WorldWideScience

Sample records for workers food trail

  1. Trails, Other - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This trails map layer represents off-road recreational trail features and important road connections that augment Utah’s recreational trail network. This map layer...

  2. Restaurant manager and worker food safety certification and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N=387) and workers (N=365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge.

  3. Restaurant Manager and Worker Food Safety Certification and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura G.; Le, Brenda; Wong, Melissa R.; Reimann, David; Nicholas, David; Faw, Brenda; Davis, Ernestine; Selman, Carol A.

    2017-01-01

    Over half of foodborne illness outbreaks occur in restaurants. To combat these outbreaks, many public health agencies require food safety certification for restaurant managers, and sometimes workers. Certification entails passing a food safety knowledge examination, which is typically preceded by food safety training. Current certification efforts are based on the assumption that certification leads to greater food safety knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducted this study to examine the relationship between food safety knowledge and certification. We also examined the relationships between food safety knowledge and restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics. We interviewed managers (N = 387) and workers (N = 365) about their characteristics and assessed their food safety knowledge. Analyses showed that certified managers and workers had greater food safety knowledge than noncertified managers and workers. Additionally, managers and workers whose primary language was English had greater food safety knowledge than those whose primary language was not English. Other factors associated with greater food safety knowledge included working in a chain restaurant, working in a larger restaurant, having more experience, and having more duties. These findings indicate that certification improves food safety knowledge, and that complex relationships exist among restaurant, manager, and worker characteristics and food safety knowledge. PMID:25361386

  4. Blessings on the Food, Blessings on the Workers: Arts-Based Education for Migrant Worker Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barndt, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Migrant agricultural workers are not only on the margins of Canadian and global food systems; they are also on the margins of public consciousness about the labour behind the food we eat. Even local food movement groups who advocate for both social justice and sustainable food production have not made migrant labour a priority concern. Popular…

  5. [Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus among food service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón-Lavín, María Paula; Oyarzo, Carolina; Escudero, Carlos; Cerda-Leal, Fabiola; Valenzuela, Francisco J

    2017-12-01

    Background Staphylococcus aureus produces 11 serotypes of endotoxins that may cause food poisoning. Aim To determine the prevalence of type A enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus carriage among food service workers in Chillan, Chile. Material and Methods Pharyngeal swabs were obtained from 100 food service workers and were cultured in Agar plates. After identifying the presence of Staphylococcus aureus, DNA was extracted to identify type A toxin by conventional PCR. Results Thirty eight percent of samples were colonized with Staphylococcus aureus. Among these, 26% were toxin A producers. Conclusions Half of the sampled workers carried Staphylococcus aureus and a quarter of these produced type A enterotoxin.

  6. Listening to food workers: Factors that impact proper health and hygiene practice in food service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Clegg Smith, Katherine; Neff, Roni A; Pollack, Keshia M; Ensminger, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Foodborne disease is a significant problem worldwide. Research exploring sources of outbreaks indicates a pronounced role for food workers' improper health and hygiene practice. To investigate food workers' perceptions of factors that impact proper food safety practice. Interviews with food service workers in Baltimore, MD, USA discussing food safety practices and factors that impact implementation in the workplace. A social ecological model organizes multiple levels of influence on health and hygiene behavior. Issues raised by interviewees include factors across the five levels of the social ecological model, and confirm findings from previous work. Interviews also reveal many factors not highlighted in prior work, including issues with food service policies and procedures, working conditions (e.g., pay and benefits), community resources, and state and federal policies. Food safety interventions should adopt an ecological orientation that accounts for factors at multiple levels, including workers' social and structural context, that impact food safety practice.

  7. Ergonomics study for workers at food production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fazi Hamizatun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The health constraint faced by production workers affects the quality of the work. The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorder (WMSD which limits the movement of the workers. The comfort workplace condition, known as ergonomic environment is important to prevent the occurrence of the WMSD. Proper ergonomic workplace considers the condition of the workers while doing the assigned work. The objectives of this study are to identify the current problems related to ergonomic in food production process, to analyse the actual production data by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA and to recommend the ergonomic workplace environment based on the condition of the study. The study was done at a Small and Medium Enterprises (SME food production company in the Klang Valley of Malaysia. The condition of the workers affects the productivity of the company due to workers’ health deficiency. From the findings, the workers are exposed to the awkward postures which leads to the Work-Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs. Besides, the best height of the worker at the study area (critical area to prevent the worker from WMSDs is within 155 cm to 160 cm. The results show that the workers are exposed to the WMSD in different level of risks which causes high absenteeism among the workers.

  8. Serving the food nation: Exploring Body Mass Index in food service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhall-Melnik, Julia; Cooke, Martin; Bigelow, Philip L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health concern in North America. Consumption of food prepared outside of the home is often discussed as a contributing factor. To determine whether or not Canadian food service workers are more likely to have high Body Mass Indices (BMIs) as compared with the general population, and to examine factors that contribute to BMI in this population. Analyses of secondary survey data from Cycle 5.1 of the Canadian Community Health Survey were performed. Descriptive statistics were generated to examine food service workers' risk of having above normal BMI compared to other Canadians. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors contributing to variation in BMI among food service workers. Analyses were stratified by age. Canadian food service workers are less likely to have BMIs in the overweight and obese ranges than the general population. Stratification by age demonstrated that this decreased risk can be attributed to the fact that food service workers tend to be younger than the general population. As age increases among food service workers, the odds of having a BMI in the overweight and obese ranges increases. Food service workers in general were not at higher risk for high BMI, but those between the ages of 41 and 64 are at higher risk of having a BMI in the overweight or obese ranges. The findings suggest that proximity to food service outlets may not be the most salient factor in explaining BMI.

  9. Following the trail of crumbs: A bibliometric study on consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia-Gabriela C. Kasemodel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper was to conduct an exploratory study regarding consumer preference in the field of the Food Science and Technology. Two questions guided this study: Is it possible to identify a trail of crumbs concerning consumer behavior in the Food Science and Technology field? And, if that trail exists, where is it leading academia in terms of research trends of interest? A bibliometric study was conducted using an analysis software called CiteSpace. The use of this methodology ensured the impartiality of the literature review of the topic of interest. A survey of all articles indexed in Web of Science between 1993 and 2013 regarding consumer behaviour was carried out. In total, 1,786 articles were analyzed. The recent increased concern regarding consumer behavior was evident.  With the USA and Spain having a significant  role in driving the trail. Eight other countries  that exhibited similar influences are: Italy, England, Australia, Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands and Brazil. The research trends observed were grouped into seven major hot topics: sensory, health, safety, willingness to pay, packaging, ethics, and lifestyle/convenience. However, the development of publishing trends depended on where the research was carried out. A final suggestive finding, demonstrated that scientific knowledge does not occur in a vacuum.

  10. Development of functional foods for radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Yu, Young Beob; Park, Hae Ran; Byun, Myung Woo; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Sung Ho; Yee, Sung Tae

    2000-03-01

    In searching modulators of immunity and hematopoiesis among natural products, being used as foods, six herbs exhibited lymphocyte proliferation in vitro, and six exhibited augmentation of hematopoietic cell growth. The combined treatments showed synergistic effects of lymphocyte proliferation and of hematopoietic cell growth. On the other hand, we found four effective oriental medicinal prescriptions, used as energy tonic or blood-building decoctions, for survival and regeneration of hematopoietic cells and for protection of stem cells of intestinal crypt in irradiated mice. On the basis of these results, extracts from combinations of herbs were made in expectation of higher effects in the three respects. In immuno modulation activity by the two combinations of herbs was confirmed in mice. In culture of bone narrow cells, growth improvement of non-adherent precursor and induction of cytokine expression by herb mixture extracts were observed. In evaluation of fractions, polysaccharide fraction showed modulation of immunity and hematopoiesis, and methanol fraction showed stem cell protection from radiation. On the basis of the results, we made two provisional products by addition of polysaccharide fraction to the water extract. In further research, the active components would be identified and the fractional foods would be developed for overcoming of declined immunity and radiation damage. For security of sanitation by irradiation, the stability in activity of irradiated resources was confirmed. (author)

  11. The Food Service Worker and the Travis Air Force Base Experimental Food System: Worker Opinion and Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Surveys and interviews were administered to both civilian and military food service workers at Travis Air Force Base, both before and after dining system changes, to assess job satisfaction, opinions about additional training, and opinions about environmental and equipment features relevant to potential human factors problems.

  12. Food and nutrient intake among workers with different shift systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemiö, Katri; Puttonen, Sampsa; Viitasalo, Katriina; Härmä, Mikko; Peltonen, Markku; Lindström, Jaana

    2015-07-01

    Over 20% of employees in Europe work in shifts. Shift work increases the risk for chronic diseases, but a healthy lifestyle may attenuate the adverse effect of shift work. The aim of this study was to explore food and nutrient intake differences between working time groups. The participants were 1478 employees (55% of men) of an airline divided into three working time groups: day work (n=608), shift work without in-flight work (n=541) and in-flight work (n=329). Measures included laboratory tests, physical measurements, a questionnaire, and food and nutrient intake estimations by a validated 16-item food intake questionnaire. Shift working men were less likely to consume vegetables (p<0.001) and fruits (p=0.049) daily than male day and in-flight workers. In women, energy intake from saturated fat was higher among shift workers compared with day workers (12.6 vs 12.2 E%, p=0.023). In older female participants, energy intake from fat and saturated fat was higher in the shift work and in-flight work groups than in the day work group (p<0.001). In this study, shift work and working environment were associated with dietary habits, and this association was not explained by other characteristics such as workers' educational level. Shift workers' increased risk for chronic diseases should be taken into account and lifestyle counselling including advice in nutrition should be incorporated in routine occupational healthcare of shift workers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Dynamics of foraging trails in the Neotropical termite Velocitermes heteropterus (Isoptera: Termitidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haifig, Ives; Jost, Christian; Fourcassié, Vincent; Zana, Yossi; Costa-Leonardo, Ana Maria

    2015-09-01

    Foraging behavior in termites varies with the feeding habits of each species but often occurs through the formation of well-defined trails that connect the nest to food sources in species that build structured nests. We studied the formation of foraging trails and the change in caste ratio during foraging in the termite Velocitermes heteropterus. This species is widespread in Cerrado vegetation where it builds epigeal nests and forages in open-air at night. Our aim was to understand the processes involved in the formation of foraging trails, from the exploration of new unmarked areas to the recruitment of individuals to food and the stabilization of traffic on the trails, as well as the participation of the different castes during these processes. Foraging trails were videotaped in the laboratory and the videos were then analyzed both manually and automatically to assess the flow of individuals and the caste ratio on the trails as well as to examine the spatial organization of traffic over time. Foraging trails were composed of minor workers, major workers, and soldiers. The flow of individuals on the trails gradually increased from the beginning of the exploration of new areas up to the discovery of the food. The caste ratio remained constant throughout the foraging excursion: major workers, minor workers and soldiers forage in a ratio of 8:1:1, respectively. The speed of individuals was significantly different among castes, with major workers and soldiers being significantly faster than minor workers. Overall, our results show that foraging excursions in V. heteropterus may be divided in three different phases, characterized by individual speeds, differential flows and lane segregation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Food consumption of sugarcane workers' families in the Brazilian Northeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Messias Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the food intake of sugarcane workers' family members. METHODS: The food intake of 159 family members of sugarcane workers from Gameleira, Pernambuco, Brazilian Northeast, was investigated by directly weighing the foods on three non-consecutive days. The percent risk of inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes was analyzed according to the Reference Dietary Intakes. The macronutrients were analyzed in relation to acceptable distribution intervals. The energy consumed from the various food groups was expressed as a ratio of the total energy intake. RESULTS: The median intake of carbohydrates and proteins remained above the Estimated Average Requirement, and all age groups presented a low risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes. The median intakes of riboflavin, niacin, thiamin, and iron remained above the Estimated Average Requirement for all age groups, but children aged 1-3 years presented a high percent risk of inadequate iron intake. All age groups presented high percent risk of inadequate zinc, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C intakes. Grains and derivatives had a greater participation in the total energy intake, especially in men aged 19-30 years. The group "milk and dairy products" had a greater participation in the diet of children aged 1-3 years. CONCLUSION: The low percent risk of inadequate carbohydrate and protein intakes in all age groups was opposed to the high risk of inadequate mineral and vitamin intakes, making the population vulnerable to nutritional disorders caused by excess macronutrient intake and inadequate micronutrient intake.

  15. Absenteeism following a workplace intervention for older food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siukola, A; Virtanen, P; Huhtala, H; Nygård, C-H

    2011-12-01

    The effects of workplace interventions on sickness absence are poorly understood, in particular in ageing workers. To analyse the effects of a senior programme on sickness absence among blue-collar food industry workers of a food company in Finland. We followed up 129 employees aged 55 years or older, who participated in a senior programme (intervention group), and 229 employees of the same age from the same company who did not participate (control group). Total sickness absence days and spells of 1-3, 4-7, 8-21 and >21 days were recorded for the members of the intervention group from the year before joining the programme and for the control group starting at age 54 years. Both groups were followed for up to 6 years. The median number of sickness absence days per person-year increased significantly from baseline in both groups during the follow-up. Compared with the control group, the intervention group had increased risk for 1-3 days spells [rate ratio 1.34 (1.21-1.48)] and 4-7 days spells [rate ratio 1.23 (1.07-1.41)], but the risk for >21 days spells was decreased [rate ratio 0.68 (0.53-0.88)] after participation in the senior programme. A programme to enhance individual work well-being in ageing workers may increase short-term but reduce long-term sickness absence.

  16. Trail pheromone of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hwan Choe

    Full Text Available The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile is recognized as one of the world's most damaging invasive species. One reason for the ecological dominance of introduced Argentine ant populations is their ability to dominate food and habitat resources through the rapid mobilization and recruitment of thousands of workers. More than 30 years ago, studies showed that (Z-9-hexadecenal strongly attracted Argentine ant workers in a multi-choice olfactometer, suggesting that (Z-9-hexadecenal might be the trail pheromone, or a component of a trail pheromone mixture. Since then, numerous studies have considered (Z-9-hexadecenal as the key component of the Argentine ant trails. Here, we report the first chemical analyses of the trails laid by living Argentine ants and find that (Z-9-hexadecenal is not present in a detectible quantity. Instead, two iridoids, dolichodial and iridomyrmecin, appear to be the primary chemical constituents of the trails. Laboratory choice tests confirmed that Argentine ants were attracted to artificial trails comprised of these two chemicals significantly more often than control trails. Although (Z-9-hexadecenal was not detected in natural trails, supplementation of artificial dolichodial+iridomyrmecin trails with an extremely low concentraion of (Z-9-hexadecenal did increase the efficacy of the trail-following behavior. In stark contrast with previous dogma, our study suggests that dolichodial and iridomyrmecin are major components of the Argentine ant trail pheromone. (Z-9-hexadecenal may act in an additive manner with these iridoids, but it does not occur in detectable quantities in Argentine ant recruitment trails.

  17. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus and aflatoxins among food-grain workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 32·6% of the food-grain workers and 9·1% of non food grain workers (Pworkers and 11·4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms.

  18. Great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo abelii) follow visual trails to locate hidden food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völter, Christoph J; Call, Josep

    2014-05-01

    Whether nonhuman primates understand causal relations beyond mere associations is still a matter of debate. We presented all four species of nonhuman great apes (N = 36) with a choice between 2 opaque, upside down cups after displacing them out of sight from their starting positions. Crucially, 1 of them had left a yogurt trail behind it. Great apes spontaneously used the trail to select the yogurt baited cup. Follow-up experiments demonstrated that chimpanzees distinguished trails based on the temporal order of cause and effect by ignoring trails that were already present before the reward was hidden. Additionally, chimpanzees did not select cups based on the amount of yogurt near them but instead preferred cups that signaled the endpoint of the trail. We conclude that apes' choices reveal sensitivity to a causal relation between cause (reward) and effect (trail) including their temporal order. ©2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Using a Training Video to Improve Agricultural Workers' Knowledge of On-Farm Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiasen, Lisa; Morley, Katija; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A training video was produced and evaluated to assess its impact on the food safety knowledge of agricultural workers. Increasing food safety knowledge on the farm may help to improve the safety of fresh produce. Surveys were used to measure workers' food safety knowledge before and after viewing the video. Focus groups were used to determine…

  20. Food supplementation for workers: flour enriched with omega -3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Nery de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was preparing a product (omega-3 flour to increase the nutritional value of the food for workers concerning the content of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA. The omega-3 flour was prepared using waste (head sardines and leaves of carrot, flaxseed flour, manioc flour and spices. The fatty acids (FA concentration was analyzed by gas chromatography. A total of 28 FA were identified in the omega-3 flour. The concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA were 329.23mg EPA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour and 545.35 mg DHA 100 g-1 omega-3 flour. To meet the minimum requirements of omega -3, it is necessary the intake 2.5 to 3 tablespoons (soup of omega-3 flour day-1.There were analyzed two meals (A and B generally consumed by workers without and with the addition of the omega-3 flour (1 and 2 tablespoons to verify if there was an increase of n-3 FA. It was concluded that there was a significant increase of these FA in both meals. It was found that the omega-3 flour is constituted of a good nutritional value, especially the n-3 FA, so the product can be used as a supplement in the feeding of the workers as well as in other segments.

  1. Greenway Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the Town’s current and proposed greenway system, including connectors and street side trails.A greenway is a linear parcel of land set aside to preserve open...

  2. Airbag Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails. These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

  3. Food Safety Education for Students and Workers in School Gardens and University Farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzubak, John; Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda

    2016-01-01

    The number of school gardens and university farms is increasing in the United States. Produce grown in these venues is often sampled in the classroom or incorporated into the food chain. Food safety education for students and workers is needed to ensure that produce is safe. Two 1-hr food safety curricula were developed to inform K-12 students and…

  4. Effect of density on traffic and velocity on trunk trails of Formica pratensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hönicke, C; Bliss, P; Moritz, R F A

    2015-04-01

    The allocation of large numbers of workers facilitates the swift intake of locally available resources which is essential for ant colony survival. To organise the traffic between nest and food source, the black-meadow ant Formica pratensis establishes permanent trunk trails, which are maintained by the ants. To unravel the ant organisation and potential traffic rules on these trails, we analysed velocity and lane segregation under various densities by experimentally changing feeding regimes. Even under the highest ant densities achieved, we never observed any traffic jams. On the contrary, velocity increased after supplementary feeding despite an enhanced density. Furthermore, inbound ants returning to the nest had a higher velocity than those leaving the colony. Whilst at low and medium density the ants used the centre of the trail, they used the full width of the trail at high density. Outbound ants also showed some degree of lane segregation which contributes to traffic organisation.

  5. Evaluating the Influence of Nutrition Determinants on Construction Workers' Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Chioma Sylvia; Musonda, Innocent; Agumba, Justus

    2017-11-01

    Nutritional knowledge as well as economic, social, biological, and cultural factors have been known to determine an individual's food choices. Despite the existence of research on the factors which influence nutrition globally, there is little known about the extent to which these factors influence the food choices of construction workers, which in turn influence their health and safety during construction activities. The present article investigates the extent to which construction workers' nutrition is influenced by nutritional knowledge, as well as economic, environmental, social, psychological, and physiological factors. A field questionnaire survey was conducted on site construction workers in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Principal components analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Findings revealed that consumption of foods termed alternative foods including dairy products, eggs, nuts, fish, and cereals, was influenced by nutritional knowledge and resources. Foods termed traditional core foods were influenced by cultural background; foods termed secondary core foods comprising fruits and vegetables were influenced by economic factors, resources, and cultural background; while foods termed core foods were mostly influenced by nutritional knowledge. By providing evidence of the factors which most influence selection and consumption of certain foods by construction workers, relevant nutrition interventions will be designed and implemented, taking cognizance of these factors.

  6. "Pizza is cheaper than salad": assessing workers' views for an environmental food intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carol M; Nelson, Janet A; Chin, Nancy; Dozier, Ann; Fernandez, Isabel Diana

    2007-11-01

    "Images of a Healthy Worksite" aims to provide easy access to healthful foods and to reduce sedentarism at the worksite-to prevent weight gain. Formative research for the nutrition intervention component was aimed at gaining a broad understanding of the sociocultural role of food and eating among workers and worker perspectives on socially feasible and culturally acceptable environmental intervention strategies. Using an adapted PRECEDE health planning model, we conducted ecological, educational, environmental, and administrative assessments at the worksite. Through 15 in-depth interviews, five focus groups, and community mapping at two sites with 79 administrators, managers, workers, and food service personnel (51% men, 82% white), we assessed workers' perspectives on physical, sociocultural, economic, and policy environments. Data were coded for predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors related to intervention strategies in vending, cafeteria, catering, and informal food environments. After classification for reach, intensity, and sustainability, objectives and evaluation plans were developed for each highly ranked strategy. Key sociocultural factors affecting food and eating included: stress-related eating in a downsizing workplace, enthusiasm for employer-sponsored weight gain prevention efforts that respect personal privacy, and the consequences of organizational culture on worker access to the food and eating environment. Workers supported healthier cafeteria and catering options, bringing healthful foods closer, and labeling of healthful options. We provide a practical and systematic approach to formative research and assess the interrelatedness of the physical, policy, economic, and sociocultural factors that affect environmental worksite interventions to prevent weight gain among employees.

  7. Perception of environmental health risks among workers in a food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Workplace safety relies partially on workers' ability to recognize hazards that could result in personal injury. This study aimed to determine the perception of industrial workers to the environmental risks that they are exposed to and their practice of self protection through the use of PPE. Methods: It was a ...

  8. Alaska State Trails Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recreation Search DNR State of Alaska Home Menu Parks Home Alaska State Trails Boating Safety Design and Home / Alaska State Trails Alaska State Trails Program Trails in the Spotlight Glacier Lake and Saddle Trails in Kachemak State Park Glacier Lake A Popular route joins the Saddle and Glacier Lake Trails. The

  9. Evaluation of the nutritional status of workers of transformation industries adherent to the Brazilian Workers' Food Program. A comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid W Leal Bezerra

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess whether the Brazilian Workers' Food Program (WFP is associated with changes in the nutritional status of workers in the transformation industry. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, comparative study, based on prospectively collected data from a combined stratified and two-stage probability sample of workers from 26 small and medium size companies, 13 adherent and 13 non-adherent to the WFP, in the food, mining and textile sectors. Study variables were body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, and dietary intake at lunch obtained by 24-hour dietary recall. Data were analyzed with nested mixed effects linear regression with adjustment by subject variables. Sampling weights were applied in computing population parameters. The final sample consisted of 1069 workers, 541 from WFP-adherent and 528 from WFP non-adherent companies. The groups were different only in education level, income and in-house training. Workers in WFP-adherent companies have greater BMI (27.0 kg/m2 vs. 26.0 kg/m2, p = 0.002 and WC (87.9 cm vs. 86.5, p = 0.04, higher prevalence of excessive weight (62.6% vs. 55.5%, p<0.001 and of increased WC (49.1% vs. 39.9%. Workers of WFP companies have lower intake of saturated fat (-1.34 g, p<0.01 and sodium (-0.3 g, p<0.01 at lunch. In conclusion, this study showed that workers of companies adherent to the Brazilian WFP have greater rates of excessive weight and increased cardiovascular risk-a negative finding-as well as lower intake of sodium and saturated fat-a positive finding. Therefore, the WFP needs to be revisited and its aims redefined according to the current epidemiological status of the target population of the program.

  10. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 8. Gloves as barriers to prevent contamination of food by workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Michaels, Barry S; Greig, Judy D; Smith, Debra; Bartleson, Charles A

    2010-09-01

    The role played by food workers and other individuals in the contamination of food has been identified as an important contributing factor leading to foodborne outbreaks. To prevent direct bare hand contact with food and food surfaces, many jurisdictions have made glove use compulsory for food production and preparation. When properly used, gloves can substantially reduce opportunities for food contamination. However, gloves have limitations and may become a source of contamination if they are punctured or improperly used. Experiments conducted in clinical and dental settings have revealed pinhole leaks in gloves. Although such loss of glove integrity can lead to contamination of foods and surfaces, in the food industry improper use of gloves is more likely than leakage to lead to food contamination and outbreaks. Wearing jewelry (e.g., rings) and artificial nails is discouraged because these items can puncture gloves and allow accumulation of microbial populations under them. Occlusion of the skin during long-term glove use in food operations creates the warm, moist conditions necessary for microbial proliferation and can increase pathogen transfer onto foods through leaks or exposed skin or during glove removal. The most important issue is that glove use can create a false sense of security, resulting in more high-risk behaviors that can lead to cross-contamination when employees are not adequately trained.

  11. Educating Immigrant Hispanic Foodservice Workers about Food Safety Using Visual-Based Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2013-01-01

    Providing food safety training to a diverse workforce brings with it opportunities and challenges that must be addressed. The study reported here provides evidence for benefits of using visual-based tools for food safety training when educating immigrant, Hispanic foodservice workers with no or minimal English language skills. Using visual tools…

  12. Child and youth care workers: Profile, nutrition knowledge and food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-06

    Aug 6, 2014 ... Child and youth care workers (CCWs) in these centres are encouraged to .... underweight, poor bone health and dental caries (Wenhold et al. 2008:443) ... habits; secondly, children who feel stressed, unsafe or anxious do not eat well, ..... America indicate that even though CCWs seem to be well educated ...

  13. Superior Hiking Trail Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  14. Superior Hiking Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Superior Hiking Trail main trail, spurs, and camp spurs for completed trail throughout Cook, Lake, St. Louis and Carlton counties. These data were collected with...

  15. The association between socioeconomic characteristics and consumption of food items among Brazilian industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinholes, Daniele B; Melo, Ione M F; Machado, Carlos Alberto; de Castro Chaves, Hilton; Fuchs, Flavio D; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2012-01-01

    Dietary pattern plays a causative role in the rising of noncommunicable diseases. The SESI (Serviço Social da Indústria) study was designed to evaluate risk factors for noncommunicable diseases. We aimed to describe food items consumed by Brazilian workers and to assess their association with socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional study was carried out among Brazilian industrial workers, selected by multistage sampling, from 157 companies. Interviews were conducted at the work place using standardized forms. 4818 workers were interviewed, aged 35.4 ± 10.7 years, 76.5% were men. The workers had an average of 8.7 ± 4.1 years of schooling and 25.4 ± 4.1 kg/m² of BMI. Men and individuals with less than high school education were less likely to consume dairy products, fruits, and vegetables daily, even after control for confounding factors. Men consumed rice and beans daily more often than women. In comparison to workers aged 50-76 years, those under 30 years old consumed less fruits and green leafy vegetables daily. The food items consumed by Brazilian workers show that there are insufficient consumption according to the guidelines of healthy foods, particularly of dairy products, vegetables, and fruits.

  16. Awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among Nigerian bank workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M.; Maduabum, Felicia O.; Onyeke, Nkechi G.; Anyaegunam, Ngozi J.; Ayogu, Chinwe A.; Ezeanwu, Bibian Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Adequate nutrition is an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle for all individuals, including bank staff. The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among bank workers in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A purposive sample of 250 bank workers took part in the study. Means and Student t tests were employed for data analysis. Results showed that bank workers were aware of the nutritive value of foods, and that eating practices commonly adopted included skipping breakfast, eating breakfast at work, buying food at work from the bank canteen, eating in between meals, buying snacks as lunch, and consuming soft drinks daily, among others. There were no significant differences between male and female bank workers in mean responses on food nutritive value or in eating practices adopted. Good eating habits will help bank workers not only to improve their nutritional well-being, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases. The implications for nutritional counseling and education are discussed in the context of these findings. PMID:28272248

  17. Factors influencing workers to follow food safety management systems in meat plants in Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Brita; Wilcock, Anne; Aung, May

    2009-06-01

    Small and medium sized food businesses have been slow to adopt food safety management systems (FSMSs) such as good manufacturing practices and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP). This study identifies factors influencing workers in their implementation of food safety practices in small and medium meat processing establishments in Ontario, Canada. A qualitative approach was used to explore in-plant factors that influence the implementation of FSMSs. Thirteen in-depth interviews in five meat plants and two focus group interviews were conducted. These generated 219 pages of verbatim transcripts which were analysed using NVivo 7 software. Main themes identified in the data related to production systems, organisational characteristics and employee characteristics. A socio-psychological model based on the theory of planned behaviour is proposed to describe how these themes and underlying sub-themes relate to FSMS implementation. Addressing the various factors that influence production workers is expected to enhance FSMS implementation and increase food safety.

  18. Child and youth care workers: Profile, nutrition knowledge and food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CCWs (N = 40) employed permanently or part-time were included. Convenience purposive sampling of the CCWs was undertaken. A structured self-administered questionnaire, developed and tested for this purpose, was used to gather information on the profile, nutrition knowledge, food safety and hygiene practices.

  19. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory performance in workers exposed to grain and grain based food dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S P; Paddle, G M

    1998-05-01

    A health surveillance study of male grain food manufacturing workers used a respiratory health questionnaire and spirometry to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory performance. The prevalence of cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness was between 8-13% but was 20% for rhinitis. Rhinitis was the most common symptom with 37% of those reporting rhinitis describing this as work-related. A case-control analysis of workers reporting rhinitis did not identify any specific occupational activities associated with increased risk of rhinitis. Smoking habit and all respiratory symptoms apart from rhinitis had a significant effect upon ventilatory performance. Occupational exposure to raw grains, flour, ingredients and finished food was categorized as high, medium or low in either continuous or intermediate patterns. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the effects of height, age and smoking upon ventilatory performance. However, occupational exposure to grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts had no effect upon ventilatory performance. It is concluded that smoking habit is the major determinant of respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory function. The excess complaints of rhinitis warrant further study but it would appear that the current occupational exposure limits for grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts are adequate to protect workers against impairment of ventilatory performance.

  20. 21 CFR 1311.215 - Internal audit trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal audit trail. 1311.215 Section 1311.215... ORDERS AND PRESCRIPTIONS (Eff. 6-1-10) Electronic Prescriptions § 1311.215 Internal audit trail. (a) The... with audit trail functions. (6) For application service providers, attempted or successful annotation...

  1. Impact of nutritional interventions on food consumption pattern changes of workers and staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Boshtam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worksite Intervention Project from Isfahan Healthy Heart Program aiming at modifying life style of workers and staff in Isfahan and Najafabad (intervention areas, and Arak (reference area carried out for 5 years. Nutritional interventions are one of the interventions of this project. This research aiming at studying the effect of these interventions on food consumption pattern changes carried out in workers and staff of Isfahan and Najafabad. Materials and Method: Food consumption pattern by food frequency questionnaire and demographic information of this group were collected before, after and annually during the intervention. Data were analyzed by Genera Linear Models (GLM, descriptive and trend analysis. Results: Beverage and hydrogenated oil consumption decreased and fruits and vegetables increased in workers and staff of intervention area more than reference area (p0.27. Compare to reference society fast food consumption in office staff of intervention society was increased (p<0.001.Conclusion: We conclude that nutritional interventions have favorite effects on practice of workers and staff of this Iranian population and interventions used in this study can use as applicable interventions for similar societies

  2. Trail communication regulated by two trail pheromone components in the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ping; Ji, Bao-Zhong; Sillam-Dussès, David

    2014-01-01

    The eusocial termites are well accomplished in chemical communication, but how they achieve the communication using trace amount of no more than two pheromone components is mostly unknown. In this study, the foraging process and trail pheromones of the fungus-growing termite Odontotermes formosanus (Shiraki) were systematically studied and monitored in real-time using a combination of techniques, including video analysis, solid-phase microextraction, gas chromatography coupled with either mass spectrometry or an electroantennographic detector, and bioassays. The trail pheromone components in foraging workers were (3Z)-dodec-3-en-1-ol and (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol secreted by their sternal glands. Interestingly, ratio of the two components changed according to the behaviors that the termites were displaying. This situation only occurs in termites whereas ratios of pheromone components are fixed and species-specific for other insect cuticular glands. Moreover, in bioassays, the active thresholds of the two components ranged from 1 fg/cm to 10 pg/cm according to the behavioral contexts or the pheromonal exposure of tested workers. The two components did not act in synergy. (3Z)-Dodec-3-en-1-ol induced orientation behavior of termites that explore their environment, whereas (3Z,6Z)-dodeca-3,6-dien-1-ol had both an orientation effect and a recruitment effect when food was discovered. The trail pheromone of O. formosanus was regulated both quantitatively by the increasing number of workers involved in the early phases of foraging process, and qualitatively by the change in ratio of the two pheromone components on sternal glandular cuticle in the food-collecting workers. In bioassays, the responses of workers to the pheromone were also affected by the variation in pheromone concentration and component ratio in the microenvironment. Thus, this termite could exchange more information with nestmates using the traces of the two trail pheromone components that can be easily

  3. Wellbeing at work among kitchen workers during organic food conversion in Danish public kitchens: a longitudinal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge

    2016-01-01

    among kitchen workers before and after participating in educational training programmes in organic food conversion. Method: This longitudinal study applied an online self-administered questionnaire among kitchen workers before and after the implementation of an organic food conversion programme with 1......-up (63% of those surveyed at baseline). No substantive differences between baseline and follow-up measurements of organic food conversion were detected on physical or psychological wellbeing at work. Kitchen workers reported a significant improvement in the perceived food quality, motivation to work...

  4. Ants can learn to forage on one-way trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Leite Ribeiro

    Full Text Available The trails formed by many ant species between nest and food source are two-way roads on which outgoing and returning workers meet and touch each other all along. The way to get back home, after grasping a food load, is to take the same route on which they have arrived from the nest. In many species such trails are chemically marked by pheromones providing orientation cues for the ants to find their way. Other species rely on their vision and use landmarks as cues. We have developed a method to stop foraging ants from shuttling on two-way trails. The only way to forage is to take two separate roads, as they cannot go back on their steps after arriving at the food or at the nest. The condition qualifies as a problem because all their orientation cues -- chemical, visual or any other -- are disrupted, as all of them cannot but lead the ants back to the route on which they arrived. We have found that workers of the leaf-cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa can solve the problem. They could not only find the alternative way, but also used the unidirectional traffic system to forage effectively. We suggest that their ability is an evolutionary consequence of the need to deal with environmental irregularities that cannot be negotiated by means of excessively stereotyped behavior, and that it is but an example of a widespread phenomenon. We also suggest that our method can be adapted to other species, invertebrate and vertebrate, in the study of orientation, memory, perception, learning and communication.

  5. Effects of Cultural and Tourism Policies on Local Development: the Case of Food Trails in Medellín (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Leal Londoño

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Food Tourism worldwide has encouraged the rise of numerous food tourism strategies and initiatives everywhere, including Colombia. These are flourishing thanks to the tourism and cultural policies that recognise Colombian food processes and practices as intangible cultural heritage. One of the most representative strategies nowadays is the case of Medellín Sí Sabe (Medellín has a taste. The programme has been led by the local authorities and has been backed by different local organisations. This paper outlines an exploratory approach based on literature review, public documents, policies and the information obtained through nine semi-structured interviews applied to key stakeholders responsible for the implementation of this initiative in Medellín. The information provides some insights into how this strategy has had relevant effects on the local economic revitalisation by linking small and medium-sized food enterprises, which base their activity mainly on traditional dishes and products of the region. Firstly, it analyses the strategy’s structure and its link to national tourism and cultural policies based on the main concepts of territorial development: knowledge, learning and innovation. By analysing Medellín (Colombia as case study, it recognises the role played by local authorities in the promotion of food tourism.

  6. Food Insecurity Increases HIV Risk Among Young Sex Workers in Metro Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Daniella; Shannon, Kate; Taylor, Chrissy; Dobrer, Sabina; Jean, Jessica St; Goldenberg, Shira M; Duff, Putu; Deering, Kathleen N

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed to determine the effect of food insecurity on sexual HIV risk with clients among youth sex workers (YSWs) sex workers (2010-2013). We examined the independent relationship between YSWs' food insecurity and being pressured into sex without a condom by clients ("client condom refusal"). Of 220 YSWs, 34.5 % (n = 76) reported client condom refusal over the 3.5-year study period and 76.4 % (n = 168) reported any food insecurity. Adjusting for other HIV risk pathways, food insecurity retained an independent effect on client condom refusal (AOR 2.08, 95 % CI 1.23-3.51), suggesting that food insecurity is significantly associated with HIV risk among YSWs. This study indicates a critical relationship between food insecurity and HIV risk, and demonstrates YSWs' particular vulnerability. Public policies for food assistance as a harm reduction measure may be key to addressing this disparity.

  7. Food provision for older people receiving home care from the perspectives of home-care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson-Powell, Anna; Barnes, Sarah; Lovatt, Melanie; Wasielewska, Anna; Drummond, Barbara

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among older people. Attention has focused on the inadequacies of food provision in institutions, yet the majority suffering from malnutrition live in the community. The aim of this study was to explore barriers and facilitators to food provision for older people receiving home care. It was a qualitative exploratory study using semi-structured interviews with nine home-care workers in June 2013 employed by independent agencies in a large city in northern England. Data were analysed thematically, based on the principles of grounded theory. Findings showed that significant time pressures limited home-care workers in their ability to socially engage with service users at mealtimes, or provide them with anything other than ready meals. Enabling choice was considered more important than providing a healthy diet, but choice was limited by food availability and reliance on families for shopping. Despite their knowledge of service users and their central role in providing food, home-care workers received little nutritional training and were not involved by healthcare professionals in the management of malnutrition. Despite the rhetoric of individual choice and importance of social engagement and nutrition for health and well-being, nutritional care has been significantly compromised by cuts to social care budgets. The potential role for home-care workers in promoting good nutrition in older people is undervalued and undermined by the lack of recognition, training and time dedicated to food-related care. This has led to a situation whereby good quality food and enjoyable mealtimes are denied to many older people on the basis that they are unaffordable luxuries rather than an integral component of fundamental care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. US acculturation, food intake, and obesity among Asian-Pacific hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Rachel; Williams, Andrew E; Vinoya, Aleli C; Oshiro, Caryn E S; Vogt, Thomas M

    2009-10-01

    Both obesity and immigration continue to increase in the United States. Studies suggest that a transition in lifestyle patterns, such as food intake, may mediate the relationship between immigration and obesity. We examine obesity among hotel workers in relation to age, sex, race/ethnicity, and indicators of food intake, immigration, and acculturation. Four thousand five hundred thirty hotel workers in 30 hotels were studied from the first year of the Work, Weight and Wellness program, before intervention (during 2005-2006). Weight and height were measured, whereas race/ethnicity, language, education, immigration, acculturation, and food intake variables were assessed by questionnaire. The study included 43% male and 57% female hotel workers (mean age 44.4+/-11.3 years; 42% Filipino, 32% other Asian, 13% Pacific Islander, 9% white, 1% black/African American, and 3% other race/ethnicity). On average (mean value), 55% of participants were born outside the United States; 57% were overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] >25). The BMI of those born in the United States was 1.3 higher than that of those born in another country, adjusting for sex and race/ethnicity. Intake of sweet drinks and meat was positively associated with BMI while intake of fruit was negatively associated with BMI. Age at arrival in United States ("generation") was negatively associated with BMI, whereas greater acculturation was positively associated with BMI. Food intake behaviors are probably related to place of birth, generation of migration to the United States, and acculturation. Direct measures of food intake added explanatory power to models, suggesting the importance of food intake to obesity. Further study of the influence of immigration, acculturation, and food intake on obesity using longitudinal study designs is warranted.

  9. Food-coping strategy index applied to a community of farm-worker households in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Rozanne; Schönfeldt, Hettie Carina; Owen, Johanna Hendriena

    2008-03-01

    In South Africa, households living in informal urban settlements, in rural areas, and on commercial farms experience various levels of dietary variety, food intake, and household hunger. Low incomes, poor food production and availability, and low spending power characterize these households. Households employ various food-coping strategies to alleviate food stress or poor food availability. To apply an existing food-coping strategy (FCS) index to assess household hunger and its usefulness in identifying the level of food stress and the patterns of food coping in farm-worker households. A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Data were gathered from women (18 to 57 years of age) responsible for food provision in a small farm-worker community in Fouriesburg, South Africa. A structured food-coping questionnaire and a standardized FCS index were used to gather data. The two most common FCS used were relying on cheaper food (chicken feet, diluted soya-mince soup) or less preferred food (meat bones) and employing food-seeking strategies (gathering wild foods), followed by consumption of seed stock (maize) and reduced portion sizes (protein foods and side dishes), resulting in starch-based diets of poor variety. Seasonal strategies varied according to the level of food stress experienced. Patterns of food coping were identified. Negative FCS (limiting food choices, only consuming starchy staples) may cause poor health status. The FCS index was effectively used to assess farm-worker household food-coping behavior (early, clear signals of the level of food distress). These results could be used to allocate appropriate food aid (type of food) and to design nutrition education programs focused on positive FCS (food gathering or bartering) in a particular community to prevent suboptimal nutritional status.

  10. Association between body weight, physical activity and food choices among metropolitan transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between body weight, physical activity and dietary intake among a population of metropolitan transit workers are described. Methods Data were collected during October through December, 2005, as part of the baseline measures for a worksite weight gain prevention intervention in four metro transit bus garages. All garage employees were invited to complete behavioral surveys that assessed food choices and physical activity, and weight and height were directly measured. Seventy-eight percent (N = 1092 of all employees participated. Results The prevalence of obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m2 was 56%. Over half of the transit workers reported consuming fruit (55% and vegetables (59% ≥ 3/week. Reported fast food restaurant frequency was low (13% visited ≥ 3/week. Drivers reported high levels of physical activity (eg. walking 93 minutes/day. However, an objective measure of physical activity measured only 16 minutes moderate/vigorous per day. Compared to other drivers, obese drivers reported significantly less vigorous physical activity, more time sitting, and more time watching television. Healthy eating, physical activity and weight management were perceived to be difficult at the worksite, particularly among obese transit workers, and perceived social support for these behaviors was modest. However, most workers perceived weight management and increased physical activity to be personally important for their health. Conclusion Although transit workers' self-report of fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity was high, perceived access to physical activity and healthful eating opportunities at the worksite was low. Obese workers were significantly less physically active and were more likely to report work environmental barriers to physical activity.

  11. A socio-historical approach to policy analysis: the case of the Brazilian Workers' Food Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Souza, Jamacy; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria; Pinell, Patrice

    2018-02-05

    Policy analyses based on traditional or structuralist definitions of the state are important, but they have some limitations for explaining processes related to policymaking, implementation, and results. Bourdieusian sociology links the analysis to objective and subjective dimensions of social practices and can help elucidate these phenomena. This article provides such empirical evidence by analyzing the social genesis of a Brazilian policy that currently serves 18 million workers and was established by the state in 1976 through the Fiscal Incentives Program for Workers' Nutrition (PIFAT/PAT). The study linked the analysis of the trajectory of social agents involved in the policy's formulation to the historical conditions that allowed the policy to exist in the first place. Although the literature treats the policy as a workers' food program (PAT), the current study showed that it actually represented a new model for paying financial subsidies to companies that provided food to their employees, meanwhile upgrading the commercial market for collective meals. The study further showed that the program emerged as an administrative policy, but linked to economic agents. The program became a specific social space in which issues related to workers' nutrition became secondary, but useful for disguising what had been an explicit side of its genesis, namely its essentially fiscal nature.

  12. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana P Flanagan

    Full Text Available Argentine ants (Linepithema humile live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  13. Fast and flexible: argentine ants recruit from nearby trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Tatiana P; Pinter-Wollman, Noa M; Moses, Melanie E; Gordon, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Argentine ants (Linepithema humile) live in groups of nests connected by trails to each other and to stable food sources. In a field study, we investigated whether some ants recruit directly from established, persistent trails to food sources, thus accelerating food collection. Our results indicate that Argentine ants recruit nestmates to food directly from persistent trails, and that the exponential increase in the arrival rate of ants at baits is faster than would be possible if recruited ants traveled from distant nests. Once ants find a new food source, they walk back and forth between the bait and sometimes share food by trophallaxis with nestmates on the trail. Recruiting ants from nearby persistent trails creates a dynamic circuit, like those found in other distributed systems, which facilitates a quick response to changes in available resources.

  14. Cold exposure and health effects among frozen food processing workers in eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yingratanasuk, Tanongsak; Jaidee, Wanlop; Ekburanawat, Wiwat

    2015-03-01

    Frozen food processing workers work under a cold environment which can cause several adverse health effects.This study explored factors affecting workers' health in the frozen food industry in Thailand. Participants comprised 497 workers exposed to a cold working environment and 255 office workers who served as the controls. Data were collected by a survey on the work environment, and the interview of workers for abnormal symptoms. The exposed group had the following characteristics: 52.7% male, overall average age of 27 (SD 6.6) years old, attained elementary education (Grade 4 and Grade 6) (54.1%), married (48.9%), smokers (21.3%), alcohol consumption (31.0%), duration of work was between 1 and 5 years (65.2%), working 6 days a week (82.7%), 1-5 hours of overtime per week (33.8%), office workers (33.9%); work category: sizing (6.9%), peeling (28.3%) dissecting (22.2%), and in the warehouse (8.6%). The temperature in the work environment ranged from 17.2°C to 19.2°C in most sections, -18.0°C in the warehouse, and 25°C in the office areas. Warehouse workers had more abnormal symptoms than controls including repeated pain in the musculoskeletal system (OR 11.9; 95% CI 6.12-23.45), disturbance throughout the body (OR 4.60; 95% CI 2.00-10.56), respiratory symptoms (OR 9.73; 95% CI 3.53-26.80), episodic finger symptoms (OR 13.51; 95% CI 5.17-35.33). The study results suggest that workers' health should be monitored especially with regard to back and muscle pain, respiratory symptoms, episodic finger symptoms, and cardiovascular symptoms. Health promotion campaigns such as antismoking and reduction of alcohol consumption should be established because smoking and alcohol consumption are contributing factors to the pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon and peripheral vascular disorders such as hypertension and heart disease.

  15. Occupational injury among cooks and food service workers in the healthcare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Swinkels, Helena; Yu, Shicheng; Yassi, Annalee

    2007-07-01

    Incidence of occupational injury is anticipated to be high among cooks and food service workers (CFSWs) because of the nature of their work and the types of raw and finished materials that they handle. Incidents of occupational injury, resulting in lost time or medical care over a period of 1 year in two health regions were extracted from a standardized operational database and with person years obtained from payroll data, detailed analysis was conducted using Poisson regression modeling. Among the CFSWs the annual injury rate was 38.1 per 100 person years. The risk of contusions [RR, 95% CI 9.66 (1.04, 89.72)], burns [1.79 (1.39, 2.31)], and irritations or allergies [3.84 (2.05, 7.18)] was found to be significantly higher in acute care facilities compared to long-term care facilities. Lower risk was found among older workers for irritations or allergies. Female CFSWs, compared to their male counterparts, were respectively 8 and 20 times more likely to report irritations or allergies and contusions. In respect to outcome, almost all irritations or allergies required medical visits. For MSI incidents, about 67.4% resulted in time-loss from work. Prevention policies should be developed to reduce the hazards present in the workplace to promote safer work practices for cooks and food service workers.

  16. DIRBE Comet Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Re-examination of the COBE DIRBE data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails.The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported.The known trails of 2P/Encke, and 73P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 microns surface brightnesses of trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals one additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  17. [Work process and workers' health in a food and nutrition unit: prescribed versus actual work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colares, Luciléia Granhen Tavares; Freitas, Carlos Machado de

    2007-12-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between the work process in a food and nutrition unit and workers' health, in the words of the participants themselves. Direct observation, a semi-structured interview, and focus groups were used to collect the data. The reference was the dialogue between human ergonomics and work psychodynamics. The results showed that work organization in the study unit represents a routine activity, the requirements of which in terms of the work situation are based on criteria set by the institution. Variability in the activities is influenced mainly by the available equipment, instruments, and materials, thereby generating improvisation in meal production that produces both a physical and psychological cost for workers. Dissatisfaction during the performance of tasks results mainly from the supervisory style and relationship to immediate superiors. Workers themselves proposed changes in the work organization, based on greater dialogue and trust between supervisors and the workforce. Finally, the study identifies the need for an intervention that encourages workers' participation as agents of change.

  18. Food industry workers' attitudes on the importance of factors affecting foodstuff quality managament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Zorana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The food industry is faced with several challenges at the same time: to supply safe and affordable foodstuff in sufficient quantity; to provide products in conditions where demand surpasses the human population growth; to operate in circumstances of ever-increasing competition; to protect the environment and respond to the population's public health concerns. An organization's success depends on the knowledge, skills, creativity and motivation of the company's workers and partners. Focus on its employees enables a company's development and improvement, whereas business ethics ensures public health and safety protection, environmental protection and life quality improvement. The company management's responsibility lies foremost in education, worker training and development, thus enabling a direct and indirect influence on the foodstuff quality and satisfying consumer requests in terms of foodstuff quality characteristics.

  19. Use of Visuals for Food Safety Education of Spanish-Speaking Foodservice Workers: A Case Study in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Lakshman

    2012-01-01

    Providing food safety training to an audience whose native language is not English is always a challenge. In the study reported here, minimal-text visuals in Spanish were used to train Hispanic foodservice workers about proper handwashing technique and glove use based on the 2005 Food Code requirements. Overall, results indicated that visuals…

  20. Determination of a seasonal variation in the food exchanges between worker honeybees (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) by means of a radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douault, Philippe; Roger, Bernard; Pain, Janine

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges have been studied during the whole year between workers of unknown age and 4-days old workers. Variations exist between both groups. The mean percentage of shared food is 27% in the group of honeybees of unknown age and 40% in the group of 4-days old workers with respect to the initial intake of the giver. The effect of the season appears among workers of unknown are particularly [fr

  1. Prevalence and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiano, G; Dambrosio, A; Ioanna, F; Balbino, S; Barbuti, G; De Giglio, O; Diella, G; Lovero, G; Rutigliano, S; Scarafile, G; Baldassarre, A; Vimercati, L; Musti, M; Montagna, M T

    2016-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen spread not only in the hospital environment but also in the community and amongst livestock (LA-MRSA). LA-MRSA can be transmitted to humans that live in close contact with MRSA-colonized animals, and human colonization and/or infection has been reported worldwide, particularly among those involved with livestock farming. In this study the authors evaluated the prevalence of S. aureus and MRSA among healthy carriers who worked in the food industry in Apulia, Southern Italy. Nasal swabs were taken from pasta and pork industry workers. All swab samples were subjected to tests for the isolation, identification and typing of S. aureus and MRSA strains. The identification of the strains was confirmed by molecular assessment using multiplex-PCR for the amplification of the nuc and mecA genes. The strains identified as MRSA were then subjected to a PCR protocol for the characterization of sequence type ST398. In total 26.3% of examined nasal swabs were positive for S. aureus, 8.2% of them were methicillin resistant strains and 28.5% of MRSA isolates were characterized as ST398. The MRSA prevalence among pork factory workers was 3% , whereas among the pasta operators the prevalence was 11.5. The presence of S. aureus and MRSA among food workers represents a public health risk. Further, considering the dissemination of S. aureus and MRSA among non-nosocomial environments, including communities and livestock, careful surveillance and continuous monitoring of the emergence of MRSA is fundamental for safeguarding public health.

  2. Fermat's principle of least time predicts refraction of ant trails at substrate borders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Oettler

    Full Text Available Fermat's principle of least time states that light rays passing through different media follow the fastest (and not the most direct path between two points, leading to refraction at medium borders. Humans intuitively employ this rule, e.g., when a lifeguard has to infer the fastest way to traverse both beach and water to reach a swimmer in need. Here, we tested whether foraging ants also follow Fermat's principle when forced to travel on two surfaces that differentially affected the ants' walking speed. Workers of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, established "refracted" pheromone trails to a food source. These trails deviated from the most direct path, but were not different to paths predicted by Fermat's principle. Our results demonstrate a new aspect of decentralized optimization and underline the versatility of the simple yet robust rules governing the self-organization of group-living animals.

  3. Fermat's principle of least time predicts refraction of ant trails at substrate borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettler, Jan; Schmid, Volker S; Zankl, Niko; Rey, Olivier; Dress, Andreas; Heinze, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Fermat's principle of least time states that light rays passing through different media follow the fastest (and not the most direct) path between two points, leading to refraction at medium borders. Humans intuitively employ this rule, e.g., when a lifeguard has to infer the fastest way to traverse both beach and water to reach a swimmer in need. Here, we tested whether foraging ants also follow Fermat's principle when forced to travel on two surfaces that differentially affected the ants' walking speed. Workers of the little fire ant, Wasmannia auropunctata, established "refracted" pheromone trails to a food source. These trails deviated from the most direct path, but were not different to paths predicted by Fermat's principle. Our results demonstrate a new aspect of decentralized optimization and underline the versatility of the simple yet robust rules governing the self-organization of group-living animals.

  4. Burnout and the quality of life of workers in food industry: A pilot study in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranđelović Mirjana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Burnout syndrome as a consequence of a long stress at workplace can seriously disturb health and quality of life in exposed workers. It is necessary to have adequate burnout prevention and its detection. Worldwide much attention is paid to protect burnout and methods for its determination constantly improve. In Serbia there has not been a study of that kind yet. The aim of the study was to investigate burnout syndrome impact on the quality of life of workers in food industry in Niš, and to call attention of researchers in Serbia on this phenomenon, as well as to test probability of applying the original, standardized questionnaires (CBI, ComQolA5 to working population in Serbia. Methods. This study was performed in Niš within a period from 2008 to 2009 in the Institute for Workers Health Protection. A total of 489 workers were included in this study by the use of the standard questionnaire for burnout (CBI and quality of life (Com- QoL-A5. Scale confidence for measuring burnout and quality of life was determined by Cronbach α coefficient. ANOVA analysis was used for rating influence of burnout on the quality of life. Results. The values of Cronbach α coefficient showed a high confidence of the scale for measurement personal burnout (0.87, work-related burnout (0.86 and subjective quality of life (0.83. We detected increased scores as a result of personal burnout (60.0, as well as of work-related burnout (67.9. The workers suggested relationship with the family and friends as a very important part for their quality of life (10.8, health (9.8 and safety (8.0. Productivity (6.8, emotional well-being (6.6 and material property (4.5 had smaller influence on their quality of life. An increase in score of work-related burnout by 1 was statistically significantly related to decreasing inter scores for subjective quality of life in health (B = -0.097, relationship with family and friends (B = - 0.048, safety (B = -0.061 and place in

  5. THE ARC TRAIL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. The project, carried out by the 1985 Conservation. Team at Durban Girls1 High School, consisted of three main aims- Awareness, Recreation and conservation, which were incorporated into the naming of the ARC trail. The trail is situated in suburban Durban where it was felt that it was important to ...

  6. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha’u Shu’aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. Materials and methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Results The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (Plevel of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. Conclusion The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir operations should be

  7. Awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among Nigerian bank workers: Implications for nutritional counseling and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Ngozi M; Maduabum, Felicia O; Onyeke, Nkechi G; Anyaegunam, Ngozi J; Ayogu, Chinwe A; Ezeanwu, Bibian Amaka; Eseadi, Chiedu

    2017-03-01

    Adequate nutrition is an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle for all individuals, including bank staff. The objective of this study was to investigate the awareness of food nutritive value and eating practices among bank workers in Lagos State, Nigeria.The study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive survey design. A purposive sample of 250 bank workers took part in the study. Means and Student t tests were employed for data analysis.Results showed that bank workers were aware of the nutritive value of foods, and that eating practices commonly adopted included skipping breakfast, eating breakfast at work, buying food at work from the bank canteen, eating in between meals, buying snacks as lunch, and consuming soft drinks daily, among others. There were no significant differences between male and female bank workers in mean responses on food nutritive value or in eating practices adopted.Good eating habits will help bank workers not only to improve their nutritional well-being, but also to prevent nutrition-related diseases. The implications for nutritional counseling and education are discussed in the context of these findings.

  8. Food workers' perspectives on handwashing behaviors and barriers in the restaurant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pragle, Aimee S; Harding, Anna K; Mack, James C

    2007-06-01

    Food handler focus groups in two Oregon counties discussed knowledge, practices, and barriers related to handwashing in the restaurant environment. Current knowledge-based handwashing training programs do not address the internal and external barriers that affect handwashing practice. According to the focus groups, important barriers were time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, lack of involvement of managers and coworkers, and organizations that were not supportive of handwashing. Because barriers to handwashing are multi-dimensional in nature, the authors recommend that future educational and training programs include 1) a hands-on training program that orients new employees to correct handwashing practice and more advanced education about foodborne illness; 2) involvement of both managers and coworkers in the training; 3) easily accessible hand-washing facilities stocked with necessary supplies; 4) continued handwashing training and support involving the food service industry, managers, and coworkers; and 5) involvement of health departments and inspectors in providing managers and food workers with advice and consultation on improvement of handwashing practice.

  9. Nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Wesley dos Santos Alves

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Characterize the nutritional status, lifestyle, socioeconomic profile and food consumption of commercial workers customers of a social restaurant in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil. Methods: The convenience sample consisted of 156 individuals, 71 (45.5% men and 85 (54.5% women, aged between 19 and 59 years. The variables analyzed were: weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference, history of chronic diseases, alcoholism, smoking and physical activity, family income, education and food intake of a subsample. Theadequacy of consumption was assessed by observing the recommendations of the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI and nutritional requirements of the Workers’ Food Program.Results: We observed high prevalence of overweight 49 (31.4% and obesity 18 (11.5%, high rate of physical inactivity 109 (69.9%. Alcohol is often consumed weekly by 27(17.4%. 111 (71.2% of individuals studied until high school; and 104 (66.7% belonged to socioeconomic class C. 136 (87,2% showed no personal history of chronic diseases, or practice of smoking. Dietary intake adequacy revealed adequacy for macronutrients, fiber, saturated fats and micronutrients, with excessive sodium intake. Conclusion: Nutritional status was characterized as high prevalence of overweight and obesity, associated with a high abdominal adiposity, sedentary lifestyle, alcohol consumption and socioeconomicprofile predominantly C1 and C2. Although the present study shows an adequate intake of micronutrients and macronutrients, there are excessive caloric intake, based on profile of physical inactivity and overweight.

  10. DRBE comet trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arendt, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr −1 , respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  11. DRBE comet trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arendt, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.G.Arendt@nasa.gov [CREST/UMBC, Code 665, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Re-examination of the Cosmic Background Explorer Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment (DIRBE) data reveals the thermal emission of several comet dust trails. The dust trails of 1P/Halley, 169P/NEAT, and 3200 Phaethon have not been previously reported. The known trails of 2P/Encke and 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3 are also seen. The dust trails have 12 and 25 μm surface brightnesses of <0.1 and <0.15 MJy sr{sup −1}, respectively, which is <1% of the zodiacal light intensity. The trails are very difficult to see in any single daily image of the sky, but are evident as rapidly moving linear features in movies of the DIRBE data. Some trails are clearest when crossing through the orbital plane of the parent comet, but others are best seen at high ecliptic latitudes as the Earth passes over or under the dust trail. All these comets have known associations with meteor showers. This re-examination also reveals 1 additional comet and 13 additional asteroids that had not previously been recognized in the DIRBE data.

  12. Wellbeing at work among kitchen workers during organic food conversion in Danish public kitchens: a longitudinal survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Nina N; Løje, Hanne; Tetens, Inge; Wu, Jason H Y; Neal, Bruce; Lassen, Anne D

    2016-04-01

    In 2011, the Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries launched the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 intending to double the organic agricultural area in Denmark. This study aims to measure experienced physical and psychological wellbeing at work along with beliefs and attitudes among kitchen workers before and after participating in educational training programmes in organic food conversion. This longitudinal study applied an online self-administered questionnaire among kitchen workers before and after the implementation of an organic food conversion programme with 1-year follow-up. The study targeted all staff members in the participating public kitchens taking part in the organic food conversion process funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Of the 448 eligible kitchen workers, 235 completed the questionnaire at baseline (52%) and 149 at follow-up (63% of those surveyed at baseline). No substantive differences between baseline and follow-up measurements of organic food conversion were detected on physical or psychological wellbeing at work. Kitchen workers reported a significant improvement in the perceived food quality, motivation to work and application of nutritional guidelines. Reported organic food percentages for the kitchens also increased significantly (Pfood products to producing more food from base was indicated. Within 1 year, a significant increase in motivation to work among kitchen staff was observed with no substantive changes in physical or psychological wellbeing at work identified. The results support the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 and initiatives of similar kind. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of the seasonal variation in the exchanges of food labelled with 198Au from a worker bee to a queen (Apis mellifica ligustica S.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1975-01-01

    Food exchanges from a worker giver to a queen receiver were quantified throughout the year. 4 days old workers distribute great amounts of food to queens, about 74% in average, but variations are low. On the other hand workers of unknown age distribute amounts that are less high and varying in terms of the season. A parallelism exists between percentage variations of food shared by workers of unknown age and the seasonal cycle of the 9-oxodec-2-enoic acid content of queens [fr

  14. Taking Care of our Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    our Trails Obeying Environmental Laws Protecting Wildlife Environmental Sustainability Sustainability Protection » Trails Taking Care of our Trails Continued access and use of Los Alamos National Laboratory trails is contingent upon being good stewards of these federal lands. June 7, 2017 Hikers walk along the

  15. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 4. Infective doses and pathogen carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Bartleson, Charles A; Michaels, Barry S

    2008-11-01

    In this article, the fourth in a series reviewing the role of food workers in foodborne outbreaks, background information on the presence of enteric pathogens in the community, the numbers of organisms required to initiate an infection, and the length of carriage are presented. Although workers have been implicated in outbreaks, they were not always aware of their infections, either because they were in the prodromic phase before symptoms began or because they were asymptomatic carriers. Pathogens of fecal, nose or throat, and skin origin are most likely to be transmitted by the hands, highlighting the need for effective hand hygiene and other barriers to pathogen contamination, such as no bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food. The pathogens most likely to be transmitted by food workers are norovirus, hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, Shigella, and Staphylococcus aureus. However, other pathogens have been implicated in worker-associated outbreaks or have the potential to be implicated. In this study, the likelihood of pathogen involvement in foodborne outbreaks where infected workers have been implicated was examined, based on infectious dose, carriage rate in the community, duration of illness, and length of pathogen excretion. Infectious dose estimates are based on volunteer studies (mostly early experiments) or data from outbreaks. Although there is considerable uncertainty associated with these data, some pathogens appear to be able to infect at doses as low as 1 to 100 units, including viruses, parasites, and some bacteria. Lengthy postsymptomatic shedding periods and excretion by asymptomatic individuals of many enteric pathogens is an important issue for the hygienic management of food workers.

  16. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  17. Minnesota Water Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile describes water trails in the State of Minnesota as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department of Natural Resources. The...

  18. State Park Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set is a collection of ArcView shapefiles (by park) of trails within statutory boundaries of individual MN State Parks, State Recreation Areas and State...

  19. Airbag Trails-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This segment of the first color image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's airbag trails (upper left). These depressions in the soil were made when the airbags were deflated and retracted after landing.

  20. Food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the abattoir workers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Saleh, Ahmadu; Baraya, Yusha'u Shu'aibu; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Foodborne diseases are common in the developing countries due to the predominant poor food handling and sanitation practices, particularly as a result of inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory structures, and inadequate funding as well as a lack of appropriate education for food-handlers. The most frequently involved foods in disease outbreaks are of animal origin. However, in spite of the adequate legislation and laws governing the abattoir operation in Malaysia, compliance with food safety requirements during meat processing and waste disposal is inadequate. Therefore, the present study was designed to assess the food safety knowledge, attitude, and practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers in Terengganu, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using simple random sampling technique in the six districts of Terengganu: two districts were used for the pilot study and the remaining four were used for the main study. One hundred sixty-five abattoir workers from the selected districts were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. The mean and standard deviation of knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of the workers were 6.02 and 1.954, 45.16 and 4.496, and 18.03 and 3.186, respectively. The majority of the workers (38.8%) had a low level of knowledge and 91.7% had a positive attitude, while 77.7% had a good practice of compliance. Sex had a significant association with the level of knowledge (P<0.001) and practice (P=0.044) among the workers. The females had a higher level of knowledge than the males, while the males had a better practice of compliance than females. Similarly, knowledge also had a significant (P=0.009) association with the level of practice toward compliance with abattoir laws among the workers. The abattoir workers had a positive attitude and good practice, but a low level of knowledge toward compliance with the abattoir laws. Therefore, public awareness, workshops, and seminars relevant to the abattoir

  1. Certification trails for data structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Certification trails are a recently introduced and promising approach to fault detection and fault tolerance. The applicability of the certification trail technique is significantly generalized. Previously, certification trails had to be customized to each algorithm application; trails appropriate to wide classes of algorithms were developed. These certification trails are based on common data-structure operations such as those carried out using these sets of operations such as those carried out using balanced binary trees and heaps. Any algorithms using these sets of operations can therefore employ the certification trail method to achieve software fault tolerance. To exemplify the scope of the generalization of the certification trail technique provided, constructions of trails for abstract data types such as priority queues and union-find structures are given. These trails are applicable to any data-structure implementation of the abstract data type. It is also shown that these ideals lead naturally to monitors for data-structure operations.

  2. Chemical releases of social behavior, II. source and specificity of the odor trail substances in four attine genera. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray S. Blum; John C. Moser; A.D. Cordero

    1964-01-01

    The higher members of the tribe Attini characteristically lay persistent and extensive odor trails especially in many neotropical areas. Thus, in Acromyrmex and Atta, long columns of foraging workers are frequently present on the odor trails but in the less specialized attine genera, workers may forage either in files or singly. Weber (1958...

  3. The confining trailing string

    CERN Document Server

    Kiritsis, E; Nitti, F

    2014-01-01

    We extend the holographic trailing string picture of a heavy quark to the case of a bulk geometry dual to a confining gauge theory. We compute the classical trailing confining string solution for a static as well as a uniformly moving quark. The trailing string is infinitely extended and approaches a confining horizon, situated at a critical value of the radial coordinate, along one of the space-time directions, breaking boundary rotational invariance. We compute the equations for the fluctuations around the classical solutions, which are used to obtain boundary force correlators controlling the Langevin dynamics of the quark. The imaginary part of the correlators has a non-trivial low-frequency limit, which gives rise to a viscous friction coefficient induced by the confining vacuum. The vacuum correlators are used to define finite-temperature dressed Langevin correlators with an appropriate high-frequency behavior.

  4. Effects of Social Determinants on Chinese Immigrant Food Service Workers' Work Performance and Injuries: Mental Health as a Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun; Thompson, Elaine Adams

    2015-07-01

    The effects of social discrimination, job concerns, and social support on worker mental health and the influence of mental health on occupational health outcomes have been documented intermittently. We propose an integrated, theory-driven model to distinguish the impact of social determinants on work performance and injuries and the mediating effects of mental health problems. The US Chinese immigrant food service workers (N = 194) completed a multimeasure interview; we tested the integrated model using structural equation modeling. Mental health problems, which were associated with decreased work performance and increased injuries, also mediated relationships between job/employment concerns and both work performance and injuries but did not mediate the influences of discrimination and social support. This research reveals mechanisms by which social determinants influence immigrant worker health, pointing to complementary strategies for reducing occupational health disparities.

  5. Association between the use of biomass fuels on respiratory health of workers in food catering enterprises in Nairobi Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keraka, Margaret; Ochieng, Carolyne; Engelbrecht, Jacobus; Hongoro, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Indoor air pollution from biomass fuel use has been found to be responsible for more than 1.6 million annual deaths and 2.7% of the global burden of disease. This makes it the second biggest environmental contributor to ill health, behind unsafe water and sanitation. The main objective of this study was to investigate if there was any association between use of bio-fuels in food catering enterprises and respiratory health of the workers. A cross-sectional design was employed, and data collected using Qualitative and quantitative techniques. The study found significantly higher prevalence of respiratory health outcomes among respondents in enterprises using biomass fuels compared to those using processed fuels. Biomass fuels are thus a major public health threat to workers in this sub-sector, and urgent intervention is required. The study recommends a switch from biomass fuels to processed fuels to protect the health of the workers.

  6. The dynamics of foraging trails in the tropical arboreal ant Cephalotes goniodontus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah M Gordon

    Full Text Available The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4-8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony's trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest.

  7. The dynamics of foraging trails in the tropical arboreal ant Cephalotes goniodontus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Deborah M

    2012-01-01

    The foraging behavior of the arboreal turtle ant, Cephalotes goniodontus, was studied in the tropical dry forest of western Mexico. The ants collected mostly plant-derived food, including nectar and fluids collected from the edges of wounds on leaves, as well as caterpillar frass and lichen. Foraging trails are on small pieces of ephemeral vegetation, and persist in exactly the same place for 4-8 days, indicating that food sources may be used until they are depleted. The species is polydomous, occupying many nests which are abandoned cavities or ends of broken branches in dead wood. Foraging trails extend from trees with nests to trees with food sources. Observations of marked individuals show that each trail is travelled by a distinct group of foragers. This makes the entire foraging circuit more resilient if a path becomes impassable, since foraging in one trail can continue while a different group of ants forms a new trail. The colony's trails move around the forest from month to month; from one year to the next, only one colony out of five was found in the same location. There is continual searching in the vicinity of trails: ants recruited to bait within 3 bifurcations of a main foraging trail within 4 hours. When bait was offered on one trail, to which ants recruited, foraging activity increased on a different trail, with no bait, connected to the same nest. This suggests that the allocation of foragers to different trails is regulated by interactions at the nest.

  8. Studying the influence of vibration exposures on digestives system of workers in a food processing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today’s, defective and faulty equipments lose a large part of them energy as noise and vibration which beside their financial costs can be hazardous to the health of people. Vibration as a physical agent can cause an adverse health effect on human to nervous system. These effects, based on body region can be as specific or general systems. Digestion system has a natural vibration of 3-8Hz frequency. When the digestive system is exposed by such vibration, it can make impairment on that system. This study aimed to study vibration effect on digestion irregularities. . Material and Method: This was a retrospective case-control study conducted in a food industry. The number of 103 workers digestive problem and 431 healthy workers were selected as population study. Exposure to the vibration in the different parts were measured. People with more than 100 dB was considered exposed group. Then, after determining the number of exposed and non exposed groups, data were analyzed using statistical methodologies. .Result: The acceleration level of vibration was 109.8 dB in the packing section, which was less than standard limit (118.8 dB. Study population had a managed of 24-57 years old with 4-15 years of job tenure. In 59.2% of case comparing to 22.7% of control group were exposed to the vibration. The odds ratio (OR of prevalence rate of digestive problem among exposed group was 6.3 times more than non exposed group people, in risk of gastrointestinal complications. .Conclusion: Beside of the other risk factors of digestive problem, vibration can be also an effective cause of adverse health problem: Even by lower level of digestive problem can be seen in the exposed people. So, we suggest in the workplace with vibration risk factor, a digestive health exam be take general medical beside periodic examination. Moreover, it is recommended that researches related to the vibration is widely developed and the vibration standard limits is revised

  9. Allegheny County Blazed Trails Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Shows the location of blazed trails in all Allegheny County parks. This is the same data used in the Allegheny County Parks Trails Mobile App, available for Apple...

  10. [Evaluation of Brazilian public policies to promote food security and fight hunger, 1995-2002. 2 - the Workers' Nutrition Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco Santos, Leonor Maria; Nazaré Araújo, Maria da Purificação; Martins, Maísa Cruz; Veloso, Iracema Santos; Assunção, Marilena Pacheco; Chaves dos Santos, Sandra Maria

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated the Workers' Nutrition Program in Brazil from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved documental research and a case study in 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, resulting in 2,389 household interviews. In relation to structure, we analyzed the program's normative evolution until 2002. As for nutritional recommendations, the program shifted from insufficient calorie supply in the 1980s to a positive association between overweight and employment in companies adopting the Workers' Nutrition Program. In Bahia, overall program coverage was insufficient among the 5,120 adults 20 years or older who were interviewed. A significant difference was observed in access to food benefits among workers in the interior of the State (6.1%) as compared to the State capital, Salvador (26.1%). However, targeting was adequate: all workers benefiting from the program in the interior and 92.4% of those in Salvador earned less than five times the minimum wage (approximately US dollars 950/month). It is necessary to improve the program's coverage in the target population in order to raise workers' awareness about their rights and the actions developed by the program.

  11. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs. The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = −0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = −0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125). SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs. PMID:28658117

  12. Predictors of upper trapezius pain with myofascial trigger points in food service workers: The STROBE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ui-Jae; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Jeon, Hye-Seon; Weon, Jong-Hyuck; Ha, Sung-Min

    2017-06-01

    Shoulder pain occurs commonly in food service workers (FSWs) who repetitively perform motions of the upper limbs. Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) on the upper trapezius (UT) are among the most common musculoskeletal shoulder pain syndromes. This study determined the psychological, posture, mobility, and strength factors associated with pain severity in FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.In this cross-sectional study, we measured 17 variables in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs: a visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, age, sex, Borg rating of perceived exertion (BRPE) scale, beck depression inventory, forward head posture angle, rounded shoulder angle (RSA), shoulder slope angle, scapular downward rotation ratio, cervical lateral-bending side difference angle, cervical rotation side difference angle, glenohumeral internal rotation angle, shoulder horizontal adduction angle, serratus anterior (SA) strength, lower trapezius (LT) strength, bicep strength, and glenohumeral external rotator strength, in 163 FSWs with UT pain due to MTrPs.The model for factors influencing UT pain with MTrPs included SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA as predictor variables that accounted for 68.7% of the variance in VAS (P < .001) in multiple regression models with a stepwise selection procedure. The following were independent variables influencing the VAS in the order of standardized coefficients: SA strength (β = -0.380), age (β = 0.287), BRPE (β = 0.239), LT strength (β = -0.195), and RSA (β = 0.125).SA strength, age, BRPE, LT strength, and RSA variables should be considered when evaluating and intervening in UT pain with MTrPs in FSWs.

  13. Thigmotaxis Mediates Trail Odour Disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Lloyd D; Corn, Joshua E; Sik Roh, Hyun; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Manning, Lee-Anne M; Harper, Aimee R; Suckling, David M

    2017-05-10

    Disruption of foraging using oversupply of ant trail pheromones is a novel pest management application under investigation. It presents an opportunity to investigate the interaction of sensory modalities by removal of one of the modes. Superficially similar to sex pheromone-based mating disruption in moths, ant trail pheromone disruption lacks an equivalent mechanistic understanding of how the ants respond to an oversupply of their trail pheromone. Since significant compromise of one sensory modality essential for trail following (chemotaxis) has been demonstrated, we hypothesised that other sensory modalities such as thigmotaxis could act to reduce the impact on olfactory disruption of foraging behaviour. To test this, we provided a physical stimulus of thread to aid trailing by Argentine ants otherwise under disruptive pheromone concentrations. Trail following success was higher using a physical cue. While trail integrity reduced under continuous over-supply of trail pheromone delivered directly on the thread, provision of a physical cue in the form of thread slightly improved trail following and mediated trail disruption from high concentrations upwind. Our results indicate that ants are able to use physical structures to reduce but not eliminate the effects of trail pheromone disruption.

  14. Tracking Online Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Man; Edgar-Nevill, Denis; Wang, Yongquan; Xu, Rongsheng

    Traceability is a key to the investigation of the internet criminal and a cornerstone of internet research. It is impossible to prevent all internet misuse but may be possible to identify and trace the users, and then take appropriate action. This paper presents the value of traceability within the email/-newsposting utilities, the technologies being using to hide identities, the difficulties in locating the traceable data and the challenges in tracking online trails.

  15. BCDC Bay Trail Alignment 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Bay Trail provides easily accessible recreational opportunities for outdoor enthusiasts, including hikers, joggers, bicyclists and skaters. It also offers a...

  16. Occupationally related contact dermatitis in North American food service workers referred for patch testing, 1994 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshaw, Erin M; Kwon, Gina P; Mathias, C G Toby; Maibach, Howard I; Fowler, Joseph F; Belsito, Donald V; Sasseville, Denis; Zug, Kathryn A; Taylor, James S; Fransway, Anthony F; Deleo, Vincent A; Marks, James G; Pratt, Melanie D; Storrs, Frances J; Zirwas, Matthew J; Dekoven, Joel G

    2013-01-01

    Contact dermatoses are common in food service workers (FSWs). This study aims to (1) determine the prevalence of occupationally related contact dermatitis among FSWs patch tested by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and (2) characterize responsible allergens and irritants as well as sources. Cross-sectional analysis of patients patch tested by the NACDG, 1994 to 2010, was conducted. Of 35,872 patients patch tested, 1237 (3.4%) were FSWs. Occupationally related skin disease was significantly more common in FSWs when compared with employed non-FSWs. Food service workers were significantly more likely to have hand (P contact dermatitis in FSWs were 30.6% and 54.7%, respectively. Although the final diagnosis of irritant contact dermatitis was statistically higher in FSWs as compared with non-FSWs, allergic contact dermatitis was lower in FSWs as compared with non-FSWs. The most frequent currently relevant and occupationally related allergens were thiuram mix (32.5%) and carba mix (28.9%). Gloves were the most common source of responsible allergens. The NACDG standard tray missed at least 1 occupationally related allergen in 38 patients (4.3%). Among FSWs patch tested by the NACDG between 1994 and 2010, the most common allergens were thiuram mix and carba mix. Gloves were the most common source of responsible allergens.

  17. Farm Workers in the '90s: Where Do We Stand? Food First Action Alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Shea

    During the 1980s, the rise of independent farm labor contractors and Republican labor policies led to a deterioration in the economic well-being of farmworkers and their families. Delays in the implementation of new safeguards under the Worker Protection Standards Act have resulted in continuing exposure to pesticides, causing such exposure to…

  18. Roles for Schools and School Social Workers in Improving Child Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Frongillo, Edward A.; Fishbein, Eliza M.; Burke, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is associated with a range of child developmental, behavioral, and emotional challenges, all of which can inhibit a child's school success. Schools offer a number of formal and informal services aimed at reducing food insecurity, but the problems associated with identifying children in need, addressing issues of stigma, and…

  19. Prevalence and determinants of non-standard motorcycle safety helmets amongst food delivery workers in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulanthayan, S; See, Lai Git; Kaviyarasu, Y; Nor Afiah, M Z

    2012-05-01

    Almost half of the global traffic crashes involve vulnerable groups such as pedestrian, cyclists and two-wheeler users. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors that influence standard of the safety helmets used amongst food delivery workers by presence of Standard and Industrial Research Institute of Malaysia (SIRIM) certification label. A cross sectional study was conducted amongst 150 food delivery workers from fast food outlets in the vicinity of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. During observation, safety helmets were classified as standard safety helmet in the presence of SIRIM label and non-standard in the absence of the label. They were approached for questionnaire participation once consent was obtained and were requested to exchange their safety helmet voluntarily with a new one after the interview. Data analysis was carried out using SPSS. Chi square and logistic regression analysis was applied to determine the significance and odds ratio of the variables studied, respectively (penetration test, age, education level, knowledge, crash history, types of safety helmet, marital status and years of riding experience) against the presence of SIRIM label. The response rate for this study was 85.2%. The prevalence of non-standard helmets use amongst fast food delivery workers was 55.3%. Safety helmets that failed the penetration test had higher odds of being non-standard helmets compared with safety helmets passing the test. Types of safety helmet indicated half-shell safety helmets had higher odds to be non-standard safety helmets compared to full-shell safety helmets. Riders with more years of riding experience were in high odds of wearing non-standard safety helmets compared to riders with less riding experience. Non-standard (non-SIRIM approved) helmets were more likely to be half-shell helmets, were more likely to fail the standards penetration test, and were more likely to be worn by older, more experienced riders. The implications of these

  20. Association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression in Japanese company workers: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Eisho; Nishi, Daisuke; Matsuoka, Yutaka J

    2016-09-15

    Long-chain n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3/n-6 PUFA) play important roles in emotional regulation. We previously reported an association between fish consumption, which is major source of LC n-3 PUFA, and resilience to depression, where resilience is the ability to cope with stress in the face of adversity. Although the traditional Japanese dietary pattern of high fish consumption is associated with low depressive symptoms, the current Japanese diet pattern has become westernized. Westernized diets contain excessive amounts of LC n-6 PUFA due to high intake of vegetable oils commonly used in fried food and are associated with risk of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the association between frequency of fried food consumption and resilience to depression. Participants were 715 Japanese company workers. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms, and the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14) was used to measure resilience. Frequency of fish and fried food consumption was assessed using a self-report questionnaire based on the Food Frequency Questionnaire. Regression analyses using Preacher and Hayes' bootstrap script were used to adjust for demographic factors, frequency of physical exercise, and fish consumption. Significant associations were identified between frequency of fried food consumption and total CES-D score (path c, B = 0.72; P frequency of fried food consumption and total RS-14 score (path a, B = -1.73, P food consumption and total CES-D score was not significant when we controlled for RS-14 score. Bootstrapping results showed that there was a significant positive indirect association between frequency of fried food and CESD score through RS-14 (95 % bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = 0.34 to 0.92). Frequency of fried food consumption was associated with lower resilience to depression. Further nutritional interventional studies to

  1. The interplay between scent trails and group-mass recruitment systems in ants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Planque, R.; van den Berg, G.J.B.; Franks, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage

  2. [Burnout and the quality of life of workers in food industry--a pilot study in Serbia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arandjelović, Mirjana; Ilić, Ivana; Jović, Sladjana

    2010-09-01

    Burnout syndrome as a consequence of a long stress at workplace can seriously disturb health and quality of life in exposed workers. It is necessary to have adequate burnout prevention and its detection. Worldwide much attention is paid to protect burnout and methods for its determination constantly improve. In Serbia there has not been a study of that kind yet. The aim of the study was to investigate burnout syndrome impact on the quality of life of workers in food industry in Nis, and to call attention of researchers in Serbia on this phenomenon, as well as to test probability of applying the original, standardized questionnaires (CBI, ComQolA5) to working population in Serbia. This study was performed in Nis within a period from 2008 to 2009 in the Institute for Workers Health Protection. A total of 489 workers were included in this study by the use of the standard questionnaire for burnout (CBI) and quality of life (ComQoL-A5). Scale confidence for measuring burnout and quality of life was determined by Cronbach alpha coefficient. ANOVA analysis was used for rating influence of burnout on the quality of life. The values of Cronbach alpha coefficient showed a high confidence of the scale for measurement personal burnout (0.87), work-related burnout (0.86) and subjective quality of life (0.83). We detected increased scores as a result of personal burnout (60.0), as well as of work-related burnout (67.9). The workers suggested relationship with the family and friends as a very important part for their quality of life (10.8), health (9.8) and safety (8.0). Productivity (6.8), emotional well-being (6.6) and material property (4.5) had smaller influence on their quality of life. An increase in score of work-related burnout by 1 was statistically significantly related to decreasing inter scores for subjective quality of life in health (B = -0.097), relationship with family and friends (B = -0.048), safety (B = -0.061) and place in community (B = -0.105). A

  3. Norovirus GII.17 Outbreak Linked to an Infected Post-Symptomatic Food Worker in a French Military Unit Located in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Marc-Antoine; Corcostégui, Simon-Pierre; De Broucker, Charles-Arnaud; Cabre, Olivier; Watier-Grillot, Stéphanie; Perelle, Sylvie; Ambert-Balay, Katia; Pommier de Santi, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    In February 2016, an outbreak of gastroenteritis occurred in a French military unit located in Poitiers, France. Attack rate was of 34% (103/300). A case-control study identified association between illness and cake consumption. Stool samples were tested positive for Norovirus GII.17 for one patient and one post-symptomatic food worker (FW). The FW presented vomiting one day before cake preparation. The NoV strain was probably spread through food worker hand contact. Prevention of Norovirus foodborne outbreaks implies new guidelines for FWs management in France and Europe.

  4. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    of ‘policy trail’, arguing that it can overcome ‘methodological nationalism’ and link structure and agency in research on the ‘European educational space’. The ‘trail’ metaphor, she suggests, captures the intentionality and the erratic character of policy. The trail connects sites and brings about change......, but – although policy may be intended to be linear, with specific outcomes – policy often has to bend, and sometimes meets insurmountable obstacles. This symposium outlines and develops the methodology, but also reports on research undertaken within a major FP7 project (LLLIght’in’Europe, 2012-15) which made use......In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global...

  5. The interplay between scent trails and group-mass recruitment systems in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planqué, Robert; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; Franks, Nigel R

    2013-10-01

    Large ant colonies invariably use effective scent trails to guide copious ant numbers to food sources. The success of mass recruitment hinges on the involvement of many colony members to lay powerful trails. However, many ant colonies start off as single queens. How do these same colonies forage efficiently when small, thereby overcoming the hurdles to grow large? In this paper, we study the case of combined group and mass recruitment displayed by some ant species. Using mathematical models, we explore to what extent early group recruitment may aid deployment of scent trails, making such trails available at much smaller colony sizes. We show that a competition between group and mass recruitment may cause oscillatory behaviour mediated by scent trails. This results in a further reduction of colony size to establish trails successfully.

  6. Consumers and Workers Opinions of A Proposed Cash Food System: NAS Alameda

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-08-01

    restaurants and drive-ins, vending machines , and other on-base facilities were, in that order, the more likely non-dining hall sources for meals...Weekend Food Variety of Short Order Food Speed of Service or lines Overall Mean R C-M C-S ban Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank 4.24 14 3.53 14 3.57 14...vendi’ng machines 0 0 0 0 0 0 h. From mobile snack or lunch trucks 0 0 0 0 0 0 ’· Other (write it below and indicate how often) 0 0 0 0 0 0 57

  7. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Long Trail and Appalachian Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  8. NAFTA refugees as protagonists: mexican migrant workers take on the fast food giants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Barndt

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Where does our food come from? Whose hands have planted, cultivated, picked, packed, processed, transported, scanned, sold, sliced, and cooked it? What production practices have transformed it from seed to fruit, from fresh to processed form? Who decides what is grown and how? What are the effects of those decisions on our health and the health of the planet?

  9. Reduction of airfoil trailing edge noise by trailing edge blowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhard, T; Carolus, T; Erbslöh, S

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise and its reduction by trailing edge blowing. A Somers S834 airfoil section which originally was designed for small wind turbines is investigated. To mimic realistic Reynolds numbers the boundary layer is tripped on pressure and suction side. The chordwise position of the blowing slot is varied. The acoustic sources, i.e. the unsteady flow quantities in the turbulent boundary layer in the vicinity of the trailing edge, are quantified for the airfoil without and with trailing edge blowing by means of a large eddy simulation and complementary measurements. Eventually the far field airfoil noise is measured by a two-microphone filtering and correlation and a 40 microphone array technique. Both, LES-prediction and measurements showed that a suitable blowing jet on the airfoil suction side is able to reduce significantly the turbulence intensity and the induced surface pressure fluctuations in the trailing edge region. As a consequence, trailing edge noise associated with a spectral hump around 500 Hz could be reduced by 3 dB. For that a jet velocity of 50% of the free field velocity was sufficient. The most favourable slot position was at 90% chord length

  10. Tarague Interpretive Trail Mitigation Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Welch, David

    2001-01-01

    ...), International Archaeological Research Institute, Inc. (lARfI) has prepared a mitigation plan for development of an interpretive trail at Tarague Beach, located on the north coast of the island of Guam (Fig. 1...

  11. On the Appetite Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grażyna Ewa Karpińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article recounts actions oriented at experiencing and reliving culinary traditions, undertaken by the Local Action Group of the “Mroga” Society for the Local Community Development. The Society operates in five communes: Koluszki, Brzeziny, Dmosin, Jeżów and Rogów, located in the north-eastern part of the current Łódź voivodeship, east of the city of Łódź. In the past, this area, which bordered regions whose characteristic features indicated their distinct regional identities (the Łęczyca Land and the Łowicz Principality from the north, the Rawa Land from the east, the Opoczno and Piotrków Lands from the south, and Łódź from the west, was devoid of definite features typical to folk culture. Currently it is still an area which, due to the absence of a consistent and enduring cultural foundation to refer to, cannot be described in the categories of an ethnographic or geographic region. By following the tourist trail laid by the Society, known as the “Appetite Trail”, I reconstruct the vision of what the community resident in the five communes covered by the activity of the “Mroga” Local Action Group defines as the region’s culinary tradition, and I deconstruct the Group’s actions that reduce the tradition to the level of a tourist attraction.

  12. Trail Pheromone Disruption of Argentine Ant Trail Formation and Foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Stringer, L.D.; Snook, K.; Banko, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Trail pheromone disruption of invasive ants is a novel tactic that builds on the development of pheromone-based pest management in other insects. Argentine ant trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal, was formulated as a micro-encapsulated sprayable particle and applied against Argentine ant populations in 400 m2 field plots in Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park. A widely dispersed point source strategy for trail pheromone disruption was used. Traffic rates of ants in bioassays of treated filter paper, protected from rainfall and sunlight, indicated the presence of behaviorally significant quantities of pheromone being released from the formulation for up to 59 days. The proportion of plots, under trade wind conditions (2-3 m s-1), with visible trails was reduced for up to 14 days following treatment, and the number of foraging ants at randomly placed tuna-bait cards was similarly reduced. The success of these trail pheromone disruption trials in a natural ecosystem highlights the potential of this method for control of invasive ant species in this and other environments. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.

  13. Association between thyroid hormones and TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Stella; Bossi, Fleur; Toffoli, Barbara; Giudici, Fabiola; Bramante, Alessandra; Furlanis, Giulia; Stenner, Elisabetta; Secchiero, Paola; Zauli, Giorgio; Carretta, Renzo; Fabris, Bruno

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that a circulating protein called TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) might have a role in the regulation of body weight and metabolism. Interestingly, thyroid hormones seem to increase TRAIL tissue expression. This study aimed at evaluating whether overt thyroid disorders affected circulating TRAIL levels. TRAIL circulating levels were measured in euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid patients before and after thyroid function normalization. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation between thyroid hormones and TRAIL. Then, the stimulatory effect of both triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) on TRAIL was evaluated in vitro on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Circulating levels of TRAIL significantly increased in hyperthyroid and decreased in hypothyroid patients as compared to controls. Once thyroid function was restored, TRAIL levels normalized. There was an independent association between TRAIL and both fT3 and fT4. Consistent with these findings, T3 and T4 stimulated TRAIL release in vitro. Here we show that thyroid hormones are associated with TRAIL expression in vivo and stimulate TRAIL expression in vitro. Given the overlap between the metabolic effects of thyroid hormones and TRAIL, this work sheds light on the possibility that TRAIL might be one of the molecules mediating thyroid hormones peripheral effects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A cross-sectional study of lung function and respiratory symptoms among chemical workers producing diacetyl for food flavourings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooy, F.G.; Smit, L.A.; Houba, R.; Zaat, V.A.; Rooijackers, J.M.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Four diacetyl workers were found to have bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Exposures, respiratory symptoms, lung function and exposure-response relationships were investigated. METHODS: 175 workers from a plant producing diacetyl between 1960 and 2003 were investigated. Exposure data

  15. Currency as a potential environmental vehicle for transmitting parasites among food-related workers in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Azza; Farouk, Hanan; Hassanein, Faika; Abdul-Ghani, Rashad

    2011-09-01

    Transmission of parasites may occur indirectly via inanimate objects in the surrounding environment. One of the objects most handled and exchanged by people are currency coins and banknotes, which could be one of the most potential vehicles to transmit parasites, even between countries. However, study of the potential contamination of currency in circulation with intestinal parasites has not been given the interest it deserves and the present study is the first pilot study in Alexandria, Egypt. It was revealed that 60.2% of 103 banknotes and 56.6% of 99 coins obtained from food-related workers had been contaminated with one or more parasitic species. Protozoa were the predominant parasites, with microsporidia and Cryptosporidium spp. being the most prevalent. There was no statistically significant difference between currency types regarding parasitological contamination, but there was a significant (Pbanknotes was with the lower denominations being more contaminated. Copyright © 2011 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recreational Trails in the State of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This file represents the locations of trails in Iowa. The original trail file was created by the Iowa Department of Transportation (IDOT), and included developed...

  17. Working in the UK: Polish migrant worker routes into employment in the north east and north west construction and food processing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a TUC-funded project that sought to identify the main routes into employment for Polish migrant workers in the North East and North West construction and food processing sectors. Its findings show that the two sectors offer real opportunities and challenges for trade unions to organise those who most need help. Indeed many unions in the sectors have already taken up the challenge and have started to see real successes in organising groups traditionally see...

  18. 77 FR 45721 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... maintain a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of... With a Consolidated Audit Trail 3. Large Trader Reporting System Rule B. Summary of Proposed Rule 613 C... Authority (``FINRA'') and some of the exchanges currently maintain their own separate audit trail systems...

  19. 75 FR 32555 - Consolidated Audit Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... Part II Securities and Exchange Commission 17 CFR Part 242 Consolidated Audit Trail; Proposed Rule... 3235-AK51 Consolidated Audit Trail AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule... a consolidated order tracking system, or consolidated audit trail, with respect to the trading of...

  20. Global variation of meteor trail plasma turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. P. Dyrud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present the first global simulations on the occurrence of meteor trail plasma irregularities. These results seek to answer the following questions: when a meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere, will the resulting trail become plasma turbulent? What are the factors influencing the development of turbulence? and how do these trails vary on a global scale? Understanding meteor trail plasma turbulence is important because turbulent meteor trails are visible as non-specular trails to coherent radars. Turbulence also influences the evolution of specular radar meteor trails; this fact is important for the inference of mesospheric temperatures from the trail diffusion rates, and their usage for meteor burst communication. We provide evidence of the significant effect that neutral atmospheric winds and ionospheric plasma density have on the variability of meteor trail evolution and on the observation of non-specular meteor trails. We demonstrate that trails are far less likely to become and remain turbulent in daylight, explaining several observational trends for non-specular and specular meteor trails.

  1. Trails and physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Heather A; Troped, Philip J; Klenosky, David B; Doehring, Angela M

    2011-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures. A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008. 52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.

  2. Carving a New Assessment Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriston, Terry

    2007-01-01

    TRAILS (Tool for Real-Time Assessment of Information Literacy Skills), is a free online test of student information-handling skills. It was formulated by the Institute for Library and Information Literacy Education and Kent State University Libraries. Based on the Ohio Academic Content Standards and the philosophy of Information Power, it assesses…

  3. A Mathematics and Science Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathy Horak; Fuentes, Sarah Quebec

    2012-01-01

    In an attempt to engage primary-school students in a hands-on, real-world problem-solving context, a large urban district, a mathematics and science institute housed in a college of education, and a corporate sponsor in the southwest United States, joined forces to create a mathematics and science trail for fourth- and fifth-grade students. A…

  4. Tissue distribution of the death ligand TRAIL and its receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierings, DC; de Vries, EG; Vellenga, E; van den Heuvel, FA; Koornstra, JJ; Wesseling, J; Hollema, H; de Jong, S

    Recombinant human (rh) TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) harbors potential as an anticancer agent. RhTRAIL induces apoptosis via the TRAIL receptors TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 in tumors and is non-toxic to nonhuman primates. Because limited data are available about TRAIL receptor

  5. Existence of spanning and dominating trails and circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Let T be a trail of a graph G. T is a spanning trail (S-trail) if T contains all vertices of G. T is a dominating trail (D-trail) if every edge of G is incident with at least one vertex of T. A circuit is a nontrivial closed trail. Sufficient conditions involving lower bounds on the degree-sum of

  6. Correlates of Trail Use for Recreation and Transportation on 5 Massachusetts Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orstad, Stephanie L; McDonough, Meghan H; Klenosky, David B; Mattson, Marifran; Troped, Philip J

    2016-08-01

    Promoting use of community trails is a recommended strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity. Correlates of walking and cycling for recreation or transportation differ, though few studies have compared correlates of trail-based physical activity for recreation and transportation purposes. This study examined associations of demographic, social, and perceived built environmental factors with trail use for recreation and transportation and whether associations were moderated by age, gender, and prior trail use. Adults (N = 1195) using 1 of 5 trails in Massachusetts responded to an intercept survey. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine associations with trail use. Respondents' mean age was 44.9 years (standard deviation = 12.5), 55.3% were female, and 82.0% were white. Age (longer-term users only), trail use with others, travel time to the trail, and trail design were significantly associated with use for recreation (P trail safety (longer-term users only), travel time to the trail, trail design (younger users only), and trail beauty were associated with use for transportation (P trail use, whereas some variables were uniquely associated with use for 1 purpose. Tailored strategies are suggested to promote trail use for recreation and transportation.

  7. Temperature limits trail following behaviour through pheromone decay in ants

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oudenhove, Louise; Billoir, Elise; Boulay, Raphaël; Bernstein, Carlos; Cerdá, Xim

    2011-12-01

    In Mediterranean habitats, temperature affects both ant foraging behaviour and community structure. Many studies have shown that dominant species often forage at lower temperature than subordinates. Yet, the factors that constrain dominant species foraging activity in hot environments are still elusive. We used the dominant ant Tapinoma nigerrimum as a model species to test the hypothesis that high temperatures hinder trail following behaviour by accelerating pheromone degradation. First, field observations showed that high temperatures (> 30°C) reduce the foraging activity of T. nigerrimum independently of the daily and seasonal rhythms of this species. Second, we isolated the effect of high temperatures on pheromone trail efficacy from its effect on worker physiology. A marked substrate was heated during 10 min (five temperature treatments from 25°C to 60°C), cooled down to 25°C, and offered in a test choice to workers. At hot temperature treatments (>40°C), workers did not discriminate the previously marked substrate. High temperatures appeared therefore to accelerate pheromone degradation. Third, we assessed the pheromone decay dynamics by a mechanistic model fitted with Bayesian inference. The model predicted ant choice through the evolution of pheromone concentration on trails as a function of both temperature and time since pheromone deposition. Overall, our results highlighted that the effect of high temperatures on recruitment intensity was partly due to pheromone evaporation. In the Mediterranean ant communities, this might affect dominant species relying on chemical recruitment, more than subordinate ant species, less dependent on chemical communication and less sensitive to high temperatures.

  8. Food collection and response to pheromones in an ant species exposed to electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Rachidi, Zoheir; Bellens, François; De Doncker, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    We used the ant species Myrmica sabuleti as a model to study the impact of electromagnetic waves on social insects' response to their pheromones and their food collection. We quantified M. sabuleti workers' response to their trail, area marking and alarm pheromone under normal conditions. Then, we quantified the same responses while under the influence of electromagnetic waves. Under such an influence, ants followed trails for only short distances, no longer arrived at marked areas and no longer orientated themselves to a source of alarm pheromone. Also when exposed to electromagnetic waves, ants became unable to return to their nest and recruit congeners; therefore, the number of ants collecting food increases only slightly and slowly. After 180 h of exposure, their colonies deteriorated. Electromagnetic radiation obviously affects social insects' behavior and physiology.

  9. A four-year follow-up study of physical working conditions and perceived mental and physical strain among food industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Subas; Virtanen, Pekka; Luukkaala, Tiina; Siukola, Anna; Nygård, Clas-Håkan

    2014-05-01

    This study hypothesized that in a longitudinal setting deteriorating physical working conditions increases the perceived physical and mental strain among food processing employees. The study was conducted in 2003 and 2007. It examined 248 blue-collar workers, all of whom were in the same occupation throughout the entire follow-up period. The data were obtained through a structural questionnaire distributed to the employees at the workplace. Mental strain had increased (7%) significantly among younger employees during the follow-up. The changes in mental strain for the younger employees were positively associated with the changes in physical strain. The changes in physical strain were also significantly associated with the changes in physical working conditions among both younger and the older workers. The results of this study partly support the study hypothesis, namely that deteriorating physical working condition increases physical strain and also increases mental strain, especially among younger employees. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploring the TRAILs less travelled: TRAIL in cancer biology and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Karstedt, Silvia; Montinaro, Antonella; Walczak, Henning

    2017-05-24

    The discovery that the tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis of cancer cells without causing toxicity in mice has led to the in-depth study of pro-apoptotic TRAIL receptor (TRAIL-R) signalling and the development of biotherapeutic drug candidates that activate TRAIL-Rs. The outcome of clinical trials with these TRAIL-R agonists has, however, been disappointing so far. Recent evidence indicates that many cancers, in addition to being TRAIL resistant, use the endogenous TRAIL-TRAIL-R system to their own advantage. However, novel insight on two fronts - how resistance of cancer cells to TRAIL-based pro-apoptotic therapies might be overcome, and how the pro-tumorigenic effects of endogenous TRAIL might be countered - gives reasonable hope that the TRAIL system can be harnessed to treat cancer. In this Review we assess the status quo of our understanding of the biology of the TRAIL-TRAIL-R system - as well as the gaps therein - and discuss the opportunities and challenges in effectively targeting this pathway.

  11. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    (2000-3000 m water depth) while meandering trails were common over a much broader depth range and were the only trails recorded in deep environments >3000 m. While species-specific patterns may in part explain these differences, evidence suggests that nutrient availability is also likely to be an important driving factor, supporting the hypothesis put forward by Smith et al. (2005) that acorn worms meander when searching for food and form a spiral when feeding in a nutrient-rich area.

  12. Happy trails: the effect of a media campaign on urban trail use in southern Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Sheila; Bungum, Tim J; Meacham, Mindy; Coker, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Many Americans do not meet recommendations for physical activity (PA). Communities are building trail networks to encourage PA, but the relationship between trails and PA is not well understood. We monitored usage of urban trails (N = 10) in Las Vegas, NV, before and after a promotional marketing campaign (October 2011 and April 2012). The media campaign featured print, online, and radio ads, as well as billboards and signage on gas pumps. Data were collected with infrared monitors that were placed on the trails for periods of 7 days. We compared preintervention and postintervention usage rates. Mean usage increased (P trails, significant declines at 2 trails, and no change at 1 trail. Promotional campaigns may be an effective way to increase trail usage and encourage PA.

  13. Study of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with airfoil trailing edge noise with special focus on airfoils with blunt trailing edges. Two methods are employed to calculate airfoil noise: The flow/acoustic splitting method and the semi-empirical method. The flow/acoustic splitting method is derived from compressible Navier...... design or optimization. Calculations from both methods are compared with exist experiments. The airfoil blunt noise is found as a function of trailing edge bluntness, Reynolds number, angle of attack, etc....

  14. Rats track odour trails accurately using a multi-layered strategy with near-optimal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Adil Ghani; Sarangi, Manaswini; Bhalla, Upinder Singh

    2012-02-28

    Tracking odour trails is a crucial behaviour for many animals, often leading to food, mates or away from danger. It is an excellent example of active sampling, where the animal itself controls how to sense the environment. Here we show that rats can track odour trails accurately with near-optimal sampling. We trained rats to follow odour trails drawn on paper spooled through a treadmill. By recording local field potentials (LFPs) from the olfactory bulb, and sniffing rates, we find that sniffing but not LFPs differ between tracking and non-tracking conditions. Rats can track odours within ~1 cm, and this accuracy is degraded when one nostril is closed. Moreover, they show path prediction on encountering a fork, wide 'casting' sweeps on encountering a gap and detection of reappearance of the trail in 1-2 sniffs. We suggest that rats use a multi-layered strategy, and achieve efficient sampling and high accuracy in this complex task.

  15. Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador: representações sociais de gestores locais Workers' Food Program: local managers' social representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Bandoni

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o conhecimento e a representação social sobre promoção de alimentação saudável e saúde de gestores do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal, realizado com empresas cadastradas no Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador na cidade de São Paulo. Foram aplicados aos gestores locais (responsáveis pela alimentação do trabalhador questionários semi-estruturados. Os dados foram tabulados por meio da técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo, utilizando-se três figuras metodológicas: idéia central, expressões-chave e o discurso do sujeito coletivo. RESULTADOS: Os discursos dos gestores de 70 empresas indicaram que 60% das idéias centrais expressaram desconhecimento sobre o Programa e seus objetivos, ou tinham como representação os benefícios para empresa. Entretanto, observou-se que a idéia central mais freqüente foi: "é um programa para fornecer alimentação balanceada para o trabalhador", representando um discurso com ênfase na promoção de alimentação saudável e saúde, que se aproxima dos objetivos do Programa. CONCLUSÕES: A maioria dos discursos não teve ênfase na promoção de alimentação saudável e saúde. Para que o Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador possa atingir seus objetivos, é necessário que os gestores locais conheçam o Programa e sejam conscientizados do seu objetivo de promoção de saúde.OBJECTIVE: To assess local managers' knowledge and social representations of a healthy diet and health promotion in the Workers' Food Program. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with companies registered in the Workers' Food Program in the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Semi-structured questionnaires were administered to local managers involved with workers' food. Data were tabulated through the Discourse of the Collective Subject using three methodological approaches: central idea, key expressions and discourse of the collective

  16. Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Data was hand drawn on USGS Topographic quads by foresters of the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, & Recreation using orthophotos, survey data, and personal...

  17. Norovirus: Food Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology For Food Workers Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... trabajadores del sector alimentario Norovirus and Working With Food CDC Vital Signs Report Preventing Norovirus Outbreaks, Food ...

  18. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform...

  19. Appalachian National Scenic Trail pilot survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Zarnoch; Michael Bowker; Ken Cordell; Matt Owens; Gary T. Green; Allison Ginn

    2011-01-01

    Visitation statistics on the Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) are important for management and Federal Government reporting purposes. However, no survey methodology has been developed to obtain accurate trailwide estimates over linear trails that traverse many hundreds of back-country miles. This research develops a stratified random survey design which utilizes...

  20. 49 CFR 236.776 - Movement, trailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement, trailing. 236.776 Section 236.776 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Movement, trailing. The movement of a train over the points of a switch which face in the direction in...

  1. Back in Time on a Mathematics Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    The recently revised "Northern Ireland Primary Curriculum" recommends that teachers make use of the environment to extend children's understanding of mathematics. One approach to using the environment in mathematics is to take children on a mathematics trail. A mathematics trail uses the resources and features within the environment as a…

  2. Trail impacts and trail impact management related to ecotourism visitation at Torres del Paine National Park, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, T.A.; Marion, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Ecotourism and protected area visitation in Central and South America are largely dependent upon a relatively undisturbed quality of natural resources. However, visitation may impact vegetation, soil, water and wildlife resources, and degrade visitor facilities such as recreation sites and trails. Findings are reported from trail impact research conducted at Torres del Paine National Park in Patagonia, Chile. The frequency and magnitude of selected trail impacts and the relative effect of the amount of use, vegetation type, trail position and trail grade are investigated. Findings differed from previous studies in that amount of use was significantly related to both trail width increases and trail erosion. Management actions to minimize trail impacts are offered.

  3. Snails and their trails: the multiple functions of trail-following in gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Terence P T; Saltin, Sara H; Davies, Mark S; Johannesson, Kerstin; Stafford, Richard; Williams, Gray A

    2013-08-01

    Snails are highly unusual among multicellular animals in that they move on a layer of costly mucus, leaving behind a trail that can be followed and utilized for various purposes by themselves or by other animals. Here we review more than 40 years of experimental and theoretical research to try to understand the ecological and evolutionary rationales for trail-following in gastropods. Data from over 30 genera are currently available, representing a broad taxonomic range living in both aquatic and terrestrial environments. The emerging picture is that the production of mucus trails, which initially was an adaptation to facilitate locomotion and/or habitat extension, has evolved to facilitate a multitude of additional functions. Trail-following supports homing behaviours, and provides simple mechanisms for self-organisation in groups of snails, promoting aggregation and thus relieving desiccation and predation pressures. In gastropods that copulate, trail-following is an important component in mate-searching, either as an alternative, or in addition to the release of water- or air-borne pheromones. In some species, this includes a capacity of males not only to identify trails of conspecifics but also to discriminate between trails laid by females and males. Notably, trail discrimination seems important as a pre-zygotic barrier to mating in some snail species. As production of a mucus trail is the most costly component of snail locomotion, it is also tempting to speculate that evolution has given rise to various ways to compensate for energy losses. Some snails, for example, increase energy intake by eating particles attached to the mucus of trails that they follow, whereas others save energy through reducing the production of their own mucus by moving over previously laid mucus trails. Trail-following to locate a prey item or a mate is also a way to save energy. While the rationale for trail-following in many cases appears clear, the basic mechanisms of trail

  4. Automatic dirt trail analysis in dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Beibei; Joe Stanley, R; Stoecker, William V; Osterwise, Christopher T P; Stricklin, Sherea M; Hinton, Kristen A; Moss, Randy H; Oliviero, Margaret; Rabinovitz, Harold S

    2013-02-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common cancer in the US. Dermatoscopes are devices used by physicians to facilitate the early detection of these cancers based on the identification of skin lesion structures often specific to BCCs. One new lesion structure, referred to as dirt trails, has the appearance of dark gray, brown or black dots and clods of varying sizes distributed in elongated clusters with indistinct borders, often appearing as curvilinear trails. In this research, we explore a dirt trail detection and analysis algorithm for extracting, measuring, and characterizing dirt trails based on size, distribution, and color in dermoscopic skin lesion images. These dirt trails are then used to automatically discriminate BCC from benign skin lesions. For an experimental data set of 35 BCC images with dirt trails and 79 benign lesion images, a neural network-based classifier achieved a 0.902 are under a receiver operating characteristic curve using a leave-one-out approach. Results obtained from this study show that automatic detection of dirt trails in dermoscopic images of BCC is feasible. This is important because of the large number of these skin cancers seen every year and the challenge of discovering these earlier with instrumentation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. TRAIL death receptors and cancer therapeutics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ying; Sheikh, M. Saeed

    2007-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) also known as Apo2L is an apoptotic molecule that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor superfamily of cytokines. It mediates its apoptotic effects via its cognate death receptors including DR4 and DR5. Agonistic monoclonal antibodies have also been developed that selectively activate TRAIL death receptors to mediate apoptosis. Multiple clinically relevant agents also upregulate the expression of TRAIL death receptors, and cooperate with TRAIL as well as DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies to exhibit tumor cell killing. TRAIL is currently in phase I clinical trials, whereas DR4 and DR5-specific agonistic antibodies have been tested in phase I and II studies. Thus, TRAIL has clearly distinguished itself from the other family members including TNF-alpha and FasL both of which could not make it to the clinic due to their toxic nature. It is therefore, evident that the future of TRAIL-based therapeutic approaches looks brighter

  6. Pheromone disruption of Argentine ant trail integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, D.M.; Peck, R.W.; Manning, L.M.; Stringer, L.D.; Cappadonna, J.; El-Sayed, A. M.

    2008-01-01

    Disruption of Argentine ant trail following and reduced ability to forage (measured by bait location success) was achieved after presentation of an oversupply of trail pheromone, (Z)-9-hexadecenal. Experiments tested single pheromone point sources and dispersion of a formulation in small field plots. Ant walking behavior was recorded and digitized by using video tracking, before and after presentation of trail pheromone. Ants showed changes in three parameters within seconds of treatment: (1) Ants on trails normally showed a unimodal frequency distribution of walking track angles, but this pattern disappeared after presentation of the trail pheromone; (2) ants showed initial high trail integrity on a range of untreated substrates from painted walls to wooden or concrete floors, but this was significantly reduced following presentation of a point source of pheromone; (3) the number of ants in the pheromone-treated area increased over time, as recruitment apparently exceeded departures. To test trail disruption in small outdoor plots, the trail pheromone was formulated with carnuba wax-coated quartz laboratory sand (1 g quartz sand/0.2 g wax/1 mg pheromone). The pheromone formulation, with a half-life of 30 h, was applied by rotary spreader at four rates (0, 2.5, 7.5, and 25 mg pheromone/m2) to 1- and 4-m2 plots in Volcanoes National Park, Hawaii. Ant counts at bait cards in treated plots were significantly reduced compared to controls on the day of treatment, and there was a significant reduction in ant foraging for 2 days. These results show that trail pheromone disruption of Argentine ants is possible, but a much more durable formulation is needed before nest-level impacts can be expected. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  7. Audit trails in an online accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an online computer system that was developed by Rockwell International to track the accounting and processing of nuclear materials from the time it arrives at Rocky Flats Plant through its life cycle. A major contributor to the success of SAN is the use of audit trails. They have proven to be invaluable for the management and safeguarding of these sensitive materials at Rocky Flats. Producing effective audit trails requires the recording of all pertinent transactions and the capability to access and report the information in a timely fashion. This paper discusses the implementation and application of these audit trails on the Rocky Flats SAN system

  8. Surface TRAIL decoy receptor-4 expression is correlated with TRAIL resistance in MCF7 breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Dirice, Ercument; Aydin, Cigdem; Erin, Nuray; Koksoy, Sadi; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2005-01-01

    Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells. Despite this promising feature, TRAIL resistance observed in cancer cells seriously challenged the use of TRAIL as a death ligand in gene therapy. The current dispute concerns whether or not TRAIL receptor expression pattern is the primary determinant of TRAIL sensitivity in cancer cells. This study investigates TRAIL receptor expression pattern and its connection to TRAIL resistance in breast cancer cells. In addition, a DcR2 siRNA approach and a complementary gene therapy modality involving IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) were also tested to verify if these approaches could sensitize MCF7 breast cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL). TRAIL sensitivity assays were conducted using Molecular Probe's Live/Dead Cellular Viability/Cytotoxicity Kit following the infection of breast cancer cells with Ad5hTRAIL. The molecular mechanism of TRAIL induced cell death under the setting of IKK inhibition was revealed by Annexin V binding. Novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR and flow cytometry analysis were performed to disclose TRAIL receptor composition in breast cancer cells. MCF7 but not MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells displayed strong resistance to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL. Only the combinatorial use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA infection sensitized MCF7 breast cancer cells to TRAIL induced cell death. Moreover, novel quantitative Real Time RT-PCR assays suggested that while the level of TRAIL Decoy Receptor-4 (TRAIL-R4) expression was the highest in MCF7 cells, it was the lowest TRAIL receptor expressed in MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, conventional flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that TRAIL resistant MCF7 cells exhibited substantial levels of TRAIL-R4 expression but not TRAIL decoy receptor-3 (TRAIL-R3) on surface. On the contrary, TRAIL sensitive MDA-MB-231 cells displayed very low levels of surface TRAIL-R4

  9. Assessing soil erosion on trails: A comparison of techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark C. Jewell; William E. Hammitt

    2000-01-01

    Reports of trail degradation have been increasing in different wildernesses. This impact has become a common concern among managers. Deteriorating tread conditions of trails are increasing, as is concern at protected areas worldwide. In order to make objective and timely trail resource decisions, managers need to have effective and efficient methods of assessing trail...

  10. 36 CFR 261.55 - National Forest System trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National Forest System trails... PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.55 National Forest System trails. When provided by... National Forest System trail: (a) Being on a trail. (b) Using any type of vehicle prohibited by the order...

  11. VT Green Mountain National Forest - Trails

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) GMNFTRAILS contains minor Forest Service roads and all trails within the proclamation boundary of the Green Mountain National Forest and many of...

  12. Minnesota State Park Trails and Roads

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This shapefile covers the trails in the State of Minnesota Parks, Recreation Areas, and Waysides as designated through legislation and recognized by the Department...

  13. Estimating the economic value and impacts of recreational trails: a case study of the Virginia creeper rail trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Michael Bowker; John C. Bergstrom; Joshua Gill

    2007-01-01

    Many communities are interested in developing and maintaining recreational trails to benefit trail users and as tourist attractions to stimulate economic growth. In this paper, a study is described which estimates the net economic value to trail users and the local economic impacts of the Virginia Creeper Rail Trail in south-western Virginia, USA. The monetary...

  14. TRAIL-receptor preferences in pancreatic cancer cells revisited: Both TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 have a licence to kill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohr, Andrea; Yu, Rui; Zwacka, Ralf M.

    2015-01-01

    TRAIL is a potent and specific inducer of apoptosis in tumour cells and therefore is a possible new cancer treatment. It triggers apoptosis by binding to its cognate, death-inducing receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2. In order to increase its activity, receptor-specific ligands and agonistic antibodies have been developed and some cancer types, including pancreatic cancer, have been reported to respond preferentially to TRAIL-R1 triggering. The aim of the present study was to examine an array of TRAIL-receptor specific variants on a number of pancreatic cancer cells and test the generality of the concept of TRAIL-R1 preference in these cells. TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 specific sTRAIL variants were designed and tested on a number of pancreatic cancer cells for their TRAIL-receptor preference. These sTRAIL variants were produced in HEK293 cells and were secreted into the medium. After having measured and normalised the different sTRAIL variant concentrations, they were applied to pancreatic and control cancer cells. Twenty-four hours later apoptosis was measured by DNA hypodiploidy assays. Furthermore, the specificities of the sTRAIL variants were validated in HCT116 cells that were silenced either for TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2. Our results show that some pancreatic cancer cells use TRAIL-R1 to induce cell death, whereas other pancreatic carcinoma cells such as AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 cells trigger apoptosis via TRAIL-R2. This observation extended to cells that were naturally TRAIL-resistant and had to be sensitised by silencing of XIAP (Panc1 cells). The measurement of TRAIL-receptor expression by FACS revealed no correlation between receptor preferences and the relative levels of TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 on the cellular surface. These results demonstrate that TRAIL-receptor preferences in pancreatic cancer cells are variable and that predictions according to cancer type are difficult and that determining factors to inform the optimal TRAIL-based treatments still have to be identified

  15. Expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas: identification of TRAIL-γ as a prognostic marker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, Andreas; Mahotka, Csaba; Mersch, Sabrina; Wolf, Nadine; Stoecklein, Nikolas H; Verde, Pablo E; Schulte am Esch, Jan; Heikaus, Sebastian; Gabbert, Helmut E; Knoefel, Wolfram T

    2013-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) belongs to the TNF-superfamily that induces apoptotic cell death in a wide range of neoplastic cells in vivo as well as in vitro. We identified two alternative TRAIL-splice variants, i.e. TRAIL-β and TRAIL-γ that are characterized by the loss of their proapoptotic properties. Herein, we investigated the expression and the prognostic values of the TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinomas. Real time PCR for amplification of the TRAIL-splice variants was performed in tumour tissue specimens and corresponding normal tissues of 41 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. Differences on mRNA-expression levels of the TRAIL-isoforms were compared to histo-pathological variables and correlated with survival data. All three TRAIL-splice variants could be detected in both non-malignant and malignant tissues, irrespective of their histological staging, grading or tumour types. However, TRAIL-β exhibited a higher expression in normal gastric tissue. The proapoptotic TRAIL-α expression was increased in gastric carcinomas when compared to TRAIL-β and TRAIL-γ. In addition, overexpression of TRAIL-γ was associated with a significant higher survival rate. This is the first study that investigated the expression of TRAIL-splice variants in gastric carcinoma tissue samples. Thus, we provide first data that indicate a prognostic value for TRAIL-γ overexpression in this tumour entity

  16. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  17. Comparing impacts between formal and informal recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Catherine Marina; Norman, Patrick

    2017-05-15

    Globally there are hundreds of thousands of kilometres of recreational trails traversing natural areas of high conservation value: but what are their impacts and do impacts differ among trails? We compared the effects of four common types of recreational trails [(1) narrow and (2) medium width informal bare earth trails and (3) gravel and (4) tarmac/concrete formal trails] on vegetation adjacent to trails in a high conservation value plant community that is popular for mountain biking and hiking in Australia. Plant species composition was recorded in quadrats along the edge of the four types of trails and in control sites away from trails. Vegetation cover, the cover of individual growth forms, and species richness along the edges of all four types of trails were similar to the controls, although the wider trails affected plant composition, with the tarmac and gravel trails favouring different species. With very few comparative studies, more research is required to allow managers and researchers to directly compare differences in the severity and types of impacts on vegetation among trails. In the meantime, limiting damage to vegetation on the edge of hardened trails during construction, use and maintenance is important, and hardening trails may not always be appropriate. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Development of functional foods for radiation workers - Search for the active components and studies on the mechanism of the hematopoiesis improvement foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Sung Tae; Ha, Mee Hye; Jeong, Young Ran [Sunchon National University, Sunchon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    In this experiments, we established long-termed culture methods of bone marrow stromal cells for proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. And we selected some extracts which support maximal proliferation of stromal cells with this method. We conformed the synergic effects of herbal mixture extracts for stromal cell growth. The proliferation of stromal cells was increased rather by the addition of mixture extracts than by addition of single strain extract. In the previous and cooperative experiments, we selected complex extracts (Him-I, Him-II) which increased the number of nonadherent mononuclear cells. Different cytokine expression patterns were observed stromal cells cultured in the presence or absence of mixture extracts which support differentiation of nonadherent cells. Some fractions of Him-I and Him-II increased the proliferation of bone marrow cells irradiated {gamma}-ray(4Gray). Stimulation of macrophage cell line with herval extracts with the treatments of recombinant interferon-{gamma} resulted in increased nitric oxide synthesis in a dose-dependent manners. Altered patterns of cytokine mRNA expression were observed in the stromals cells cultured with extracts of herbal plant. In regarding of the results, isolation and development of new and effective systems to screen for active hematopoietic component needs to be proceeded. Such studies on the hematopoietic modulation and mechanism of herbal plants would further lead to new avenues for the development of functional foods which effect such as radiation damages or leukemia. 20 refs., 23 figs. (Author)

  19. Excesso de peso e hipertensão arterial em trabalhadores de empresas beneficiadas pelo Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador (PAT Overweight and hypertension in workers from companies benefited by the Worker Food Program (WFP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sarno

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as prevalências de excesso de peso (EP, hipertensão arterial (HA e fatores associados em trabalhadores de empresas beneficiadas pelo Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador (PAT da cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 1.339 trabalhadores de 30 empresas. A coleta de dados envolveu a aplicação de um questionário com dados de caracterização dos trabalhadores e peso e altura auto-referidos. Foi realizada a aferição da pressão arterial e o estado nutricional foi classificado segundo o Índice de Massa Corporal (IMC. Odds ratios foram estimadas na avaliação dos fatores de risco associados a HA e EP. RESULTADOS: Os trabalhadores apresentaram, em média, 36,4 anos (dp = 10,3 e 9,9 anos de estudo (dp = 2,3, sendo 60% da amostra pertencente ao sexo masculino. Na comparação com homens, mulheres apresentaram valores significativamente menores de idade, pressão arterial sistólica (PAS e diastólica (PAD e IMC e maior escolaridade. As prevalências em homens de EP (25 kg/m2 (56% e de HA (PAS > 140 mmHg e/ou PAD > 90 mmHg ou uso de medicações anti-hipertensivas (38%, foram aproximadamente o dobro da registrada em mulheres (30% e 19%, respectivamente. Idade foi fator de risco para a ocorrência de EP e HA em ambos os sexos, enquanto que a escolaridade foi fator de proteção para EP e HA em mulheres e fator de risco para o desenvolvimento de EP em homens. CONCLUSÃO: Os trabalhadores do sexo masculino constituíram uma população de maior risco para ocorrência de HA e EP e devem ser priorizados nos programas que visam a prevenção dessas doenças. Neste sentido, o PAT pode representar um lugar de destaque nas ações de saúde e nutrição no ambiente de trabalho.OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the prevalences of overweight (OW, hypertension (HY and associated factors in workers from companies benefited by the Worker Food Program (WFP in the city of Sao Paulo. METHODS: Cross sectional study with 1,339 workers from

  20. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  1. Audit trails in an online accountability system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, C.

    1985-01-01

    The Safeguards Accountability Network (SAN) is an online computer system that was developed by Rockwell International to track the accounting and processing of nuclear materials from the time it arrives at Rocky Flats Plant through its life cycle. A major contributor to the success of SAN is the use of audit trails. They have proven to be invaluable for the management and safeguarding of these sensitive materials at Rocky Flats. Producing effective audit trails requires the recording of all pertinent transactions and the capability to access and report the information in a timely fashion. This paper discusses the implementation and application of these audit trials on the Rocky Flats SAN system. 1 fig

  2. Is the color trails culture free?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasfous, Ahmed F; Puente, Antonio E; Pérez-Marfil, María Nieves; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Peralta-Ramirez, Isabel; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Increasingly clinical neuropsychology has been addressing the effects of culture on neuropsychological functioning. However, that focus has been on comparing performance on standardized tests across two or more groups, often Hispanic. In this study, Arabic children were tested in Morocco using a "culture-free test," Children's Color Trails. Children of different ages and living in rural and urban centers were tested. The results suggest that the Color Trails Test scores from Arab children differed from U.S. norms available. Furthermore, the location of testing and the age of the child were of significance. The role of culture-specific tests was considered.

  3. Combined effect of workplace noise and smoking on some hematological parameters on workers in a food manufacturing plant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alimohammadi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Generally, no industry can be found to be safe in terms of noise pollution. Noise is the wide- spread form of environmental stressor in the industrialized urban areas. Aim: the purpose of this paper is to evaluate the combined effect of workplace noise and smoking on some hematological parameters on employing work in a food manufacturing plant. This is a retrospective study before and after for five years since starting of the work. In this study, 50 male subjects participated: smokers (n=11 and nonsmokers (n=39, for further individual information and certain specific points, a developed standard questionnaire, were filled out by participants. For the past 4-year’s details, blood tests and medical records of persons since initially hired, were used. The details of the fifth year were measured by the presenters. Using the ISO protocol 1999 and 9612, workplace noise was measured and the noise map was drawn using arc-view GIS software. Statistical analysis SPSS software version 18 was investigated. Due to the nature of the study, the significance level was set at a P value ≤0.1. Statistical findings and laboratory data showed that the effect of noise and smoking on red blood cells and white blood cells of smokers and nonsmokers was significant (p<0.1, so that the amount of red blood cells in smokers who are exposed to noise exceeding 88.83 dB, is higher than nonsmokers, and the white blood cells are lower in nonsmokers in compared with smokers. Our findings showed that combined of workplace noise and smoking has severe adverse effects on hematological parameters, and these alterations might be associated with a greater risk for more diseases. It is notable that results are from a research effort of its researchers and it is not completely certain so further investigation will be needed.

  4. Inhibition of TRAIL-induced apoptosis and forced internalization of TRAIL receptor 1 by adenovirus proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, A E; Toth, K; Doronin, K; Kuppuswamy, M; Doronina, O A; Lichtenstein, D L; Hermiston, T W; Smith, C A; Wold, W S

    2001-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis through two receptors, TRAIL-R1 (also known as death receptor 4) and TRAIL-R2 (also known as death receptor 5), that are members of the TNF receptor superfamily of death domain-containing receptors. We show that human adenovirus type 5 encodes three proteins, named RID (previously named E3-10.4K/14.5K), E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K, that independently inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis of infected human cells. This conclusion was derived from studies using wild-type adenovirus, adenovirus replication-competent mutants that lack one or more of the RID, E3-14.7K, and E1B-19K genes, and adenovirus E1-minus replication-defective vectors that express all E3 genes, RID plus E3-14.7K only, RID only, or E3-14.7K only. RID inhibits TRAIL-induced apoptosis when cells are sensitized to TRAIL either by adenovirus infection or treatment with cycloheximide. RID induces the internalization of TRAIL-R1 from the cell surface, as shown by flow cytometry and indirect immunofluorescence for TRAIL-R1. TRAIL-R1 was internalized in distinct vesicles which are very likely to be endosomes and lysosomes. TRAIL-R1 is degraded, as indicated by the disappearance of the TRAIL-R1 immunofluorescence signal. Degradation was inhibited by bafilomycin A1, a drug that prevents acidification of vesicles and the sorting of receptors from late endosomes to lysosomes, implying that degradation occurs in lysosomes. RID was also shown previously to internalize and degrade another death domain receptor, Fas, and to prevent apoptosis through Fas and the TNF receptor. RID was shown previously to force the internalization and degradation of the epidermal growth factor receptor. E1B-19K was shown previously to block apoptosis through Fas, and both E1B-19K and E3-14.7K were found to prevent apoptosis through the TNF receptor. These findings suggest that the receptors for TRAIL, Fas ligand, and TNF play a role in limiting virus

  5. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2002-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  6. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2004-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  7. TRAIL: A Novel Therapeutic Agent for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Honglin

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to elucidate the signaling pathway of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, and to examine the therapeutic effect of TRAIL on prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo...

  8. Cuticular lipids as trail pheromone in a social wasp.

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Inge; Schmolz, Erik; Ruther, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the origin and composition of the chemical trail of the common yellow jacket Vespula vulgaris L. (Vespidae) and found that an artificial trail made from an extract of cuticular lipids from V. vulgaris foragers was biologically as active as a trail laid naturally by the foragers. Chemical analysis of natural trail extracts and the behaviourally active cuticular extracts by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the majority of cuticular hydrocarbons were als...

  9. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was investigated using one-dimensional cellular automata model. It is known that ants communicate with each other by dropping a chemical, called pheromone, on the substrate. Apart from the studies in the literature, it was considered in the model that ...

  10. Certification trails and software design for testability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Gregory F.; Wilson, Dwight S.; Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    Design techniques which may be applied to make program testing easier were investigated. Methods for modifying a program to generate additional data which we refer to as a certification trail are presented. This additional data is designed to allow the program output to be checked more quickly and effectively. Certification trails were described primarily from a theoretical perspective. A comprehensive attempt to assess experimentally the performance and overall value of the certification trail method is reported. The method was applied to nine fundamental, well-known algorithms for the following problems: convex hull, sorting, huffman tree, shortest path, closest pair, line segment intersection, longest increasing subsequence, skyline, and voronoi diagram. Run-time performance data for each of these problems is given, and selected problems are described in more detail. Our results indicate that there are many cases in which certification trails allow for significantly faster overall program execution time than a 2-version programming approach, and also give further evidence of the breadth of applicability of this method.

  11. Influence of hiking trails on montane birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    William V. Deluca; David I. King

    2014-01-01

    Montane forests contribute significantly to regional biodiversity. Long-term monitoring data, often located along hiking trails, suggests that several indicator species of this ecosystem have declined in recent decades. Declining montane bird populations have been attributed to anthropogenic stressors such as climate change and atmospheric deposition. Several studies...

  12. A cellular automata model for ant trails

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this study, the unidirectional ant traffic flow with U-turn in an ant trail was inves- tigated using ... the literature, it was considered in the model that (i) ant colony consists of two kinds of ants, good- ... ponents without a central controller [8].

  13. Interpreter's Guide to Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Studies Center, Pensacola, FL.

    This booklet was prepared to help the user interpret the natural history of Blackbird Marsh Nature Trail in Escambia County, Florida, and serves as a guide to the animal and plant life. The publication is part of a series of illustrated guides designed for use by teachers and students of all levels in conjunction with field trips to the 1200-acre…

  14. Outbreaks where food workers have been implicated in the spread of foodborne disease. Part 11. Use of antiseptics and sanitizers in community settings and issues of hand hygiene compliance in health care and food industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Ewen C D; Greig, Judy D; Michaels, Barry S; Bartleson, Charles A; Smith, Debra; Holah, John

    2010-12-01

    Hand washing with soap is a practice that has long been recognized as a major barrier to the spread of disease in food production, preparation, and service and in health care settings, including hospitals, child care centers, and elder care facilities. Many of these settings present multiple opportunities for spread of pathogens within at-risk populations, and extra vigilance must be applied. Unfortunately, hand hygiene is not always carried out effectively, and both enteric and respiratory diseases are easily spread in these environments. Where water is limited or frequent hand hygiene is required on a daily basis, such as for many patients in hospitals and astronauts in space travel, instant sanitizers or sanitary wipes are thought to be an effective way of preventing contamination and spread of organisms among coworkers and others. Most concerns regarding compliance are associated with the health care field, but the food industry also must be considered. Specific reasons for not washing hands at appropriate times are laziness, time pressure, inadequate facilities and supplies, lack of accountability, and lack of involvement by companies, managers, and workers in supporting proper hand washing. To facilitate improvements in hand hygiene, measurement of compliant and noncompliant actions is necessary before implementing any procedural changes. Training alone is not sufficient for long-lasting improvement. Multiactivity strategies also must include modification of the organization culture to encourage safe hygienic practices, motivation of employees willing to use peer pressure on noncompliant coworkers, a reward and/or penalty system, and an operational design that facilitates regular hand hygiene.

  15. The accumulation of a chemical cue: nest-entrance trail in the German yellowjacket, Vespula germanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Jennifer M.; Curry, Christine; Hemauer, Sarah; Jeanne, Robert L.

    2005-05-01

    Vespine wasps have been shown to deposit an attractive chemical in the nest entrance. Foragers use this to help locate the nest when returning to it. We determined how many individuals need to track (pass through) the entrance before the chemical is recognized. We found a logistic response as the number of tracks increased. At 200 tracks and above there was a 75 90% positive response rate to the chemical. We found no evidence of trail-marking behavior performed by foragers inside the nest entrance. We conclude that the trail is not an evolved signal, but is a cue composed of an accumulation of hydrocarbons deposited from the legs or feet of workers as they walk on a substrate. This is the first quantitative measurement of the attractiveness of the nest-entrance chemical in a social wasp.

  16. Behavioral and olfactory antennal responses of Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) workers to their Dufour gland secretion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindis, Yolanda; Gomez y Gomez, Beningno; Rojas, Julio C.; Malo, Edi A.; Cruz-Lopez, Leopoldo [El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), Tapachula, Chiapas (Mexico); Lachaud, Jean P. [Centre de Recherches sur la Cognition Animale (CRCA), CNRS-UMR5169, Toulouse (France). Univ. Paul-Sabatier

    2008-03-15

    Behavioral and electrophysiological tests were performed to evaluate the responses of workers of the ant Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius) from different size categories to Dufour gland extracts. Morphometric measures based in head widths across eyes were used to determine worker sizes. Trail following response of different worker sizes to Dufour gland extract from workers of different sizes was assessed. For each worker size category olfactory responses to Dufour gland extracts were determined using electroantennography (EAG). Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to determine the chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretion for each worker size. Morphometric measures permitted to classify the workers of S. geminata as large, medium and small workers. Medium S. geminata workers displayed a significantly higher behavioral response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium size workers. Similarly, medium workers showed a significantly higher EAG response to Dufour gland extracts produced by medium sized workers. Chromatographic profile of Dufour gland secretions produced by workers showed that each size category exhibited a characteristic profile of the three main components considered as potential trail pheromone constituents. This work showed that medium workers of S. geminata exhibited a high trail-following behavior as well as a high antennal response to Dufour gland secretion. This and their relative abundance in field foraging areas, suggest that medium-sized workers are specialized in foraging activities. (author)

  17. Novel TRAIL sensitizer Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in Huh7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Ji-Yong; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Jun, Soo Young; Lee, Jae-Hye; Song, Hyuk-Hwan; Choi, SangHo; Saloura, Vassiliki; Park, Choon Gil; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Nam-Soon

    2016-04-01

    TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand) is a promising anti-cancer drug target that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, many cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Therefore, reversing TRAIL resistance is an important step for the development of effective TRAIL-based anti-cancer therapies. We previously reported that knockdown of the TOR signaling pathway regulator-like (TIPRL) protein caused TRAIL-induced apoptosis by activation of the MKK7-c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway through disruption of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Here, we identified Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg (TO) as a novel TRAIL sensitizer from a set of 500 natural products using an ELISA system and validated its activity by GST pull-down analysis. Furthermore, combination treatment of Huh7 cells with TRAIL and TO resulted in TRAIL-induced apoptosis mediated through inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction and subsequent activation of MKK7-JNK phosphorylation. Interestingly, HPLC analysis identified chicoric acid as a major component of the TO extract, and combination treatment with chicoric acid and TRAIL induced TRAIL-induced cell apoptosis via JNK activation due to inhibition of the MKK7-TIPRL interaction. Our results suggest that TO plays an important role in TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and further functional studies are warranted to confirm the importance of TO as a novel TRAIL sensitizer for cancer therapy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A mixed-modes approach for estimating hiking on trails through diverse forest landscapes: the case of the Appalachian Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley J. Zarnoch; J.M. Bowker; H. Ken. Cordell

    2011-01-01

    Many hiking trails traverse the forests and public lands across North America. It has therefore become important for federal management to gain an understanding of total use on these trails. However, there has never been a formal attempt to estimate hiking on these long, backcountry trails. This paper presents an approach that utilizes two survey instruments (exit-site...

  19. Trailing Vortex-Induced Loads During Close Encounters in Cruise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael R.; Lesieutre, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The trailing vortex induced aerodynamic loads on a Falcon 20G business jet flying in the wake of a DC-8 are predicted to provide a preflight estimate of safe trail distances during flight test measurements in the wake. Static and dynamic loads on the airframe flying in the near wake are shown at a matrix of locations, and the dynamic motion of the Falcon 20G during traverses of the DC-8 primary trailing vortex is simulated. Safe trailing distances for the test flights are determined, and optimum vortex traverse schemes are identified to moderate the motion of the trailing aircraft during close encounters with the vortex wake.

  20. Possible novel therapy for malignant gliomas with secretable trimeric TRAIL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonsup Jeong

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigation and many novel therapeutic approaches, average survival for the patients with malignant gliomas is only about 1 year. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL has shown potent and cancer-selective killing activity and drawn considerable attention as a promising therapy for cancers, but concerns over delivery and toxicity have limited progress. We have developed a secretable trimeric TRAIL (stTRAIL and here evaluated the therapeutic potential of this stTRAIL-based gene therapy in brain tumors. An adenovirus (Ad-stTRAIL delivering stTRAIL was injected into intra-cranial human glioma tumors established in nude mice and tumor growth monitored using the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Ad-stTRAIL gene therapy showed potent tumor suppressor activity with no toxic side effects at therapeutically effective doses. When compared with 1, 3-bis(2-chloroethyl-1-nitrosourea (BCNU, a conventional therapy for malignant gliomas, Ad-stTRAIL suppressed tumor growth more potently. The combination of Ad-stTRAIL and BCNU significantly increased survival compared to the control mice or mice receiving Ad-stTRAIL alone. Our data indicate that Ad-stTRAIL, either alone or combined with BCNU, has promise as a novel therapy for malignant gliomas.

  1. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Haoran; Shen, Wen Zhong; Zhu, Wei Jun

    2014-01-01

    characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase......The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL...... methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 106. The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST...

  2. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenault, J.E. [Ontario (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  3. Heavy water at Trail, British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenault, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    Today Canada stands on the threshold of a nuclear renaissance, based on the CANDU reactor family, which depends on heavy water as a moderator and for cooling. Canada has a long history with heavy water, with commercial interests beginning in 1934, a mere two years after its discovery. At one time Canada was the world's largest producer of heavy water. The Second World War stimulated interest in this rather rare substance, such that the worlds largest supply (185 kg) ended up in Canada in 1942 to support nuclear research work at the Montreal Laboratories of the National Research Council. A year later commercial production began at Trail, British Columbia, to support work that later became known as the P-9 project, associated with the Manhattan Project. The Trail plant produced heavy water from 1943 until 1956, when it was shut down. During the war years the project was so secret that Lesslie Thomson, Special Liaison Officer reporting on nuclear matters to C.D. Howe, Minister of Munitions and Supply, was discouraged from visiting Trail operations. Thomson never did visit the Trail facility during the war. In 2005 the remaining large, tall concrete exchange tower was demolished at a cost of about $2.4 million, about the same as it cost to construct the facility about 60 years ago. Thus no physical evidence remains of this historic facility and another important artifact from Canada's nuclear history has disappeared forever. It is planned to place a plaque at the site at some point in the future. (author)

  4. Prevalence of Injury in Ultra Trail Running

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliaropoulos Nikolaos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of the study was to find the rate of musculoskeletal injuries in ultra-trail runners, investigate the most sensitive anatomical areas, and discover associated predicting factors to aid in the effective prevention and rapid rehabilitation of trail running injuries. Methods. Forty ultra trail runners responded to an epidemiological questionnaire. Results. At least one running injury was reported by 90% of the sample, with a total of 135 injuries were reported (111 overuse injuries, 24 appeared during competing. Lower back pain was the most common source of injury (42.5%. Running in the mountains (p = 0.0004 and following a personalized training schedule (p = 0.0995 were found to be protective factors. Runners involved in physical labor are associated with more injuries (p = 0.058. Higher-level runners are associated with more injuries than lower-level cohorts (p = 0.067, with symptoms most commonly arising in the lower back (p = 0.091, hip joint (p = 0.083, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0.054. Experienced runners (> 6 years are at greater risk of developing injuries (p = 0.001, especially in the lower back (p = 0.012, tibia (p = 0.049, and the plantar surface of the foot (p = 0 .028. Double training sessions could cause hip joint injury (p = 0.060. Conclusions. In order to avoid injury, it is recommended to train mostly on mountain trails and have a training program designed by professionals.

  5. TRAIL-coated lipid-nanoparticles overcome resistance to soluble recombinant TRAIL in non-small cell lung cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Miguel, Diego; Gallego-Lleyda, Ana; Erviti-Ardanaz, Sandra; Anel, Alberto; Martinez-Lostao, Luis; Ayuso, José María; Fernández, Luis José; Ochoa, Ignacio; Pazo-Cid, Roberto; Del Agua, Celia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is one the types of cancer with higher prevalence and mortality. Apo2-Ligand/TRAIL is a TNF family member able to induce apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells. It has been tested in clinical trials against different types of human cancer including NSCLC. However, results of clinical trials have shown a limited efficacy of TRAIL-based therapies. Recently we have demonstrated that artificial lipid nanoparticles coated with bioactive Apo2L/TRAIL (LUV-TRAIL) greatly improved TRAIL cytotoxic ability being capable of killing chemoresistant hematological cancer cells. In the present work we have extended the study to NSCLC. Methods/patients. LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity was assessed on different NSCLC cell lines with different sensitivity to soluble TRAIL and on primary human tumor cells from three patients suffering from NSCLC cancer. We also tested LUV-TRAIL-cytotoxic ability in combination with several anti-tumor agents. Results. LUV-TRAIL exhibited a greater cytotoxic effect compared to soluble TRAIL both in A549 cells and primary human NSCLC cells. LUV-TRAIL-induced cell death was dependent on caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Moreover, combination of LUV-TRAIL with other anti-tumor agents such as flavopiridol, and SNS-032 clearly enhanced LUV-TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity against NSCLC cancer cells. Conclusion. The novel formulation of TRAIL based on displaying it on the surface of lipid nanoparticles greatly increases its anti-tumor activity and has clinical potential in cancer treatment. (paper)

  6. Decay times of transitionally dense specularly reflecting meteor trails and potential chemical impact on trail lifetimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Hocking

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies of transitionally dense meteor trails using radars which employ specularly reflecting interferometric techniques are used to show that measurable high-temperature chemistry exists at timescales of a few tenths of a second after the formation of these trails. This is a process which is distinct from the ambient-temperature chemistry that is already known to exist at timescales of tens of seconds and longer in long-lived trails. As a consequence, these transitionally dense trails have smaller lifetimes than might be expected if diffusion were the only mechanism for reducing the mean trail electron density. The process has been studied with four SKiYMET radars at latitudes varying from 10 to 75° N, over a period of more than 10 years, 24 h per day. In this paper we present the best parameters to use to represent this behaviour and demonstrate the characteristics of the temporal and latitudinal variability in these parameters. The seasonal, day–night and latitudinal variations correlate reasonably closely with the corresponding variations of ozone in the upper mesosphere. Possible reasons for these effects are discussed, but further investigations of any causative relation are still the subject of ongoing studies.

  7. Access Control Based on Trail Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALBARELO, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Professionals are constantly seeking qualification and consequently increasing their knowledge in their area of expertise. Thus, it is interesting to develop a computer system that knows its users and their work history. Using this information, even in the case of professional role change, the system could allow the renewed authorization for activities, based on previously authorized use. This article proposes a model for user access control that is embedded in a context-aware environment. The model applies the concept of trails to manage access control, recording activities usage in contexts and applying this history as a criterion to grant new accesses. Despite the fact that previous related research works consider contexts, none of them uses the concept of trails. Hence, the main contribution of this work is the use of a new access control criterion, namely, the history of previous accesses (trails. A prototype was implemented and applied in an evaluation based on scenarios. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposal, allowing for access control systems to use an alternative way to support access rights.

  8. Reusable Reinforcement Learning via Shallow Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Chen, Shi-Yong; Da, Qing; Zhou, Zhi-Hua

    2018-06-01

    Reinforcement learning has shown great success in helping learning agents accomplish tasks autonomously from environment interactions. Meanwhile in many real-world applications, an agent needs to accomplish not only a fixed task but also a range of tasks. For this goal, an agent can learn a metapolicy over a set of training tasks that are drawn from an underlying distribution. By maximizing the total reward summed over all the training tasks, the metapolicy can then be reused in accomplishing test tasks from the same distribution. However, in practice, we face two major obstacles to train and reuse metapolicies well. First, how to identify tasks that are unrelated or even opposite with each other, in order to avoid their mutual interference in the training. Second, how to characterize task features, according to which a metapolicy can be reused. In this paper, we propose the MetA-Policy LEarning (MAPLE) approach that overcomes the two difficulties by introducing the shallow trail. It probes a task by running a roughly trained policy. Using the rewards of the shallow trail, MAPLE automatically groups similar tasks. Moreover, when the task parameters are unknown, the rewards of the shallow trail also serve as task features. Empirical studies on several controlling tasks verify that MAPLE can train metapolicies well and receives high reward on test tasks.

  9. Blockade of Death Ligand TRAIL Inhibits Renal Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Takaomi; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Gondai, Tatsuro; Yagita, Hideo; Yokoyama, Takahiko

    2013-01-01

    Renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). Many investigators have reported that cell death via apoptosis significantly contributed to the pathophysiology of renal IRI. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily, and induces apoptosis and inflammation. However, the role of TRAIL in renal IRI is unclear. Here, we investigated whether TRAIL contributes to renal IRI and whether TRAIL blockade could attenuate renal IRI. AKI was induced by unilateral clamping of the renal pedicle for 60 min in male FVB/N mice. We found that the expression of TRAIL and its receptors were highly upregulated in renal tubular cells in renal IRI. Neutralizing anti-TRAIL antibody or its control IgG was given 24 hr before ischemia and a half-dose booster injection was administered into the peritoneal cavity immediately after reperfusion. We found that TRAIL blockade inhibited tubular apoptosis and reduced the accumulation of neutrophils and macrophages. Furthermore, TRAIL blockade attenuated renal fibrosis and atrophy after IRI. In conclusion, our study suggests that TRAIL is a critical pathogenic factor in renal IRI, and that TRAIL could be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of renal IRI

  10. An analysis of state legislation on community trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy; Lankford, Tina; Chriqui, Jamie; Evenson, Kelly R; Kruger, Judy; Tompkins, Nancy; Voorhees, Carolyn; Zieff, Susan; Aytur, Semra; Brownson, Ross

    2010-03-01

    Trails provide opportunities for recreation, transportation and activity. The purpose of this article is to describe state legislation related to community trails, to analyze legislation content, and to evaluate legislation on inclusion of evidence-informed elements. State trail legislation from 2001 to 2008 was identified using online legislative databases. An analysis of evidence-informed elements included in the legislation was conducted. These elements included: funding, liability, accessibility, connectivity, and maintenance. Of the total 991 trail bills, 516 (52.0%) were appropriations bills, of which 167 (32.2%) were enacted. We analyzed 475 (48%) nonappropriation trail bills of which 139 (29.3%) were enacted. The percentage of enactment of appropriations bills decreased over time while enactment of nonappropriations trail bills increased. Over half of the nonappropriations trail bills included at least 1 evidence-informed element, most commonly funding. Few bills contained liability, connectivity, accessibility, or maintenance. There is opportunity for providing evidence-informed information to policy-makers to potentially influence bill content. The number of bills with a funding element demonstrates that fiscal support for trails is an important policy lever that state legislatures may use to support trails. Lastly, trails should be considered in over-all state-level physical activity legislation to provide opportunities for communities to be active.

  11. Travel to, and use of, twenty-one Michigan trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E; Reed, Julian A; Grost, Lisa; Harvey, Christina; Mantinan, Karah

    2013-03-01

    This study examined trail use among 857 trail users on 21 trails in Michigan from 2008 to 2011 using a valid and reliable intercept survey. Most of the 857 participants traveled to the trail from their home (92.6%), lived within 15 min of the trails (74.8%), and used active transport to travel to the trails 69.7%. The odds of active transport to the trails were greater among those who had not graduated high school (OR=3.49; 95% CI=1.02, 11.99) and high school graduates (OR=7.432; 95% CI=2.02, 27.30) compared to college graduates. Whites and adults also had greater odds of active transport than non-Whites (OR=3.160, 95% CI: 1.65, 6.05), and older adults (OR=1.75; 95% CI: 1.20, 2.54). The majority of respondents (89.7%) reported using trails for recreational purposes. A significantly greater proportion of females (73.3%) compared to males (64.7%) reported using the trail with others. The findings from this study might enable health and parks and recreation professionals to better promote physical activity on trails. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of aflatoxin exposure of laboratory worker during food contamination analyses. Assessment of the procedures adopted by an A.R.P.A.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, A; Bassoli, Viviana; Cioè, A; Anselmo, Silvia; Ferro, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins derived from foodstuffs colonized by fungal species of the genus Aspergillus; they are common food contaminants with immunosuppressive, mutagenic and carcinogenic activity. Aflatoxins are heat-resistant and are thus easily transmitted along the food chain. They are hepatotoxic and have the potential to induce hepatocellular carcinoma. Agri-food industry workers are thus at risk of ingestion as well as transmucosal absorption or inhalation of toxins released during product preparation or processing. To measure the levels of airborne mycotoxins, particularly aflatoxins, in a laboratory analysing imported foodstuffs for mycotoxin contamination. The protocol used to analyse a batch of shelled peanuts from Vietnam, especially the grinding phase, which is held to be at the highest risk ofgenerating airborne toxins, was assessed at the A.R.PA.L. laboratory (Liguria Region Environmental Protection Agency) of Genoa, Italy, which participates in a European aflatoxin monitoring project. Wet grinding was performed to avoid production of large amounts of dust. Comparison of airborne concentrations before and after grinding with legal thresholds disclosed that the analytical procedures involved negligible aflatoxin levels for operators (environmental burden 0.11 pg/ m3). Given the toxicity of aflatoxins, worker protection measures should be consistently adopted and enforced. Threshold limit values for working environments should be introduced besides the existing ones for public health.

  13. Modeling of Airfoil Trailing Edge Flap with Immersed Boundary Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2011-01-01

    The present work considers incompressible flow over a 2D airfoil with a deformable trailing edge. The aerodynamic characteristics of an airfoil with a trailing edge flap is numerically investigated using computational fluid dynamics. A novel hybrid immersed boundary (IB) technique is applied...... to simulate the moving part of the trailing edge. Over the main fixed part of the airfoil the Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are solved using a standard body-fitted finite volume technique whereas the moving trailing edge flap is simulated with the immersed boundary method on a curvilinear mesh. The obtained...... results show that the hybrid approach is an efficient and accurate method for solving turbulent flows past airfoils with a trailing edge flap and flow control using trailing edge flap is an efficient way to regulate the aerodynamic loading on airfoils....

  14. A new concept in trail grooming. `The KRC groomer`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, R G [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A groomer developed for maintaining snow roads in Arctic regions was described. The KRC groomer was initially designed for use on snowmobile trails. The device resulted from research into the problem of mogul formation on trails and how to improve on present techniques to make trail surfaces more durable. Studies were conducted both in the laboratory and in the field in an attempt to better understand this bump formation. The device and studies of its design were discussed. 9 figs., 7 refs.

  15. Ambient Air Conditions and Variation in Urban Trail Use

    OpenAIRE

    Holmes, Ann M.; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users’ exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Sav...

  16. The role of trails in the creation of tourist space

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Trails and routes are increasingly ubiquitous features within the tourism landscape and although their role and usefulness as applied tourism products has been analysed, they remain under-theorised within the academic literature. This article addresses this gap by exploring the role of trails within the socio-cultural construction of space. In particular, the potential function of trails in creating themed, static spaces is analysed and the concept of museumisation is employed to further illu...

  17. Condições de trabalho e estado nutricional de operadores do setor de alimentação coletiva: um estudo de caso Work conditions and nutritional status of workers from the food service sector: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Henschel de Matos

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a relação entre condições de trabalho e estado nutricional de operadores de uma Unidade de Alimentação e Nutrição. Foi realizada uma Análise Ergonômica do Trabalho, incluindo a caracterização do estado nutricional dos trabalhadores. Fizeram parte do estudo oito operadores (sete mulheres e um homem, com tempo de serviço na unidade de, em média, 45 meses (variação de três meses a cinco anos. Constatou-se que o trabalho realizado exige esforço físico moderado, carregamento e levantamento de peso esporádicos, movimentos repetitivos por longos períodos e postura em pé. O Índice de Massa Corporal indicou eutrofia em dois operadores e sobrepeso em diferentes graus em cinco trabalhadores. A alimentação consumida por quatro dos oito indivíduos avaliados é hipercalórica, e, em relação aos macronutrientes,pode ser caracterizada como hiperprotéica para seis deles, hiperlipídica e hipoglicídica para todos. Apesar de a realização das atividades na unidade requerer um gasto energético significativo, alguns condicionantes físicos e organizacionais estariam contribuindo para o consumo alimentar excessivo e a ingestão de uma dieta desequilibrada.The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the work conditions and the nutritional status of a group of workers in a Food Service Unit. The methodology consisted of the nutritional status evaluation and the Ergonomic Analysis of Work. Seven female workers and one male worker were included in this research; they had been working at the company for a period from three months to five years (median of 45 months. The work in the Food Service Unit demanded moderate physical effort, repetitive movements for long periods of time, sporadic weight loading and lifting and standing posture. The Body Mass Index data demonstrated that two workers were entrophic and five were overweight. The diets were considered hypercaloric for four workers, hyperproteic for

  18. 77 FR 25910 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ...] National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION...) for rail banking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). New rules are adopted that require the parties jointly to notify the Board when an interim trail use/rail...

  19. A Tale of Two Trails: Exploring Different Paths to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jennifer G.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Davis, William J.; Bors, Philip; Rodríguez, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background This comparative case study investigates 2 successful community trail initiatives, using the Active Living By Design (ALBD) Community Action Model as an analytical framework. The model includes 5 strategies: preparation, promotion, programs, policy, and physical projects. Methods Key stakeholders at 2 sites participated in in-depth interviews (N = 14). Data were analyzed for content using Atlas Ti and grouped according to the 5 strategies. Results Preparation Securing trail resources was challenging, but shared responsibilities facilitated trail development. Promotions The initiatives demonstrated minimal physical activity encouragement strategies. Programs Community stakeholders did not coordinate programmatic opportunities for routine physical activity. Policy Trails’ inclusion in regional greenway master plans contributed to trail funding and development. Policies that were formally institutionalized and enforced led to more consistent trail construction and safer conditions for users. Physical Projects Consistent standards for way finding signage and design safety features enhanced trail usability and safety. Conclusions Communities with different levels of government support contributed unique lessons to inform best practices of trail initiatives. This study revealed a disparity between trail development and use-encouragement strategies, which may limit trails’ impact on physical activity. The ALBD Community Action Model provided a viable framework to structure cross-disciplinary community trail initiatives. PMID:21597125

  20. Doxorubicin potentiates TRAIL cytotoxicity and apoptosis and can overcome TRAIL-resistance in rhabdomyosarcoma cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, R; Meijer, C; Van Zweeden, M; De Jong, S; Wesseling, J; Hoekstra, HJ; van der Graaf, WTA

    Doxorubicin (DOX) and ifosfamide (IFO) are the most active single agents in soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is used for STS in the setting of isolated limb perfusions. Like TNF-alpha, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis. In contrast to

  1. Computer simulation of trails on a square lattice. I. Trails at infinite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H.A.; Meirovitch, H.

    1989-01-01

    A trail is a random walk on a lattice for which two bonds are not allowed to overlap. However, the chain may cross itself and one may associate with each such intersection an attractive energy epsilon-c. We study trails at infinite temperature T = ∞ (i.e., trails without attractions) on a square lattice using the scanning simulation method. Our results for the radius of gyration and the end-to-end distance strongly suggest (as do previous studies) that the shape exponent is ν = 0.75, similar to that for self-avoiding walks (SAW's). We obtain significantly more accurate estimates than have been obtained before for the entropy exponent γ = 1.350 +- 0.012 and for the effective growth parameter μ = 2.720 58 +- 0.000 20 (95% confidence limit). The persistence length is found to increase with increasing chain length N and the data fit slightly better an exponential function N/sup w/ where w = 0.047 +- 0.009 than a logarithmic one. Guttmann [J. Phys. A 18, 567 (1985)] has shown exactly that trails and SAW's on the hexagonal lattice at T = ∞ have the same exponents. Our results suggest that this is true also for the square lattice

  2. From Ant Trails to Pedestrian Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schadschneider

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model for the simulation of pedestrian dynamics inspired by the behaviour of ants in ant trails. Ants communicate by producing a pheromone that can be smelled by other ants. In this model, pedestrians produce a virtual pheromone that influences the motion of others. In this way all interactions are strictly local, and so even large crowds can be simulated very efficiently. Nevertheless, the model is able to reproduce the collective effects observed empirically, eg the formation of lanes in counterflow. As an application, we reproduce a surprising result found in experiments of evacuation from an aircraft.

  3. [Indian workers in Oman].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longuenesse, E

    1985-01-01

    savings. Working and living conditions are difficult: the hours are long, the weather is hot, housing conditions are primitive and provide no relief from the heat, the food supply is the minimum required, and almost no diversions are available. There are no unions even among Omani workers, and troublemakers are quickly repatriated. The Indian embassy occasionally intercedes for workers, brief work stoppages may occur if pay is delayed, and some conflicts are settled individually. Resistence among Indian workers may take less visible forms, especially absenteeism and requests for leave.

  4. Design development scopes towards occupational wellness of women workers: specific reference to local agro based food processing industries in NE India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Nandita; Chakrabarti, Debkumar

    2012-01-01

    Women workers constitute one of the most vulnerable segments of the country's labour force. They often face different workplace health challenges than men do. They are engaged in a range of work that extends from heavy, monotonous, repetitive jobs, which are in many times experienced with low-paid and involves in long hours of work. Women's workplace health problems are frequently compounded by getting more of the same at home--the "double jeopardy" of domestic work. Specific issues to improve the workers motivation leading to enhancement of productivity and improving occupational health and safety were addressed. Context specific application of ergonomics principles were studied in the process of designing of work related equipment of local fruit processing units, as well as in tea industry, covering 180 subjects selected purposively. Ergonomic risk factors prevailed among the workers associates productivity and relevant health issues were quantified using QEC, RULA. NMQ was used to gather data on prevalence of CTDs among the workers. Pineapple peeling, tea leaves plucking were found highly labour intensive, done manually. Postures scores found were very high. WRMSDs were prevalent among the workers. Scope for ergonomic design intervention was observed to improve productivity and occupational health.

  5. LES tests on airfoil trailing edge serration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, a large number of acoustic simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with different Trailing Edge Serrations (TES). The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings (FWH) acoustic analogy is used for noise prediction at trailing edge. The acoustic solver is running on the platform of our in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The flow solution is first obtained from the Large Eddy Simulation (LES), the acoustic part is then carried out based on the instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity field. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FWH approach. For all the simulations, the chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x10 6 . In the test matrix, the effects from angle of attack, the TE flap angle, the length/width of the TES are investigated. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, most numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show that the noise level is further decreased by adding the TES device. (paper)

  6. Use and users of the Appalachian Trail: a geographic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Manning; William Valliere; Jim Bacon; Alan Graefe; Gerard Kyle; Rita Hennessy

    2001-01-01

    The Appalachian National Scenic Trail (AT) is a public footpath that spans 2,160 miles of Appalachian Mountain ridgelines from Maine to Georgia. This paper describes the first comprehensive study of recreational use and users of the AT. The primary study method was a survey of visitors to the AT. The Trail was divided into 22 relatively homogeneous sections within four...

  7. Trail Crews: Developing a Service Component to Your Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehringer, Brad; Merrill, Kurt

    Through wilderness stewardship programs, service projects, or trail crews, college outdoor programs can help land management agencies with their maintenance needs and provide student participants with rewarding service learning opportunities. Trail crews are usually composed of volunteer outdoor enthusiasts who take part in a multitude of…

  8. Discussion on "The Trail" from the Perspective of Christianism Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    2008-01-01

    Kafka is a writer of strong religious complex. In "The Trail," he illustrates his religious thoughts by probing into the alienation of modern human beings from the God and also shows his pursuit and befuddlement of beliefs. This paper analyzes the crimes and punishment in "The Trail" through three parts, the accusation of…

  9. Audit Trail Management System in Community Health Care Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Naoki; Nakayama, Masaharu; Nakaya, Jun; Tominaga, Teiji; Suganuma, Takuo; Shiratori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    After the Great East Japan Earthquake we constructed a community health care information network system. Focusing on the authentication server and portal server capable of SAML&ID-WSF, we proposed an audit trail management system to look over audit events in a comprehensive manner. Through implementation and experimentation, we verified the effectiveness of our proposed audit trail management system.

  10. 30 CFR 75.600 - Trailing cables; flame resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; flame resistance. 75.600 Section 75.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE... cables; flame resistance. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables used in coal mines shall meet the...

  11. Pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: PMB MOSS and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A brief background to Greenbelt and urban nature trail development in Pietermaritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recognise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space (MOSS) are outlined. long-term ...

  12. Go West: Imagining the Oregon Trail. [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Humanities (NFAH), Washington, DC.

    In this lesson plan, students in grades 3-5 compare imagined travel experiences of their own with the actual experiences of 19th-century pioneers on the Oregon Trail. After the 4 lessons students will have: (1) learned about the pioneer experience on the Oregon Trail; (2) compared and contrasted modern-day travel experiences with those of the 19th…

  13. Rail Trails and Property Values: Is There an Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartenian, Ella; Horton, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    The Rail Trail and Property Values dataset includes information on a set of n = 104 homes which sold in Northampton, Massachusetts in 2007. The dataset provides house information (square footage, acreage, number of bedrooms, etc.), price estimates (from Zillow.com) at four time points, location, distance from a rail trail in the community, biking…

  14. Hydrodynamic trails produced by Daphnia: size and energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramarathna, Lalith N; Noss, Christian; Lorke, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on quantifying hydrodynamic trails produced by freely swimming zooplankton. We combined volumetric tracking of swimming trajectories with planar observations of the flow field induced by Daphnia of different size and swimming in different patterns. Spatial extension of the planar flow field along the trajectories was used to interrogate the dimensions (length and volume) and energetics (dissipation rate of kinetic energy and total dissipated power) of the trails. Our findings demonstrate that neither swimming pattern nor size of the organisms affect the trail width or the dissipation rate. However, we found that the trail volume increases with increasing organism size and swimming velocity, more precisely the trail volume is proportional to the third power of Reynolds number. This increase furthermore results in significantly enhanced total dissipated power at higher Reynolds number. The biggest trail volume observed corresponds to about 500 times the body volume of the largest daphnids. Trail-averaged viscous dissipation rate of the swimming daphnids vary in the range of 1.8 x 10(-6) W/kg to 3.4 x 10(-6) W/kg and the observed magnitudes of total dissipated power between 1.3 x 10(-9) W and 1 x 10(-8) W, respectively. Among other zooplankton species, daphnids display the highest total dissipated power in their trails. These findings are discussed in the context of fluid mixing and transport by organisms swimming at intermediate Reynolds numbers.

  15. Regulated Disposal of NORM/TENORM Waste in Colorado: The Deer Trail Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Retallick, P.G.; Kehoe, J.H.; Webb, M.M.; Nielsen, D.B.; Spaanstra, J.R.; Kornfeld, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    On January 31, 2005, Clean Harbors Environmental Services submitted a license application to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for the disposal of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced radioactive material (TENORM) at Clean Harbor's Deer Trail RCRA Subtitle C landfill. Deer Trail is located 70 miles east of Denver, Colorado. The license application for Deer Trail was submitted under CCR 1007-1, Part 14 [1] the Colorado State equivalent of 10 CFR Part 61 [2] for radioactive waste disposal. A disposal license is required since some of the NORM/TENORM waste in Colorado is licensed by CDPHE. The license application does not extend to byproduct or source material, and thus does not include the broader categories found in Class A radioactive waste. The license application requires the establishment of a radiation protection program, assuring that all NORM/TENORM waste, even non-licensed waste disposed under RCRA, will have appropriate radiological controls for workers, the public, and the environment. Because Deer Trail is a RCRA Subtitle C facility with an active RCRA Permit and because of the overlapping and similar requirements in the process to obtain either a RCRA permit or a radioactive waste disposal license, the license process for Deer Trail was appropriately focused. This focusing was accomplished by working with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) and excluding or waiving selected radioactive materials license requirements from further consideration because they were found to be adequately addressed under the RCRA Permit. Of most significance, these requirements included: - Institutional Information - Federal or State ownership will not be required, since the State's Radiation Control regulations allow for private site ownership, consistent with the same financial assurance and institutional control requirements of RCRA. - Development of Additional Technical

  16. 75 FR 6031 - Policy Paper on Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... and its relationship to several other key Agency initiatives that are currently under development and... Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers in Agricultural Fields, and Pesticides with No Food Uses... for comment a policy paper entitled ``Revised Risk Assessment Methods for Workers, Children of Workers...

  17. Down-regulation of HSP27 sensitizes TRAIL-resistant tumor cell to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Hongqin; Jiang, Weiwei; Cheng, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has recently emerged as a cancer therapeutic agent because it preferentially induces apoptosis in human cancer over normal cells. Most tumor cells, including lung cancer cell line A549, unfortunately, are resistant to TRAIL tre...

  18. Equivalence of the Color Trails Test and Trail Making Test in nonnative English-speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, A T; Townes, B D; Mahurin, R K

    2000-07-01

    The Color Trails Test (CTT) has been described as a culture-fair test of visual attention, graphomotor sequencing, and effortful executive processing abilities relative to the Trail Making Test (TMT). In this study, the equivalence of the TMT and the CTT among a group of 64 bilingual Turkish university students was examined. No difference in performance on the CTT-1 and TMT Part A was found, suggesting functionally equivalent performance across both tasks. In contrast, the statistically significant differences in performance on CTT-2 and TMT Part B, as well as the interference indices for both tests, were interpreted as providing evidence for task nonequivalence of the CTT-2 and TMT Part B. Results have implications for both psychometric test development and clinical cultural neuropsychology.

  19. TRAIL: a tokamak rail gun limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, W.S.; Powell, J.R.; Usher, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    An attractive new limiter concept is investigated. The TRAIL (Tokamak Rail Gun Limiter) system impacts a stream of moderate velocity pellets (100 to 200 m/sec through the plasma edge region to absorb energy and define the plasma boundary. The pellets are recycled after cooling, to the injector of an E-M mass accelerator. Heat fluxes of approx. 30,000 W/cm 2 can be readily accommodated by the pellets, with very low recirculating power requirements (approx. 0.1%) for the accelerator. The mass accelerator velocity requirements are well within the present state of the art (several Km/sec). Accelerators injecting pellets at approx. 1 Km/sec can be used to control local plasma temperature and current profiles and to act as energy absorbers to shut down the plasma without damage to the first wall if a plasma disruption occurs

  20. Personal reflections on a galvanizing trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, B L

    1998-01-01

    This article encompasses my perception of, and experience in, an exciting segment of the trace element era in nutrition research: the role of zinc in the nutrition of animals and humans. Zinc has been a major player on the stage of trace element research, and it has left a trail that galvanized the attention of many researchers, including myself. It is ubiquitous in biological systems, and it plays a multitude of physiologic and biochemical functions. A brief historical overview is followed by a discussion of the contributions the work done in my laboratory has made toward understanding the physiological and biochemical functions of zinc. The effort of 40 years has led to the belief that one of zinc's major roles, and perhaps its first limiting role, is to preserve plasma-membrane function as regards ion channels and signal transduction. Although substantial knowledge has been gained relating to the importance of zinc in nutrition, much remains to be discovered.

  1. Trailing vortices from low speed flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldman, Rye; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth

    2009-11-01

    The structure and strength of the vortex wake behind a airplane or animal flying with a fixed or flapping wing contains valuable information about the aerodynamic load history. However, the amount of vorticity measured in the trailing vortex is not always in agreement with the known lift generated, and the behavior of these vortices at relatively low Reynolds numbers is also not well-understood. We present the results from a series of wind tunnel PIV experiments conducted behind a low-aspect ratio rectangular wing at a chord-Reynolds numbers of 30,000. In addition to wake PIV measurements measured in the cross-stream (Trefftz) plane, we measure the lift and drag directly using a six-axis force-torque transducer. We discuss how vortex size, shape, strength and position vary in time and downstream location, as well as the challenges associated with the use of PIV wake measurements to accurate determine aerodynamic forces.

  2. On the Trail of Joan of Arc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Joyce Forristal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The year 2012 marked the 600th anniversary of the birthday of Joan of Arc (Fr., Jeanne d’Arc (1412–1431. Tributes to this national heroine can be found all over France. There are literally countless statues, streets and restaurants named after her and many sites dedicated to her life. However, despite widespread social and mechanical reproduction and cultural naming in relation to the Maid of Orléans, there is no official network or integrated signage in France to promote cultural heritage tourism to the numerous Joan of Arc sites and festivals, even though her life and death, by any measure, were seminal events in the country’s history. Unfortunately, the pilgrim who wants to follow or intersect with Joan of Arc’s trail through France, for cultural, historical or religious reasons, must do so without much help. Using Actor Network Theory and Site Sacralization Theory as framing devices, this paper explores human actors and tangible and intangible non-human factors that may have contributed to the lack of a unified tourism product despite the existence of an adequate Joan of Arc tourismscape. Insights gleaned from this research include Joan’s conflicted status as both/either saint and/or patriot, the existence of no cooperation or linkage between Joan of Arc sites, and cautious French tourism development policies. Several possible scenarios are suggested as suitable means to help implement or foster the creation of an on-the-ground or virtual Joan of Arc trail or tour.

  3. Inca Trail porters: the health of local tourism employees as a challenge for travel medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Irmgard L

    2003-01-01

    Trekking is an activity that forms part of the increasing adventure and outdoor tourism. High altitude trekking in the Himalayas or Andes has been popular for some time. For longer treks, porters are employed to carry necessary equipment. Porters' working conditions are unfortunate and subsequent health problems considerable. Although Himalayan porters have received some attention in the press and research literature, porters on the popular Inca Trail in Peru have been neglected. In light of the growing awareness of health problems of local tourism employees, the purpose of this study was to describe Inca Trail porters' working conditions and their reports on their related health status to provide baseline information for further research and strategies for improvement. For this descriptive study, 101 Inca Trail porters were interviewed (August/September 2001) using a structured interview schedule. Porters were between 17 and 68 years old; estimated body weight ranged from 50 kg to 76 kg. The usual portering job lasts for 4 days with 9 to 10 hours of carrying per day. Estimated weight of loads ranged from 20 kg to 45 kg. Major concerns were lack of fuel, clothes, shelter, and equipment but foremost the lack of sufficient food provisions. A third described their general health as poor or very poor and attributed this to work. Health complaints included respiratory infections, kidney problems, or rheumatism. Thirty-eight porters recalled injuries while on the trail and over 90% had fallen ill on the job with cold, "majurki," and stomach pain due to lack of food or cold food being named most often. Porters' demands for improvement included increased pay and appropriate and sufficient food. The porters' working conditions and subsequent health problems need to be addressed. A range of stakeholders is responsible for the porters' conditions and are in a position to improve current situations. Specific responsibility for health care lies with travel health professionals

  4. Aerodynamic Analysis of Trailing Edge Enlarged Wind Turbine Airfoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haoran; Yang, Hua; Liu, Chao; Shen, Wenzhong; Zhu, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils generated from the DU- 91-W2-250, DU-97-W-300 and DU-96-W-350 airfoils by enlarging the thickness of trailing edge symmetrically from the location of maximum thickness to chord to the trailing edge were analyzed by using CFD and RFOIL methods at a chord Reynolds number of 3 × 10 6 . The goal of this study is to analyze the aerodynamic performance of blunt trailing edge airfoils with different thicknesses of trailing edge and maximum thicknesses to chord. The steady results calculated by the fully turbulent k-ω SST, transitional k-ω SST model and RFOIL all show that with the increase of thickness of trailing edge, the linear region of lift is extended and the maximum lift also increases, the increase rate and amount of lift become limited gradually at low angles of attack, while the drag increases dramatically. For thicker airfoils with larger maximum thickness to chord length, the increment of lift is larger than that of relatively thinner airfoils when the thickness of blunt trailing edge is increased from 5% to 10% chord length. But too large lift can cause abrupt stall which is profitless for power output. The transient characteristics of blunt trailing edge airfoils are caused by blunt body vortices at low angles of attack, and by the combined effect of separation and blunt body vortices at large angles of attack. With the increase of thickness of blunt trailing edge, the vibration amplitudes of lift and drag curves increase. The transient calculations over-predict the lift at large angles of attack and drag at all angles of attack than the steady calculations which is likely to be caused by the artificial restriction of the flow in two dimensions

  5. Ambient air conditions and variation in urban trail use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ann M; Lindsey, Greg; Qiu, Chenchen

    2009-11-01

    This study examines the effect of air quality and administrative policies on use of urban trails in Indianapolis, IN. Attention is focused on two policy variables: (1) issuance of air pollution advisories and (2) the adoption of Daylight Savings Time. Results suggest that while trail use varies with air quality, current public advisories regarding air pollution may be of limited effectiveness in reducing trail users' exposures to hazardous pollutants. In contrast, the adoption of Daylight Savings Time was associated with a statistically significant increase in traffic levels.

  6. [Sanitary education of workers of bakeries and pastry enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasil'shchikov, M I; Nemets, M G; Novikova, O V; Gavrilenko, E V; Osipova, E M; Osinova, T I

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents experience with sanitary education of workers from food industrial enterprises. The study revealed a number of disadvantages of the methodological aspect of sanitary education of these workers. A sanitary education programme has been worked out for workers engaged in food and food processing industries (production of bread, baked goods, and confectionery) and approved by the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance Department), Ministry of Health of Russia on March 1999.

  7. Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells : Different contributions of DR4 and DR5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geelen, Caroline M. M.; Pennarun, Bodvael; Le, Phuong T. K.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; de Jong, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Background: rhTRAIL is a therapeutic agent, derived from the TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance. We assessed whether

  8. IMPROVED TUMOR CELL KILLING BY TRAIL REQUIRES SELECTIVE AND HIGH AFFINITY RECEPTOR ACTIVATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szegezdi, Eva; van der Sloot, Almer M.; Alessandro, Natoni; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Cool, Robbert H.; Munoz, Ines G.; Montoya, Guillermo; Quax, Wim J.; Luis Serrano, Steven de Jong; Samali, Afshin; Wallach, D; Kovalenko, A; Feldman, M

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis can be activated by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in a wide range of tumor cells, but not in non-transformed cells. TRAIL interaction with receptors DR4 or DR5 induces apoptosis, whereas DcR1, DcR2 and osteoprotegerin are decoy receptors for TRAIL. TRAIL

  9. 30 CFR 77.600 - Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trailing cables; short-circuit protection... AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.600 Trailing cables; short-circuit protection; disconnecting devices. Short-circuit protection for trailing cables shall be provided by an automatic circuit...

  10. 30 CFR 75.601 - Short circuit protection of trailing cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit protection of trailing cables. 75... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 75.601 Short circuit protection of trailing cables. [Statutory Provisions] Short circuit protection for trailing cables...

  11. 76 FR 8992 - National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] National Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION... procedures regarding the use of railroad rights-of-way for railbanking and interim trail use under the National Trails System Act (Trails Act). DATES: Comments are due by April 12, 2011; replies are due by May...

  12. 36 CFR 212.56 - Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.56 Section 212.56 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.56 Identification of designated roads, trails, and areas. Designated roads, trails, and areas...

  13. Study on the food distribution among workers of different races of the honeybee Apis mellifica L. by means of the 32P radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloft, W.J.; Djalal, A.S.; Drescher, Wilhelm

    1976-01-01

    Using the radioactive tracer-technique, the social food distribution among workerbees of different races of the honeybee Apis mellifica L. to workerbees of Apis cerana Fabr. was studied. The experiments were carried out under standardized conditions as age, groupsize, food-supply of the donor-bee, distribution-time and temperature. Significant differences in the time required for social food distributions among workerbees of the different races were demonstrated. The highest number of acceptor-bees during 4 hours belonged to A.m.ligustica. A.m. caucasica reached similar values, A.m. carnica was intermediate, while A.m. mellifica was the slowest distributor. This foodsharing behavior was compared with other differences in the activity of different bee races

  14. PROFILE OF WORKERS IN THE CUISINE OF THE COQUEIROS GASTRONOMIC WAY AND NOTES ABOUT THE QUALIFICATION IN THE FOOD AND BEVERAGE SECTOR IN FLORIANÓPOLIS (SANTA CATARINA, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Goulart Rocha

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed at collecting data about the qualifications for professionals from the food and beverage sector in Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina State, considered an important Brazilian city of tourism. Thus, a characterization of cuisine employees of a gastronomic way located in the neighborhood of Coqueiros and vicinity was carried out. Questionnaires have been applied through a structured interview with 39 workers from 15 establishments. The profile of the employees of the Coqueiros Gastronomic Way pointed to a lack of demand for schooling and professional qualification by entrepreneurs who hire the professionals. The little specialized functions for service and high turnover of staff employed have also been identified.

  15. Indicators and protocols for monitoring impacts of formal and informal trails in protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2011-01-01

    Trails are a common recreation infrastructure in protected areas and their conditions affect the quality of natural resources and visitor experiences. Various trail impact indicators and assessment protocols have been developed in support of monitoring programs, which are often used for management decision-making or as part of visitor capacity management frameworks. This paper reviews common indicators and assessment protocols for three types of trails, surfaced formal trails, unsurfaced formal trails, and informal (visitor-created) trails. Monitoring methods and selected data from three U.S. National Park Service units are presented to illustrate some common trail impact indicators and assessment options.

  16. Blazing the trail: Official Report : Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The official report of the 1st Youth Olympic Games, “Blazing the trail: Official Report: Singapore 2010 Youth Olympic Games” consisted of one volume, published in French and English. The French version was published only in electronic form

  17. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Brandolini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  18. Geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability along Portofino Park trails (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, P.; Faccini, F.; Piccazzo, M.

    2006-06-01

    The many trails existing in the coastal area of Portofino Promontory are used by tourists for trekking or as pathways to small villages and beaches. The aim of this paper is to define geomorphological hazard and tourist vulnerability in this area, within the framework of the management and planning of hiking activities in Portofino Natural Park. In particular, processes triggered by gravity, running waters and wave motion, affecting the slopes and the cliff, are considered. The typology of the trails and trail maintenance are also taken into account in relation to weather conditions that can make the excursion routes dangerous for tourists. In conclusion, an operative model is applied for the definition of possible risk scenarios. This model is founded on an inventory and the quantification of geomorphological hazards and tourist vulnerability, in comparison with trail rescue data. The model can be applied to other environments and tourist areas.

  19. DNR Division of Parks and Trails District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data shows the DNR Division of Parks and Trails District Boundaries as of May 2010. The boundaries were created by the Division Leadership Team. Boundaries are...

  20. pupil initiatives in urban nature trail development: pmb moss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    .ritzburg is provided. Negotiations and procedures initiated by standard 9 pupils in stimulating authorities and the public to recog~ nise the need for urban trail development and metropolitan open space. (MOSS) are outlined. long-tenn ...

  1. The Paracrine Induction of TRAIL by Genotoxic Agents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spalding, Aaron

    2002-01-01

    TNF related apoptosis inducing ligand, TRAIL, is a recently cloned cytokine that has been shown to induce apoptosis in a synergistic fashion with chemotherapeutic agents on several cancer cell lines...

  2. Trailing Edge Noise Model Validation and Application to Airfoil Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bak, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is twofold. First, an existing trailing edge noise model is validated by comparing with airfoil surface pressure fluctuations and far field sound pressure levels measured in three different experiments. The agreement is satisfactory in one case but poor in two other cases...... across the boundary layer near the trailing edge and to a lesser extent by a smaller boundary layer displacement thickness. ©2010 American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  3. Universality of collapsing two-dimensional self-avoiding trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, D P

    2009-01-01

    Results of a numerically exact transfer matrix calculation for the model of interacting self-avoiding trails are presented. The results lead to the conclusion that at the collapse transition, self-avoiding trails are in the same universality class as the O(n = 0) model of Bloete and Nienhuis (or vertex-interacting self-avoiding walk), which has thermal exponent ν = 12/23, contrary to previous conjectures. (fast track communication)

  4. Older workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ybema,J.F.; Giesen, F.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ageing population and global economic competition, there is a societal need for people to extend their working lives while maintaining high work productivity. This article presents an overview of the labour participation, job performance, and job characteristics of older workers in the

  5. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  6. Sesquiterpenes with TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity from Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Ishikawa, Naoki; Toume, Kazufumi; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2015-08-01

    The ability of TRAIL to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells while sparing normal cells makes it an attractive target for the development of new cancer therapy. In search of bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance from natural resources, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionations of the extract of Xanthium strumarium led to the isolation of five sesquiterpene compounds (1-5). 11α,13-dihydroxanthinin (2) and 11α,13-dihydroxanthuminol (3) were first isolated from natural resources and xanthinosin (1), desacetylxanthanol (4), and lasidiol p-methoxybenzoate (5) were known compounds. All compounds (1-5) showed potent TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 8, 20, 20, 16, and 16 μM, respectively, in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. Compounds 1 and 5 enhanced the levels of apoptosis inducing proteins DR4, DR5, p53, CHOP, Bax, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 and also decreased the levels of cell survival protein Bcl-2 in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells in a dose-dependent manner. Compound 1 also enhanced the levels of DR4 and DR5 proteins in a time-dependent manner. Thus, compounds 1 and 5 were found to induce both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic cell death. Compound 1 also exhibit TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity in DLD1, DU145, HeLa, and MCF7 cells but did not decrease viability in non-cancer HEK293 cells up to 8 μM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cuticular Hydrocarbons of Tribolium confusum Larvae Mediate Trail Following and Host Recognition in the Ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürstenau, Benjamin; Hilker, Monika

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic wasps which attack insects infesting processed stored food need to locate their hosts hidden inside these products. Their host search is well-known to be guided by host kairomones, perceived via olfaction or contact. Among contact kairomones, host cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) may provide reliable information for a parasitoid. However, the chemistry of CHC profiles of hosts living in processed stored food products is largely unknown. Here we showed that the ectoparasitoid Holepyris sylvanidis uses CHCs of its host Tribolium confusum, a worldwide stored product pest, as kairomones for host location and recognition at short range. Chemical analysis of T. confusum larval extracts by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry revealed a rich blend of long-chain (C25-C30) hydrocarbons, including n-alkanes, mono-, and dimethylalkanes. We further studied whether host larvae leave sufficient CHCs on a substrate where they walk along, thus allowing parasitoids to perceive a CHC trail and follow it to their host larvae. We detected 18 CHCs on a substrate that had been exposed to host larvae. These compounds were also found in crude extracts of host larvae and made up about a fifth of the CHC amount extracted. Behavioral assays showed that trails of host CHCs were followed by the parasitoids and reduced their searching time until successful host recognition. Host CHC trails deposited on different substrates were persistent for about a day. Hence, the parasitoid H. sylvanidis exploits CHCs of T. confusum larvae for host finding by following host CHC trails and for host recognition by direct contact with host larvae.

  8. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Jun Zhu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989. It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed that this was caused by a lack in the model to predict accurately noise from blunt trailing edges. For more physical understanding of bluntness noise generation, in this study, we also use an advanced in-house developed high-order computational aero-acoustic technique to investigate the details associated with trailing edge bluntness noise. The results from the numerical model form the basis for an improved Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini trailing edge bluntness noise model.

  9. Leading and Trailing Anvil Clouds of West African Squall Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrone, Jasmine; Houze, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    The anvil clouds of tropical squall-line systems over West Africa have been examined using cloud radar data and divided into those that appear ahead of the leading convective line and those on the trailing side of the system. The leading anvils are generally higher in altitude than the trailing anvil, likely because the hydrometeors in the leading anvil are directly connected to the convective updraft, while the trailing anvil generally extends out of the lower-topped stratiform precipitation region. When the anvils are subdivided into thick, medium, and thin portions, the thick leading anvil is seen to have systematically higher reflectivity than the thick trailing anvil, suggesting that the leading anvil contains numerous larger ice particles owing to its direct connection to the convective region. As the leading anvil ages and thins, it retains its top. The leading anvil appears to add hydrometeors at the highest altitudes, while the trailing anvil is able to moisten a deep layer of the atmosphere.

  10. Cohort Profile Update: The TRacking Adolescents’ Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith GM; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoek, Hans W; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma AM; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-01-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N = 2230) and a clinical cohort (N = 543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort has been assessed four times over a period of 8 years, with retention rates ranging between 77% and 85%. Since the IJE published a cohort profile on the TRAILS in 2008, the participants have matured from adolescents into young adults. The focus shifted from parents and school to entry into the labour market and family formation, including offspring. Furthermore, psychiatric diagnostic interviews were administered, the database was linked to a Psychiatric Case Registry, and the availability of genome-wide SNP variations opened the door to genome-wide association studies regarding a wide range of (endo)phenotypes. With some delay, TRAILS data are available to researchers outside the TRAILS consortium without costs; access can be obtained by submitting a publication proposal (see www.trails.nl). PMID:25431468

  11. Cohort Profile Update: the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Rosmalen, Judith Gm; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hoek, Hans W; Ormel, Johan; Raven, Dennis; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma Am; Hartman, Catharina A

    2015-02-01

    TRAILS consists of a population cohort (N=2230) and a clinical cohort (N=543), both of which were followed from about age 11 years onwards. To date, the population cohort has been assessed five times over a period of 11 years, with retention rates ranging between 80% and 96%. The clinical cohort has been assessed four times over a period of 8 years, with retention rates ranging between 77% and 85%. Since the IJE published a cohort profile on the TRAILS in 2008, the participants have matured from adolescents into young adults. The focus shifted from parents and school to entry into the labour market and family formation, including offspring. Furthermore, psychiatric diagnostic interviews were administered, the database was linked to a Psychiatric Case Registry, and the availability of genome-wide SNP variations opened the door to genome-wide association studies regarding a wide range of (endo)phenotypes. With some delay, TRAILS data are available to researchers outside the TRAILS consortium without costs; access can be obtained by submitting a publication proposal (see www.trails.nl). © The Author 2014; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  12. Identification of TRAIL-inducing compounds highlights small molecule ONC201/TIC10 as a unique anti-cancer agent that activates the TRAIL pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Joshua E; Krigsfeld, Gabriel; Patel, Luv; Mayes, Patrick A; Dicker, David T; Wu, Gen Sheng; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2015-05-01

    We previously reported the identification of ONC201/TIC10, a novel small molecule inducer of the human TRAIL gene that improves efficacy-limiting properties of recombinant TRAIL and is in clinical trials in advanced cancers based on its promising safety and antitumor efficacy in several preclinical models. We performed a high throughput luciferase reporter screen using the NCI Diversity Set II to identify TRAIL-inducing compounds. Small molecule-mediated induction of TRAIL reporter activity was relatively modest and the majority of the hit compounds induced low levels of TRAIL upregulation. Among the candidate TRAIL-inducing compounds, TIC9 and ONC201/TIC10 induced sustained TRAIL upregulation and apoptosis in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. However, ONC201/TIC10 potentiated tumor cell death while sparing normal cells, unlike TIC9, and lacked genotoxicity in normal fibroblasts. Investigating the effects of TRAIL-inducing compounds on cell signaling pathways revealed that TIC9 and ONC201/TIC10, which are the most potent inducers of cell death, exclusively activate Foxo3a through inactivation of Akt/ERK to upregulate TRAIL and its pro-apoptotic death receptor DR5. These studies reveal the selective activity of ONC201/TIC10 that led to its selection as a lead compound for this novel class of antitumor agents and suggest that ONC201/TIC10 is a unique inducer of the TRAIL pathway through its concomitant regulation of the TRAIL ligand and its death receptor DR5.

  13. The Cafeteria Workers' Skills Enhancement Training Program. Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Miriam

    A program was conducted by the Food and Beverage Workers Union in Washington, D.C., to provide workplace literacy classes for food service workers in the city's government agencies, universities, and museums. A curriculum for workplace literacy skills was developed, sites were selected, and students were recruited. From a target audience of…

  14. BITC Sensitizes Pancreatic Adenocarcinomas to TRAIL-induced Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina A. Wicker

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is an aggressive cancer with a greater than 95% mortality rate and short survival after diagnosis. Chemotherapeutic resistance hinders successful treatment. This resistance is often associated with mutations in codon 12 of the K-Ras gene (K-Ras 12, which is present in over 90% of all pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Codon 12 mutations maintain Ras in a constitutively active state leading to continuous cellular proliferation. Our study determined if TRAIL resistance in pancreatic adenocarcinomas with K-Ras 12 mutations could be overcome by first sensitizing the cells with Benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC. BITC is a component of cruciferous vegetables and a cell cycle inhibitor. BxPC3, MiaPaCa2 and Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines were examined for TRAIL resistance. Our studies show BITC induced TRAIL sensitization by dual activation of both the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.

  15. Continuous Fraud Detection in Enterprise Systems through Audit Trail Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Best

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Enterprise systems, real time recording and real time reporting pose new and significant challenges to the accounting and auditing professions. This includes developing methods and tools for continuous assurance and fraud detection. In this paper we propose a methodology for continuous fraud detection that exploits security audit logs, changes in master records and accounting audit trails in enterprise systems. The steps in this process are: (1 threat monitoring-surveillance of security audit logs for ‘red flags’, (2 automated extraction and analysis of data from audit trails, and (3 using forensic investigation techniques to determine whether a fraud has actually occurred. We demonstrate how mySAP, an enterprise system, can be used for audit trail analysis in detecting financial frauds; afterwards we use a case study of a suspected fraud to illustrate how to implement the methodology.

  16. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2009-01-01

    , lead-lag, pitch, trailing-edge flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman-type dynamic stall model. In this work, a deformable trailing-edge flap has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave...... for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model is compared qualitatively to wind tunnel measurements of a Riso/ B1-18 blade section equipped with deformable trailing-edge flap devices in the form of piezoelectric devices. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  17. Hiking trails and tourism impact assessment in protected area: Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Ge, Xiaodong; Liu, Chunyan

    2005-09-01

    More and more visitors are attracted to protected areas nowadays, which not only bring about economic increase but also seriously adverse impacts on the ecological environment. In protected areas, trails are linkage between visitors and natural ecosystem, so they concentrate most of the adverse impacts caused by visitors. The trampling problems on the trails have been received attentions in the tremendous researches. However, few of them have correlated the environmental impacts to trail spatial patterns. In this project, the trails were selected as assessment objective, the trampling problems trail widening, multiple trail, and root exposure were taken as assessment indicators to assess ecological impacts in the case study area Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve, and two spatial index, connectivity and circularity, were taken to indicate the trail network spatial patterns. The research results showed that the appearing frequency of the trampling problems had inverse correlation with the circularity and connectivity of the trail network, while the problem extent had no correlation with the spatial pattern. Comparing with the pristine trails, the artificial maintenance for the trails such as wooden trails and flagstone trails could prohibit vegetation root from exposure effectively. The research finds will be useful for the future trail design and tourism management.

  18. Andrographolide sensitizes prostate cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruo-Jing Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a promising agent for anticancer therapy. The identification of small molecules that can establish the sensitivity of prostate cancer (PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is crucial for the targeted treatment of PCa. PC3, DU145, JAC-1, TsuPr1, and LNCaP cells were treated with Andrographolide (Andro and TRAIL, and the apoptosis was measured using the Annexin V/PI double staining method. Real time-polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to measure the expression levels of target molecules. RNA interference technique was used to down-regulate the expression of the target protein. We established a nude mouse xenograft model of PCa, which was used to measure the caspase-3 activity in the tumor cells using flow cytometry. In this research study, our results demonstrated that Andro preferentially increased the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at subtoxic concentrations, and the regulation mechanism was related to the up-regulation of DR4. In addition, it also increased the p53 expression and led to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the cells. Further research revealed that the DR4 inhibition, p53 expression, and ROS generation can significantly reduce the apoptosis induced by the combination of TRAIL and Andro in PCa cells. In conclusion, Andro increases the sensitivity of PCa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the generation of ROS and up-regulation of p53 and then promotes PCa cell apoptosis associated with the activation of DR4.

  19. Trailing edge noise model applied to wind turbine airfoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertagnolio, F.

    2008-01-15

    The aim of this work is firstly to provide a quick introduction to the theory of noise generation that are relevant to wind turbine technology with focus on trailing edge noise. Secondly, the socalled TNO trailing edge noise model developed by Parchen [1] is described in more details. The model is tested and validated by comparing with other results from the literature. Finally, this model is used in the optimization process of two reference airfoils in order to reduce their noise signature: the RISOE-B1-18 and the S809 airfoils. (au)

  20. A dynamic stall model for airfoils with deformable trailing edges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Dan Christian

    2007-01-01

    on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa [4], which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed......The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. [7]. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments...

  1. Improvement of airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    In this article, airfoil trailing edge bluntness noise is investigated using both computational aero-acoustic and semi-empirical approach. For engineering purposes, one of the most commonly used prediction tools for trailing edge noise are based on semi-empirical approaches, for example, the Brooks......, Pope, and Marcolini airfoil noise prediction model developed by Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini (NASA Reference Publication 1218, 1989). It was found in previous study that the Brooks, Pope, and Marcolini model tends to over-predict noise at high frequencies. Furthermore, it was observed...

  2. Outbreak of Neisseria meningitidis C in workers at a large food-processing plant in Brazil: challenges of controlling disease spread to the larger community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, B P M; Lima, H C A V; de Moraes, C; de Almeida, R P A; Watanabe, L T; Alves, S L A; Lemos, A P S; Gorla, M C O; Gonçalves, M G; Dos Santos, D A; Sobel, J

    2012-05-01

    SUMMARYAn outbreak of meningococcal disease (MD) with severe morbidity and mortality was investigated in midwestern Brazil in order to identify control measures. A MD case was defined as isolation of Neisseria meningitidis, or detection of polysaccharide antigen in a sterile site, or presence of clinical purpura fulminans, or an epidemiological link with a laboratory-confirmed case-patient, between June and August 2008. In 8 out of 16 MD cases studied, serogroup C ST103 complex was identified. Five (31%) cases had neurological findings and five (31%) died. The attack rate was 12 cases/100 000 town residents and 60 cases/100 000 employees in a large local food-processing plant. We conducted a matched case-control study of eight primary laboratory-confirmed cases (1:4). Factors associated with illness in single variable analysis were work at the processing plant [matched odds ratio (mOR) 22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·3-207·7, P10 000 plant employees) stopped propagation in the plant, but not in the larger community.

  3. Cloning and Characterization of Genes that Inhibit TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis of Breast Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shu, Hong-Bing

    2003-01-01

    ...). However, some cancer cells are resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis (3, 4, 6-13). The purpose of this proposed study is to clone and characterize such inhibitory genes of TRAIL-induced apoptosis...

  4. Modulators of Response to Tumor Necrosis-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) Therapy in Ovarian Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Behbakht, Kian

    2008-01-01

    .... TRAIL therapies are particularly exciting because TRAIL reverses chemoresistance to standard chemotherapy as well as having a direct growth inhibitory effect on ovarian cancer cells, while sparing normal...

  5. 3-Bromopyruvate enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells through CHOP-dependent upregulation of TRAIL-R2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zhou; Lele, Song; Zhirui, Zhang; Qiong, Pan; Yuzhong, Chen; Lingling, Liu; Surong, Zhao; Yiming, Sun; Pei, Zhang; Chenchen, Jiang; