population, in both the short-term and long-term follow-up groups, do not significantly affect cessation rates. The perioperative period, though, may represent an important teachable moment with regard to smoking cessation.

  3. Smoking cessation counseling in Qatar: community pharmacists' attitudes, role perceptions and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Al Nakeeb, Reem Raad; Al-Qudah, Raja'a Ali

    2012-08-01

    Smoking is a major public health problem in Qatar. The potential for community pharmacists to offer smoking cessation counseling in this country can be high. To determine the current smoking cessation practices of community pharmacists in Qatar, to examine their attitudes about tobacco use and smoking cessation, to evaluate their perceptions about performing professional roles with respect to smoking cessation and to assess their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling in the pharmacy setting in Qatar. Community pharmacies in Qatar. The objectives were addressed in a cross sectional survey of community pharmacists in Qatar from June 2010 to October 2010. A phone call was made to all community pharmacists in Qatar (318 pharmacists) inviting them to participate. Consenting pharmacists anonymously completed the survey either online or as paper using fax. Data was analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®) Version 18. Qatar community pharmacists' smoking cessation practices, their attitudes toward tobacco use, smoking cessation and smoking cessation counseling and their perceived barriers for smoking cessation counseling. Over 5 months, we collected 127 surveys (40 % response rate). Only 21 % of respondents reported that they always or most of the time asked their patients if they smoke. When the patients' smoking status was identified, advising quitting and assessing readiness to quit were always or most of the time performed by 66 and 52 % of respondents respectively. Only 15 % always or most of the time arranged follow-up with smokers and 22 % always or most of the time made smoking cessation referrals. Most respondents (>80 %) agreed that smoking could cause adverse health effects and that smoking cessation could decrease the risk of these effects. In addition, the majority (>80 %) believed that smoking cessation counseling was an important activity and was an efficient use of their time. The top two perceived barriers for smoking

  4. Temperament and impulsivity predictors of smoking cessation outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca López-Torrecillas

    Full Text Available AIMS: Temperament and impulsivity are powerful predictors of addiction treatment outcomes. However, a comprehensive assessment of these features has not been examined in relation to smoking cessation outcomes. METHODS: Naturalistic prospective study. Treatment-seeking smokers (n = 140 were recruited as they engaged in an occupational health clinic providing smoking cessation treatment between 2009 and 2013. Participants were assessed at baseline with measures of temperament (Temperament and Character Inventory, trait impulsivity (Barratt Impulsivity Scale, and cognitive impulsivity (Go/No Go, Delay Discounting and Iowa Gambling Task. The outcome measure was treatment status, coded as "dropout" versus "relapse" versus "abstinence" at 3, 6, and 12 months endpoints. Participants were telephonically contacted and reminded of follow-up face to face assessments at each endpoint. The participants that failed to answer the phone calls or self-reported discontinuation of treatment and failed to attend the upcoming follow-up session were coded as dropouts. The participants that self-reported continuing treatment, and successfully attended the upcoming follow-up session were coded as either "relapse" or "abstinence", based on the results of smoking behavior self-reports cross-validated with co-oximetry hemoglobin levels. Multinomial regression models were conducted to test whether temperament and impulsivity measures predicted dropout and relapse relative to abstinence outcomes. RESULTS: Higher scores on temperament dimensions of novelty seeking and reward dependence predicted poorer retention across endpoints, whereas only higher scores on persistence predicted greater relapse. Higher scores on the trait dimension of non-planning impulsivity but not performance on cognitive impulsivity predicted poorer retention. Higher non-planning impulsivity and poorer performance in the Iowa Gambling Task predicted greater relapse at 3 and 6 months and 6 months

  5. Estimating the probabilities of making a smoking quit attempt in Italy: stall in smoking cessation levels, 1986-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carreras Giulia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No data on annual smoking cessation probability (i.e., the probability of successfully quit in a given year are available for Italy at a population level. Mathematical models typically used to estimate smoking cessation probabilities do not account for smoking relapse. In this paper, we developed a mathematical model to estimate annual quitting probabilities, taking into account smoking relapse and time since cessation. Methods We developed a dynamic model describing the evolution of current, former, and never smokers. We estimated probabilities of smoking cessation by fitting the model with observed smoking prevalence in Italy, 1986-2009. Results Annual cessation probabilities were higher than 5% only in elderly persons and in women aged Conclusions Over the last 20 years, cessation probabilities among Italian smokers, particularly for those aged 30-59 years, have been very low and stalled. Quitting in Italy is considered as a practicable strategy only by women in the age of pregnancy and by elderly persons, when it’s likely that symptoms of tobacco-related diseases have already appeared. In order to increase cessation probabilities, smoking cessation treatment policies (introducing total reimbursement of cessation treatments, with a further development of quitlines and smoking cessation services should be empowered and a country-wide mass media campaign targeting smokers aged 30-59 years and focusing on promotion of quitting should be implemented.

  6. Effects of physical activity on teen smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; Dino, Geri; Branstetter, Steven A; Zhang, Jianjun; Noerachmanto, N; Jarrett, Traci; Taylor, Melissa

    2011-10-01

    To understand the influence of physical activity on teen smoking-cessation outcomes. Teens (N = 233; 14-19 years of age) from West Virginia high schools who smoked >1 cigarette in the previous 30 days were included. High schools with >300 students were selected randomly and assigned to brief intervention (BI), Not on Tobacco (N-O-T) (a proven teen cessation program), or N-O-T plus a physical activity module (N-O-T+FIT). Quit rates were determined 3 and 6 months after baseline by using self-classified and 7-day point prevalence quit rates, and carbon monoxide validation was obtained at the 3-month follow-up evaluation. Trends for observed and imputed self-classified and 7-day point prevalence rates indicated that teens in the N-O-T+FIT group had significantly higher cessation rates compared with those in the N-O-T and BI groups. Effect sizes were large. Overall, girls quit more successfully with N-O-T compared with BI (relative risk [RR]: >∞) 3 months after baseline, and boys responded better to N-O-T+FIT than to BI (RR: 2-3) or to N-O-T (RR: 1-2). Youths in the N-O-T+FIT group, compared with those in the N-O-T group, had greater likelihood of cessation (RR: 1.48) at 6 months. The control group included an unusually large proportion of participants in the precontemplation stage at enrollment, but there were no significant differences in outcomes between BI and N-O-T (z = 0.94; P = .17) or N-O-T+FIT (z = 1.12; P = .13) participants in the precontemplation stage. Adding physical activity to N-O-T may enhance cessation success, particularly among boys.

  7. Examining sustainability in a hospital setting: case of smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sharon; Pieters, Karen; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Reece, Robin; Reid, Robert D

    2011-09-14

    The Ottawa Model of Smoking Cessation (OMSC) is a hospital-based smoking cessation program that is expanding across Canada. While the short-term effectiveness of hospital cessation programs has been documented, less is known about long-term sustainability. The purpose of this exploratory study was to understand how hospitals using the OMSC were addressing sustainability and determine if there were critical factors or issues that should be addressed as the program expanded. Six hospitals that differed on OMSC program activities (identify and document smokers, advise quitting, provide medication, and offer follow-up) were intentionally selected, and two key informants per hospital were interviewed using a semi-structured interview guide. Key informants were asked to reflect on the initial decision to implement the OMSC, the current implementation process, and perceived sustainability of the program. Qualitative analysis of the interview transcripts was conducted and themes related to problem definition, stakeholder influence, and program features emerged. Sustainability was operationalized as higher performance of OMSC activities than at baseline. Factors identified in the literature as important for sustainability, such as program design, differences in implementation, organizational characteristics, and the community environment did not explain differences in program sustainability. Instead, key informants identified factors that reflected the interaction between how the health problem was defined by stakeholders, how priorities and concerns were addressed, features of the program itself, and fit within the hospital context and resources as being influential to the sustainability of the program. Applying a sustainability model to a hospital smoking cessation program allowed for an examination of how decisions made during implementation may impact sustainability. Examining these factors during implementation may provide insight into issues affecting program

  8. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1...... in showing that smoking is a strong independent risk factor of cardiovascular events and mortality even at older age, advancing cardiovascular mortality by more than five years, and demonstrating that smoking cessation in these age groups is still beneficial in reducing the excess risk....

  9. The Heaviness of Smoking Index as a predictor of smoking cessation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiton, Michael O; Cohen, Joanna E; McDonald, Paul W; Bondy, Susan J

    2007-05-01

    Nicotine addiction is believed to be a major impediment for many people in quitting smoking, but measures of nicotine dependence such as the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) have had mixed success in predicting cessation. Using the National Population Health Survey, the relationship between HSI at baseline in cycle 2 (1996-1997) and successful smoking cessation at cycle 3 (1998-1999) and cycle 4 (2000-2001) was examined in 2938 Canadian adult smokers. A logistic regression model was developed for HSI as a predictor of smoking cessation, and then tested for interaction and confounding. The odds ratio of not smoking in cycle 3 was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.51, 2.86; p4) HSI scores (OR 2.16; 95% CI: 1.11, 4.21; p=0.02) and low scores (OR 2.22; 95% CI: 1.41, 3.49) had higher odds of not smoking at both cycle 3 and cycle 4 than those with medium HSI scores. The likelihood of reporting cessation was higher than expected in the Canadian population among highly dependent smokers, particularly among older smokers, those with middle or greater income adequacy, and those with no intention to quit smoking. There were no substantial changes to the results when those lost-to-follow-up were treated as continuing smokers. These findings indicate that nicotine dependence is only one factor in succeeding at a quit attempt. Individual and population strategies for smoking cessation may need to consider other influences such as cognitive, affective and environmental factors.

  10. Training Pediatric Residents to Provide Smoking Cessation Counseling to Parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Collins

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effectiveness of a smoking cessation educational program on pediatric residents' counseling. Residents were randomly selected to receive the intervention. Residents who were trained were compared to untrained residents. Self-reported surveys and patient chart reviews were used. Measures included changes in self-reported knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of residents, and differences in chart documentation and caretaker-reported physician counseling behaviors. The intervention was multidimensional including a didactic presentation, a problem-solving session, clinic reminders, and provision of patient education materials. Results showed that residents who were trained were more likely to ask about tobacco use in their patients' households. They were also more likely to advise caretakers to cut down on or to quit smoking, to help set a quit date, and to follow up on the advice given at a subsequent visit. Trained residents were more likely to record a history of passive tobacco exposure in the medical record. These residents also reported improved confidence in their counseling skills and documented that they had done such counseling more often than did untrained residents. Caretakers of pediatric patients who smoke seen by intervention residents were more likely to report that they had received tobacco counseling. Following this intervention, pediatric residents significantly improved their behaviors, attitudes, and confidence in providing smoking cessation counseling to parents of their pediatric patients.

  11. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2008-04-01

    Nicotine sustains addictive tobacco use, which in turn causes much premature disability and death. The essence of drug addiction is loss of control of drug use. Molecular biology studies suggest that the alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor mediating nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure, stimulation, and mood modulation. Neuroadaptation develops with repeated exposure to nicotine, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. When a smoker stops smoking, a nicotine withdrawal syndrome ensues, characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among other symptoms. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning, such that specific stimuli that are psychologically associated with smoking become cues for an urge to smoke. These include the taste and smell of tobacco, as well as particular moods, situations, and environmental cues. Pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation should ideally reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects. Further, given the important role of sensory effects of smoking and psychoactive effects of nicotine, counseling and behavioral therapies are important adjuncts to and substantially augment the benefits of pharmacotherapy.

  12. Stage-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim; Green, Natasha

    2010-11-10

    The transtheoretical model is the most widely known of several stage-based theories of behaviour. It proposes that smokers move through a discrete series of motivational stages before they quit successfully. These are precontemplation (no thoughts of quitting), contemplation (thinking about quitting), preparation (planning to quit in the next 30 days), action (quitting successfully for up to six months), and maintenance (no smoking for more than six months). According to this influential model, interventions which help people to stop smoking should be tailored to their stage of readiness to quit, and are designed to move them forward through subsequent stages to eventual success. People in the preparation and action stages of quitting would require different types of support from those in precontemplation or contemplation. Our primary objective was to test the effectiveness of stage-based interventions in helping smokers to quit. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group's specialised register for trials, using the terms ('stage* of change', 'transtheoretical model*', 'trans-theoretical model*, 'precaution adoption model*', 'health action model', 'processes of change questionnaire*', 'readiness to change', 'tailor*') and 'smoking' in the title or abstract, or as keywords. The latest search was in August 2010. We included randomized controlled trials, which compared stage-based interventions with non-stage-based controls, with 'usual care' or with assessment only. We excluded trials which did not report a minimum follow-up period of six months from start of treatment, and those which measured stage of change but did not modify their intervention in the light of it. We extracted data in duplicate on the participants, the dose and duration of intervention, the outcome measures, the randomization procedure, concealment of allocation, and completeness of follow up.The main outcome was abstinence from smoking for at least six months. We used the most rigorous

  13. Attitudes, beliefs, and practices regarding smoking and smoking cessation among African-American physicians and dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, H A; Braithwaite, R L

    1997-11-01

    African-American physicians and dentists in metropolitan Atlanta were surveyed to assess smoking cessation practices and perceptions. Questionnaires were mailed to 373 physicians and 90 dentists. A total of 154 questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.3%. More physicians than dentists considered smoking a "very serious" threat to patients' health, and physicians were more likely to document smoking status in charts and to counsel smokers to quit. Physicians also were approached more frequently by patients seeking cessation advice. Both types of practitioners considered the nicotine patch, formal cessation programs, and behavior modification/psychotherapy to be among the most effective cessation methods, and nicotine gum and acupuncture to be among the least effective. These results indicate African-American physicians are much more involved than dentists in promoting smoking cessation among patients. Advice of health professionals generally is viewed as a powerful influence for African-American patients. Further work is needed to utilize fully the power of health care providers, especially dentists, in the fight against tobacco-related morbidity and mortality.

  14. Smoking cessation, lung function, and weight gain : a follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chinn, S; Jarvis, D; Melotti, R; Luczynska, C; Ackermann-Liebrich, U; Anto, JM; Cerveri, [No Value; de Marco, R; Gislason, T; Heinrich, J; Janson, C; Kunzli, N; Leynaert, B; Neukirch, F; Schouten, J; Sunyer, J; Svanes, C; Vermeire, P; Wjst, M; Burney, P

    2005-01-01

    Background Only one population-based study in one country has reported effects of smoking cessation and weight change on lung function, and none has reported the net effect. We estimated the net benefit of smoking cessation, and the independent effects of smoking and weight change on change in

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  16. Impact of self-initiated pre-quit smoking reduction on cessation rates: results of a clinical trial of smoking cessation among female prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Jackson, Dorothy O; Hale, Galen J; Carpenter, Matthew J; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in cessation success based on smokers' self-initiated pre-quit reductions in cigarettes per day (cpd). The study utilized data from a nicotine replacement+behavioral therapy smoking cessation intervention conducted in a female prison facility with 179 participants who were wait-listed for 6 months prior to intervention. We compared two groups of smokers based on whether they self-selected to reduce smoking prior to their cessation attempt (n=77) or whether they increased smoking or did not reduce (n=102). General Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to model smoking cessation through 12-month follow-up. Examination of pre-cessation cpd showed that those who reduced were heavier smokers at baseline, relative to those who did not reduce (p<0.001). By the week prior to the quit attempt (week 3) heavier smokers at baseline smoked significantly fewer cigarettes (p<0.001) and had lower CO levels (p<0.05) compared to baseline lighter smokers. GEE analyses showed that individuals who reduced prior to their quit attempt had significantly higher quit rates during early treatment but these gains were not sustained by follow-up points. Participant-initiated pre-cessation smoking reduction may be initially helpful in preparing to quit smoking, or may serve as a marker for participant motivation to quit smoking, but these differences do not sustain over time. More intensive interventions are still needed for successful cessation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Counseling Is Effective for Smoking Cessation in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Ingrid; Wangsmo Steffenssen, Mia Charlotte; Bakholdt, Vivi T.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review was to describe the efficacy of smoking cessation counseling and the resulting quit rate in patients with head and neck cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. Predictor...... variables were smoking cessation counseling and smoking cessation interventions. The outcome was smoking cessation. Data collection and quality assessment were performed independently by 2 of the authors. Selected publications were assessed for potential risk of bias, and the level of evidence was evaluated...... in patients who received smoking cessation counseling compared with those who received usual care. CONCLUSIONS: This review shows that counseling supplemented with nicotine replacement therapy increases the possibility for smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer....

  18. Maintenance of Smoking Cessation: Effect of Follow-Up Letters, Smoking Motivation, Muscle Tension, and Health Locus of Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Robert H.

    1981-01-01

    Following smoking-cessation treatment, half of 44 subjects were sent supportive maintenance letters. Letters produced no main effect but reduced smoking in subjects who smoked from habit or received little pleasure from smoking. Letters increased smoking among opposite subject groups and those believing powerful others could not influence their…

  19. Current and Emerging Pharmacotherapeutic Options for Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin V. Carson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoking remains the single most preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries and poses a significant threat across developing countries where tobacco use prevalence is increasing. Nicotine dependence is a chronic disease often requiring multiple attempts to quit; repeated interventions with pharmacotherapeutic aids have become more popular as part of cessation therapies. First-line medications of known efficacy in the general population include varenicline tartrate, bupropion hydrochloride, nicotine replacement therapy products, or a combination thereof. However, less is known about the use of these products in marginalized groups such as the indigenous, those with mental illnesses, youth, and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Despite the efficacy and safety of these first line pharmacotherapies, many smokers continue to relapse and alternative pharmacotherapies and cessation options are required. Thus, the aim of this review is to summarize the existing and developing pharmacotherapeutic and other options for smoking cessation, to identify gaps in current clinical practice, and to provide recommendations for future evaluations and research.

  20. Evaluation of a smoking cessation service in elective surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxony, Jennifer; Cowling, Lis; Catchpole, Leanne; Walker, Natalie

    2017-05-15

    No best practice service models exist for promoting preoperative smoking cessation support, despite smokers experiencing more perioperative complications than nonsmokers. A novel specialist stop smoking service for patients undergoing elective surgery (called 'ELECT') was established in 2012 in Auckland, New Zealand (NZ). An evaluation of the service was undertaken in 2014. The ELECT service involved regular staff training and the development of setting-specific and easy-to-use referral procedures. Cessation treatment emphasized temporary abstinence around the time of surgery, as opposed to long-term smoking abstinence. Information on referral rates and cessation outcomes were collated for the evaluation. Summary statistics are reported, with multiple logistic regression analysis undertaken to determine key associations between outcome variables. A total of 527 patients were referred to ELECT over a 27 mo period, representing one-fifth of all identified smokers. Nearly 60% (n = 308) of those referred received at least one treatment session involving intense behavioral support and nicotine replacement treatment; for Māori (indigenous NZers), this figure was 75%. A shorter time to contact of referred patients, older age, being Māori (versus NZ European) and being referred through the surgical hospital services were all positively associated with likelihood of receiving at least one treatment session (P < 0.05). Of the 123 patients who set a formal quit date, 68% (n = 82) self-reported sustained abstinence 4 wk post-quit, and 48% (n = 58) were still abstinent 12 wk post-quit. The ELECT service appears both feasible and sustainable over time and has a clear impact on helping patients achieve smoking abstinence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Simulation-based smoking cessation intervention education for undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Min; Ahn, Youngmee; Park, Heami; Lee, Mijin

    2012-11-01

    Smoking is one of the most important preventable risk factors that contributes to premature death from many tobacco-related diseases. Clinicians should offer and provide effective smoking cessation interventions to their smoking patients. Yet, few clinicians receive training in smoking cessation intervention. This one-group, quasi-experimental study was conducted to describe a simulation-based training of smoking cessation intervention and to evaluate its effectiveness on nursing students' self-efficacy in performing smoking cessation intervention, based on 5-As recommended by the United States Department of Health and Human Services. In addition, nursing students' experience, attitude and perceived barriers of smoking cessation intervention were also described. Among the 21 students (mean age: 21.6 ± 2.0 years), 86% were female, 62% were in their third year and 1% were current smokers. Most of students believed the health benefits of smoking cessation (100.0-66.7%) and were well educated about health risks of smoking (81.0-61.9%). However, few were taught (33.3-14.4%) and practiced (28.6-0.0%) smoking cessation intervention. Students reported that they should be actively involved in smoking cessation for patients (100.0-95.2%), but lack of knowledge and skills were the main barriers (90.5-85.7%). The simulation-based training of smoking cessation intervention improved nursing students' self-efficacy in seven out of nine skills of smoking cessation intervention (mean scores of pre- vs. post-intervention: 30.86 ± 3.80 vs. 34.05 ± 5.10; paired t=2.298, p=.027). These findings indicate that simulation could be effectively used in teaching smoking cessation intervention education delivered to nursing students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Smoking cessation in male prisoners: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djachenko, Ashleigh; St John, Winsome; Mitchell, Creina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the available literature relating to smoking cessation (SC) for the male prisoner population. Databases PubMed, CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched for English language studies from 1990 to 2012. The authors identified 12 papers examining SC in male prisoners. Full-text articles were analysed for inclusion. A total of 12 studies were identified for inclusion. Four studies focused on forced abstinence (a smoking ban) while the remainder looked at various combinations of nicotine replacement, pharmacology and behavioural techniques. No robust studies were found that examined nursing approaches to SC for the prisoner population. The evidence shows a strong "pro-smoking" culture in prison and that many prisoners continue to smoke irrespective of an enforced ban. However, SC strategies can be successful if implemented systematically and supported by consistent policies. Female-only prisoner studies were excluded as females comprise just 7 per cent of the Australian prisoner population. The analysis does not differentiate between maximum- or minimum-security prisons, or length of prison sentence. Results cannot be generalised to other forms of detention such as police custody or immigration detention centres. Studies were not appraised for quality, as exclusion on that basis would render further exploration untenable. The analysis was presented in a narrative rather than meta-analytical format and may be subject to interpretation. This paper provides a foundation on which to build further research evidence into the smoking behaviour of prisoners. This information can be used to advocate for healthier public policy for a vulnerable and marginalised population. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first literature review into SC interventions in prisons. The authors apply the findings of this literature review to the five strategies for health promotion to propose a population approach to smoking cessation in male prisoners

  3. E-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids: a survey among practitioners in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Lazuras, Lambros; Muzi, Milena; Grano, Caterina; Lucidi, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe experiences with and beliefs about e-cigarettes as safe and useful aids for smoking cessation among healthcare professionals providing smoking cessation services. Methods Using a cross-sectional design, anonymous structured questionnaires were completed by 179 healthcare professionals in public smoking cessation clinics across 20 regions in Italy. Results Service providers reported that considerably more smokers made inquiries about e-cigarettes in 2014 than in 2013. Th...

  4. Smoking cessation in smokers who smoke menthol and non-menthol cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stevens S; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B

    2014-12-01

    To assess the relations of menthol cigarette use with measures of cessation success in a large comparative effectiveness trial (CET). Participants were randomized to one of six medication treatment conditions in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. All participants received six individual counseling sessions. Community-based smokers in two communities in Wisconsin, USA. A total of 1504 adult smokers who smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day during the past 6 months and reported being motivated to quit smoking. The analysis sample comprised 1439 participants: 814 white non-menthol smokers, 439 white menthol smokers and 186 African American (AA) menthol smokers. There were too few AA non-menthol smokers (n = 16) to be included in the analyses. Nicotine lozenge, nicotine patch, bupropion sustained release, nicotine patch + nicotine lozenge, bupropion + nicotine lozenge and placebo. Biochemically confirmed 7-day point-prevalence abstinence assessed at 4, 8 and 26 weeks post-quit. In longitudinal abstinence analyses (generalized estimating equations) controlling for cessation treatment, menthol smoking was associated with reduced likelihood of smoking cessation success relative to non-menthol smoking [model-based estimates of abstinence = 31 versus 38%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59, 0.86]. In addition, among menthol smokers, AA women were at especially high risk of cessation failure relative to white women (estimated abstinence = 17 versus 35%, respectively; OR = 2.63, 95% CI = 1.75, 3.96; estimated abstinence rates for AA males and white males were both 30%, OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.60, 1.66). In the United States, smoking menthol cigarettes appears to be associated with reduced cessation success compared with non-menthol smoking, especially in African American females. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  5. Associations of duration of smoking cessation and cumulative smoking exposure with periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Fernando O; Cota, Luís O M; Lages, Eugênio J P; Cyrino, Renata M; Oliveira, Alcione M S D; Oliveira, Peterson A D; Cortelli, José R

    2013-09-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations of cumulative smoking exposure and duration of smoking cessation with periodontitis and evaluated the effects of biological, behavioral, and social risk variables on these associations. The sample comprised 705 adults of both sexes (age, 35-65 years) who underwent a full-mouth periodontal examination. Subjects were classified according to smoking status as nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers, and univariate and multivariate analysis was used to evaluate associations between periodontitis prevalence and potential risk variables. The rates of periodontitis among nonsmokers, former smokers, and current smokers were 25.6%, 29.3%, and 45.1% respectively. After adjusting for other periodontal risk variables the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for periodontitis was 3.09 (1.98-4.92) for former smokers and 5.24 (2.61-8.97) for current smokers. A significant dose-response relationship between pack-years of smoking and periodontitis prevalence was observed, as was a significant decrease in the risk of periodontitis as years of smoking cessation increased. Cumulative smoking exposure and duration of smoking cessation were significantly associated with periodontitis.

  6. What is the quality of smoking cessation advice in guidelines of tobacco-related diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; Agrawal, Sanjay; Gregory, Benjamin; Britton, John; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2015-12-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a range of diseases, and quitting smoking provides considerable benefits to health. It therefore follows that clinical guidelines on disease management, particularly for diseases caused by smoking, should include smoking cessation. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which this is the case. We conducted a systematic review investigating clinical guidelines and recommendations issued by UK national or European transnational medical speciality associations and societies issued between 2000 and 2012 on a range of diseases caused by smoking. We then investigated whether selected guidelines contained reference to smoking cessation and smoking cessation advice. Although the extent to which smoking and smoking cessation was mentioned in the guidelines varied between diseases, only 60% of guidelines identified recognised that smoking is a risk factor for the development of the disease and 40% recommended smoking cessation. Only 19% of guidelines provided detailed information on how to deliver smoking cessation support. Smoking cessation is not comprehensively addressed in current UK and transnational European clinical practice guidelines and recommendations. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  7. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappin, David; Bauld, Linda; Purves, David; Boyd, Kathleen; Sinclair, Lesley; MacAskill, Susan; McKell, Jennifer; Friel, Brenda; McConnachie, Alex; de Caestecker, Linda; Tannahill, Carol; Radley, Andrew; Coleman, Tim

    2015-01-27

    To assess the efficacy of a financial incentive added to routine specialist pregnancy stop smoking services versus routine care to help pregnant smokers quit. Phase II therapeutic exploratory single centre, individually randomised controlled parallel group superiority trial. One large health board area with a materially deprived, inner city population in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. 612 self reported pregnant smokers in NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde who were English speaking, at least 16 years of age, less than 24 weeks pregnant, and had an exhaled carbon monoxide breath test result of 7 ppm or more. 306 women were randomised to incentives and 306 to control. The control group received routine care, which was the offer of a face to face appointment to discuss smoking and cessation and, for those who attended and set a quit date, the offer of free nicotine replacement therapy for 10 weeks provided by pharmacy services, and four, weekly support phone calls. The intervention group received routine care plus the offer of up to £400 of shopping vouchers: £50 for attending a face to face appointment and setting a quit date; then another £50 if at four weeks' post-quit date exhaled carbon monoxide confirmed quitting; a further £100 was provided for continued validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide after 12 weeks; a final £200 voucher was provided for validated abstinence of exhaled carbon monoxide at 34-38 weeks' gestation. The primary outcome was cotinine verified cessation at 34-38 weeks' gestation through saliva (incentives were documented. Significantly more smokers in the incentives group than control group stopped smoking: 69 (22.5%) versus 26 (8.6%). The relative risk of not smoking at the end of pregnancy was 2.63 (95% confidence interval 1.73 to 4.01) Pincentives need to be offered to achieve one extra quitter in late pregnancy) was 7.2 (95% confidence interval 5.1 to 12.2). The mean birth weight was 3140 g (SD 600 g) in the incentives group

  8. Smoking Cessation without Educational Instruction could Promote the Development of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Takase, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takamitsu; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation is particularly important for maintaining health; however, the subsequent risk of an increased body weight is of major concern. The present study investigated the influence of smoking cessation on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the Japanese general population. This study enrolled individuals without metabolic syndrome or a history of smoking via our annual health checkup program (n=5,702, 55.2±11.5 years). Participants were divided into three groups mentioned below and followed up with the endpoint being the development of metabolic syndrome: (1) subjects who had never smoked and did not smoke during the observation period (non-smoker); (2) those who continued smoking during the observation period (continuous smoker); and (3) those who ceased smoking during the observation period (smoking cessation). During the observation period (median 1,089 days), 520 subjects developed metabolic syndrome, and Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome in the smoking cessation group than in the other groups. Smoking cessation was confirmed as an independent predictor of the new onset of metabolic syndrome by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjustment. Subjects only from the smoking cessation group showed a significant deterioration in metabolic factors during the study in correlation with an increased waist circumference after smoking cessation. Smoking cessation without instruction could be followed by the development of metabolic syndrome, and the incidence of metabolic syndrome might reduce the benefit obtained from smoking cessation. Therefore, further educational outreach is needed to prevent the progression of metabolic syndrome during the course of smoking cessation.

  9. Smoking behaviours and cessation services among male physicians in China: evidence from a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Guo, Chaoran; Yu, Shaohua; Feng, Yan; Song, Julia; Eriksen, Michael; Redmon, Pam; Koplan, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    To investigate smoking prevalence and cessation services provided by male physicians in hospitals in three Chinese cities. Data were collected from a survey of male physicians employed at 33 hospitals in Changsha, Qingdao and Wuxi City (n=720). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent variables, and confirmatory structural equation modelling analysis was performed to test the relationships between predictor variables and smoking in male physicians, and their provision of cessation services. Of the sampled male physicians, 25.7% were current smokers, and 54.0% provided cessation services by counselling (18.8%), distributing self-help materials (17.1%), and providing traditional remedies or medication (18.2%). Factors that predicted smoking included peer smoking (OR 1.14 95% CI 1.03 to 1.26) and uncommon knowledge (OR 0.94 95% CI 0.89 to 0.99), a variable measuring awareness of the association of smoking with stroke, heart attack, premature ageing and impotence in male adults as well as the role of passive smoking in heart attack. Factors that predicted whether physicians provided smoking cessation services included peer smoking (OR 0.82 95% CI 0.76 to 0.89), physicians' own smoking (OR 0.87 95% CI 0.81 to 0.93), training in cessation (OR 1.36 95% CI 1.27 to 1.45) and access to smoking cessation resources (OR 1.69 95% CI 1.58 to 1.82). The smoke-free policy is not strictly implemented at healthcare facilities, and smoking remains a public health problem among male physicians. A holistic approach, including a stricter implementation of the smoke-free policy, comprehensive education on the hazards of smoking, training in standard smoking-cessation techniques and provision of cessation resources, is needed to curb the smoking epidemic among male physicians and to promote smoking cessation services in China.

  10. Pharmacological interventions for promoting smoking cessation during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Tim; Chamberlain, Catherine; Davey, Mary-Ann; Cooper, Sue E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo

    2015-12-22

    Smoking in pregnancy is a public health problem. When used by non-pregnant smokers, pharmacotherapies (nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and varenicline) are effective for smoking cessation, however, their efficacy and safety in pregnancy remains unknown. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are becoming widely used but their efficacy and safety when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy are also unknown. To determine the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (including NRT, varenicline and bupropion), other medications, or ENDS when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy. We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 July 2015), checked references of retrieved studies, and contacted authors. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted in pregnant women with designs that permit the independent effects of any type of pharmacotherapy or ENDS on smoking cessation to be ascertained were eligible for inclusion.The following RCT designs are included.Placebo-RCTs: any form of NRT, other pharmacotherapy, or ENDS, with or without behavioural support/cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT), or brief advice, compared with an identical placebo and behavioural support of similar intensity.RCTs providing a comparison between i) any form of NRT, other pharmacotherapy, or ENDS added to behavioural support/CBT, or brief advice and ii) behavioural support of similar (ideally identical) intensity.Parallel- or cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion. Quasi-randomised, cross-over and within-participant designs were not, due to the potential biases associated with these designs. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias and also independently extracted data and cross checked individual outcomes of this process to ensure accuracy. The primary efficacy outcome was smoking cessation in later pregnancy (in all but one trial, at or around delivery); safety was

  11. Free smoking cessation mobile apps available in Australia: a quality review and content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Louise; Quinn, Catherine; Birrell, Louise; Guillaumier, Ashleigh; Shaw, Brad; Forbes, Erin; Deady, Mark; Kay-Lambkin, Frances

    2017-12-01

    This review aimed to identify free, high-quality, smoking cessation mobile applications (apps) that adhere to Australian smoking cessation treatment guidelines. A systematic search of smoking cessation apps was conducted using Google. The technical quality of relevant apps was rated using the Mobile Application Rating Scale. The content of apps identified as high quality was assessed for adherence to smoking cessation treatment guidelines. 112 relevant apps were identified. The majority were of poor technical quality and only six 'high-quality' apps were identified. These apps adhered to Australian treatment guidelines in part. The efficacy of two apps had been previously evaluated. In lieu of more substantial research in this area, it is suggested that the high-quality apps identified in this review may be more likely than other available apps to encourage smoking cessation. Implications for public health: Smoking cessation apps have the potential to address many barriers that prevent smoking cessation support being provided; however few high-quality smoking cessation apps are currently available in Australia, very few have been evaluated and the app market is extremely volatile. More research to evaluate smoking cessation apps, and sustained funding for evidence-based apps, is needed. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. The role of smoking in social networks on smoking cessation and relapse among adults: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, David J; de Vlas, Sake J; van Empelen, Pepijn; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the spread of smoking cessation and relapse within social networks may offer new approaches to further curb the smoking epidemic. Whether smoking behavior among social network members determines smoking cessation and relapse of adults however, is less known. For this study, longitudinal data of 4623 adults participating in the Dutch Longitudinal Internet Studies for the Social sciences (LISS) panel were collected in March 2013 with a follow-up in 2014. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between the proportion of smokers in social networks, and (1) smoking cessation (n=762) and (2) smoking relapse (n=1905). Analyses were adjusted for the size of the network, age, sex, and education. Respondents with the largest proportion of smokers in their social network were less likely to quit smoking (OR=0.25; 95% CI=0.11-0.66) and more likely to experience a relapse (6.08; 3.01-12.00). Smoking cessation and relapse were most strongly associated with the proportion of smokers among household members and friends. The proportion of smokers in family outside the household was not related to smoking cessation and smoking relapse. In conclusion, smoking behavior in social networks, especially among household members and friends, is strongly associated with smoking cessation and relapse. These findings further support the spread of smoking within social networks, and provide evidence for network-based interventions, particularly including household members and friends. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular events and mortality among older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mons, Ute; Müezzinler, Aysel; Gellert, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of smoking and smoking cessation on cardiovascular mortality, acute coronary events, and stroke events in people aged 60 and older, and to calculate and report risk advancement periods for cardiovascular mortality in addition to traditional epidemiological...... 60 and older were included in this study, of whom 37 952 died from cardiovascular disease. Random effects meta-analysis of the association of smoking status with cardiovascular mortality yielded a summary hazard ratio of 2.07 (95% CI 1.82 to 2.36) for current smokers and 1.37 (1.25 to 1......, and decreased continuously with time since smoking cessation in former smokers. Relative risk estimates for acute coronary events and for stroke events were somewhat lower than for cardiovascular mortality, but patterns were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our study corroborates and expands evidence from previous studies...

  14. Clickotine, A Personalized Smartphone App for Smoking Cessation: Initial Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinerman, Joshua R; Klein, David B; Silver, Theodore L; Berger, Adam G; Luo, Sean X; Schork, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Background Tobacco smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the United States, and the annual economic burden attributable to smoking exceeds US $300 billion. Obstacles to smoking cessation include limited access and adherence to effective cessation interventions. Technology can help overcome these obstacles; many smartphone apps have been developed to aid smoking cessation, but few that conform to the US clinical practice guideline (USCPG) have been rigorously tested and reported in the literature. Clickotine is a novel smartphone app for smoking cessation, designed to deliver the essential features of the USCPG and engineered to engage smokers by personalizing intervention components. Objective Our objective was to assess the engagement, efficacy, and safety of Clickotine in an initial, single-arm study. Outcomes measured were indicators of engagement with the smartphone app (number of app opens, number of interactions with the Clickotine program, and weeks active with Clickotine), cessation outcomes of 7- and 30-day self-reported abstinence from smoking, and negative health events. Methods We recruited US residents between 18 and 65 years of age who owned an iPhone and smoked 5 or more cigarettes daily for the study via online advertising. Respondents were prescreened for eligibility by telephone and, if appropriate, directed to a Web portal to provide informed consent, confirm eligibility, and download the Clickotine app. Participants completed study assessments via the online portal at baseline and after 8 weeks. Data were collected in Amazon S3 with no manual data entry, and access to all data was maximally restrictive, logged, and auditable. Results A total of 416 participants downloaded the app and constituted the intention-to-treat (ITT) sample. On average, participants opened the Clickotine app 100.6 times during the 8-week study (median 69), logged 214.4 interactions with the Clickotine program (median 178), and remained engaged with

  15. Perceptions of dental students in India about smoking cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasundaram, Prakash; Sequeira, Peter Simon; Jain, Jithesh

    2011-12-01

    Smoking kills 900,000 people every year in India. Many studies have shown that counseling from a health professional is an effective method of helping patients quit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes of dental students in Karnataka, India, towards smoking cessation counseling. A questionnaire study was conducted among a convenience sample of 329 dental students comprised of III year and IV year students and interns in three dental colleges in Karnataka, India. Of the 329 students who completed the questionnaire, twenty-two (7 percent) were current smokers, and fifteen (5 percent) were ex-smokers. Although 94 percent responded they were giving antismoking advice to their patients, only 47 percent said they had been taught antismoking advice suitable for patients. While a majority (95 percent) planned to advise patients about tobacco use in their professional careers, significantly fewer (66 percent) indicated that such counseling would help patients to quit. This study of dental students and interns found that a majority intended to provide smoking cessation counseling in their professional career and agreed it is part of their professional role.

  16. Smoking cessation and tobacco prevention in Indigenous populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Esterman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article systematically reviews 91 smoking cessation and tobacco prevention studies tailored for Indigenous populations around the world, with a particular focus on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander populations in Australia. We identified several components of effective interventions, including the use of multifaceted programs that simultaneously address the behavioural, psychological and biochemical aspects of addiction, using resources culturally tailored for the needs of individual Indigenous populations. Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation was effective when combined with culturally tailored behavioural interventions and health professional support, though it is generally underused in clinical practice. From a policy perspective, interventions of greater intensity, with more components, were more likely to be effective than those of lower intensity and shorter duration. For any new policy it is important to consider community capacity building, development of knowledge, and sustainability of the policy beyond guided implementation. Future research should address how the intervention can be supported into standard practice, policy, or translation into the front-line of clinical care. Investigations are also required to determine the efficacy of emerging therapies (such as e-cigarettes and the use of social media to tackle youth smoking, and under-researched interventions that hold promise based on non-Indigenous studies, such as the use of Champix. We conclude that more methodologically rigorous investigations are required to determine components of the less-successful interventions to aid future policy, practice and research initiatives.

  17. Gender differences in personality patterns and smoking status after a smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Bárbara; López-Durán, Ana; Fernández Del Río, Elena; Martínez, Ursula; Becoña, Elisardo

    2013-04-08

    The lack of conclusive results and the scarce use of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) in the study of the relationship between smoking and personality are the reasons that motivated the study reported here. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of personality patterns, assessed with the MCMI-III, and of nicotine dependence on treatment outcomes at the end of the treatment and at 12 months follow-up in men and women smokers receiving cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. The sample was made up of 288 smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. Personality patterns were assessed with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Abstinence at the end of the treatment and at 12-month follow-up was validated with the test for carbon monoxide in expired air. The results showed significant differences by personality patterns that predict nicotine dependence (Narcissistic and Antisocial in men and Schizoid in women). At the end of the treatment it is more likely that quit smoking males with a Compulsive pattern and less likely in those scoring high in Depressive, Antisocial, Sadistic, Negativistic, Masochistic, Schizotypal and Borderline. In women, it is less likely that quit smoking those with the Schizoid pattern. At 12 months follow-up it is more likely that continue abstinent those males with a high score in the Compulsive pattern. Furthermore, nicotine dependence was an important variable for predicting outcome at the end of the treatment and smoking status at 12 months follow-up in both men and women. We found substantial differences by gender in some personality patterns in a sample of smokers who received cognitive-behavioral treatment for smoking cessation. We should consider the existence of different personality patterns in men and women who seek treatment for smoking cessation.

  18. Osteopathic Medical Student Administered Smoking Cessation Counseling is an Effective Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozzi, Barbara; Chez, Ariel; Carpenter, Taissia; Hubert, Laura; Hewan-Lowe, Lissa; Ozcan, Asli; Sahni, Sonu

    2016-04-01

    Physician counseling on the risks of tobacco smoking and the benefits of cessation has been shown to be an effective method of increasing the rate of smoking cessation. Using the "Help Your Patients Quit Smoking: A Coaching Guide" also referred to as the "7A's of Smoking Cessation" guideline from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene is thought to be effective to convey the importance of smoking cessation. To study the efficacy of the "7A's of Smoking Cessation" guideline counseling conducted by osteopathic medical students. Osteopathic medical students were trained to counsel smokers for 3-10 min based on New York City Department of Health's "7A's of Smoking Cessation" guidelines by a licensed physician. Students then counseled health fair participants who were cigarette smokers for 3-10 min. Postcounseling, participants were administered an 4 question survey to evaluate the effect counseling had on their desire to quit smoking. Survey data were collected and analyzed. Institutional Review Board approval was obtained for this study. A total of 13 anonymous health fair participants who were also smokers were administered both counseling sessions and surveys. 11/13 (84.6%) participants stated that the session motivated them to quit smoking. 9/13 (69.2%) participants responded that they were now motivated to discuss smoking cessation with their doctor after being counseled. Of these participants 12/13 (92.3%) had previously attempted to quit smoking without success. Participants reported an increased willingness to stop smoking after being counseled by osteopathic medical students. Participants also reported an increased motivation to discuss smoking cessation with their physician. These findings indicate that smoking cessation counseling administered by osteopathic medical students effectively in encouraging smokers to consider reduction or cessation of tobacco use.

  19. Assessment of successful smoking cessation by psychological factors using the Bayesian network approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaorong; Li, Suyun; Pan, Lulu; Wang, Qiang; Li, Huijie; Han, Mingkui; Zhang, Nan; Jiang, Fan; Jia, Chongqi

    2016-07-01

    The association between psychological factors and smoking cessation is complicated and inconsistent in published researches, and the joint effect of psychological factors on smoking cessation is unclear. This study explored how psychological factors jointly affect the success of smoking cessation using a Bayesian network approach. A community-based case control study was designed with 642 adult male successful smoking quitters as the cases, and 700 adult male failed smoking quitters as the controls. General self-efficacy (GSE), trait coping style (positive-trait coping style (PTCS) and negative-trait coping style (NTCS)) and self-rating anxiety (SA) were evaluated by GSE Scale, Trait Coping Style Questionnaire and SA Scale, respectively. Bayesian network was applied to evaluate the relationship between psychological factors and successful smoking cessation. The local conditional probability table of smoking cessation indicated that different joint conditions of psychological factors led to different outcomes for smoking cessation. Among smokers with high PTCS, high NTCS and low SA, only 36.40% successfully quitted smoking. However, among smokers with low pack-years of smoking, high GSE, high PTCS and high SA, 63.64% successfully quitted smoking. Our study indicates psychological factors jointly influence smoking cessation outcome. According to different joint situations, different solutions should be developed to control tobacco in practical intervention.

  20. Gender, smoking and tobacco reduction and cessation: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottorff, Joan L; Haines-Saah, Rebecca; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Torchalla, Iris; Poole, Nancy; Greaves, Lorraine; Robinson, Carole A; Ensom, Mary H H; Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Phillips, J Craig

    2014-12-12

    Considerations of how gender-related factors influence smoking first appeared over 20 years ago in the work of critical and feminist scholars. This scholarship highlighted the need to consider the social and cultural context of women's tobacco use and the relationships between smoking and gender inequity. Parallel research on men's smoking and masculinities has only recently emerged with some attention being given to gender influences on men's tobacco use. Since that time, a multidisciplinary literature addressing women and men's tobacco use has spanned the social, psychological and medical sciences. To incorporate these gender-related factors into tobacco reduction and cessation interventions, our research team identified the need to clarify the current theoretical and methodological interpretations of gender within the context of tobacco research. To address this need a scoping review of the published literature was conducted focussing on tobacco reduction and cessation from the perspective of three aspects of gender: gender roles, gender identities, and gender relations. Findings of the review indicate that there is a need for greater clarity on how researchers define and conceptualize gender and its significance for tobacco control. Patterns and anomalies in the literature are described to guide the future development of interventions that are gender-sensitive and gender-specific. Three principles for including gender-related factors in tobacco reduction and cessation interventions were identified: a) the need to build upon solid conceptualizations of gender, b) the importance of including components that comprehensively address gender-related influences, and c) the importance of promoting gender equity and healthy gender norms, roles and relations.

  1. [Effectiveness of bupropion and counseling for smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, B; He, Y; Zuo, F; Wu, L; Liu, Q H; Zhang, L; Zhou, C X; Cheng, J J; Chan Sc, Z S; Lam, D Q

    2016-07-06

    To evaluate the effectiveness of bupropion for smoking cessation among Chinese smokers at a smoking cessation clinic. A prospective observational study was conducted in a hospital located in Beijing during 2008 and from 28 to 31 October 2014. A total of 287 smokers (265 men and 22 women) were assessed using data from structured questionnaires at baseline and were followed up at 1 and 6 months. Trained physician counselors provided free brief education and individual counseling sessions for all participants at the first visit. A total 131 participants were prescribed bupropion in addition to counseling. The counseling plus bupropion group was compared with the group who underwent counseling without bupropion. Outcomes were self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence rates at 1- and 6-month follow-up and continuous abstinence rates at 6-month follow-up. Smoking reduction rates at 1 and 6 months were also measured. By intention-to-treat analysis, the 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate of the bupropion group at 1 and 6 months was higher than for the counseling-only group: at 1-month follow-up, 26.0% (34/131) vs. 15.4% (24/156), with OR (95% CI) 1.93(1.07-3.46); these rates at 6-month follow-up were 27.8% (35/131) vs. 15.4% (24/156), with OR (95% CI) 2.01(1.12-3.59). The 1-month continuous abstinence rate at 6 months was higher in the bupropion group: 26.0% (34/131) vs. 14.7% (23/156), with OR (95%CI) 2.03(1.12-3.66). Participants in the bupropion group also had a higher smoking reduction rate at 1 month than those in the counseling-only group: 55.0% (72/131) vs. 38.5% (60/156), with OR (95%CI) 1.95 (1.22-3.13). Prescription of bupropion at this smoking cessation clinic was effective in doubling the quitting rates and smoking reduction rates among Chinese smokers.

  2. Profile and motivation for smoking cessation in surgical inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Almeida Corrêa

    Full Text Available The aim of this cross-sectional study was to describe the profile of smokers hospitalized for surgery, and investigate their motivation to quit. The sample consisted of 100 patients recruited from a university hospital in southern Brazil. Data were collected between February and May 2013, and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The sample was predominantly male (n=58; 58% and had a mean age of 54.5±13.8 years. Seventy-nine (79% of the participants were white, 38(38% were married and 67(67% had primary education only. Patients started smoking at a mean age of 17±6.6 years, smoked approximately 20(10 to 28.7 cigarettes/day and had been smoking for a mean of 37.4±14.4 years. Ninety-one (91% patients wanted to stop smoking, 57(57% were in the preparation phase, 36(36% had low nicotine dependence and 35(35% had been encouraged to quit. We concluded that, although hospitalization is a good moment to address smoking cessation, health care professionals do not enact effective and systematic interventions in this regard.

  3. South African tobacco smoking cessation clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl-Smit, Richard N; Allwood, Brian; Stickells, David; Symons, Gregory; Abdool-Gaffar, Sabs; Murphy, Kathy; Lalloo, Umesh; Vanker, Aneesa; Dheda, Keertan; Richards, Guy

    2013-09-30

    Tobacco smoking (i.e. cigarettes, rolled tobacco, pipes, etc.) is associated with significant health risks, reduced life expectancy and negative personal and societal economic impact. Smokers have an increased risk of cancer (i.e. lung, throat, bladder), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis and cardiovascular disease (i.e. stroke, heart attack). Smoking affects unborn babies, children and others exposed to second hand smoke. Stopping or 'quitting' is not easy. Nicotine is highly addictive and smoking is frequently associated with social activities (e.g. drinking, eating) or psychological factors (e.g. work pressure, concerns about body weight, anxiety or depressed mood). The benefits of quitting, however, are almost immediate, with a rapid lowering of blood pressure and heart rate, improved taste and smell, and a longer-term reduction in risk of cancer, heart attack and COPD. Successful quitting requires attention to both the factors surrounding why an individual smokes (e.g. stress, depression, habit, etc.) and the symptoms associated with nicotine withdrawal. Many smokers are not ready or willing to quit and require frequent motivational input outlining the benefits that would accrue. In addition to an evaluation of nicotine dependence, co-existent medical or psychiatric conditions and barriers to quitting should be identified. A tailored approach encompassing psychological and social support, in addition to appropriate medication to reduce nicotine withdrawal, is likely to provide the best chance of success. Relapse is not uncommon and reasons for failure should be addressed in a positive manner and further attempts initiated when the individual is ready.Key steps in smoking cessation include: (i) identifying all smokers, alerting them to the harms of smoking and benefits of quitting; (ii) assessing readiness to initiate an attempt to quit; (iii) assessing the physical and psychological dependence to nicotine and smoking; (iv) determining

  4. Dutch practice nurses' adherence to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruijter, D.; Smit, E.S.; de Vries, H.; Hoving, C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Practice nurses in general practice sub-optimally adhere to evidence-based smoking cessation treatment guidelines, but factors explaining their adherence have not yet been investigated. Understanding such factors is important to develop interventions improving practice nurses' smoking

  5. Social Cognitive Mediators of Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Results from a Large Randomized Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B.; Liu, Jingmin; Comstock, Bryan A.; Peterson, Arthur V.; Kealey, Kathleen A.; Marek, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Only one prior study has examined why adolescent smoking cessation interventions are effective. To address this understudied and important issue, this study examined whether a large adolescent smoking cessation intervention trial’s outcomes were mediated by Social Cognitive Theory processes. In a randomized trial (N = 2,151), counselors proactively delivered a telephone intervention to senior year high school smokers. Mediators and smoking status were self-reported at 12 months post-intervention-eligibility (88.8% retention). At-least-6-months abstinence was the outcome. Among all enrolled smokers, increased self-efficacy to resist smoking in (a) social & (b) stressful situations together statistically mediated 55.6% of the intervention’s effect on smoking cessation (p smoking in stressful situations statistically mediated 56.9% of the intervention’s effect (p smoking is a possible mediator of the intervention’s effect on smoking cessation. PMID:20853929

  6. The role of gender in a smoking cessation intervention: a cluster randomized clinical trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puente, Diana; Cabezas, Carmen; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Fernández-Alonso, Carmen; Cebrian, Tránsito; Torrecilla, Miguel; Clemente, Lourdes; Martín, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of smoking in Spain is high in both men and women. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of gender in the effectiveness of a specific smoking cessation intervention conducted in Spain...

