WorldWideScience

Sample records for workplace design processes

  1. Staging the workplace design process: The role of ergonomists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2005-01-01

    The work practice of ergonomists in workplace-making processes was studied by a socio-technical framework. This resulted in the term 'political reflective navigator' as a conceptualization of the identified work practice and competencies. In order to strengthen the impact of ergonomists it was fo......The work practice of ergonomists in workplace-making processes was studied by a socio-technical framework. This resulted in the term 'political reflective navigator' as a conceptualization of the identified work practice and competencies. In order to strengthen the impact of ergonomists...... it was found that new ways and tools for influencing the workplace-making process are needed. The concept of 'staging the workplace design' is suggested as a new framework for seeing and guiding ergonomists when taking part in design of workplaces....

  2. The OHS consultant as a facilitator of learning in workplace design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Hermund, Ingelise

    2007-01-01

    Occupational health service (OHS) consultancy on workplace design proc-esses in client enterprises is expected also to entail some elements of learn-ing. When the OHS consultant has performed the task the enterprise should have learned something on how to integrate health and safety aspects...... into the workplace design process, thereby making it easier for the enterprise to manage such a change in the future. The objective of this explorative study was to survey current practice of OHS consultants and put forward recom-mendations on how to improve the learning aspects of OHS consultancy. Four cases were...... devices between different communities of practice. Certain boundary objects work better than others in promoting learning and collaborative workplace design processes. For both industry and OHS units it is of importance to properly understand learning models and to align their mutual expectations...

  3. Workplace design: Conceptualizing and measuring workplace characteristics for motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, M.; Michaelides, George

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE – Although both job design and its broader context are likely to drive motivation, little is known about the specific workplace characteristics that are important for motivation. The purpose of this paper is to present the Workplace Characteristics Model, which describes the workplace characteristics that can foster motivation, and the corresponding multilevel Workplace Design Questionnaire.\\ud \\ud DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH – The model is configured as nine workplace attributes desc...

  4. Virtual reality verification of workplace design guidelines for the process plant control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir; Nystad, Espen; Helgar, Stein

    2001-02-01

    Early identification of potential human factors guideline-violations and corrective input into the design process is desired for efficient and cost-effective control room design. Virtual reality (VR) technology makes it possible to perform evaluation of the design of the control room at an early stage of the design process, but can we trust the results from such evaluations? This paper describes an experimental validation of a VR model against the real world in five different guideline verification tasks. Results indicate that guideline verification in the VR model can be done with satisfactory accuracy for a number of evaluations. However, some guideline categories require further development of measurement tools and use of a model with higher resolution than the model used in this study. (Author). 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  5. Integration of eHealth Tools in the Process of Workplace Health Promotion: Proposal for Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) tools can support and improve the whole process of workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. However, several challenges and opportunities have to be considered while integrating these tools in WHP projects. Currently, a large number of eHealth tools are developed for changing health behavior, but these tools can support the whole WHP process, including group administration, information flow, assessment, intervention development process, or evaluation. Objective To support a successful implementation of eHealth tools in the whole WHP processes, we introduce a concept of WHP (life cycle model of WHP) with 7 steps and present critical and success factors for the implementation of eHealth tools in each step. Methods We developed a life cycle model of WHP based on the World Health Organization (WHO) model of healthy workplace continual improvement process. We suggest adaptations to the WHO model to demonstrate the large number of possibilities to implement eHealth tools in WHP as well as possible critical points in the implementation process. Results eHealth tools can enhance the efficiency of WHP in each of the 7 steps of the presented life cycle model of WHP. Specifically, eHealth tools can support by offering easier administration, providing an information and communication platform, supporting assessments, presenting and discussing assessment results in a dashboard, and offering interventions to change individual health behavior. Important success factors include the possibility to give automatic feedback about health parameters, create incentive systems, or bring together a large number of health experts in one place. Critical factors such as data security, anonymity, or lack of management involvement have to be addressed carefully to prevent nonparticipation and dropouts. Conclusions Using eHealth tools can support WHP, but clear regulations for the usage and implementation of these tools at the

  6. Novel ergonomic postural assessment method (NERPA) using product-process computer aided engineering for ergonomic workplace design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method's usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method.

  7. Novel Ergonomic Postural Assessment Method (NERPA) Using Product-Process Computer Aided Engineering for Ergonomic Workplace Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lite, Alberto; Garcia, Manuel; Domingo, Rosario; Angel Sebastian, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) that result from poor ergonomic design are one of the occupational disorders of greatest concern in the industrial sector. A key advantage in the primary design phase is to focus on a method of assessment that detects and evaluates the potential risks experienced by the operative when faced with these types of physical injuries. The method of assessment will improve the process design identifying potential ergonomic improvements from various design alternatives or activities undertaken as part of the cycle of continuous improvement throughout the differing phases of the product life cycle. Methodology/Principal Findings This paper presents a novel postural assessment method (NERPA) fit for product-process design, which was developed with the help of a digital human model together with a 3D CAD tool, which is widely used in the aeronautic and automotive industries. The power of 3D visualization and the possibility of studying the actual assembly sequence in a virtual environment can allow the functional performance of the parts to be addressed. Such tools can also provide us with an ergonomic workstation design, together with a competitive advantage in the assembly process. Conclusions The method developed was used in the design of six production lines, studying 240 manual assembly operations and improving 21 of them. This study demonstrated the proposed method’s usefulness and found statistically significant differences in the evaluations of the proposed method and the widely used Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method. PMID:23977340

  8. Designers as Teachers and Learners: Transferring Workplace Design Practice into Educational Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, B.

    2007-01-01

    The nature of the design process and how to develop this skill in novice designers has been of considerable interest to technology educators. The relationship between workplace and school-based design is one area in which a need for further research has been identified by Hill and Anning (2001, "International Journal of Technology and Design…

  9. Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Nis

    2009-01-01

    Inspiration for most research and optimisations on design processes still seem to focus within the narrow field of the traditional design practise. The focus in this study turns to associated businesses of the design professions in order to learn from their development processes. Through interviews...... and emerging production methods....

  10. Human response to Innovative Workplace Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo

    2004-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Dutch organisations started experimenting with flexible workplaces. Traditional cellular offices and open plan and group offices, which provided a fixed workspace for everyone, were no longer a matter-of-course. With the help of modern information and communication technology,

  11. Workspace Design: A case study applying participatory design principles of healthy workplaces in an industrial setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2010-01-01

    The Danish Workspace Design (WSD) research program is aimed to develop and trial a potential new concept for ergonomists and other workplace consultants who are to engage in socio-technical design processes. The objective of this paper is to report on the trial of the workspace design concept...... in a case involving the design and implementation of a new mixing technology in an industrial plant. The case showed how the WSD concept can contribute to an engineering design process. The WSD team took the role as workspace designer and by the participatory workshops achieved an impact on the technology...... project. In the role as workspace designer it was important for the WSD team to make sure that the achievements in the workshops were “transmitted” to and sustained in the ordinary engineering design process. In this case, it turned out that the artefacts such as a layout game board and documents...

  12. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Fadde

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn’t get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters’ box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures

  13. Instructional Design for Accelerated Macrocognitive Expertise in the Baseball Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadde, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    The goal of accelerating expertise can leave researchers and trainers in human factors, naturalistic decision making, sport science, and expertise studies concerned about seemingly insufficient application of expert performance theories, findings and methods for training macrocognitive aspects of human performance. Video-occlusion methods perfected by sports expertise researchers have great instructional utility, in some cases offering an effective and inexpensive alternative to high-fidelity simulation. A key problem for instructional designers seems to be that expertise research done in laboratory and field settings doesn't get adequately translated into workplace training. Therefore, this article presents a framework for better linkage of expertise research/training across laboratory, field, and workplace settings. It also uses a case study to trace the development and implementation of a macrocognitive training program in the very challenging workplace of the baseball batters' box. This training, which was embedded for a full season in a college baseball team, targeted the perceptual-cognitive skill of pitch recognition that allows expert batters to circumvent limitations of human reaction time in order to hit a 90 mile-per-hour slider. While baseball batting has few analogous skills outside of sports, the instructional design principles of the training program developed to improve batting have wider applicability and implications. Its core operational principle, supported by information processing models but challenged by ecological models, decouples the perception-action link for targeted part-task training of the perception component, in much the same way that motor components routinely are isolated to leverage instructional efficiencies. After targeted perceptual training, perception and action were recoupled via transfer-appropriate tasks inspired by in situ research tasks. Using NCAA published statistics as performance measures, the cooperating team

  14. Building a Case-Based Design Assistant for Workplace Environment Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mallory-Hill, S.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper reports on the early stages of development of a case-based design tool. The purpose of this tool, called the Workplace Environment Design Advisor (WEDA), is to support architects in the conceptual design of workplace environments. The objective of this system is to provide electronic

  15. Workplace design contributions to mental health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jennifer A

    2011-01-01

    People spend much of their waking time in their workplaces (approximately 33% on a weekly basis), which raises the possibility that the conditions they experience at work influence their health and well-being. The workplace design literature has given scant attention to mental health outcomes, instead focusing on healthy populations. Conversely, the mental health literature gives scant attention to the potential contribution of workplace design in preventing mental health problems; nor does it provide much insight into facilitating return to work. Taken together, however, the literature does suggest both lines of research and possible interventions. Existing knowledge proposes that workplace design can influence mental health via the effects of light exposure on circadian regulation, social behaviour and affect; the effects of aesthetic judgement on at-work mood and physical well-being and at-home sleep quality; access to nature and recovery from stressful experiences; and privacy regulation and stimulus control. This paper includes a short review of the literature in this area, proposals for new research directions and consideration of the implications of this information on the design choices made by business owners, designers and facility managers. Providing suitable working conditions for all employees avoids stigmatizing employees who have mental health problems, while facilitating prevention and return to work among those who do. Copyright © 2011 Longwoods Publishing.

  16. Use of workplace evaluations in briefing and design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Haugen, Tore I.; Moum, Anita; Brochner, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Many organizations are engaged in organizational change, adopting new management styles and new ways of working. Innovative workplace design is used to facilitate organizational change, to improve user satisfaction and labour productivity, and to lower facility costs. Although some research has been

  17. Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Meibian; Jian, Le; Bin, Pingfan; Xing, Mingluan; Lou, Jianlin; Cong, Liming; Zou, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process in an automobile manufacturing factory was investigated using a combination of multiple metrics and a comparison with background particles. The number concentration (NC), lung-deposited surface area concentration (SAC), estimated SAC and mass concentration (MC) of nanoparticles produced from the GMAW process were significantly higher than those of background particles before welding (P < 0.01). A bimodal size distribution by mass for welding particles with two peak values (i.e., 10,000–18,000 and 560–320 nm) and a unimodal size distribution by number with 190.7-nm mode size or 154.9-nm geometric size were observed. Nanoparticles by number comprised 60.7 % of particles, whereas nanoparticles by mass only accounted for 18.2 % of the total particles. The morphology of welding particles was dominated by the formation of chain-like agglomerates of primary particles. The metal composition of these welding particles consisted primarily of Fe, Mn, and Zn. The size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of welding particles were significantly different from background particles. Working activities, sampling distances from the source, air velocity, engineering control measures, and background particles in working places had significant influences on concentrations of airborne nanoparticle. In addition, SAC showed a high correlation with NC and a relatively low correlation with MC. These findings indicate that the GMAW process is able to generate significant levels of nanoparticles. It is recommended that a combination of multiple metrics is measured as part of a well-designed sampling strategy for airborne nanoparticles. Key exposure factors, such as particle agglomeration/aggregation, background particles, working activities, temporal and spatial distributions of the particles, air velocity, engineering control measures, should be investigated when measuring workplace

  18. Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Meibian [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Jian, Le [Curtin University of Technology, School of Public Health, Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute (Australia); Bin, Pingfan [Wujin District Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Xing, Mingluan [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China); Lou, Jianlin [Zhejiang Academy of Medical Sciences (China); Cong, Liming; Zou, Hua, E-mail: hzou@cdc.zj.cn [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China)

    2013-11-15

    Workplace exposure to nanoparticles from gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process in an automobile manufacturing factory was investigated using a combination of multiple metrics and a comparison with background particles. The number concentration (NC), lung-deposited surface area concentration (SAC), estimated SAC and mass concentration (MC) of nanoparticles produced from the GMAW process were significantly higher than those of background particles before welding (P < 0.01). A bimodal size distribution by mass for welding particles with two peak values (i.e., 10,000–18,000 and 560–320 nm) and a unimodal size distribution by number with 190.7-nm mode size or 154.9-nm geometric size were observed. Nanoparticles by number comprised 60.7 % of particles, whereas nanoparticles by mass only accounted for 18.2 % of the total particles. The morphology of welding particles was dominated by the formation of chain-like agglomerates of primary particles. The metal composition of these welding particles consisted primarily of Fe, Mn, and Zn. The size distribution, morphology, and elemental compositions of welding particles were significantly different from background particles. Working activities, sampling distances from the source, air velocity, engineering control measures, and background particles in working places had significant influences on concentrations of airborne nanoparticle. In addition, SAC showed a high correlation with NC and a relatively low correlation with MC. These findings indicate that the GMAW process is able to generate significant levels of nanoparticles. It is recommended that a combination of multiple metrics is measured as part of a well-designed sampling strategy for airborne nanoparticles. Key exposure factors, such as particle agglomeration/aggregation, background particles, working activities, temporal and spatial distributions of the particles, air velocity, engineering control measures, should be investigated when measuring workplace

  19. Telemedicine Workplace Environments: Designing for Success

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth A. Krupinski

    2014-01-01

    When designing a facility for telemedicine, there are several things to consider from a human factors point of view, as well as from a practicality point of view. Although the future practice of telemedicine is likely to be more of a mobile-based practice and centered more in the home than it is now, it is still very important to consider ways to optimize the design of clinic-based telemedicine facilities. This is true on both ends of a consultation?where the patient is and where the consulta...

  20. Human Work Interaction Design for Pervasive and Smart Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campos, Pedro F.; Lopes, Arminda; Clemmensen, Torkil

    2014-01-01

    ' experience and outputs? This workshop focuses on answering this question to support professionals, academia, national labs, and industry engaged in human work analysis and interaction design for the workplace. Conversely, tools, procedures, and professional competences for designing human......Pervasive and smart technologies have pushed workplace configuration beyond linear logic and physical boundaries. As a result, workers' experience of and access to technology is increasingly pervasive, and their agency constantly reconfigured. While this in certain areas of work is not new (e.......g., technology mediation and decision support in air traffic control), more recent developments in other domains such as healthcare (e.g., Augmented Reality in Computer Aided Surgery) have raised challenging issues for HCI researchers and practitioners. The question now is: how to improve the quality of workers...

  1. Usability principles to design mobile workplace learning content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Messuti

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the design of a mobile workplace learning tool for trainers of the International Training Centre of the International Labour Organization. The motivation behind is to provide trainers with a practical tool that will enable them to recall information at the moment of need and continue to learn in context. On this purpose a set of visual augmented reality cards was created, taking into consideration the fundamental mobile learning and usability principles. The nature of the article is empirical as it reports an experiment carried out with trainers which aimed at testing cards usability and learnability. Results show that the integration of both online and offline strategies was perceived as an added value as trainers could choose to retrieve information as they mostly like; finally, it also resulted in high usability scores, an aspect that contributes to their effectiveness at the workplace.

  2. Space in Space: Designing for Privacy in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin, Jonie

    2015-01-01

    Privacy is cultural, socially embedded in the spatial, temporal, and material aspects of the lived experience. Definitions of privacy are as varied among scholars as they are among those who fight for their personal rights in the home and the workplace. Privacy in the workplace has become a topic of interest in recent years, as evident in discussions on Big Data as well as the shrinking office spaces in which people work. An article in The New York Times published in February of this year noted that "many companies are looking to cut costs, and one way to do that is by trimming personal space". Increasingly, organizations ranging from tech start-ups to large corporations are downsizing square footage and opting for open-office floorplans hoping to trim the budget and spark creative, productive communication among their employees. The question of how much is too much to trim when it comes to privacy, is one that is being actively addressed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as they explore habitat designs for future space missions. NASA recognizes privacy as a design-related stressor impacting human health and performance. Given the challenges of sustaining life in an isolated, confined, and extreme environment such as Mars, NASA deems it necessary to determine the acceptable minimal amount for habitable volume for activities requiring at least some level of privacy in order to support optimal crew performance. Ethnographic research was conducted in 2013 to explore perceptions of privacy and privacy needs among astronauts living and working in space as part of a long-distance, long-duration mission. The allocation of space, or habitable volume, becomes an increasingly complex issue in outer space due to the costs associated with maintaining an artificial, confined environment bounded by limitations of mass while located in an extreme environment. Privacy in space, or space in space, provides a unique case study of the complex notions of

  3. ECO DESIGN IN DESIGN PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eco-design is a new domain, required by the new trends and existing concerns worldwide, generated by the necessity of adopting new design principles. New design principles require the designer to provide a friendly relationship between concept created, environment and consume. This "friendly" relationship should be valid both at present and in the future, generating new opportunities for product, product components or materials from which it was made. Awareness, by the designer, the importance of this new trend, permits the establishment of concepts that have as their objective the protection of present values and ensuring the legacy of future generations. Ecodesig, by its principles, is involved in the design process, from early stage, the stage of product design. Priority objective of the designers will consist in reducing the negative effects on the environment through the entire life cycle and after it is taken out of use. The main aspects of the eco-design will consider extending product exploitation, make better use of materials, reduction of emission of waste. The design process in the "eco"domein must be started by selecting the function of the concept, materials and technological processes, causing the shape of macro and micro geometric of the product through an analysis that involves optimizing and streamlining the product. This paper presents the design process of a cross-sports footwear concept, built on the basis of the principles of ecodesign

  4. Investigating the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kautz, Karlheinz

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to explore a case of customer and user participation in an agile software development project, which produced a tailor-made information system for workplace support as a step towards a theory of participatory design in agile software development. Design....../methodology/approach – Based on an integrated framework for user participation derived from the participatory design literature the research was performed as a case study and semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with about a third of the development team and with a representative sample of key players...... and with functional and democratic empowerment. The onsite customers played informative, consultative and participative roles. The analysis revealed that planning games, user stories and story cards, working software and acceptance tests structured the customer and user participation. This form of user participation...

  5. Another Look at the Relative Impact of Workplace Design on Training Transfer for Supervisory Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsman, Terron L.; Kupritz, Virginia W.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic study extends the findings of earlier research that authenticated the impact of workplace design features on newly acquired communication skills back on the job. The qualitative nature of the earlier study, however, limited quantitative measurement of workplace design features that may have an impact on learned skills. This study…

  6. Investigating relationship between self- and co-regulatory learning processes in a workplace e-learning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, E.; Tampinongkol, S.; Sedighi, M.; Van den Berg, J.; Veen, W.

    2014-01-01

    While supporting regulatory learning processes in work environments is increasingly becoming important, there is not a clear picture of the interaction between self- and coregulatory processes performed by learners in workplace e-learning systems. In this paper, by following a design-based research

  7. Exploring the Process of Implementing Healthy Workplace Initiatives: Mapping to Kotter's Leading Change Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Stacie; Pescud, Melanie; Waterworth, Pippa; Shilton, Trevor; Roche, Dee; Ledger, Melissa; Slevin, Terry; Rosenberg, Michael

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use Kotter's leading change model to explore the implementation of workplace health and wellbeing initiatives. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 31 workplace representatives with a healthy workplace initiative. None of the workplaces used a formal change management model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives. Not all of the steps in Kotter model were considered necessary and the order of the steps was challenged. For example, interviewees perceived that communicating the vision, developing the vision, and creating a guiding coalition were integral parts of the process, although there was less emphasis on the importance of creating a sense of urgency and consolidating change. Although none of the workplaces reported using a formal organizational change model when implementing their healthy workplace initiatives, there did appear to be perceived merit in using the steps in Kotter's model.

  8. Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall-Andersen, Lene Bjerg

    Integrating ergonomic knowledge into engineering design processes has been shown to contribute to healthy and effective designs of workplaces. However, it is also well-recognized that, in practice, ergonomists often have difficulties gaining access to and impacting engineering design processes...... employed in the same company, constituted a supporting factor for the possibilities to integrate ergonomic knowledge into the engineering design processes. However, the integration activities remained discrete and only happened in some of the design projects. A major barrier was related to the business...... to the ergonomic ambitions of the clients. The ergonomists’ ability to navigate, act strategically, and compromise on ergonomic inputs is also important in relation to having an impact in the engineering design processes. Familiarity with the engineering design terminology and the setup of design projects seems...

  9. Rethinking the Eurocentric Library Workplace: A Multi-faceted Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Linda C.; Knowles, Em Claire

    1996-01-01

    Defining and expanding diversity in the workplace may involve reassessment of the dominant workplace culture in libraries, in order to foster better understanding and more effective management, retention, and promotion of librarians of color. Highlights include a selected bibliography and a survey instrument that analyzes the dominant culture of a…

  10. The Critical Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    within Danish tradition of architecture and construction. The objective of the research presented in this paper, is to compare the different design processes behind the making of passive houses in a Danish context. We evaluated the process with regard to the integrated and traditional design process....... Data analysis showed that the majority of the consortiums worked in an integrated manner; though there was room for improvment. Additionally, the paper discusses the challanges of implementing the integrated design process in practice and suggests ways of overcomming some of the barriers . In doing so...

  11. Designing equitable workplace dietary interventions: perceptions of intervention deliverers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sarah A; Visram, Shelina; O'Malley, Claire; Summerbell, Carolyn; Araujo-Soares, Vera; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Lake, Amelia A

    2017-10-16

    Workplaces are a good setting for interventions that aim to support workers in achieving a healthier diet and body weight. However, little is known about the factors that impact on the feasibility and implementation of these interventions, and how these might vary by type of workplace and type of worker. The aim of this study was to explore the views of those involved in commissioning and delivering the Better Health at Work Award, an established and evidence-based workplace health improvement programme. One-to-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 individuals in North East England who had some level of responsibility for delivering workplace dietary interventions. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic framework analysis. A number of factors were felt to promote the feasibility and implementation of interventions. These included interventions that were cost-neutral (to employee and employer), unstructured, involved colleagues for support, took place at lunchtimes, and were well-advertised and communicated via a variety of media. Offering incentives, not necessarily monetary, was perceived to increase recruitment rates. Factors that militate against feasibility and implementation of interventions included worksites that were large in size and remote, working patterns including shifts and working outside of normal working hours that were not conducive to workers being able to access intervention sessions, workplaces without appropriate provision for healthy food on site, and a lack of support from management. Intervention deliverers perceived that workplace dietary interventions should be equally and easily accessible (in terms of cost and timing of sessions) for all staff, regardless of their job role. Additional effort should be taken to ensure those staff working outside normal working hours, and those working off-site, can easily engage with any intervention, to avoid the risk of intervention-generated inequalities (IGIs).

  12. Design principles for data- and change-oriented organisational analysis in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inauen, A; Jenny, G J; Bauer, G F

    2012-06-01

    This article focuses on organizational analysis in workplace health promotion (WHP) projects. It shows how this analysis can be designed such that it provides rational data relevant to the further context-specific and goal-oriented planning of WHP and equally supports individual and organizational change processes implied by WHP. Design principles for organizational analysis were developed on the basis of a narrative review of the guiding principles of WHP interventions and organizational change as well as the scientific principles of data collection. Further, the practical experience of WHP consultants who routinely conduct organizational analysis was considered. This resulted in a framework with data-oriented and change-oriented design principles, addressing the following elements of organizational analysis in WHP: planning the overall procedure, data content, data-collection methods and information processing. Overall, the data-oriented design principles aim to produce valid, reliable and representative data, whereas the change-oriented design principles aim to promote motivation, coherence and a capacity for self-analysis. We expect that the simultaneous consideration of data- and change-oriented design principles for organizational analysis will strongly support the WHP process. We finally illustrate the applicability of the design principles to health promotion within a WHP case study.

  13. Workplace violence against nurses in the Gambia: mixed methods design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisawo, Ebrima J; Ouédraogo, Saide Yacine Y Arsène; Huang, Song-Lih

    2017-04-28

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, perpetrators and factors associated with workplace violence against nurses in public secondary health care facilities from two health regions in the Gambia. Data was collected from 219 nurses using self-administered questionnaire and 35 face-to-face interviews. The data collection was conducted between July and September 2014 in 14 public secondary health care facilities. A sizable majority of respondents (62.1%) reported exposure to violence in the 12 months prior to the survey; exposure to verbal abuse, physical violence, and sexual harassment was 59.8%, 17.2%, and 10% respectively. The perpetrators were mostly patients' escorts/relatives followed by patients themselves. Perceived reasons of workplace violence were mainly attributed to nurse-client disagreement, understaffing, shortage of drugs and supplies, security vacuum, and lack of management attention to workplace violence. Nurses in the Gambia are at a relatively high risk of violent incidents at work. Policies and strategies that are sensitive to local circumstances and needs should be developed for the prevention of workplace violence.

  14. Improving the Design of Workplace E-Learning Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Cathy; Long, Lori

    2012-01-01

    E-learning researchers face considerable challenges in creating meaningful and generalizable studies due to the complex nature of this dynamic training medium. Our experience in conducting workplace e-learning research led us to create this guide for planning research on e-learning. We share the unanticipated complications we encountered in our…

  15. An Integrated Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2010-01-01

    Present paper is placed in the discussion about how sustainable measures are integrated in the design process by architectural offices. It presents results from interviews with four leading Danish architectural offices working with sustainable architecture and their experiences with it, as well...... as the requirements they meet in terms of how to approach the design process – especially focused on the early stages like a competition. The interviews focus on their experiences with working in multidisciplinary teams and using digital tools to support their work with sustainable issues. The interviews show...... the environmental measures cannot be discarded due to extra costs....

  16. Process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise to reduce musculoskeletal disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L.; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2014-01-01

    were too much, and 29% would rather have trained a completely different kind of exercise. In conclusion, resistance training at the workplace is generally well received among office workers with neck-shoulder pain, but a one-size-fits-all approach is not feasible for all employees......Process evaluation is important to explain success or failure of workplace interventions. This study performs a summative process evaluation of workplace interventions with physical exercise. As part of a randomized controlled trial 132 office workers with neck and shoulder pain were to participate...... in 10 weeks of elastic resistance training five times a week at the workplace; the 2 min group performed a single set of lateral raise to failure, and the 12 min group performed 5-6 sets with 8–12 repetitions. Participants received a single instructional session together with a training diary and manual...

  17. Ergonomics in Design Processes: The journey from Ergonomist toward Workspace Designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim, Rikke; Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    in workplace design processes in companies. The basic idea in Workspace Design was that ergonomists should take a new role and apply new participatory methods when involved as consultants. The course of the project was evaluated by the application of social learning theory. The goal was to find out if and why...

  18. Developing 21st Century Process Skills through Project Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; MacDonald, Nora M.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to illustrate how the promotion of 21st Century process skills can be used to enhance student learning and workplace skill development: thinking, problem solving, collaboration, communication, leadership, and management. As an illustrative case, fashion merchandising and design students conducted research for a…

  19. Whose context is it anyway? Workplace e-learning as a synthesis of designer- and learner-generated contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Whitworth, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the consequences for workplace e-learning of viewing organisations as political systems. Organisations tend to stratify, and potential conflicts develop between ???top-down???, or designer-generation of workplace systems, and ???bottom-up???, or learner- and practice-based approaches. The differences between these groups in terms of their objectives, procedures, tacit knowledge and conceptions of the value of workplace e-learning have led to conflicts which have damaged r...

  20. The Role of Work-home Interference and Workplace Learning in the Energy-depletion Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruysseveldt, Joris; Proost, Karin; Verboon, Peter

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested a work stress model which incorporates both an energydepletion and a workplace learning process. In the energy-depletion process, workhome interference was assumed to mediate the relationship between job demands (workload, emotional demands) and psychological fatigue. In

  1. Workplace health understandings and processes in small businesses: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachen, Ellen; Kosny, Agnieszka; Scott-Dixon, Krista; Facey, Marcia; Chambers, Lori; Breslin, Curtis; Kyle, Natasha; Irvin, Emma; Mahood, Quenby

    2010-06-01

    Small businesses (SBs) play an important role in global economies, employ half of all workers, and pose distinct workplace health problems. This systematic review of qualitative peer-reviewed literature was carried out to identify and synthesize research findings about how SB workplace parties understand and enact processes related to occupational health and safety (OHS). The review was conducted as part of a larger mixed-method review and in consultation with stakeholders. A comprehensive literature search identified 5067 studies. After screening for relevance, 20 qualitative articles were identified. Quality assessment led to 14 articles of sufficient quality to be included in the meta-ethnographic findings synthesis. This review finds that SBs have distinctive social relations of work, apprehensions of workplace risk, and legislative requirements. Eight themes were identified that consolidate knowledge on how SB workplace parties understand OHS hazards, how they manage risk and health problems, and how broader structures, policies and systems shape the practice of workplace health in SBs. The themes contribute to 'layers of evidence' that address SB work and health phenomena at the micro (e.g. employer or worker behavior), meso (e.g. organizational dynamics) and macro (e.g. state policy) levels. This synthesis details the unique qualities and conditions of SBs that merit particular attention from planners and occupational health policy makers. In particular, the informal workplace social relations can limit workers' and employers' apprehension of risk, and policy and complex contractual conditions in which SBs are often engaged (such as chains of subcontracting) can complicate occupational health responsibilities. This review questions the utility of SB exemptions from OHS regulations and suggests a legislative focus on the particular needs of SBs. It considers ways that workers might activate their own workplace health concerns, and suggests that more

  2. Studying the influence of workplace design on productivity of bank clerks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abolfazl Zakerian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Workplace design is one of the factors that can influence comfort, performance, productivity and the health status of employees. The effects of this factor on human’s productivity and performance are studied in the domain of ergonomics. The impact of workplace design on workers’ productivity and performance can be determined by investigation of the quality of the design. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of workplace design on productivity of the bank clerks. Material and Method: Samples in this cross-sectional study were comprised of 150 employees of 22 different branches of a bank in Tehran city. Data collection tools included demographic questionnaire and a questionnaire related to the effects of workplace design on employees’ productivity, developed by Hameed and colleagues. Correlation and regression statistical tests were used in order to analyze data. Result: According to the results, the mean (±SD for age and job tenure of participants were 37.2(±6 and 13(±7 years, respectively. Of the surveyed demographic features, a significant relationship was observed between age and scores belonging to the temperature and furniture (P-value<0.05. In addition, there was a significant association between employees’ productivity and the noise (P-value=0.044 and spatial arrangement of environment (P-value=0.048. Conclusion: Overall, appropriate and high quality design of work environment can improve productivity of bank clerks. In other words, employees’ productivity can be enhanced by comfortable and ergonomic design of working environment and also by considering their needs.

  3. NASA Collaborative Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Davey

    2017-01-01

    This is Block 1, the first evolution of the world's most powerful and versatile rocket, the Space Launch System, built to return humans to the area around the moon. Eventually, larger and even more powerful and capable configurations will take astronauts and cargo to Mars. On the sides of the rocket are the twin solid rocket boosters that provide more than 75 percent during liftoff and burn for about two minutes, after which they are jettisoned, lightening the load for the rest of the space flight. Four RS-25 main engines provide thrust for the first stage of the rocket. These are the world's most reliable rocket engines. The core stage is the main body of the rocket and houses the fuel for the RS-25 engines, liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen, and the avionics, or "brain" of the rocket. The core stage is all new and being manufactured at NASA's "rocket factory," Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans. The Launch Vehicle Stage Adapter, or LVSA, connects the core stage to the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage. The Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage, or ICPS, uses one RL-10 rocket engine and will propel the Orion spacecraft on its deep-space journey after first-stage separation. Finally, the Orion human-rated spacecraft sits atop the massive Saturn V-sized launch vehicle. Managed out of Johnson Space Center in Houston, Orion is the first spacecraft in history capable of taking humans to multiple destinations within deep space. 2) Each element of the SLS utilizes collaborative design processes to achieve the incredible goal of sending human into deep space. Early phases are focused on feasibility and requirements development. Later phases are focused on detailed design, testing, and operations. There are 4 basic phases typically found in each phase of development.

  4. Students' learning processes during school-based learning and workplace learning in vocational education : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Harmen Schaap; Dr. Liesbeth Baartman; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews 24 articles in order to get a structured view on student's learning processes when dealing with a combination of school-based learning and workplace learning in vocational education. It focuses on six main themes: students' expertise development, students' learning styles,

  5. Workplace Basic Skills in the Metal Casting Industry for World Class Process and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Bonnie

    A workplace basic skills project for the metal casting industry was established jointly by Central Alabama Community College and Robinson Foundry, Inc. Evaluation of the project was made through a commercial test of hourly workers' general literacy level gains, instructor-developed pre- and posttests of mastery of the industrial process and…

  6. Barriers to and facilitators of implementing complex workplace dietary interventions: process evaluation results of a cluster controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; McHugh, Sheena; Perry, Ivan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambiguity exists regarding the effectiveness of workplace dietary interventions. Rigorous process evaluation is vital to understand this uncertainty. This study was conducted as part of the Food Choice at Work trial which assessed the comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention both alone and in combination versus a control workplace. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of employees? dietary intakes, nutri...

  7. Team Sport in the Workplace? A RE-AIM Process Evaluation of ‘Changing the Game’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Brinkley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG. This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the participants in the intervention group prior to, during and at the end of the intervention using interviews (n = 12, a focus group (n = 5, and questionnaires (n = 17. Organisational documentation was collected, and a research diary was recorded by the lead author. The evidence collected was triangulated to examine the reach, efficacy, adoption, implementation and maintenance of the programme. Data was assessed through template analysis, and questionnaire data were analysed using multiple regression and a series of univariate ANOVAs. Results: CTG improved VO2 Max, interpersonal communication, and physical activity behaviour (efficacy over 12-weeks. This may be attributed to the supportive approach adopted within the design and delivery of the programme (implementation. Individual and organisational factors challenged the adoption and maintenance of the intervention. The recruitment and communication strategy limited the number of employees the programme could reach. Conclusion: The process evaluation suggests addressing the culture within workplaces may better support the reach, adoption and maintenance of workplace team sport programmes. Future research should consider investigating and applying these findings across a range of industries and sectors.

  8. Healthy and productive workers: using intervention mapping to design a workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Ammendolia

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presenteeism is a growing problem in developed countries mostly due to an aging workforce. The economic costs related to presenteeism exceed those of absenteeism and employer health costs. Employers are implementing workplace health promotion and wellness programs to improve health among workers and reduce presenteeism. How best to design, integrate and deliver these programs are unknown. The main purpose of this study was to use an intervention mapping approach to develop a workplace health promotion and wellness program aimed at reducing presenteeism. Methods We partnered with a large international financial services company and used a qualitative synthesis based on an intervention mapping methodology. Evidence from systematic reviews and key articles on reducing presenteeism and implementing health promotion programs was combined with theoretical models for changing behavior and stakeholder experience. This was then systematically operationalized into a program using discussion groups and consensus among experts and stakeholders. Results The top health problem impacting our workplace partner was mental health. Depression and stress were the first and second highest cause of productivity loss respectively. A multi-pronged program with detailed action steps was developed and directed at key stakeholders and health conditions. For mental health, regular sharing focus groups, social networking, monthly personal stories from leadership using webinars and multi-media communications, expert-led workshops, lunch and learn sessions and manager and employee training were part of a comprehensive program. Comprehensive, specific and multi-pronged strategies were developed and aimed at encouraging healthy behaviours that impact presenteeism such as regular exercise, proper nutrition, adequate sleep, smoking cessation, socialization and work-life balance. Limitations of the intervention mapping process included high resource and time

  9. Healthy and productive workers: using intervention mapping to design a workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendolia, Carlo; Côté, Pierre; Cancelliere, Carol; Cassidy, J David; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor; Soklaridis, Sophie; Stern, Paula; Amick, Benjamin

    2016-11-25

    Presenteeism is a growing problem in developed countries mostly due to an aging workforce. The economic costs related to presenteeism exceed those of absenteeism and employer health costs. Employers are implementing workplace health promotion and wellness programs to improve health among workers and reduce presenteeism. How best to design, integrate and deliver these programs are unknown. The main purpose of this study was to use an intervention mapping approach to develop a workplace health promotion and wellness program aimed at reducing presenteeism. We partnered with a large international financial services company and used a qualitative synthesis based on an intervention mapping methodology. Evidence from systematic reviews and key articles on reducing presenteeism and implementing health promotion programs was combined with theoretical models for changing behavior and stakeholder experience. This was then systematically operationalized into a program using discussion groups and consensus among experts and stakeholders. The top health problem impacting our workplace partner was mental health. Depression and stress were the first and second highest cause of productivity loss respectively. A multi-pronged program with detailed action steps was developed and directed at key stakeholders and health conditions. For mental health, regular sharing focus groups, social networking, monthly personal stories from leadership using webinars and multi-media communications, expert-led workshops, lunch and learn sessions and manager and employee training were part of a comprehensive program. Comprehensive, specific and multi-pronged strategies were developed and aimed at encouraging healthy behaviours that impact presenteeism such as regular exercise, proper nutrition, adequate sleep, smoking cessation, socialization and work-life balance. Limitations of the intervention mapping process included high resource and time requirements, the lack of external input and viewpoints

  10. Development, implementation and evaluation of a process to prevent and combat workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandmark, Margaretha; Rahm, Gullbritt

    2014-11-01

    Our objective was to develop and implement an intervention program in collaboration with workplace personnel, to evaluate the process as a vehicle to prevent and combat bullying. The project emanates from a community-based participatory approach. We obtained data from individual and focus group interviews. We used grounded theory methodology, and made a comparative analysis before and after the intervention. Focus group interviews at the three first meetings indicated that those best positioned to prevent and combat bullying were the immediate supervisors, in collaboration with co-workers and upper management. The goal of zero tolerance toward bullying can be achieved if all concerned work together, using a humanistic value system, an open workplace atmosphere, group collaboration and conflict resolution. We developed an intervention, including lecturers and reflection groups, which ultimately resulted in an action plan. Focus group interviews at the fourth meeting, after the implementation, showed that employees were then more aware of bullying problems; the atmosphere at the workplace improved; the collaboration between and within the group was stronger; and the supervisor worked continuously to prevent and combat bullying, using the humanistic values suggested. We propose additional systematic work to implement our action plan and a conflict resolution system. The anti-bullying program implementation in the workplace achieved some success, but the intervention process is ongoing. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  11. Workplace Bullying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Akella

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on workplace bullying has narrowed its subjective boundaries by drawing heavily from psychological and social-psychological perspectives. However, workplace bullying can also be understood as an endemic feature of capitalist employment relationship. Labor process theory with its core characteristics of power, control, and exploitation of labor can effectively open and allow further exploration of workplace bullying issues. This article aims to make a contribution by examining workplace bullying from the historical and political contexts of society to conceptualize it as a control tool to sustain the capitalist exploitative regime with empirical support from an ethnographic case study within the health care sector.

  12. Conceptual Frameworks for the Workplace Change Adoption Process: Elements Integration from Decision Making and Learning Cycle Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin Umar, Radin Zaid; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Lavender, Steve A; Sanders, Elizabeth; Evans, Kevin D

    2018-05-14

    Sound workplace ergonomics and safety-related interventions may be resisted by employees, and this may be detrimental to multiple stakeholders. Understanding fundamental aspects of decision making, behavioral change, and learning cycles may provide insights into pathways influencing employees' acceptance of interventions. This manuscript reviews published literature on thinking processes and other topics relevant to decision making and incorporates the findings into two new conceptual frameworks of the workplace change adoption process. Such frameworks are useful for thinking about adoption in different ways and testing changes to traditional intervention implementation processes. Moving forward, it is recommended that future research focuses on systematic exploration of implementation process activities that integrate principles from the research literature on sensemaking, decision making, and learning processes. Such exploration may provide the groundwork for development of specific implementation strategies that are theoretically grounded and provide a revised understanding of how successful intervention adoption processes work.

  13. Does Implementation Follow Design? A Case Study of a Workplace Health Promotion Program Using the 4-S Program Design and the PIPE Impact Metric Evaluation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äikäs, Antti Hermanni; Pronk, Nicolaas P; Hirvensalo, Mirja Hannele; Absetz, Pilvikki

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the content of a multiyear market-based workplace health promotion (WHP) program and to evaluate design and implementation processes in a real-world setting. Data was collected from the databases of the employer and the service provider. It was classified using the 4-S (Size, Scope, Scalability, and Sustainability) and PIPE Impact Metric (Penetration, Implementation) models. Data analysis utilized both qualitative and quantitative methods. Program design covered well the evidence-informed best practices except for clear path toward sustainability, cooperation with occupational health care, and support from middle-management supervisors. The penetration rate among participants was high (99%) and majority (81%) of services were implemented as designed. Study findings indicate that WHP market would benefit the use of evidence-based design principles and tendentious decisions to anticipate a long-term implementation process already during the planning phase.

  14. Taking the stairs instead: The impact of workplace design standards on health promotion strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Tye

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground Comprehensive health promotion in Western Australia has been conducted from the point of views of policy development, promotion, education and service delivery. Much of this recent work has been focused on supporting workplaces – but there has yet to be any real focus on the design of the actual physical workplace environment from a health promotion perspective. Aims This paper is aimed at highlighting the gap in health promotion knowledge by addressing how the disciplines of architecture and health promotion can work together to challenge the regulations that dictate design practice and ultimately bridge that gap for long-term change. The overarching aim is to undertake further evidenced-based research that will inform best practice in the planning and design of workplaces to reduce sedentary behaviour and increase opportunities for physical activity. Method Within this wide objective this paper focuses in particular on the idea of stairs-versus-lift movement strategies within office buildings. By examining building design guidelines from a health promotion perspective we expose a central dichotomy, where health promotion posters say “Take the stairs instead” whereas the language of building design suggests that the lift is best. Results From a design point of view, the National Codes of Construction (NCC, formally known as the Building Codes of Australia (BCA, the essential technical regulation for all building design and construction, primarily addresses the concepts of ‘egress’ and ‘travel distance’ for escape in the event of fire, and building access in terms of universal access. Additionally, The Property Council of Australia’s Guide to Office Building Quality prioritises lift performance criteria along with the quality and experience of lift use as a major grading factor. There is no provision in either set of standards for staircase quality and experience. Conclusion The stairs, despite being promoted

  15. Designing a workplace return-to-work program for occupational low back pain: an intervention mapping approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammendolia Carlo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite over 2 decades of research, the ability to prevent work-related low back pain (LBP and disability remains elusive. Recent research suggests that interventions that are focused at the workplace and incorporate the principals of participatory ergonomics and return-to-work (RTW coordination can improve RTW and reduce disability following a work-related back injury. Workplace interventions or programs to improve RTW are difficult to design and implement given the various individuals and environments involved, each with their own unique circumstances. Intervention mapping provides a framework for designing and implementing complex interventions or programs. The objective of this study is to design a best evidence RTW program for occupational LBP tailored to the Ontario setting using an intervention mapping approach. Methods We used a qualitative synthesis based on the intervention mapping methodology. Best evidence from systematic reviews, practice guidelines and key articles on the prognosis and management of LBP and improving RTW was combined with theoretical models for managing LBP and changing behaviour. This was then systematically operationalized into a RTW program using consensus among experts and stakeholders. The RTW Program was further refined following feedback from nine focus groups with various stakeholders. Results A detailed five step RTW program was developed. The key features of the program include; having trained personnel coordinate the RTW process, identifying and ranking barriers and solutions to RTW from the perspective of all important stakeholders, mediating practical solutions at the workplace and, empowering the injured worker in RTW decision-making. Conclusion Intervention mapping provided a useful framework to develop a comprehensive RTW program tailored to the Ontario setting.

  16. Designing a workplace return-to-work program for occupational low back pain: an intervention mapping approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammendolia, Carlo; Cassidy, David; Steensta, Ivan; Soklaridis, Sophie; Boyle, Eleanor; Eng, Stephanie; Howard, Hamer; Bhupinder, Bains; Côté, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background Despite over 2 decades of research, the ability to prevent work-related low back pain (LBP) and disability remains elusive. Recent research suggests that interventions that are focused at the workplace and incorporate the principals of participatory ergonomics and return-to-work (RTW) coordination can improve RTW and reduce disability following a work-related back injury. Workplace interventions or programs to improve RTW are difficult to design and implement given the various individuals and environments involved, each with their own unique circumstances. Intervention mapping provides a framework for designing and implementing complex interventions or programs. The objective of this study is to design a best evidence RTW program for occupational LBP tailored to the Ontario setting using an intervention mapping approach. Methods We used a qualitative synthesis based on the intervention mapping methodology. Best evidence from systematic reviews, practice guidelines and key articles on the prognosis and management of LBP and improving RTW was combined with theoretical models for managing LBP and changing behaviour. This was then systematically operationalized into a RTW program using consensus among experts and stakeholders. The RTW Program was further refined following feedback from nine focus groups with various stakeholders. Results A detailed five step RTW program was developed. The key features of the program include; having trained personnel coordinate the RTW process, identifying and ranking barriers and solutions to RTW from the perspective of all important stakeholders, mediating practical solutions at the workplace and, empowering the injured worker in RTW decision-making. Conclusion Intervention mapping provided a useful framework to develop a comprehensive RTW program tailored to the Ontario setting. PMID:19508728

  17. Decoding designers' inspiration process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonçalves, M.

    2016-01-01

    Every great invention, innovative design or visionary art piece ever created started in the same way: with a blank canvas. However, you never begin a new project with a completely clean slate: besides memories, past experiences and general knowledge, all of us are constantly surrounded by

  18. Process design and redesign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijers, H.A.; Dumas, M.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Hofstede, ter A.H.M.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter aims to provide concrete guidance in redesigning business processes. Two alternative methods are described, both of them suitable to boost business performance. The first one is based on a collection of best practices, as applied in various redesign projects. These best practices all

  19. Universal design of workplaces through the use of Poka-Yokes: Case study and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristóbal Miralles

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Employment plays an important part in many people’s lives beyond merely providing income, since continued participation in work can have many therapeutic benefits for workers defined as disabled. However, disabled workers face a range of barriers to employment, despite legislation intended to improve workplace accessibility emphasizing adaptations to the workplace, which many employers often find difficult and expensive. The Poka-Yoke approach was developed in the manufacturing industry as a way of improving productivity by reducing errors using often very simple adaptations. This paper argues that, as Poka-Yokes are designed to make life easier and improve the performance of workers without impairments, they are closer to the philosophy of Universal Design than to Accessible Design, and offer an easy and inclusive way of making work more accessible for all kind of workers. Design/methodology/approach: This paper provides a case study demonstrating the use of the Poka-Yoke approach in a sheltered work centre for disabled; highlighting how they served to improve accessibility to work by fulfilling Universal Design principles. Findings: Our research allows us to demonstrate the great potential of Poka-yokes for gaining accessibility to the workplace. The real application of this approach, both in sheltered work centres and ordinary companies, can contribute to improve the high unemployment rates of disabled people. Research limitations/implications: The proposal is innovative and was applied in one specific company. Thus, a range of customized Poka-yokes would be desirable for different industrial sectors. Practical implications: Managers of sheltered work centres, and also of ordinary companies, can realize about the great potential of Poka-Yokes as an easy means of gaining flexibility and accessibility. Originality/value: There are very few papers relating lean manufacturing tools and disability. Our approach analyzes the benefits of

  20. Workplace Flexibility and Daily Stress Processes in Hotel Employees and their Children

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, David M.; Davis, Kelly D.

    2011-01-01

    Our research aims to understand the consequences of inadequate workplace flexibility through the lens of daily stress processes. Using a sample of hourly hotel employees with children aged 10 to 18 who participated in a daily diary study, we compared workers with low and high flexibility on stressor exposure, reactivity, and transmission. Our findings showed a consistent pattern of hourly workers with low flexibility having greater exposure to work stressors in general and to work place argum...

  1. Teaching Process Design through Integrated Process Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Matthew J.; Glasser, Benjamin J.; Patel, Bilal; Hildebrandt, Diane; Glasser, David

    2012-01-01

    The design course is an integral part of chemical engineering education. A novel approach to the design course was recently introduced at the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The course aimed to introduce students to systematic tools and techniques for setting and evaluating performance targets for processes, as well as…

  2. Reengineering the Project Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casani, E.; Metzger, R.

    1994-01-01

    In response to NASA's goal of working faster, better and cheaper, JPL has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center and the Flight System Testbed. Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of its design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and cost estimating.

  3. Materials in Participatory Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen

    This dissertation presents three years of academic inquiry into the question of what role materials play in interaction design and participatory design processes. The dissertation aims at developing conceptual tools, based on Deweys pragmatism, for understanding how materials aid design reflection....... It has been developed using a research-through-design approach in which the author has conducted practical design work in order to investigate and experiment with using materials to scaffold design inquiry. The results of the PhD work is submitted as seven separate papers, submitted to esteemed journals...... and conferences within the field of interaction design and HCI. The work is motivated both by the growing interest in materials in interaction design and HCI and the interest in design processes and collaboration within those fields. At the core of the dissertation lies an interest in the many different materials...

  4. Workplace Flexibility and Daily Stress Processes in Hotel Employees and their Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, David M; Davis, Kelly D

    2011-11-01

    Our research aims to understand the consequences of inadequate workplace flexibility through the lens of daily stress processes. Using a sample of hourly hotel employees with children aged 10 to 18 who participated in a daily diary study, we compared workers with low and high flexibility on stressor exposure, reactivity, and transmission. Our findings showed a consistent pattern of hourly workers with low flexibility having greater exposure to work stressors in general and to work place arguments in particular. Workers with low flexibility were also more emotional and physically reactive to work stressors. There was some evidence of stressor transmission to children when parents had low flexibility. Increasing workplace flexibility could serve as a protective factor in exposure and reactivity to stressors that are experienced in daily life.

  5. Barriers to and facilitators of implementing complex workplace dietary interventions: process evaluation results of a cluster controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Sarah; Geaney, Fiona; Kelly, Clare; McHugh, Sheena; Perry, Ivan J

    2016-04-21

    Ambiguity exists regarding the effectiveness of workplace dietary interventions. Rigorous process evaluation is vital to understand this uncertainty. This study was conducted as part of the Food Choice at Work trial which assessed the comparative effectiveness of a workplace environmental dietary modification intervention and an educational intervention both alone and in combination versus a control workplace. Effectiveness was assessed in terms of employees' dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and health status in four large manufacturing workplaces. The study aimed to examine barriers to and facilitators of implementing complex workplace interventions, from the perspectives of key workplace stakeholders and researchers involved in implementation. A detailed process evaluation monitored and evaluated intervention implementation. Interviews were conducted at baseline (27 interviews) and at 7-9 month follow-up (27 interviews) with a purposive sample of workplace stakeholders (managers and participating employees). Topic guides explored factors which facilitated or impeded implementation. Researchers involved in recruitment and data collection participated in focus groups at baseline and at 7-9 month follow-up to explore their perceptions of intervention implementation. Data were imported into NVivo software and analysed using a thematic framework approach. Four major themes emerged; perceived benefits of participation, negotiation and flexibility of the implementation team, viability and intensity of interventions and workplace structures and cultures. The latter three themes either positively or negatively affected implementation, depending on context. The implementation team included managers involved in coordinating and delivering the interventions and the researchers who collected data and delivered intervention elements. Stakeholders' perceptions of the benefits of participating, which facilitated implementation, included managers' desire to improve company

  6. Process design (exterior – interior design)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandeva, Vaska; Despot, Katerina

    2013-01-01

    The design is a complex process of spatial organization and creative problem object. It switched to the study of complex natural conditions (analysis and evaluation) and the development of compositional solution structure of the object. Construction and shaping of all buildings whether it is exterior or interior, be it street, Square apartment building, park or greater forest massif, public facility (administrative buildings, hospitals, schools, galleries etc.), residential object (garsion...

  7. Documenting the Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollers, Brent

    2017-01-01

    Documentation of ideas and the engineering design process is a critical, daily component of a professional engineer's job. While patent protection is often cited as the primary rationale for documentation, it can also benefit the engineer, the team, company, and stakeholders through creating a more rigorously designed and purposeful solution.…

  8. Design of object processing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grigoras, D.R.; Hoede, C.

    Object processing systems are met rather often in every day life, in industry, tourism, commerce, etc. When designing such a system, many problems can be posed and considered, depending on the scope and purpose of design. We give here a general approach which involves graph theory, and which can

  9. Team Sport in the Workplace? A RE-AIM Process Evaluation of ‘Changing the Game’

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew Brinkley; Hilary McDermot; Fehmidah Munir

    2017-01-01

    Background: The workplace is a priority setting to promote health. Team sports can be an effective way to promote both physical and social health. This study evaluated the potential enablers and barriers for outcomes of a workplace team sports intervention programme‘Changing the Game’ (CTG). This study was conducted in a FTSE 100 services organisation. This process evaluation was conducted using the RE-AIM framework. Methods: A mixed methods approach was used. Data were collected from the par...

  10. Empowering Workplace Students: A Practitioner's Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Richard

    For the past 4 years, Alpena Community College, in Michigan, has participated in the Workplace Partnership Project (WPP), a federally funded grant program designed to provide literacy skills to individuals currently employed but lacking the background to keep pace with the changes of the modern workplace. The process for establishing classes at a…

  11. Design of plutonium processing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbyshire, W.; Sills, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Five considerations for the design of plutonium processing facilities are identified. These are: Toxicity, Radiation, Criticality, Containment and Remote Operation. They are examined with reference to reprocessing spent nuclear fuel and application is detailed both for liquid and dry processes. (author)

  12. Workplace building design and office-based workers' activity: a study of a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancey, Jonine M; McGann, Sarah; Creagh, Robyn; Blackford, Krysten D; Howat, Peter; Tye, Marian

    2016-02-01

    This opportunistic natural study investigated the effects of relocation of office workers from a 30-year-old building to a new purpose-built building. The new building included an attractive central staircase that was easily accessed and negotiated, as well as breakout spaces and a centralised facilities area. The researchers aimed to determine the impact of the purpose-built office building on the office workers' sedentariness and level of physical activity. In 2013, a natural pre-post study was undertaken with office-based workers in their old conventional 1970s building and on relocating to a new purpose-built 'activity permissive' building. Objective movement data was measured using accelerometers. Anthropometric and demographic data was also collected. Forty-two office-based workers significantly decreased their percentage of daily sitting time (T1 = 84.9% to T2=79.7%; pbuilding. Moderate activity significantly declined (T1=3.9% to 3.2%=T2; p=0.038). There was a significant decrease in mean minutes of sitting time (19.62 minutes; pbuilding can influence activity. This opportunistic study on the impact of workplace relocation on office-based workers' activity showed modest positive outcomes in sitting and standing. Evidence is required to inform building design policy and practice that supports physical activity and reduces levels of sedentariness in the workplace. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Reengineering the project design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane Casani, E.; Metzger, Robert M.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's goal of working faster, better, and cheaper, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has developed extensive plans to minimize cost, maximize customer and employee satisfaction, and implement small- and moderate-size missions. These plans include improved management structures and processes, enhanced technical design processes, the incorporation of new technology, and the development of more economical space- and ground-system designs. The Laboratory's new Flight Projects Implementation Development Office has been chartered to oversee these innovations and the reengineering of JPL's project design process, including establishment of the Project Design Center (PDC) and the Flight System Testbed (FST). Reengineering at JPL implies a cultural change whereby the character of the Laboratory's design process will change from sequential to concurrent and from hierarchical to parallel. The Project Design Center will support missions offering high science return, design to cost, demonstrations of new technology, and rapid development. Its computer-supported environment will foster high-fidelity project life-cycle development and more accurate cost estimating. These improvements signal JPL's commitment to meeting the challenges of space exploration in the next century.

  14. Global Trends in Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lung-Sheng; Lai, Chun-Chin

    2012-01-01

    The paradigm of human resource development has shifted to workplace learning and performance. Workplace can be an organization, an office, a kitchen, a shop, a farm, a website, even a home. Workplace learning is a dynamic process to solve workplace problems through learning. An identification of global trends of workplace learning can help us to…

  15. Development of an instrument designed to measure employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sally W; Olson, Beth H

    2008-09-01

    Breastfeeding rates remain low in the United States, especially among working women. Unfortunately, no quantitative instrument exists to facilitate the examination of why women who return to work discontinue breastfeeding sooner than the general population. The objective of this study was to develop an instrument to measure female employees' perceptions of breastfeeding support in the workplace, which would be suitable for piloting with the target population. Examination of the literature, reviews with experts, and one-on-one interviews with women who had experience combining breastfeeding and work were used to create the instrument subscales and items. Examination of the literature was used to develop four subscales: company policies/work culture, manager support, co-worker support, and workflow. Expert review resulted in the addition of a fifth subscale, the physical environment of the breastfeeding space. One-on-one interviews were used to ensure that the item wording was appropriate for the target population. Eighteen items were added, and 15 were reworded based on comments from the expert review and from the interviews. The resulting survey contained 54 items that required either categorical yes/no or Likert scale responses. Results from this process indicate the survey subscales and items adequately reflect women's perceptions of breastfeeding support in the workplace and the instrument is appropriate for piloting with new mother employees.

  16. Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the Human Integration Design Processes (HIDP) document is to provide human-systems integration design processes, including methodologies and best practices that NASA has used to meet human systems and human rating requirements for developing crewed spacecraft. HIDP content is framed around human-centered design methodologies and processes in support of human-system integration requirements and human rating. NASA-STD-3001, Space Flight Human-System Standard, is a two-volume set of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Agency-level standards established by the Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer, directed at minimizing health and performance risks for flight crews in human space flight programs. Volume 1 of NASA-STD-3001, Crew Health, sets standards for fitness for duty, space flight permissible exposure limits, permissible outcome limits, levels of medical care, medical diagnosis, intervention, treatment and care, and countermeasures. Volume 2 of NASASTD- 3001, Human Factors, Habitability, and Environmental Health, focuses on human physical and cognitive capabilities and limitations and defines standards for spacecraft (including orbiters, habitats, and suits), internal environments, facilities, payloads, and related equipment, hardware, and software with which the crew interfaces during space operations. The NASA Procedural Requirements (NPR) 8705.2B, Human-Rating Requirements for Space Systems, specifies the Agency's human-rating processes, procedures, and requirements. The HIDP was written to share NASA's knowledge of processes directed toward achieving human certification of a spacecraft through implementation of human-systems integration requirements. Although the HIDP speaks directly to implementation of NASA-STD-3001 and NPR 8705.2B requirements, the human-centered design, evaluation, and design processes described in this document can be applied to any set of human-systems requirements and are independent of reference

  17. Evaluation of empowerment processes in a workplace health promotion intervention based on learning in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneson, Hanna; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a theory-based method for workplace health promotion (WHP) with regard to possible facilitation of empowerment processes. The intervention tool was the pedagogic method known as problem-based learning (PBL). The aim of the intervention was to promote empowerment and health among the employees. The intervention was implemented in three organizations within the public sector in Sweden, in a bottom-up approach. All employees, including management, in each organization, were offered the opportunity to participate (n = 113) and 87% (n = 97) participated. The intervention was implemented in 13 groups of six to eight participants who met once a week over a period of 4 months. The predetermined overall goal of the intervention was to promote employee health within the organizational setting. A facilitator in each group and a group-specific mutual agreement guided the intervention, as did the problem solving process. The participants set goals and developed strategies to reach their goals between the meetings. Thirty informants were interviewed in seven focus groups after the intervention about the intervention method and the process, following a semi-structured theme guide. The phenomenographic analysis resulted in six descriptive categories: reflection, awareness and insight, self-direction and self-management, group coherence, social support and actions. The results correspond to established theories of components of empowerment processes. The method initiated processes of change at organizational, workplace and individual levels as the participants examined their work situation, determined problems and initiated solutions. Social support and group coherence were expressed as essential in order to transform challenging strategies into action and goal realization. The findings indicate that systematic improvements of social support and group coherence among employees ought to be facilitated by the organization as a health

  18. Workplace Ergonomics Reference Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... proactive approach to these issues by educating our customers on prevention of the repetitive stress injuries that ... workplaces, environments, job tasks, equipment, and processes in relationship to human capabilities and interactions in the workplace. ...

  19. Midwifery student reactions to workplace violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jesse; Boyle, Malcolm J; McKenna, Lisa

    2018-02-01

    Workplace violence, incidents against people in their workplaces, is a growing problem in Australia causing untold personal suffering as well as costing Australian businesses in productivity. Midwives have been highlighted as a group particularly at risk, yet in Australia there is little research into workplace violence against midwives and even less into midwifery students. This study aimed to explore Australian midwifery students' responses to workplace violence as well as to gauge the impact of workplace violence on them. Cross-sectional survey design was employed. Second and third year students were invited to participate at the end of a scheduled lecture. Fifty-two female midwifery students who had completed their work placement completed a survey indicating their immediate responses to workplace violence as well as the Impact of Event Scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Most students notified a co-worker immediately after a workplace violence incident, yet few completed an incident form or received official debriefing. There is a need for the reporting of workplace violence against midwifery students to be made easier to access thereby ensuring they can receive the assistance they require. Midwifery students need to understand the processes and supports in place for managing instances of workplace violence. Clinical placements can impact on midwifery students' future careers. Universities need to prepare students for the possibility of workplace violence and arm them with appropriate strategies for safely dealing with it. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs in workplaces and public areas

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2002-01-01

    This International Standard establishes the safety identification colours and design principles for safety signs to be used in workplaces and in public areas for the purpose of accident prevention, fire protection, health hazard information and emergency evacuation. It also establishes the basic principles to be applied when developing standards containing safety signs. This part of ISO 3864 is applicable to workplaces and all locations and all sectors where safety-related questions may be posed. However, it is not applicable to the signalling used for guiding rail, road, river, maritime and air traffic and, generally speaking, to those sectors subject to a regulation which may differ.

  1. [The pregnant employee in anaesthesia and intensive care - An evidence-based approach to designing adequate workplaces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röher, Katharina; Göpfert, Matthias S

    2015-07-01

    In the light of a rising percentage of women among employees in anaesthesia and intensive care designing adequate workplaces for pregnant employees plays an increasingly important role. Here it is necessary to align the varied interests of the pregnant employee, fellow employees and the employer, where the legal requirements of the Maternity Protection Act ("Mutterschutzgesetz") form the statutory framework. This review describes how adequate workplaces for pregnant employees in anaesthesia and intensive care can be established considering the scientific evidence on the subject. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot: Development of Workplace-Based Assessment Content, Instruments, and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Patricia J; Margolis, Melissa; Poynter, Sue E; Chaffinch, Christa; Tenney-Soeiro, Rebecca; Turner, Teri L; Waggoner-Fountain, Linda; Lockridge, Robin; Clyman, Stephen G; Schwartz, Alan

    2016-05-01

    To report on the development of content and user feedback regarding the assessment process and utility of the workplace-based assessment instruments of the Pediatrics Milestones Assessment Pilot (PMAP). One multisource feedback instrument and two structured clinical observation instruments were developed and refined by experts in pediatrics and assessment to provide evidence for nine competencies based on the Pediatrics Milestones (PMs) and chosen to inform residency program faculty decisions about learners' readiness to serve as pediatric interns in the inpatient setting. During the 2012-2013 PMAP study, 18 U.S. pediatric residency programs enrolled interns and subinterns. Faculty, residents, nurses, and other observers used the instruments to assess learner performance through direct observation during a one-month rotation. At the end of the rotation, data were aggregated for each learner, milestone levels were assigned using a milestone classification form, and feedback was provided to learners. Learners and site leads were surveyed and/or interviewed about their experience as participants. Across the sites, 2,338 instruments assessing 239 learners were completed by 630 unique observers. Regarding end-of-rotation feedback, 93% of learners (128/137) agreed the assessments and feedback "helped me understand how those with whom I work perceive my performance," and 85% (117/137) agreed they were "useful for constructing future goals or identifying a developmental path." Site leads identified several benefits and challenges to the assessment process. PM-based instruments used in workplace-based assessment provide a meaningful and acceptable approach to collecting evidence of learner competency development. Learners valued feedback provided by PM-based assessment.

  3. SUSTAINABLE AND DESIGN BUILDING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio F. R. MOTTA

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a historical revision of the sustainable development and the sustainable in the constructed environment. It describes the main concepts and practices for implantation of the sustainable in the civil construction. These concepts and practices are reviewed from the perspective of the dialectic method, the general theory of systems and the theories of creative processes. These concepts are also analyzed from the perspective of quality management. The article proposes a model based on the dialectic, in which sustainability is considered an open system and a search inventive. The implantation of the sustainable in projects, companies and design processes are considered as main strategy. A vertical insertion of the sustainable in the process is proposal. In this vertical insertion, the sustainable is presents in all the phases and activities of the process. The model is organized to promote the external creative solutions to the process, through the promotion of research centers. Tools of selection of possibilities and practical are suggested, considering the characteristic dialectics proposals. The article concludes that sustainable is a cultural change in the processes, practical and management current.

  4. Incorporating Human Factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guide-lines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  5. The Design of WORKER'S Behavior Analysis Method in Workplace Using Indoor Positioning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, K.; Konno, H.; Nakajima, M.

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a method for analyzing workers' behavior using indoor positioning technology and field test in the workplace. Recently, various indoor positioning methods, such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth low energy (BLE), visible light communication, Japan's indoor messaging system, ultra-wide band (UWB), and pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR), have been investigated. The development of these technologies allows tracking of movement of both people and/or goods in indoor spaces, people and/or goods behavior analysis is expected as one of the key technologies for operation optimization. However, when we use these technologies for human tracking, there are some problem as follows. 1) Many cases need to use dedicated facilities (e.g. UWB). 2) When we use smartphone as sensing device, battery depletion is one of the big problem (especially using PDR). 3) the accuracy is instability for tracking (e.g. Wi-Fi). Based on these matters, in this study we designed and developed an indoor positioning system using BLE positioning. And, we adopted smartphone for business use as sensing device, developed a smartphone application runs on android OS. Moreover, we conducted the field test of developed system at Itoki Corporation's ITOKI Tokyo Innovation Center, SYNQA, office (Tokyo, Japan). Over 40 workers participated in this field test, and worker tracking log data were collected for 6 weeks. We analyzed the characteristics of the workers' behavior using this log data as a prototyping.

  6. Universal design of workplaces through the use of Poka-Yokes: case study and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles Insa, Cristóbal; Holt, Raimond; Marin-Garcia, Juan A.; Canos-Daros, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Employment plays an important part in many people’s lives beyond merely providing income, since continued participation in work can have many therapeutic benefits for workers defined as disabled. However, disabled workers face a range of barriers to employment, despite legislation intended to improve workplace accessibility emphasizing adaptations to the workplace, which many employers often find difficult and expensive. The Poka-Yoke approach was developed in the manufacturin...

  7. Using design to drive organizational performance and innovation in the corporate workplace: implications for interprofessional environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Andrew; Bacevice, Peter Anthony

    2013-09-01

    Learning and working are increasingly inseparable social processes characterized by a mix of routine and non-routine activities, which are meant to sustain an optimal balance of creative risk taking, idea exploration and development of professional mastery. Learning and working are embedded in broader social institutions such as universities, academic medical centers, professional organizations and business firms. The future of learning and working is witnessing a blurring of these institutional boundaries, and consequently, a spanning of disciplines and professions that have traditionally assimilated and oriented people around knowledge domains. Learning and working practices are increasingly less defined by bureaucratic controls and are, instead, more collaborative, fluid and interdisciplinary. One of the most tangible manifestations of this shift is in the spaces and places where learning and working activities happen and where people interact and organize. This article explores these learning and working paradigm shifts by discussing recent developments in the corporate workplace and exploring how such changes inform the future of interprofessional education.

  8. Evaluation of workplace quality - A method for improvement and further development of workplace design for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Schjølberg, Trine Eide

    2012-01-01

    Background for Master’s Thesis Research Most of the workspace inhabited by people today were developed in and according to work needs in a time when the pace and character of changes in work were much less pronounced than they are today (McGregor & Then, 1991). Innovative thinking in office design is once again changing the way we think about our workspace, on a level not experienced since the end of the nineteenth century. Duffy (1997) states that the way people work in their ...

  9. Healthy and productive workers:using intervention mapping to design a workplace health promotion and wellness program to improve presenteeism

    OpenAIRE

    Ammendolia, Carlo; Côté, Pierre; Cancelliere, Carol; Cassidy, J David; Hartvigsen, Jan; Boyle, Eleanor; Soklaridis, Sophie; Stern, Paula; Amick, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background Presenteeism is a growing problem in developed countries mostly due to an aging workforce. The economic costs related to presenteeism exceed those of absenteeism and employer health costs. Employers are implementing workplace health promotion and wellness programs to improve health among workers and reduce presenteeism. How best to design, integrate and deliver these programs are unknown. The main purpose of this study was to use an intervention mapping approach to develop a workpl...

  10. Using a critical reflection process to create an effective learning community in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rachel; Cooke, Marie; Henderson, Amanda; Creedy, Debra K

    2013-05-01

    Learning circles are an enabling process to critically examine and reflect on practices with the purpose of promoting individual and organizational growth and change. The authors adapted and developed a learning circle strategy to facilitate open discourse between registered nurses, clinical leaders, clinical facilitators and students, to critically reflect on practice experiences to promote a positive learning environment. This paper reports on an analysis of field notes taken during a critical reflection process used to create an effective learning community in the workplace. A total of 19 learning circles were conducted during in-service periods (that is, the time allocated for professional education between morning and afternoon shifts) over a 3 month period with 56 nurses, 33 students and 1 university-employed clinical supervisor. Participation rates ranged from 3 to 12 individuals per discussion. Ten themes emerged from content analysis of the clinical learning issues identified through the four-step model of critical reflection used in learning circle discussions. The four-step model of critical reflection allowed participants to reflect on clinical learning issues, and raise them in a safe environment that enabled topics to be challenged and explored in a shared and cooperative manner. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Profiling mild steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions and costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael J; Siert, Arlen; Chen, Bean T; Stone, Samuel G

    2014-05-01

    To provide quantitative information to choose the best welding processes for minimizing workplace emissions, nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for mild steel were assessed for fume generation rates, normalized fume generation rates (milligram fume per gram of electrode consumed), and normalized generation rates for elemental manganese, nickel, and iron. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) and flux-cored arc-welding (FCAW) processes were also profiled. The fumes were collected quantitatively in an American Welding Society-type fume chamber and weighed, recovered, homogenized, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for total metals. The processes included GMAW with short circuit, globular transfer, axial spray, pulsed spray, Surface Tension Transfer™, Regulated Metal Deposition™, and Cold Metal Transfer™ (CMT) modes. Flux-cored welding was gas shielded, and SMAW was a single rod type. Results indicate a wide range of fume emission factors for the process variations studied. Fume emission rates per gram of electrode consumed were highest for SMAW (~13 mg fume g(-1) electrode) and lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed spray (~1.5mg g(-1)) and CMT (~1mg g(-1)). Manganese emission rates per gram of electrode consumed ranged from 0.45 mg g(-1) (SMAW) to 0.08 mg g(-1) (CMT). Nickel emission rates were generally low and ranged from ~0.09 (GMAW short circuit) to 0.004 mg g(-1) (CMT). Iron emission rates ranged from 3.7 (spray-mode GMAW) to 0.49 mg g(-1) (CMT). The processes studied have significantly different costs, and cost factors are presented based on a case study to allow comparisons between processes in specific cost categories. Costs per linear meter of weld were $31.07 (SMAW), $12.37 (GMAW short circuit), and $10.89 (FCAW). Although no single process is the best for minimizing fume emissions and costs while satisfying the weld requirements, there are several processes that can minimize emissions. This study provides

  12. Conceptual Chemical Process Design for Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter examines the sustainable design of chemical processes, with a focus on conceptual design, hierarchical and short-cut methods, and analyses of process sustainability for alternatives. The chapter describes a methodology for incorporating process sustainability analyse...

  13. Exploring residents' communication learning process in the workplace: a five-phase model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie van den Eertwegh

    Full Text Available Competency-based education is a resurgent paradigm in professional medical education. However, more specific knowledge is needed about the learning process of such competencies, since they consist of complex skills. We chose to focus on the competency of skilled communication and want to further explore its learning process, since it is regarded as a main competency in medical education.This study aims to explore in more detail the learning process that residents in general practice go through during workplace-based learning in order to become skilled communicators.A qualitative study was conducted in which twelve GP residents were observed during their regular consultations, and were interviewed in-depth afterwards.Analysis of the data resulted in the construction of five phases and two overall conditions to describe the development towards becoming a skilled communicator: Confrontation with (undesired behaviour or clinical outcomes was the first phase. Becoming conscious of one's own behaviour and changing the underlying frame of reference formed the second phase. The third phase consisted of the search for alternative behaviour. In the fourth phase, personalization of the alternative behaviour had to occur, this was perceived as difficult and required much time. Finally, the fifth phase concerned full internalization of the new behaviour, which by then had become an integrated part of the residents' clinical repertoire. Safety and cognitive & emotional space were labelled as overall conditions influencing this learning process.Knowledge and awareness of these five phases can be used to adjust medical working and learning environments in such a way that development of skilled medical communication can come to full fruition and its benefits are more fully reaped.

  14. Exploring Residents’ Communication Learning Process in the Workplace: A Five-Phase Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherpbier, Albert; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Context Competency-based education is a resurgent paradigm in professional medical education. However, more specific knowledge is needed about the learning process of such competencies, since they consist of complex skills. We chose to focus on the competency of skilled communication and want to further explore its learning process, since it is regarded as a main competency in medical education. Objective This study aims to explore in more detail the learning process that residents in general practice go through during workplace-based learning in order to become skilled communicators. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in which twelve GP residents were observed during their regular consultations, and were interviewed in-depth afterwards. Results Analysis of the data resulted in the construction of five phases and two overall conditions to describe the development towards becoming a skilled communicator: Confrontation with (un)desired behaviour or clinical outcomes was the first phase. Becoming conscious of one’s own behaviour and changing the underlying frame of reference formed the second phase. The third phase consisted of the search for alternative behaviour. In the fourth phase, personalization of the alternative behaviour had to occur, this was perceived as difficult and required much time. Finally, the fifth phase concerned full internalization of the new behaviour, which by then had become an integrated part of the residents’ clinical repertoire. Safety and cognitive & emotional space were labelled as overall conditions influencing this learning process. Conclusions Knowledge and awareness of these five phases can be used to adjust medical working and learning environments in such a way that development of skilled medical communication can come to full fruition and its benefits are more fully reaped. PMID:26000767

  15. Exploring residents' communication learning process in the workplace: a five-phase model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eertwegh, Valerie; van der Vleuten, Cees; Stalmeijer, Renée; van Dalen, Jan; Scherpbier, Albert; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    Competency-based education is a resurgent paradigm in professional medical education. However, more specific knowledge is needed about the learning process of such competencies, since they consist of complex skills. We chose to focus on the competency of skilled communication and want to further explore its learning process, since it is regarded as a main competency in medical education. This study aims to explore in more detail the learning process that residents in general practice go through during workplace-based learning in order to become skilled communicators. A qualitative study was conducted in which twelve GP residents were observed during their regular consultations, and were interviewed in-depth afterwards. Analysis of the data resulted in the construction of five phases and two overall conditions to describe the development towards becoming a skilled communicator: Confrontation with (un)desired behaviour or clinical outcomes was the first phase. Becoming conscious of one's own behaviour and changing the underlying frame of reference formed the second phase. The third phase consisted of the search for alternative behaviour. In the fourth phase, personalization of the alternative behaviour had to occur, this was perceived as difficult and required much time. Finally, the fifth phase concerned full internalization of the new behaviour, which by then had become an integrated part of the residents' clinical repertoire. Safety and cognitive & emotional space were labelled as overall conditions influencing this learning process. Knowledge and awareness of these five phases can be used to adjust medical working and learning environments in such a way that development of skilled medical communication can come to full fruition and its benefits are more fully reaped.

  16. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP Station Processing Plant Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Szulc

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP. We found 2.42 × 103 CFU/m3 of bacteria and 1.37 × 104 CFU/m3 of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 107 CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 105 CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 102 CFU/cm2 bacteria and 2.39 × 101 CFU/cm2 fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs. Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.. The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  17. A test of a design process scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinakis, Yorgos; Harms, Rainer; Walsh, Steven Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Design is a type of innovation that focuses on creating new product and service meanings. Models of the design process are important because they can help firms manage their product and service design processes to obtain competitive advantage. Empirically-based models of the design process are

  18. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bo; Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo

    2011-01-01

    To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene...... is proposed and analyzed, as well as its three categories i.e., the operator gene, the structural gene and the regulator gene. Second, the trigger mechanism that design objectives and constraints trigger the operator gene is constructed. Third, the expression principle of structural gene is analyzed...... with the example of design management gene. Last, the regulation mode that the regulator gene regulates the expression of the structural gene is established and it is illustrated by taking the design process management gene as an example. © (2011) Trans Tech Publications....

  19. Design Thinking in Elementary Students' Collaborative Lamp Designing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Design and Technology education is potentially a rich environment for successful learning, if the management of the whole design process is emphasised, and students' design thinking is promoted. The aim of the present study was to unfold the collaborative design process of one team of elementary students, in order to understand their multimodal…

  20. The Digital Design Process - Reflections on a Single Design Case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achten, H.H.; Joosen, G.; Dokonal, W.; Hirschberg, U.

    2003-01-01

    CAD tools are increasing their expressive and geometric power to enable a design process in which the computer model can be used throughout the whole design process for realizing the design. Such a process, in which other media such as physical scale models or drawings are no longer required by

  1. Behavioural design: A process for integrating behaviour change and design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Hartlev, Charlotte Gram; Durazo, Christine Boysen

    2017-01-01

    Nudge, persuasion, and the influencing of human behaviour through design are increasingly important topics in design research and in the wider public consciousness. However, current theoretical approaches to behaviour change have yet to be operationalized this in design process support....... Specifically, there are few empirically grounded processes supporting designers in realising behaviour change projects. In response to this, 20 design projects from a case company are analysed in order to distil a core process for behavioural design. Results show a number of process stages and activities...... associated with project success, pointing to a new perspective on the traditional design process, and allowing designers to integrate key insights from behaviour change theory. Using this foundation we propose the Behavioural Design process....

  2. System design for a solar powered electric vehicle charging station for workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of charging battery electric vehicles at workplace in Netherlands using solar energy. Data from the Dutch Meteorological Institute is used to determine the optimal orientation of PV panels for maximum energy yield in the Netherlands. The seasonal and diurnal

  3. describing a collaborative clothing design process between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 43, 2015. Designing success: describing a ... PROCESS BETWEEN APPRENTICE DESIGNERS AND EXPERT DESIGN .... 5 Evaluation and decisions. (a) Outcomes.

  4. Formal analysis of design process dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design

  5. Formal Analysis of Design Process Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosse, T.; Jonker, C.M.; Treur, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a formal analysis of design process dynamics. Such a formal analysis is a prerequisite to come to a formal theory of design and for the development of automated support for the dynamics of design processes. The analysis was geared toward the identification of dynamic design

  6. Imperfect Information in Software Design Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noppen, J.A.R.

    2007-01-01

    The process of designing high-quality software systems is one of the major issues in software engineering research. Over the years, this has resulted in numerous design methods, each with specific qualities and drawbacks. For example, the Rational Unified Process is a comprehensive design process,

  7. The Development and Evaluation of a Multimedia Resource To Support ICT Training: Design Issues, Training Processes and User Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tearle, Penni; Dillon, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Addresses issues surrounding the process of information and communications technology training (ICT), and the application of training outcomes in the workplace. Provides an overview of content and design features of the multimedia resource "Ensuring Effectiveness of ICT Training" and reports on its evaluation. Discusses design issues, training…

  8. Gaps in the Design Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veers, Paul

    2016-10-04

    The design of offshore wind plants is a relatively new field. The move into U.S. waters will have unique environmental conditions, as well as expectations from the authorities responsible for managing the development. Wind turbines are required to test their assumed design conditions with the site conditions of the plant. There are still some outstanding issues on how we can assure that the design for both the turbine and the foundation are appropriate for the site and will have an acceptable level of risk associated with the particular installation.

  9. Designing future learning. A posthumanist approach to researching design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelskjær, Malou

    I investigate how a design process – leading up to the design of a new education building - enact, transform and highlight tacit everyday practices and experiences in an education setting, whereby becoming an art of managing. I apply a post-humanist performative perspective, highlighting entangled...... agencies rather than focusing on human agency. I focus on the design process rather than the designer. The design process accelerated and performed past and future experiences of schooling, learning, teaching. This called for analytical attention to agential forces of not only the material but also...... and temporalities matter in design processes. Furthermore, the analysis emphasise how design translate affective economies and that attention to those affective economies are vital for the result of the design process....

  10. Ergonomics approaches to sociotechnical design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2003-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating work environment aspects. The design process was seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A work environment log is sugges...

  11. External designers in product design processes of small manufacturing firms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Hans; Reymen, Isabelle; Stultiëns, Rutger G L; Peutz, Murk

    Small manufacturing firms often fail to reap the benefits of good design practices. This study investigates how the involvement of external designers influences the evolution of product design processes in small manufacturing firms. Qualitative and quantitative process research methods were used to

  12. Process Variations and Probabilistic Integrated Circuit Design

    CERN Document Server

    Haase, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Uncertainty in key parameters within a chip and between different chips in the deep sub micron era plays a more and more important role. As a result, manufacturing process spreads need to be considered during the design process.  Quantitative methodology is needed to ensure faultless functionality, despite existing process variations within given bounds, during product development.   This book presents the technological, physical, and mathematical fundamentals for a design paradigm shift, from a deterministic process to a probability-orientated design process for microelectronic circuits.  Readers will learn to evaluate the different sources of variations in the design flow in order to establish different design variants, while applying appropriate methods and tools to evaluate and optimize their design.  Trains IC designers to recognize problems caused by parameter variations during manufacturing and to choose the best methods available to mitigate these issues during the design process; Offers both qual...

  13. Linguistic Diversity in the International Workplace: Language Ideologies and Processes of Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lønsmann, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on a study of language choice and language ideologies in an international company in Denmark. It focuses on the linguistic and social challenges that are related to the diversity of language competences among employees in the modern workplace. Research on multilingualism at work has shown that employees may be excluded from…

  14. From games to gamified workplaces. I PLAY AT WORK principles for transforming work processes through gamification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin eOprescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamified workplaces could be a positive and innovative solution to addressing contemporary problems in organisations. Such problems include high levels of stress, reduced sense of community, reduced loyalty and rapid changes in the workforce. To better prepare organisations for the future it may be helpful to identify and understand the potential advantages, disadvantages and areas for future research in relationship to the use of gamification for personal and organisational wellbeing. An analysis of research literature across disciplines in combination with expert opinion identified gamified workplaces as a promising strategy for promoting wellbeing. Furthermore, this paper proposes a set of 10 principles as part of a gamification guiding framework (I PLAY AT WORK. In addition to the value of mapping the present for the benefit of the future, there is also considerable value in reshaping core ideas related to the workplaces. Gamified workplaces can provide opportunities for a more vigorous and strategic inter-disciplinary research agenda that can stimulate investments in the area.

  15. Students’ learning processes during school-based learning and workplace learning in vocational education : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, H.; Baartman, L.K.J.; Bruijn, de E.

    2012-01-01

    Learning in vocational schools and workplaces are the two main components of vocational education. Students have to develop professional competences by building meaningful relations between knowledge, skills and attitudes. There are, however, some major concerns about the combination of learning in

  16. The decision-making process concerning workplace innovation : KLPD Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voordt, Theo; Guiza, Bibiana

    2003-01-01

    This case study is one in a series on workplace innovation. This issue is alive in many companies and not for profit organizations. Since 1990 the subject has been studied by many professionals. Yet a consistent knowledge base is not in place. For that reason the Center for People and Buildings

  17. Incorporation of human factors into design change processes - a regulator's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, L.; McRobbie, H.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants in Canada must receive written approval from the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) when making certain changes that are defined in their licenses. The CNSC expects the design change process to include a method for ensuring that the human-machine interface and workplace design support the safe and reliable performance of required tasks. When reviewing design changes for approval, the CNSC looks for evidence of analysis work, use of appropriate human factors design guidelines, and verification and validation testing of the design. In addition to reviewing significant design changes, evaluations are conducted to ensure design change processes adequately address human performance. Findings from reviews and evaluations highlight the need to integrate human factors into the design change process, provide human factors training and support to engineering staff, establish processes to ensure coordination between the various groups with a vested interest in human factors, and develop more rigorous methods to validate changes to maintenance, field operations and testing interfaces. (author)

  18. NASA System Engineering Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Jose

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA's use of systems engineering for the complete life cycle of a project. Systems engineering is a methodical, disciplined approach for the design, realization, technical management, operations, and retirement of a system. Each phase of a NASA project is terminated with a Key decision point (KDP), which is supported by major reviews.

  19. The Integrated Design Process (IDP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2005-01-01

    the different parameters and products can interact, and which consequences this would have on a project. The IDP does not ensure aesthetic or sustainable solutions, but it enables the designer to control the many parameters that must be considered and integrated in the project when creating more holistic...

  20. SOLVING GLOBAL PROBLEMS USING COLLABORATIVE DESIGN PROCESSES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Mejborn, Christina Okai

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we argue that use of collaborative design processes is a powerful means of bringing together different stakeholders and generating ideas in complex design situations. The collaborative design process was used in a workshop with international participants where the goal was to propos...

  1. Graphic Design in Libraries: A Conceptual Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Providing successful library services requires efficient and effective communication with users; therefore, it is important that content creators who develop visual materials understand key components of design and, specifically, develop a holistic graphic design process. Graphic design, as a form of visual communication, is the process of…

  2. Canadian Chefs' Workplace Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-MacBurnie, Paulette; Doyle, Wendy; Mombourquette, Peter; Young, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs' learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning. Design/methodology/approach: The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured…

  3. Information-Processing Models and Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    "This paper consists of three sections--(a) the relation of theoretical analyses of learning to curriculum design, (b) the role of information-processing models in analyses of learning processes, and (c) selected examples of the application of information-processing models to curriculum design problems." (Author)

  4. Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menges, Achim

    2012-01-01

    Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture, and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture, as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. Thereafter, the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative, feature-based, constraint-based, process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation, followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies. (paper)

  5. Researching workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms; Warring, Niels

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework for understanding and researching learning in the workplace. The workplace is viewed in a societal context and the learner is viewed as more than an employee in order to understand the learning process in relation to the learner......'s life history.Moreover we will explain the need to establish a 'double view' by examining learning in the workplace both as an objective and as a subjective reality. The article is mainly theoretical, but can also be of interest to practitioners who wish to understand learning in the workplace both...

  6. The Success Process of Freshwomen in Workplaces: Movie Narratives and Young Female Audiences’ Reception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ting Yang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available “Chick lit” has become more and more popular in recent years, and the portrayed female’s power and subjectivity have stirred many debates and been centered as controversial issues. Focusing on two films of this genre, this study firstly undertook narrative analysis to understand how in the storylines women just entering the workplaces could overcome a wide variety of challenges, and then performed in-depth interviews to explore how young female audiences interpreted the films. The study found that both movies presented conflicts within and between love life and workplace relationship in the kernel events. Regarding these conflicts portrayed, interviewed audiences, on one hand, thought that work and love life both should get well balanced, echoing social expectations for women, while on the other hand, recognized and appreciated the successful career women’s characteristics owned by the heroines, and pointed out that the films equipped females with the power to accomplish their dreams.

  7. PHYSICAL DESIGN OF CHANGE OF POWER INFLUENCE IS ON WORKPLACES TAKING INTO ACCOUNT HIGH TEMPERATURE RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELIKOV A. S.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of the degree of control methods for hazard exposure of workers to special divisions of large-scale emergencies and industrial accidents under the influence of excess heat radiation. The operational security solutions vital activity of special divisions of workers in extreme situations with high thermal radiation. Method. Construction of thermal fields and the establishment of dependencies change of infrared radiation on the location of jobs, the type of radiation source and the spectrum of the radiation sources. Results. In order to solve the problems of thermal protection of work places, actual data of measurement of thermal radiation at all workplaces is required. Such studies, for example, at an open window of a thermal furnace at a distance of 1.5-2 m are obviously dangerous and, most importantly, the reliability of the data is reduced because of the decrease in the productivity of measurements in extreme conditions of work. In order to determine the intensity of irradiation of the heat flow, it is necessary to perform a significant number of intermediate calculations or use several graphs or nomograms, which makes these calculations labor-intensive and not convenient for practical use. An attempt was made to summarize the results of research carried out in this direction, to improve working conditions, to significantly reduce the number of variables and to use existing instruments more efficiently during measurements. Based on the theoretical studies of thermal radiation at workplaces, it was established that with great accuracy it is possible to determine the distance to the source of thermal radiation from the point of measurement, the angle at which the source of thermal radiation is visible; in this case, the measurement point may be located at a distance safe for the researcher as we put the basis for the development of an experimental installation for the study of thermal radiation at workplaces. Scientific

  8. Design Process-System and Methodology of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashier, Fathi

    2017-10-01

    Studies have recognized the failure of the traditional design approach both in practice and in the studio. They showed that design problems today are too complex for the traditional approach to cope with and reflected a new interest in a better quality design services in order to meet the challenges of our time. In the mid-1970s and early 1980s, there has been a significant shift in focus within the field of design research towards the aim of creating a ‘design discipline’. The problem, as will be discussed, is the lack of an integrated theory of design knowledge that can explicitly describe the design process in a coherent way. As a consequence, the traditional approach fails to operate systematically, in a disciplinary manner. Addressing this problem is the primary goal of the research study in the design process currently being conducted in the research-based master studio at Wollega University, Ethiopia. The research study seeks to make a contribution towards a disciplinary approach, through proper understanding the mechanism of knowledge development within design process systems. This is the task of the ‘theory of design knowledge’. In this article the research project is introduced, and a model of the design process-system is developed in the studio as a research plan and a tool of design research at the same time. Based on data drawn from students’ research projects, the theory of design knowledge is developed and empirically verified through the research project.

  9. Designing with video focusing the user-centred design process

    CERN Document Server

    Ylirisku, Salu Pekka

    2007-01-01

    Digital video for user-centered co-design is an emerging field of design, gaining increasing interest in both industry and academia. It merges the techniques and approaches of design ethnography, participatory design, interaction analysis, scenario-based design, and usability studies. This book covers the complete user-centered design project. It illustrates in detail how digital video can be utilized throughout the design process, from early user studies to making sense of video content and envisioning the future with video scenarios to provoking change with video artifacts. The text includes

  10. Facilitating Teamwork in the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Nissen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    By approaching the Repertory Grid as an exploratory design game and drawing on insight in diagrammatic reasoning we argue that this approach is useful in supporting team work in the design process. In this paper we draw on two courses inviting textile design students to contribute to the developm......By approaching the Repertory Grid as an exploratory design game and drawing on insight in diagrammatic reasoning we argue that this approach is useful in supporting team work in the design process. In this paper we draw on two courses inviting textile design students to contribute...

  11. Solar hydrogen project - Thermochemical process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.J.; Ng, L.F.; Rao, M.S.M.; Wu, S.F.; Zoschak, R.J.

    1984-08-01

    The thermochemical decomposition of water using solar energy offers an elegant way of combining solar and chemical technologies to produce a high quality fuel. The DOE has sponsored Foster Wheeler to develop a process design for a solar water-splitting process based on the sulfuric acid/iodine cycle. The study has centered around the design of a sulfuric acid decomposition reactor and the central receiver. Materials' properties impose severe constraints upon the design of decomposition reactor. In this paper, the constraints imposed on the design are specified and a reactor and receiver design is presented together with a preliminary design of the balance of plant.

  12. Initial design process of the repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmanlioglu, A.E.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of the final disposal of high level wastes is to isolate the waste from the biosphere for extremely long periods of time by emplacement of wastes into deep stable geological formations. Several geological formations have been considered as candidate host environments for high level waste disposal and several techniques have been developed for repository design. In this study, interrelationships of main parameters of a general repository design have been defined and effective parameters are shown at each step. Initial design process is based on the long term stability of underground openings as disposal galleries. For this reason, this design process includes two main analyses: mechanical analysis and thermal analysis. Each of the analysis systems is directly related to each other by technical precautions. As a result of this design process, general information about the acceptable depth of the repository, layout and emplacement pattern can be taken. Final design study can be established on the result of initial design process. (author)

  13. A Mobile Application for Easy Design and Testing of Algorithms to Monitor Physical Activity in the Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna Spinsante

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses approaches to Human Activity Recognition (HAR with the aim of monitoring the physical activity of people in the workplace, by means of a smartphone application exploiting the available on-board accelerometer sensor. In fact, HAR via a smartphone or wearable sensor can provide important information regarding the level of daily physical activity, especially in situations where a sedentary behavior usually occurs, like in modern workplace environments. Increased sitting time is significantly associated with severe health diseases, and the workplace is an appropriate intervention setting, due to the sedentary behavior typical of modern jobs. Within this paper, the state-of-the-art components of HAR are analyzed, in order to identify and select the most effective signal filtering and windowing solutions for physical activity monitoring. The classifier development process is based upon three phases; a feature extraction phase, a feature selection phase, and a training phase. In the training phase, a publicly available dataset is used to test among different classifier types and learning methods. A user-friendly Android-based smartphone application with low computational requirements has been developed to run field tests, which allows to easily change the classifier under test, and to collect new datasets ready for use with machine learning APIs. The newly created datasets may include additional information, like the smartphone position, its orientation, and the user’s physical characteristics. Using the mobile tool, a classifier based on a decision tree is finally set up and enriched with the introduction of some robustness improvements. The developed approach is capable of classifying six activities, and to distinguish between not active (sitting and active states, with an accuracy near to 99%. The mobile tool, which is going to be further extended and enriched, will allow for rapid and easy benchmarking of new algorithms based

  14. Practicing universal design to actual hand tool design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kai-Chieh; Wu, Chih-Fu

    2015-09-01

    UD evaluation principles are difficult to implement in product design. This study proposes a methodology for implementing UD in the design process through user participation. The original UD principles and user experience are used to develop the evaluation items. Difference of product types was considered. Factor analysis and Quantification theory type I were used to eliminate considered inappropriate evaluation items and to examine the relationship between evaluation items and product design factors. Product design specifications were established for verification. The results showed that converting user evaluation into crucial design verification factors by the generalized evaluation scale based on product attributes as well as the design factors applications in product design can improve users' UD evaluation. The design process of this study is expected to contribute to user-centered UD application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. THEORETICAL FRAMES FOR DESIGNING REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz K. Grabara; Sebastian Kot

    2009-01-01

    Logistics processes of return flow became more and more important in present business practice. Because of better customer satisfaction, environmental and financial aspects many enterprises deal with reverse logistics performance. The paper is a literature review focused on the design principles of reverse logistics processes Keywords: reverse logistics, designing.

  16. EPR design tools. Integrated data processing tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, R.

    1997-01-01

    In all technical areas, planning and design have been supported by electronic data processing for many years. New data processing tools had to be developed for the European Pressurized Water Reactor (EPR). The work to be performed was split between KWU and Framatome and laid down in the Basic Design contract. The entire plant was reduced to a logical data structure; the circuit diagrams and flowsheets of the systems were drafted, the central data pool was established, the outlines of building structures were defined, the layout of plant components was planned, and the electrical systems were documented. Also building construction engineering was supported by data processing. The tasks laid down in the Basic Design were completed as so-called milestones. Additional data processing tools also based on the central data pool are required for the phases following after the Basic Design phase, i.e Basic Design Optimization; Detailed Design; Management; Construction, and Commissioning. (orig.) [de

  17. Facilitating Teamwork in the Design Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise; Nissen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    By approaching the Repertory Grid as an exploratory design game and drawing on insight in diagrammatic reasoning we argue that this approach is useful in supporting team work in the design process. In this paper we draw on two courses inviting textile design students to contribute to the developm...

  18. Assessment and Development of Engineering Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrikkeholm, Jeppe Bjerrum

    , the engineering companies need to have efficient engineering design processes in place, so they can design customised product variants faster and more efficiently. It is however not an easy task to model and develop such processes. To conduct engineering design is often a highly iterative, illdefined and complex...... the process can be fully understood and eventually improved. Taking its starting point in this proposition, the outcome of the research is an operational 5-phased procedure for assessing and developing engineering design processes through integrated modelling of product and process, designated IPPM......, and eventually the results are discussed, overall conclusions are made and future research is proposed. The results produced throughout the research project are developed in close collaboration with the Marine Low Speed business unit within the company MAN Diesel & Turbo. The business unit is the world market...

  19. Musical Instrument Design Process for Mobile Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Barraclough, Timothy J.; Carnegie, Dale A.; Kapur, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the iterative design process based upon multiple rounds of user studies that guided the the design of a novel social music application, Pyxis Minor. The application was designed based on the concept of democratising electronic music creation and performance. This required the development to be based upon user studies to inform and drive the development process in order to create a novel musical interface that can be enjoyed by users of any prior musicianship training.

  20. PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is focused on optimizing the use of space in the production process using software Process Designer. The aim of this contribution is to suggest possible improvements to the existing layout of the selected production process. Production process was analysed in terms of inputs, outputs and course of actions. Nowadays there are many software solutions aimed at optimizing the use of space. One of these software products is the Process Designer, which belongs to the product line Tecnomatix. This software is primarily aimed at production planning. With Process Designer is possible to design the layout of production and subsequently to analyse the production or to change according to the current needs of the company.

  1. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to reduce workplace violence. Management Commitment: Provides the motivation and resources to deal effectively with workplace violence ... physical health of the employee. Appropriate allocation of authority and resources to responsible parties. Equal commitment to ...

  2. Workplace violence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    Workplace violence refers to incidents where workers are abused, threatened or assaulted, either by people from within or outside their workplace. Workplace violence may have severe negative consequences for the workers affected, their co-workers and families; as well as for organisations and the

  3. Designing SQCRA as a Software to Semi-quantitative Chemical Risk Assessment in Workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives : The aim of chemical risk assessment is to identify and evaluate risks originated from chemicals usages. This study aims to design a practical tool for facilitating chemical risk assessment. Methods: The proposed software was derived from chemical risk assessment method which was recommended by Ministry of Human Resources of Malaysia. All of the processes in question are designed in operating system software. Based on some revisions, this software was developed using Visual Basic (VB titled as SQCRA. The developed software was used for chemical risk assessment in Narges Vegetale Oil Company in Shiraz (center of Iran. Result: The output of software showed that the level of risk derived from sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, aluminum sulphate, nickel catalyst, acetic acid used as a raw material were 2.4, 2.84, 2.3, 3.5 and 2.66, respectively. Moreover, risk rank and proposed control methods for each of these materials were determined. Conclusions : The developed software calculates the health risk level based on the degree of hazard and exposure in shorttime and without using risk matrix and chemical formula. After determining the risk rank, the software proposes the control procedures to reduce occupational exposure.

  4. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a

  5. Implementing The Safeguards-By-Design Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, J. Michael; McGinnis, Brent; Laughter, Mark D.; Morgan, Jim; Bjornard, Trond; Bean, Robert; Durst, Phillip; Hockert, John; DeMuth, Scott; Lockwood, Dunbar

    2010-01-01

    The Safeguards-by-Design (SBD) approach incorporates safeguards into the design and construction of nuclear facilities at the very beginning of the design process. It is a systematic and structured approach for fully integrating international and national safeguards for material control and accountability (MC and A), physical protection, and other proliferation barriers into the design and construction process for nuclear facilities. Implementing SBD is primarily a project management or project coordination challenge. This paper focuses specifically on the design process; the planning, definition, organization, coordination, scheduling and interaction of the safeguards experts and stakeholders as they participate in the design and construction of a nuclear facility. It delineates the steps in a nuclear facility design and construction project in order to provide the project context within which the safeguards design activities take place, describes the involvement of the safeguards experts in the design process, the nature of their analyses, interactions and decisions, and describes the documents created and how they are used. This report highlights the project context of safeguards activities, and identifies the safeguards community (nuclear facility operator, designer/builder, state regulator, SSAC and IAEA) must accomplish in order to implement SBD within the project.

  6. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    discusses aspects of process display design taking into account both the designer's and the operator's points of view. Three aspects are emphasized: the operator tasks, the display content and the display form. The distinction between these three aspects is the basis for proposing an outline for a display......Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper...... by a simple example from a plant with batch processes. Later the method is applied to develop a supervisory display for a condenser system in a nuclear power plant. The differences between the continuous plant domain of power production and the batch processes from the example are analysed and broad...

  7. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  8. Multidisciplinary systems engineering architecting the design process

    CERN Document Server

    Crowder, James A; Demijohn, Russell

    2016-01-01

    This book presents Systems Engineering from a modern, multidisciplinary engineering approach, providing the understanding that all aspects of systems design, systems, software, test, security, maintenance and the full life-cycle must be factored in to any large-scale system design; up front, not factored in later. It lays out a step-by-step approach to systems-of-systems architectural design, describing in detail the documentation flow throughout the systems engineering design process. It provides a straightforward look and the entire systems engineering process, providing realistic case studies, examples, and design problems that will enable students to gain a firm grasp on the fundamentals of modern systems engineering.  Included is a comprehensive design problem that weaves throughout the entire text book, concluding with a complete top-level systems architecture for a real-world design problem.

  9. Hidden realities inside PBL design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Ole Verner

    2015-01-01

    Design Process, but is a group-based architecture and design education better than that which is individually based? How does PBL affect space, form, and creative processes? Hans Kiib, professor and one of the founders of the Department of Architecture and Design in Aalborg, describes his intentions...... are passing from a complex world into one based on super complexity? Could Gaston Bachelard (1958), who writes in his book The Poetic of Space "that poets and artists are born phenomenologists," help architecture and design students in their journey to find his/her own professional expression? This paper...

  10. Design variables and constraints in fashion store design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Anders; Borch Münster, Mia

    2015-01-01

    is to identify the most important store design variables, organise these variables into categories, understand the design constraints between categories, and determine the most influential stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach: – Based on a discussion of existing literature, the paper defines a framework...... into categories, provides an understanding of constraints between categories of variables, and identifies the most influential stakeholders. The paper demonstrates that the fashion store design task can be understood through a system perspective, implying that the store design task becomes a matter of defining......Purpose: – Several frameworks of retail store environment variables exist, but as shown by this paper, they are not particularly well-suited for supporting fashion store design processes. Thus, in order to provide an improved understanding of fashion store design, the purpose of this paper...

  11. Engineering design: A cognitive process approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strimel, Greg Joseph

    The intent of this dissertation was to identify the cognitive processes used by advanced pre-engineering students to solve complex engineering design problems. Students in technology and engineering education classrooms are often taught to use an ideal engineering design process that has been generated mostly by educators and curriculum developers. However, the review of literature showed that it is unclear as to how advanced pre-engineering students cognitively navigate solving a complex and multifaceted problem from beginning to end. Additionally, it was unclear how a student thinks and acts throughout their design process and how this affects the viability of their solution. Therefore, Research Objective 1 was to identify the fundamental cognitive processes students use to design, construct, and evaluate operational solutions to engineering design problems. Research Objective 2 was to determine identifiers within student cognitive processes for monitoring aptitude to successfully design, construct, and evaluate technological solutions. Lastly, Research Objective 3 was to create a conceptual technological and engineering problem-solving model integrating student cognitive processes for the improved development of problem-solving abilities. The methodology of this study included multiple forms of data collection. The participants were first given a survey to determine their prior experience with engineering and to provide a description of the subjects being studied. The participants were then presented an engineering design challenge to solve individually. While they completed the challenge, the participants verbalized their thoughts using an established "think aloud" method. These verbalizations were captured along with participant observational recordings using point-of-view camera technology. Additionally, the participant design journals, design artifacts, solution effectiveness data, and teacher evaluations were collected for analysis to help achieve the

  12. Margin of manoeuvre indicators in the workplace during the rehabilitation process: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M J; Vézina, N; Baril, R; Loisel, P; Richard, M C; Ngomo, S

    2009-06-01

    The task of evaluating workers' capacity to return to their pre-injury employment or other jobs continues to pose a daily challenge for clinicians. In this study, a concept frequently used in the field of ergonomics, the margin of manoeuvre (MM), was applied during the rehabilitation process. The study identified the indicators of the MM taken into account during the return to work of workers with musculoskeletal disorders. This study used a multiple-case design. A case was defined as a dyad comprising a worker admitted to a work rehabilitation program and the clinician who was managing the return-to-work process. The results were then validated with investigators and expert ergonomists, through group interviews. Content analyses were performed using the conceptual framework for the work activity model adapted from Vézina and the procedures recommended by Miles and Huberman. A total of 11 workers, five clinicians, two experts and two investigators participated in this study. The interview analysis process resulted in a more detailed definition of the MM and the identification of 50 indicators. The indicators were classified according to six dimensions: (1) work context; (2) employer's requirements and expectations; (3) means and tools; (4) worker's personal parameters; (5) work activity; and (6) impacts of the work situation. The more specific indicators identified in this study will allow for more systematic observation of the MM. Subsequent studies will seek to link each indicator described in the model with a specific method of observation.

  13. Design processes of a citizen inquiry community

    OpenAIRE

    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike

    2017-01-01

    As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...

  14. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies – a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Ole; Albertsen, Karen; Nielsen, Martin Lindhardt; Poulsen, Kjeld Børge; Gron, Sisse Malene Frydendal; Brunnberg, Hans Lennart

    2008-01-01

    Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of) stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3–5 years, covered 3–52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill–2.2 mill €, and involved 3–7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned) administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Conclusion Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action. PMID:18554380

  15. Workplace restructurings in intervention studies – a challenge for design, analysis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulsen Kjeld

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interventions in occupational health often target worksites rather than individuals. The objective of this paper is to describe the (lack of stability in units of analysis in occupational health and safety intervention projects directed toward worksites. Methods A case study approach is used to describe naturally occurring organizational changes in four, large, Nordic intervention projects that ran 3–5 years, covered 3–52 worksites, cost 0.25 mill–2.2 mill €, and involved 3–7 researchers. Results In all four cases, high rates of closing, merging, moving, downsizing or restructuring was observed, and in all four cases at least one company/worksite experienced two or more re-organizations during the project period. If individual worksites remained, ownership or (for publicly owned administrative or legal base often shifted. Forthcoming closure led employees and managers to seek employment at other worksites participating in the studies. Key employees involved in the intervention process often changed. Conclusion Major changes were the rule rather than the exception. Frequent fundamental changes at worksites need to be taken into account when planning intervention studies and raises serious questions concerning design, analyses and interpretation of results. The frequent changes may also have deleterious implications for the potential effectiveness of many real life interventions directed toward worksites. We urge researchers and editors to prioritize this subject in order to improve the quality of future intervention research and preventive action.

  16. Design for embedded image processing on FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, Donald G

    2011-01-01

    "Introductory material will consider the problem of embedded image processing, and how some of the issues may be solved using parallel hardware solutions. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are introduced as a technology that provides flexible, fine-grained hardware that can readily exploit parallelism within many image processing algorithms. A brief review of FPGA programming languages provides the link between a software mindset normally associated with image processing algorithms, and the hardware mindset required for efficient utilization of a parallel hardware design. The bulk of the book will focus on the design process, and in particular how designing an FPGA implementation differs from a conventional software implementation. Particular attention is given to the techniques for mapping an algorithm onto an FPGA implementation, considering timing, memory bandwidth and resource constraints, and efficient hardware computational techniques. Extensive coverage will be given of a range of image processing...

  17. THORP - the management of the design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, E.; Thurrell, B.H.; Varey, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    This Paper sets out to describe the organization of the design of the Thermal Oxide Reprocessing Plant (THORP) head end and chemical separation building. This posed many challenges not only because the building itself is a complicated engineering entity, but also because of the logistical aspects of administering the large number of engineers and draughtsmen -600 in total at peak- employed on the project. The effects of the necessary iterative design process, both technical and logistical, are outlined, together with a description of the manner in which the whole design process was managed. (author)

  18. Managing Constraint Generators in Retail Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Mia Borch; Haug, Anders

    case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper addresses this gap. The and six case studies of fashion store design projects, the present paper sheds light on the types of constraints generated by the relevant constraint generators. The paper shows that in the cases studied......Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands. During a design process a retail designer has to consider various constraint generators such as stakeholder interests, physical limitations and restrictions. Obviously the architectural site, legislators...... and landlords need to be considered as well as the interest of the client and brand owner. Furthermore the users need to be taken into account in order to develop an interesting and functional shopping and working environments. Finally, suppliers and competitors may influence the design with regard...

  19. Development and design of a cementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.

    1986-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for the immobilization of intermediate level liquid waste in cement is presented. The cementation process adopted a vibration assisted mixing process. The solidified waste is packed in 200 litres drum with barite concrete lining. The waste package is classified as Type A package for transport. (Author) [pt

  20. Development and design of a cementation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, R.

    1987-01-01

    The conceptual design of a facility for the immobilization of intermediate-level liquid wastes in cement is presented. The cementation process adopted a vibration assisted mixing process. The solidified waste is packed in 200 litres drum with barite concrete lining. The waste package is classified as Type A package for transport. (Author) [pt

  1. Chemical kinetics and oil shale process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Oil shale processes are reviewed with the goal of showing how chemical kinetics influences the design and operation of different processes for different types of oil shale. Reaction kinetics are presented for organic pyrolysis, carbon combustion, carbonate decomposition, and sulfur and nitrogen reactions.

  2. REVERSING THE CO-DESIGN PROCESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsgaard, Christina

    2011-01-01

    a traditional codesign process the POE looks back on the process in order to adjust or redesign the building. The paper argues that co-design tools can be an instrument to make architects and other stakeholders reflect on the project once again in order to see it from a different perspective....

  3. Logic-programming language enriches design processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitson, B.; Ow-Wing, K.

    1984-03-22

    With the emergence of a set of high-level CAD tools for programmable logic devices, designers can translate logic into functional custom devices simply and efficiently. The core of the package is a blockstructured hardware description language called PLPL, for ''programmable-logic programming language.'' The cheif advantage of PLPL lies in its multiple input formats, which permit different design approaches for a variety of design problems. The higher the level of the approach, the closer PLPL will come to directly specifying the desired function. Intermediate steps in the design process can be eliminated, along with the errors that might have been generated during those steps.

  4. THE PRODUCT DESIGN PROCESS USING STYLISTIC SURFACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadiusz Gita

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The increasing consumer requirements for the way what everyday use products look like, forces manufacturers to put more emphasis on product design. Constructors, apart from the functional aspects of the parts created, are forced to pay attention to the aesthetic aspects. Software for designing A-class surfaces is very helpful in this case. Extensive quality analysis modules facilitate the work and allow getting models with specific visual features. The authors present a design process of the product using stylistic surfaces based on the front panel of the moped casing. In addition, methods of analysis of the design surface and product technology are presented.

  5. Designing heat exchangers for process heat reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    A brief account is given of the IAEA specialist meeting on process heat applications technology held in Julich, November 1979. The main emphasis was on high temperature heat exchange. Papers were presented covering design requirements, design construction and prefabrication testing, and selected problems. Primary discussion centered around mechanical design, materials requirements, and structural analysis methods and limits. It appears that high temperature heat exchanges design to nuclear standards, is under extensive development but will require a lengthy concerted effort before becoming a commercial reality. (author)

  6. Quantitative approaches to physical ergonomic issues encountered while assessing workplace designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albin, T.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomic and design practitioners routinely make assessments of the appropriateness of a workspace. For example, practitioners must answer questions such as: “will the user be at risk of injury, is the space high enough, wide enough and deep enough to accommodate the intended users, does the design

  7. Workplace learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warring, Niels

    2005-01-01

    In November 2004 the Research Consortium on workplace learning under Learning Lab Denmark arranged the international conference “Workplace Learning – from the learner’s perspective”. The conference’s aim was to bring together researchers from different countries and institutions to explore...... and discuss recent developments in our understanding of workplace and work-related learning. The conference had nearly 100 participants with 59 papers presented, and among these five have been selected for presentation is this Special Issue....

  8. Process evaluation of a walking programme delivered through the workplace in the South Pacific island Vanuatu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siefken, Katja; Schofield, Grant; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2015-06-01

    The South Pacific region is experiencing significant rates of chronic diseases. Well-evaluated health promotion programmes are needed as a central piece of a strategic solution. Just as important as the evaluation itself is how that evaluation outcome can be communicated for future programme use by local programme planners. The objective of this study is to evaluate a physical activity (PA) programme that was designed for Pacific women in urban Vanuatu, and subsequently to develop new techniques to display data that support the understanding and communication of programme success and challenges. Data collection methods included quantitative Likert scale questions and qualitative open-ended questions. A new analysis technique visualises open-ended process evaluation data. We present themes using word sizes proportional to the frequency of the themes identified through thematic analysis. The Likert scale technique revealed little meaningful information; almost all participants rated most elements of the programme highly. This may be related to Pacific people being frequently inclined to assent with external ideas. Open-ended questions provided more significant insights. For example, we found a stronger change in eating habits (68.9%) than in exercise behaviour (28.2%). We present an evaluation of the first pedometer-based PA intervention in the Pacific and respond to the paucity of process evaluations that have been carried out in the context of low- and middle-income countries. Moreover, the new thematic data visualisation (TDV) approach may aid in understanding complex and cluttered data in a constructive and coordinated way; we present a new approach in health promotion research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Design of penicillin fermentation process simulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Zhonghu; Qi, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Wenqi

    2011-10-01

    Real-time monitoring for batch process attracts increasing attention. It can ensure safety and provide products with consistent quality. The design of simulation system of batch process fault diagnosis is of great significance. In this paper, penicillin fermentation, a typical non-linear, dynamic, multi-stage batch production process, is taken as the research object. A visual human-machine interactive simulation software system based on Windows operation system is developed. The simulation system can provide an effective platform for the research of batch process fault diagnosis.

  10. Automation of the aircraft design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldenfels, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    The increasing use of the computer to automate the aerospace product development and engineering process is examined with emphasis on structural analysis and design. Examples of systems of computer programs in aerospace and other industries are reviewed and related to the characteristics of aircraft design in its conceptual, preliminary, and detailed phases. Problems with current procedures are identified, and potential improvements from optimum utilization of integrated disciplinary computer programs by a man/computer team are indicated.

  11. Integrated Process Design, Control and Analysis of Intensified Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil

    chemical processes; for example, intensified processes such as reactive distillation. Most importantly, it identifies and eliminates potentially promising design alternatives that may have controllability problems later. To date, a number of methodologies have been proposed and applied on various problems......, that the same principles that apply to a binary non-reactive compound system are valid also for a binary-element or a multi-element system. Therefore, it is advantageous to employ the element based method for multicomponent reaction-separation systems. It is shown that the same design-control principles...

  12. Process Evaluation of a Workplace Health Promotion Intervention Aimed at Improving Work Engagement and Energy Balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Berkel, J.; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  13. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkel, J. van; Boot, C.R.L.; Proper, K.I.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. METHODS:: Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative

  14. [Concept analysis of workplace bullying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shu-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Hung; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2011-08-01

    Workplace bullying is a complicated and imprecise concept. Research findings have highlighted it as an important issue in the nursing environment worldwide. Workplace bullying arises due to malfunctions in workplace organizational and cultural related antecedents and manifests in various forms. Many studies have reported that nurses experiencing workplace bullying face increased levels of physical, psychological and social distress, may adopt suicidal thoughts and negativity towards the nursing profession, and may even abandon the nursing profession completely. Although a large number of papers have discussed the antecedents, forms and interventions related to workplace bullying, there has yet been no systematic concept analysis of workplace bullying. This paper applied Walker and Avant's concept analysis process to verify concept definitions, identify defining attributes, antecedents, and consequences, and provide examples of model, borderline, and contrary cases. Findings can help nursing administrators understand and clarify the meaning of workplace bullying in order to take appropriate measures to improve the working environment for nursing professionals.

  15. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  16. Change in requirements during the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sudin, Mohd Nizam Bin; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    Specification is an integral part of the product development process. Frequently, more than a single version of a specification is produced due to changes in requirements. These changes are often necessary to ensure the scope of the design problem is as clear as possible. However, the negative...... on a pre-defined coding scheme. The results of the study shows that change in requirements were initiated by internal stakeholders through analysis and evaluation activities during the design process, meanwhile external stakeholders were requested changes during the meeting with consultant. All...

  17. Sedimentation process and design of settling systems

    CERN Document Server

    De, Alak

    2017-01-01

    This book is designed to serve as a comprehensive source of information of sedimentation processes and design of settling systems, especially as applied to design of such systems in civil and environmental engineering. The book begins with an introduction to sedimentation as a whole and goes on to cover the development and details of various settling theories. The book traces the chronological developments of the comprehensive knowledge of settling studies and design of settling systems from 1889.A new concept of 'Velocity Profile Theorem', tool for settling problem analysis, has been employed to the analysis of the phenomenon of short circuiting. Complete theory of tube settling has been developed and its application to the computation of residual solids from the assorted solids through the same has been demonstrated. Experimental verification of the tube settling theory has also been presented. Field-oriented compatible design and operation methodology of settling system has been developed from the detailed...

  18. Design and optimization of food processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, C. L. M.

    1996-01-01

    The main research objectives of the group are the design and optimization of food processing conditions. Most of the work already developed is on the use of mathematical modeling of transport phenomena and quantification of degradation kinetics as two tools to optimize the final quality of thermally processed food products. Recently, we initiated a project with the main goal of studying the effects of freezing and frozen storage on orange and melon juice pectinesterase activity and q...

  19. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, Joshua

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy) and decision environment management (DEM). Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role) and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  20. Decision-Making Processes in the Workplace: How Exhaustion, Lack of Resources and Job Demands Impair Them and Affect Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ceschi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been considered: decision-making competency (DMCy and decision environment management (DEM. Both factors are presumed to involve self-regulatory mechanisms connected to decision processes by influencing performance in relation to work environment conditions. In the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model, the present study tested how such components as job demands, job resources and exhaustion can moderate decision-making processes and performance, where high resources are advantageous for decision-making processes and performance at work, while the same effect happens with low job demands and/or low exhaustion. In line with the formulated hypotheses, results confirm the relations between both the decision-making competences, performance (i.e., in-role and extra-role and moderators considered. In particular, employees with low levels of DMCy show to be more sensitive to job demands toward in-role performance, whereas high DEM levels increase the sensitivity of employees toward job resources and exhaustion in relation to extra-role performance. These findings indicate that decision-making processes, as well as work environment conditions, are jointly related to employee functioning.

  1. Strengthening health promotion in Australian workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, K J; Deeds, S; Siebel, R; Allen, J

    1997-01-01

    The Australian workplace has emerged as an important venue for influencing the health of employees through regulations and behaviour change programs. Recent surveys have highlighted a growth in this activity but the effectiveness of these programs in changing unhealthy work practices and policies is questionable. The need for strengthening programs by stronger designs and evaluation, and addressing organisational factors and employee participation in planning and implementation processes is documented. Efforts in that direction in Queensland are cited, Building on these existing foundations, redirecting existing resources, and building intersectoral cooperation in public-private partnerships hold a creative, exemplary vision of the future for Australian workplace programming.

  2. Liquid Workplaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofma, Christian Casper; Avital, Michel; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    2017-01-01

    workplaces we are going from a more collective to individual feeling of presence in the workplace. The first contribution is to close the knowledge gap that exists in the academic literature on IVEs in a work context. Second, practitioners will have a better understanding of the changes IVEs have...

  3. Designing equivalent semantic models for process creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.H.M. America (Pierre); J.W. de Bakker (Jaco)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractOperational and denotational semantic models are designed for languages with process creation, and the relationships between the two semantics are investigated. The presentation is organized in four sections dealing with a uniform and static, a uniform and dynamic, a nonuniform and

  4. Hygienic Design in the Food Processing Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilbert, Lisbeth Rischel; Hjelm, M.

    2001-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation are of major concern in food production and processing industry. In 1998 a Danish co-operation programme under the title Centre for Hygienic Design was funded to combine the skills of universities, research institutes and industry to focus on the following...

  5. Facilitating an Elementary Engineering Design Process Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill-Cunningham, P. Renee; Mott, Michael S.; Hunt, Anna-Blair

    2018-01-01

    STEM education in elementary school is guided by the understanding that engineering represents the application of science and math concepts to make life better for people. The Engineering Design Process (EDP) guides the application of creative solutions to problems. Helping teachers understand how to apply the EDP to create lessons develops a…

  6. Flexible Processing and the Design of Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sag, Ivan A.; Wasow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We explore the consequences of letting the incremental and integrative nature of language processing inform the design of competence grammar. What emerges is a view of grammar as a system of local monotonic constraints that provide a direct characterization of the signs (the form-meaning correspondences) of a given language. This…

  7. Safeguards planning in a plant design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, L.A.

    1977-01-01

    The safeguards efforts for the partitioning fuel cycle are considered. Included in the discussion are the organization of the safeguards study, the development of safeguards criteria, the expression of these criteria as requirements for facility design, and some preliminary details of the implementation of these requirements in facility and process layout

  8. Synthesis and Design of Processing Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaglia, Alberto; Sarup, Bent; Sin, Gürkan

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose an integrated business and engineering framework for synthesis and design of processing networks under uncertainty. In our framework, an adapted formulation of the transhipment problem is integrated with a superstructure, leading to a Stochastic Mixed Integer Non...... under market and technical uncertainty....

  9. "Information in Context": Co-Designing Workplace Structures and Systems for Organizational Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, Mary M.; Howard, Zaana

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: This paper discusses an "information in context" design project at Auraria Library in Denver, Colorado which aims to collaboratively create organizational structures and communication systems with and for library employees. Method: This action research project is founded within shared leadership, informed learning and…

  10. Intelligent Controller Design for a Chemical Process

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Glan Devadhas G; Dr.Pushpakumar S.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical process control is a challenging problem due to the strong on*line non*linearity and extreme sensitivity to disturbances of the process. Ziegler – Nichols tuned PI and PID controllers are found to provide poor performances for higher*order and non–linear systems. This paper presents an application of one*step*ahead fuzzy as well as ANFIS (adaptive*network*based fuzzy inference system) tuning scheme for an Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor CSTR process. The controller is designed based ...

  11. Valid knowledge for the professional design of large and complex design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aken, van J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The organization and planning of design processes, which we may regard as design process design, is an important issue. Especially for large and complex design-processes traditional approaches to process design may no longer suffice. The design literature gives quite some design process models. As

  12. The charge of ergonomics--a model according to the influence of ergonomic workplace design for economical and efficient indicators of the automotive industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubert, Nicole; Bruder, Ralph; Toledo, Begoña

    2012-01-01

    The importance of ergonomic workplace design has been rising incredibly. The knowledge of the interaction with a view to many indicators (e.g. operators' health, quality, productivity etc.) in the automotive assembly shop pushed into another thinking of ergonomics and an increasing awareness of economic possibilities relating to benefits and cost savings aligned with ergonomics. The paper discusses exemplary the various indicators and factors which could be influenced by ergonomic workplace design. These factors are linked each other and support the statement of ergonomic efficiency. Thus, the aim of this paper is to present a model which describes that investments in ergonomic work placement acts with preventive measurements, minimization of losses (refinishing operations, compensation money etc.) and extensive economies on the whole company.

  13. The "Big C"-stigma, cancer, and workplace discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Pritlove, Cheryl; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2016-12-01

    Stigma and workplace discrimination have been identified as prominent challenges to employment following cancer. However, there has been limited examination of how stigma develops in work contexts and how it influences cancer survivors' return to work process and their disclosure decisions. In the broader study from which this paper emerges, we used an exploratory qualitative design to examine the return to work process (including workplace supports and accommodations) of cancer survivors. We conducted 40 semi-structured interviews with (i) cancer survivors (n = 16), (ii) health care/vocational service providers (n = 16), and (iii) employer representatives (n = 8). We used thematic analysis methods to analyze the data. In this paper, we present data related specifically to workplace stigma, discrimination, and disclosure. Contrasting perspectives were identified among our stakeholder groups regarding the existence and impact of stigma in the workplace. While most provider and employer representatives believed survivors were not likely to be stigmatized, cancer survivors themselves perceived cancer as a highly stigmatized illness in the workplace. Two inter-related elements were implicated in the development of workplace stigma following cancer: (1) ongoing misconceptions and fears associating cancer with death and (2) misperceptions regarding impacts on the workplace, including survivors' work abilities, productivity, reliability, the costs associated with their continued employment (e.g., workplace accommodations), and future impacts on the workplace related to cancer re-occurrence. Discriminatory behaviors, such as hiring discrimination, bullying, harassment, refusal of workplace accommodations, and limited career advancement opportunities, were also discussed. A supportive workplace, a desire to be open with co-workers, and a need to request supports and manage expectations were reasons provided for disclosure. Conversely, an unsupportive workplace

  14. Biorefinery plant design, engineering and process optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine

    2014-01-01

    Before new biorefinery systems can be implemented, or the modification of existing single product biomass processing units into biorefineries can be carried out, proper planning of the intended biorefinery scheme must be performed initially. This chapter outlines design and synthesis approaches...... applicable for the planning and upgrading of intended biorefinery systems, and includes discussions on the operation of an existing lignocellulosic-based biorefinery platform. Furthermore, technical considerations and tools (i.e., process analytical tools) which could be applied to optimise the operations...... of existing and potential biorefinery plants are elucidated....

  15. Design of Separation Processes with Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng-noo, Worawit; Kulajanpeng, Kusuma; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    A systematic methodology for screening and designing of Ionic Liquid (IL)-based separation processes is proposed and demonstrated using several case studies of both aqueous and non-aqueous systems, for instance, ethanol + water, ethanol + hexane, benzene + hexane, and toluene + methylcyclohexane....... The best four ILs of each mixture are [mmim][dmp], [emim][bti], [emim][etso4] and [hmim][tcb], respectively. All of them were used as entrainers in the extractive distillation. A process simulation of each system was carried out and showed a lower both energy requirement and solvent usage as compared...

  16. Experienced teachers' informal workplace learning and perceptions of workplace conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.; Korthagen, F.; Brekelmans, M.; Beijaard, D.; Imants, J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore in detail how teachers' perceptions of workplace conditions for learning are related to their informal workplace learning activities and learning outcomes. Design/methodology/approach: From a sample of 32 teachers, a purposeful sampling technique of

  17. Profiling stainless steel welding processes to reduce fume emissions, hexavalent chromium emissions and operating costs in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Michael; Siert, Arlen; Stone, Samuel; Chen, Bean T

    2016-01-01

    Nine gas metal arc welding (GMAW) processes for stainless steel were assessed for fume generation rates, fume generation rates per g of electrode consumed, and emission rates for hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Elemental manganese, nickel, chromium, iron emissions per unit length of weld, and labor plus consumables costs were similarly measured. Flux-cored arc welding and shielded metal arc (SMAW) processes were also studied. The objective was to identify the best welding processes for reducing workplace exposures, and estimate costs for all processes. Using a conical chamber, fumes were collected, weighed, recovered, and analyzed by inductively coupled atomic emission spectroscopy for metals, and by ion chromatography for Cr(6+). GMAW processes used were Surface Tension Transfer, Regulated Metal Deposition, Cold Metal Transfer, short-circuit, axial spray, and pulsed spray modes. Flux-cored welding used gas shielding; SMAW used E308 rods. Costs were estimated as dollars per m length of a ¼ in (6.3 mm) thick horizontal butt weld; equipment costs were estimated as ratios of new equipment costs to a 250 ampere capacity SMAW welding machine. Results indicate a broad range of fume emission factors for the processes studied. Fume emission rates per g of electrode were lowest for GMAW processes such as pulsed-spray mode (0.2 mg/g), and highest for SMAW (8 mg fume/g electrode). Emission rates of Cr(6+) ranged from 50-7800 µg/min, and Cr(6+) generation rates per g electrode ranged from 1-270 µg/g. Elemental Cr generation rates spanned 13-330 µg/g. Manganese emission rates ranged from 50-300 µg/g. Nickel emission rates ranged from 4-140 µg/g. Labor and consumables costs ranged from $3.15 (GMAW pulsed spray) to $7.40 (SMAW) per meter of finished weld, and were measured or estimated for all 11 processes tested. Equipment costs for some processes may be as much as five times the cost of a typical SMAW welding machine. The results show that all of the GMAW processes in this

  18. Design Criteria for Process Wastewater Pretreatment Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-01

    Stripping Column H13 ’Re Purpose: The purpose of this report, is to provide design criteria for pretreatment needs for ’ I. INTRODUCTION ’". discharge of...which a portion of the vessel is filled with packing. Packing materials vary from corrugated steel to bundles of fibers (Langdon et al., 1972) to beds...concentration(s) using Table 20. Wastewater treatability studies should be considered as a process-screening tool for all wastewater streams for

  19. Model-Based Integrated Process Design and Controller Design of Chemical Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abd Hamid, Mohd Kamaruddin Bin

    that is typically formulated as a mathematical programming (optimization with constraints) problem is solved by the so-called reverse approach by decomposing it into four sequential hierarchical sub-problems: (i) pre-analysis, (ii) design analysis, (iii) controller design analysis, and (iv) final selection......This thesis describes the development and application of a new systematic modelbased methodology for performing integrated process design and controller design (IPDC) of chemical processes. The new methodology is simple to apply, easy to visualize and efficient to solve. Here, the IPDC problem...... are ordered according to the defined performance criteria (objective function). The final selected design is then verified through rigorous simulation. In the pre-analysis sub-problem, the concepts of attainable region and driving force are used to locate the optimal process-controller design solution...

  20. New nuclear plant design and licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luangdilok, W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes latest developments in the nuclear power reactor technology with emphasis on three areas: (1) the US technology of advanced passive light water reactors (AP600 and S BWR), (2) regulatory processes that certify their safety, and (3) current engineering concerns. The goal is to provide and insight of how the government's regulatory agency guarantees public safety by looking into how new passive safety features were designed and tested by vendors and how they were re-evaluated and retested by the US NRC. The paper then discusses the US 1989 nuclear licensing reform (10 CFR Part 52) whose objectives are to promote the standardization of nuclear power plants and provide for the early and definitive resolution of site and design issues before plants are built. The new licensing process avoids the unpredictability nd escalated construction cost under the old licensing process. Finally, the paper summarizes engineering concerns found in current light water reactors that may not go away in the new design. The concerns are related the material and water chemistry technology in dealing with corrosion problems in water-cooled nuclear reactor systems (PWRs and BWRs). These engineering concerns include core shroud cracking (BWRs), jet pump hold-down beam cracking (BWRs), steam generator tube stress corrosion cracking (PWR)

  1. Chip Design Process Optimization Based on Design Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häusler, Stefan; Blaschke, Jana; Sebeke, Christian; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Hahn, Axel

    2010-06-01

    Nowadays, the managing of product development projects is increasingly challenging. Especially the IC design of ASICs with both analog and digital components (mixed-signal design) is becoming more and more complex, while the time-to-market window narrows at the same time. Still, high quality standards must be fulfilled. Projects and their status are becoming less transparent due to this complexity. This makes the planning and execution of projects rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need for efficient project control. A main challenge is the objective evaluation of the current development status. Are all requirements successfully verified? Are all intermediate goals achieved? Companies often develop special solutions that are not reusable in other projects. This makes the quality measurement process itself less efficient and produces too much overhead. The method proposed in this paper is a contribution to solve these issues. It is applied at a German design house for analog mixed-signal IC design. This paper presents the results of a case study and introduces an optimized project scheduling on the basis of quality assessment results.

  2. Process evaluation of a workplace health promotion intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Berkel, Jantien; Boot, Cécile R L; Proper, Karin I; Bongers, Paulien M; van der Beek, Allard J

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the process of the implementation of an intervention aimed at improving work engagement and energy balance, and to explore associations between process measures and compliance. Process measures were assessed using a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods. The mindfulness training was attended at least once by 81.3% of subjects, and 54.5% were highly compliant. With regard to e-coaching and homework exercises, 6.3% and 8.0%, respectively, were highly compliant. The training was appreciated with a 7.5 score and e-coaching with a 6.8 score. Appreciation of training and e-coaching, satisfaction with trainer and coach, and practical facilitation were significantly associated with compliance. The intervention was implemented well on the level of the mindfulness training, but poorly on the level of e-coaching and homework time investment. To increase compliance, attention should be paid to satisfaction and trainer-participant relationship.

  3. Workplace Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regular employee meetings. What protections does OSHA offer? The Occupational Safety and Health Act’s ( OSH Act ) General Duty Clause requires employers to provide a safe and healthful workplace for all workers covered by the OSH Act . ...

  4. AUTOMATION DESIGN FOR MONORAIL - BASED SYSTEM PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunda BESA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, conventional methods of decline development put enormous cost pressure on the profitability of mining operations. This is the case with narrow vein ore bodies where current methods and mine design of decline development may be too expensive to support economic extraction of the ore. According to studies, the time it takes to drill, clean and blast an end in conventional decline development can be up to 224 minutes. This is because once an end is blasted, cleaning should first be completed before drilling can commence, resulting in low advance rates per shift. Improvements in advance rates during decline development can be achieved by application of the Electric Monorail Transport System (EMTS based drilling system. The system consists of the drilling and loading components that use monorail technology to drill and clean the face during decline development. The two systems work simultaneously at the face in such a way that as the top part of the face is being drilled the pneumatic loading system cleans the face. However, to improve the efficiency of the two systems, critical processes performed by the two systems during mining operations must be automated. Automation increases safety and productivity, reduces operator fatigue and also reduces the labour costs of the system. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to describe automation designs of the two processes performed by the monorail drilling and loading systems during operations. During automation design, critical processes performed by the two systems and control requirements necessary to allow the two systems execute such processes automatically have also been identified.

  5. Exploring residents’ communication learning process in the workplace: a five-phase model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, V. van den; Vleuten, C. van der; Stalmeijer, R.; Dalen, J. van; Scherpbier, A.; Dulmen, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Context: Competency-based education is a resurgent paradigm in professional medical education. However, more specific knowledge is needed about the learning process of such competencies, since they consist of complex skills. We chose to focus on the competency of skilled communication and want to

  6. Understanding Reactions to Workplace Injustice through Process Theories of Motivation: A Teaching Module and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Mary D.; Rosse, Joseph G.

    2007-01-01

    Management and organizational behavior students are often overwhelmed by the plethora of motivation theories they must master at the undergraduate level. This article offers a teaching module geared toward helping students understand how two major process theories of motivation, equity and expectancy theories and theories of organizational…

  7. Work process and task-based design of intelligent assistance systems in German textile industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhrer, M.; Ziesen, N.; Altepost, A.; Saggiomo, M.; Gloy, Y. S.

    2017-10-01

    The mid-sized embossed German textile industry must face social challenges e.g. demographic change or technical changing processes. Interaction with intelligent systems (on machines) and increasing automation changes processes, working structures and employees’ tasks on all levels. Work contents are getting more complex, resulting in the necessity for diversified and enhanced competencies. Mobile devices like tablets or smartphones are increasingly finding their way into the workplace. Employees who grew up with new forms of media have certain advantages regarding the usage of modern technologies compared to older employees. Therefore, it is necessary to design new systems which help to adapt the competencies of both younger and older employees to new automated production processes in the digital work environment. The key to successful integration of technical assistance systems is user-orientated design and development that includes concepts for competency development under consideration of, e.g., ethical and legal aspects.

  8. Human Factors in Green Office Building Design: The Impact of Workplace Green Features on Health Perceptions in High-Rise High-Density Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern about human factors in green building, which is imperative in high-rise high-density urban environments. This paper describes our attempts to explore the influence of workplace green features (such as green certification, ventilation mode, and building morphology on health perceptions (personal sensation, sensorial assumptions, healing performance based on a survey in Hong Kong and Singapore. The results validated the relationship between green features and health perceptions in the workplace environment. Remarkably, participants from the air-conditioned offices revealed significant higher concerns about health issues than those participants from the mixed-ventilated offices. The mixed-ventilation design performs as a bridge to connect the indoor environment and outdoor space, which enables people to have contact with nature. Additionally, the preferred building morphology of the workplace is the pattern of a building complex instead of a single building. The complex form integrates the configuration of courtyards, podium gardens, green terrace, public plaza, and other types of open spaces with the building clusters, which contributes to better health perceptions. This research contributes to the rationalization and optimization of passive climate-adaptive design strategies for green buildings in high-density tropical or subtropical cities.

  9. Forging process design for risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yongning

    In this dissertation, forging process design has been investigated with the primary concern on risk reduction. Different forged components have been studied, especially those ones that could cause catastrophic loss if failure occurs. As an effective modeling methodology, finite element analysis is applied extensively in this work. Three examples, titanium compressor disk, superalloy turbine disk, and titanium hip prosthesis, have been discussed to demonstrate this approach. Discrete defects such as hard alpha anomalies are known to cause disastrous failure if they are present in those stress critical components. In this research, hard-alpha inclusion movement during forging of titanium compressor disk is studied by finite element analysis. By combining the results from Finite Element Method (FEM), regression modeling and Monte Carlo simulation, it is shown that changing the forging path is able to mitigate the failure risk of the components during the service. The second example goes with a turbine disk made of superalloy IN 718. The effect of forging on microstructure is the main consideration in this study. Microstructure defines the as-forged disk properties. Considering specific forging conditions, preform has its own effect on the microstructure. Through a sensitivity study it is found that forging temperature and speed have significant influence on the microstructure. In order to choose the processing parameters to optimize the microstructure, the dependence of microstructure on die speed and temperature is thoroughly studied using design of numerical experiments. For various desired goals, optimal solutions are determined. The narrow processing window of titanium alloy makes the isothermal forging a preferred way to produce forged parts without forging defects. However, the cost of isothermal forging (dies at the same temperature as the workpiece) limits its wide application. In this research, it has been demonstrated that with proper process design, the die

  10. Gender inequalities in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    OpenAIRE

    Cailin Susan Stamarski; Leanne S. Son Hing

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities with...

  11. Gender inequalities in the workplace: The effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cailin Susan Stamarski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within Human Resources (HR practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers’ levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers’ levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  12. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers’ sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S.; Son Hing, Leanne S.

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers’ levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers’ levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified. PMID:26441775

  13. Gender inequalities in the workplace: the effects of organizational structures, processes, practices, and decision makers' sexism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamarski, Cailin S; Son Hing, Leanne S

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality in organizations is a complex phenomenon that can be seen in organizational structures, processes, and practices. For women, some of the most harmful gender inequalities are enacted within human resources (HRs) practices. This is because HR practices (i.e., policies, decision-making, and their enactment) affect the hiring, training, pay, and promotion of women. We propose a model of gender discrimination in HR that emphasizes the reciprocal nature of gender inequalities within organizations. We suggest that gender discrimination in HR-related decision-making and in the enactment of HR practices stems from gender inequalities in broader organizational structures, processes, and practices. This includes leadership, structure, strategy, culture, organizational climate, as well as HR policies. In addition, organizational decision makers' levels of sexism can affect their likelihood of making gender biased HR-related decisions and/or behaving in a sexist manner while enacting HR practices. Importantly, institutional discrimination in organizational structures, processes, and practices play a pre-eminent role because not only do they affect HR practices, they also provide a socializing context for organizational decision makers' levels of hostile and benevolent sexism. Although we portray gender inequality as a self-reinforcing system that can perpetuate discrimination, important levers for reducing discrimination are identified.

  14. Dual processing and organizational justice: the role of rational versus experiential processing in third-party reactions to workplace mistreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarlicki, Daniel P; Rupp, Deborah E

    2010-09-01

    The moral perspective of justice proposes that when confronted by another person's mistreatment, third parties can experience a deontic response, that is, an evolutionary-based emotional reaction that motivates them to engage in retribution toward the transgressor. In this article, we tested whether the third party's deontic reaction is less strong when a rational (vs. experiential) processing frame is primed. Further, we tested whether third parties high (vs. low) in moral identity are more resistant to the effects of processing frames. Results from a sample of 185 French managers revealed that following an injustice, managers primed to use rational processing reported lower retribution tendencies compared with managers primed to use experiential processing. Third parties high in moral identity, however, were less affected by the framing; they reported a high retribution response regardless of processing frame. Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  15. Design of MPU based process monitoring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Qamar, R.; Majid, B.

    1995-03-01

    A display sub-system (DSS) for a process variable like flow is designed around Intel 8088 microprocessor. It displays the current value of a process variable but average and accumulated value display is manually selectable. The display consists of 6 units of seven segment display and accuracy up to 2 nd place of decimal is achieved. The engineering units are indicated by the LEDs. The control software is developed in assembler and burnt in a EPROM. The maximum value of the display is 9999.99 K. liter and that of time is 99 days 23 hours and 59 minutes. Sampling period is 1 second. Data acquisition is done using Polling technique. (author)

  16. Sustainable process design & analysis of hybrid separations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Befort, Bridgette; Garg, Nipun

    2016-01-01

    Distillation is an energy intensive operation in chemical process industries. There are around 40,000 distillation columns in operation in the US, requiring approximately 40% of the total energy consumption in US chemical process industries. However, analysis of separations by distillation has...... shown that more than 50% of energy is spent in purifying the last 5-10% of the distillate product. Membrane modules on the other hand can achieve high purity separations at lower energy costs, but if the flux is high, it requires large membrane area. A hybrid scheme where distillation and membrane...... modules are combined such that each operates at its highest efficiency, has the potential for significant energy reduction without significant increase of capital costs. This paper presents a method for sustainable design of hybrid distillation-membrane schemes with guaranteed reduction of energy...

  17. A design method for process design kit based on an SMIC 65 nm process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Haiyan; Chen Lan; Yin Minghui

    2010-01-01

    The frame structure of a process design kit (PDK) is described in detail, and a practical design method for PDK is presented. Based on this method, a useful SMIC 65 nm PDK has been successfully designed and realized, which is applicable to native EDA software of Zeni. The design process and difficulties of PDK are introduced by developing and analyzing these parameterized cell (Pcell) devices (MOS, resistor, etc.). A structured design method was proposed to implement Pcell, which makes thousands upon thousands of source codes of Pcell concise, readable, easy-to-upkeep and transplantable. Moreover, a Pcase library for each Pcell is designed to verify the Pcell in batches. By this approach, the Pcell can be verified efficiently and the PDK will be more reliable and steady. In addition, the component description format parameters and layouts of the Pcell are optimized by adding flexibility and improving performance, which benefits analog and custom IC designers to satisfy the demand of design. Finally, the SMIC 65 nm PDK was applied to IC design. The results indicate that the SMIC 65 nm PDK is competent to support IC design. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Reactor design concepts for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berejka, A.J.

    2004-01-01

    During the formative years of irradiation processing, the 1950s and 1960s, there was laboratory and academic interest in the use of this form of energy transfer to initiate polymerization for the manufacture of plastics and in other chemical processes. Studies were often based on low-dose-rate Cobalt-60 systems. The electron beam (EB) accelerator technology of the time was not as yet at the robust and industrially reliable state that it is now at the beginning of the twenty-first century. A series of reactor designs illustrate how an electron beam can be incorporated into reactor vessels for initiating gas and liquid phase polymerizations on a continuous basis. Development of such approaches, which would rely upon contemporary, high current electron beams to initiate polymerization, would help the chemical processing industry alleviate its problems of catalyst disposal and its related environmental concerns. Systems for treating materials in bulk at low doses, such as those typically used for grain disinfection, at high through-put rates, are also illustrated. Simplified shielding is envisioned in each proposed process system

  19. Simulated workplace neutron fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, V.; Taylor, G.; Rottger, S.

    2011-01-01

    The use of simulated workplace neutron fields, which aim at replicating radiation fields at practical workplaces, is an alternative solution for the calibration of neutron dosemeters. They offer more appropriate calibration coefficients when the mean fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion coefficients of the simulated and practical fields are comparable. Intensive Monte Carlo modelling work has become quite indispensable for the design and/or the characterization of the produced mixed neutron/photon fields, and the use of Bonner sphere systems and proton recoil spectrometers is also mandatory for a reliable experimental determination of the neutron fluence energy distribution over the whole energy range. The establishment of a calibration capability with a simulated workplace neutron field is not an easy task; to date only few facilities are available as standard calibration fields. (authors)

  20. Workplace Innovations as Reflected in the Romanian Economic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Leovaridis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Workplace innovations are designed to optimize production processes in firms and improve employees’ working conditions; few researches on this topic have shown that workplace innovations increased employees’ job satisfaction, as well as a sense of responsibility and autonomy, but also employees’ overall well-being, especially regarding to work–life balance and health. Workplace innovation includes aspects regarding work organization (job autonomy, self-managed teams, flexible working etc., organizational structure and systems (devolution of decision-making to employees, fairness and equality, supporting employee initiative etc., learning and development (high involvement innovation, staff learning and development, shared knowledge and experience etc., workplace partnership (social dialogue, representative participation, involvement in change, openness and communication, integrating tacit and strategic knowledge etc.. This paper aims to highlight the main characteristics of workplace innovations in Romanian firms, as they are presented in some economical, business and academic, journals in our country. The research methodology consisted of a content analysis performed on four Romanian economic journals two from academic area (Management and Marketing and Management Dynamics in Knowledge Economy and two from business area (Cariere and Biz. The dimensions of content analysis included the different types of workplace innovations and their effects on organizational performance as well as on employees’ quality of life at the workplace, the size and the source of capital and economic sector of firms that innovate in human resource management, barriers and drivers to the implementation of workplace innovations etc. The period for journals content analysis was 1 year, between January 1 and December 31, 2013. The paper contains a case study for each journal, including abstracts of the most relevant articles on the workplace innovations and

  1. Workplace suitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazaro, A.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptation of workplaces can be defined as an integral service aimed at adapting all work areas to current legislation. At present, these activities involve the restoration of the areas and equipment in all the disciplines, achieving substantial improvements in terms of quality, safety, radiation protection and maintenance. The integral workplace adaptation service has been implemented in the Cofrentes Nuclear Power plant for more than five years and has succeeded in adapting a third of all the cubicles to current legislation. The goal is to continue with these activities until adaption of 100% of the plant cubicles is completed. (Author)

  2. From ergonomics to design specifications: contributions to the design of a processing machine in a tire company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, A S P; Arezes, P M; Vasconcelos, R

    2012-01-01

    The development of ergonomics' recommendations, guidelines and standards are attempts to promote the integration of ergonomics into industrial contexts. Such developments result from several sources and professionals and represent the effort that has been done to develop healthier and safer work environments. However, the availability of large amount of data and documents regarding ergonomics does not guarantee their applicability. The main goal of this paper is to use a specific case to demonstrate how ergonomics criteria were developed in order to contribute to the design of workplaces. Based on the obtained results from research undertaken in a tire company, it was observed that the ergonomics criteria should be presented as design specifications in order to be used by engineers and designers. In conclusion, it is observed that the multiple constraint environment impeded the appliance of the ergonomics criteria. It was also observed that the knowledge on technical design and the acquaintance with ergonomic standards, the level of integration in the design team, and the ability to communicate with workers and other technical staff have paramount importance in integrating ergonomics criteria into the design process.

  3. Design of Nanomaterial Synthesis by Aerosol Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buesser, Beat; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol synthesis of materials is a vibrant field of particle technology and chemical reaction engineering. Examples include the manufacture of carbon blacks, fumed SiO2, pigmentary TiO2, ZnO vulcanizing catalysts, filamentary Ni, and optical fibers, materials that impact transportation, construction, pharmaceuticals, energy, and communications. Parallel to this, development of novel, scalable aerosol processes has enabled synthesis of new functional nanomaterials (e.g., catalysts, biomaterials, electroceramics) and devices (e.g., gas sensors). This review provides an access point for engineers to the multiscale design of aerosol reactors for the synthesis of nanomaterials using continuum, mesoscale, molecular dynamics, and quantum mechanics models spanning 10 and 15 orders of magnitude in length and time, respectively. Key design features are the rapid chemistry; the high particle concentrations but low volume fractions; the attainment of a self-preserving particle size distribution by coagulation; the ratio of the characteristic times of coagulation and sintering, which controls the extent of particle aggregation; and the narrowing of the aggregate primary particle size distribution by sintering. PMID:22468598

  4. Toward automating the database design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asprey, P.L.

    1979-01-01

    One organization's approach to designing complex, interrelated databases is described. The problems encountered and the techniques developed are discussed. A set of software tools to aid the designer and to produce an initial database design directly is presented. 5 figures

  5. Environmental Workplace Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Jacques; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes environmental workplace assessments as tools in developing customized training, highlighting the group process and individual interview techniques. Suggests that, by assessing the cultural climate of an organization, education providers can gather essential baseline information on an organization and thereby provide a guide for further…

  6. Understanding Managerial Problem-Solving, Knowledge Use and Information Processing: Investigating Stages from School to the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Jos A. R.; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Boshuizen, Henny P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The present study explores stages in managerial problem-solving skills of participants beginning with formal education, and continuing through the professional workplace setting. We studied nine different levels of expertise: from novice student groups, to graduates and expert groups. Participants were asked to diagnose and solve business cases.…

  7. Decision-making processes in the workplace : how exhaustion, lack of resources and job demands impair them and affect performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschi, A.; Demerouti, E.; Sartori, R.; Weller, J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been

  8. Decision-making processes in the workplace : How exhaustion, lack of resources and job demands impair them and affect performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ceschi, Andrea; Demerouti, Evangelia; Sartori, Riccardo; Weller, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to connect more the I/O and the decision-making psychological domains, by showing how some common components across jobs interfere with decision-making and affecting performance. Two distinct constructs that can contribute to positive workplace performance have been

  9. Changing Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    These four papers are from a symposium on changing workplaces. "Women Entrepreneurs: Maintaining Business Success through Human Resource Development" (Dominic G. Kamau , Gary N. McLean, Alexander Ardishvili) investigates contributions of human resource development (HRD) to business success and reports the following: (1) women can be…

  10. Changing Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on the changing workplace and its relationship to human resource development (HRD). In "Globalization, Immigration and Quality of Life Dynamics for Reverse Brain Drains" (Ben-Chieh Liu, Maw Lin Lee, Hau-Lien), the factors responsible for the brain drain from Taiwan to the United States…

  11. Workplace incivility: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the meaning of the concept 'workplace incivility' and promote consistency in its application in nursing research and practice. The methodology introduced by Walker and Avant was used to analyze this concept. A total number of 50 studies that had essentially addressed the concept of incivility in employees' work environment was selected. Ambiguous intent, violation of mutual respect, low intensity and lack of physical assault were identified as the defining attributes of workplace incivility. The necessary antecedent of workplace incivility consisted of the presence of two or more people, with one or more as the source of the incivility, and another or others as its target in the workplace. Moreover, certain individual and organisational factors were the potential antecedents of workplace incivility. Possible negative outcomes for victims, witnesses, organisations, society and perpetrators of such behaviours, such as increased cost for the organisation, reduced citizenship performance, psychological distress and anxiety were identified as outcomes of workplace incivility. Results of the current concept analysis can guide nurse managers to design interventions so that the occurrence of workplace incivility can be reduced. Further studies can focus on testing the psychometric properties of the existing workplace incivility scales, especially uncivil behaviours experienced by nurses across different societies or cultures.

  12. Colour terms in the interior design process

    OpenAIRE

    Attiah, DY; Cheung, TLV; Westland, S; Bromilow, D

    2015-01-01

    Colour is a very important topic that interior designers need to consider. Considerable research has been conducted in the area of colour application in interior design; in this study we are concerned with colour terms in interior design, mainly the terms designers use and know about. Fifteen interior designers with varied professional backgrounds, but based in the Middle East (Saudi Arabia, Dubai, Bahrain, Lebanon, Egypt, and Turkey), were interviewed. Previously we reported that fourteen ou...

  13. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    OpenAIRE

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype software tool and the design method are developed as part of the Ph.D. project of Isabelle Reymen. The goal of the design method is supporting designers with reflection on design processes in a systemati...

  14. Exploring Biomimicry in the Students' Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boga-Akyol, Miray; Timur-Ogut, Sebnem

    2016-01-01

    Since the very early days of history, human beings "designed" things by looking at nature. In our days, the use of nature in design has become more systematic and detailed. Although as old as humanity itself, use of nature especially in the field of design still offers novelty and often brings success in solving problems in a sustainable…

  15. Ergonomics in designing process: dialogue between designers, executors and users in the maintenance activity of radars in an oil refinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegon, Fabrício Augusto; Rodrigues, Daniela da Silva; Fontes, Andréa Regina Martins; Menegon, Nilton Luiz

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss the role of ergonomics in design process using the dialogue developed by designers, implementers and users in an oil refinery. It was possible to identify the need of minimizing the postural constraints, risk of accidents, mechanical shocks and to enlarge safety perception in the access and permanency of the users at the workspace. It has been determined and validated by workers and managers to implement different deadlines depending on programming, viability and execution time for the improvements proposed. In a long-term: it was proposed the substitution of the ladders with time planning according to the maintenance program of the tanks; in a short-time: it was suggested the expansion of the existing platforms, implementation of a walkway connection provided with guardrails between the upper access of the side ladder and the repositioning of radar set and aerial aiming at the usage by workers at the workstation of the new platform. It was also elaborated eight typologies of intervention, according to the request, type of tank, material stored, and its setting place. The design process arises from ergonomics workplace analysis that presents concepts for solutions which was a mediator tool to be settled between users and implementers.

  16. Perspective Taking in Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zappalà Salvatore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Workplaces are often described as places in which individuals are motivated by their self-interests and in which negative events like time pressure, anxiety, conflict with co-workers, miscomprehensions, difficulties in solving problems, not-transmitted or not-exchanged information that lead to mistakes, and in some cases to injuries, stress or control, are part of everyday life (Dormann & Zapf, 2002; Schabracq, Winnubst and Cooper, 2003. Such situations are often the result of the limited comprehension of needs, skills, or information available to colleagues, supervisors, subordinates, clients or providers. However, workplaces are also places in which employees take care of clients, support colleagues and subordinates (Rhoades & Eisenberger, 2002, are enthusiastic about their job (Bakker et al., 2008, are motivated by leaders that encourage employees to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or the organization and provide them with the confidence to perform beyond expectations (Bass, 1997. Thus positive relationships at work are becoming a new interdisciplinary domain of inquiry (Dutton & Ragins, 2006. Within this positive relationships framework, in this paper we focus on a positive component of workplaces, and particularly on an individual cognitive and emotional process that has an important role in the workplace because it facilitates interpersonal relations and communications: it is the perspective taking process. In order to describe perspective taking, we will refer to some empirical studies and particularly to the review published by Parker, Atkins and Axtell in 2008 on the International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

  17. Development, content validity, and piloting of an instrument designed to measure managers' attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Tan; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H

    2012-07-01

    Manager attitude is influential in female employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support. Currently, no instrument is available to assess manager attitude toward supporting women who wish to combine breastfeeding with work. We developed and piloted an instrument to measure manager attitudes toward workplace breastfeeding support entitled the "Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire," an instrument that measures four constructs using 60 items that are rated agree/disagree on a 4-point Likert rating scale. We established the content validity of the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures through expert content review (n=22), expert assessment of item fit (n=11), and cognitive interviews (n=8). Data were collected from a purposive sample of 185 front-line managers who had experience supervising female employees, and responses were scaled using the Multidimensional Random Coefficients Multinomial Logit Model. Dimensionality analyses supported the proposed four-construct model. Reliability ranged from 0.75 to 0.86, and correlations between the constructs were moderately strong (0.47 to 0.71). Four items in two constructs exhibited model-to-data misfit and/or a low score-measure correlation. One item was revised and the other three items were retained in the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire. Findings of this study suggest that the Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire measures are reliable and valid indicators of manager attitude toward workplace breastfeeding support, and future research should be conducted to establish external validity. The Managers' Attitude Toward Breastfeeding Support Questionnaire could be used to collect data in a standardized manner within and across companies to measure and compare manager attitudes toward supporting breastfeeding. Organizations can subsequently develop targeted strategies to improve support for breastfeeding

  18. The Role(s) of Process Models in Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Søren; Jensen, Mads Kunø Nyegaard; Vistisen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates how design process models are implemented and used in design-driven organisations. The archetypical theoretical framing of process models, describe their primary role as guiding the design process, and assign roles and deliverables throughout the process. We hypothesise...... that the process models also take more communicative roles in practice, both in terms of creating an internal design rationale, as well as demystifying the black box of design thinking to external stakeholders. We investigate this hypothesis through an interview study of four major danish design......-driven organisations, and analyse the different roles their archetypical process models take in their organisations. The main contribution is the identification of three, often overlapping roles, which design process models showed to assume in design-driven organisations: process guidance, adding transparency...

  19. Reducing musculoskeletal discomfort: effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Michelle M; O'Neill, Michael J

    2003-01-01

    Effects of an office ergonomics workplace and training intervention on workers' knowledge and self-reported musculoskeletal pain and discomfort were investigated. An instructional systems design process was used to develop an office ergonomics training program and the evaluation tools used to measure the effectiveness of the training program on workers' office ergonomics knowledge and skills. It was hypothesized that the training and workplace intervention would allow the worker to more effectively use their workplace through increased office ergonomics knowledge and skills. Following the intervention, there was a significant increase in workers' office ergonomics knowledge and awareness. Self-reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders significantly decreased for the group who had a workplace change and received ergonomic training relative to a workplace change-only group and a no intervention control group.

  20. Modeling and simulation for process and safeguards system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmacher, R.G.; Kern, E.A.; Duncan, D.R.; Benecke, M.W.

    1983-01-01

    A computer modeling and simulation approach that meets the needs of both the process and safeguards system designers is described. The results have been useful to Westinghouse Hanford Company process designers in optimizing the process scenario and operating scheme of the Secure Automated Fabrication line. The combined process/measurements model will serve as the basis for design of the safeguards system. Integration of the process design and the safeguards system design should result in a smoothly operating process that is easier to safeguard

  1. On the Process of Software Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    Software design is a complex undertaking. This study delineates and analyses three major constituents of this complexity: the formative element entailed in articulating and reaching closure on a design, the progress imperative entailed in making estimates and tracking status, and the collaboratio...... disintegrate, but the activities required to avoid this may be costly in terms of scarce resources such as the time of key designers...

  2. Process of system design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, B.

    1995-01-01

    The design of an effective physical protection system includes the determination of the physical protection system objectives, the initial design of a physical protection system, the evaluation of the design, and, probably, a redesign or refinement of the system. To develop the objectives, the designer must begin by gathering information about facility operations and conditions, such as a comprehensive description of the facility, operating states, and the physical protection requirements. The designer then needs to define the threat. This involves considering factors about potential adversaries: Class of adversary, adversary's capabilities, and range of adversary's tactics. Next, the designer should identify targets. Determination of whether or not nuclear materials are attractive targets is based mainly on the ease or difficulty of acquisition and desirability of the materiaL The designer now knows the objectives of the physical protection system, that is, ''What to protect against whom.'' The next step is to design the system by determining how best to combine such elements as fences, vaults, sensors, procedures, communication devices, and protective force personnel to meet the objectives of the system. Once a physical protection system is designed, it must be analyzed and evaluated to ensure it meets the physical protection objectives. Evaluation must allow for features working together to assure protection rather than regarding each feature separately. Due to the complexity of protection systems, an evaluation usually requires modeling techniques. If any vulnerabilities are found, the initial system must be redesigned to correct the vulnerabilities and a reevaluation conducted

  3. Learning design and feedback processes at scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringtved, Ulla L.; Miligan, Sandra; Corrin, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Design for teaching in scaled courses is shifting away from replication of the traditional on-campus or online teaching-learning relationship towards exploiting the distinctive characteristic and potentials of that environment to transform both teaching and learning. This involves consideration...... design and would benefit from learning analytics support? What is the character of analytics that can be deployed to help deliver good design of online learning platforms? What are the theoretical and pedagogical bases inherent in different analytics designs? These and other questions will be examined...

  4. Creativity Processes of Students in the Design Studio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Amy Mattingly; Leigh, Katharine E.; Tremblay, Kenneth R., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    The creative process is a multifaceted and dynamic path of thinking required to execute a project in design-based disciplines. The goal of this research was to test a model outlining the creative design process by investigating student experiences in a design project assignment. The study used an exploratory design to collect data from student…

  5. Automated simulation and study of spatial-structural design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davila Delgado, J.M.; Hofmeyer, H.; Stouffs, R.; Sariyildiz, S.

    2013-01-01

    A so-called "Design Process Investigation toolbox" (DPI toolbox), has been developed. It is a set of computational tools that simulate spatial-structural design processes. Its objectives are to study spatial-structural design processes and to support the involved actors. Two case-studies are

  6. Computer Applications in the Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchip, Susan

    Computer Assisted Design (CAD) and Computer Assisted Manufacturing (CAM) are emerging technologies now being used in home economics and interior design applications. A microcomputer in a computer network system is capable of executing computer graphic functions such as three-dimensional modeling, as well as utilizing office automation packages to…

  7. Simulation-based optimization for product and process design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The design of products and processes has gradually shifted from a purely physical process towards a process that heavily relies on computer simulations (virtual prototyping). To optimize this virtual design process in terms of speed and final product quality, statistical methods and mathematical

  8. Cooling water systems design using process integration

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gololo, KV

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cooling water systems are generally designed with a set of heat exchangers arranged in parallel. This arrangement results in higher cooling water flowrate and low cooling water return temperature thus reducing cooling tower efficiency. Previous...

  9. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices....... The two key points in the article are the introduction of a Quadrant-Model, and the understanding of the user as a construction....

  10. Structures and Processes in Didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik; Heilesen, Simon

    This paper introduces a user-driven approach to designing new educational formats including new media for learning. Focus will be on didactic design involving the use of information technology as a means of mediating, augmenting or even fundamentally changing teaching and learning practices....... The two key points in the article are the introduction of a Quadrant-Model, and the understanding of the user as a construction....

  11. The incongruity of workplace bullying victimization and inclusive excellence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurec, Laura Cox; Kennison, Monica; Gillen, Patricia

    Bullying occurs frequently-and with significant negative outcomes-in workplace settings. Once established, bullying endures in the workplace, requiring the interaction of a bully perpetrator and an intended target who takes on the role of victim. Not every target becomes a victim, however. The purpose of this study is to investigate the processes by which targets, intended objects of bullies' affronts, become victims, those individuals who experience ongoing emotional injury in response to bullies' affronts, and to clarify how bullying victimization impedes inclusive excellence in the workplace. The design for this study was pragmatic utility, an inductive research approach grounded in assumptions of hermeneutics. The pragmatic utility process involved the investigators' synthesis of descriptions from a broad, interdisciplinary published literature. Integrating knowledge from their previous research and practice experiences with the pragmatic utility process, they derived qualitative features of victims' experiences, differentiating target from victim in bullying encounters. For those targets who ultimately are victimized, response to bullies' affronts extends far beyond the immediate present. Redolence of personal, lived experience revives bygone vulnerabilities, and naïve communication and relationship expectations reinforce a long-standing, impoverished sense. That sense couples with workplace dynamics to augment a context of exclusion. Findings suggest that, as Heidegger contended, we are our histories. Personal history demonstrates a significance influence on the manifestation of bullying victimization, acting to distance them from their workplace peers and to impede inclusive excellence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. On Intelligent Design and Planning Method of Process Route Based on Gun Breech Machining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongzhi, Zhao; Jian, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    The paper states an approach of intelligent design and planning of process route based on gun breech machining process, against several problems, such as complex machining process of gun breech, tedious route design and long period of its traditional unmanageable process route. Based on gun breech machining process, intelligent design and planning system of process route are developed by virtue of DEST and VC++. The system includes two functional modules--process route intelligent design and its planning. The process route intelligent design module, through the analysis of gun breech machining process, summarizes breech process knowledge so as to complete the design of knowledge base and inference engine. And then gun breech process route intelligently output. On the basis of intelligent route design module, the final process route is made, edited and managed in the process route planning module.

  13. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product......, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack...

  14. Capturing Creativity in Collaborative Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J. U.; Onarheim, Balder

    2015-01-01

    process and present the process in a visual overview with the use of a visual language of symbols. The framework, entitled C3, Capturing Creativity in Context, is presented and subsequently evaluated based on a pilot study utilizing C3. Here it was found that the framework was particularly useful...

  15. Design cocoa processing towards healthy cocoa products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz-Reyes, Cinthya Nathaly; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2018-01-01

    Roasting and fermentation are key steps in cocoa processing that can be modulated to optimize the presence of health-promoting compounds in the final product. Roasting promote melanoidins formation and polyphenols depolymerization. Results of Forastero and Criollo cocoa beans were processed in

  16. Construction Analysis during the Design Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de B.; Harink, J.M.J.; Martens, B.; Brown, A.

    2005-01-01

    4D CAD systems are used by contractors for visually checking the construction process. To enable simulation of the construction process, the construction planner links building components from a CAD model with the activities from a project planning. In this paper we describe a method to generate a

  17. Assessing the validity of measures of an instrument designed to measure employees' perceptions of workplace breastfeeding support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Sally W; Wolfe, Edward W; Olson, Beth H

    2008-09-01

    Breastfeeding rates among working mothers are lower than among mothers who are not employed. An ecological framework suggests that health behaviors, such as breastfeeding, are influenced by intrapersonal and environmental factors. There is no existing instrument to measure women's perception of the workplace environment in providing breastfeeding support. The objective of this study was to pilot an instrument measuring perceptions of the work climate for breastfeeding support among working women. Data were collected from self-administered mailed questionnaires filled out by 104 pregnant women or women who had recently given birth and were employed and breastfeeding. Dimensionally analyses supported the two-dimensional model suggested by the literature. Internal consistency reliability coefficients were high (near 0.90), and the correlation between the subscales was moderately strong (0.68). Only a single item exhibited misfit to the scaling model, and that item was revised after review.

  18. Methodology for fire PSA during design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Blombach, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA is an essential part of a full scope level 1 PSA. Cable fires play an important role in fire PSA. Usually, cable routing is therefore modeled in detail. During the design of new nuclear power plants the information on cable routing is not yet available. However, for the use of probabilistic safety insights during the design and for licensing purposes a fire PSA may be requested. Therefore a methodology has been developed which makes use of the strictly divisional separation of redundancies in the design of modern nuclear power plants: cable routing is not needed within one division but replaced by the conservative assumption that all equipment fails due to a fire in the concerned division; critical fire areas are defined where components belonging to different divisions may be affected by a fire. For the determination of fire frequencies a component based approach is proposed. The resulting core damage frequencies due to fire are conservative. (orig.)

  19. Group Contribution Based Process Flowsheet Synthesis, Design and Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc; Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process-group-contribution Method to model. simulate and synthesize a flowsheet. The process-group based representation of a flowsheet together with a process "property" model are presented. The process-group based synthesis method is developed on the basis of the computer...... aided molecular design methods and gives the ability to screen numerous process alternatives without the need to use the rigorous process simulation models. The process "property" model calculates the design targets for the generated flowsheet alternatives while a reverse modelling method (also...... developed) determines the design variables matching the target. A simple illustrative example highlighting the main features of the methodology is also presented....

  20. Iterative design process for robots with personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meerbeek, B.W.; Saerbeck, M.; Bartneck, C.; Dautenhahn, K.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has shown that autonomous robots tend to induce the perception of a personality through their behavior and appearance. It has therefore been suggested that the personality of a robot can be used as a design guideline. A welldefined and clearly communicated personality can serve as

  1. Study on Product Innovative Design Process Driven by Ideal Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuying; Lu, Ximei; Wang, Ping; Liu, Hui

    Product innovative design in companies today relies heavily on individual members’ experience and creative ideation as well as their skills of integrating creativity and innovation tools with design methods agilely. Creative ideation and inventive ideas generation are two crucial stages in product innovative design process. Ideal solution is the desire final ideas for given problem, and the striving reaching target for product design. In this paper, a product innovative design process driven by ideal solution is proposed. This design process encourages designers to overcome their psychological inertia, to foster creativity in a systematic way for acquiring breakthrough creative and innovative solutions in a reducing sphere of solution-seeking, and results in effective product innovative design rapidly. A case study example is also presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed design process.

  2. Information processing theory in the early design stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Kreye, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    suggestions for improvements and support. One theory that may be particularly applicable to the early design stages is Information Processing Theory (IPT) as it is linked to the design process with regard to the key concepts considered. IPT states that designers search for information if they perceive......, the new knowledge is shared between the design team to reduce ambiguity with regards to its meaning and to build a shared understanding – reducing perceived uncertainty. Thus, we propose that Information-Processing Theory is suitable to describe designer activity in the early design stages...... uncertainty with regard to the knowledge necessary to solve a design challenge. They then process this information and compare if the new knowledge they have gained covers the previous knowledge gap. In engineering design, uncertainty plays a key role, particularly in the early design stages which has been...

  3. A Gaussian decision-support tool for engineering design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabali Nejad, Mohammadreza; Spitas, Christos

    2013-01-01

    Decision-making in design is of great importance, resulting in success or failure of a system (Liu et al., 2010; Roozenburg and Eekels, 1995; Spitas, 2011a). This paper describes a robust decision-support tool for engineering design process, which can be used throughout the design process in either

  4. Information Architecture without Internal Theory: An Inductive Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverty, Marsha

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that information architecture design is primarily an inductive process, partly because it lacks internal theory and partly because it is an activity that supports emergent phenomena (user experiences) from basic design components. Suggests a resemblance to Constructive Induction, a design process that locates the best representational…

  5. Knowledge and Processes in Design. DPS Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirolli, Peter

    Four papers from a project concerning information-processing characterizations of the knowledge and processes involved in design are presented. The project collected and analyzed verbal protocols from instructional designers, architects, and mechanical engineers. A framework was developed for characterizing the problem spaces of design that…

  6. Green Diesel from Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil Process Design Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilbers, T.J.; Sprakel, Lisette Maria Johanna; van den Enk, L.B.J.; Zaalberg, B.; van den Berg, Henderikus; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic approach was applied to study the process of hydrotreating vegetable oils. During the three phases of conceptual, detailed, and final design, unit operations were designed and sized. Modeling of the process was performed with UniSim Design®. Producing green diesel and jet fuel from

  7. Designing Educative Curriculum Materials: A Theoretically and Empirically Driven Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan; Arias, Anna Maria; Bismack, Amber Schultz; Marulis, Loren M.; Iwashyna, Stefanie K.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue for a design process in the development of educative curriculum materials that is theoretically and empirically driven. Using a design-based research approach, they describe their design process for incorporating educative features intended to promote teacher learning into existing, high-quality curriculum…

  8. A Design Methodology for Medical Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Simona; Bonacina, Stefano; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Pinciroli, Francesco; Marceglia, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Healthcare processes, especially those belonging to the clinical domain, are acknowledged as complex and characterized by the dynamic nature of the diagnosis, the variability of the decisions made by experts driven by their experiences, the local constraints, the patient's needs, the uncertainty of the patient's response, and the indeterminacy of patient's compliance to treatment. Also, the multiple actors involved in patient's care need clear and transparent communication to ensure care coordination. In this paper, we propose a methodology to model healthcare processes in order to break out complexity and provide transparency. The model is grounded on a set of requirements that make the healthcare domain unique with respect to other knowledge domains. The modeling methodology is based on three main phases: the study of the environmental context, the conceptual modeling, and the logical modeling. The proposed methodology was validated by applying it to the case study of the rehabilitation process of stroke patients in the specific setting of a specialized rehabilitation center. The resulting model was used to define the specifications of a software artifact for the digital administration and collection of assessment tests that was also implemented. Despite being only an example, our case study showed the ability of process modeling to answer the actual needs in healthcare practices. Independently from the medical domain in which the modeling effort is done, the proposed methodology is useful to create high-quality models, and to detect and take into account relevant and tricky situations that can occur during process execution.

  9. Artificial intelligence in process design and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudduth, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) has recently become prominent in the discussion of computer applications in the utility business. In order to assess this technology, a research project was performed to determine whether software development techniques based on AI could be used to facilitate management of information associated with the design of a generating station. The approach taken was the development of an expert system, using a relatively simple set of rules acting on a more complex knowledge base. A successful prototype for the application was developed and its potential extension to a production environment demonstrated. During the course of prototype development, other possible applications of AI in design engineering were discovered, and areas of particular interest selected for further investigation. A plan for AI R and D was formulated. That plan and other possible future work in AI are discussed

  10. Identifying critical success factors for designing selection processes into postgraduate specialty training: the case of UK general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plint, Simon; Patterson, Fiona

    2010-06-01

    The UK national recruitment process into general practice training has been developed over several years, with incremental introduction of stages which have been piloted and validated. Previously independent processes, which encouraged multiple applications and produced inconsistent outcomes, have been replaced by a robust national process which has high reliability and predictive validity, and is perceived to be fair by candidates and allocates applicants equitably across the country. Best selection practice involves a job analysis which identifies required competencies, then designs reliable assessment methods to measure them, and over the long term ensures that the process has predictive validity against future performance. The general practitioner recruitment process introduced machine markable short listing assessments for the first time in the UK postgraduate recruitment context, and also adopted selection centre workplace simulations. The key success factors have been identified as corporate commitment to the goal of a national process, with gradual convergence maintaining locus of control rather than the imposition of change without perceived legitimate authority.

  11. 77 FR 41248 - Disaster Designation Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... more of at least one crop (not property or things included in the rule's definition of physical losses... done to ensure that will not happen with the new process? Response: The general drought authority will... production losses are removed from the definition section. Does that mean that the lack of getting a lender...

  12. Adding Users to the Website Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomeo, Megan L.

    2012-01-01

    Alden Library began redesigning its website over a year ago. Throughout the redesign process the students, faculty, and staff that make up the user base were added to the conversation by utilizing several usability test methods. This article focuses on the usability testing conducted at Alden Library and delves into future usability testing, which…

  13. A Design Methodology for Medical Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacina, Stefano; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Pinciroli, Francesco; Marceglia, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Healthcare processes, especially those belonging to the clinical domain, are acknowledged as complex and characterized by the dynamic nature of the diagnosis, the variability of the decisions made by experts driven by their experiences, the local constraints, the patient’s needs, the uncertainty of the patient’s response, and the indeterminacy of patient’s compliance to treatment. Also, the multiple actors involved in patient’s care need clear and transparent communication to ensure care coordination. Objectives In this paper, we propose a methodology to model healthcare processes in order to break out complexity and provide transparency. Methods The model is grounded on a set of requirements that make the healthcare domain unique with respect to other knowledge domains. The modeling methodology is based on three main phases: the study of the environmental context, the conceptual modeling, and the logical modeling. Results The proposed methodology was validated by applying it to the case study of the rehabilitation process of stroke patients in the specific setting of a specialized rehabilitation center. The resulting model was used to define the specifications of a software artifact for the digital administration and collection of assessment tests that was also implemented. Conclusions Despite being only an example, our case study showed the ability of process modeling to answer the actual needs in healthcare practices. Independently from the medical domain in which the modeling effort is done, the proposed methodology is useful to create high-quality models, and to detect and take into account relevant and tricky situations that can occur during process execution. PMID:27081415

  14. Future Perspective : Design Process of Perfume Packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    In a world where technology develops at a rapid speed a packaging designer should have the ability to adapt to the challenges in a world where the packaging landscape might look far more different from today. This thesis will look at possible future scenarios relating to resources, infrastructure and consumer behaviour in the year 2050. It will then go on to discuss the emergence of new packaging materials pitted to replace plastic, as well as take a look at printed electronics in packaging a...

  15. Reducing Design Cycle Time and Cost Through Process Resequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, James L.

    2004-01-01

    In today's competitive environment, companies are under enormous pressure to reduce the time and cost of their design cycle. One method for reducing both time and cost is to develop an understanding of the flow of the design processes and the effects of the iterative subcycles that are found in complex design projects. Once these aspects are understood, the design manager can make decisions that take advantage of decomposition, concurrent engineering, and parallel processing techniques to reduce the total time and the total cost of the design cycle. One software tool that can aid in this decision-making process is the Design Manager's Aid for Intelligent Decomposition (DeMAID). The DeMAID software minimizes the feedback couplings that create iterative subcycles, groups processes into iterative subcycles, and decomposes the subcycles into a hierarchical structure. The real benefits of producing the best design in the least time and at a minimum cost are obtained from sequencing the processes in the subcycles.

  16. Integrating Thermal Tools Into the Mechanical Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.; Siebes, Georg; Novak, Keith S.; Kinsella, Gary M.

    1999-01-01

    The intent of mechanical design is to deliver a hardware product that meets or exceeds customer expectations, while reducing cycle time and cost. To this end, an integrated mechanical design process enables the idea of parallel development (concurrent engineering). This represents a shift from the traditional mechanical design process. With such a concurrent process, there are significant issues that have to be identified and addressed before re-engineering the mechanical design process to facilitate concurrent engineering. These issues also assist in the integration and re-engineering of the thermal design sub-process since it resides within the entire mechanical design process. With these issues in mind, a thermal design sub-process can be re-defined in a manner that has a higher probability of acceptance, thus enabling an integrated mechanical design process. However, the actual implementation is not always problem-free. Experience in applying the thermal design sub-process to actual situations provides the evidence for improvement, but more importantly, for judging the viability and feasibility of the sub-process.

  17. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    2010-01-01

    some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part......Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key...... words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find...

  18. Integrating conceptualizations of experience into the interaction design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Peter

    2010-01-01

    From a design perspective, the increasing awareness of experiential aspects of interactive systems prompts the question of how conceptualizations of experience can inform and potentially be integrated into the interaction design process. This paper presents one approach to integrating theoretical...

  19. Some design aspects of multistage flash distillation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Mohammad.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of the design variables of multistage flash (MSF) process on the performance and/or the cost of the desalting plant, and to establish certain design trends

  20. The Lean Design of Manufacturing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana Strachotová

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is intended to using of Six Sigma methodology. A break trough strategy to significantly improve customer satisfaction and shareholder value by reducing variability in every aspects of business. It enhances the ability to delivery customer satisfaction and cost improvement results faster – within months from the start, and sustains the rate of improvement on-going. One of the most powerful ways to improve business performance is combining business process management (BPM strategies with Six Sigma strategies. BPM strategies emphasize process improvements and automation to drive performance, while Six Sigma uses statistical analysis to drive quality improvements. The two strategies are not mutually exclusive, however, and some savvy companies have discovered that combining BPM and Six Sigma can create dramatic results. Six Sigma methodology teaches and deploys hard skills and business practices emphasizing.

  1. Conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid separation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiborowski, Mirko; Harwardt, Andreas; Marquardt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid separation processes combine different separation principles and constitute a promising design option for the separation of complex mixtures. Particularly, the integration of distillation with other unit operations can significantly improve the separation of close-boiling or azeotropic mixtures. Although the design of single-unit operations is well understood and supported by computational methods, the optimal design of flowsheets of hybrid separation processes is still a challenging task. The large number of operational and design degrees of freedom requires a systematic and optimization-based design approach. To this end, a structured approach, the so-called process synthesis framework, is proposed. This article reviews available computational methods for the conceptual design of distillation-based hybrid processes for the separation of liquid mixtures. Open problems are identified that must be addressed to finally establish a structured process synthesis framework for such processes.

  2. Structural design considerations for a radwaste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foelber, S.C.; Sabbe, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The structural engineer needs to consider several criteria when designing a radioactive-waste processing facility in order to properly balance the requirements of safety and economy. This paper addresses the design criteria and structural design of a vitrification building and the special equipment and supports associated with remote process operations. In addition, approaches to construction, and the role of scale models to aid in engineering design and construction are discussed. 5 figures

  3. The application of image processing software: Photoshop in environmental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Baohua; Zhang, Chunmi; Zhuo, Chen

    2011-02-01

    In the process of environmental design and creation, the design sketch holds a very important position in that it not only illuminates the design's idea and concept but also shows the design's visual effects to the client. In the field of environmental design, computer aided design has made significant improvement. Many types of specialized design software for environmental performance of the drawings and post artistic processing have been implemented. Additionally, with the use of this software, working efficiency has greatly increased and drawings have become more specific and more specialized. By analyzing the application of photoshop image processing software in environmental design and comparing and contrasting traditional hand drawing and drawing with modern technology, this essay will further explore the way for computer technology to play a bigger role in environmental design.

  4. SHIPBUILDING PRODUCTION PROCESS DESIGN METHODOLOGY USING COMPUTER SIMULATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marko Hadjina; Nikša Fafandjel; Tin Matulja

    2015-01-01

    In this research a shipbuilding production process design methodology, using computer simulation, is suggested. It is expected from suggested methodology to give better and more efficient tool for complex shipbuilding production processes design procedure. Within the first part of this research existing practice for production process design in shipbuilding was discussed, its shortcomings and problem were emphasized. In continuing, discrete event simulation modelling method, as basis of sugge...

  5. Simulation-enhanced lean design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon H. Marvel

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available 72 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} A traditional lean transformation process does not validate the future state before implementation, relying instead on a series of iterations to modify the system until performance is satisfactory. An enhanced lean process that includes future state validation before implementation is presented.  Simulation modeling and experimentation is proposed as the primary validation tool.  Simulation modeling and experimentation extends value stream mapping to include time, the behavior of individual entities, structural variability, random variability, and component interaction effects. Experiments to analyze the model and draw conclusions about whether the lean transformation effectively addresses the current state gap can be conducted.  Industrial applications of the enhanced lean process show it effectiveness.

  6. Design and optimization of sustainable process technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.; Qin, Fen; Yamakawa, Celina Kiyomi

    has been then considered a keypoint to achieve such purposes, being also able to result in potential environmental, economic, and social benefits. In this sense, the Biomass Conversion and Bioprocess TechnologyGroup (BCBT) has been working on the development of newstrategies for the use of biomass......, minimizing the costs and maximizing the efficiencyand productivity.Once the optimal conditions are identified, the process scale-up can be then evaluated. This could be translated in a faster time to market for newprocess technologies....

  7. Integrated Intelligent Modeling, Design and Control of Crystal Growth Processes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prasad, V

    2000-01-01

    .... This MURI program took an integrated approach towards modeling, design and control of crystal growth processes and in conjunction with growth and characterization experiments developed much better...

  8. Managing Workplace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Andrew Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Diversity management is a process intended to create and maintain a positive work environment where the similarities and differences of individuals are valued. The literature on diversity management has mostly emphasized on organization culture; its impact on diversity openness; human resource management practices; institutional environments and organizational contexts to diversity-related pressures, expectations, requirements, and incentives; perceived practices and organizational outcomes related to managing employee diversity; and several other issues. The current study examines the potential barriers to workplace diversity and suggests strategies to enhance workplace diversity and inclusiveness. It is based on a survey of 300 IT employees. The study concludes that successfully managing diversity can lead to more committed, better satisfied, better performing employees and potentially better financial performance for an organization.

  9. Federal Workplace Literacy Project. Internal Evaluation Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszak, David J.

    This report describes the following components of the Nestle Workplace Literacy Project: six job task analyses, curricula for six workplace basic skills training programs, delivery of courses using these curricula, and evaluation of the process. These six job categories were targeted for training: forklift loader/checker, BB's processing systems…

  10. Management of Constraint Generators in Fashion Store Design Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch Münster, Mia; Haug, Anders

    2017-01-01

    of the literature and eight case studies of fashion store design projects. Findings: The paper shows that the influence of the constraint generators decreases during the design process except for supplier-generated constraints, which increase in the final stages of the design process. The paper argues...... is on fashion store design, the findings may, to some degree, be applicable to other types of store design projects. Practical implications: The understandings provided by this paper may help designers to deal proactively with constraints, reducing the use of resources to alter design proposals. Originality......Purpose: Retail design concepts are complex designs meeting functional and aesthetic demands from various constraint generators. However, the literature on this topic is sparse and offers only little support for store designers to deal with such challenges. To address this issue, the purpose...

  11. Sustainable Process Design of Lignocellulose based Biofuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, Saranya; Malakul, Pomthong; Gani, Rafiqul

    the production and use of alternative and sustainable energy sources as rapidly as possible. Biofuel is a type of alternative energy that can be produced from many sources including sugar substances (such as sugarcane juice and molasses), starchy materials (such as corn and cassava), and lignocellulosic...... materials such as agricultural residual, straw and wood chips, the residual from wood industry. However, those sugar and starchy materials can be used not only to make biofuels but they are also food sources. Thus, lignocellulosic materials are interesting feed-stocls as they are inexpensive, abundantly...... available, and are also non-food crops. In this respect, Cassava rhizome has several characteristics that make it a potential feedstock for fuel ethanol production. It has high content of cellulose and hemicelluloses . The objective of this paper is to present a study focused on the sustainable process...

  12. Biomechanical microsystems design, processing and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Gaidys, Rimvydas; Jurenas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the most important aspects of analysis of dynamical processes taking place on the human body surface. It provides an overview of the major devices that act as a prevention measure to boost a person‘s motivation for physical activity. A short overview of the most popular MEMS sensors for biomedical applications is given. The development and validation of a multi-level computational model that combines mathematical models of an accelerometer and reduced human body surface tissue is presented. Subsequently, results of finite element analysis are used together with experimental data to evaluate rheological properties of not only human skin but skeletal joints as well. Methodology of development of MOEMS displacement-pressure sensor and adaptation for real-time biological information monitoring, namely “ex vivo” and “in vitro” blood pulse type analysis, is described. Fundamental and conciliatory investigations, achieved knowledge and scientific experience about biologically adaptive mu...

  13. Frameworks for ACI: Animals as Stakeholders in the Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    North, Steve; Mancini, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Animal-computer interaction (ACI) is an emerging discipline concerned with studying the relationship between animals and technology, designing interactive technology to support animals, and developing methodologies that can enable animals to participate in the design process as legitimate stakeholders. By welcoming animals to the design table, ACI is delineating new frontiers for interaction design. However, if co-designing HCI artifacts is already fraught with misunderstanding, how might ACI...

  14. Method for innovative synthesis-design of chemical process flowsheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    Chemical process synthesis-design involve the identification of the processing route to reach a desired product from a specified set of raw materials, design of the operations involved in the processing route, the calculations of utility requirements, the calculations of waste and emission...... to the surrounding and many more. Different methods (knowledge-based [1], mathematical programming [2], hybrid, etc.) have been proposed and are also currently employed to solve these synthesis-design problems. D’ Anterroches [3] proposed a group contribution based approach to solve the synthesis-design problem...... of chemical processes, where, chemical process flowsheets could be synthesized in the same way as atoms or groups of atoms are synthesized to form molecules in computer aided molecular design (CAMD) techniques [4]. That, from a library of building blocks (functional process-groups) and a set of rules to join...

  15. A Design Support Framework through Dynamic Deployment of Hypothesis and Verification in the Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguch, Yutaka; Fujita, Kikuo

    This paper proposes a design support framework, named DRIFT (Design Rationale Integration Framework of Three layers), which dynamically captures and manages hypothesis and verification in the design process. A core of DRIFT is a three-layered design process model of action, model operation and argumentation. This model integrates various design support tools and captures design operations performed on them. Action level captures the sequence of design operations. Model operation level captures the transition of design states, which records a design snapshot over design tools. Argumentation level captures the process of setting problems and alternatives. The linkage of three levels enables to automatically and efficiently capture and manage iterative hypothesis and verification processes through design operations over design tools. In DRIFT, such a linkage is extracted through the templates of design operations, which are extracted from the patterns embeded in design tools such as Design-For-X (DFX) approaches, and design tools are integrated through ontology-based representation of design concepts. An argumentation model, gIBIS (graphical Issue-Based Information System), is used for representing dependencies among problems and alternatives. A mechanism of TMS (Truth Maintenance System) is used for managing multiple hypothetical design stages. This paper also demonstrates a prototype implementation of DRIFT and its application to a simple design problem. Further, it is concluded with discussion of some future issues.

  16. Radon as a source of radiation hazards in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosli Mahat

    1995-01-01

    The paper discussed on radon in malaysian workplace. There are two type of workplaces: amang processing plants and research buildings. Review of some data reported in several research facilities was presented

  17. Issues in developing valid assessments of speech pathology students' performance in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Sue; Lincoln, Michelle; Ferguson, Alison; McAllister, Lindy

    2010-01-01

    Workplace-based learning is a critical component of professional preparation in speech pathology. A validated assessment of this learning is seen to be 'the gold standard', but it is difficult to develop because of design and validation issues. These issues include the role and nature of judgement in assessment, challenges in measuring quality, and the relationship between assessment and learning. Valid assessment of workplace-based performance needs to capture the development of competence over time and account for both occupation specific and generic competencies. This paper reviews important conceptual issues in the design of valid and reliable workplace-based assessments of competence including assessment content, process, impact on learning, measurement issues, and validation strategies. It then goes on to share what has been learned about quality assessment and validation of a workplace-based performance assessment using competency-based ratings. The outcomes of a four-year national development and validation of an assessment tool are described. A literature review of issues in conceptualizing, designing, and validating workplace-based assessments was conducted. Key factors to consider in the design of a new tool were identified and built into the cycle of design, trialling, and data analysis in the validation stages of the development process. This paper provides an accessible overview of factors to consider in the design and validation of workplace-based assessment tools. It presents strategies used in the development and national validation of a tool COMPASS, used in an every speech pathology programme in Australia, New Zealand, and Singapore. The paper also describes Rasch analysis, a model-based statistical approach which is useful for establishing validity and reliability of assessment tools. Through careful attention to conceptual and design issues in the development and trialling of workplace-based assessments, it has been possible to develop the

  18. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-07

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates.

  19. Chemical process and plant design bibliography 1959-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This book is concerned specifically with chemical process in formation and plant equipment design data. It is a source for chemical engineers, students and academics involved in process and design evaluation. Over 500 chemical categories are included, from Acetaldehyde to zirconium Dioxide, with cross-referencing within the book to appropriate associated chemicals

  20. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  1. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design...

  2. DESIGNS FOR MIXTURE AND PROCESS VARIABLES APPLIED IN TABLET FORMULATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    Although there are several methods for the construction of a design for process variables and mixture variables, there are not very many methods which are suitable to combine mixture and process variables in one design. Some of the methods which are feasible will be shown. These methods will be

  3. Solid propellant processing factor in rocket motor design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The ways are described by which propellant processing is affected by choices made in designing rocket engines. Tradeoff studies, design proof or scaleup studies, and special design features are presented that are required to obtain high product quality, and optimum processing costs. Processing is considered to include the operational steps involved with the lining and preparation of the motor case for the grain; the procurement of propellant raw materials; and propellant mixing, casting or extrusion, curing, machining, and finishing. The design criteria, recommended practices, and propellant formulations are included.

  4. Examining Beginning Teachers' Perceptions of Workplace Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Alison; Deaney, Rosemary; Wilson, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper, taking a participatory perspective of learning, seeks to look at the interaction between individuals and their workplace, focusing on the perceptions of workplaces and self by beginning teachers in terms of support for their learning. Design/methodology/approach: The study presents an analysis of 37 interviews from 17…

  5. Incorporation of Safety into Design Process : A Systems Engineering Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajabalinejad, M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper suggests integrating the best safety practices with the design process. This integration enriches the exploration experience for designers and adds extra values and competitor advantages for customers. The paper introduces the safety cube for combining common blocks for design, hazard

  6. Improving design processes through structured reflection : a prototype software tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, I.M.M.J.; Melby, E.

    2001-01-01

    A prototype software tool facilitating the use of a design method supporting structured reflection on design processes is presented. The prototype, called Echo, has been developed to explore the benefits of using a software system to facilitate the use of the design method. Both the prototype

  7. The Use of Computer Graphics in the Design Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzi, Maria

    This master's thesis examines applications of computer technology to the field of industrial design and ways in which technology can transform the traditional process. Following a statement of the problem, the history and applications of the fields of computer graphics and industrial design are reviewed. The traditional industrial design process…

  8. Integrated Design Process in Problem-Based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2004-01-01

    This article reports and reflects on the learning achievements and the educational experiences in connection with the first years of the curriculum in Architecture at Aalborg University ?s Civil Engineer Education in Architecture & Design. In the article I will focus on the learning activity and ...... the students need in order to concentrate, mobilize creativity and find the personal design language which is a precondition for making good architecture....... and the method that are developed during the semester when working with an Integrated Design Process combining architecture, design, functional aspects, energy consumption, indoor environment, technology, and construction. I will emphasize the importance of working with different tools in the design process, e...

  9. Sexual Assault and Sexual Harassment in the U.S. Military. Volume 1. Design of the 2014 RAND Military Workplace Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    harassment occurred (i.e., quid pro quo exchanges, workplace-based sexual assault). Sexual Harassment over Military...Richman (2007) estimate above, this definition of sexual harassment excludes gender discrimination, but con- ceivably includes both quid pro quo ...ence sexual harassment and only if they indicated that they have had experiences con- sistent with a hostile workplace or a sexual quid pro

  10. Vitrification process equipment design for the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.C.; Drosjack, W.P.

    1988-10-01

    The vitrification process and equipment design is nearing completion for the West Valley Project. This report provides the basis and current status for the design of the major vessels and equipment within the West Valley Vitrification Plant. A review of the function and key design features of the equipment is also provided. The major subsystems described include the feed preparation and delivery systems, the melter, the canister handling systems, and the process off-gas system. 11 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  11. Improvement of product design process by knowledge value analysis

    OpenAIRE

    XU, Yang; BERNARD, Alain; PERRY, Nicolas; LAROCHE, Florent

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, design activities remain the core issue for global product development. As knowledge is more and more integrated, effective analysis of knowledge value becomes very useful for the improvement of product design processes. This paper aims at proposing a framework of knowledge value analysis in the context of product design process. By theoretical analysis and case study, the paper illustrates how knowledge value can be calculated and how the results can help the improvement of product...

  12. Integration of MGDS design into the licensing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of how the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) design for a potential repository is integrated into the licensing process. The integration process employs a two-told approach: (1) ensure that the MGDS design complies with applicable Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements, and (2) ensure that the MGDS design is appropriately reflected in a license application that is acceptable to the NRC for performing acceptance and compliance reviews

  13. Sensitivity of Process Design due to Uncertainties in Property Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hukkerikar, Amol; Jones, Mark Nicholas; Sarup, Bent

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic methodology for performing analysis of sensitivity of process design due to uncertainties in property estimates. The methodology provides the following results: a) list of properties with critical importance on design; b) acceptable levels of...... in chemical processes. Among others vapour pressure accuracy for azeotropic mixtures is critical and needs to be measured or estimated with a ±0.25% accuracy to satisfy acceptable safety levels in design....

  14. Analysis of Work Design in Rubber Processing Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni Dini; Nasution Harmein; Budiman Irwan; Wijaya Khairini

    2018-01-01

    The work design illustrates how structured jobs, tasks, and roles are defined and modified and their impact on individuals, groups, and organizations. If the work is not designed well, the company must pay greater costs for workers’ health, longer production processes or even penalties for not being able to meet the delivery schedule. This is visible to the condition in a rubber processing factory in North Sumatra. Work design aspects such as layouts, machinery and equipment, worker's physica...

  15. Implications of Building Information Modeling on Interior Design Education: The Impact on Teaching Design Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Roehl, MFA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, major shifts occur in design processes effecting business practices for industries involved with designing and delivering the built environment. These changing conditions are a direct result of industry adoption of relatively new technologies called BIM or Building Information Modeling. This review of literature examines implications of these changing processes on interior design education.

  16. The design process seen through the eyes of a type designer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie

    2015-01-01

    To understand how the design process works, the paper takes the outset in the work of one of the first innovating type designers: the English printer and typefounder John Baskerville (1706-1775). By comparing his way of working with a model for a contemporary design process, the paper reflects upon...

  17. Defining process design space for monoclonal antibody cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Absi, Susan Fugett; Yang, LiYing; Thompson, Patrick; Jiang, Canping; Kandula, Sunitha; Schilling, Bernhard; Shukla, Abhinav A

    2010-08-15

    The concept of design space has been taking root as a foundation of in-process control strategies for biopharmaceutical manufacturing processes. During mapping of the process design space, the multidimensional combination of operational variables is studied to quantify the impact on process performance in terms of productivity and product quality. An efficient methodology to map the design space for a monoclonal antibody cell culture process is described. A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was used as the basis for the process characterization exercise. This was followed by an integrated study of the inoculum stage of the process which includes progressive shake flask and seed bioreactor steps. The operating conditions for the seed bioreactor were studied in an integrated fashion with the production bioreactor using a two stage design of experiments (DOE) methodology to enable optimization of operating conditions. A two level Resolution IV design was followed by a central composite design (CCD). These experiments enabled identification of the edge of failure and classification of the operational parameters as non-key, key or critical. In addition, the models generated from the data provide further insight into balancing productivity of the cell culture process with product quality considerations. Finally, process and product-related impurity clearance was evaluated by studies linking the upstream process with downstream purification. Production bioreactor parameters that directly influence antibody charge variants and glycosylation in CHO systems were identified.

  18. The CANDU 9 distributed control system design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harber, J.E.; Kattan, M.K.; Macbeth, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    Canadian designed CANDU pressurized heavy water nuclear reactors have been world leaders in electrical power generation. The CANDU 9 project is AECL's next reactor design. Plant control for the CANDU 9 station design is performed by a distributed control system (DCS) as compared to centralized control computers, analog control devices and relay logic used in previous CANDU designs. The selection of a DCS as the platform to perform the process control functions and most of the data acquisition of the plant, is consistent with the evolutionary nature of the CANDU technology. The control strategies for the DCS control programs are based on previous CANDU designs but are implemented on a new hardware platform taking advantage of advances in computer technology. This paper describes the design process for developing the CANDU 9 DCS. Various design activities, prototyping and analyses have been undertaken in order to ensure a safe, functional, and cost-effective design. (author)

  19. Sociotechnical design processes and working environment: The case of a continuous process wok

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole

    2000-01-01

    A five-year design process of a continuous process wok has been studied with the aim of elucidating the conditions for integrating working environment aspects. The design process is seen as a network building activity and as a social shaping process of the artefact. A working environment log...... is suggested as a tool designers can use to integrate considerations of future operators' working environment....

  20. Improving the requirements process in Axiomatic Design Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces a model to integrate the traditional requirements process into Axiomatic Design Theory and proposes a method to structure the requirements process. The method includes a requirements classification system to ensure that all requirements information can be included...... in the Axiomatic Design process, a stakeholder classification system to reduce the chances of excluding one or more key stakeholders, and a table to visualize the mapping between the stakeholders and their requirements....

  1. Assessing learning at the workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Arnoud

    2018-01-01

    • Defining learning at the workplace • Assessing learning at the workplace • Facilitating learning at the workplace: - Structure - Culture - Leadership - Personal factors • Conclusions • Discussion

  2. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, Charles; Heidel, Donna; Sayes, Christie; Hodson, Laura; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne; Brenner, Sara

    2015-01-01

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial

  3. Perspectives on the design of safer nanomaterials and manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, Charles [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Heidel, Donna [Bureau Veritas North America, Inc. (United States); Sayes, Christie [Baylor University (United States); Hodson, Laura, E-mail: lhodson@cdc.gov; Schulte, Paul; Eastlake, Adrienne [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (United States); Brenner, Sara [Colleges of Nanoscale Science and Engineering at State University of New York Polytechnic Institute, (SUNY Poly) (United States)

    2015-09-15

    A concerted effort is being made to insert Prevention through Design principles into discussions of sustainability, occupational safety and health, and green chemistry related to nanotechnology. Prevention through Design is a set of principles, which includes solutions to design out potential hazards in nanomanufacturing including the design of nanomaterials, and strategies to eliminate exposures and minimize risks that may be related to the manufacturing processes and equipment at various stages of the lifecycle of an engineered nanomaterial.

  4. [Workplace mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soljan, Ivana; Josipović-Jelić, Zeljka; Jelić Kis, I Anita

    2008-03-01

    Workplace mobbing is a hostile and unethical communication, systematically aimed from one or more individuals towards mostly one individual, who are forced into a helpless position and are held in it by constant bullying. This article describes some of the most important characteristics of mobbing: offensive behaviour, organizational and non-organizational causes of this behaviour, the victim and the consequences. Modern business environment is complex, dynamic, volatile, and requires better ability to adjust. Constant changes are a part of organizational reality, but they also produce an ideal environment for all kinds of conflicts. Conflicts are inevitable in every organization, but the task of its management is to identify them and resolve before they affect the workforce, productivity and costs. The idea is to avert psychological abuse and aberrant behaviour such as mobbing which that may cause physical and mental disorders. Mobbing is a problem of the modern society; as a violation of human rights it is relatively new and unrecognised in Croatia. Abuse is mostly psychological: it affects the victim's health and life, quality of work, productivity, profitability, and may lead to significant economic losses in the community. Mobbing can be averted by joint forces that would involve employee and management, medical and legal professionals, and even community as a whole. The more an organization pursues excellence based on trust and business ethics, the higher the probability that mobbing will be averted or stopped.

  5. Hybrid design tools for conceptual design and design engineering processes: bridging the design gap: towards an intuitive design tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid Design Tools; Representation; Computational Synthesis. Non-linear, non-explicit, non-standard thinking and ambiguity in design tools has a great impact on enhancement of creativity during ideation and conceptualization. Tacit-tangible representation based on a mere idiosyncratic and

  6. Application of Safeguards-by-Design to a Reactor Design Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The application of 'Safeguards-by-Design' (SBD) to a reactor design process is described. The SBD concept seeks to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of IAEA safeguards by incorporating the needs of safeguards at an early stage of reactor design. Understanding and accommodating safeguards in the design process requires a set of 'design requirements for safeguards'; however, such requirements (a) do not traditionally exist, and (b) must exist alongside other more traditional design requirements based upon compliance and operational goals. In the absence of design requirements, a 'Design Guide' for safeguards was created, consisting of recommendations based on best practices. To acquire an understanding of safeguards requirements at the design level, a systematic accounting of diversion pathways was required. However, because of the crowded field of other design requirements, this process needed a methodology that was also flexible in interpretation. The GenIV Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) methodology (Rev.5, 2005) was chosen for this exercise. The PR and PP methodology is a general approach and therefore it was necessary to restrict its application; in effect, turning 'off' various options so as to simplify the process. The results of this exercise were used to stimulate discussions with the design team and initiate changes that accommodate safeguards without negatively impacting other design requirements. The process yielded insights into the effective application of SBD, and highlighted issues that must be resolved for effective incorporation of an 'SBD culture' within the design process. (author)

  7. Constituent Aspects of Workplace Guidance in Secondary VET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; van Merriënboer, Jeroen J. G.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach: To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance, a systematic search of Web of Science was conducted,…

  8. Constituent aspects of workplace guidance in secondary VET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swager, Robert; Klarus, Ruud; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Nieuwenhuis, Loek

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to present an integrated model of workplace guidance to enhance awareness of what constitutes good guidance, to improve workplace guidance practices in vocational education and training. Design/methodology/approach – To identify constituent aspects of workplace guidance,

  9. What are the Characteristics of Engineering Design Processes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Störrle, Harald

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the characteristic properties of Engineering Design (ED) processes from a process modelling perspective. In a first step, we extracted nine characteristics of engineering design processes from the literature and in a second step validated the findings using results from our...... survey among academic and industrial ED process modelling experts. In a third step, we added a further nine characteristics from personal experiences in the Language Engineering Domain to capture the pragmatic perspective. We arrive at a comprehensive set of 18 characteristics grouped into 6 challenges...... for process modelling in the engineering design domain. The challenges process modelers need to address when using and developing process modelling approaches and tools are: Development, Collaboration, Products & Services, Formality, Pragmatics, and Flexibility. We then compare the importance of elicited...

  10. Design and use of the IR gas-cloud scanner for measurement and imaging of the spatial distribution of gases at workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Kuile, Willem M.; van Veen, J. J.; Knoll, Bas

    1995-02-01

    Usual sampling methods and instruments for checking compliance with `threshold limit values' (TLV) of gaseous components do not provide much information on the mechanism which caused the measured workday average concentration. In the case of noncompliance this information is indispensable for the design of cost effective measures. The infrared gas cloud (IGC) scanner visualizes the spatial distribution of specific gases at a workplace in a quantitative image with a calibrated grayvalue scale. This helps to find the cause of an over- exposure, and so it permits effective abatement of high exposures in the working environment. This paper deals with the technical design of the IGC scanner. Its use is illustrated by some real-world problems. The measuring principle and the technical operation of the IGC-scanner are described. Special attention is given to the pros and cons of retro-reflector screens, the noise reduction methods and image presentation and interpretation. The latter is illustrated by the images produced by the measurements. Essentially the IGC scanner can be used for selective open-path measurement of all gases with a concentration in the ppm range and sufficiently strong distinct absorption lines in the infrared region between 2.5 micrometers and 14.0 micrometers . Further it could be useful for testing the efficiency of ventilation systems and the remote detection of gas leaks. We conclude that a new powerful technique has been added to the industrial hygiene facilities for controlling and improving the work environment.

  11. Context-Aware Design for Process Flexibility and Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Today's organizations face continuous and unprecedented changes in their business environment. Traditional process design tools tend to be inflexible and can only support rigidly defined processes (e.g., order processing in the supply chain). This considerably restricts their real-world applications value, especially in the dynamic and…

  12. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... in order to identify the most sustainable design for the production of ethanol. The capacity for ethanol production from cassava rhizome is set to 150,000 liters/day, which is about 1.3 % of the total demand of ethanol in Thailand. LCA on the base case design pointed to large amounts of CO2 and CO...

  13. The opto-mechanical design process: from vision to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvamme, E. Todd; Stubbs, David M.; Jacoby, Michael S.

    2017-08-01

    The design process for an opto-mechanical sub-system is discussed from requirements development through test. The process begins with a proper mission understanding and the development of requirements for the system. Preliminary design activities are then discussed with iterative analysis and design work being shared between the design, thermal, and structural engineering personnel. Readiness for preliminary review and the path to a final design review are considered. The value of prototyping and risk mitigation testing is examined with a focus on when it makes sense to execute a prototype test program. System level margin is discussed in general terms, and the practice of trading margin in one area of performance to meet another area is reviewed. Requirements verification and validation is briefly considered. Testing and its relationship to requirements verification concludes the design process.

  14. Designing Participation Processes for Water Management and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorck von Korff

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of how to design participation processes in water management and other fields. Despite a lot of work on participation, and especially its evaluation, this question has received little attention in the research literature. However, it is important, because previous research has made it clear that participation may yield important benefits for humans and the environment but that these benefits do not occur automatically. One precondition is sound design. The design of participation processes has been addressed in detail in the so-called "craft" literature but more rarely in the scientific literature. This article helps close this gap by systematically analyzing and comparing five design guides to determine whether it is possible to combine them into a more robust guide. The article confirms that possibility and presents a preliminary outline for such a guide. Principles for participatory process orientation are presented, as well as numerous partially iterative steps. The adaptive process is laid out in a way intended to help designers determine the objectives of the participation process and the initial design context, and make preplanning choices that eventually lead to the selection of suitable participation mechanisms. There are also design tools that facilitate this work. We discuss how our findings are largely compatible with previous research on participation, notably the work on criteria for "good" or "effective" participation processes. We also argue that our article advances research on an important remaining question in the scientific literature on participation: What process should be chosen in which context?

  15. Workplace Learning in Dual Higher Professional Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortman, Cindy L.; Reenalda, Marloes; Nijhof, Wim J.; Nieuwenhuis, Loek F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Workplace learning is considered an effective strategy for the development of vocation, career and professional identity. Dual training programs, in which learning at a vocational school and learning at work in a company are combined, are seen as strong carriers for skill formation processes. In this study we explore workplace learning in dual…

  16. Reported Design Processes for Accessibility in Rail Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard; Cook, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Accessibility is a fundamental requirement in public transport (PT) yet there exists little research on design for accessibility or inclusive design (ID) in this area. This paper sets out to discover what methods are used in the rail sector to achieve accessibility goals and to examine how far...... these methods deviate from user-centred and ID norms. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine rolling stock producers, operators and design consultancies. The purpose was to determine if ID design methods are used explicitly and the extent to which the processes used conformed to ID (if at all......). The research found that the role of users in the design process of manufacturers was limited and that compliance with industry standards was the dominant means to achieving accessibility goals. Design consultancies were willing to apply more user-centred design if the client requested it. Where operators were...

  17. Accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This PhD dissertation addresses the subject of accessibility through user-centred and Inclusive Design processes (ID). The project takes as its starting point the observation that the concept of Inclusive Design is not adequately delimited. The supporting literature in the field of ID is structured...... around the fact that the needs of individuals with reduced capabilities compared to the norm (referred to for convenience as "the elderly and disabled") have not been properly addressed by standard design processes. In response to this fact, ID is a proposed design method to find more effective means...

  18. Design of Test Parts to Characterize Micro Additive Manufacturing Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn; Mischkot, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The minimum feature size and obtainable tolerances of additive manufacturing processes are linked to the smallest volumetric elements (voxels) that can be created. This work presents the iterative design of a test part to investigate the resolution of AM processes with voxel sizes at the micro...... scale. Each design iteration reduces the test part size, increases the number of test features, improves functionality, and decreases coupling in the part. The final design is a set of three test parts that are easy to orient and measure, and that provide useful information about micro additive...... manufacturing processes....

  19. A computer-aided approach for achieving sustainable process design by process intensification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anantasarn, Nateetorn; Suriyapraphadilok, Uthaiporn; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    2017-01-01

    to generate flowsheet alternatives that satisfy the design targets thereby, minimizing and/or eliminating the process hot-spots. The application of the framework is highlighted through the production of para-xylene via toluene methylation where more sustainable flowsheet alternatives that consist of hybrid......Process intensification can be applied to achieve sustainable process design. In this paper, a systematic, 3-stage synthesis-intensification framework is applied to achieve more sustainable design. In stage 1, the synthesis stage, an objective function and design constraints are defined and a base...... case is synthesized. In stage 2, the design and analysis stage, the base case is analyzed using economic and environmental analyses to identify process hot-spots that are translated into design targets. In stage 3, the innovation design stage, phenomena-based process intensification is performed...

  20. Design of a study evaluating the effects, health economics, and stakeholder perspectives of a multi-component occupational rehabilitation program with an added workplace intervention - a  study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit B; Skagseth, Martin; Klevanger, Nina E; Aasdahl, Lene; Borchgrevink, Petter; Jensen, Chris; Tenggren, Hanne; Halsteinli, Vidar; Jacobsen, Trym N; Løland, Svein B; Johnsen, Roar; Fimland, Marius S

    2018-02-05

    Recent research has suggested that interventions at the workplace might be the most potent ingredient in return to work interventions, but few studies have investigated the different effects of workplace interventions as part of occupational rehabilitation programs. The comprehensive design described in this article includes effect (on return to work and health outcomes), and health economic evaluations of a workplace intervention added to a multicomponent rehabilitation program. Qualitative and mixed method studies will investigate sick-listed persons', rehabilitation therapists' and employers' perspectives on the usability and outcomes of the rehabilitation program and the workplace intervention. The program and intervention are provided to patients with musculoskeletal, psychological or general and unspecified diagnoses. The program is multi-component and includes Acceptance and Commitment Therapy, physical exercise, patient education and creating a plan for increased work participation. Persons who are employed, aged from 18 to 60 years, with a current sick leave status of 50% or more and a diagnosis within the musculoskeletal, psychological or general and unspecified chapters of International Classification of Primary Care-2 (ICPC-2) will be recruited to a researcher-blinded parallel-group randomized controlled trial. All participants take part in an in-patient occupational rehabilitation program, while the intervention group also takes part in an intervention at the workplace. The effect and economic evaluation will investigate the effect of the added workplace intervention. The primary outcome measures will be time until full sustainable return to work and total number of sickness absence days in the 12 months after inclusion. Health economic evaluations will investigate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility. Qualitative studies will investigate rehabilitation therapists' experiences with working towards return to work within an ACT-approach and

  1. Integrating rock mechanics issues with repository design through design process principles and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniawski, Z.T.

    1996-01-01

    A good designer needs not only knowledge for designing (technical know-how that is used to generate alternative design solutions) but also must have knowledge about designing (appropriate principles and systematic methodology to follow). Concepts such as open-quotes design for manufactureclose quotes or open-quotes concurrent engineeringclose quotes are widely used in the industry. In the field of rock engineering, only limited attention has been paid to the design process because design of structures in rock masses presents unique challenges to the designers as a result of the uncertainties inherent in characterization of geologic media. However, a stage has now been reached where we are be able to sufficiently characterize rock masses for engineering purposes and identify the rock mechanics issues involved but are still lacking engineering design principles and methodology to maximize our design performance. This paper discusses the principles and methodology of the engineering design process directed to integrating site characterization activities with design, construction and performance of an underground repository. Using the latest information from the Yucca Mountain Project on geology, rock mechanics and starter tunnel design, the current lack of integration is pointed out and it is shown how rock mechanics issues can be effectively interwoven with repository design through a systematic design process methodology leading to improved repository performance. In essence, the design process is seen as the use of design principles within an integrating design methodology, leading to innovative problem solving. In particular, a new concept of open-quotes Design for Constructibility and Performanceclose quotes is introduced. This is discussed with respect to ten rock mechanics issues identified for repository design and performance

  2. WORKPLACE HARASSMENT. MOBBING PHENOMENON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Ezer

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Moral harassment at the workplace has become in the last period a very often met phenomenon that severely affects the work relations and represents a significant health and safety danger. This problem has become in the last period an important issue for the European Union which has initiated a series of studie for analyzing the consequences of this pehenomenon on the normal process of the work relations, that has lead, in its turn to an awareness of this new dimenion of harassment between the employees at the internal level.

  3. Internet Gambling in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to overview the issues, concerns and challenges relating to gambling--and more specifically internet gambling--in the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Using psychological literature, this paper outlines a number of important and inter-related areas including brief overviews of gambling and problem gambling,…

  4. Design of remote handled process assemblies for the process facility modifications project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smets, J.L.; Ajifu, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The modular design philosophy for the process facility modification project utilizes an integrated design of components to facilitate operations and maintenance of nuclear fuel reprocessing equipment in a hot cell environment. The utilization of a matrix of remoteable base frames combines with process equipment designed as remote assemblies and sub-assemblies has simplified the overall design. Modularity will allow future flexibility while providing advantages for construction and maintenance in the initial installation

  5. The design process and the use of computerized tools in control room design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlstroem, B.; Heinonen, R.; Ranta, J.; Haarla, J.

    1985-09-01

    Control room design has proven an important component when the safety and availability of a complex industrial process plant are considered. Many control room deficiencies can be traced back to oversights and other errors during the design process. The introduction of powerful computers and software for computer-aided design (CAD) offers one possibility when tools for improving the quality of design are being selected. The report gives a broad assessment of problems of design and the benefits of using computer-aided design. One proposal for a structure of a computer-aided design system is considered in more detail. In this system special emphasis has been laid on dealing with requirements during design process. A demonstration system has been built and sample system user dialogues are described. The report is the final report of the LIT3.1 project of the Nordic cooperation on human reliability in the energy production field. (author)

  6. Semantic Service Design for Collaborative Business Processes in Internetworked Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Devis; Cappiello, Cinzia; de Antonellis, Valeria; Pernici, Barbara

    Modern collaborating enterprises can be seen as borderless organizations whose processes are dynamically transformed and integrated with the ones of their partners (Internetworked Enterprises, IE), thus enabling the design of collaborative business processes. The adoption of Semantic Web and service-oriented technologies for implementing collaboration in such distributed and heterogeneous environments promises significant benefits. IE can model their own processes independently by using the Software as a Service paradigm (SaaS). Each enterprise maintains a catalog of available services and these can be shared across IE and reused to build up complex collaborative processes. Moreover, each enterprise can adopt its own terminology and concepts to describe business processes and component services. This brings requirements to manage semantic heterogeneity in process descriptions which are distributed across different enterprise systems. To enable effective service-based collaboration, IEs have to standardize their process descriptions and model them through component services using the same approach and principles. For enabling collaborative business processes across IE, services should be designed following an homogeneous approach, possibly maintaining a uniform level of granularity. In the paper we propose an ontology-based semantic modeling approach apt to enrich and reconcile semantics of process descriptions to facilitate process knowledge management and to enable semantic service design (by discovery, reuse and integration of process elements/constructs). The approach brings together Semantic Web technologies, techniques in process modeling, ontology building and semantic matching in order to provide a comprehensive semantic modeling framework.

  7. Model based process-product design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper gives a perspective on modelling and the important role it has within product-process design and analysis. Different modelling issues related to development and application of systematic model-based solution approaches for product-process design is discussed and the need for a hybrid...... model-based framework is highlighted. This framework should be able to manage knowledge-data, models, and associated methods and tools integrated with design work-flows and data-flows for specific product-process design problems. In particular, the framework needs to manage models of different types......, forms and complexity, together with their associated parameters. An example of a model-based system for design of chemicals based formulated products is also given....

  8. Reactor and process design in sustainable energy technology

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Reactor Process Design in Sustainable Energy Technology compiles and explains current developments in reactor and process design in sustainable energy technologies, including optimization and scale-up methodologies and numerical methods. Sustainable energy technologies that require more efficient means of converting and utilizing energy can help provide for burgeoning global energy demand while reducing anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions associated with energy production. The book, contributed by an international team of academic and industry experts in the field, brings numerous reactor design cases to readers based on their valuable experience from lab R&D scale to industry levels. It is the first to emphasize reactor engineering in sustainable energy technology discussing design. It provides comprehensive tools and information to help engineers and energy professionals learn, design, and specify chemical reactors and processes confidently. Emphasis on reactor engineering in sustainable energy techn...

  9. Simultaneous Design of Ionic Liquids and Azeotropic Separation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roughton, Brock C.; White, John; Camarda, Kyle V.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using the b...... % [BMPy][BF4] added. The driving force concept is used to design an extractive distillation process that minimizes energy inputs. The methodology given can be expanded to the use of ionic liquids as entrainers in any azeotropic system of interest.......A methodology for the design of azeotrope separation processes using ionic liquids as entrainers is outlined. A Hildebrand solubility parameter group contribution model has been developed to screen for or design an ionic liquid entrainer that is soluble with the azeotropic components. Using...

  10. Ergonomic risk assessment with DesignCheck to evaluate assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gabriele; Schaub, Karlheinz G; Großmann, Kay; Laun, Gerhard; Landau, Kurt; Bruder, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Occupational hazards exist, if the design of the work situation is not in accordance with ergonomic design principles. At assembly lines ergonomics is applied to the design of work equipment and tasks and to work organisation. The ignoring of ergonomic principles in planning and design of assembly work leads to unfavourable working posture, action force and material handling. Disorders of the musculoskeletal system are of a common occurrence throughout Europe. Musculoskeletal disorders are a challenge against the background of disabled workers. The changes in a worker's capability have to be regarded in the conception of redesigned and new assembly lines. In this way ergonomics becomes progressively more important in planning and design of vehicles: The objective of ergonomic design in different stages of the vehicles development process is to achieve an optimal adaptation of the assembly work to workers. Hence the ergonomic screening tool "Design Check" (DC) was developed to identify ergonomic deficits in workplace layouts. The screening-tool is based on the current ergonomic state of the art in the design of physical work and relevant EU legal requirements. It was tested within a federal German research project at selected work stations at the assembly lines at Dr.-Ing. h.c. F. Porsche AG / Stuttgart. Meanwhile the application of the screening-tool DC is transferred in other parts of the Porsche AG, Stuttgart. It is also realized as an ergonomic standard method to perform assembly work in different phases of the vehicle development process.

  11. Using GREENSCOPE for Sustainable Process Design: An Educational Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increasing sustainability can be approached through the education of those who design, construct, and operate facilities. As chemical engineers learn elements of process systems engineering, they can be introduced to sustainability concepts. The EPA’s GREENSCOPE methodology and...

  12. Induction Heating Process Design Using COMSOL Multiphysics Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Triwinarko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Induction heating is clean environmental heating process due to a non-contact heating process. There is lots of the induction heating type that be used in the home appliance but it is still new technology in Indonesia. The main interesting area of the induction heating design is the efficiency of the usage of energy and choice of the plate material. COMSOL Multiphysics Software can be used to simulate and estimate the induction heating process. Therefore, the software can be used to design the induction heating process that will have a optimum efficiency. The properties of the induction heating design were also simulated and analyzed such as effect of inductors width, inductors distance, and conductive plate material. The result was shown that the good design of induction heating must have a short width and distance inductor and used silicon carbide as material plate with high frequency controller.

  13. Materials Process Design Branch. Work Unit Directive (WUD) 54

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    LeClair, Steve

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of the Manufacturing Research WUD 54 are to 1) conduct in-house research to develop advanced materials process design/control technologies to enable more repeatable and affordable manufacturing capabilities and 2...

  14. Integrating chemical engineering fundamentals in the capstone process design project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Solms, Nicolas; Woodley, John; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Engineering. In order to incorporate reactor design into process design in a meaningful way, the teachers of the respective courses need to collaborate (Standard 9 – Enhancement of Faculty CDIO skills). The students also see that different components of the chemical engineering curriculum relate......All B.Eng. courses offered at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) must now follow CDIO standards. The final “capstone” course in the B.Eng. education is Process Design, which for many years has been typical of chemical engineering curricula worldwide. The course at DTU typically has about 30...... of the CDIO standards – especially standard 3 – Integrated Curriculum - means that the course projects must draw on competences provided in other subjects which the students are taking in parallel with Process Design – specifically Process Control and Reaction Engineering. In each semester of the B...

  15. Models and Modelling Tools for Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    The design, development and reliability of a chemical product and the process to manufacture it, need to be consistent with the end-use characteristics of the desired product. One of the common ways to match the desired product-process characteristics is through trial and error based experiments......-based framework is that in the design, development and/or manufacturing of a chemical product-process, the knowledge of the applied phenomena together with the product-process design details can be provided with diverse degrees of abstractions and details. This would allow the experimental resources...... to be employed for validation and fine-tuning of the solutions from the model-based framework, thereby, removing the need for trial and error experimental steps. Also, questions related to economic feasibility, operability and sustainability, among others, can be considered in the early stages of design. However...

  16. Systemic Operational Design: Enhancing the Joint Operation Planning Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delacruz, Victor J

    2007-01-01

    Operational level commanders and their staffs require relevant and current joint doctrine that articulates the critical function of operational design and its role in the Joint Operation Planning Process (JOPP...

  17. Design implications of incorporating employee profiles and workplace activity levels in travel demand management led parking demand assessments

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Letebele, MO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available spaces when the demand for parking is ever increasing. A more fundamental question, however, is how to better understand travel behaviour to enable the design of sustainable transport services, of which parking form part, in line with policy instruments...

  18. The Influence of Toy Design Activities on Middle School Students' Understanding of the Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ninger; Pereira, Nielsen L.; George, Tarun Thomas; Alperovich, Jeffrey; Booth, Joran; Chandrasegaran, Senthil; Tew, Jeffrey David; Kulkarni, Devadatta M.; Ramani, Karthik

    2017-10-01

    The societal demand for inspiring and engaging science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) students and preparing our workforce for the emerging creative economy has necessitated developing students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes from as early as elementary school levels. Hands-on engineering design activities have shown the potential to promote middle school students' self-efficacy and understanding of engineering design processes. However, traditional classrooms often lack hands-on engineering design experiences, leaving students unprepared to solve real-world design problems. In this study, we introduce the framework of a toy design workshop and investigate the influence of the workshop activities on students' understanding of and self-efficacy beliefs in engineering design. Using a mixed method approach, we conducted quantitative analyses to show changes in students' engineering design self-efficacy and qualitative analyses to identify students' understanding of the engineering design processes. Findings show that among the 24 participants, there is a significant increase in students' self-efficacy beliefs after attending the workshop. We also identified major themes such as design goals and prototyping in students' understanding of engineering design processes. This research provides insights into the key elements of middle school students' engineering design learning and the benefits of engaging middle school students in hands-on toy design workshops.

  19. Improving industrial designers work process by involving user research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng; Ómarsson, Ólafur

    2011-01-01

    With changing times, new technologies and more opinionated consumers, the modern industrial designer has found himself in need of fresher and more up to date approaches in his daily work. In a fast moving industry, the designer needs to keep a thinking process of dynamic and subjective attitude...... will give the grounding for believing that the industrial designer needs to adopt user research methods to a level where he can still continue to work under the very nature of industrial design that has made it a successful practice for the last century. The combing of the approaches and attitude will help....... User research is part of user centered design (UCD). UCD has a reputation for subjective and reflective practice. In this paper there are two example cases. One is conducted by a classical industrial design process, and another is costing half of energy and time in user research. These examples...

  20. Multi-Criteria Approach in Multifunctional Building Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerigk, Mateusz

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents new approach in multifunctional building design process. Publication defines problems related to the design of complex multifunctional buildings. Currently, contemporary urban areas are characterized by very intensive use of space. Today, buildings are being built bigger and contain more diverse functions to meet the needs of a large number of users in one capacity. The trends show the need for recognition of design objects in an organized structure, which must meet current design criteria. The design process in terms of the complex system is a theoretical model, which is the basis for optimization solutions for the entire life cycle of the building. From the concept phase through exploitation phase to disposal phase multipurpose spaces should guarantee aesthetics, functionality, system efficiency, system safety and environmental protection in the best possible way. The result of the analysis of the design process is presented as a theoretical model of the multifunctional structure. Recognition of multi-criteria model in the form of Cartesian product allows to create a holistic representation of the designed building in the form of a graph model. The proposed network is the theoretical base that can be used in the design process of complex engineering systems. The systematic multi-criteria approach makes possible to maintain control over the entire design process and to provide the best possible performance. With respect to current design requirements, there are no established design rules for multifunctional buildings in relation to their operating phase. Enrichment of the basic criteria with functional flexibility criterion makes it possible to extend the exploitation phase which brings advantages on many levels.

  1. Rethinking the Systems Engineering Process in Light of Design Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    systems engineering process models (Blanchard & Fabrycky, 1990) and the majority of engineering design education (Dym et al., 2005). The waterfall model ...Engineering Career Competency Model Clifford Whitcomb, Systems Engineering Professor, NPS Corina White, Systems Engineering Research Associate, NPS...Postgraduate School (NPS) in Monterey, CA. He teaches and conducts research in the design of enterprise systems, systems modeling , and system

  2. Structural optimization for materially informed design to robotic production processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.; Mostafavi, S.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbody’s materially informed Design-to-Robotic-Production (D2RP) processes for additive and subtractive manufacturing aim to achieve performative porosity in architecture at various scales. An extended series of D2RP experiments aiming to produce prototypes at 1:1 scale wherein design materiality

  3. Cost information in succeeding stages of the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tempelmans Plat, H.; Deiman, E.P.; Beheshti, M.R.; Zreik, K.

    1993-01-01

    Adequate decision making in the design process needs information about oost oonsequences over the life of the designed object. In succeeding stages the types of decisions change; as a consequence the type of oost information will differ as well. For each stage oost information about realized

  4. Design process of an area-efficient photobioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijffers, J.F.; Janssen, M.G.J.; Tramper, J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the design process of the Green Solar Collector (GSC), an area-efficient photobioreactor for the outdoor cultivation of microalgae. The overall goal has been to design a system in which all incident sunlight on the area covered by the reactor is delivered to the algae at such

  5. Risk Informed Design as Part of the Systems Engineering Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckert, George

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the importance of Risk Informed Design (RID) as an important feature of the systems engineering process. RID is based on the principle that risk is a design commodity such as mass, volume, cost or power. It also reviews Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) as it is used in the product life cycle in the development of NASA's Constellation Program.

  6. Foundations of digital signal processing theory, algorithms and hardware design

    CERN Document Server

    Gaydecki, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    An excellent introductory text, this book covers the basic theoretical, algorithmic and real-time aspects of digital signal processing (DSP). Detailed information is provided on off-line, real-time and DSP programming and the reader is effortlessly guided through advanced topics such as DSP hardware design, FIR and IIR filter design and difference equation manipulation.

  7. Odenplan: a media façade design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Henrik; Hansen, Nicolai Brodersen; Basballe, Ditte Amund

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an example of how to work with the challenges inherent in media façade design processes. We base the paper on our experiences from the creation of a series of design proposals for a media façade on the Odenplan subway station in Stockholm, Sweden. We approach the question...

  8. The Design Process and User Focused Digital Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Keating, Elaine M.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis presents a qualitative inquiry into how the graphic design process is being reconfigured within the new digital media landscape. The literature review looks at the historical relationship between graphic design and technology from the invention of the printing press to the personal computer and reviews how this relationship is again affected by the emergence of the computer as a medium for communication. The products of digital design are no longer static and fixed but are dynamic...

  9. Leak testing. Environment and workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Workplaces specified for leak testing are divided into clean workplaces of the 1st degree, clean workplaces of the second degree, clean workplaces of the third degree and semi-clean workplaces. Clean workplaces are further subdivided into permanent and temporary workplaces. For all said types of workplaces the standard sets the following provisions: basic equipment, machines and instrumentation, permitted and prohibited working activities and principles for maintenance and inspection. (E.S.)

  10. WAG (water-alternating-gas) process design: an update review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, M.K. [University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan). Dept. of Petroleum and Gas Engineering], e-mail: mkzahoor@uet.edu.pk; Derahman, M.N.; Yunan, M.H. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor (Malaysia). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2011-04-15

    The design and implementation of water-alternating-gas (WAG) process in an improved and cost-effective way are still under process. Due to the complexities involved in implementing the process and the lack of information regarding fluid and reservoir properties, the water-alternating-gas process has not yet been as successful as initially expected. This situation can be overcome by better understanding the fluid distribution and flow behavior within the reservoir. The ultimate purpose can be achieved with improved knowledge on wettability and its influence on fluid distribution, capillary pressure, relative permeability, and other design parameters. This paper gives an insight on the WAG process design and the recently developed correlations which are helpful in incorporating the effects of wettability variations on fluid dynamics within the reservoir. (author)

  11. Application of discriminant analysis-based model for prediction of risk of low back disorders due to workplace design in industrial jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganga, G M D; Esposto, K F; Braatz, D

    2012-01-01

    The occupational exposure limits of different risk factors for development of low back disorders (LBDs) have not yet been established. One of the main problems in setting such guidelines is the limited understanding of how different risk factors for LBDs interact in causing injury, since the nature and mechanism of these disorders are relatively unknown phenomena. Industrial ergonomists' role becomes further complicated because the potential risk factors that may contribute towards the onset of LBDs interact in a complex manner, which makes it difficult to discriminate in detail among the jobs that place workers at high or low risk of LBDs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a comparative study between predictions based on the neural network-based model proposed by Zurada, Karwowski & Marras (1997) and a linear discriminant analysis model, for making predictions about industrial jobs according to their potential risk of low back disorders due to workplace design. The results obtained through applying the discriminant analysis-based model proved that it is as effective as the neural network-based model. Moreover, the discriminant analysis-based model proved to be more advantageous regarding cost and time savings for future data gathering.

  12. Design and development of an anthropomorphic phantom equipped with detectors in order to evaluate the effective dose E at workplaces: feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furstoss, Ch.

    2006-11-01

    My PhD study aims to determine the feasibility to design and develop, for photon fields, an anthropomorphic phantom equipped with detectors in order to evaluate the effective dose E at workplaces. First of all, the energy losses within the organs are calculated using the M.C.N.P.X. Monte Carlo code, in order to determine the detection positions within the different organs. Then, to decrease the number of detection positions, the organ contribution to the effective dose is studied. Finally, the characteristics of the detectors to insert and the characteristics of the phantom to use are deduced. The results show that 24 or 23 detection positions, according to the wT values (publication 60 or new recommendations of the ICRP), give a E estimation with an uncertainty of ±15 % from 50 keV to 4 MeV. Moreover, the interest of such an instrument is underlined while comparing the E estimation by the personal dose equivalent Hp to the E estimation by the instrumented phantom when the phantom is irradiated by point sources (worker in front of a glove box for example). Last, after the detector and phantom characteristic determination, two types of detectors and one type of phantom are selected. However, for the detectors mainly, developments are necessary. Follow up this study, the characterization and the adaptation of the detectors to the project would be interesting. Furthermore, the study to mixed photon-neutrons would be required the needs of the radiological protection community. (author)

  13. Process Materialization Using Templates and Rules to Design Flexible Process Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akhil; Yao, Wen

    The main idea in this paper is to show how flexible processes can be designed by combining generic process templates and business rules. We instantiate a process by applying rules to specific case data, and running a materialization algorithm. The customized process instance is then executed in an existing workflow engine. We present an architecture and also give an algorithm for process materialization. The rules are written in a logic-based language like Prolog. Our focus is on capturing deeper process knowledge and achieving a holistic approach to robust process design that encompasses control flow, resources and data, as well as makes it easier to accommodate changes to business policy.

  14. Depression in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression In The Workplace Depression In The Workplace Clinical depression has become one ... will die by suicide vi . Employees' Attitudes Towards Depression Often times a depressed employee will not seek ...

  15. Manufacturing process design for multi commodities in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyawan, Yudha; Santosa, Andrian Henry

    2017-06-01

    High-potential commodities within particular agricultural sectors should be accompanied by maximum benefit value that can be attained by both local farmers and business players. In several cases, the business players are small-medium enterprises (SMEs) which have limited resources to perform added value process of the local commodities into the potential products. The weaknesses of SMEs such as the manual production process with low productivity, limited capacity to maintain prices, and unattractive packaging due to conventional production. Agricultural commodity is commonly created into several products such as flour, chips, crackers, oil, juice, and other products. This research was initiated by collecting data by interview method particularly to obtain the perspectives of SMEs as the business players. Subsequently, the information was processed based on the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to determine House of Quality from the first to fourth level. A proposed design as the result of QFD was produced and evaluated with Technology Assessment Model (TAM) and continued with a revised design. Finally, the revised design was analyzed with financial perspective to obtain the cost structure of investment, operational, maintenance, and workers. The machine that performs manufacturing process, as the result of revised design, was prototyped and tested to determined initial production process. The designed manufacturing process offers IDR 337,897, 651 of Net Present Value (NPV) in comparison with the existing process value of IDR 9,491,522 based on similar production input.

  16. Do Workplace Literacy Programs Promote High Skills or Low Wages? Suggestions for Future Evaluations of Workplace Literacy Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Tony

    Workplace literacy programs can support the path toward either low wages or high skills. Instead of the "high skill" path, most U.S. companies follow the "low wage" path. Depending on who is involved, which program goals are selected, and what planning process is followed, a workplace literacy program can maintain outdated workplaces or foster…

  17. The relationship between interpersonal conflict and workplace bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Leon-Perez, J. M.; Medina, F. J.; Arenas, A.; Munduate, L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - This paper examines the role that conflict management styles play in the relationship between interpersonal conflict and workplace bullying. Design - A survey study was conducted among 761 employees from different organizations in Spain. Findings - Results suggest that an escalation of the conflict process from task-related to relationship conflict may explain bullying situations to some extent. Regarding conflict management, attempts to actively manage conflict through problem solv...

  18. Sketching in Design Journals: An Analysis of Visual Representations in the Product Design Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kimberly; Oehlberg, Lora; Agogino, Alice

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the sketching behavior of designers and the role of sketching in the design process. Observations from a descriptive study of sketches provided in design journals, characterized by a protocol measuring sketching activities, are presented. A distinction is made between journals that are entirely tangible and those that contain…

  19. Robust Unconventional Interaction Design and Hybrid Tool Environments for Design and Engineering Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Robert E.; Kruiper, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how and whether existing or current design tools, assist and support designers and engineers in the early-phases of ideation and conceptualization stages of design and engineering processes. The research explores how fluidly and/or congruously technology affords cognitive,

  20. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  1. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  2. Social capital and workplace bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, Patricia; Albertsen, Karen; Hogh, Annie; Andersen, Lars Peter Sønderbo

    2017-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a serious stressor with devastating short- and long-term consequences. The concept of organizational social capital may provide insights into the interactional and communicative dynamics of the bullying process and opportunities for prevention. This study aimed to explore the association between organizational social capital and being a target or observer of workplace bullying. Based on self-reported cross-sectional data from a large representative sample of the Danish working population (n = 10.037), logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore at the individual level the associations between vertical and horizontal organizational social capital with being a target or observer of workplace bullying. In the fully adjusted models, low organizational social capital (vertical and horizontal) was associated with significantly increased odds ratios of both self-labelled (vertical: OR = 3.25; CI = 2.34-4.51; horizontal: OR = 3.17; CI = 2.41-4.18) and observed workplace bullying (vertical: OR = 2.09; CI = 1.70-2.56; horizontal: OR = 1.60; CI = 1.35-1.89), when compared with high organizational social capital. This study supports that characteristics of the psychosocial work environment are of importance in the development of workplace bullying, and provides focus on the importance of self-reported organizational social capital.

  3. Worker, workplace, and community/environmental risk factors for workplace violence in emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Gordon Lee; Pekar, Bunnany; Byczkowski, Terri L; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2017-03-04

    Workplace violence committed by patients and visitors has high propensity to occur against emergency department employees. This article reports the association of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors with violence risks. A cross-sectional research design was used with 280 employees from six emergency departments in the Midwest United States. Respondents completed the Survey of Violence Experienced by Staff and a 10-item demographic questionnaire. Data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, Chi-square tests, and adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Over 80% of respondents experienced at least one type of workplace violence with their current employer and approximately 40% experienced all three types. Risks for workplace violence were significantly higher for registered nurses and hospital-based emergency departments. Workplace violence can impact all employees in the emergency department regardless of worker, workplace, and community/environmental factors.

  4. Workplace Learning in the New Zealand Apple Industry Network: A New Co-Design Method for Government "Practice Making"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Roberta; Capper, Phillip; Wilson, Ken; Whatman, Richard; Wong, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how, from 2004-2006, a New Zealand research team experimented with the "change laboratory" learning process to create a new method of government policy development and implementation, referred to as "practice-making". The apple industry in Hawke's Bay was chosen because of the…

  5. The start up as a phase of architectural design process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Iara Sousa; Lima, Francisco de Paula Antunes; Duarte, Francisco José de Castro Moura

    2012-01-01

    Alterations made in the architectural design can be considered as a continuous process, from its conception to the moment a built environment is already in use. This article focuses on the "moving phase", which is the initial moment of the environment occupation and the start-up of services. It aims to show that the continuity of ergonomics interventions during the "moving phase" or start up may reveal the built environment inadequacies; clearly showing needs not met by the design and allowing making instant decisions to solve non-foreseen problems. The results have revealed some lessons experienced by users during a critical stage not usually included in the design process.

  6. Design Process for Integrated Concepts with Responsive Building Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aa, Van der A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2008-01-01

    An integrated building concept is a prerequisite to come to an energy efficient building with a good and healthy IAQ indoor comfort. A design process that defines the targets and boundary conditions in the very first stage of the design and guarantees them until the building is finished and used...... is needed. The hard question is however: how to make the right choice of the combination of individual measures from building components and building services elements. Within the framework of IEA-ECBCS Annex 44 research has been conducted about the design process for integrated building concepts...

  7. Theory and Practice Meets in Industrial Process Design -Educational Perspective-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramo-Immonen, Heli; Toikka, Tarja

    Software engineer should see himself as a business process designer in enterprise resource planning system (ERP) re-engineering project. Software engineers and managers should have design dialogue. The objective of this paper is to discuss the motives to study the design research in connection of management education in order to envision and understand the soft human issues in the management context. Second goal is to develop means of practicing social skills between designers and managers. This article explores the affective components of design thinking in industrial management domain. In the conceptual part of this paper are discussed concepts of network and project economy, creativity, communication, use of metaphors, and design thinking. Finally is introduced empirical research plan and first empirical results from design method experiments among the multi-disciplined groups of the master-level students of industrial engineering and management and software engineering.

  8. A rational approach for ω-transaminase-catalyzed process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    T. Gundersen, Maria; Lloyd, Richard; Tufvesson, Pär

    Herein we describe a novel rational approach to the design of a ω-transaminase process such that it will fulfill criteria necessary for industrial use. By first determining the fundamental properties of the reaction system, it is possible to suggest appropriate process strategies that may be used...

  9. Improving the workplace environment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gledhill, Irvy MA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that companies with more diversity and a better workplace perform better. So what makes a good workplace in physics, where women and men can work to their full potential? In the Improving the Workplace Environment workshop...

  10. A personalized healthy workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Justin

    2017-01-01

    In February 2017, seven partners signed a contract to collaborate on a project called the Healthy Workplace. Measuremen, Menzis, Health2Work, ENGIE, Planon, and Hanzehogeschool Groningen are dedicated to make the regular workplace a healthy workplace. Health is of primary importance for both the

  11. Process Design and Evaluation for Chemicals Based on Renewable Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fu, Wenjing

    . In addition, another characteristic of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks is that many alternative technologies and possible routes exist, resulting in many possible process flowsheets. The challenge for process engineers is then to choose between possible process routes and alternative technologies...... development of chemicals based on renewable feedstocks. As an example, this thesis especially focuses on applying the methodology in process design and evaluation of the synthesis of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) from the renewable feedstock glucose/fructose. The selected example is part of the chemoenzymatic......One of the key steps in process design is choosing between alternative technologies, especially for processes producing bulk and commodity chemicals. Recently, driven by the increasing oil prices and diminishing reserves, the production of bulk and commodity chemicals from renewable feedstocks has...

  12. Integrated and Modular Design of an Optimized Process Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Raßfeld

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Global economic integration increased the complexity of business activities, so organizations are forced to become more efficient each day. Process organization is a very useful way of aligning organizational systems towards business processes. However, an organization must do more than just focus its attention and efforts on processes. The layout design has also a significant impact on the system performance.. We contribute to this field by developing a tailored process-oriented organizational structure and new layout design for the quality assurance of a leading German automotive manufacturer. The target concept we developed was evaluated by process owners and an IT-based process simulation. Our results provide solid empirical back-up in which the performance and effects are  assessed from a qualitative and quantitative perspective

  13. Property Based Process and Product Synthesis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard

    2003-01-01

    in terms of the constitutive (synthesis/design) variables instead of the process variables, thus providing the synthesis/design targets. The second reverse problem (reverse property prediction) solves the constitutive equations to identify unit operations, operating conditions and/or products by matching......This thesis describes the development of a general framework for solving process and product design problems. Targeting the desired performance of the system in a systematic manner relieves the iterative nature of conventional design techniques. Furthermore, conventional component based methods...... are not capable of handling problems, where the process or product objectives are driven by functionalities or properties rather than chemical constituency. The framework is meant to complement existing composition based methods by being able to handle property driven problems. By investigating the different...

  14. RF-Frontend Design for Process-Variation-Tolerant Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Sakian, Pooyan; van Roermund, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    This book discusses a number of challenges faced by designers of wireless receivers, given complications caused by the shrinking of electronic and mobile devices circuitry into ever-smaller sizes and the resulting complications on the manufacturability, production yield, and the end price of the products.  The authors describe the impact of process technology on the performance of the end product and equip RF designers with countermeasures to cope with such problems.  The mechanisms by which these problems arise are analyzed in detail and novel solutions are provided, including design guidelines for receivers with robustness to process variations and details of circuit blocks that obtain the required performance level. Describes RF receiver frontends and their building blocks from a system- and circuit-level perspective; Provides system-level analysis of a generic RF receiver frontend with robustness to process variations; Includes details of CMOS circuit design at 60GHz and reconfigurable circuits at 60GHz...

  15. Using a Design Science Perspective to Understand a Complex Design-Based Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bækgaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to demonstrate how a design science perspective can be used to describe and understand a set of related design-based research processes. We describe and analyze a case study in a manner that is inspired by design science. The case study involves the design of modeling......-based research processes. And we argue that a design science perspective may be useful for both researchers and practitioners....... tools and the redesign of an information service in a library. We use a set of guidelines from a design science perspective to organize the description and analysis of the case study. By doing this we demonstrate the usefulness of design science as an analytical tool for understanding related design...

  16. Software features and applications in process design, integration and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhole, V. [Aspen Tech Limited, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    1999-02-01

    Process engineering technologies and tools have evolved rapidly over the last twenty years. Process simulation/modeling, advanced process control, on-line optimisation, production planning and supply chain management are some of the examples of technologies that have rapidly matured from early commercial prototypes and concepts to established tools with significant impact on profitability of process industry today. Process Synthesis or Process Integration (PI) in comparison is yet to create its impact and still remains largely in the domain of few expert users. One of the key reasons as to why PI has not taken off is because the PI tools have not become integral components of the standard process engineering environments. On the last 15 years AspenTech has grown from a small process simulation tool provider to a large multinational company providing a complete suite of process engineering technologies and services covering process design, operation, planning and supply chain management. Throughout this period, AspenTech has acquired experience in rapidly evolving technologies from their early prototype stage to mature products and services. The paper outlines AspenTech`s strategy of integrating PI with other more established process design and operational improvement technologies. The paper illustrates the key elements of AspenTech`s strategy via examples of software development initiatives and services projects. The paper also outlines AspenTech`s future vision of the role of PI in process engineering. (au)

  17. Participatory ergonomics in design processes: The role of boundary objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Ole; Andersen, Vibeke; Seim, Rikke

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of boundary objects in order to better understand the role of objects in participatory ergonomics (PE) design processes. The research question is: What characterizes boundary objects in PE processes? Based on two case studies, we identify eight...... enable workers’ participation and collaborative design in different ways. The framework developed may serve to provide criteria to guide practitioners and intervention researchers in the selection of objects to facilitate a PE process. The paper concludes with a list of recommendations for ergonomic...

  18. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  19. New ways of integrating material knowledge into the design process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højris, Anders; Nielsen, Louise Møller

    2013-01-01

    – based on technical performance, no longer apply. Accordingly the approach in this paper is to view information and knowledge about materials through the perspective of organizational memory and technology brokering. This paper is build upon two cases from the German based design studio: designaffairs...... libraries and thereby access to information on new material possibilities has also changed the way designers integrate knowledge about materials into the design process. This means that the traditional design process model, where the selection of materials takes place after the design of form and function...... in order to help clients to find the right material among hundreds of samples. Furthermore a number of material libraries have also been developed into online database, which provides detailed information about new material and makes the information accessible from almost everywhere. The access to material...

  20. Representation stigma: Perceptions of tools and processes for design graphics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbarash

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Practicing designers and design students across multiple fields were surveyed to measure preference and perception of traditional hand and digital tools to determine if common biases for an individual toolset are realized in practice. Significant results were found, primarily with age being a determinant in preference of graphic tools and processes; this finding demonstrates a hard line between generations of designers. Results show that while there are strong opinions in tools and processes, the realities of modern business practice and production gravitate towards digital methods despite a traditional tool preference in more experienced designers. While negative stigmas regarding computers remain, younger generations are more accepting of digital tools and images, which should eventually lead to a paradigm shift in design professions.

  1. Radiological Design Summary Report for TRU Vent and Purge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taus, L.B.

    2004-01-01

    This report contains top-level requirements for the various areas of radiological protection for workers. Detailed quotations of the requirements for applicable regulatory documents can be found in the accompanying Implementation Guide. For the purposes of demonstrating compliance with these requirements, per Engineering Standard 01064, shall consider / shall evaluate indicates that the designer must examine the requirement for the design and either incorporate or provide a technical justification as to why the requirement is not incorporated. The Transuranic Vent and Purge process is not a project, but is considered a process change. This process has been performed successfully by Solid Waste on lower activity TRU drums. This summary report applies a graded approach and describes how the Transuranic Vent and Purge process meets each of the applicable radiological design criteria and requirements specified in Manual WSRC-TM-95-1, Engineering Standard Number 01064

  2. Applying operating experience to design the CANDU 3 process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, D.S.; Hinchley, E.M.; Pauksens, J.; Snell, V.; Yu, S.K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The CANDU 3 is an advanced, smaller (450 MWe), standardized version of the CANDU now being designed for service later in the decade and beyond. The design of this evolutionary nuclear power plant has been carefully planned and organized to gain maximum benefits from new technologies and from world experience to date in designing, building, commissioning and operating nuclear power stations. The good performance record of existing CANDU reactors makes consideration of operating experience from these plants a particularly vital component of the design process. Since the completion of the first four CANDU 6 stations in the early 1980s, and with the continuing evolution of the multi-unit CANDU station designs since then, AECL CANDU has devised several processes to ensure that such feedback is made available to designers. An important step was made in 1986 when a task force was set up to review and process ideas arising from the commissioning and early operation of the CANDU 6 reactors which were, by that time, operating successfully in Argentina and Korea, as well as the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. The task force issued a comprehensive report which, although aimed at the design of an improved CANDU 6 station, was made available to the CANDU 3 team. By that time also, the Institute of Power Operations (INPO) in the U.S., of which AECL is a Supplier Participant member, was starting to publish Good Practices and Guidelines related to the review and the use of operating experiences. In addition, details of significant events were being made available via the INPO SEE-IN (Significant Event Evaluation and Information Network) Program, and subsequently the CANNET network of the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). Systematic review was thus possible by designers of operations reports, significant event reports, and related documents in a continuing program of design improvement. Another method of incorporating operations feedback is to involve experienced utility

  3. Applying operating experience to design the CANDU 3 process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D S; Hinchley, E M; Pauksens, J; Snell, V; Yu, S K.W. [AECL-CANDU, Ontario (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The CANDU 3 is an advanced, smaller (450 MWe), standardized version of the CANDU now being designed for service later in the decade and beyond. The design of this evolutionary nuclear power plant has been carefully planned and organized to gain maximum benefits from new technologies and from world experience to date in designing, building, commissioning and operating nuclear power stations. The good performance record of existing CANDU reactors makes consideration of operating experience from these plants a particularly vital component of the design process. Since the completion of the first four CANDU 6 stations in the early 1980s, and with the continuing evolution of the multi-unit CANDU station designs since then, AECL CANDU has devised several processes to ensure that such feedback is made available to designers. An important step was made in 1986 when a task force was set up to review and process ideas arising from the commissioning and early operation of the CANDU 6 reactors which were, by that time, operating successfully in Argentina and Korea, as well as the Canadian provinces of Quebec and New Brunswick. The task force issued a comprehensive report which, although aimed at the design of an improved CANDU 6 station, was made available to the CANDU 3 team. By that time also, the Institute of Power Operations (INPO) in the U.S., of which AECL is a Supplier Participant member, was starting to publish Good Practices and Guidelines related to the review and the use of operating experiences. In addition, details of significant events were being made available via the INPO SEE-IN (Significant Event Evaluation and Information Network) Program, and subsequently the CANNET network of the CANDU Owners' Group (COG). Systematic review was thus possible by designers of operations reports, significant event reports, and related documents in a continuing program of design improvement. Another method of incorporating operations feedback is to involve experienced utility

  4. A Robust Process Analytical Technology (PAT) System Design for Crystallization Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations. The design framework contains a generic multidimensional modelling framework, a tool for gen...

  5. A systematic framework for design of process monitoring and control (PAT) systems for crystallization processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdul Samad, Noor Asma Fazli Bin; Sin, Gürkan; Gernaey, Krist

    2013-01-01

    A generic computer-aided framework for systematic design of a process monitoring and control system for crystallization processes has been developed to study various aspects of crystallization operations.The systematic design framework contains a generic crystallizer modelling toolbox, a tool for...

  6. Using Solver Interfaced Virtual Reality in PEACER Design Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyong Won; Nam, Won Chang; Jeong, Seung Ho; Hwang, Il Soon; Shin, Jong Gye; Kim, Chang Hyo

    2006-01-01

    The recent research progress in the area of plant design and simulation highlighted the importance of integrating design and analysis models on a unified environment. For currently developed advanced reactors, either for power production or research, this effort has embraced impressive state-of-the-art information and automation technology. The PEACER (Proliferation-resistant, Environment friendly, Accident-tolerant, Continual and Economical Reactor) is one of the conceptual fast reactor system cooled by LBE (Lead Bismuth Eutectic) for nuclear waste transmutation. This reactor system is composed of innovative combination between design process and analysis. To establish an integrated design process by coupling design, analysis, and post-processing technology while minimizing the repetitive and costly manual interactions for design changes, a solver interfaced virtual reality simulation system (SIVR) has been developed for a nuclear transmutation energy system as PEACER. The SIVR was developed using Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) in order to interface a commercial 3D CAD tool with various engineering solvers and to implement virtual reality presentation of results in a neutral format. In this paper, we have shown the SIVR approach viable and effective in the life-cycle management of complex nuclear energy systems, including design, construction and operation. For instance, The HELIOS is a down scaled model of the PEACER prototype to demonstrate the operability and safety as well as preliminary test of PEACER PLM (Product Life-cycle Management) with SIVR (Solver Interfaced Virtual Reality) concepts. Most components are designed by CATIA, which is 3D CAD tool. During the construction, 3D drawing by CATIA was effective to handle and arrange the loop configuration, especially when we changed the design. Most of all, This system shows the transparency of design and operational status of an energy complex to operators and inspectors can help ensure accident

  7. How does sustainability certification affect the design process? Mapping final design projects at an architectural office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landgren, Mathilde; Jensen, Lotte Bjerregaard

    2017-01-01

    process and informing the industry of them. This has led to optimised design processes such as Integrated Energy Design, in which many decisions related to energy consumption and indoor climate are made in the early design stages. The current tendency is to use an expanded notion of sustainability......, derived from the sustainability certification system itself, and to apply it even in the early design process. This perspective emphasises all phases of the life cycle of a building. The goal of the present study was to map how a Danish architectural office approached sustainability in the projects......The context of the study is the very strict regulation of energy consumption for operating buildings in Denmark. It is difficult to meet the requirements by system optimisation in the final design phase, so recent research has focused on ways of meeting the target by adapting the whole design...

  8. Designing a Process for Tracking Business Model Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groskovs, Sergejs

    The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide for such pro......The paper has adopted a design science research approach to design and verify with key stakeholders a fundamental management process of revising KPIs (key performance indicators), including those indicators that are related to business model change. The paper proposes a general guide...... for such process design, which is applicable in similar settings, i.e. other multi-subsidiary global firms operating in dynamic industries. The management of the focal case uses a set of KPIs to track performance and thus to allow for bringing about strategic and tactical changes, including the initiatives...... by establishing new KPIs on an ongoing basis together with the business units on the ground, and is thus of key importance to strategic management of the firm. The paper concludes with a discussion of its methodological compliance to design science research guidelines and revisits the literature in process...

  9. Generative design visualize, program, and create with processing

    CERN Document Server

    Bohnacker, Hartmut; Laub, Julia; Lazzeroni, Claudius

    2012-01-01

    Generative design is a revolutionary new method of creating artwork, models, and animations from sets of rules, or algorithms. By using accessible programming languages such as Processing, artists and designers are producing extravagant, crystalline structures that can form the basis of anything from patterned textiles and typography to lighting, scientific diagrams, sculptures, films, and even fantastical buildings. Opening with a gallery of thirty-five illustrated case studies, Generative Design takes users through specific, practical instructions on how to create their own visual experiments by combining simple-to-use programming codes with basic design principles. A detailed handbook of advanced strategies provides visual artists with all the tools to achieve proficiency. Both a how-to manual and a showcase for recent work in this exciting new field, Generative Design is the definitive study and reference book that designers have been waiting for.

  10. Design process for a repository - KBS-3 case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svemar, C.

    1995-01-01

    This paper deals with the design process for the Swedish (generic) repository design KBS-3. The repository may have a spiral access ramp, access shafts, or straight access ramps. Galleries lead from a central service area to a small spent fuel storage area, a larger main spent fuel storage area, and a disposal area for other nuclear waste. This, or any, design has to be planned through three stages of layout and design, viz. feasibility study, preliminary planning, and architectural design, followed by detailed planning, and then planning of excavation and construction. Decisions on final design have to wait until construction is imminent, and all the rock data are available. This means that different sections of the repository may be at different planning stages at any one time. In the last stage, the plan of the disposal holes depends on detailed coring results, because a hole will not be bored where there is a fracture. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  11. AIRCRAFT POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM DESIGN PROCESS AS AN AUTOMATION OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V. Zhmurov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of designing aviation electrical power systems (EPS is related to the need to fulfill a number of requirements of normative and technical documents and to conduct a large number of calculations. Experience has shown that it is not possible to obtain reliable initial data on the nature and magnitude of electricity consumption by electricity receivers (end users at the early stages of design. The composition of the electric power receivers and the power consumption of electricity during the design process are repeatedly changed. This leads to the need to repeatedly perform tasks related to the synthesis of primary and secondary systems of generation and calculation.The desire to improve the efficiency of EPS led to the emergence of new standardized types of electrical energy - 270 V DC and 380 V three-phase AC of stable and unstable frequency. It follows that it is possible to implement a rather large number of options for EPS structures, and there may be several secondary EPS or, in general, EPS of a third or higher level.The lack of ready-made aviation energy converters implies the impossibility of using ready-made components, and the development of specific devices should be coordinated with the development of EPS. In this case, one of the results of EPS design will be a set of requirements for the devices and units of the EPS projected.In any case, the design process for EPS aircraft requires a lot of iterations that take into account the change in both the raw data and the constraints on the EPS elements and the design process itself.The traditional approach to the design of EPS aircraft, assuming the knowledge of the designer of dozens of GOSTs (State All-Union standards and OSTs (All-Union standarts regulating the design stages of EPS, as well as the existence of standard EPS structures, from which a specific choice is made, is practically impossible at present. The only way to consciously approach the problem of designing EPS

  12. Design of a Pu-238 waste incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, D.L.; McCampbell, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    Combustible 238 Pu waste is generated as a result of normal operation and decommissioning activity at the Savannah River Plant and is being retrievably stored at the Plant. As part of the long-term plan to process the stored waste and current waste in preparation for future disposition, a 238 Pu incinceration process is being cold-tested at SRL. The incineration process consists of a continuous-feed preparation system, a two-stage, electrically fired incinerator, and a filtration off-gas system. Process equipment has been designed, fabricated, and installed for nonradioactive testing and cold run-in. Design features to maximize the ability to remotely maintain the equipment were incorporated into the process. Interlock, alarm, and control functions are provided by a programmable controller. Cold testing is scheduled to be completed in 1986

  13. Workplace discrimination and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Maureen A; Fabian, Ellen; Hurley, Jessica E; McMahon, Brian T; West, Steven L

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Integrated Mission System database were analyzed with specific reference to allegations of workplace discrimination filed by individuals with cancer under ADA Title One. These 6,832 allegations, filed between July 27, 1992 and September 30, 2003, were compared to 167,798 allegations from a general disability population on the following dimensions: type of workplace discrimination; demographic characteristics of the charging parties (CPs); the industry designation, location, and size of employers; and the outcome or resolution of EEOC investigations. Results showed allegations derived from CPs with cancer were more likely than those in the general disability population to include issues involving discharge, terms and conditions of employment, lay-off, wages, and demotion. Compared to the general disability group, CPs with cancer were more likely to be female, older, and White. Allegations derived from CPs with cancer were also more likely to be filed against smaller employers (15-100 workers) or those in service industries. Finally, the resolution of allegations by CPs with cancer were more likely to be meritorious than those filed from the general disability population; that is, actual discrimination is more likely to have occurred.

  14. Transfer of communication skills to the workplace: impact of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed for radiotherapy teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merckaert, Isabelle; Delevallez, France; Gibon, Anne-Sophie; Liénard, Aurore; Libert, Yves; Delvaux, Nicole; Marchal, Serge; Etienne, Anne-Marie; Bragard, Isabelle; Reynaert, Christine; Slachmuylder, Jean-Louis; Scalliet, Pierre; Van Houtte, Paul; Coucke, Philippe; Razavi, Darius

    2015-03-10

    This study assessed the efficacy of a 38-hour communication skills training program designed to train a multidisciplinary radiotherapy team. Four radiotherapy teams were randomly assigned to a training program or a waiting list. Assessments were scheduled at baseline and after training for the training group and at baseline and 4 months later for the waiting list group. Assessments included an audio recording of a radiotherapy planning session to assess team members' communication skills and expression of concerns of patients with breast cancer (analyzed with content analysis software) and an adapted European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer satisfaction with care questionnaire completed by patients at the end of radiotherapy. Two hundred thirty-seven radiotherapy planning sessions were recorded. Compared with members of the untrained teams, members of the trained teams acquired, over time, more assessment skills (P = .003) and more supportive skills (P = .050) and provided more setting information (P = .010). Over time, patients interacting with members of the trained teams asked more open questions (P = .022), expressed more emotional words (P = .025), and exhibited a higher satisfaction level regarding nurses' interventions (P = .028). The 38-hour training program facilitated transfer of team member learned communication skills to the clinical practice and improved patients' satisfaction with care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Implementation of quality by design toward processing of food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathore, Anurag S; Kapoor, Gautam

    2017-05-28

    Quality by design (QbD) is a systematic approach that begins with predefined objectives and emphasizes product and process understanding and process control. It is an approach based on principles of sound science and quality risk management. As the food processing industry continues to embrace the idea of in-line, online, and/or at-line sensors and real-time characterization for process monitoring and control, the existing gaps with regard to our ability to monitor multiple parameters/variables associated with the manufacturing process will be alleviated over time. Investments made for development of tools and approaches that facilitate high-throughput analytical and process development, process analytical technology, design of experiments, risk analysis, knowledge management, and enhancement of process/product understanding would pave way for operational and economic benefits later in the commercialization process and across other product pipelines. This article aims to achieve two major objectives. First, to review the progress that has been made in the recent years on the topic of QbD implementation in processing of food products and second, present a case study that illustrates benefits of such QbD implementation.

  16. Understanding Creative Design Processes by Integrating Sketching and CAD Modelling Design Environments: A Preliminary Protocol Result from Architectural Designers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Teng Shih

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a preliminary protocol study of the cognitive behaviour of architectural designers during the design process. The aim is to better understand the similarities and differences in cognitive behaviour using Sequential Mixed Media (SMM and Alternative Mixed Media (AMM approaches, and how switching between media may impact on design processes. Two participants with at least one-year’s professional design experience and a Bachelor of Design degree, and competence in both sketching and computer-aid design (CAD modelling participated in the study. Video recordings of participants working on different projects were coded using the Function-Behaviour-Structure (FBS coding scheme. Participants were also interviewed and their explanations about their switching behaviours were categorised into three types: S→C, S/C↹R and C→S. Preliminary results indicate that switching between media may influence how designers identify problems and develop solutions. In particular, two design issues were identified.  These relate to the FBS coding scheme, where structure (S and behaviour derived from structure (Bs, change to documentation (D after switching from sketching to CAD modelling (S→C. These switches make it possible for designers to integrate both approaches into one design medium and facilitate their design processes in AMM design environments.

  17. Supporting change processes in design: Complexity, prediction and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Claudia M. [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cme26@cam.ac.uk; Keller, Rene [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rk313@cam.ac.uk; Earl, Chris [Open University, Department of Design and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: C.F.Earl@open.ac.uk; Clarkson, P. John [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pjc10@cam.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    Change to existing products is fundamental to design processes. New products are often designed through change or modification to existing products. Specific parts or subsystems are changed to similar ones whilst others are directly reused. Design by modification applies particularly to safety critical products where the reuse of existing working parts and subsystems can reduce cost and risk. However change is rarely a matter of just reusing or modifying parts. Changing one part can propagate through the entire design leading to costly rework or jeopardising the integrity of the whole product. This paper characterises product change based on studies in the aerospace and automotive industry and introduces tools to aid designers in understanding the potential effects of change. Two ways of supporting designers are described: probabilistic prediction of the effects of change and visualisation of change propagation through product connectivities. Change propagation has uncertainties which are amplified by the choices designers make in practice as they implement change. Change prediction and visualisation is discussed with reference to complexity in three areas of product development: the structural backcloth of connectivities in the existing product (and its processes), the descriptions of the product used in design and the actions taken to carry out changes.

  18. The Process of Optimizing Mechanical Sound Quality in Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare; Holst, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The research field concerning optimizing product sound quality is a relatively unexplored area, and may become difficult for designers to operate in. To some degree, sound is a highly subjective parameter, which is normally targeted sound specialists. This paper describes the theoretical...... and practical background for managing a process of optimizing the mechanical sound quality in a product design by using simple tools and workshops systematically. The procedure is illustrated by a case study of a computer navigation tool (computer mouse or mouse). The process is divided into 4 phases, which...... clarify the importance of product sound, defining perceptive demands identified by users, and, finally, how to suggest mechanical principles for modification of an existing sound design. The optimized mechanical sound design is followed by tests on users of the product in its use context. The result...

  19. Importance of design optimization of gamma processing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Jain Reji

    2014-01-01

    Radiation processing of food commodities using ionizing radiations is well established world wide. In India too, novel designs are coming up for food irradiation as well as for multiproduct irradiation. It has been observed that though the designs of the product movement systems are excelling, the actual purpose for which the designs are made are failing in some. In such situations it is difficult to achieve an effective dose delivery by controlling the process parameters or even by modifying the source activity distribution without compromising some other aspects like throughput. It is very essential to arrive at an optimization in all components such as radiation source geometry, source product geometry and protective barriers of an irradiator system. Optimization of the various parameters can be done by modeling and analysis of the design

  20. Regular cell design approach considering lithography-induced process variations

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Fernández, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The deployment delays for EUVL, forces IC design to continue using 193nm wavelength lithography with innovative and costly techniques in order to faithfully print sub-wavelength features and combat lithography induced process variations. The effect of the lithography gap in current and upcoming technologies is to cause severe distortions due to optical diffraction in the printed patterns and thus degrading manufacturing yield. Therefore, a paradigm shift in layout design is mandatory towards ...

  1. Implementation of hierarchical design for manufacture rules in manufacturing processes

    OpenAIRE

    Parvez, Masud

    2008-01-01

    In order to shorten the product development cycle time, minimise overall cost and smooth transition into production, early consideration of manufacturing processes is important. Design for Manufacture (DFM) is the practice of designing products with manufacturing issues using an intelligent system, which translates 3D solid models into manufacturable features. Many existing and potential applications, particularly in the field of manufacturing, require various aspects of features technology. ...

  2. Hybrid microcircuit technology handbook materials, processes, design, testing and production

    CERN Document Server

    Licari, James J

    1998-01-01

    The Hybrid Microcircuit Technology Handbook integrates the many diverse technologies used in the design, fabrication, assembly, and testing of hybrid segments crucial to the success of producing reliable circuits in high yields. Among these are: resistor trimming, wire bonding, die attachment, cleaning, hermetic sealing, and moisture analysis. In addition to thin films, thick films, and assembly processes, important chapters on substrate selections, handling (including electrostatic discharge), failure analysis, and documentation are included. A comprehensive chapter of design guidelines will

  3. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  4. Systematic Integrated Process Design and Control of Binary Element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is considered through a computer-aided framework. First, a set of simple design methods for reactive distillation column that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods are extended...... to design-control of reactive distillation columns. These methods are based on the element concept where the reacting system of compounds is represented as elements. When only two elements are needed to represent the reacting system of more than two compounds, a binary element system is identified....... It is shown that the same design-control principles that apply to a non-reacting binary system of compounds are also valid for a reactive binary system of elements for distillation columns. Application of this framework shows that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force...

  5. Supplementing supported employment with workplace skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Charles J; Tauber, Robert

    2004-05-01

    Introduction by the column editors: Supported employment, as designed for persons with serious and persistent mental illness, has been termed individual placement and support. In two randomized controlled trials (1,2), clients who received individual placement and support services were more likely to obtain at least one job in the competitive sector, to work more hours, and to have a higher total income than their counterparts who received more traditional types of vocational rehabilitation. However, individual placement and support did not improve the length of time the employed participants kept their jobs. An adjunctive or additional element of individual placement and support, aimed at improving the job tenure of individuals with mental illness, would be a constructive contribution to the vocational rehabilitation for this population. In a previous Rehab Rounds column, Wallace and colleagues (3) described the development of the workplace fundamental skills module, a highly structured and user-friendly curriculum designed to teach workers with mental illness the social and workplace skills needed to keep their jobs. The workplace fundamental skills module supplements individual placement and support by conveying specific skills that enable workers to learn the requirements of their jobs, anticipate the stressors associated with their jobs, and cope with stressors by using a problem-solving process. The earlier report described the production and validation of the module's content. The purpose of this month's column is to present the preliminary results of a randomized comparison of the module's effects on job retention, symptoms, and community functioning when coupled with individual placement and support. To enable wide generalization of the findings of the study, the program was conducted in a typical community mental health center.

  6. REQUIREMENTS PROCESSING TOOLS AND THE BUILDING DESIGNERS MOTIVATION ON USE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Pegoraro

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The successful development of projects requires, among other conditions, the ability to process requirements. In the construction literature, researchers have figured out that human difficulties was often at the root of Requirements Processing (RP problems throughout the design phases, and that the employment of tools could be a key factor for RP implementation. To check these outcomes and to look at how current practitioners behave in relation to the RP tools, an exploratory case study was conducted with a building design team from a public university. The aim of this paper was to investigate the perception of benefits and the motivation of designers regarding the RP tools. The results indicated that 42% of the participants are highly motivated to use new tools and that they have more interest in tools that deal directly with design activities than in those focused on data. Validation tools aroused interest as the most useful tools for designers. 66,7% of the participants mentioned that the tools can make the design process clearer, and that training and adaptation are crucial to promote acceptance and commitment to RP. The main contribution is the indication of gaps for further research and for tools improvement from the designers’ perspective.

  7. A coherent description of the process of design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1992-01-01

    , and others. Doing so, a corresponding number of philosophical problems are solved, and the description becomes a coherent theory. The author has shown that it is possible to make a computer program for conceptual modelling based on the theory presented, and the principles of a CAD system including......A description of the creative design process is given based on Empiricism and using the theory of sets on conceptual and subconscious representations of the human mind. Definitions that are more precise are given of a number of common concepts such as association, synthesis, culture, creation, art...... the program and supporting the creative process of the designer is described....

  8. Post processing of Design Load Cases using Pdap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard

    Pdap provides functions for post-processing and documentation of a set of hawc2 result files, e.g. a full design load case. This report describes the input and its syntax, the mathematical foundation and the output in terms of statistic files and standard reports.......Pdap provides functions for post-processing and documentation of a set of hawc2 result files, e.g. a full design load case. This report describes the input and its syntax, the mathematical foundation and the output in terms of statistic files and standard reports....

  9. Background, design and conceptual model of the cluster randomized multiple-component workplace study: FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain - "FRIDOM"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanette Reffstrup Christensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several RCT studies have aimed to reduce either musculoskeletal disorders, sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism or a combination of these among females with high physical work demands. These studies have provided evidence that workplace health promotion (WHP interventions are effective, but long-term effects are still uncertain. These studies either lack to succeed in maintaining intervention effects or lack to document if effects are maintained past a one-year period. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FRIDOM (FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain WHP program among health care workers. A job group characterized by having high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, high sickness presenteeism - and absenteeism. Methods FRIDOM aimed to reduce neck and shoulder pain. Secondary aims were to decrease sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism and lifestyle-diseases such as other musculoskeletal disorders as well as metabolic-, and cardiovascular disorders – and to maintain participation to regular physical exercise training, after a one year intervention period. The entire concept was tailored to a population of female health care workers. This was done through a multi-component intervention including 1 intelligent physical exercise training (IPET, dietary advice and weight loss (DAW and cognitive behavioural training (CBT. Discussion The FRIDOM program has the potential to provide evidence-based knowledge of the pain reducing effect of a multi component WHP among a female group of employees with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and in a long term perspective evaluate the effects on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism as well as risk of life-style diseases. Trial registration NCT02843269 , 06.27.2016 - retrospectively registered.

  10. A workplace email-linked website intervention for modifying cancer-related dietary and lifestyle risk factors: rationale, design and baseline findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Y K; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S

    2013-04-01

    The use of email and website as channels for workplace health information delivery is not fully explored. This study aims to describe the rationale, design, and baseline findings of an email-linked website intervention to improve modifiable cancer risk factors. Employees of a Malaysian public university were recruited by systematic random sampling and randomised into an intervention (n = 174) or control group (n = 165). A website was developed for the intervention and educational modules were uploaded onto the website. The intervention group received ten consecutive weekly emails with hypertext links to the website for downloading the modules and two individual phone calls as motivational support whilst the control group received none. Diet, lifestyle, anthropometric measurements, psychosocial factors and stages of change related to dietary fat, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity were assessed. Participants were predominantly female and in non-academic positions. Obesity was prevalent in 15% and 37% were at risk of co-morbidities. Mean intake of fats was 31%, fruit was -1 serving/day and vegetable was < 1 serving/day. Less than 20% smoked and drank alcohol and about 40% were physically inactive. The majority of the participants fell into the Preparation stage for decreasing fat intake, eating more fruit and vegetables, and increasing physical activity. Self-efficacy and perceived benefits were lowest among participants in the Precontemplation/Contemplation stage compared to the Preparation and Action/Maintenance stages. Baseline data show that dietary and lifestyle practices among the employees did not meet the international guidelines for cancer prevention. Hence the findings warrant the intervention planned.

  11. Background, design and conceptual model of the cluster randomized multiple-component workplace study: FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain - "FRIDOM".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Bredahl, Thomas Viskum Gjelstrup; Hadrévi, Jenny; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2016-10-24

    Several RCT studies have aimed to reduce either musculoskeletal disorders, sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism or a combination of these among females with high physical work demands. These studies have provided evidence that workplace health promotion (WHP) interventions are effective, but long-term effects are still uncertain. These studies either lack to succeed in maintaining intervention effects or lack to document if effects are maintained past a one-year period. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FRIDOM (FRamed Intervention to Decrease Occupational Muscle pain) WHP program among health care workers. A job group characterized by having high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, high sickness presenteeism - and absenteeism. FRIDOM aimed to reduce neck and shoulder pain. Secondary aims were to decrease sickness presenteeism, sickness absenteeism and lifestyle-diseases such as other musculoskeletal disorders as well as metabolic-, and cardiovascular disorders - and to maintain participation to regular physical exercise training, after a one year intervention period. The entire concept was tailored to a population of female health care workers. This was done through a multi-component intervention including 1) intelligent physical exercise training (IPET), dietary advice and weight loss (DAW) and cognitive behavioural training (CBT). The FRIDOM program has the potential to provide evidence-based knowledge of the pain reducing effect of a multi component WHP among a female group of employees with a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and in a long term perspective evaluate the effects on sickness presenteeism and absenteeism as well as risk of life-style diseases. NCT02843269 , 06.27.2016 - retrospectively registered.

  12. Designing future products: what difficulties do designers encounter and how can their creative process be supported?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnardel, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    To remain competitive, companies must regularly offer new products to consumers. A major challenge for designers is therefore to come up with design solutions and define products that are both new and adapted to future users and usages. Although classic methods and ergonomic recommendations are useful in most run-of-the-mill design contexts, they are of limited benefit when the design situation requires greater creativity. This paper therefore addresses issues related to product design by pursuing a triple objective: (1) highlight the difficulties encountered by designers in imagining and conceiving new products, (2) find out which conditions could help designers come up with creative ideas for innovative products, and (3) suggest methods and tools to support designers' creative process and help them take other stakeholders' needs and expectations into consideration.

  13. MANAGING THE BUILDING DESIGN PROCESS FOR SUSTAINABILTY AND IMPROVED QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Bobadoye

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of building design process and management for building sustainability in the creation and maintenance of a qualitative architectural product is investigated in this paper. The design process, concept of building sustainability and particularly the quality of the built environment are discussed. Akure, a state capital in Nigeria was used as a case study. The principles and indicators for sustainability of buildings and its implications on the quality of the environment are examined in details. Survey findings include the views of the professionals on the clients, perception on the design process as well as management of projects, and the implications on the quality of the ensuring products and the city’s environment. The data were factor analyzed using varimax rotation criterion (with Kaiser Normalization. The results revealed that five factors were effective, with one of them exhibiting the greatest variability and individual differences. The variables that loaded on this factor were really the aspects of the process and management relating to the clients. The findings also revealed the professionals’ wrong attitude towards design process as shown with a very high degree of variability in the study. The paper concludes by recommending the enactment and enforcement of relevant policies with adequate education of the people and the involvement of all the stakeholders in the management of building projects and environmental programmes for the realization of a qualitative architectural product.

  14. Conservation of batik: Conseptual framework of design and process development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamwil, Rodia

    2018-03-01

    Development of Conservation Batik concept becomes critical due to the recessive of traditional batik as the intangible cultural heritage of humanity. The existence of printed batik, polluting process, and new stream design becomes the consequences of batik industry transformation to creative industry. Conservation Batik was proposed to answer all the threats to traditional batik, in the aspect of technique, process, and motif. However, creativities are also critical to meet consumer satisfaction. Research and development was conducted, start with the initial research in formulating the concept, and exploration of ideas to develop the designs of conservation motifs. In development steps, cyclical process to complete motif with high preferences, in the aspect of aesthetics, productivity, and efficiency. Data were collected through bibliography, documentation, observation, and interview, and analyzed in qualitative methods. The concept of Conservation Batik adopted from the principles of Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) vision, as well as theoretical analyses, and expert judgment. Conservation Batik are assessed from three aspect, design, process, and consumer preferences. Conservation means the effort of safeguarding, promoting, maintaining, and preserving. Concervation Batik concept could be interpreted as batik with: (1) traditional values and authenticity; (2) the values of philosophycal meanings; (3) eco-friendly process with minimum waste; (4) conservation as idea resources of design; and (5) raising up of classic motifs.

  15. Process Improvement Through Tool Integration in Aero-Mechanical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Clark

    2010-01-01

    Emerging capabilities in commercial design tools promise to significantly improve the multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary design and analysis coverage for aerospace mechanical engineers. This paper explores the analysis process for two example problems of a wing and flap mechanical drive system and an aircraft landing gear door panel. The examples begin with the design solid models and include various analysis disciplines such as structural stress and aerodynamic loads. Analytical methods include CFD, multi-body dynamics with flexible bodies and structural analysis. Elements of analysis data management, data visualization and collaboration are also included.

  16. Artefact specification, design, and production as a process of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1999-01-01

    about communication as literal ‘transmission’ or ‘sharing’ of ideas. It is then explained how the initial artefact specification, the design representation, and ultimately the artefact itself can all be seen as symbolic expressions of ideas that are communicated, and it is shown how the conditions...... for the success of communication carry over to the artefact production process. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a conceptual background for the study of various aspects of artefact production, such as design, or the development of computer-based tools for collaborative design, product modelling...

  17. The design process of a reading comprehension manual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Alonso Lopera Medina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Material design is an important part in the teaching practices. This article describes the process of material design of a foreign language (FL reading manual for undergraduate students at Universidad de Antioquia (Medellín – Colombia. A case study was used as a research method. Four in-service English teachers based their inquiry following the reflective approach of professional development. They also took into account the guidelines to design teaching materials proposed by Howard and Major (2004.  Some of the results of their inquiry for the design of the manual involve contextualization, personalization, and students’ needs. A sample of a reading strategy is given in order to illustrate how teachers worked and designed the manual as a product of their inquiry. Conclusions suggest that this professional development practice helped teachers become more aware of their own teaching realities and also helped them to understand their beliefs and practice in teaching reading as a foreign language.

  18. Waste receiving and processing facility module 1, detailed design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    WRAP 1 baseline documents which guided the technical development of the Title design included: (a) A/E Statement of Work (SOW) Revision 4C: This DOE-RL contractual document specified the workscope, deliverables, schedule, method of performance and reference criteria for the Title design preparation. (b) Functional Design Criteria (FDC) Revision 1: This DOE-RL technical criteria document specified the overall operational criteria for the facility. The document was a Revision 0 at the beginning of the design and advanced to Revision 1 during the tenure of the Title design. (c) Supplemental Design Requirements Document (SDRD) Revision 3: This baseline criteria document prepared by WHC for DOE-RL augments the FDC by providing further definition of the process, operational safety, and facility requirements to the A/E for guidance in preparing the design. The document was at a very preliminary stage at the onset of Title design and was revised in concert with the results of the engineering studies that were performed to resolve the numerous technical issues that the project faced when Title I was initiated, as well as, by requirements established during the course of the Title II design

  19. Material mediation and embodied actions in collaborative design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henna Lahti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Material and embodied practices are an intrinsic part of craft and design education. This article reports a study in which textile teacher-students designed three-dimensional toys based on children’s drawings. Three students in each team worked on the given materials and designed the shape of the toy together. Materials for designing were either: 1 pen and paper, 2 masking tape and thin cardboard, or 3 wire and non-woven interfacing fabric. After the modelling phase, the final toys were created by sewing. Research data consisted of the video recordings of three design sessions representing the various design materials given to the students. By conducting multiple levels of analysis, we examined how the participants used materials and gestures to support their communication. The results highlight the strengths of 3D modelling techniques, particularly through comparison with the drawing technique undertaken by one design team. We found that simple material tools support students’ design process and suggest this could be applied to other design settings.

  20. Aerospace structural design process improvement using systematic evolutionary structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert Michael

    2000-10-01

    A multidisciplinary team tasked with an aircraft design problem must understand the problem requirements and metrics to produce a successful design. This understanding entails not only knowledge of what these requirements and metrics are, but also how they interact, which are most important (to the customer as well as to aircraft performance), and who in the organization can provide pertinent knowledge for each. In recent years, product development researchers and organizations have developed and successfully applied a variety of tools such as Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to coordinate multidisciplinary team members. The effectiveness of these methods, however, depends on the quality and fidelity of the information that team members can input. In conceptual aircraft design, structural information is of lower quality compared to aerodynamics or performance because it is based on experience rather than theory. This dissertation shows how advanced structural design tools can be used in a multidisciplinary team setting to improve structural information generation and communication through a systematic evolution of structural detail. When applied to conceptual design, finite element-based structural design tools elevate structural information to the same level as other computationally supported disciplines. This improved ability to generate and communicate structural information enables a design team to better identify and meet structural design requirements, consider producibility issues earlier, and evaluate structural concepts. A design process experiment of a wing structural layout in collaboration with an industrial partner illustrates and validates the approach.

  1. Rethinking behavioral health processes by using design for six sigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Anthony G; Primus, Kelly; Kovach, Jamison V; Fredendall, Lawrence D

    2015-02-01

    Clinical evidence-based practices are strongly encouraged and commonly utilized in the behavioral health community. However, evidence-based practices that are related to quality improvement processes, such as Design for Six Sigma, are often not used in behavioral health care. This column describes the unique partnership formed between a behavioral health care provider in the greater Pittsburgh area, a nonprofit oversight and monitoring agency for behavioral health services, and academic researchers. The authors detail how the partnership used the multistep process outlined in Design for Six Sigma to completely redesign the provider's intake process. Implementation of the redesigned process increased access to care, decreased bad debt and uncollected funds, and improved cash flow--while consumer satisfaction remained high.

  2. Synthesis and Design of Integrated Process and Water Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handani, Zainatul B.; Quaglia, Alberto; Gani, Rafiqul

    2015-01-01

    This work presents the development of a systematic framework for a simultaneous synthesis and design of process and water networks using the superstructure-based optimization approach. In this framework, a new superstructure combining both networks is developed by attempting to consider all...... possible options with respect to the topology of the process and water networks, leading to Mixed Integer Non Linear Programming (MINLP) problem. A solution strategy to solve the multi-network problem accounts explicitly the interactions between the networks by selecting suitable technologies in order...... to transform raw materials into products and produce clean water to be reused in the process at the early stage of design. Since the connection between the process network and the wastewater treatment network is not a straight forward connection, a new converter interval is introduced in order to convert...

  3. Business Process Design Of An Efficient And Effective Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuthi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this articleis to design business processesan organization efficiently and effectively. Based on our literature review the design of business processes that is best suitable for an organization belongs to Harrington 1992 namely the concept of Business Process Improvement BPI which is a systematic framework that helps organizations in making significant progress in the implementation of business processes. BPI provides a system that will simplify or streamline business processes to provide an assurance that the internal and external customers of the organization will get a better output. One advantage of BPI concept suggested by Harrington is the continuous improvement whereas the other authorsor experts of BPI have not recognize the idea of continuous improvement. With thisidea the products services offered by organization becomes more innovative.

  4. Effective motion design applied to energy-efficient handling processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett, Tobias

    2013-10-01

    Industrial robots are available in a large variety of mechanical alternatives regarding size, motor power, link length ratio or payload. The four major types of serial kinematics dominating the market are complemented by various parallel kinematics for special purpose. In contrast, few other path planning alternatives are applied in industrial robotics which are based on similar analytic solution principles. The objective of this thesis is to develop a systematic design method for artifacts in motion, to integrate motion design and mechanical design to enable new processes for production. For each design, a theoretical benchmark is developed, which cannot be attained by conventional robots in principle. A key performance indicator enables to measure the degree of goal achievement towards the benchmark during all design phases. Motion behaviors are identified on a local level by dynamic systems modeling and are integrated into new global behavior featuring a new quality, suitable for exceeding the design benchmark in industrial processes. Two exemplary handling robot designs are presented. The first concept enables motion behavior to consume less electrical power than kinetic energy transferred to and from its payload during motion. The second concept enables motion with four degrees of freedom by single motor stimulation, reducing idle power consumption on factor 4 towards conventional robots.

  5. Integrated Process Design and Control of Multi-element Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2016-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes involving multi-elements is presented. The reactive distillation column is designed using methods and tools which are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation design methods, such as driving force approach....... The methods employed in this work are based on equivalent element concept. This concept facilitates the representation of a multi-element reactive system as equivalent binary light and heavy key elements. First, the reactive distillation column is designed at the maximum driving force where through steady...

  6. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  7. Sustainable Chemical Processes and Products. New Design Methodology and Design Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Korevaar, G.

    2004-01-01

    The current chemical industry is not sustainable, which leads to the fact that innovation of chemical processes and products is too often hazardous for society in general and the environment in particular. It really is a challenge to implement sustainability considerations in the design activities of chemical engineers. Therefore, the main question of this thesis is: how can a trained chemical engineer develop a conceptual design of a chemical process or a chemical product in such a way that ...

  8. What do information reuse and automated processing require in engineering design? Semantic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ossi Nykänen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to characterize, analyze, and demonstrate machine-understandable semantic process for validating, integrating, and processing technical design information. This establishes both a vision and tools for information reuse and semi-automatic processing in engineering design projects, including virtual machine laboratory applications with generated components.Design/methodology/approach: The process model has been developed iteratively in terms of action research, constrained by the existing technical design practices and assumptions (design documents, expert feedback, available technologies (pre-studies and experiments with scripting and pipeline tools, benchmarking with other process models and methods (notably the RUP and DITA, and formal requirements (computability and the critical information paths for the generated applications. In practice, the work includes both quantitative and qualitative components.Findings: Technical design processes may be greatly enhanced in terms of semantic process thinking, by enriching design information, and automating information validation and transformation tasks. Contemporary design information, however, is mainly intended for human consumption, and needs to be explicitly enriched with the currently missing data and interfaces. In practice, this may require acknowledging the role of technical information or knowledge engineer, to lead the development of the semantic design information process in a design organization. There is also a trade-off between machine-readability and system complexity that needs to be studied further, both empirically and in theory.Research limitations/implications: The conceptualization of the semantic process is essentially an abstraction based on the idea of progressive design. While this effectively allows implementing semantic processes with, e.g., pipeline technologies, the abstraction is valid only when technical design is organized into

  9. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...

  10. A domain-independent descriptive design model and its application to structured reflection on design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reymen, Isabelle; Hammer, D.K.; Kroes, P.A.; van Aken, Joan Ernst; van Aken, J.E.; Dorst, C.H.; Bax, M.F.T.; Basten, T

    2006-01-01

    Domain-independent models of the design process are an important means for facilitating interdisciplinary communication and for supporting multidisciplinary design. Many so-called domain-independent models are, however, not really domain independent. We state that to be domain independent, the

  11. Designing discovery learning environments: process analysis and implications for designing an information system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Julius Marie; Limbach, R.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A systematic analysis of the design process of authors of (simulation based) discovery learning environments was carried out. The analysis aimed at identifying the design activities of authors and categorising knowledge gaps that they experience. First, five existing studies were systematically

  12. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  13. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  14. Design for end of life : A design methodology for the early stages of an innovation process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.R.; Dewulf, K.R.

    2012-01-01

    The first phases of the engineering design process, such as the problem definition, the information gathering and the idea generation phase, are commonly considered as important steps in product development, since the cost of a product is assumed to be largely determined within these design steps.

  15. Diversity for design: A framework for involving neurodiverse children in the technology design process

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, L.; Vasalou, A.; Khaled, R.; Johnson, H.; Gooch, D.

    2014-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement seeks to positively reframe certain neurological conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and dyslexia, by concentrating on their strengths. In recent years, neurodiverse children have increasingly been involved in the technology design process, but the design approaches adopted have focused mostly on overcoming difficulties of working with these children, leaving their strengths untapped. We present a new participatory design (PD) framework, Diversity f...

  16. Diversity for design : a framework for involving neurodiverse children in the technology design process

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Laura; Vasalou, Asimina; Khaled, Rilla; Johnson, Hilary; Gooch, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The neurodiversity movement seeks to positively reframe certain neurological conditions, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and dyslexia, by concentrating on their strengths. In recent years, neurodiverse children have increasingly been involved in the technology design process, but the design approaches adopted have focused mostly on overcoming difficulties of working with these children, leaving their strengths untapped. We present a new participatory design (PD) framework, Diversity f...

  17. Inverse Analysis to Formability Design in a Deep Drawing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao, Jian

    Deep drawing process is an important process adding values to flat sheet metals in many industries. An important concern in the design of a deep drawing process generally is formability. This paper aims to present the connection between formability and inverse analysis (IA), which is a systematical means for determining an optimal blank configuration for a deep drawing process. In this paper, IA is presented and explored by using a commercial finite element software package. A number of numerical studies on the effect of blank configurations to the quality of a part produced by a deep drawing process were conducted and analyzed. The quality of the drawing processes is numerically analyzed by using an explicit incremental nonlinear finite element code. The minimum distance between elemental principal strains and the strain-based forming limit curve (FLC) is defined as tearing margin to be the key performance index (KPI) implying the quality of the part. The initial blank configuration has shown that it plays a highly important role in the quality of the product via the deep drawing process. In addition, it is observed that if a blank configuration is not greatly deviated from the one obtained from IA, the blank can still result a good product. The strain history around the bottom fillet of the part is also observed. The paper concludes that IA is an important part of the design methodology for deep drawing processes.

  18. New graduate nurses' perception of the workplace: have they experienced bullying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelpohl, Darla A; Rice, Susan K; Edwards, Mary Ellen; Bork, Christopher E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the bullying experience in the workplace of newly licensed registered nurses (RNs). Preventing newly licensed nurses from leaving the profession is important, especially because there is a nursing shortage. Education of staff and administrators provides recognition of negative behaviors in the workplace. Participants in this research study included 135 newly licensed RN's from 5 nursing schools in Northwestern Ohio licensed in years 2007-2010. Quantitative methods and a descriptive design process included chi-square tests and descriptive statistical methods. Bullying workplace behaviors were identified by participants utilizing the survey tool, the Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, and a questionnaire on work relationships and bullies recognized in the workplace. Nursing peers, physicians, or a patient's family were the main sources of bullying, and 29.5% had considered leaving the nursing profession. Education of staff is imperative for providing recognition of negative behaviors in the workplace. Bullying occurs in the workplace and is affecting the new graduates' work performance. Retaining newly graduated nurses is the ultimate goal for maintaining RN's in the workforce. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. An evaluation of Lincolnshire Sports’ ‘Workplace Challenge’ physical activity programme

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Alice; Bishop, Daniel; Middleton, Geoff; Evans, Adam

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the Workplace Challenge, a County Sport Partnership led physical activity programme which utilises a website designed to engage people from workplaces in physical activity. The Workplace Challenge operated within the geographical boundary of Lincolnshire and thus targeted workplaces within this region. The overarching aim of the Workplace Challenge was to enact culture change within organisations in terms of employees’ physical activity habits. Metho...

  20. Noise control, sound, and the vehicle design process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donavan, Paul

    2005-09-01

    For many products, noise and sound are viewed as necessary evils that need to be dealt with in order to bring the product successfully to market. They are generally not product ``exciters'' although some vehicle manufacturers do tune and advertise specific sounds to enhance the perception of their products. In this paper, influencing the design process for the ``evils,'' such as wind noise and road noise, are considered in more detail. There are three ingredients to successfully dealing with the evils in the design process. The first of these is knowing how excesses in noise effects the end customer in a tangible manner and how that effects customer satisfaction and ultimately sells. The second is having and delivering the knowledge of what is required of the design to achieve a satisfactory or even better level of noise performance. The third ingredient is having the commitment of the designers to incorporate the knowledge into their part, subsystem or system. In this paper, the elements of each of these ingredients are discussed in some detail and the attributes of a successful design process are enumerated.

  1. Quality Control through Design and Process: Gambrel Roof Truss Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Dell; Jones, James

    2011-01-01

    Customers determine whether a product fulfills their needs or satisfies them. "Quality control", then, is the process of finding out what the customer wants, along with designing, producing, delivering, and servicing the product--and ultimately satisfying the customer's expectations. For many years, people considered a product to be of good…

  2. Sustainable flexible process innovation. Towards a new building design approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, G.J.W. van den; Quanjel, E.; Zeiler, W.

    2001-01-01

    Developers and investors ofresidential and office buildings are facing large risks. A yearly loss ofcapital of approximately 50 billion EURO can be reduced by improvement of the design process. The need for more sustainable and end user oriented buildings on a background ofthe dynamics ofever

  3. Methods and tools for sustainable chemical process design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loureiro da Costa Lira Gargalo, Carina; Chairakwongsa, Siwanat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    As the pressure on chemical and biochemical processes to achieve a more sustainable performance increases, the need to define a systematic and holistic way to accomplish this is becoming more urgent. In this chapter, a multilevel computer-aided framework for systematic design of more sustainable...

  4. Optimal design of nuclear mechanical dampers with analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yuehua; Wen Bo; Xu Hongxiang; Qin Yonglie

    2000-01-01

    An optimal design with analytical hierarchy process on nuclear mechanical dampers manufactured by authors' university was described. By using fuzzy judgement matrix the coincidence was automatically satisfied without the need of coincidence test. The results obtained by this method have been put into the production practices

  5. Ingenuity in Action: Connecting Tinkering to Engineering Design Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jennifer; Werner-Avidon, Maia; Newton, Lisa; Randol, Scott; Smith, Brooke; Walker, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science, a science center, seeks to replicate real-world engineering at the "Ingenuity in Action" exhibit, which consists of three open-ended challenges. These problems encourage children to engage in engineering design processes and problem-solving techniques through tinkering. We observed and interviewed 112…

  6. Design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastasovski, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Heat integration of energy streams is very important for the efficient energy recovery in production systems. Pinch technology is a very useful tool for heat integration and maximizing energy efficiency. Creating of heat exchangers network as a common solution for systems in batch mode that will be applicable in all existing time slices is very difficult. This paper suggests a new methodology for design of common heat exchanger network for batch processes. Heat exchanger network designs were created for all determined repeatable and non-repeatable time periods – time slices. They are the basis for creating the common heat exchanger network. The common heat exchanger network as solution, satisfies all heat-transfer needs for each time period and for every existing combination of selected streams in the production process. This methodology use split of some heat exchangers into two or more heat exchange units or heat exchange zones. The reason for that is the multipurpose use of heat exchangers between different pairs of streams in different time periods. Splitting of large heat exchangers would maximize the total heat transfer usage of heat exchange units. Final solution contains heat exchangers with the minimum heat load as well as the minimum need of heat transfer area. The solution is applicable for all determined time periods and all existing stream combinations. - Highlights: •Methodology for design of energy efficient systems in batch processes. •Common Heat Exchanger Network solution based on designs with Pinch technology. •Multipurpose use of heat exchangers in batch processes

  7. Optimal design of an extrusion process for a hinge bracket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Geum Ju; Jang, Myung Geun; Kim, Jong Bong

    2016-01-01

    This study considers process design in forming a hinge bracket. A thin hinge bracket is typically produced by bending a sheet panel or welding a hollow bar into a sheet panel. However, the hinge bracket made by bending or welding does not have sufficient durability in severe operating conditions because of the stress concentration in the bended region or the low corrosion resistance of the welded region. Therefore, this study uses forming to produce the hinge bracket part of a foldable container and to ensure durability in difficult operating conditions. An extrusion process for a T-shaped hinge bracket is studied using finite element analysis. Preliminary analysis shows that a very high forging load is required to form the bracket by forging. Therefore, extrusion is considered as a candidate process. Producing the part through the extrusion process enables many brackets to be made in a single extrusion and through successive cutting of the extruded part, thereby reducing the manufacturing cost. The design focuses on reducing the extrusion load and on ensuring shape accuracy. An initial billet is designed to reduce the extrusion load and to obtain a geometrically accurate part. The extruded part is bent frequently because of uneven material flow. Thus, extrusion die geometries are designed to obtain straight parts.

  8. Cognitive Process as a Basis for Intelligent Retrieval Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Dhar, Vasant

    1991-01-01

    Two studies of the cognitive processes involved in online document-based information retrieval were conducted. These studies led to the development of five computational models of online document retrieval which were incorporated into the design of an "intelligent" document-based retrieval system. Both the system and the broader implications of…

  9. Teaching Case: MiHotel--Applicant Processing System Design Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert E.; Dunn, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This teaching case describes the functionality of an applicant processing system designed for a fictitious hotel chain. The system detailed in the case includes a webform where applicants complete and submit job applications. The system also includes a desktop application used by hotel managers and Human Resources to track applications and process…

  10. Staging Co-design Processes for Self-care Technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser Grith Kragh; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    field studies in people’s homes and discuss how to stage design processes with the people who are actually going to use the self-care technologies—not only end-users, but also many other actors, such as relatives, caregivers, and municipality and company staff. Specifically, we describe how challenges...

  11. Optimal design of an extrusion process for a hinge bracket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Geum Ju; Jang, Myung Geun; Kim, Jong Bong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study considers process design in forming a hinge bracket. A thin hinge bracket is typically produced by bending a sheet panel or welding a hollow bar into a sheet panel. However, the hinge bracket made by bending or welding does not have sufficient durability in severe operating conditions because of the stress concentration in the bended region or the low corrosion resistance of the welded region. Therefore, this study uses forming to produce the hinge bracket part of a foldable container and to ensure durability in difficult operating conditions. An extrusion process for a T-shaped hinge bracket is studied using finite element analysis. Preliminary analysis shows that a very high forging load is required to form the bracket by forging. Therefore, extrusion is considered as a candidate process. Producing the part through the extrusion process enables many brackets to be made in a single extrusion and through successive cutting of the extruded part, thereby reducing the manufacturing cost. The design focuses on reducing the extrusion load and on ensuring shape accuracy. An initial billet is designed to reduce the extrusion load and to obtain a geometrically accurate part. The extruded part is bent frequently because of uneven material flow. Thus, extrusion die geometries are designed to obtain straight parts.

  12. Design Principles for Improving the Process of Publishing Open data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk, A.M.G.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Choenni, R.; Meijer, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    · Purpose: Governments create large amounts of data. However, the publication of open data is often cumbersome and there are no standard procedures and processes for opening data. This blocks the easy publication of government data. The purpose of this paper is to derive design principles for

  13. Process understanding and cooperative design. Keys to high quality automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommila, T.; Heinonen, R.

    1995-01-01

    A systematic approach to the specification of process control systems, and four practical methods supporting user participation and interdisciplinary co-operation are described. The main steps of the design approach are: (1) hierarchical decomposition of the plant to process items of different types; (2) analysis and definition of requirements and control strategies associated with each process item; (3) definition of automation degree; and (4) functional specification of the control system and its user interface. The specification language used for this step is a combination of principles found in object oriented design, structured analysis as well as new language standards for programmable controllers and open information systems. The design review methods presented include structured control strategy meetings, safety analysis of sequential controls, review of graphic displays, and a usability questionnaire for existing plants. These methods can be used to elicit users' needs and operational experience, to gain a common understanding of the process functionality, or to detect errors in design specifications or in existing systems. (8 refs., 9 figs.)

  14. USE OF LEAN PRODUCTION INSTRUMENTS IN DESIGNING THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elietta P. Burnasheva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the concept of lean production seeks not a reduction of costs but complete elimination of losses that do not bring added value to the product or service. In any system, in all processes – from production and assembly, to hospitality, education, health, transport and social services – there are hidden losses. Teaching itself is a kind of production process in which a certain “product” (student acquires the added value (knowledge and skills, that is why it has become topical in educational institution to establish the working group on introduction of lean production into the learning process. The article presents the factors that are to be taken into account while designing the educational process based on the lean production principles. Materials and Methods: methods of analysis of existing system of vocational training in higher school, monitoring of the results of educational practice, modeling and experimental work in the process of analytical work were used. Results: important direction for eliminating losses in the educational process is the development of the interlinked curricula, allowing to avoid repeated study of a number of didactic units in the organization of continuous training in the system “Vocational education – Higher education”. In order to eliminate the possibility of incompetent graduate one should focus on the organisation of objective final control. Losses in education are caused by to the mismatch between labour market demand and the spectrum of areas of training in educational institutions. Discussion and Conclusions: the lean production possibilities are defined as instrumental in ensuring the organisation of “the process of lean learning”: by applying some lean production instruments such as the designing of the educational process, preventing of “faulty work” while training students, the attuning of the training system to employers’ requests, the visualisation of the education

  15. Development and design application of cerium (IV) decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Seay, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A simple and effective method was developed for decontamination of high-level waste canisters. This method of chemical decontamination is applicable to a wide variety of contaminated equipment found in the nuclear industry. Conceptual design of the cerium [Ce(IV)] decontamination process equipment has been completed for the West Valley Demonstration project (WVDP) vitrification facility. This remote equipment, which is the first engineering scale application of this technology, will remove surface contamination from stainless-steel (SS) containers containing high-level waste (HLW) glass prior to placing them into temporary storage and ultimate shipment to a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) repository for disposal. The objective of the development and design study was to identify an effective chemical process and to design equipment to decontaminate the HLW glass canisters to limits that meet U.S. DOE requirements. The equipment includes canister-capping and smear stations in addition to the decontamination module and associated services

  16. Development and design application of cerium (IV) decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bray, L.A.; Seay, J.M.

    1988-10-01

    A simple and effective method was developed for decontamination of high-level waste canisters. This method of chemical decontamination is applicable to a wide variety of contaminated equipment found in the nuclear industry. Conceptual design of the cerium [Ce(IV)] decontamination process equipment has been completed for the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) vitrification facility. This remote equipment, which is the first engineering scale application of this technology, will remove surface contamination from stainless-steel (SS) containers containing high-level waste (HLW) glass prior to placing them into temporary storage and ultimate shipment to a US Department of Energy (DOE) repository for disposal. The objective of the development and design study was to identify an effective chemical process and to design equipment to decontaminate the HLW glass canisters to limits that meet USDOE requirements. The equipment includes canister-capping and smear stations in addition to the decontamination module and associated services. 2 refs., 1 fig

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Design Verification and Validation Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OLGUIN, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a description of design verification and validation activities implemented by the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project. During the execution of early design verification, a management assessment (Bergman, 1999) and external assessments on configuration management (Augustenburg, 1999) and testing (Loscoe, 2000) were conducted and identified potential uncertainties in the verification process. This led the SNF Chief Engineer to implement corrective actions to improve process and design products. This included Design Verification Reports (DVRs) for each subproject, validation assessments for testing, and verification of the safety function of systems and components identified in the Safety Equipment List to ensure that the design outputs were compliant with the SNF Technical Requirements. Although some activities are still in progress, the results of the DVR and associated validation assessments indicate that Project requirements for design verification are being effectively implemented. These results have been documented in subproject-specific technical documents (Table 2). Identified punch-list items are being dispositioned by the Project. As these remaining items are closed, the technical reports (Table 2) will be revised and reissued to document the results of this work

  18. Healthy eating strategies in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiliani, Lisa; Poulsen, Signe; Sorensen, Glorian

    2010-01-01

    through research examples. Findings - Through case studies and published research, it is found that workplace dietary interventions are generally effective, especially fruit and vegetable interventions. There is less consistent evidence on the long-term effectiveness of workplace weight management...... interventions, underscoring the need for further research in this area. This paper also reports evidence that changes in the work environment, including through health and safety programs, may contribute to enhancing the effectiveness of workplace health promotion, including dietary interventions...... of workplace influences on workers' dietary patterns. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of dietary health promotion, and provides a brief overview of appropriate theoretical frameworks to guide intervention design and evaluation. The findings are illustrated...

  19. A safe workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittsel, Hans; Andersson, Bengt A.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: The video 'A safe workplace' has been produced by ABB Atom in order to create a tool for showing different target audiences that ABB Atom Nuclear Fuel Production Plant is a safe workplace and to 'de-mystify' nuclear fuel production. The main target audiences are visitor groups and employees of the company, but the video also qualifies for use as an information tool for other target groups who ask for a proper explanation of the way nuclear fuel is produced. The summarized content of the video is as follows: All individual steps of the production process are described with focus on the safety, quality and environmental requirements. The first part shows the delivery of UF 6 (uranium hexafluoride) to the plant and the following process for the conversion to UO 2 (uranium dioxide). The conversion method used is wet conversion that includes evaporation, precipitation, filtration, washing, reduction and stabilization. The next part is a description of the fuel pellet manufacture including uranium oxide blending, pellet pressing, sintering, grinding and a final visual inspection. A separate part, describing the manufacture of fuel pellets with a burnable neutron absorber, is included. The third part shows how to produce fuel rods and complete assemblies. Some of the moments of quality supervision that support the entire manufacturing process are also shown. The last part of the video comprises a brief description of the manufacture of fuel channels and other reactor core components like control rods. The video is produced with a Swedish spoken narrative. The playing time is 15 minutes. The video will be delivered with a text printed in English and copies reproduced in the PAL/VHS system may be ordered from ABB Atom Communication Dept. telefax no +4621-11 41 90, at the price of USD 100.- or SEK 750.- each. (author)

  20. 'What-if' design: a synthesis method in the design process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutters, Diederick; Vaneker, Thomas H.J.; van Houten, Frederikus J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    In integrating functions, information and control in the design and engineering cycle, the information content acts as a facilitator, whereas the processes involved actually effectuate the results of the development cycle. As combining processes in an effective and efficient manner becomes

  1. The design of control system of livestock feeding processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Juna; Napitupulu, Humala L.; Hidayati, Juliza

    2018-03-01

    PT. XYZ is a company that produces animal feed. One type of animal feed produced is 105 ISA P. In carrying out its production process, PT. XYZ faces the problem of rejected feed amounts during 2014 to June 2015 due to the amount of animal feed that exceeds the standard feed quality of 13% of moisture content and 3% for ash content. Therefore, the researchers analyzed the relationship between factors affecting the quality and extent of damage by using regression and correlation and determine the optimum value of each processing process. Analysis results found that variables affecting product quality are mixing time, steam conditioning temperature and cooling time. The most dominant variable affecting the product moisture content is mixing time with the correlation coefficient of (0.7959) and the most dominant variable affecting the ash content of the product during the processing is mixing time with the correlation coefficient of (0.8541). The design of the proposed product processing control is to run the product processing process with mixing time 235 seconds, steam conditioning temperature 87 0C and cooling time 192 seconds. Product quality 105 ISA P obtained by using this design is with 12.16% moisture content and ash content of 2.59%.

  2. Architectural design of heterogeneous metallic nanocrystals--principles and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Zhang, Qingbo; Yao, Qiaofeng; Xie, Jianping; Lee, Jim Yang

    2014-12-16

    CONSPECTUS: Heterogeneous metal nanocrystals (HMNCs) are a natural extension of simple metal nanocrystals (NCs), but as a research topic, they have been much less explored until recently. HMNCs are formed by integrating metal NCs of different compositions into a common entity, similar to the way atoms are bonded to form molecules. HMNCs can be built to exhibit an unprecedented architectural diversity and complexity by programming the arrangement of the NC building blocks ("unit NCs"). The architectural engineering of HMNCs involves the design and fabrication of the architecture-determining elements (ADEs), i.e., unit NCs with precise control of shape and size, and their relative positions in the design. Similar to molecular engineering, where structural diversity is used to create more property variations for application explorations, the architectural engineering of HMNCs can similarly increase the utility of metal NCs by offering a suite of properties to support multifunctionality in applications. The architectural engineering of HMNCs calls for processes and operations that can execute the design. Some enabling technologies already exist in the form of classical micro- and macroscale fabrication techniques, such as masking and etching. These processes, when used singly or in combination, are fully capable of fabricating nanoscopic objects. What is needed is a detailed understanding of the engineering control of ADEs and the translation of these principles into actual processes. For simplicity of execution, these processes should be integrated into a common reaction system and yet retain independence of control. The key to architectural diversity is therefore the independent controllability of each ADE in the design blueprint. The right chemical tools must be applied under the right circumstances in order to achieve the desired outcome. In this Account, after a short illustration of the infinite possibility of combining different ADEs to create HMNC design

  3. Appropriate teaching and learning strategies for the architectural design process in pedagogic design studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Soliman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The national qualification framework of a country requires a certain level of knowledge and complexity of skills for an academic degree to be recognized. For architectural programs, student workload is heavy on design courses. Therefore, each course must be carefully developed to ensure that students are not overloaded. Teaching and learning strategies have different implications for courses, which occasionally result in overloading the students. This research aims to study the three main pillars of teaching and learning strategies for each design phase in pedagogic design studios. The most appropriate model for each teaching and learning strategy, including a set of the three main pillars, is then identified for each design phase. A practical strategy for managing design studios is also determined. The aforementioned three pillars are as follows: teaching and learning methods, assigned tasks or study aspects, and design communication techniques. Two research methods, namely, a literature review and a survey among design educators, are adopted. The literature review examines aspects that contribute to the design process and its phases, teaching methods, design skills, communication methods, and studio management strategies. On the basis of the literature review, the background of developments and practices in the design education process are used as constructive tools to develop the survey for design educators. Through the survey, the pillars of teaching and learning strategies that are frequently practiced in design studios are evaluated. Results of this study are classified into three ranks using the nature break classification method for numerical values. Subsequently, three priority models that correspond to teaching and learning strategies, as well as to the required skills and capabilities, are established. A group-based strategy with an interdisciplinary approach is also determined to be the most suitable technique for managing the

  4. Conceptual process design for uranium recovery from sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Motoyuki; Chihara, Kazuyuki; Fujimoto, Masahiko; Yagi, Hiroshi; Wada, Akihiko.

    1985-01-01

    Based on design of uranium recovery process from sea water, total cost for uranium production was estimated. Production scale of 1,000 ton-uranium per year was supposed, because of the big demand for uranium in the second age, i.e., fast breeder reactor age. The process is described as follows: Fluidized bed of hydrous titanium oxide (diameter is 0.1 mm, saturated adsorption capacity is 510 μg-U/g-Ad, adsorption capacity for ten days is 150 μg-U/g-Ad) is supposed, as an example, to be utilized as the primarily concentration unit. Fine adsorbent particles can be transferred as slurry in all of the steps of adsorption, washing, desorption, washing, regeneration. As an example, ammonium carbonate is applied to desorb the adsorbed uranium from titanium oxide. Then, stripping method is adopted for desorbent recovery. As for the secondary concentration, strong basic anion exchange method is supposed. The first step of process design is to determine the mass balance of each component through the whole process system by using the signal diagram. Then, the scale of each unit process, with which the mass balances are satisfied, is estimated by detailed chemical engineering calculation. Also, driving cost of each unit operation is estimated. As a result, minimum total cost of 160,000 yen/kg-U is obtained. Adsorption process cost is 80 to 90 % of the total cost. Capital cost and driving cost are fifty-fifty in the adsorption process cost. Pump driving cost forms a big part of the driving cost. Further concentrated study should be necessary on the adsorption process design. It might be important to make an effort on direct utilization of ocean current for saving the pump driving cost. (author)

  5. Design ampersand construction innovations of the defense waste processing facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKibben, J.M.; Pair, C.R.; Bethmann, H.K.

    1990-01-01

    Construction of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is essentially complete. The facility is designed to convert high-level radioactive waste, now contained in large steel tanks as aqueous salts and sludge, into solid borosilicate glass in stainless steel canisters. All processing of the radioactive material and operations in a radioactive environment will be done remotely. The stringent requirements dictated by remote operation and new approaches to the glassification process led to the development of a number of first-of-a-kind pieces of equipment, new construction fabrication and erection techniques, and new applications of old techniques. The design features and construction methods used in the vitrification building and its equipment were to accomplish the objective of providing a state-of-the-art vitrification facility. 3 refs., 10 figs

  6. Processing a programming handbook for visual designers and artists

    CERN Document Server

    Reas, Casey

    2014-01-01

    The visual arts are rapidly changing as media moves into the web, mobile devices, and architecture. When designers and artists learn the basics of writing software, they develop a new form of literacy that enables them to create new media for the present, and to imagine future media that are beyond the capacities of current software tools. This book introduces this new literacy by teaching computer programming within the context of the visual arts. It offers a comprehensive reference and text for Processing (www.processing.org), an open-source programming language that can be used by students, artists, designers, architects, researchers, and anyone who wants to program images, animation, and interactivity. Written by Processing's cofounders, the book offers a definitive reference for students and professionals. Tutorial chapters make up the bulk of the book; advanced professional projects from such domains as animation, performance, and installation are discussed in interviews with their creators. This secon...

  7. Design and analysis of nuclear processes with the APROS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, M.; Puska, E.K.; Nystroem, P.

    1987-01-01

    APROS (Advanced Process Simulator) is the product being developed in the process simulators project of Imatran Voima Co. and Technical Research Centre of Finland. The aim is to design and construct an efficient and easy to use computer simulation system for process and automation system design, evaluation, analysis, testing and training purposes. As halfway of this project a working system exists with a large number of proven routines and models. However, a lot of development is still foreseen before the project will be finished. This article gives an overview of the APROS in general and of the nuclear features in particular. The calculational capabilities of the system are presented with the help of one example. (orig.)

  8. Designing new nuclear chemical processing plants for safeguards accountability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    New nuclear chemical processing plants will be required to develop material accountability control limits from measurement error propagation analysis rather than historical inventory difference data as performed in the past. In order for measurement error propagation methods to be viable alternatives, process designers must ensure that two nondimensional accountability parameters are maintained below 0.1. These parameters are ratios between the material holdup increase and the variance in inventory difference measurement uncertainty. Measurement uncertainty data for use in error propagation analysis is generally available in the open literature or readily derived from instrument calibration data. However, nuclear material holdup data has not been adequately developed for use in the material accountability design process. Long duration development testing on isolated unit operations is required to generate this necessary information

  9. Physical Properties for Lipids Based Process and Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ana Perederic, Olivia; Kalakul, Sawitree; Sarup, Bent

    Lipid processing covers several oil and fats technologies such as: edible oil production, biodieselproduction, oleochemicals (e.g.: food additives, detergents) and pharmaceutical product manufacturing. New demands regarding design and development of better products and more sustainable processes...... related to lipids technology, emerge according to consumers demanding improved product manufacturing from sustainable resources and new legislation regarding environmental safety [1]. Physical and thermodynamic property data and models for prediction of pure compound properties and mixtures properties...... involving lipids represent the basic and most important requirements for process product design, simulation and optimization. Experimentally measured values of involved compounds are desirable, but in most of the cases these are not available for all the compounds and properties needed. The lack...

  10. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohimer, Ryan E; Greitzer, Frank L; Hampton, Shawn D

    2014-03-04

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  11. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  12. Computer-Aided Sustainable Process Synthesis-Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar Tula, Anjan

    -groups is that, the performance of the entire process can be evaluated from the contributions of the individual process-groups towards the selected flowsheet property (for example, energy consumed). The developed flowsheet property models include energy consumption, carbon footprint, product recovery, product......Process synthesis involves the investigation of chemical reactions needed to produce the desired product, selection of the separation techniques needed for downstream processing, as well as taking decisions on sequencing the involved separation operations. For an effective, efficient and flexible...... focuses on the development and application of a computer-aided framework for sustainable synthesis-design and analysis of process flowsheets by generating feasible alternatives covering the entire search space and includes analysis tools for sustainability, LCA and economics. The synthesis method is based...

  13. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2016-08-23

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  14. Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohimer, Ryan E.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Hampton, Shawn D.

    2015-08-18

    Information processing systems, reasoning modules, and reasoning system design methods are described. According to one aspect, an information processing system includes working memory comprising a semantic graph which comprises a plurality of abstractions, wherein the abstractions individually include an individual which is defined according to an ontology and a reasoning system comprising a plurality of reasoning modules which are configured to process different abstractions of the semantic graph, wherein a first of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a first classification type of the ontology and a second of the reasoning modules is configured to process a plurality of abstractions which include individuals of a second classification type of the ontology, wherein the first and second classification types are different.

  15. Process Flow Sheet Generation & Design through a Group Contribution Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    d'Anterroches, Loïc

    2006-01-01

    Denne afhandling beskriver udviklingen af et framework til opstilling og design af proces flowsheet ved hjælp af en systematisk strategi for Computer Aided Flowsheet Design (CAFD). Det udviklede framework omfatter formulering, løsning og analyse af CAFD problemer baseret på et koncept med...... forbindelsesregler samt deres bidrag til specifikke flowsheet egenskaber på samme måde som kemiske molekyler bliver syntetiseret og testet for deres egenskaber. Hertil er simple og effektive metoder til processyntese og design blevet udviklet. Alternative flowsheet for kemiske processer opstilles baglæns ved...... at kombinere procesgrupper således at der dannes flowsheet strukturer som har de ønskede egenskaber. Derefter udvælges de mest lovende flowsheetalternativer til design hvorved de enkelte enhedsoperationer beregnes baglæns udfra specifikationerne for deres ind- og udgangsstrømme svarende til procesgruppernes...

  16. Barriers and Challenges in the Integrated Design Process Approcach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudstrup, Mary-Ann

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In the future, it will be a huge challenge to make sustainable building design by using a more holistic and innovative approach in order to be able to decrease or reduce the use of energy for heating and cooling in new building projects. This is seen in the perspective of the Kyoto agre....... It also describes the barriers and the challenges that must be overcome when trying to cross the borders between the two fields of engineering and architecture to design sustainable architecture....... agreement for reducing the global heating. This paper will briefly present the method of the Integrated Design Process, IDP [1]. It describes the background and means for developing a new method for designing integrated architecture in an interdisciplinary approach between architecture and engineering...

  17. Analog integrated circuits design for processing physiological signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Poon, Carmen C Y; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2010-01-01

    Analog integrated circuits (ICs) designed for processing physiological signals are important building blocks of wearable and implantable medical devices used for health monitoring or restoring lost body functions. Due to the nature of physiological signals and the corresponding application scenarios, the ICs designed for these applications should have low power consumption, low cutoff frequency, and low input-referred noise. In this paper, techniques for designing the analog front-end circuits with these three characteristics will be reviewed, including subthreshold circuits, bulk-driven MOSFETs, floating gate MOSFETs, and log-domain circuits to reduce power consumption; methods for designing fully integrated low cutoff frequency circuits; as well as chopper stabilization (CHS) and other techniques that can be used to achieve a high signal-to-noise performance. Novel applications using these techniques will also be discussed.

  18. Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Feng

    2013-01-01

    Interference Cancellation Using Space-Time Processing and Precoding Design introduces original design methods to achieve interference cancellation, low-complexity decoding and full diversity for a series of multi-user systems. In multi-user environments, co-channel interference will diminish the performance of wireless communications systems. In this book, we investigate how to design robust space-time codes and pre-coders to suppress the co-channel interference when multiple antennas are available.   This book offers a valuable reference work for graduate students, academic researchers and engineers who are interested in interference cancellation in wireless communications. Rigorous performance analysis and various simulation illustrations are included for each design method.   Dr. Feng Li is a scientific researcher at Cornell University.

  19. Design Methodology of Process Layout considering Various Equipment Types for Large scale Pyro processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seung Nam; Lee, Jong Kwang; Lee, Hyo Jik

    2016-01-01

    At present, each item of process equipment required for integrated processing is being examined, based on experience acquired during the Pyropocess Integrated Inactive Demonstration Facility (PRIDE) project, and considering the requirements and desired performance enhancement of KAPF as a new facility beyond PRIDE. Essentially, KAPF will be required to handle hazardous materials such as spent nuclear fuel, which must be processed in an isolated and shielded area separate from the operator location. Moreover, an inert-gas atmosphere must be maintained, because of the radiation and deliquescence of the materials. KAPF must also achieve the goal of significantly increased yearly production beyond that of the previous facility; therefore, several parts of the production line must be automated. This article presents the method considered for the conceptual design of both the production line and the overall layout of the KAPF process equipment. This study has proposed a design methodology that can be utilized as a preliminary step for the design of a hot-cell-type, large-scale facility, in which the various types of processing equipment operated by the remote handling system are integrated. The proposed methodology applies to part of the overall design procedure and contains various weaknesses. However, if the designer is required to maximize the efficiency of the installed material-handling system while considering operation restrictions and maintenance conditions, this kind of design process can accommodate the essential components that must be employed simultaneously in a general hot-cell system

  20. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...