  7. Teen smoking cessation help via the Internet: a survey of search engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine C; Elliott, Sean P; Conway, Terry L; Woodruff, Susan I

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess Web sites related to teen smoking cessation on the Internet. Seven Internet search engines were searched using the keywords teen quit smoking. The top 20 hits from each search engine were reviewed and categorized. The keywords teen quit smoking produced between 35 and 400,000 hits depending on the search engine. Of 140 potential hits, 62% were active, unique sites; 85% were listed by only one search engine; and 40% focused on cessation. Findings suggest that legitimate on-line smoking cessation help for teens is constrained by search engine choice and the amount of time teens spend looking through potential sites. Resource listings should be updated regularly. Smoking cessation Web sites need to be picked up on multiple search engine searches. Further evaluation of smoking cessation Web sites need to be conducted to identify the most effective help for teens.

  8. Smoking cessation treatment for COPD smokers: the role of counselling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Ruiz, C A; Fagerström, K O

    2013-03-01

    Smoking cessation is the only therapeutic intervention that can prevent COPD smokers from the chronic progression of their disorder. The most important intervention for helping these smokers to quit is a combination of counseling plus pharmacological treatment. The characteristics of the counseling should be different depending if this intervention is offered to smokers with a previous diagnosis of COPD or if the intervention is offered to smokers who have been recently diagnoses with COPD. The counseling of patients who have been recently diagnosed should include: a) explanation of the direct relationship between smoking and COPD, b) encouraging these patients to quit and c) using of spirometry and measurements of CO as a motivational tools. The counseling of patients who have been previously diagnosed should include: a) encouragement to make a serious quit attempt, b) an intervention that increases motivation, self-efficacy and self-esteem, c) and the intervention should also control depression and be directed to weight gain control.

  9. Smoking cessation and mortality trends among two United States populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enstrom, J E

    1999-09-01

    The long-term impact of smoking cessation on mortality is assessed among two U.S. populations: a large cohort of U.S. veterans aged 55-64 at entry and followed from 1954 through 1979 and the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study (NHEFS) cohort of a national sample of U.S. adults aged 55-74 at entry and followed from 1971 through 1992. Direct and indirect survey data indicate that 50-70% of those who were current cigarette smokers at entry had quit smoking during the 19- to 26-year follow-up periods. The impact of smoking cessation on mortality among the cigarette smokers as a whole has been assessed by determining the time trend of the relative risk (RR) of death and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the cigarette smokers compared with never-smokers over the entire follow-up period in both cohorts. The total death rates for the 1954/57 U.S. veteran smokers as a whole (63,159 males) have converged only slightly toward those of never-smokers, from RR = 1.65 (1.58-1.72) during 1954-1959 to RR = 1.61 (1.58-1.63) during 1954-1979. The lung cancer death rates for 1954/57 smokers as a whole have not converged toward those of never-smokers, with RR = 10.89 (7.70-15.41) during 1954-1959 and RR = 11.10 (9.78-12.61) during 1954-1979. The total death rates for the 1971-1975 NHEFS smokers as a whole (694 males and 1116 females) have not converged toward those of never-smokers. For males, RR = 1.92 (1.46-2.52) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.96 (1.63-2.36) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 1.79 (1.31-2.46) during 1971-1982 and RR = 1.79 (1.47-2.17) during 1971-1992. The lung cancer death rates have diverged, based on small numbers of deaths. For males, RR = 15.76 (2.06-120.61) during 1971-1982 and RR = 22.20 (5.31-92.92) during 1971-1992; for females, RR = 2.92 (0.57-15.06) during 1971-1982 and RR = 4.74 (1.94-11.59) during 1971-1992. These trends are contrary to the substantial convergence predicted by the death rate trends among U.S. veterans who were former smokers at the

  10. Mobile phone-based interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Robyn; Borland, Ron; Bullen, Chris; Lin, Ruey B; McRobbie, Hayden; Rodgers, Anthony

    2009-10-07

    Innovative effective smoking cessation interventions are required to appeal to those who are not accessing traditional cessation services. Mobile phones are widely used and are now well integrated into the daily lives of many, particularly young adults. Mobile phones are a potential medium for the delivery of health programmes such as smoking cessation. To determine whether mobile phone-based interventions are effective at helping people who smoke, to quit. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cinahl, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Library, the National Research Register and the ClinicalTrials register, with no restrictions placed on language or publication date. We included randomized or quasi-randomized trials. Participants were smokers of any age who wanted to quit. Studies were those examining any type of mobile phone-based intervention. This included any intervention aimed at mobile phone users, based around delivery via mobile phone, and using any functions or applications that can be used or sent via a mobile phone. Information on the specified quality criteria and methodological details was extracted using a standardised form. Participants who dropped out of the trials or were lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. Meta-analysis of the included studies was undertaken using the Mantel-Haenszel Risk Ratio fixed-effect method provided that there was no evidence of substantial statistical heterogeneity as assessed by the I(2) statistic. Where meta-analysis was not possible, summary and descriptive statistics are presented. Four studies were excluded as they were small non-randomized feasibility studies, and two studies were excluded because follow up was less than six months. Four trials (reported in five papers) are included: a text message programme in New Zealand; a text message programme in the UK; and an Internet and mobile phone programme involving two different groups in Norway. The different types of interventions are analysed separately. When combined by

  11. Online consumer search strategies for smoking-cessation information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Nathan K

    2010-03-01

    For many Americans, the Internet has become a primary mechanism for locating information on healthcare and treatment options, including tobacco addiction. Detailed information on this behavior could inform design decisions for next-generation cessation interventions, but very little is known about how consumers search or what resources they locate. A subset of a publicly available, anonymized record of the search behavior of 650,000 individuals over 3 months in 2006 was analyzed. Smoking cessation-related queries were extracted and coded via manual identification of terms and by back-identifying terms by matching them to the websites ultimately visited. Destination sites were coded as to whether or not they originated from a professional source based on the literature and known healthcare organizations. A total of 628 individuals (0.10%) made 1106 cessation-related searches during the observation period. Of these, 76% resulted in the individual reaching a website; professional sites were reached by only 34% of searchers. Complementary or alternative therapies were popular, with 10% of individuals searching for "laser" therapy. A concerning disconnect exists between consumer demand (as demonstrated by search behavior) and the sites produced by researchers and health professionals. This "demand gap" may contribute to low overall participation rates and hamper the potential impact of such systems. Further research is needed to link online consumer preferences to intervention design decisions. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structured Smoking Cessation Training for Medical Students: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Ronja; Schiekirka, Sarah; Brown, Jamie; Bobak, Alex; McEwen, Andy; Raupach, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Physician adherence to guideline recommendations regarding the provision of counseling and support for smokers willing to quit is low. A lack of training during undergraduate medical education has been identified as a potential cause. This prospective intervention study evaluated a novel teaching module for medical students. As part of a 6-week cardiovascular course, 125 fourth-year undergraduate medical students received a multimodal and interactive teaching module on smoking cessation, including online learning material, lectures, seminars, and practical skills training. Short- and medium-term effects on knowledge, skills, attitudes, and self-reported practice were measured using written examinations and an objective structured clinical examination at the end of the module and 6 months later. Results were compared to data obtained from a historical control cohort (n = 70) unexposed to the intervention. At the 6-month follow-up, scores in the knowledge test were significantly higher in the intervention than the control group (61.1% vs. 51.7%; p students in the intervention than control group agreed that smoking was a chronic disease (83.1% vs. 68.1%; p = .045). The control group was more likely to report recording smoking status (p = .018), but no group difference was detected regarding the report of advising to quit (p = .154). A novel teaching module for undergraduate medical students produced a sustained learning outcome in terms of knowledge, skills, and attitudes but not self-reported practice. Studies across the world have identified considerable knowledge gaps and deficits in practical training with regard to smoking cessation counseling in undergraduate medical students. This paper describes a teaching intervention informed by current recommendations for the design of educational activities aimed at enabling medical students to deliver adequate behavior change counseling. The teaching module was tailored to the needs of a specific healthcare system. Given

  13. Hospital doctors' smoking behavior and attitude towards smoking cessation interventions for patients: a survey in an Italian Comprehensive Cancer Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lina, Micaela; Mazza, Roberto; Borreani, Claudia; Brunelli, Cinzia; Bianchi, Elisabetta; Munarini, Elena; De Marco, Cinzia; Pozzi, Paolo; Boffi, Roberto

    2016-06-02

    Tobacco control guidelines recommend all healthcare professionals to ask patients about their smoking status and to offer them at least minimal cessation advice. However, few data are available about the daily practice of hospital clinicians who work with smoking cancer patients. This study assesses, in a comprehensive cancer center, the physicians' smoking habit, their clinical practice in offering a smoking cessation intervention to patients who smoke, and the training they received in this field. A Web-based survey was sent to 285 physicians. The survey response rate was 75%. Sixty-two percent, 24%, and 14% of responders were never, former, and current smokers, respectively. Six percent of all responding physicians have already participated in smoking cessation training and 43% of them declared their willingness to be trained. Eighty-six percent of all responding physicians asked about the patients' smoking status, 50% routinely advised patients to quit smoking, and 32% assessed their motivation to do so. Smoking cessation guidelines were not followed mostly for lack of time, fear to increase patients' stress, and lack of smoking cessation training. Ninety-four percent of responding physicians knew the smoking cessation service for outpatients and 65% referred at least one patient, 66% of responding physicians knew the service for inpatients, and 36% of them asked for at least one intervention in the ward. This study pointed out partial adherence of the physicians working in a leading cancer center to the smoking cessation guidelines. The clinicians' smoking habits did not influence the training and the clinical practice in offering patients smoking cessation interventions.

  14. Success of a smoking cessation programme in smoking behaviour of chronic periodontitis patients and identification of predictors of motivation for smoking cessation - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropff, B; Petersilka, G; Flemmig, T; Ehmke, B; Heuft, G; Schneider, G

    2016-08-01

    The primary goal of this pilot study was to evaluate the success of a smoking cessation programme on smoking behaviour of patients with chronic periodontitis. Secondary goals were to identify the prevalence of smoking among them, predictors of motivation for smoking cessation and for successful nicotine abstinence. Smokers suffering from chronic periodontitis were offered cognitive behavioural group therapy of 10 once-weekly sessions. Smoking is reduced stepwise and complete cessation is to be achieved by the sixth session. Sociodemographic data, history of smoking and motivation for smoking cessation, subjective health status, and questionnaires on anxiety, depression, control beliefs and coping with stress were completed at study entry. Smoking behaviour was assessed at the end of the group programme and 3 months thereafter. Of 469 patients with periodontitis, 59 (12.6%) were smokers; 30 (50.6%) patients participated in the smoking cessation programme. Participants smoked more cigarettes/day (P = 0.03, 95% CI: -17.9/-0.89) and subjectively assessed their health as being worse than non-participants (P = 0.09, 95% CI: -0.16/2.15). In SPQ, non-participants showed more trivialization (P = 0.014, 95% CI: 0.59/4.94). Complete data were available for 15 group participants: six patients were smoke-free after 10 weeks and five after 18 weeks (33.3%); two patients had reduced their cigarette consumption by half. At the start of the programme, less successful participants showed a tendency to higher depression in HADS (P = 0.085, 95% CI: -5.25/5.76) and were more inclined to seek substitute satisfaction (P = 0.034, 95% CI: 3.24/11.23). The rate of success in this study was comparable with other studies. More research with larger samples is needed for confirming these observations. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Attitudes to smoking cessation and triggers to relapse among Chinese male smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher K John; Yang Tingzhong; Li Fuzhong; Danaher Brian G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking is related to many diseases, and the relapse to smoking after cessation in China is noticeable. We examined the attitudes of Chinese male smokers regarding smoking cessation and reasons for relapse. Methods We interviewed 201 male smokers in Hangzhou City, Zhejiang province, China who had tried to quit smoking at least once in order to identify reasons for quitting and situations triggering relapse. Results The most significant reported reasons for quitting include...

  16. Group hypnotherapy versus group relaxation for smoking cessation: an RCT study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson-Spillmann Maria; Kraemer Thomas; Rust Kristina; Schaub Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A significant number of smokers would like to stop smoking. Despite the demonstrated efficacy of pharmacological smoking cessation treatments, many smokers are unwilling to use them; however, they are inclined to try alternative methods. Hypnosis has a long-standing reputation in smoking cessation therapy, but its efficacy has not been scientifically proven. We designed this randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effects of group hypnosis as a method for smoking cessa...

  17. The Role of Smoking-Cessation-Specific Parenting in Adolescent Smoking-Specific Cognitions and Readiness to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zundert, Rinka M. P.; Van De Ven, Monique O. M.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Otten, Roy; Van Den Eijnden, Regina J. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background: An instrument assessing smoking-cessation-specific parenting was developed and tested in relation to a) the pros of smoking and quitting and self-efficacy to resist smoking, and b) adolescent readiness to quit. Methods: Cross-sectional survey data from 998 Dutch adolescents who smoked regularly were used to perform structural equation…

  18. School-based promotion of cessation support: reach of proactive mailings and acceptability of treatment in smoking parents recruited into cessation support through primary schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several forms of cessation support have been shown effective in increasing the chance of successful smoking cessation, but cessation support is still underutilized among smokers. Proactive outreach to target audiences may increase use of cessation support. Methods: The present study

  19. General practitioners' views on and referral to NHS smoking cessation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A; West, R; Owen, L; Raw, M

    2005-04-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation remains a major public health goal. To help achieve this in the UK, National Health Service (NHS) smoking cessation services have been established to provide treatment for smokers wanting help with stopping. Referrals from general practitioners (GPs) are crucial to the success of these clinics. This study aimed to assess English GPs' self-reported interactions with, and attitudes towards, their local smoking cessation services. Postal survey assessing the attitudes of GPs in England towards, and formal interactions with, NHS smoking cessation services. A questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 544 GPs in England (response rate 63%). GPs' self-reported interactions with smoking cessation services and their attitudes towards these clinics were assessed. GPs were also asked what factors determined whether they prescribed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) and Buproprion (Zyban), and what was the extent and nature of their smoking cessation interventions with their patients. Most GPs (94%) reported that they were aware of the specialist smoking cessation service in their area. Seventy percent of GPs supported the continuation of current funding for specialist smoking cessation services. Seventy percent reported that they referred patients to these services, and 55% had staff within their practices trained as community smoking cessation advisors. Most GPs (79%) reported 'clinical need' as a determinant of whether they prescribed NRT/Zyban, and a few GPs cited 'budgetary constraints' as a factor (15%). Ninety-eight percent of GPs reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise smokers to stop 'at least every now and then'. GPs support the existence and continuation of specialist smoking cessation services, and most reported that they refer patients to them. Virtually every GP reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise

  20. Effects of smoking and smoking cessation on healing after mechanical periodontal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, S G; Zambon, J; Machtei, E E; Schifferle, R; Andreana, S; Genco, R J; Cummins, D; Harrap, G

    1997-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of cigarette smoking on 143 patients' clinical and microbiological responses to mechanical therapy. Treatment included four to six sessions of subgingival scaling and root planing and instruction in oral hygiene. Results indicate that current smokers have less healing and reduction in subgingival Bacteroides forsythus and Porphyromonas gingivalis after treatment compared to former and nonsmokers, suggesting that smoking impairs periodontal healing. As the healing and microbial response of former smokers is comparable to that of nonsmokers, smoking cessation may restore the normal periodontal healing response.

  1. Survey of Australian oral health practitioners and their smoking cessation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, P; Tran, P; Keen, B; Gartner, C

    2015-03-01

    Smoking is a significant health and economic burden in Australia. Studies of smoking cessation practices in dental settings have primarily concentrated on dentists rather than other oral health practitioner (OHP) groups (dental hygienists, dental therapists and oral health therapists). The aim of this study was to measure Australian OHPs' attitudes, behaviours, interest and barriers to delivering smoking cessation interventions. Members of the two peak professional bodies representing Australian OHPs were invited to participate in an anonymous online questionnaire. There were discrepancies between practitioner attitudes and current smoking cessation practices. While the majority of practitioners (90.1%) frequently screened for smoking behaviour, fewer (51.1%) assisted patients to quit smoking. The principal form of assistance was referral to Quitline (45.7%) or to a general medical practitioner (44.4%). The most prevalent barriers identified were lack of knowledge of pharmacological treatments (45.8%) and lack of access to smoking cessation resources (44.2%). Contrary to international studies, time and financial incentive were not commonly cited barriers to delivering smoking cessation interventions. This survey identifies a need for continuing education in smoking cessation practice. Dissemination of policies, guidelines and resources may assist OHPs to become more engaged and confident in delivering smoking cessation interventions as part of their routine practice. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Efficacy of a technology-based, integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention for smoking cessation in adolescents: Results of a cluster-randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Paz Castro, Raquel; Kowatsch, Tobias; Filler, Andreas; Schaub, Michael P

    2017-11-01

    To test the efficacy of a technology-based integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention versus a smoking cessation only intervention in adolescents. This was a two-arm, parallel-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial with assessments at baseline and six months follow-up. Subjects in both groups received tailored mobile phone text messages to support smoking cessation for 3months, and the option of registering for a program incorporating strategies for smoking cessation centred around a self-defined quit date. Subjects in the integrated intervention group also received tailored feedback regarding their consumption of alcohol and, for binge drinkers, tailored mobile phone text messages encouraging them to maintain their drinking within low-risk limits over a 3-month period. Primary outcome measures were the 7-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence and change in cigarette consumption. In 360 Swiss vocational and upper secondary school classes, 2127 students who smoked tobacco regularly and owned a mobile phone were invited to participate in the study. Of these, 1471 (69.2%) participated and 6-month follow-up data were obtained for 1116 (75.9%). No significant group differences were observed for any of the primary or secondary outcomes. Moderator analyses revealed beneficial intervention effects concerning 7-day smoking abstinence in participants with higher versus lower alcohol consumption. Overall, the integrated smoking cessation and alcohol intervention exhibited no advantages over a smoking cessation only intervention, but it might be more effective for the subgroup of adolescent smokers with higher alcohol consumption. Providing a combined smoking cessation and alcohol intervention might be recommended for adolescent smokers with higher-level alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Smoking quit rates among patients receiving pharmacist-provided pharmacotherapy and telephonic smoking cessation counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Jill M; Taylor, Ann M; Pelger, Martin; Schiefer, Danielle; Warholak, Terri L

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is the nation's leading cause of preventable illness and death, causing a significant burden on the health care system. Many cessation pharmacotherapy treatment options are available to help smokers quit, including nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) and prescription medications. Research indicates that pharmacists are able to provide a positive benefit to smokers who want to quit through pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions. The aim of the present work was to examine the quit rates among participants who received smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and pharmacist-provided telephone-based quit counseling services. Retrospective database review of enrolled participants. Telephone-based pharmacotherapy and medication counseling services offered from a medication management center. State employees who voluntarily contacted a medication management center for smoking cessation services after receiving promotional flyers. Long-term quit rates at 7 and 13 months were determined by means of patient self-report in response to questioning. Smoking cessation was considered to be a success if the patient reported not smoking for the past 30 days. A total of 238 participants were included in the review. Thirty-nine participants completed the program after the first treatment, 12 participants after the second treatment, and 4 participants after the third treatment. Two patients completed the program more than once. Eighty-five participants (36%) reported results at 7-month follow-up; of these, 43 (51%) were smoking free. A total of 44 participants (18%) reported results at 13-month follow-up; of these, 24 participants (55%) reported being smoking free. There were no significant differences in the percentages of smoking-free participants at 7 or 13 months, regardless of their first treatment (P = 0.06 and 0.345, respectively). Successful quit rates were higher than previously demonstrated with other telephone-based smoking cessation programs. Therefore

  4. Weekly enrollment and usage patterns in an Internet smoking cessation intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Welding

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Consistent with prior research, the beginning of the week appears to be a time when individuals are more likely to enroll in an Internet smoking cessation intervention and engage with its core features. Emphasizing marketing and promotional efforts during the beginning of the week could result in greater reach of Internet smoking cessation interventions.

  5. Optimal locations of establishing smoking cessation services for cancer patients in Crete, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitra Sifaki-Pistolla

    2017-05-01

    The proposed optimum locations for establishing smoking cessation services are expected to contribute to the enhancement of cancer control in Crete. Furthermore, this study will guide a smoking cessation program in the region of Crete aiming to minimize the burden of tobacco-induced cancers.

  6. Relations of Alcohol Consumption with Smoking Cessation Milestones and Tobacco Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jessica W.; Fucito, Lisa M.; Piasecki, Thomas M.; Piper, Megan E.; Schlam, Tanya R.; Berg, Kristin M.; Baker, Timothy B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Alcohol consumption is associated with smoking cessation failure in both community and clinical research. However, little is known about the relation between alcohol consumption and smoking cessation milestones (i.e., achieving initial abstinence, avoiding lapses and relapse). Our objective in this research was to examine the relations…

  7. Treating Tobacco Dependence: Development of a Smoking Cessation Treatment Program for Outpatient Mental Health Clinics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliver, Suzy Bird; Wolfsdorf, Barbara A.; Morissette, Sandra Baker

    2004-01-01

    Response to smoking cessation treatment programs sharply decreases when applied to smokers with psychiatric comorbidities. Consequently, the development of smoking cessation treatments that address the needs of psychiatric patients is greatly needed. The primary purpose of this article is to detail the process of development of an empirically…

  8. Effects of a perioperative smoking cessation intervention on postoperative complications: a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindström, David; Sadr Azodi, Omid; Wladis, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications.......To determine whether an intervention with smoking cessation starting 4 weeks before general and orthopedic surgery would reduce the frequency of postoperative complications....

  9. Preliminary Examination of Adolescent Spending in a Contingency Management-Based Smoking-Cessation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Dana A.; Nich, Charla; Schepis, Ty S.; Smith, Anne E.; Liss, Thomas B.; McFetridge, Amanda K.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2010-01-01

    Contingency management (CM) utilizing monetary incentives is efficacious in enhancing abstinence in an adolescent smoking-cessation program, but how adolescents spend their money has not been examined. We assessed spending habits of 38 adolescent smokers in a CM-based smoking-cessation project prior to quitting and during treatment using a…

  10. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Gislene; Rosa, Ecinele F.; Fueta Gomes, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smokin...

  11. Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Risk of Tooth Loss: The EPIC-Potsdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, T; Walter, C; Oluwagbemigun, K; Bergmann, M; Pischon, T; Pischon, N; Boeing, H

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking and smoking cessation and the prevalence and incidence of tooth loss in a large cohort study in Germany. We analyzed data of 23,376 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study recruited between 1994 and 1998 from the general population in Potsdam and other parts of Brandenburg, Germany, who had complete data on cigarette smoking, tooth loss, and covariates. Negative binomial regression and tooth-specific logistic regression models were fit to evaluate the association between smoking and the baseline prevalence and incidence of tooth loss during follow-up, respectively. Cigarette smoking was associated with higher prevalence of tooth loss at baseline as well as higher incidence of tooth loss during follow-up. The association between smoking and the incidence of tooth loss was stronger in men than women and stronger in younger versus older individuals. Heavy smoking (≥15 cigarettes/d) was associated with >3 times higher risk of tooth loss in men (odds ratio, 3.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.0, 4.4) and more than twice the risk of tooth loss in women (odds ratio, 2.5; 95% confidence interval, 2.1, 2.9) younger than 50 y when compared with never smokers. Smoking cessation was consistently associated with a reduction in tooth loss risk, with the risk of tooth loss approaching that of never smokers after approximately 10 to 20 y of cessation. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  12. Benefits of smoking cessation with focus on cardiovascular and respiratory comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godtfredsen, Nina Skavlan; Prescott, Eva

    2011-10-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial in preventing premature morbidity, disability and mortality worldwide. The effectiveness of quitting tobacco use surpasses any other intervention to minimise the risk for chronic cardiac and respiratory conditions. The overall health benefits of smoking cessation have been recognised for decades but as tobacco legislation has been changing in recent years, new evidence particularly concerning the effect of less smoke exposure on the vascular system has emerged. Recently, much research in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has concerned the ongoing inflammation - also in former smokers - and disease heterogeneity, which provides new knowledge regarding current and ex-smokers with COPD. Many other cardiovascular and respiratory diseases are associated with smoking, and the course of these diseases is not always studied in the context of smoking cessation versus continued smoking. This review summarises the latest available data on health benefits of smoking cessation with focus on both common and infrequent cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Is the use of electronic cigarettes while smoking associated with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and reduced cigarette consumption? A survey with a 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; West, Robert; McNeill, Ann

    2015-07-01

    To use a unique longitudinal data set to assess the association between e-cigarette use while smoking with smoking cessation attempts, cessation and substantial reduction, taking into account frequency of use and key potential confounders. Web-based survey, baseline November/December 2012, 1-year follow-up in December 2013. Great Britain. National general population sample of 4064 adult smokers, with 1759 (43%) followed-up. Main outcome measures were cessation attempt, cessation and substantial reduction (≥50% from baseline to follow-up) of cigarettes per day (CPD). In logistic regression models, cessation attempt in the last year (analysis n = 1473) and smoking status (n = 1656) at follow-up were regressed on to baseline e-cigarette use (none, non-daily, daily) while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics, dependence and nicotine replacement (NRT) use. Substantial reduction (n = 1042) was regressed on to follow-up e-cigarette use while adjusting for baseline socio-demographics and dependence and follow-up NRT use. Compared with non-use, daily e-cigarette use at baseline was associated with increased cessation attempts [odds ratio (OR) = 2.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.24-3.58, P = 0.006], but not with cessation at follow-up (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.28-1.37, P = 0.24). Non-daily use was not associated with cessation attempts or cessation. Daily e-cigarette use at follow-up was associated with increased odds of substantial reduction (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.14-5.45, P = 0.02), non-daily use was not. Daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking appears to be associated with subsequent increases in rates of attempting to stop smoking and reducing smoking, but not with smoking cessation. Non-daily use of e-cigarettes while smoking does not appear to be associated with cessation attempts, cessation or reduced smoking. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Workplace exposure to secondhand smoke among non-smoking hospitality employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawhorn, Nikki A; Lirette, David K; Klink, Jenna L; Hu, Chih-Yang; Contreras, Cassandra; Ajori Bryant, Ty-Runet Pinkney; Brown, Lisanne F; Diaz, James H

    2013-02-01

    This article examines salivary cotinine concentrations to characterize secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among non-smoking hospitality employees (bar and casino employees and musicians who perform in bars) who are exposed to SHS in the workplace. A pre-post test study design was implemented to assess SHS exposure in the workplace. The convenience sample of 41 non-smoking hospitality employees included 10 controls (non-smoking hospitality employees not exposed to SHS in the workplace). The findings demonstrate that post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed to SHS in the workplace are significantly higher than controls who work in smoke-free venues. Findings also suggested a statistically significant increase between pre- and post-shift saliva cotinine levels of hospitality employees who are exposed in the workplace. No statistically significant difference was noted across labor categories, suggesting that all exposed employees are at increased risk. The study results indicate that non-smoking hospitality employees exposed to SHS in the workplace have significantly higher cotinine concentration levels compared with their counterparts who work in smoke-free venues. Findings from other studies suggest that these increased cotinine levels are harmful to health. Given the potential impact on the health of exposed employees, this study further supports the efforts of tobacco prevention and control programs in advocating for comprehensive smoke-free air policies to protect bar and casino employees.

  15. Medicaid Coverage of Smoking Cessation Counseling and Medication Is Underutilized for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Richter, Kimber P; Jacobson, Lisette T; Shireman, Theresa I

    2017-05-01

    Policies to promote smoking cessation among Medicaid-insured pregnant women have the potential to assist a significant proportion of pregnant smokers. In 2010, Kansas Medicaid began covering smoking cessation counseling for pregnant smokers. Our aim was to evaluate the use of smoking cessation benefits provided to pregnant women as a result of the Kansas Medicaid policy change that provided reimbursement for physician-provided smoking cessation counseling. We examined Kansas Medicaid claims data to estimate rates of delivery of smoking cessation treatment to Medicaid-insured pregnant women in Kansas from fiscal year 2010 through 2013. We analyzed the number of pregnant women who received physician-provided smoking cessation counseling indicated by procedure billing codes (ie, G0436 and G0437) and medication (ie, nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline) located in outpatient managed care encounter and fee-for-service claims data. We estimated the number of Medicaid-insured pregnant smokers using the national smoking prevalence (14%) in this population and the number of live births reported in Kansas. Annually from 2010 to 2013, approximately 27.2%-31.6% of pregnant smokers had claims for nicotine replacement therapy, bupropion, or varenicline. Excluding claims for bupropion, a medication commonly prescribed to treat depression, claims ranged from 9.3% to 11.1%. Following implementation of Medicaid coverage for smoking cessation counseling, less than 1% of estimated smokers had claims for counseling. This low claims rate suggests that simply changing policy is not sufficient to ensure use of newly implemented benefits, and that there probably remain critical gaps in smoking cessation treatment. This study evaluates the use of Medicaid reimbursement for smoking cessation counseling among low-income pregnant women in Kansas. We describe the Medicaid claims rates of physician-provided smoking cessation counseling for pregnant women, an evidence-based and

  16. A review of smartphone apps for smoking cessation available in Portuguese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formagini, Taynara Dutra Batista; Ervilha, Rafaela Russi; Machado, Nathália Munck; Andrade, Bárbara Any Bianchi Bottaro de; Gomide, Henrique Pinto; Ronzani, Telmo Mota

    2017-03-09

    Smartphone apps are being developed as a complement to smoking cessation treatment. The current study aimed to analyze the content of available apps in Portuguese in two operational systems, Android and iOS. Fifty-one apps were found in iTunes and 600 in Google Play. Content evaluation included apps that focused on smoking cessation, with a total of 12 apps in iOS and 3 in Android. Each app was categorized according to its approach to smoking cessation and scored according to level of adherence to the Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence smoking cessation treatment guideline. Nine apps were classified as calendars, 8 as information tools, 6 as calculators, 3 as cigarette trackers, and 1 as hypnosis. The apps showed low level of adherence to the guideline, with a mean score of 12.8. We recommend that the available apps be revised and that future apps be developed using evidence-based practices for smoking cessation.

  17. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  18. Supporting smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China. Methods In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to intervention group received behavioral intervention and control group received the usual care for two years. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete and continuous abstinence from smoking from the beginning of month 24 to the end of month 30. Participants were followed up at month 48. Results Continuous smoking abstinence rates from month 24 to 30 were significantly higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those receiving usual care (46.4% vs 3.4%, p intervention than in those control group. Family members or family physicians/nurses smoking were first identified to influence smoking cessation. Conclusions Behavioral intervention doubled the smoking cessation rate in patients with COPD and was complied well by the general practitioners. The family members and family physicians/nurses smoking were the main risk factors for smoking cessation. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-12001958). PMID:23802809

  19. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda G; Al-Bashaireh, Ahmad M; Ferrell, Anastasiya V; Ghadban, Roula

    2017-04-13

    To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack-a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5%) and post-intervention phases (47.7%) wanted to quit smoking "very much". For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = -6.915, p study indicate that: (a) Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b) culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  20. Supporting smoking cessation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Peian; Zhu, Yanan; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Jiaxi; Zhang, Ning; Chen, Na; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Hongmin; Zhao, Jing

    2013-06-27

    Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). But a fewer smoking cessation measures were conducted in communities for smokers with COPD in China. The aim of our study was to assess the preventive effects of behavioral interventions for smoking cessation and potential impact factors in smokers with COPD in China. In a randomised controlled smoking cessation trial 3562 patients with COPD who were current smoker were allocated to intervention group received behavioral intervention and control group received the usual care for two years. The primary efficacy endpoint was the complete and continuous abstinence from smoking from the beginning of month 24 to the end of month 30. Participants were followed up at month 48. Continuous smoking abstinence rates from month 24 to 30 were significantly higher in participants receiving behavioral intervention than in those receiving usual care (46.4% vs 3.4%, p intervention than in those control group. Family members or family physicians/nurses smoking were first identified to influence smoking cessation. Behavioral intervention doubled the smoking cessation rate in patients with COPD and was complied well by the general practitioners. The family members and family physicians/nurses smoking were the main risk factors for smoking cessation. Chinese Clinical Trials Registration (ChiCTR-TRC-12001958).

  1. Smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators: does it apply to black women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Azure B; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Messeri, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    Smokers who initiate as adults are more likely to quit than those who initiate as adolescents. Black women are more likely than White women to initiate smoking in adulthood and are less likely to quit. There is a paucity of research examining whether the smoking cessation advantage among adult initiators applies to Black women. The study objective is to examine race differences in the effect of developmental stage of smoking initiation on number of years until cessation among Black and White women. Data were extracted from the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women, a national cohort of women between the ages of 49 and 61 years in 2003. The analytic sample comprised 1,008 White women and 271 Black women with a history of smoking. Survival analysis procedures were utilized to address the study objective. Racial disparities in smoking cessation were most evident among women who initiated smoking as adults. White young adult initiators had a 31% increased hazard of smoking cessation advantage (adjusted hazards ratio [HR]: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.04-1.65) over adolescent initiators, whereas Black young adult initiators had no smoking cessation advantage (adjusted HR: 0.85, CI: 95% 0.55-1.30) over adolescent initiators. Prior observations that smoking initiation in adulthood is associated with high rates of cessation do not apply to black women. To contribute to the reduction of disparities in women's cessation efforts to prevent initiation should target young adult women, particularly Black young adult women.

  2. Two years of smoking cessation does not reduce arterial wall thickness and stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W P J; Wollersheim, H; van Langen, H; Smilde, T J; den Arend, J; Thien, Th

    2004-01-01

    Smoking cessation rapidly reduces cardiovascular risk. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved are still being debated. We measured structural and functional arterial wall properties of the femoral and carotid arteries after smoking cessation to investigate their possible role in cardiovascular risk reduction. Out of 127 smokers, 33 proved to stop smoking for two years. They were compared with 50 nonsmokers and 55 persistent smokers in a prospective study. Cross-sectional compliance and distensibility coefficients as well as intima-media thickness of both carotid arteries and of the right common femoral artery were measured ultrasonographically at baseline and 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after smoking cessation. The nonsmoking and persistent smokers group were measured twice at an interval of 24 months. Persistent smoking and two years of smoking cessation did not affect cross-sectional compliance and distensibility coefficients. Although at baseline intimal-medial layers were thicker in smokers, the change over time in intima-media thickness did not differ significantly between all three groups. Two years of smoking cessation was not accompanied by a slower progression or a regression in intima-media thickness nor by an improved cross-sectional compliance or distensiblity coefficient. Nevertheless, smoking cessation should be recommended as it reduces cardiovascular risk rapidly after smoking cessation.

  3. The Goetz Plan: A Practical Smoking Cessation Program for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krohn, Franklin B.; Goetz, Kristin M.

    2005-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is responsible for approximately 434,000 deaths per year in the United States (Fact Sheet, 1993). College students represent a large portion of the smoking public. Roughly 70% of college students have tried smoking (Everett & Husten, 1999). There are various methods available to assist in smoking cessation, some being, nicotine…

  4. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation in hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Z; Manzari, Z S; Pouresmail, Z

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to clarify the role of nurses in planning and implementation of nursing interventions related to smoking cessation. Nearly half of all smokers die from smoking-related illnesses. Quitting smoking can reduce these problems. Smoking cessation interventions include various types helping smokers successfully quit. Studies suggest that hospitalization can be a golden opportunity for nurses helping patients to quit smoking because of No Smoking regulations. A systematic review of the literature was carried through Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, Medscape, MedlinePlus, Ovid SID, Magiran, PubMed, and Science Direct databases between 1990-2015 on the subject of interest by keywords: role of nursing in smoking cessation, nursing intervention in smoking cessation, smoking cessation, smoking quitting and interventions planned by nurse. Nineteen papers were systematic examined, dealing with smoking cessation interventions by nurses. Totally, 17 studies used counselling for quitting smoking. Most studies involved other methods such as manuals, pamphlets, brochures training or printed educational materials, audio and video file. Some studies used nicotine replacement methods for patients such as nicotine skin tags, chewing nicotine or bupropion. Moreover, 17 studies were conducted by telephone at patients' follow-up after hospital discharge. Nurses' interventions for smoking cessation play an important role in helping patients quit smoking successfully. There are a variety of interventions that nurses can employ according to the patient's condition and diagnosis of different diseases. Quitting smoking can reduce lung cancers and other health problems. Nurses play an important role in helping patients to quit smoking. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  5. Factors Affecting Korean Registered Nurses' Intention to Implement Smoking Cessation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Nurses have been identified as an instrumental partner in tobacco reduction. This study aimed to examine factors affecting Korean nurses' intention to implement smoking cessation intervention in Busan, Korea. Methods The participants were a total of 215 Korean registered nurses. A self-administered questionnaire evaluated predisposing factors, motivational factors (attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy) and intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. Data were analyzed by t tests, Pearson's correlation, and hierarchical multiple regression. Results The mean age of the participants was 28.12 ± 5.72 years. The majority of the participants were staff nurses (85.6%), and 64.2% of the sample had smoking cessation intervention included perceived barrier of smoking cessation intervention (β = −0.128, p = 0.023), willingness to receive smoking cessation training (β = 0.123, p = 0.034), more positive attitude (β = 0.203, p = 0.002), higher social influence (β = 0.292, p smoking cessation intervention (β = 0.151, p = 0.021), which explained 45% of the total variance of intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. Conclusion Attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy towards smoking cessation intervention had a significant positive influence in determining the intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. These findings can be used to develop evidence-based smoking cessation training programs for nurses in Korea. The programs should aim for positive attitude, higher social influence, and higher self-efficacy in hospital settings. PMID:26981345

  6. Self-efficacy and acceptance of cravings to smoke underlie the effectiveness of quitline counseling for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-09-01

    Few studies have examined why smoking cessation interventions are effective. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating processes underlying the effectiveness of cessation counseling administered by the Dutch national quitline. Data were used of a two-arm randomized controlled trial in which smoking parents, who were recruited through primary schools in The Netherlands, received either quitline cessation counseling (n=256) or a self-help brochure (n=256). The endpoint was 6-months prolonged abstinence at 12-months follow-up, with 86.7% outcome data retention. Putative psychological mediators of treatment effectiveness included smoking-related cognitions (positive smoking outcome expectancies, self-efficacy), emotions (negative affect, perceived stress, depressive symptoms), and smoking cue coping methods (avoidance coping, acceptance coping) assessed at 3-months post-measurement. Quitline cessation counseling significantly decreased positive smoking outcome expectancies and negative affect and increased self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, avoidance of external cues to smoking, and acceptance of internal cues to smoking compared to self-help material. Increased self-efficacy to refrain from smoking in stressful and tempting situations (psource of therapeutic change in smoking cessation counseling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal Impact of Smoking and Smoking Cessation on Inflammatory Markers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Cecile C; Piper, Megan E; Gepner, Adam D; Fiore, Michael C; Baker, Timothy B; Stein, James H

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate longitudinal changes in 6 inflammatory markers that predict cardiovascular disease events among smokers making a quit attempt and to characterize their cross-sectional associations between smoking and smoking heaviness. In a longitudinal cohort study of contemporary smokers (n=1652), we evaluated (1) independent associations of smoking heaviness markers (exhaled carbon monoxide, cigarettes/d, pack-years) with inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, D-dimer, fibrinogen, urinary F2 isoprostane:creatinine [F2:Cr] ratio, white blood cell [WBC] count, myeloperoxidase) and (2) the effects of smoking cessation and continued smoking on these inflammatory markers after 1 year, among the 888 smokers who made an aided quit attempt as part of a randomized comparative effectiveness trial or standard care. There were strong, independent associations between smoking heaviness markers and the F2:Cr ratio, WBC, and myeloperoxidase (all Padjsmoked 16.8 cigarettes/d (8.5) for 27.3 pack-years (18.6). After 1 year, the 344 successful abstainers gained more weight (4.0 [6.0] versus 0.4 [5.7] pounds; PSmoking heaviness is associated with increased F2:Cr ratio, myeloperoxidase, and WBC counts. Cessation improves the F2:Cr ratio and WBC counts independent of weight change, suggesting reduced inflammation related to less oxidant stress. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Development of SmokeFree Baby: a smoking cessation smartphone app for pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombor, Ildiko; Shahab, Lion; Brown, Jamie; Crane, David; Michie, Susan; West, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Pregnant smokers may benefit from digital smoking cessation interventions, but few have been designed for this population. The aim was to transparently report the development of a smartphone app designed to aid smoking cessation during pregnancy. The development of a smartphone app ('SmokeFree Baby') to help pregnant women stop smoking was guided by frameworks for developing complex interventions, including the Medical Research Council (MRC), Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) and Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW). Two integrative behaviour change theories provided the theoretical base. Evidence from the scientific literature and behaviour change techniques (BCTs) from the BCT Taxonomy v1 informed the intervention content. The app was developed around five core modules, each with a distinct intervention target (identity change, stress management, health information, promoting use of face-to-face support and behavioural substitution) and available in a 'control' or 'full' version. SmokeFree Baby has been developed as part of a multiphase intervention optimization to identify the optimum combination of intervention components to include in smartphone apps to help pregnant smokers stop smoking.

  9. [Cross-sectional survey of smoking and smoking cessation behaviors in adults in Jiangxi province, 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y Y; Zhu, L P; Yan, W; Liu, J; Ji, L; Xu, Y

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of smoking and smoking cessation in adults of Jiangxi province in 2013. Methods: Multi-stage stratified cluster random sampling method was used to select 6 000 individuals aged ≥18 years from 10 chronic and non-communicable disease and risk factor surveillance points of Jiangxi province in 2013. A face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out to collect information about the risk factors for chronic and non-communicable diseases and 5 997 records were used in final analysis of smoking and smoking cessation. Sample was weighted to represent the adult population of Jiangxi province. The prevalence of different groups were analyzed. Results: The prevalence of current smoking of the sample was 21.53% (1 291/5 997). After complex weighting, the prevalence of smoking was 26.07% in adults in Jiangxi (95%CI:23.48%-28.66%), and it was much higher in men (50.62%, 95%CI: 46.31%-54.94%) than in women(1.46%, 95%CI: 0.57%-2.35%), the difference was statistically significant (Psmoking prevalence were significant among different age groups (P=0.029), and the smoking prevalence increased with educational level, but decreased with the worse of self-reported health condition. Most current smokers smoked every day (87.16%, 95%CI: 83.29%-91.03%) and averagely 19.27 (95%CI: 17.69-20.85) cigarettes were smoked daily. The proportion of smokers with average daily consumption ≥20 cigarettes was 64.74% (95%CI: 55.79%-73.70%). The smokers'average age of starting daily smoking was 20.28 (95%CI: 19.74-20.82) years old, which was lower in men [20.11(95%CI: 19.61-20.61) years old] than in women [26.88(95%CI: 24.73-29.03) years old], the difference was statistically significant (Psmoking, and the proportion was 17.46%(95%CI: 0%-37.71%) in female smokers. The smoking cessation rate was 14.80% (95%CI: 10.88%-18.72%) and increased with age, the increase of income level and the worse of self-reported health condition. The successful smoking cessation rate

  10. Behavioral Interventions Associated with Smoking Cessation in the Treatment of Tobacco Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable premature death worldwide. While the majority of smokers would like to stop, the habitual and addictive nature of smoking makes cessation difficult. Clinical guidelines suggest that smoking cessation interventions should include both behavioural support and pharmacotherapy (e.g. nicotine replacement therapy. This commentary paper focuses on the important role of behavioural interventions in encouraging and supporting smoking cessation attempts. Recent developments in the field are discussed, including ‘cut-down to quit’, the behaviour change techniques taxonomy (BCTT and very brief advice (VBA on smoking. The paper concludes with a discussion of the important role that health professionals can and should play in the delivery of smoking cessation interventions.

  11. E-cigarette Use and Cigarette Smoking Cessation among Texas College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantey, Dale S; Cooper, Maria R; Loukas, Alexandra; Perry, Cheryl L

    2017-11-01

    We examined the relationships between e-cigarette use and subsequent cigarette smoking behaviors at 6- and 12-month follow-ups among young adults. Participants were 18-29 year-old current and former cigarette smokers (N = 627) at 24 Texas colleges, participating in a 3-wave study. Multi-level, multivariable logistic regression models, accounting for school clustering, examined the impact of self-reported use of e-cigarettes on cigarette smoking status at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Two mutually-exclusive groups of e-cigarette users were examined: those that used for cigarette smoking cessation and those that used for reasons other than cessation. Baseline covariates included socio-demographics, past quit attempts, nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and other tobacco use. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation was associated with increased odds of cigarette smoking cessation at 6- and 12-month follow-ups, while using e-cigarettes for other reasons was not, when adjusting for covariates. Use of e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation may reduce cigarette smoking rates in young adult college students. Additional research is needed examining e-cigarettes as a complement to evidence-based cessation resources that are associated with cigarette smoking cessation among young adults.

  12. Duration of smoking cessation for the prevention of surgical wound healing complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Vieira Cavichio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to find scientific evidence about the duration of preoperative smoking cessation required to reduce surgical wound healing complications. An integrative review was performed in the databases, Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE, from 08/17/2012 to 09/17/2012, using the keywords: tobacco use cessation and wound healing; tobacco use cessation and preoperative period; tobacco use cessation and perioperative period (LILACS and tobacco use cessation and perioperative period; tobacco use cessation and wound healing (MEDLINE. Out of the 81 eligible studies, 12 were included. The duration of smoking cessation needed to reduce healing complications was at least four weeks (four studies with level of evidence I, three studies with level of evidence II, two studies with level of evidence IV, and one study with level of evidence VII.

  13. Smoking cessation: Exploration of perceived technology-related information value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychav, Iris; McHaney, Roger; Hirak, Eyal; Merker, Ben

    2018-01-01

    This study describes a unique approach to information transfer affecting the perceived value of this information and related impact on smoker behavior. Data were collected via survey, sampling approximately 120 participants. An online survey tool was used for the survey creation, data collection and monitoring. Another online tool was used by participants to create short animation videos as a means of increasing their engagement with information in an experiential fashion. Study findings included that the process experienced by the test group was influential and facilitated participants' change of mind regarding enrollment in a smoking cessation workshop. This was partly attributable to the IKEA effect. The study provides evidence that a change in habits crucial to improve health and enhance positive lifestyle choices can be stimulated through active engagement with artifact creation in a technology-mediated environment.

  14. Factors Associated with Successful Smoking Cessation in Korean Adult Males: Findings from a National Survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Youngmee Kim; Won-Kyung Cho

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Smoking cessation rates have remained stagnant globally. This study was conducted to explore the factors associated with successful smoking cessation among South Korean adult males using nationally representative data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2007 to 2012. A comparison was made between successful quitters and those who failed to quit after attempts to stop smoking. Methods A total of 7,839 males, aged 19?65 years, were ...

  15. Motivation for smoking cessation among drug-using smokers under methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Do, Huyen Phuc; Nguyen, Nhung Phuong Thi; Phan, Huong Thu Thi; Dunne, Michael; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Background Smoking cessation treatment service is concerned to be a critical element in methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in order to diminish the effect of smoke on health outcomes. To implement the smoking cessation services in Vietnam, we examined the stages of change to quit and determined associated factors among MMT patients. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey with 1016 MMT patients in five clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh province, of those, 932 (91.7?%) were ever-smokers. ...

  16. Social Cognitive Mediators of Adolescent Smoking Cessation: Results from a Large Randomized Intervention Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bricker, Jonathan B.; Liu, Jingmin; Comstock, Bryan A; Peterson, Arthur V.; Kealey, Kathleen A.; Marek, Patrick M.

    2010-01-01

    Only one prior study has examined why adolescent smoking cessation interventions are effective. To address this understudied and important issue, this study examined whether a large adolescent smoking cessation intervention trial’s outcomes were mediated by Social Cognitive Theory processes. In a randomized trial (N = 2,151), counselors proactively delivered a telephone intervention to senior year high school smokers. Mediators and smoking status were self-reported at 12 months post-intervent...

  17. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking cessa...... cessation program, initiated during the acute hospitalization period and carried out for six weeks, could reduce the number of complications following emergency surgical treatment of fractures....

  18. Smoking, it is slow suicide - aiming for smoking cessation; Kitsuen sore wa kanmannaru jisatsu. Kin'en wo mezashite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azuma, Keiko [sophia University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-02-01

    Toxic substances content rate in the particle phase and the gas phase of paper roll tobacco and included substances in mainstream smoke and sidestream smoke were shown. Delay of information disclosure in developing countries including Japan was introduced along with explanation of the smoking situation in Japan and each country in world in the man and woman independence. As health hazard by smoking, symptom by nicotin, carbon dioxide and included other substances was described separately and smoking cessation countermeasure was introduced. (NEDO)

  19. Smoking in the workplace: do smoking patterns and attitudes reflect the legislative environment?

    OpenAIRE

    Pederson, L. L.; Bull, S. B.; Ashley, M. J.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: With regard to the workplace, to examine restrictions on smoking, smoking at work, attitudes toward and reactions to restrictions, and workplace programmes in the context of the legislative environment. DESIGN: Population-based telephone interview survey of adult residents of the jurisdictions of Metropolitan Toronto, Ontario, Canada. SUBJECTS: Workers within the City of Toronto (n = 374) were compared with other workers (n = 536), because their legislative environments with ...

  20. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  1. Adolescents' and Young Adults' Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenga, Deepa R; Cavallo, Dana A; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E; Connell, Christian M; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults' perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students' beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, "healthier" alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions

  2. Effectiveness of providing financial incentives to healthcare professionals for smoking cessation activities: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, F L; Greaves, F; Majeed, A; Millett, C

    2013-01-01

    Financial incentives are seen as one approach to encourage more systematic use of smoking cessation interventions by healthcare professionals. A systematic review was conducted to examine the evidence for this. Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cochrane Library, ISI Web of Science and sources of grey literature were used as data sources. Studies were included if they reported the effects of any financial incentive provided to healthcare professionals to undertake smoking cessation-related activities. Data extraction and quality assessment for each study were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. A total of 18 studies were identified, consisting of 3 randomised controlled trials and 15 observational studies. All scored in the mid range for quality. In all, 8 studies examined smoking cessation activities alone and 10 studied the UK's Quality and Outcomes Framework targeting quality measures for chronic disease management including smoking recording or cessation activities. Five non-Quality and Outcomes Framework studies examined the effects of financial incentives on individual doctors and three examined effects on groups of healthcare professionals based in clinics and general practices. Most studies showed improvements in recording smoking status and smoking cessation advice. Five studies examined the impact of financial incentives on quit rates and longer-term abstinence and these showed mixed results. Financial incentives appear to improve recording of smoking status, and increase the provision of cessation advice and referrals to stop smoking services. Currently there is not sufficient evidence to show that financial incentives lead to reductions in smoking rates.

  3. Determinants of smoking cessation in COPD patients treated in the outpatient setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra S; Thomsen, Reimar W; Johnsen, Søren P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of smoking cessation on the progression of COPD are well established. Nevertheless, many patients with COPD continue to smoke. METHODS: In this nationwide hospital-based prospective follow-up study, we examined rates of smoking cessation and clinical and sociode...... timely smoking cessation. A novel finding is that patients with milder COPD are less likely to quit. The findings suggest a need for interventional studies focusing on these subgroups to ensure abstinence to halt disease progression.......BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of smoking cessation on the progression of COPD are well established. Nevertheless, many patients with COPD continue to smoke. METHODS: In this nationwide hospital-based prospective follow-up study, we examined rates of smoking cessation and clinical...... and sociodemographic determinants of smoking cessation in 3,233 patients with COPD who smoked on outpatient contact during 2008 to 2012. Using multivariate Cox regression, we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) of quitting. RESULTS: Within 1 and 5 years from first outpatient contact, the probability of quitting was 19...

  4. Aging Images as a Motivational Trigger for Smoking Cessation in Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Zemp Stutz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Recruiting adolescents into smoking cessation programs has been challenging, and there is a lack of effective smoking cessation interventions for this age group. We aimed to assess whether the approach of using aging images can be used to recruit young, female smokers for a smoking cessation course. In this study, 853 14- to 18-year-old subjects were photographed (2006–2007. After software-aided aging, the images evoked strong emotions, especially in subjects with an advanced motivational stage to quit. Twenty-four percent of current smokers reported that the aging images increased their motivation to quit smoking (pre-contemplation: 8%; contemplation: 32%; and preparation: 71%. In multivariate analyses, the aged images had a high motivational impact to quit smoking that was associated with an increased readiness to stop smoking and the individual’s assessment of the aging images as shocking, but not with the number of previous attempts to quit and the assessment of the pictures as realistic. However, it was not possible to recruit the study population for a smoking cessation course. We concluded that aging images are a promising intervention for reaching young women and increasing their motivation to stop smoking. However, smoking cessation courses may not be appropriate for this age group: none of the recruits agreed to take a cessation course.

  5. Reducing alcohol consumption to minimize weight gain and facilitate smoking cessation among military beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobell, Mark B; Peterson, Alan L; Sobell, Linda Carter; Brundige, Antoinette; Hunter, Christopher M; Hunter, Christine M; Goodie, Jeffrey L; Agrawal, Sangeeta; Hrysko-Mullen, Ann S; Isler, William C

    2017-12-01

    Smoking cessation-related weight gain can have significant negative health and career consequences for military personnel. Alcohol reduction combined with smoking cessation may decrease weight gain and relapse. A randomized clinical trial of military beneficiaries compared a standard smoking cessation (i.e., brief informational) intervention (N=159), with a brief motivational smoking cessation intervention that emphasized reduced drinking to lessen caloric intake and minimize weight gain (N=158). Participants who received the motivational intervention were significantly more likely to quit smoking at the 3-month follow-up (p=0.02), but the differences were not maintained at 6 (p=0.18) or 12months (p=0.16). Neither weight change nor alcohol reduction distinguished the 2 groups. Smoking cessation rates at 12months (motivational group=32.91%, informational group=25.79%) were comparable to previous studies, but successful cessation was not mediated by reduced drinking. Alcohol reduction combined with smoking cessation did not result in decreased weight gain or improved outcomes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Two-Years Follow-up Results of a Smoking Cessation Clinic in a State Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Deniz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the data and success of a smoking cessation clinic in a secondary state hospital. Secondarily, the study aimed to compare the cessation rates of patients using varenicline and bupropion. Methods: A total of 251 patients, admitted to our smoking cessation clinic were retrospectively evaluated. The smoking cessation clinic was run one day every week and included a 35-min presentation on smoking cessation and face-to-face interviews with every patient who attended the clinic. Monthly control visits were conducted, and after 2 years all the patients were asked about their smoking status via a phone call. Results: A total of 152 out of the 251 patients, namely those who were successfully contacted, were included in the study. The average age of the study population was 46.2±11.2 (18–69, and 81 (53.3% were female. The average nicotine dependence level was 5.8±2.3. The nicotine dependence levels and the amount of current cigarette consumption in one day were higher in the varenicline group (p=0.003 and p=0.002, respectively, whereas the duration of treatment was lower (p=0.009. Among all the patients, the average smoking cessation rate was 61.2% in 6 months, 34.2% in 12 months, 18.4% in 18 months, and 5.3% in 24 months. There were no differences in smoking cessation rates between the varenicline and bupropion groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: An effective success in smoking cessation was observed with the combined use of behavioral and pharmacological modalities. Intensive behavioral interventions and treatment and follow up for longer durations, particularly for patients with risk factors for relapse, can increase the success of smoking cessation clinics.

  7. Do social characteristics influence smoking uptake and cessation during young adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz-Wood, Madeleine; Gagné, Thierry; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Frohlich, Katherine

    2017-10-29

    This study uses a Bourdieusian approach to assess young adults' resources and examines their association with smoking initiation and cessation. Data were drawn from 1450 young adults participating in the Interdisciplinary Study of Inequalities in Smoking, a cohort study in Montreal, Canada. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between young adults' income, education, and peer smoking at baseline and smoking onset and cessation. Young adults where most or all of their friends smoked had greater odds of smoking onset. Young adults that had completed pre-university postsecondary education also had higher odds of smoking onset after controlling for social support, employment status, and lacking money to pay for expenses. Income and the sociodemographic variables age and sex were not associated with smoking onset. Young adults where half of their friends smoked or where most to all of their friends smoked had lowers odds of smoking cessation. Men were more likely to cease smoking than women. Education, income and age were not associated with cessation. Interventions focusing on peer smoking may present promising avenues for tobacco prevention in young adults.

  8. The effect of an intensive smoking cessation intervention on disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roelsgaard, Ida Kristiane; Thomsen, Thordis; Østergaard, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    -intervention. Discussion: This trial will reveal whether intensive smoking cessation counselling helps smokers with RA to achieve continuous smoking cessation and whether, as a concomitant benefit, it will reduce their RA disease activity. The trial aims to generate high quality evidence for the feasibility of a health...... erosive joint destruction and a lower health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) than non-smokers. It remains to be determined whether these effects can be reduced by smoking cessation. This randomised controlled trial (RCT) in patients with RA aims to examine the effect of intensive smoking cessation...... in patients with RA. Methods: This will be a multicentre, open label, two arm, parallel group, RCT, including 150 daily smokers with RA, being in remission or having low-moderate disease activity (DAS28 ≤ 5.1). The intervention group (n = 75) will receive five counselling sessions with a trained smoking...

  9. The association between body image and smoking cessation among individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Vidrine, Damon J; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2007-06-01

    Lower smoking cessation rates are associated with body image concerns in the general population. This relationship is particularly important to study in individuals living with HIV/AIDS due to alarmingly high smoking rates and considerable bodily changes experienced with HIV disease progression and treatment. The association between body image and smoking cessation rates was examined among individuals living with HIV/AIDS participating in a smoking cessation intervention. Body image concerns were significantly associated with depression, anxiety, stress, and social support, all variables known to affect cessation rates. However, reduced quit rates were found among individuals reporting elevated and low levels of body image concerns at the end of treatment. These findings suggest a unique relationship between smoking and body image among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Further research is needed to examine these effects and whether moderate levels of body image concerns in this population reflect realistic body perceptions associated with positive mental health.

  10. [The opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuchowski, Filip; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Bukała-Siedlecka, Iwona; Binkowska-Bury, Monika

    2009-01-01

    Smoking is now a serious social problem in Poland and abroad. Unfortunately, adverse effects also affect the businesses in which the crews smoke tobacco. For several years a wide-ranging measures aimed at reducing the population of smoking employees can be observed, unfortunately their results are significantly below expectations. What must be noted is that the effectiveness of these projects to a large extent is determined by the opinion of the smoking part of the crew about the problem of smoking in the workplace. The aim of this work was to analyze the opinions of employees about smoking in the workplace. The selection of study group was expedient. The people tested were permanent employees of a large plant in Rzeszow. The research materials were the answers to the questions given to an anonymous survey. The survey contained 21 questions about their opinions to smokers and 17 questions about their opinions to non-smokers. The perception of risks arising from the smoking of tobacco by smokers and non-smokers was asked for, and their expectations towards the company. They were asked also the willingness to join special programs helping in quitting the addiction of smoking. The individuals who smoke at least one cigarette a day were recognized as daily smokers of tobacco (as defined by WHO). Those who used to smoke every day in the past or occasionally were considered as ex-smokers. (less than one cigarette per day). 4200 surveys were distributed in the plant. The filled - in forms with replies were received from 1412 workers, representing 33.6% of questionnaires distributed. All the surveys were put in order and checked on its merits. 1291 were classified as correct, what represented 30.7% of questionnaires distributed. The latest version of the program Statistica 8.0 was used for the statistical calculations. Test results show that 14.9% of employees smoke tobacco, and every third smoker is worried about the consequences of smoking. As far as opinions on the

  11. Topic Modeling of Smoking- and Cessation-Related Posts to the American Cancer Society's Cancer Survivor Network (CSN): Implications for Cessation Treatment for Cancer Survivors Who Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westmaas, J Lee; McDonald, Bennett R; Portier, Kenneth M

    2017-08-01

    Smoking is a risk factor in at least 18 cancers, and approximately two-thirds of cancer survivors continue smoking following diagnosis. Text mining of survivors' online posts related to smoking and quitting could inform strategies to reduce smoking in this vulnerable population. We identified posts containing smoking/cessation-related keywords from the Cancer Survivors Network (CSN), an online cancer survivor community of 166 000 members and over 468 000 posts since inception. Unsupervised topic model analysis of posts since 2000 using Latent Dirichlet Allocation extracted 70 latent topics which two subject experts inspected for themes based on representative terms. Posterior analysis assessed the distribution of topics within posts, and the range of themes discussed across posts. Less than 1% of posts (n = 3998) contained smoking/cessation-related terms, and covered topics related to cancer diagnoses, treatments, and coping. The most frequent smoking-related topics were quit smoking methods (5.4% of posts), and the environment for quitters (2.9% of posts), such as the stigma associated with being a smoker diagnosed with cancer and lack of empathy experienced compared to nonsmokers. Smoking as a risk factor for one's diagnosis was a primary topic in only 1.7% of smoking/cessation-related posts. The low frequency of smoking/cessation-related posts may be due to expected criticism/stigma for smoking but may also suggests a need for health care providers to address smoking and assist with quitting in the diagnostic and treatment process. Topic model analysis revealed potential barriers that should be addressed in devising clinical or population-level interventions for cancer survivors who smoke. Although smoking is a major risk factor for cancer, little is known about cancer patients' or survivors' views or concerns about smoking and quitting. This study used text mining of posts to an online community of cancer patients and survivors to investigate contexts in which

  12. Perceptions towards electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation among Stop Smoking Service users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherratt, Frances C; Newson, Lisa; Marcus, Michael W; Field, John K; Robinson, Jude

    2016-05-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as smoking cessation tools, yet they remain unavailable from Stop Smoking Services in England; the debate over their safety and efficacy is ongoing. This study was designed to explore perceptions and reasons for use or non-use of electronic cigarettes as smoking cessation tools, among individuals engaged in Stop Smoking Services. Semi-structured telephone interviews were undertaken with twenty participants engaged in Stop Smoking Services in the north-west of England. Participants comprised of both individuals who had tried e-cigarettes (n = 6) and those who had not (n = 14). Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. The transcripts were subject to thematic analysis, which explored participants' beliefs and experiences of e-cigarettes. A thematic analysis of transcripts suggested that the following three superordinate themes were prominent: (1) self-efficacy and beliefs in e-cigarettes; (2) e-cigarettes as a smoking cessation aid; and (3) cues for e-cigarette use. Participants, particularly never users, were especially concerned regarding e-cigarette efficacy and safety. Overall, participants largely expressed uncertainty regarding e-cigarette safety and efficacy, with some evidence of misunderstanding. Evidence of uncertainty and misunderstanding regarding information on e-cigarettes highlights the importance of providing smokers with concise, up-to-date information regarding e-cigarettes, enabling smokers to make informed treatment decisions. Furthermore, identification of potential predictors of e-cigarette use can be used to inform Stop Smoking Services provision and future research. What is already known on this subject? Research suggests that e-cigarettes may help smokers quit smoking, but further studies are needed. Electronic cigarette use in Stop Smoking Services has increased substantially in recent years, although e-cigarettes are currently not regulated. There is debate within the

  13. Self-efficacy and acceptance of cravings to smoke underlie the effectiveness of quitline counseling for smoking cessation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined why smoking cessation interventions are effective. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating processes underlying the effectiveness of cessation counseling administered by the Dutch national quitline. Methods: Data were used of a two-arm randomized

  14. Persistence of oxidant and protease burden in the airways after smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haahtela Tari

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of cigarette smoke related lung diseases, but longitudinal effects of smoking cessation on oxidant markers in the airways are unknown. Methods This study included 61 smokers; 21 with chronic bronchitis or COPD, 15 asthmatics and 25 asymptomatic smokers followed up for 3 months after smoking cessation. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, sputum neutrophil counts, sputum 8-isoprostane, nitrotyrosine and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8 were investigated at baseline and 1 and 3 months after smoking cessation. Results After 3 months 15 subjects had succeeded in quitting of smoking and in these subjects symptoms improved significantly. Unexpectedly, however, sputum neutrophils increased (p = 0.046 after smoking cessation in patients with chronic bronchitis/COPD. At baseline, the other markers did not differ between the three groups so these results were combined for further analysis. Sputum 8-isoprostane declined significantly during the follow-up at 3 months (p = 0.035, but levels still remained significantly higher than in non-smokers. The levels of FeNO, nitrotyrosine and MMP-8 did not change significantly during the 3 months after smoking cessation. Conclusion Whilst symptoms improve after smoking cessation, the oxidant and protease burden in the airways continues for months.

  15. A combined smoking cessation intervention within a lung cancer screening trial: a pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Paolo; Munarini, Elena; Bravi, Francesca; Rossi, Marta; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffi, Roberto; Pastorino, Ugo

    2015-01-01

    The time of lung cancer screening may provide the ideal setting to discuss and initiate a smoking cessation plan that includes pharmacologic aids. No studies to date have fully investigated the potential effectiveness of such combined approach. We prospectively evaluated the biochemically verified 1-year continuous abstinence rate from smoking of 187 persistent smokers enrolled within the Multicentric Italian Lung Detection Trial (MILD), who received a pharmacologic aid to quit smoking with varenicline along with behavioral counseling. The propensity of study subjects to succeed in smoking cessation was also monitored. At 12 months, the continuous abstinence rate from smoking was achieved in 37 out of 187 patients (19.8%), with a propensity to succeed in smoking cessation for the assisted attempt equal to 1.43, as compared to an unassisted MILD patient. At the end of the third month of therapy, 48.7% of subjects showed a continuous abstinence rate, while only 33.7% of patients were abstinent from smoking at 6 months. At baseline, the subgroup of MILD participants who were originally allocated to lung tomography showed higher smoking intensity than those allocated to no screening. A combined smoking cessation intervention can be implemented with satisfactory results within a lung cancer screening program; this preliminary observation needs to be replicated in a prospective investigation. Clinicians should consider that lung cancer screening may be falsely reassuring for persistent smokers; therefore it should always be coupled with a smoking cessation program.

  16. [The efficacy of physical activity as an aid to smoking cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2015-12-01

    One over two smokers who smokes all his lifetime will die from a disease related to tobacco use. Tobacco smoking is the primary cause of avoidable death in the world. Medications have an important role in smoking cessation, but physical activity, as well as improving health generally may also represent an important non-pharmacological therapy to help people to stop smoking. The aim of this review was to evaluate the use of physical activity as an aid for smoking cessation and maintaining abstinence. We included 17 randomized controlled trials where the main objective was stopping smoking, and which included at least a six-month follow-up of participants. At the end of this review, only 4 trials revealed a benefit of physical activity on smoking cessation; two of them did not show any persistent benefit after the end of the exercise program. On the basis of this, physical activity cannot itself be considered as a way to help stopping smoking. The heterogeneity among studies summarized in this review was an important methodological bias. However, there is strong evidence that physical activity reduces withdrawal symptoms, craving, negative affect and weight gain during smoking cessation. Advice to practice physical activity should therefore be incorporated into smoking cessation programs. Copyright © 2015 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Mechanisms of adolescent smoking cessation: roles of readiness to quit, nicotine dependence, and smoking of parents and peers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Leeuwe, van J.; Brug, J.; Zundert, van R.M.P.; Eijn, van den R.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple levels of influence should be considered in interventions aimed at the adolescent smoker, including psychological, addiction, peer and parental influences. However, the mechanism by which these variables influence the process of smoking cessation in adolescents is not well elucidated.

  18. Smoking or its cessation does not alter the susceptibility to in vitro LDL oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berkmortel, F W; Demacker, P N; Wollersheim, H; Thien, T; Stalenhoef, A F

    2000-11-01

    Enhanced induction of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation may play a role in the increased cardiovascular risk in smokers. We determined LDL oxidisability in vitro in non-smokers, smokers and in subjects after smoking cessation. Plasma lipids and copper induced LDL oxidation in vitro were measured in 31 persistent smokers, 47 smokers who tried to stop smoking and 25 non-smokers. In the smoking cessation group, blood was collected before then 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after smoking cessation, and in the persistent smoking and non-smoking groups at baseline and after 12 months. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were measured 3 times (at baseline then after 1 and 3 months) in all subjects who refrained from smoking (controlled by urinary cotinine concentrations) for at least 3 months. At baseline, no differences in mean age, body mass index and lipid profiles between groups were present. Seventeen subjects of the smoking cessation group (36%) managed to quit during 12 months. Smoking cessation was associated with an increase in mean weight (P smoking cessation that disappeared after 3 months. However, after 1 month of smoking cessation, plasma TBARS decreased significantly (P < 0.05). Neither the previously observed increased cardiovascular risk in smokers nor the decreased risk in those who stopped smoking seem to be mediated by permanent changes in lipid profiles or by alterations in the susceptibility to in vitro oxidation of LDL.

  19. A randomised controlled trial linking mental health inpatients to community smoking cessation supports: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clancy Richard

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health inpatients smoke at higher rates than the general population and are disproportionately affected by tobacco dependence. Despite the advent of smoke free policies within mental health hospitals, limited systems are in place to support a cessation attempt post hospitalisation, and international evidence suggests that most smokers return to pre-admission smoking levels following discharge. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial that will test the feasibility, acceptability and efficacy of linking inpatient smoking care with ongoing community cessation support for smokers with a mental illness. Methods/Design This study will be conducted as a randomised controlled trial. 200 smokers with an acute mental illness will be recruited from a large inpatient mental health facility. Participants will complete a baseline survey and will be randomised to either a multimodal smoking cessation intervention or provided with hospital smoking care only. Randomisation will be stratified by diagnosis (psychotic, non-psychotic. Intervention participants will be provided with a brief motivational interview in the inpatient setting and options of ongoing smoking cessation support post discharge: nicotine replacement therapy (NRT; referral to Quitline; smoking cessation groups; and fortnightly telephone support. Outcome data, including cigarettes smoked per day, quit attempts, and self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence (validated by exhaled carbon monoxide, will be collected via blind interview at one week, two months, four months and six months post discharge. Process information will also be collected, including the use of cessation supports and cost of the intervention. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the potential of an integrated, multimodal smoking cessation intervention for persons with an acute mental illness, linking inpatient with community cessation support. Trial Registration

  20. Predictors for Smoking Cessation with Acupuncture in a Hong Kong Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Observational studies of smoking cessation with acupuncture have been reported widely; however, few researchers have focused on its predictors. Objective. This paper attempts to explore the predictors for smoking cessation with acupuncture in a Hong Kong population, aiming to provide references for clinical treatment in the future. Methods. We performed a secondary analysis of data from our observational study “Acupuncture for Smoking Cessation (2011–2014” in Hong Kong. A total of 23 indexes were selected as possible predictors, and study participants with complete information of 23 indexes were included. By taking 8-week and 52-week smoking cessation results as dependent variables, binary logistic regression method was used to identify the predictors. Additionally, based on an M5P decision-tree algorithm, an equation of “successful rate of smoking cessation with acupuncture” was calculated. Results. (1 2,051 study participants were included in total. (2 According to the results of binary logistic regression, variables including treatment location, total number of acupuncture sessions received, and whether the study participants received at least 6 sessions of acupuncture were taken as the short-term predictors; gender, treatment location, Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND, and total number of acupuncture sessions received were taken as the long-term predictors. (3 According to study participants’ FTND, treatment location, and number of cigarettes smoked/day, the equation of “successful rate of smoking cessation with acupuncture” was established. Conclusion. Receiving sufficient and qualified acupuncture is the leading factor for short-term smoking cessation with acupuncture, whereas individual factors and smoking background play a more important role in long-term smoking cessation with acupuncture.

  1. Association between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecredy, Graham C; Diemert, Lori M; Callaghan, Russell C; Cohen, Joanna E

    2013-04-16

    High tobacco prices, typically achieved through taxation, are an evidence-based strategy to reduce tobacco use. However, the presence of inexpensive contraband tobacco could undermine this effective intervention by providing an accessible alternative to quitting. We assessed whether the use of contraband tobacco negatively affects smoking cessation outcomes. We evaluated data from 2786 people who smoked, aged 18 years or older, who participated in the population-based longitudinal Ontario Tobacco Survey. We analyzed associations between use of contraband tobacco and smoking cessation outcomes (attempting to quit, 30-d cessation and long-term cessation at 1 yr follow-up). Compared with people who smoked premium or discount cigarettes, people who reported usually smoking contraband cigarettes at baseline were heavier smokers, perceived greater addiction, identified more barriers to quitting and were more likely to have used pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation. People who smoked contraband cigarettes were less likely to report a period of 30-day cessation during the subsequent 6 months (adjusted relative risk [RR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09-0.61) and 1 year (adjusted RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.14-0.61), but they did not differ significantly from other people who smoked regarding attempts to quit (at 6 mo, adjusted RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43-1.20) or long-term cessation (adjusted RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.04-1.34). Smoking contraband cigarettes was negatively associated with short-term smoking cessation. Access to contraband tobacco may therefore undermine public health efforts to reduce the use of tobacco at the population level.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the impact of depression on subsequent smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease: 1990 to 2013.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Doyle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Smoking cessation is crucial for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), yet depression may impede cessation success. We systematically reviewed the prospective association between depression and subsequent smoking cessation in individuals with CHD to quantify this effect.

  3. Costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Andréa Cristina Rosa; Toscano, Cristiana Maria; Barcellos, Rosilene Marques de Souza; Ribeiro, Alvaro Luis Pereira; Ritzel, Jonas Bohn; Cunha, Valéria de Souza; Duncan, Bruce Bartholow

    2016-11-10

    To assess the costs of the Smoking Cessation Program in the Brazilian Unified Health System and estimate the cost of its full implementation in a Brazilian municipality. The intensive behavioral therapy and treatment for smoking cessation includes consultations, cognitive-behavioral group therapy sessions, and use of medicines. The costs of care and management of the program were estimated using micro-costing methods. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania, Goias was set as its expansion to meet the demand of all smokers motivated to quit in the municipality that would seek care at Brazilian Unified Health System. We considered direct medical and non-medical costs: human resources, medicines, consumables, general expenses, transport, travels, events, and capital costs. We included costs of federal, state, and municipal levels. The perspective of the analysis was that from the Brazilian Unified Health System. Sensitivity analysis was performed by varying parameters concerning the amount of activities and resources used. Data sources included a sample of primary care health units, municipal and state secretariats of health, and the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The costs were estimated in Brazilian Real (R$) for the year of 2010. The cost of the program in Goiania was R$429,079, with 78.0% regarding behavioral therapy and treatment of smoking. The cost per patient was R$534, and, per quitter, R$1,435. The full implementation of the program in the municipality of Goiania would generate a cost of R$20.28 million to attend 35,323 smokers. The Smoking Cessation Program has good performance in terms of cost per patient that quit smoking. In view of the burden of smoking in Brazil, the treatment for smoking cessation must be considered as a priority in allocating health resources. Analisar os custos do Programa de Tratamento do Tabagismo no Sistema Único de Saúde e estimar o custo de sua implementação plena em um município brasileiro. A

  4. The effectiveness of interventions for primary care physicians to assist in smoking cessation in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Stoyka

    2017-05-01

    Implementation of standards for health care professionals to aid to quit smoking is extremely important for public health in Ukraine. Creating a system of antismoking education of health workers - the only way of forming their professional relationship to smoking cessation- and one of the most effective measures to protect people from illness and death associated with smoking.

  5. Effect of smoking cessation intervention on results of acute fracture surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåsell, Hans; Adami, Johanna; Samnegård, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major health and economic concern and is also known to have a significant negative effect on surgical outcomes. The benefits of a smoking cessation intervention prior to elective orthopaedic surgery have been evaluated previously. Our aim was to assess whether a smoking...

  6. Effects of a Mindfulness-Based Smoking Cessation Program for an Adult with Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Winton, Alan S. W.; Singh, Ashvind N. A.; Singh, Judy; Singh, Angela D. A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for a number of health conditions and many smokers find it difficult to quit smoking without specific interventions. We developed and used a mindfulness-based smoking cessation program with a 31-year-old man with mild intellectual disabilities who had been a smoker for 17 years. The mindfulness-based smoking…

  7. Mass media interventions for smoking cessation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Malgorzata M; Strzeszynski, Lukasz; Topor-Madry, Roman

    2017-11-21

    Mass media tobacco control campaigns can reach large numbers of people. Much of the literature is focused on the effects of tobacco control advertising on young people, but there are also a number of evaluations of campaigns targeting adult smokers, which show mixed results. Campaigns may be local, regional or national, and may be combined with other components of a comprehensive tobacco control policy. To assess the effectiveness of mass media interventions in reducing smoking among adults. The Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group search strategy was combined with additional searches for any studies that referred to tobacco/smoking cessation, mass media and adults. We also searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and a number of electronic databases. The last search was carried out in November 2016. Controlled trials allocating communities, regions or states to intervention or control conditions; interrupted time series.Adults, 25 years or older, who regularly smoke cigarettes. Studies which cover all adults as defined in studies were included.Mass media are defined here as channels of communication such as television, radio, newspapers, billboards, posters, leaflets or booklets intended to reach large numbers of people, and which are not dependent on person-to-person contact. The purpose of the mass media campaign must be primarily to encourage smokers to quit. They could be carried out alone or in conjunction with tobacco control programmes.The primary outcome was change in smoking behaviour. This could be reported as changes in prevalence, changes in cigarette consumption, quit rates, or odds of being a smoker. Two authors independently assessed all studies for inclusion criteria and for study quality (MB, LS, RTM). One author (MB) extracted data, and a second author (LS) checked them.Results were not pooled due to heterogeneity of the included studies and are presented narratively and in table form. Eleven campaigns met the inclusion

  8. Bespoke smoking cessation for people with severe mental ill health (SCIMITAR): a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbody, Simon; Peckham, Emily; Man, Mei-See; Mitchell, Natasha; Li, Jinshuo; Becque, Taeko; Hewitt, Catherine; Knowles, Sarah; Bradshaw, Tim; Planner, Claire; Parrott, Steve; Michie, Susan; Shepherd, Charles

    2015-05-01

    People with severe mental ill health are three times more likely to smoke but typically do not access conventional smoking cessation services, contributing to widening health inequalities and reduced life expectancy. We aimed to pilot an intervention targeted at smokers with severe mental ill health and to test methods of recruitment, randomisation, and follow up before implementing a full trial. The Smoking Cessation Intervention for Severe Mental Ill Health Trial (SCIMITAR) is a pilot randomised controlled trial of a smoking cessation strategy designed specifically for people with severe mental ill health, to be delivered by mental health nurses and consisting of behavioural support and drugs, compared with a conventional smoking cessation service (ie, usual care). Adults (aged 18 years or older) with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, who were current smokers, were recruited from NHS primary care and mental health settings in the UK (York, Scarborough, Hull, and Manchester). Eligible participants were randomly allocated to either usual care (control group) or usual care plus the bespoke smoking cessation strategy (intervention group). Randomisation was done via a central telephone system, with computer-generated random numbers. We could not mask participants, family doctors, and researchers to the treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was smoking status at 12 months, verified by carbon monoxide measurements or self-report. Only participants who provided an exhaled CO measurement or self-reported their smoking status at 12 months were included in the primary analysis. The trial is registered at ISRCTN.com, number ISRCTN79497236. Of 97 people recruited to the pilot study, 51 were randomly allocated to the control group and 46 were assigned to the intervention group. Participants engaged well with the bespoke smoking cessation strategy, but no individuals assigned to usual care accessed NHS smoking cessation services. At 12 months, 35 (69%) controls and 33 (72

  9. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  10. Content Analysis of Smartphone Apps for Smoking Cessation in China: Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Xu, Junfang; Su, Chunyan; Fu, Xiaoxing; Bricker, Jonathan

    2017-07-11

    With 360 million smokers, China consumes more cigarettes than any other country in the world. Given that 620 million Chinese own smartphones, smartphone apps for smoking cessation are increasingly used in China to help smokers quit. This study analyzed and evaluated the contents of all smoking cessation apps (iOS and Android) available in China, applying the China Clinical Smoking Cessation Guideline (CCSCG; identical to the US Clinical Practice Guideline for Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence) as a framework for analysis. We conducted a content analysis of Chinese Android and iOS smoking cessation apps (N=64) designed to assist users in quitting smoking. Each app was independently coded by two raters for its approach to smoking cessation and adherence to the CCSCG. We also recorded the features of smoking cessation apps (eg, release date, size, frequency of downloads, user ratings, type, quality scores by raters, and designers). Linear regression was used to test predictors of popularity and user-rated quality. Chinese smoking cessation apps have low levels of adherence to guidelines, with an average score of 11.1 for Android and 14.6 for iOS apps on a scale of 0 to 46. There was no significant association between popularity, user rating, and the characteristics of apps. However, there was a positive relationship between popularity, user rating, and adherence score. Chinese apps for smoking cessation have low levels of adherence to standard clinical practice guidelines. New apps need be developed and existing apps be revised following evidence-based principles in China.

  11. Feasibility of using E-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosa, Riccardo; Russo, Cristina; Di Maria, Annalisa; Arcidiacono, Giuseppe; Morjaria, Jaymin B; Piccillo, Giovita A

    2009-08-01

    The need for more effective smoking-cessation interventions is firmly established. However, access to these services can be problematic in real life. E-mail messages may be a convenient alternative to deliver smoking-cessation interventions. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the effectiveness of incorporating tailored e-mail consultation messages in a smoking-cessation program for smokers willing to quit. This pilot study examined the feasibility of integrating e-mail consultation messages in a smoking-cessation program for smokers willing to quit and with Internet access. At baseline, demographic data, smoking history and expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels were collected at a clinic visit. The subjects were provided with the specialist's e-mail address and instructed to prepare e-mail messages containing simple and clear information about their quitting progress. The counselor offered e-mail counseling throughout the smoking-cessation program. A 6-month follow-up visit was arranged, at which abstinence was reviewed. Of the 30 participants initially enrolled in the study, 21 (70%) attended the follow-up 6-month visit. E-mail counseling was more frequently offered (4-8 times) to the participants who completed the study, compared to those lost to follow-up (1-4 times). Comparisons with baseline exhaled CO values showed a significant within-group reduction at 6 months after smoking-cessation (P e-mail consultation counseling in a smoking-cessation intervention is feasible and effective. E-mail counseling as part of a smoking-cessation program warrants further evaluation.

  12. Reversion of AHRR Demethylation Is a Quantitative Biomarker of Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philibert, Robert; Hollenbeck, Nancy; Andersen, Eleanor; McElroy, Shyheme; Wilson, Scott; Vercande, Kyra; Beach, Steven R H; Osborn, Terry; Gerrard, Meg; Gibbons, Frederick X; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the world. Although there are effective pharmacologic and behavioral treatments for smoking cessation, our inability to objectively quantify smokers' progress in decreasing smoking has been a barrier to both clinical and research efforts. In prior work, we and others have shown that DNA methylation at cg05575921, a CpG residue in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor (AHRR), can be used to determine smoking status and infer cigarette consumption history. In this study, we serially assessed self-report and existing objective markers of cigarette consumption in 35 subjects undergoing smoking cessation therapy, then quantified DNA methylation at cg05575921 at study entry and three subsequent time points. Five subjects who reported serum cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide verified smoking abstinence for the 3 months prior to study exit averaged a 5.9% increase in DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p smoking cessation at the 6-month time point, their self-reported reduction of cigarette consumption (mean = 6 cigarettes/day) was associated with a 2.8% increase DNA methylation at cg05575921 (p epigenetic biomarkers. We conclude that AHRR methylation status is a quantifiable biomarker for progress in smoking cessation that could have substantial impact on both smoking cessation treatment and research.

  13. Exploring the adequacy of smoking cessation support for pregnant and postpartum women

    OpenAIRE

    Borland, Tracey; Babayan, Alexey; Irfan, Saeeda; Schwartz, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking in pregnancy exemplifies the relationship between tobacco use and health inequalities. While difficulty reaching and engaging this population in cessation support is often highlighted in the literature, there is limited research that explores the factors that shape the provision and use of support by this subpopulation. Using Ontario, Canada, as a case study, this study examines how the use of cessation support by women is encouraged or discouraged by cessation policy, prog...

  14. Smoking cessation and the Internet: a qualitative method examining online consumer behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisby, Genevieve; Bessell, Tracey L; Borland, Ron; Anderson, Jeremy N

    2002-01-01

    Smoking is a major preventable cause of disease and disability around the world. Smoking cessation support-including information, discussion groups, cognitive behavioral treatment, and self-help materials-can be delivered via the Internet. There is limited information about the reasons and methods consumers access smoking cessation information on the Internet. This study aims to determine the feasibility of a method to examine the online behavior of consumers seeking smoking cessation resources. In particular, we sought to identify the reasons and methods consumers use to access and assess the quality of these resources. Thirteen participants were recruited via the state-based Quit smoking cessation campaign, operated by the Victorian Cancer Council, in December 2001. Online behavior was evaluated using semi-structured interviews and Internet simulations where participants sought smoking cessation information and addressed set-case scenarios. Online interaction was tracked through pervasive logging with specialist software. Thirteen semi-structured interviews and 4 Internet simulations were conducted in January 2002. Participants sought online smoking cessation resources for reasons of convenience, timeliness, and anonymity-and because their current information needs were unmet. They employed simple search strategies and could not always find information in an efficient manner. Participants employed several different strategies to assess the quality of online health resources. Consumer online behavior can be studied using a combination of survey, observation, and online surveillance. However, further qualitative and observational research is required to harness the full potential of the Internet to deliver public health resources.

  15. Predictors of smoking cessation group treatment engagement among veterans with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Letitia E; Li, Lan; Brown, Clayton H; Bennett, Melanie E

    2017-12-01

    High prevalence rates of tobacco use, particularly cigarettes, pose a serious health threat for individuals with serious mental illness (SMI), and research has demonstrated the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions to reduce tobacco use in this group. However, few studies have considered predictors of tobacco cessation treatment engagement among individuals with SMI. The current study examined predictors of engagement in smoking cessation groups among veterans with SMI engaged in mental health services at three VA medical centers. All veterans were participating in a smoking cessation treatment study. Of 178 veterans who completed baseline assessments, 127 (83.6%) engaged in treatment, defined as attending at least three group sessions. Forty-one (N=41) predictors across five domains (demographics, psychiatric concerns, medical concerns, smoking history, and self-efficacy to quit smoking) were identified based on previous research and clinical expertise. Using backward elimination to determine a final multivariable logistic regression model, three predictors were found to be significantly related to treatment engagement: marital status (never-married individuals more likely to engage); previous engagement in group smoking cessation services; and greater severity of positive symptoms on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. When included in the multivariable logistic regression model, the full model discriminates between engagers and non-engagers reasonably well (c statistic=0.73). Major considerations based on these findings are: individuals with SMI appear to be interested in smoking cessation services; and serious psychiatric symptomatology should not discourage treatment providers from encouraging engagement in smoking cessation services. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject. PMID:26247386

  17. Predictors of medication adherence and smoking cessation among smokers under community corrections supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Clark, C Brendan; Stevens, Erin N; Schiavon, Samantha; Lahti, Adrienne C; Hendricks, Peter S

    2017-02-01

    Individuals in the U.S. criminal justice system now represent over 12% of all current U.S. smokers. With smoking banned in most U.S. jails and prisons, the cessation focus for this population has shifted to individuals who are under community correction supervision (e.g., probation, parole). The aim of this study was to examine predictors of successful smoking cessation among criminal justice individuals supervised in the community. Five hundred participants under community corrections supervision were randomized to receive either four sessions of smoking cessation counseling or no counseling in conjunction with 12weeks of bupropion treatment plus brief physician advice to quit. Logistic regression analyses examined associations of smoking variables with medication adherence and successful abstinence. Mediation analysis evaluated the indirect effects of medication adherence on smoking abstinence. The strongest associate of medication adherence was previous use of bupropion, while the strongest associate of smoking abstinence was medication adherence. Mediation analysis indicated that previous use of bupropion indirectly increased cessation rates through the pathway of increased medication adherence. These results highlight the importance of medication adherence for smoking cessation among community corrections smokers. Providing exposure to medication may be a promising intervention to increase medication adherence and subsequent cessation rates in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Caroline Figueira; de Vargas, Divane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS), Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  19. Profile of women who carried out smoking cessation treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Figueira Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Analyze the profile of women, in health services, who carry out treatment for smoking cessation. METHODS Systematic review that used the following sources of information: Cummulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, PubMed, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde (BVS, Scopus and Web of Science. We included quantitative studies that addressed the characterization of women, in health services, who carried out treatment for smoking cessation, resulting in 12 articles for analysis. The assessment of the methodological quality of the studies was performed using the instrument MAStARI from Joanna Briggs Institute. RESULTS The predominant profile of women who carried out treatment for smoking cessation in health services was composed of white, married, employed, and highly level educated women. Women who carried out the treatment for smoking cessation in specialized services had a more advanced age, were white, were married and had a diagnosis of depression. The quality level of most studies was moderate. CONCLUSIONS The profile of women who carry out treatment for smoking cessation, either in general or specialized health services, is composed of white, married, and highly level educated women. Publications about smoking women are scarce and the lack of Brazilian studies characterizing the profile of women who start treatment for smoking cessation shows the need for studies that explore this subject.

  20. The effects of a smoking cessation programme on health-promoting lifestyles and smoking cessation in smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ai Hee; Lee, Suk Jeong; Oh, Seung Jin

    2015-04-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for not only the occurrence of myocardial ischaemia but also recurrences of vascular stenosis. This study aimed to evaluate health-promoting lifestyles and abstinence rate after a smoking cessation programme. Sixty-two smokers who had undergone percutaneous coronary intervention were randomly assigned to either the experimental or control group. The experimental group (n = 30) received 10 phone counselling sessions and 21 short message service messages for abstinence and coronary disease prevention, whereas the control group (n = 32) received only the standard education. After the intervention, 14 members of the experimental group had switched to a non-smoking status, confirmed biochemically; moreover, their physical activity and stress management scores increased significantly. However, self-efficacy of smoking cessation was not reflected in the cotinine levels. Thus, it is necessary not only to increase self-efficacy but also to determine the factors that affect the success of smoking cessation so that they can be included in the intervention. Our results suggest that phone counselling and short message service messaging might be important tools for the realization of smoking cessation and lifestyle changes among patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  1. The short- and long-run effects of smoking cessation on alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukert, Benjamin

    2017-12-01

    This paper examines the short- and long-term effects of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption using the Lung Health Study, a randomized smoking cessation program. The paper estimates the relationship between smoking and alcohol consumption using several self-reported and objective smoking measures, while also implementing a two-stage least squares estimation strategy that utilizes the randomized smoking cessation program assignment as an instrument for smoking. The analysis leads to three salient findings. First, self-reported and clinically verified smoking measures provide mixed evidence on the short-term impact of quitting smoking on alcohol consumption. Second, the long-term impact of smoking on alcohol consumption, measured with the historic 5 years smoking behavior, suggests that those with the highest average cigarette consumption and those with the longest smoking history see the largest increase in alcohol consumption. Specifically, abstaining from smoking or reducing the average cigarette consumption to the mean level lowers alcohol consumption by roughly 25% per week. As a result, these findings present comprehensive evidence that smoking and drinking are complements in the long-term and that the public health and finance benefits in smoking cessations treatments are undervalued.

  2. Smoking cessation and characteristics of success and failure among female high-school smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ae; Lee, Chung Yul; Lim, Eun Sun; Kim, Gwang Suk

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation program on female high-school students and to analyze the characteristics of students who quit smoking compared to those of students who failed to quit. This study used a mixed research design, including a pre- and post-experimental design for measuring the effects of the smoking cessation intervention and a qualitative design using a focus group interview to analyze the characteristics of individuals who successfully quit in comparison to those who failed to stop smoking. Data were collected before and after the intervention through a self-report questionnaire, a biochemical index, and a focus group interview. After the intervention, positive changes in stage in the transtheoretical model for smoking-cessation behavior increased significantly (P<0.001), and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P=0.001), dependency on nicotine, expiratory CO levels, and positive frequency of urine nicotine levels decreased significantly (P<0.001). Based on data from the focus group interview, students who stopped smoking showed different intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics compared to students who failed to stop smoking. The results suggest that the smoking-cessation program could be more effective if it were to involve teachers and family members. In addition, a smoking-prohibited community environment could assist in the control of adolescents' smoking behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  3. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Smoking and Smoking Cessation Due to a Smoking Ban: General Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchicaya, Anastase; Lorentz, Nathalie; Demarest, Stefaan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to measure changes in socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban in Luxembourg. Data were derived from the PSELL3/EU-SILC (Panel Socio-Economique Liewen Zu Letzebuerg/European Union—Statistic on Income and Living Conditions) survey, which was a representative survey of the general population aged ≥16 years conducted in Luxembourg in 2005, 2007, and 2008. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban were used as the main smoking outcomes. Two inequality measures were calculated to assess the magnitude and temporal trends of socioeconomic inequalities in smoking: the prevalence ratio and the disparity index. Smoking cessation due to the smoking ban was considered as a positive outcome. Three multiple logistic regression models were used to assess social inequalities in smoking cessation due to the 2006 smoking ban. Education level, income, and employment status served as proxies for socioeconomic status. The prevalence of smoking decreased by 22.5% between 2005 and 2008 (from 23.1% in 2005 to 17.9% in 2008), but socioeconomic inequalities in smoking persisted. Smoking prevalence decreased by 24.2% and 20.2% in men and women, respectively; this difference was not statistically significant. Smoking cessation in daily smokers due to the 2006 smoking ban was associated with education level, employment status, and income, with higher percentages of quitters among those with a lower socioeconomic status. The decrease in smoking prevalence after the 2006 law was also associated with a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities, including differences in education level, income, and employment status. Although the smoking ban contributed to a reduction of such inequalities, they still persist, indicating the need for a more targeted approach of smoke-free policies directed toward lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:27100293

  4. Use of Propensity Score Matching to Evaluate a National Smoking Cessation Media Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C.; Cullen, Jennifer; Vallone, Donna M.; Stuart, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained mass media campaigns have been recommended to stem the tobacco epidemic in the United States. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to estimate the effect of awareness of a national smoking cessation media campaign (EX[R]) on quit attempts and cessation-related cognition. Participants were 4,067 smokers and recent quitters aged 18-49…

  5. Analysis of factors that determine weight gain during smoking cessation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Maki; Wada, Hiromichi; Ura, Shuichi; Yamakage, Hajime; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Shimatsu, Akira; Koyama, Hiroshi; Kono, Koichi; Takahashi, Yuko; Hasegawa, Koji

    2013-01-01

    Cigarette smokers are generally known to gain weight after quitting smoking, and such weight gain is thought to contribute to the worsening of glucose tolerance. While smoking cessation therapy such as nicotine replacement is useful to minimize post-cessation weight gain, substantial gain occurs even during the therapy. The purpose of the present study was to identify factors associated with weight gain during smoking cessation therapy. We evaluated 186 patients(132 males and 54 females)who visited our outpatient clinic for smoking cessation, and successfully achieved smoking abstinence. We performed gender-adjusted regression analysis for the rate of BMI increase from the beginning of cessation to 3 months after initiation. Furthermore, we performed multivariate analysis to investigate factors that determine the BMI increase after smoking cessation. The mean BMI significantly (ptherapy. There was no significant difference in the extent of BMI increase between nicotine patch and varenicline therapy groups. Factors significantly correlated with the %BMI increase at 3 months after the start of therapy were triglyceride (p = 0.0006, βa = 0.260), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p = 0.0386, βa = -0.168), daily cigarette consumption (p = 0.0385, βa = 0.154), and the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score (p = 0.0060, βa = 0.203). Stepwise multivariate analysis demonstrated that triglyceride and the FTND score were the factors determining the post-cessation BMI increase and that the FTND score was the strongest one. The present study demonstrated that smokers with a high FTND score are more likely to gain weight during smoking cessation therapy. Thus, smokers with a high nicotine dependency may require intervention against weight gain in the cessation clinic.

  6. A review of strategies to stimulate dental professionals to integrate smoking cessation interventions into primary care.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosseel, J.P.; Jacobs, J.E.; Plasschaert, A.J.M.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarise evidence regarding the effectiveness of various implementation strategies to stimulate the delivery of smoking cessation advice and support during daily dental care. BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN: Search of online medical and psychological databases, correspondence with authors and

  7. Smoking cessation and bronchial epithelial remodelling in COPD : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lapperre, Therese S.; Sont, Jacob K.; van Schadewijk, Annemarie; Gosman, Margot; Postma, Dirkje S.; Bajema, Ingeborg M.; Timens, Wim; Mauad, Thais; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Kauffman, H. F.; Boezen, H. M.; Jansen, D. F.; Vonk, J.; Barentsen, M. D. W.; Timens, W.; Zeinstra-Smit, M.; Luteijn, A. J.; van der Molen, T.; ter Veen, G.; Gosman, Margot ME; ten Hacken, N. H. T.; Kerstjens, H. A. M.; van Maaren, M. S.; Postma, D. S.; Veltman, C. A.; Verbokkem, A.; Verhage, I.; Vink-Kloosters, H. K.; Snoeck-Stroband, J. B.; Thiadens, H.; Sont, J. K.; Bajema, I.; Gast-Strookman, J.; Hiemstra, P. S.; Janssen, K.; Lapperre, T. S.; Rabe, K. F.; van Schadewijk, A.; Schrumpf, J. A.; Smit-Bakker, J.; Stolk, J.; Tire, A. C. J. A.; van der Veen, H.; Wijffels, M. M. E.; Willems, L. N. A.; Sterk, P. J.; Mauad, T.; de Reus, D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ( COPD) is associated with bronchial epithelial changes, including squamous cell metaplasia and goblet cell hyperplasia. These features are partially attributed to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR). Whereas smoking cessation

  8. Is this for real?! Smoking cessation groups for Muslim women in Baka-El-Gharbie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameera Yahya

    2017-05-01

    This study demonstrates the need for tailored smoking cessation recruitment and intervention among Muslim women in spite of the challenging recruitment process. It is essential to conduct individual preparation with each woman during the recruitment process to avoid social embarrassment.

  9. MassBuilt: effectiveness of an apprenticeship site-based smoking cessation intervention for unionized building trades workers

    OpenAIRE

    Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Krieger, Nancy; Sorensen, Glorian; Li, Yi; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Blue-collar workers are difficult to reach and less likely to successfully quit smoking. The objective of this study was to test a training site-based smoking cessation intervention. Methods This study is a randomized-controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention that integrated occupational health concerns and was delivered in collaboration with unions to apprentices at 10 sites (n?=?1,213). We evaluated smoking cessation at 1 and 6?months post-intervention. Results The base...

  10. Smoking cessation counseling in dentistry: attitudes of Nigerian dentists and dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uti, Omolara G; Sofola, Oyinkansola O

    2011-03-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the awareness, attitude, practices, willingness, and perceived barriers of dental students and dentists in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, in relation to smoking cessation in the dental care setting. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire that contained questions relating to attitudes, views, and perceived barriers to smoking cessation activities in the dental clinic was hand-delivered to all dentists and clinical dental students in 2007. One hundred and thirty-six respondents took part in the study (response rate=81.9 percent). Although 95 percent of the respondents believed that smoking affects the dental management of the patient, only 65 percent always ask their patients about their smoking habits, and only 30 percent have heard about smoking cessation programs. A significantly higher proportion of students always ask patients about their smoking habits compared with dentists (p=0.0017). Also, a significantly higher proportion of dentists (97 percent) advised their patients against tobacco use compared with 77 percent of students (p=0.0000). Only 2 percent and 3 percent agreed that it is their professional responsibility to educate or encourage patients to quit smoking, respectively. Also, 98 percent strongly disagreed that it is within the scope of dental practice to ask about tobacco use, and 86 percent disagreed that tobacco counseling can be effective in helping patients quit tobacco use. Perceived barriers reported were lack of time (88 percent), lack of necessary materials (81 percent), and lack of knowledge of smoking cessation (74 percent). However, 81 percent of the respondents said they are willing to undergo training in tobacco use cessation. Since most of the dentists and dental students had poor attitudes and negative perceptions of smoking cessation activities, possibly due to lack of training and resources to carry it out in the clinics, there is need to include smoking cessation training

  11. Motives for smoking cessation are associated with stage of readiness to quit smoking and sociodemographics among German industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reime, Birgit; Ratner, Pamela A; Seidenstücker, Sabine; Janssen, Patricia A; Novak, Peter

    2006-01-01

    To test the relationships among particular motives for smoking cessation, stage of readiness to quit (preparation or contemplation), and sociodemographic characteristics. A cross-sectional study to examine attitudes toward and use of health promotion at the worksite, using a self-administered questionnaire. Two German metal companies. Of 1641 responding employees (response rate 65% in company A and 44% in company B), 360 smokers who intended to quit immediately (n = 105) or in the near future (n = 255) were analyzed. The questionnaire comprised of sociodemographic characteristics, smoking behavior, smoking history, readiness to quit smoking, motives to quit, such as coworkers' complaints and health-related or financial concerns. Chi-squared tests and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Health-related reasons (94%) predominated financial (27%) or image-related (14%) reasons for smoking cessation. Participants in the cessation preparation group were more likely to report an awareness of being addicted (79.6% vs. 58.2%; p motives for smoking cessation, including reduced performance, family's and coworkers' complaints, pregnancy/children, and negative public image, but not health-related and financial concerns, differed significantly by gender, age, marital status, education, and occupational status. Motives for smoking cessation vary according to the individual's level of readiness to quit and sociodemographic background.

  12. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. An educational campaign to increase chiropractic intern advising roles on patient smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strasser Sheryl M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco use, particularly smoking, is the most preventable cause of death in the United States. More than 400,000 premature deaths are associated with its use and the health care costs are in the billions. All health care provider groups should be concerned with patients who continue to smoke and use tobacco. The US Preventive Services Taskforce and Health People 2010 guidelines encourage providers to counsel smokers on cessation. Current studies, though limited regarding chiropractic advising practices indicate a low engagement rate when it comes to providing cessation information. Objective To test a campaign regarding initial impact aimed at increasing chiropractic interns advising on cessation and delivery of information to smokers on cessation. Discussion Chiropractic interns do engage patients on smoking status and can be encouraged to provide more cessation messages and information to patients. The initial impact assessment of this campaign increased the provision of information to patients by about 25%. The prevalence of smoking among chiropractic patients, particularly at teaching clinics may be lower than the national averages. Conclusion Chiropractic interns can and should be encouraged to advise smokers about cessation. A systematic method of intake information on smoking status is needed and a standardized education protocol for chiropractic colleges is needed. Chiropractic colleges should assess the adequacy of their advising roles and implement changes to increase cessation messages to their patients as soon as possible.

  14. User Experience Evaluation of a Smoking Cessation App in People With Serious Mental Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardaga, Roger; Rizo, Javier; Kientz, Julie A; McDonell, Michael G; Ries, Richard K; Sobel, Kiley

    2016-05-01

    Smoking rates among people with serious mental illness are 3 to 4 times higher than the general population, yet currently there are no smoking cessation apps specifically designed to address this need. We report the results of a User Experience (UX) evaluation of a National Cancer Institute smoking cessation app, QuitPal, and provide user centered design data that can be used to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population. Two hundred forty hours of field experience with QuitPal, 10 hours of recorded interviews and task performances, usage logs and a self-reported usability scale, informed the results of our study. Participants were five individuals recruited from a community mental health clinic with a reported serious mental illness history. Performance, self-reports, usage logs and interview data were triangulated to identify critical usability errors and UX themes emerging from this population. Data suggests QuitPal has below average levels of usability, elevated time on task performances and required considerable amounts of guidance. UX themes provided critical information to tailor smoking cessation apps for this population, such as the importance of breaking down "cessation" into smaller steps and use of a reward system. This is the first study to examine the UX of a smoking cessation app among people with serious mental illness. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for this highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population. Data from this study will inform future research efforts to expand the effectiveness and reach of smoking cessation apps for people with serious mental illness, a highly nicotine dependent yet under-served population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Factors Affecting Korean Registered Nurses' Intention to Implement Smoking Cessation Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Sook-Hee; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Nurses have been identified as an instrumental partner in tobacco reduction. This study aimed to examine factors affecting Korean nurses' intention to implement smoking cessation intervention in Busan, Korea. Methods The participants were a total of 215 Korean registered nurses. A self-administered questionnaire evaluated predisposing factors, motivational factors (attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy) and intention to implement smoking cessation intervention. Data were an...

  16. Message framing for smoking cessation: the interaction of risk perceptions and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Salovey, Peter; O'Malley, Stephanie S; Mazure, Carolyn M; Latimer, Amy; McKee, Sherry A

    2008-01-01

    Because quitting smoking is clearly linked to preventing health problems such as lung cancer, research on health message framing based on prospect theory suggests that gain-framed messages (i.e., emphasizing the benefits of quitting smoking) would be more persuasive in promoting cessation than loss-framed messages (i.e., emphasizing the costs of continuing to smoke). However, because women tend to anticipate greater perceived risk from quitting smoking than men, this may affect how receptive they are to specific message framing interventions. Data from 249 participants (129 females, 120 males) in a clinical trial of message framing for smoking cessation with bupropion were used to examine how gender differences in perceptions of the risks associated with quitting influence the effects of framed interventions using number of days to smoking relapse as the criterion. Perceived risk of quitting scores were dichotomized using a median split for the entire sample. Women reported a higher perceived risk of cessation than men. Participants who anticipated high risks associated with quitting smoking reported fewer days to relapse. Further, females in the gain-framed condition who reported low perceived risks of cessation had a greater number of days to relapse, as opposed to females in the loss-framed condition. These findings suggest that message framing interventions for smoking cessation should consider the influence of gender and risk perceptions associated with quitting on the effectiveness of framed interventions.

  17. Varenicline for smoking cessation in bipolar disorder: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chengappa, K N Roy; Perkins, Kenneth A; Brar, Jaspreet S; Schlicht, Patricia J; Turkin, Scott R; Hetrick, Michelle L; Levine, Michele D; George, Tony P

    2014-07-01

    Virtually no clinical trials for smoking cessation have been undertaken in bipolar disorder. Varenicline has shown efficacy for smoking cessation, but warnings about neuropsychiatric adverse events have been issued. We assessed the efficacy and safety of varenicline in euthymic bipolar subjects motivated to quit smoking. Clinically stable adult patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder (n = 60) who smoked ≥ 10 cigarettes per day were randomized to a 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled varenicline trial and a 3-month follow-up. Study enrollment was completed from February 2010 through March 2013. Varenicline was dosed using standard titration, and smoking cessation counseling was provided to all patients. The primary outcome was defined as a 7-day point prevalence of self-reported no smoking verified by expired carbon monoxide level initiating smoking cessation in bipolar patients, but medication trials of longer duration are warranted for maintaining abstinence. Vigilance for neuropsychiatric adverse events is prudent when initiating varenicline for smoking cessation in this patient population. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01010204. © Copyright 2014 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.

  18. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Linda G. Haddad; Ahmad M. Al-Bashaireh; Ferrell, Anastasiya V.; Roula Ghadban

    2017-01-01

    To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants r...

  19. Stuck in the catch 22: attitudes towards smoking cessation among populations vulnerable to social disadvantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateman, Kelsey; Ford, Pauline; Fizgerald, Lisa; Mutch, Allyson; Yuke, Kym; Bonevski, Billie; Gartner, Coral

    2016-06-01

    To explore how smoking and smoking cessation is perceived within the context of disadvantage, across a broad cross-section of defined populations vulnerable to social disadvantage. Qualitative focus groups with participants recruited through community service organizations (CSO). Metropolitan and regional settings in Queensland, Australia. Focus groups were held at the respective CSO facilities. Fifty-six participants across nine focus groups, including people living with mental illness, people experiencing or at risk of homelessness (adult and youth populations), people living with HIV, people living in a low-income area and Indigenous Australians. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus group discussions. Participant demographic information and smoking history was recorded. Smoking behaviour, smoking identity and feelings about smoking were reflective of individual circumstances and social and environmental context. Participants felt 'trapped' in smoking because they felt unable to control the stressful life circumstances that triggered and sustained their smoking. Smoking cessation was viewed as an individual's responsibility, which was at odds with participants' statements about the broader factors outside of their own control that were responsible for their smoking. Highly disadvantaged smokers' views on smoking involve contradictions between feeling that smoking cessation involves personal responsibility, while at the same time feeling trapped by stressful life circumstances. Tobacco control programmes aiming to reduce smoking among disadvantaged groups are unlikely to be successful unless the complex interplay of social factors is carefully considered. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Stages of change, determinants, and mortality for smoking cessation in adult Taiwanese screenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luh, Dih-Ling; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Liao, Long-Ren; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Wang, Ting-Ting; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Ching-Yuan

    2015-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations between three smoking-related constructs (pros and cons of smoking, temptation to smoke, and self-efficacy of resisting smoking) and stage of change (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, and action) based on the transtheoretical model among smokers attending a community-based screening program. We also assessed their effects on long-term all-cause mortality. A prospective cohort study, with an average of 7 years of follow-up, was conducted by enrolling 454 male smoking screenees. The comparisons of the mean score of each variable pertaining to three smoking-related constructs across four stages of smoking cessation were assessed by analysis of variance. The impacts of both smoking-related constructs and smoking cessation stage measured at baseline on 7-year mortality were assessed by using proportional hazards regression model. The differences in the mean scores of pros and cons of smoking, temptation to smoke, and self-efficacy of resisting smoking across four stages of smoking cessation were statistically significant (P stage, and low self-efficacy was independently predictive of long-term mortality among male smokers attending a community-based screening program.

  1. Effectiveness of Switching Smoking-Cessation Medications Following Relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W; Cummings, K Michael; Kasza, Karin A; Borland, Ron; Burris, Jessica L; Fong, Geoffrey T; McNeill, Ann; Carpenter, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Nicotine dependence is a chronic disorder often characterized by multiple failed quit attempts (QAs). Yet, little is known about the sequence of methods used across multiple QAs or how this may impact future ability to abstain from smoking. This prospective cohort study examines the effectiveness of switching smoking-cessation medications (SCMs) across multiple QAs. Adult smokers (aged ≥18 years) participating in International Tobacco Control surveys in the United Kingdom, U.S., Canada, and Australia (N=795) who: (1) completed two consecutive surveys between 2006 and 2011; (2) initiated a QA at least 1 month before each survey; and (3) provided data for the primary predictor (SCM use during most recent QA), outcome (1-month point prevalence abstinence), and relevant covariates. Analyses were conducted in 2016. Five SCM user classifications were identified: (1) non-users (43.5%); (2) early users (SCM used for initial, but not subsequent QA; 11.4%); (3) later users (SCM used for subsequent, but not initial QA; 18.4%); (4) repeaters (same SCM used for both QAs; 10.7%); and (5) switchers (different SCM used for each QA; 14.2%). Abstinence rates were lower for non-users (15.9%, OR=0.48, p=0.002), early users (16.6%, OR=0.27, p=0.03), and repeaters (12.4%, OR=0.36, p=0.004) relative to switchers (28.5%). Findings suggest smokers will be more successful if they use a SCM in QAs and vary the SCM they use across time. That smokers can increase their odds of quitting by switching SCMs is an important message that could be communicated to smokers. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  2. Isolating the role of psychological dysfunction in smoking cessation: relations of personality and psychopathology to attaining cessation milestones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Japuntich, Sandra J; Piper, Megan E; Jorenby, Douglas E; Schlam, Tanya R; Baker, Timothy B

    2012-12-01

    Research exploring psychological dysfunction as a predictor of smoking cessation success may be limited by nonoptimal predictor variables (i.e., categorical psychodiagnostic measures vs. continuous personality-based manifestations of dysfunction) and imprecise outcomes (i.e., summative point-prevalence abstinence vs. constituent cessation milestone measures). Accordingly, this study evaluated the unique and overlapping relations of broad-spectrum personality traits (positive emotionality, negative emotionality, and constraint) and past-year psychopathology (anxiety, mood, and substance use disorder) to point-prevalence abstinence and three smoking cessation milestones: (a) initiating abstinence, (b) first lapse, and (c) transition from lapse to relapse. Participants were daily smokers (N = 1365) enrolled in a smoking cessation treatment study. In single-predictor regression models, each manifestation of internalizing dysfunction (lower positive emotionality, higher negative emotionality, and anxiety and mood disorder) predicted failure at one or more cessation milestone(s). In simultaneous predictor models, lower positive and higher negative emotionality significantly predicted failure to achieve milestones after controlling for psychopathology. Psychopathology did not predict any outcome when controlling for personality. Negative emotionality showed the most robust and consistent effects, significantly predicting failure to initiate abstinence, earlier lapse, and lower point-prevalence abstinence rates. Substance use disorder and constraint did not predict cessation outcomes, and no single variable predicted lapse-to-relapse transition. These findings suggest that personality-related manifestations of internalizing dysfunction are more accurate markers of affective sources of relapse risk than mood and anxiety disorders. Further, individuals with high trait-negative emotionality may require intensive intervention to promote the initiation and early maintenance of

  3. Effectiveness of smoking cessation therapies: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimoulas Popey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking remains the leading preventable cause of premature deaths. Several pharmacological interventions now exist to aid smokers in cessation. These include Nicotine Replacement Therapy [NRT], bupropion, and varenicline. We aimed to assess their relative efficacy in smoking cessation by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods We searched 10 electronic medical databases (inception to Sept. 2006 and bibliographies of published reviews. We selected randomized controlled trials [RCTs] evaluating interventions for smoking cessation at 1 year, through chemical confirmation. Our primary endpoint was smoking cessation at 1 year. Secondary endpoints included short-term smoking cessation (~3 months and adverse events. We conducted random-effects meta-analysis and meta-regression. We compared treatment effects across interventions using head-to-head trials and when these did not exist, we calculated indirect comparisons. Results We identified 70 trials of NRT versus control at 1 year, Odds Ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% Confidence Interval [CI], 1.55–1.88, P = Varenicline was superior to placebo at 1 year (4 RCTs, OR 2.96, 95% CI, 2.12–4.12, P = Conclusion NRT, bupropion and varenicline all provide therapeutic effects in assisting with smoking cessation. Direct and indirect comparisons identify a hierarchy of effectiveness.

  4. Reduced probability of smoking cessation in men with increasing number of job losses and partnership breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Larsen, Anne Mette; Christensen, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation and to st......Background Unemployment and partnership breakdowns are common stressful life events, but their association with smoking cessation has been investigated in only a few studies. Objective To investigate how history of employment and cohabitation affects the probability of smoking cessation...... by a questionnaire. Results The probability of smoking cessation decreased with the number of job losses (ranging from 1 OR 0.54 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.64) to 3+ OR 0.41 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.55)) and of broken partnerships (ranging from 1 OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.85) to 3+ OR 0.50 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.63)). Furthermore......–23 years (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.52)). Those who never cohabited and experienced one or more job losses had a particular low chance of smoking cessation (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.30). Conclusion The numbers of job losses and of broken partnerships were both inversely associated with probability...

  5. Training Malaysian Pharmacy Undergraduates with Knowledge and Skills on Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simansalam, Saraswathi; Brewster, Joan M; Nik Mohamed, Mohamad Haniki

    2015-06-25

    To evaluate the feasibility of an online training module, Certified Smoking Cessation Service Provider (CSCSP), developed for practicing pharmacists to equip pharmacy students with knowledge necessary for smoking cessation counseling and to assess the changes in student knowledge and skills regarding smoking cessation following training. Sixty third-year and 80 fourth-year pharmacy undergraduates (N=140) were given access to an online module, the main intervention in the study. Two linkable questionnaires were administered to assess students' preintervention and postintervention knowledge. For the third-year students, an additional role-play training component was incorporated, and student skills were assessed during week 14 with an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Preintervention and postintervention knowledge assessments were completed by 130 (92.8%) students. Sixty-six students scored above 50% for the knowledge component postintervention, compared to 13 at preintervention, demonstrating significant improvement (x2(1, N=130)=32, p=0.003). All third-year students completed the intervention, and 66.7% were able to counsel excellently for smoking cessation, scoring more than 80%. The CSCSP online module developed for practicing professionals was found suitable for equipping pharmacy undergraduates with knowledge on smoking cessation topics. The module, along with role-play training, also equipped students with knowledge and skills to provide smoking cessation counseling.

  6. The Effect of Positive Group Psychotherapy and Motivational Interviewing on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Jin

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process and evaluate the effect of positive group psychotherapy and motivational interviewing as an intervention for smoking cessation. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted at a university in South Korea. Positive group psychotherapy and motivational interviewing were attended by 36 smokers for 1 hour once a week, for 6 hours. A recorded exit interview was conducted after the intervention. The resulting transcripts were analyzed with content analysis and thematic analysis. Among the 36 study participants, the importance of stopping smoking was rated higher in the successful cessation (defined as those who ceased smoking for at least 3 months; hereafter, success group) group (8.6 ± 0.4, n = 10) than in the failed cessation (defined as those who did not cease smoking for at least 3 months; hereafter, failure group) group (7.75 ± 0.3, n = 26; p compliments about efforts for smoking cessation." The importance of and confidence in smoking cessation were predictors for successful cessation for 3-6 months. Motivational interviewing increased motivations, whereas positive group psychotherapy increased positive thoughts and confidence.

  7. Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation-present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death. Anew treatment in smoking cessation and relapse prevention is nicotine vaccination which is based on active immunization against the nicotine molecule. This article aimed to review the mechanism of action, current status of research and future aspects for the development of vaccines against nicotine. Materials & Method: The literature search of publications indexed was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Google scholar databases. Total 25 animal trials, human trials under various phases of clinical trials, unpublished document and cross-sectional survey were reviewed. Results: This immunization will act on immune system to produce nicotine-specific antibodies that sequester nicotine in the blood stream, after inhaling tobacco products. Nicotine vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections. Efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels which help to optimize the vaccine effect. Nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation trials. Conclusions: Though, nicotine vaccine has considerable therapeutic potential, they do not target the non pharmacological factors that maintain tobacco dependence. So combination of nicotine vaccine with behavioral interventions would be effective mode to motivate abstinence from tobacco use.

  8. [Smoking at workplace - Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Polańska, Kinga; Wiszniewska, Marta; Kleniewska, Aneta; Dörre-Kolasa, Dominika; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers' awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers' health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers' awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  9. Smoking at workplace – Legislation and health aspect of exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Lipińska-Ojrzanowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains thousands of xenobiotics harmful to human health. Their irritant, toxic and carcinogenic potential has been well documented. Passive smoking or exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS in public places, including workplace, poses major medical problems. Owing to this fact there is a strong need to raise workers’ awareness of smoking-related hazards through educational programs and to develop and implement legislation aimed at eliminating SHS exposure. This paper presents a review of reports on passive exposure to tobacco smoke and its impact on human health and also a review of binding legal regulations regarding smoking at workplace in Poland. It has been proved that exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy may lead to, e.g., preterm delivery and low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, lung function impairment, asthma and acute respiratory illnesses in the future. Exposure to tobacco smoke, only in the adult age, is also considered as an independent risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, acute and chronic respiratory diseases and cancer. Raising public awareness of tobacco smoke harmfulness should be a top priority in the field of workers’ health prevention. Occupational medicine physicians have regular contacts with occupationally active people who smoke. Thus, occupational health services have a unique opportunity to increase employees and employers’ awareness of adverse health effects of smoking and their prevention. Med Pr 2015;66(6:827–836

  10. Development of a community-based network to promote smoking cessation among female smokers in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. C. Li

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for population-based smoking cessation interventions targeting female smokers in Hong Kong. This study describes the development of a community-based network to promote smoking cessation among female smokers in Hong Kong. Methods Local women’s organizations collaborated to launch a project to provide gender-specific smoking cessation services. In the first phase of the project, the Women Against Tobacco Taskforce (WATT was created. In the second phase, a smoking cessation training curriculum was developed and female volunteers were trained. The third and final phase included the provision of gender-specific smoking cessation counseling services in Hong Kong. Results A need assessment survey with 623 workers and volunteers of WATT members was carried out to develop a gender-specific smoking cessation training curriculum. A 1-day training workshop to 28 WATT affiliates who provided brief cessation counseling in the community was organized. Fourteen organizations (69 service units agreed to form a network by joining WATT to promote smoking cessation and increase awareness of the specific health risks among female smokers. Conclusions The community-based network to promote smoking cessation was effective in helping female smokers to quit smoking or reduce their cigarette consumption. The results also suggest that this community model of promoting gender-specific smoking cessation services is feasible. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02968199 (Retrospectively registered on November 16, 2016.

  11. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Gislene; Rosa, Ecinele Francisca; Gomes, Elaine Fueta; Guglielmetti, Mariana Rocha; Corraini, Priscila; Takano, Ricardo Koji; Ferreira, Viviane Lé; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Lotufo, João Paulo Becker; Souza, Edinalva Tanajura Cruz; Pannuti, Cláudio Mendes

    2016-10-10

    The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation counseling and support were also provided by the dentists, during periodontal maintenance sessions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Smoking status was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire, and was validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence was used to assess smoking dependence. Of the 61 individuals that remained up to the 24-month examination, 31, 21 and 18 declared that they were not smoking at 3, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Smoking cessation after 24 months was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.77, 95%CI = 1.16-12.30), baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76-19.23), not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76-30.98) and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55-20.43). We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette dependence variables.

  12. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gislene INOUE

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation counseling and support were also provided by the dentists, during periodontal maintenance sessions at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months of follow-up. Smoking status was assessed by means of a structured questionnaire, and was validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (CO measurements. The Fagerström Test for Cigarette Dependence was used to assess smoking dependence. Of the 61 individuals that remained up to the 24-month examination, 31, 21 and 18 declared that they were not smoking at 3, 12 and 24 months, respectively. Smoking cessation after 24 months was associated with the male gender (OR = 3.77, 95%CI = 1.16–12.30, baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76–19.23, not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76–30.98 and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55–20.43. We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette dependence variables.

  13. Mindfulness, an integrated approach for cessation of smoking in workplace

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sharma, Mahendra P; Sharma, Manoj Kumar

    2013-01-01

    ..., mindfulness or Vipassana meditation has received considerable attention among health professionals. It provides the potential for transforming the ways in which we respond to life events and for relapse prevention. In practice of mindfulness, person notice and accept his thoughts as passing mental events occurring in the mind rather than as a...

  14. Smoking cessation intervention in rural kerala, India: findings of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, Radhakrishnan; Uutela, Antti; Mathew, Aleyamma; Auvinen, Anssi; Mathew, Preethi Sara; Sebastian, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of tobacco use is higher in the rural than urban areas of India. Unlike tobacco cessation clinics located in urban areas, community-based smoking cessation intervention has the potential to reach a wider section of the community to assist in smoking cessation in the rural setting. The present study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a cessation intervention in rural Kerala state, India. Current daily smoking resident males in the age group 18-60 years from four community development blocks in rural Kerala were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. The intervention group received multiple approaches in which priority was given to face-to-face interviews and telephone counselling. Initially educational materials on tobacco hazards were distributed. Further, four rounds of counselling sessions were conducted which included a group counselling with a medical camp as well as individual counselling by trained medical social workers. The control group received general awareness training on tobacco hazards along with an anti-tobacco leaflet. Self-reported smoking status was assessed after 6 and 12 months. Factors associated with tobacco cessation were estimated using binomial regression method. Overall prevalence of smoking abstinence was 14.7% in the intervention and 6.8% in the control group (Relative risk: 1.85, 95% CI: 1.05, 3.25). A total of 41.3% subjects in the intervention area and 13.6% in the control area had reduced smoking by 50% or more at the end of 12 months. Lower number of cigarettes/ bidi used, low nicotine dependence and consultation with a doctor for a medical ailment were the statistically significant predictors for smoking cessation. Rigorous approaches for smoking cessation programmes can enhance quit rates in smoking in rural areas of India.

  15. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipton Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25% pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24% were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged. 370 (11% women set a quit date and 116 (3.5% had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged. 409(15% smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3% had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2% pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking

  16. Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation services for pregnant women in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Over 20% of women smoke throughout pregnancy despite the known risks to mother and child. Engagement in face-to-face support is a good measure of service reach. The Scottish Government has set a target that by 2010 8% of smokers will have quit via NHS cessation services. At present less than 4% stop during pregnancy. We aimed to establish a denominator for pregnant smokers in Scotland and describe the proportion who are referred to specialist services, engage in one-to-one counselling, set a quit date and quit 4 weeks later. Methods This was a descriptive epidemiological study using routinely collected data supplemented by questionnaire information from specialist pregnancy cessation services. Results 13266 of 52370 (25%) pregnant women reported being current smokers at maternity booking and 3133/13266 (24%) were referred to specialist cessation services in 2005/6. Two main types of specialist smoking cessation support for pregnant women were in place in Scotland. The first involved identification using self-report and carbon monoxide breath test for all pregnant women with routine referral (1936/3352, 58% referred) to clinic based support (386, 11.5% engaged). 370 (11%) women set a quit date and 116 (3.5%) had quit 4 weeks later. The second involved identification by self report and referral of women who wanted help (1195/2776, 43% referred) for home based support (377/1954, 19% engaged). 409(15%) smokers set a quit date and 119 (4.3%) had quit 4 weeks later. Cost of home-based support was greater. In Scotland only 265/8062 (3.2%) pregnant smokers identified at maternity booking, living in areas with recognised specialist or good generic services, quit smoking during 2006. Conclusions In Scotland, a small proportion of pregnant smokers are supported to stop. Poor outcomes are a product of current limitations to each step of service provision - identification, referral, engagement and treatment. Many smokers are not asked about smoking at maternity

  17. Socioeconomic Indicators Associated with Initiation and Cessation of Smoking among Women in Seoul

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yu-Na; Cho, Young-Gyu; Kim, Cheol-Hwan; Kang, Jae-Heon; Park, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Kyoung-Woo; Hur, Yang-Im; Lee, Su-Hyun; Na, Yun-Min; Park, No-Yai

    2012-01-01

    Background While smoking prevalence in Korean men has been decreasing, it is increasing in Korean women. Little is known about women's smoking inequalities in Korea. This study was conducted to investigate the association of socioeconomic indicators with the initiation and cessation of smoking among Korean women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study on 9,089 women aged 25-64 years from the 2008 Seoul Community Health Survey. The data on smoking and socioeconomic status were obtained throu...

  18. Contingency management for behavior change: Applications to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulsgiver, Kathryn A.; Sigmon, Stacey C.

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent among patients who are being treated for opioid-dependence, yet there have been limited scientific efforts to promote smoking cessation in this population. Contingency management (CM) is a behavioral treatment that provides monetary incentives (available in the form of vouchers) contingent upon biochemical evidence of drug abstinence. This paper discusses the results of two studies that utilized CM to promote brief smoking cessation among opioid-maintained patients. Participants in a pilot study were randomly assigned for a 2-week period to a Contingent group that earned monetary vouchers for providing biochemical samples that met criteria for smoking abstinence, or a Noncontingent group that earned monetary vouchers independent of smoking status (Dunn et al., 2008). Results showed Contingent participants provided significantly more smoking-negative samples than Noncontingent participants (55% vs. 5%, respectively). A second randomized trial that utilized the same 2-week intervention and provided access to the smoking cessation pharmacotherapy bupropion replicated the results of the pilot study (55% and 17% abstinence in Contingent and Noncontingent groups, respectively). A nonsignificant trend suggested bupropion may have contributed to smoking abstinence (Dunn et al, 2010). For both studies high rates of relapse to smoking were observed after the intervention ended; however, the results compare favorably to previous pharmacological and behavioral smoking cessation interventions and provide evidence that opioid-maintained patients can achieve a brief period of continuous smoking abstinence. Relapse to illicit drug use was also evaluated prospectively and no evidence that smoking abstinence was associated with a relapse to illicit drug use was observed (Dunn et al., 2009). It will be important for future studies to evaluate participant characteristics that might predict better treatment outcome, to assess the contribution that

  19. Social capital, political trust and daily smoking and smoking cessation: a population-based study in southern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, M

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the associations between vertical (institutional) political trust in the Riksdag and daily smoking and smoking cessation. Cross-sectional study. In total, 27,757 individuals aged 18-80 years answered a postal questionnaire, which represents 59% of the random sample. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the associations between political trust in the Riksdag and daily smoking and smoking cessation. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the importance of possible confounders on the differences in daily smoking and smoking cessation according to political trust. In total, 14.9% of the men and 18.1% of the women were daily smokers. Middle-aged respondents were significantly more likely to be daily smokers than the young. The proportion of ever smokers who had quit smoking increased with age. Respondents with low generalized trust in other people [odds ratio (OR) 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5-1.8 among men; OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.8 among women] and not high political trust/no political trust at all (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8 among men; OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.6-2.0 among women) had significantly higher ORs of daily smoking. Men and women with not particularly high political trust/no political trust at all and no opinion of the Riksdag had significantly lower ORs of smoking cessation than people with very high/high political trust. These associations remained significant after multiple adjustments. The results suggest that political trust is independently associated with both daily smoking and smoking cessation.

  20. What do we know about the role of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation before or during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, Cheryl A; Kranzler, H R

    2009-11-01

    Given the substantial health risks of smoking during pregnancy, and the potential of pharmacotherapy to enhance quit rates, a need exists to examine the utility of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy. We briefly review the first-line medications that are recommended for smoking cessation in nonpregnant adults. Additionally, we review the toxicity of tobacco smoke and the potential risks of pharmacotherapy as evidenced by animal studies. We review in more detail studies conducted in pregnant women, including (a) observational studies, (b) short-term safety and longer term uncontrolled studies, and (c) randomized controlled clinical trials (both effectiveness and efficacy studies). Because the safety and efficacy of pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation during pregnancy have not been established, no definitive recommendations can be made on the topic. Effectiveness trials have shown that nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) enhances smoking cessation during pregnancy, but efficacy trials have not shown an advantage for NRT compared with placebo treatment. Small sample size or poor medication compliance (with either the dose or the duration of treatment) may contribute to lack of efficacy in placebo-controlled NRT trials. However, these trials showed that NRT did not adversely affect birth outcomes and increased birth weight. Based on these findings and the fact that all medications have some risk, psychosocial interventions should be the first treatment option for pregnant smokers. Additional research is needed to determine fully the risks and benefits of the various pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation during pregnancy.

  1. Factors affecting commencement and cessation of smoking behaviour in Malaysian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani Wan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco consumption peak in developed countries has passed, however, it is on the increase in many developing countries. Apart from cigarettes, consumption of local hand-rolled cigarettes such as bidi and rokok daun are prevalent in specific communities. Although factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation has been investigated elsewhere, the only available data for Malaysia is on prevalence. This study aims to investigate factors associated with smoking initiation and cessation which is imperative in designing intervention programs. Methods Data were collected from 11,697 adults by trained recording clerks on sociodemographic characteristics, practice of other risk habit and details of smoking such as type, duration and frequency. Smoking commencement and cessation were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and log-rank tests. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to calculate the hazard rate ratios. Results Males had a much higher prevalence of the habit (61.7% as compared to females (5.8%. Cessation was found to be most common among the Chinese and those regularly consuming alcoholic beverages. Kaplan-Meier plot shows that although males are more likely to start smoking, females are found to be less likely to stop. History of betel quid chewing and alcohol consumption significantly increase the likelihood of commencement (p Conclusions Gender, ethnicity, history of quid chewing and alcohol consumption have been found to be important factors in smoking commencement; while ethnicity, betel quid chewing and type of tobacco smoked influences cessation.

  2. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Hann, Nicholas; Wilson, Andrew; Mnatzaganian, George; Worrall-Carter, Linda

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation. To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation. A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases. Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated. Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97). Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18%) reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28). Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used. Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis. Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More randomised

  3. E-cigarettes and smoking cessation: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aziz Rahman

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are currently being debated regarding their possible role in smoking cessation and as they are becoming increasingly popular, the research to date requires investigation.To investigate whether the use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation or reduction, and whether there is any difference in efficacy of e-cigarettes with and without nicotine on smoking cessation.A systematic review of articles with no limit on publication date was conducted by searching PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Scopus databases.Published studies, those reported smoking abstinence or reduction in cigarette consumption after the use of e-cigarettes, were included. Studies were systematically reviewed, and meta-analyses were conducted using Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and random-effects models. Degree of heterogeneity among studies and quality of the selected studies were evaluated.Six studies were included involving 7,551 participants. Meta-analyses included 1,242 participants who had complete data on smoking cessation. Nicotine filled e-cigarettes were more effective for cessation than those without nicotine (pooled Risk Ratio 2.29, 95%CI 1.05-4.97. Amongst 1,242 smokers, 224 (18% reported smoking cessation after using nicotine-enriched e-cigarettes for a minimum period of six months. Use of such e-cigarettes was positively associated with smoking cessation with a pooled Effect Size of 0.20 (95%CI 0.11-0.28. Use of e-cigarettes was also associated with a reduction in the number of cigarettes used.Included studies were heterogeneous, due to different study designs and gender variation. Whilst we were able to comment on the efficacy of nicotine vs. non-nicotine e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, we were unable to comment on the efficacy of e-cigarettes vs. other interventions for cessation, given the lack of comparator groups in the studies included in this meta-analysis.Use of e-cigarettes is associated with smoking cessation and reduction. More

  4. Who wants to quit? Characteristics of American Indian youth who seek smoking cessation intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Kimberly; Noerachmanto, N; Dino, Geri; Manzo, Karen; Brayboy, Missy

    2009-04-01

    No group is more at-risk for tobacco-related health disparities than are American Indian youth. Little is known about their readiness to quit smoking and the extent to which cessation programs may require cultural tailoring related to recruitment, implementation, or content. This study identifies unique characteristics of American Indian teen smokers who enrolled in a school-based smoking cessation program, Not On Tobacco (called N-O-T). Using data from N-O-T intervention trials conducted in North Carolina between 2001 and 2004, the present study (a) describes the characteristics of American Indian participants (n = 91); (b) determines if basic demographics and smoking history affect intervention readiness; and (c) compares findings with non-Native participants (n = 138) enrolled in N-O-T within the same state. Upon enrollment, 80% of the sample reported that they planned to quit smoking in the next 1-6 months. We found significant differences between American Indian and non-Native youth on smoking history, with non-Natives smoking with greater intensity and frequency. Contrary to previous reports, American Indian youth in this study smoked with less intensity and were more ready to quit smoking than non-Native youth. Results reveal previously unreported characteristics of American Indian teen smokers. Study findings may advance the development of effective marketing, recruitment, and programming among American Indian teen smokers into cessation programs, particularly N-O-T, which is the only teen smoking cessation program which includes an adaptation specifically for American Indians.

  5. Effects of smoking cessation on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takami T

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Takeshi Takami1,Yoshihiko Saito21Department of Internal Medicine, Clinic Jingumae, Kashihara, Nara, Japan; 2First Department of Internal Medicine, Nara Medical University, Kashihara, Nara, JapanPurpose: Smoking affects arterial stiffness, thus causing an elevation in central blood pressure (CBP. The present study was designed to examine whether smoking cessation treatment improved CBP and arterial stiffness.Patients and methods: We conducted an observational study of 70 patients receiving smoking cessation treatment. Before and 60 weeks after the start of a 12-week varenicline treatment, we measured brachial blood pressure, CBP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV, normalized radial augmentation index (rAIx@75, left ventricular weight, and left ventricular diastolic function of each patient. The data were compared between the patients who succeeded in quitting smoking (smoking cessation group; n = 37 and those who failed to quit smoking (smoking group; n = 33.Results: Baseline characteristics were similar in both groups. Brachial blood pressure remained unchanged in both groups. CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 decreased significantly in the smoking cessation group, while these parameters showed no significant change in the smoking group. Thus, CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75 showed greater decrease in the smoking cessation group than in the smoking group (CBP, −7.1 ± 1.4 mmHg vs 1.2 ± 2.7 mmHg; P < 0.01; baPWV, −204 ± 64 cm/s vs −43 ± 72 cm/s; P < 0.01; rAIx@75, −6.4 ± 2.8% vs −1.0 ± 3.9%; P < 0.01. Left ventricular weight and left ventricular diastolic function remained unchanged in both groups.Conclusion: Patients in the smoking cessation group showed significant improvement in CBP, baPWV, and rAIx@75. These results indicate that smoking cessation can improve arterial stiffness and CBP.Keywords: central blood pressure, augmentation index, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, smoking cessation, varenicline

  6. Are digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy effective? A systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Sarah Ellen; Brown, Katherine E; Fulton, Emily Anne; Tombor, Ildiko; Naughton, Felix

    2016-12-01

    Behavioural support for smoking cessation in pregnancy can be effective; however, many pregnant women face barriers to seeking support to stop smoking. Some digital interventions have been found to be effective for smoking cessation in the general population and may be effective for supporting cessation in pregnancy due to their flexibility and the potential for personalisation. To date, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy. This review aims to assess the following: (1) whether digital interventions are effective at promoting smoking cessation among pregnant women; (2) which behaviour change techniques (BCTs) or combinations of BCTs are associated with the effectiveness of digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy; and (3) whether the number of BCTs used is associated with the effectiveness of digital interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy. This review will include digital interventions delivered largely through computer (PC or laptop), video/DVD, mobile phone (including smartphones) or portable handheld device (e.g. tablet, iPad) and include websites, mobile or tablet applications and SMS text messages. Interventions must be randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials aimed at women who smoke in pregnancy, with smoking cessation as a measured outcome (preferably the latest available point prevalence smoking status measure taken during pregnancy, biochemically verified if available). Electronic bibliographic databases will be searched to identify suitable studies indexed in the following: Academic Search Complete, ASSIA, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science. The search strategy will include key words and database-specific subject headings relating to 'pregnancy' and 'smoking' and synonyms for the terms 'digital' and 'randomised controlled trial'. Where required and where possible, the first and second authors will

  7. Smoking cessation advice in consultations with health problems not related to smoking?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane; Baarts, Charlotte

    2010-01-01

    primarily addressed the consultations that had been observed. The concept of “ frames ” described by Goffman was deployed as an analytic tool. Setting . Danish general practice. Subjects. Six GPs and 11 of their patients. Results . Both GPs and patients evaluated potential issues to be included during...... consultations by relevance criteria. Relevance criteria served the purpose of limiting the number of issues in individual consultations. Issues could be included if they connected to something already communicated in a consultation. Smoking cessation advice was subject to these relevance criteria....... Conclusions . Relevance criteria in the shape of communication of particular risks to particular patients and small-talk about well-being refl ect the concept of “ frames ” by Goffman. Criteria of relevance limit the number of issues in individual consultations. Relevance criteria may explain why smoking...

  8. Estimates of smoking before and during pregnancy, and smoking cessation during pregnancy: comparing two population-based data sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Van T; Dietz, Patricia M; Farr, Sherry L; D'Angelo, Denise V; England, Lucinda J

    2013-01-01

    We compared three measures of maternal smoking status--prepregnancy, during pregnancy, and smoking cessation during pregnancy-between the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) questionnaire and the 2003 revised birth certificate (BC). We analyzed data from 10,485 women with live births in eight states from the 2008 PRAMS survey, a confidential, anonymous survey administered in the postpartum period that is linked to select BC variables. We calculated self-reported prepregnancy and prenatal smoking (last trimester only) prevalence based on the BC, the PRAMS survey, and the two data sources combined, and the percentage of smoking cessation during pregnancy based on the BC and PRAMS survey. We used two-sided t-tests to compare BC and PRAMS estimates. Prepregnancy smoking prevalence estimates were 17.3% from the BC, 24.4% from PRAMS, and 25.4% on one or both data sources. Prenatal smoking prevalence estimates were 11.3% from the BC, 14.0% from PRAMS, and 15.2% on one or both data sources. The percentages of prepregnancy smokers who indicated that they quit smoking by the last trimester were 35.1% from the BC and 42.6% from PRAMS. The PRAMS estimates of prepregnancy and prenatal smoking, and smoking cessation during pregnancy were statistically higher than the corresponding BC estimates (t-tests, psources when developing population-based estimates of smoking before pregnancy and during the last trimester of pregnancy.

  9. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention—an Intervention Mapping approach to planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data. PMID:21730251

  10. The development of an adolescent smoking cessation intervention--an Intervention Mapping approach to planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalum, Peter; Schaalma, Herman; Kok, Gerjo

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a theory- and evidence-based adolescent smoking cessation intervention using both new and existing materials. We used the Intervention Mapping framework for planning health promotion programmes. Based on a needs assessment, we identified important and changeable determinants of cessation behaviour, specified change objectives for the intervention programme, selected theoretical change methods for accomplishing intervention objectives and finally operationalized change methods into practical intervention strategies. We found that guided practice, modelling, self-monitoring, coping planning, consciousness raising, dramatic relief and decisional balance were suitable methods for adolescent smoking cessation. We selected behavioural journalism, guided practice and Motivational Interviewing as strategies in our intervention. Intervention Mapping helped us to develop as systematic adolescent smoking cessation intervention with a clear link between behavioural goals, theoretical methods, practical strategies and materials and with a strong focus on implementation and recruitment. This paper does not present evaluation data.

  11. Structural and cultural barriers to the adoption of smoking cessation services in addiction treatment organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Studts, Jamie L.; Boyd, Sara; Roman, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined associations between availability of smoking cessation services in addiction treatment organizations and specific cultural, staffing, and resource barriers. Telephone interviews were conducted with administrators of 866 addiction treatment organizations in the U.S. These data revealed that few programs had adopted the full bundle of five recommended tobacco-related intake procedures and that less than half of programs offered any smoking cessation services. Barriers to adoption of the intake bundle and availability of services included organizational culture and low levels of staff skills. Adoption of cessation services was associated with center type, location in a hospital setting, levels of care, and organizational size. Although a substantial proportion of organizations offer smoking cessation services, expansion of these services and greater adoption of tobacco-related intake procedures is needed to address the needs of nicotine-dependent individuals in addiction treatment. PMID:20635279

  12. Smiling Instead of Smoking: Development of a Positive Psychology Smoking Cessation Smartphone App for Non-daily Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeppner, Bettina B; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Kelly, Lourah; Schick, Melissa; Kelly, John F

    2017-10-01

    The usefulness of mobile technology in supporting smoking cessation has been demonstrated, but little is known about how smartphone apps could best be leveraged. The purpose of this paper is to describe the program of research that led to the creation of a smoking cessation app for non-daily smokers, so as to stimulate further ideas to create "smart" smartphone apps to support health behavior change. Literature reviews to evaluate the appropriateness of the proposed app, content analyses of existing apps, and smoking cessation sessions with non-daily smokers (n = 38) to inform the design of the app. The literature reviews showed that (1) smoking cessation apps are sought after by smokers, (2) positive affect plays an important role in smoking cessation, (3) short, self-administered exercises consistently bring about enduring positive affect enhancements, and (4) low treatment-seeking rates of non-daily smokers despite high motivation to quit indicate a need for novel smoking cessation support. Directed content analyses of existing apps indicated that tailoring, two-way interactions, and proactive features are under-utilized in existing apps, despite the popularity of such features. Conventional content analyses of audio-recorded session tapes suggested that difficulty in quitting was generally linked to specific, readily identifiable occasions, and that social support was considered important but not consistently sought out. The "Smiling Instead of Smoking" (SIS) app is an Android app that is designed to act as a behavioral, in-the-pocket coach to enhance quitting success in non-daily smokers. It provides proactive, tailored behavioral coaching, interactive tools (e.g., enlisting social support), daily positive psychology exercises, and smoking self-monitoring.

  13. Smoking cessation for free: outcomes of a study of three Romanian clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofor, Antigona Carmen; Man, Milena Adina; Marginean, Corina; Dumitru, Filipeanu; Trofor, Letitia

    2016-01-01

    In 2007, Romania implemented a national program for smoking cessation, providing medication and counseling, entirely for free. The present study focuses on the results of the program among participating smokers treated in three smoking cessation centers from three main cities of Romania: Iasi, Targu Mures and Cluj. Telephone interviews of 832 subjects from three databases of the Romanian cessation clinics of Iasi, Cluj and Targu Mures cities were conducted. These interviews were based on a standard Romanian guideline follow-up questionnaire. At 3 months follow up, abstinence was quite high (53.4%); at 12 months post quit date the study found 18.6% still abstinent subjects. More severely addicted smokers have quit with varenicline and the most difficult category of patients was represented by heavy smokers with respiratory co-morbidities. 61.5% of smokers and 97.2% of non-smokers were willing to receive relapse prevention counseling. Many subjects achieved a long duration partial abstinence (154 days ± 180 SD abstinence days). This is the first study in Romanian smoking cessation centers to analyze the long term impact of fully reimbursed smoking cessation, covering three months pharmacotherapy and counseling. Providing smoking cessation for free had a positive long term impact on program participants.

  14. Developing a Smoking Cessation Intervention for Low Income and Minority Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    duPont, Nefertiti C; Mahoney, Martin C; Kahn, Linda S; Vest, Bonnie M; Widman, Christy A; Clark-Hargrave, Nikia S; Erwin, Deborah O

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this qualitative pilot study was to elicit patient and provider feedback on how to develop a smoking cessation program for low income women with cervical dysplasia in an urban Women’s Health Center. Methods A community-based participatory research project incorporating a focus group and structured interviews was utilized to elicit feedback on how to develop a culturally appropriate smoking cessation program appealing to low-income and minority women smokers. Results Qualitative data from 13 patients, 4 nurses, and 6 staff members collected between January 2012-August 2012 described the challenges of finding effective mechanisms for cessation interventions that met the schedules and needs of low income and minority patients. Input from office staff indicated insufficient educational resources to offer patients, limited skills to assist patients and the importance of perceived patient readiness to quit as barriers to creating an effective smoking cessation program. Conclusion Smoking cessation services targeting low-income and minority female smokers can be enhanced by providing clinic staff with patient education materials and smoking cessation training. PMID:28824830

  15. Applying a new theory to smoking cessation: case of multi-theory model (MTM) for health behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Manoj; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Nahar, Vinayak K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Smoking continues to be a public health problem worldwide. Smoking and tobacco use are associated with cardiovascular diseases that include coronary heart disease, atherosclerosis, cerebrovascular disease, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. Programs for quitting smoking have played a significant role in reduction of smoking in the United States. The smoking cessation interventions include counseling, nicotine replacement therapy, buproprion therapy, and varenicline therapy. The success rates with each of these approaches vary with clear need for improvement. Moreover, there is a need for a robust theory that can guide smoking cessation counseling interventions and increase the success rates. A fourth generation approach using multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change is introduced in this article for smoking cessation. An approach for developing and evaluating an intervention for smoking cessation is presented along with a measurement tool. Methods: A literature review reifying the MTM of health behavior change for smoking cessation has been presented. An instrument designed to measure constructs of MTM and associated smoking cessation behavior has been developed. Results: The instrument developed is available for validation, reliability and prediction study pertaining to smoking cessation. The intervention is available for testing in a randomized control trial involving smokers. Conclusion: MTM is a robust theory that holds promise for testing and application to smoking cessation.

  16. The Impact of Smoking Cessation Training-Counseling Programs on Success of Quitting Smoking in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeinab Kazemzadeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The smokers who use supportive programs have a greater chance to quit smoking. Smoking cessation recommendation is one of the most important prevention and treatment methods mentioned in care guidelines provided for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Aim: The main objective of this study is to determine the effects of training-counseling programs on smoking cessation in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Method: In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 51 patients with acute coronary syndrome in Ghaem and Imam Reza hospitals in Mashhad, 2015, after filling the Multinational Monitoring of Trends and Determinants in Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA questionnaire, were categorized into two groups. Intervention group received smoking cessation training-counseling program and control group received some advices/recommendations to quit smoking. After a three-month telephone follow-up, smoking cessation standard questionnaire was filled for all patients. The data were analyzed using SPSS v11.5 and Chi-square test. Results: The age of study participants was 52.6± 7.9 and 56.2±12.3 for intervention and control group, respectively. According to Chi-square test, a significant difference was observed between intervention and control groups in first through fifth stages after the intervention in terms of  succeed to quit smoking (p

  17. Treating Tobacco Dependence in Clinically Depressed Smokers: Effect of Smoking Cessation on Mental Health Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, Judith J.; Hall, Sharon M.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Eisendrath, Stuart; Rossi, Joseph S.; Redding, Colleen A.; Rosen, Amy B.; Meisner, Marc; Humfleet, Gary L.; Gorecki, Julie A.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed data from a randomized trial of 322 actively depressed smokers and examined the effect of smoking cessation on their mental health functioning. Only 1 of 10 measures at 4 follow-up time points was significant: participants who successfully stopped smoking reported less alcohol use than did participants who continued smoking. Depressive symptoms declined significantly over time for participants who stopped smoking and those who continued smoking; there were no group differences. Individuals in treatment for clinical depression can be helped to stop smoking without adversely affecting their mental health functioning. PMID:17600251

  18. Comparing two web-based smoking cessation programs: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, H Garth; Danaher, Brian G; Seeley, John R; Lichtenstein, Edward; Gau, Jeff M

    2008-11-18

    Smoking cessation remains a significant public health problem. Innovative interventions that use the Internet have begun to emerge that offer great promise in reaching large numbers of participants and encouraging widespread behavior change. To date, the relatively few controlled trials of Web-based smoking cessation programs have been limited by short follow-up intervals. We describe the 6-month follow-up results of a randomized controlled trial in which participants recruited online were randomly assigned to either a Web-based smoking cessation program (Quit Smoking Network; QSN) or a Web-based exercise enhancement program (Active Lives) adapted somewhat to encourage smoking cessation. The study was a two-arm randomized controlled trial that compared two Web-based smoking cessation programs: (1) the QSN intervention condition presented cognitive-behavioral strategies, and (2) the Active Lives control condition provided participants with guidance in developing a physical activity program to assist them with quitting. The QSN condition provided smoking cessation information and behavior change strategies while the Active Lives condition provided participants with physical activity recommendations and goal setting. The QSN condition was designed to be more engaging (eg, it included multimedia components) and to present much greater content than is typically found in smoking cessation programs. Contrary to our hypotheses, no between-condition differences in smoking abstinence were found at 3- and 6-month follow-up assessments. While participants in the QSN intervention condition spent more time than controls visiting the online program, the median number of 1.0 visit in each condition and the substantial attrition (60.8% at the 6-month follow-up) indicate that participants were not as engaged as we had expected. Contrary to our hypothesis, our test of two Web-based smoking cessation conditions, an intervention and an attention placebo control, failed to show

  19. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierfino, Diana; Mantzari, Eleni; Hirst, Julie; Jones, Tina; Aveyard, Paul; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Aims Financial incentives were the single most effective intervention for smoking cessation in pregnancy in a recent Cochrane Review, but based on a few small trials in the United States using only 7-day point prevalence measures of cessation. This study estimates (a) prolonged cessation in an unselected population of English pregnant smokers who are offered financial incentives for quitting and (b) ‘gaming’, i.e. false reporting of smoking status to enter the scheme or gain an incentive. Design Single-arm intervention study Setting Antenatal clinic and community Participants A total of 239 pregnant smokers enrolled into the financial incentive scheme, attending for maternity care at one hospital in an area of high deprivation in England over a 42-week period. Measurements Smoking cessation at delivery and 6 months postpartum, assessed using salivary cotinine; gaming assessed using urinary and salivary cotinine at enrolment, 28 and 36 weeks gestation, and 2 days and 6 months postpartum. Findings Thirty-nine per cent (239 of 615) of smokers were enrolled into the scheme, 60% (143 of 239) of whom made a quit attempt. Of those enrolled, 20% [48 of 239; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 14.9%, 25.1%] were quit at delivery and 10% (25 of 239; 95% CI = 6.2%, 13.8%) at 6 months postpartum. There was no evidence that women gamed to enter the scheme, but evidence that 4% (10 of 239) of those enrolled gamed on one or more occasions to gain vouchers. Conclusions Enrolment on an incentive scheme in an unselected English cohort of pregnant smokers was associated with prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials. Rates of gaming were arguably insufficiently high to invalidate the use of such schemes. PMID:25727238

  20. Financial incentives for smoking cessation in pregnancy: a single-arm intervention study assessing cessation and gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ierfino, Diana; Mantzari, Eleni; Hirst, Julie; Jones, Tina; Aveyard, Paul; Marteau, Theresa M

    2015-04-01

    Financial incentives were the single most effective intervention for smoking cessation in pregnancy in a recent Cochrane Review, but based on a few small trials in the United States using only 7-day point prevalence measures of cessation. This study estimates (a) prolonged cessation in an unselected population of English pregnant smokers who are offered financial incentives for quitting and (b) 'gaming', i.e. false reporting of smoking status to enter the scheme or gain an incentive. Single-arm intervention study Antenatal clinic and community A total of 239 pregnant smokers enrolled into the financial incentive scheme, attending for maternity care at one hospital in an area of high deprivation in England over a 42-week period. Smoking cessation at delivery and 6 months postpartum, assessed using salivary cotinine; gaming assessed using urinary and salivary cotinine at enrolment, 28 and 36 weeks gestation, and 2 days and 6 months postpartum. Thirty-nine per cent (239 of 615) of smokers were enrolled into the scheme, 60% (143 of 239) of whom made a quit attempt. Of those enrolled, 20% [48 of 239; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 14.9%, 25.1%] were quit at delivery and 10% (25 of 239; 95% CI = 6.2%, 13.8%) at 6 months postpartum. There was no evidence that women gamed to enter the scheme, but evidence that 4% (10 of 239) of those enrolled gamed on one or more occasions to gain vouchers. Enrolment on an incentive scheme in an unselected English cohort of pregnant smokers was associated with prolonged cessation rates comparable to those reported in US trials. Rates of gaming were arguably insufficiently high to invalidate the use of such schemes. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. The Short-Term Impact of National Smoke-Free Workplace Legislation on Passive Smoking and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heloma, Antero; Jaakkola, Maritta S.; Kähkönen, Erkki; Reijula, Kari

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. This study sought to evaluate the short-term impact of national smoke-free workplace legislation on employee exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work and on employee smoking habits. Methods. We performed 2 cross-sectional studies in 9 medium-sized and large Finnish workplaces, before and after implementation of national smoke-free workplace legislation. We assessed tobacco smoke exposure via questionnaire and indoor air nicotine measurements. Results. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke declined considerably after the legislation was implemented. Tobacco consumption among smokers diminished. Nicotine concentrations fell significantly. Conclusions. Legislation was more efficient than voluntary workplace-specific smoking restrictions in reducing passive smoking and cigarette consumption. (Am J Public Health. 2001;91:1416–1418) PMID:11527773

  2. Impact of tobacco prices and smoke-free policy on smoking cessation, by gender and educational group: Spain, 1993-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regidor, Enrique; Pascual, Cruz; Giráldez-García, Carolina; Galindo, Silvia; Martínez, David; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tobacco prices and the implementation of smoke-free legislation on smoking cessation in Spain, by educational level, across the period 1993-2012. National Health Surveys data for the above two decades were used to calculate smoking cessation in people aged 25-64 years. The

  3. An evaluation study of a gender-specific smoking cessation program to help Hong Kong Chinese women quit smoking.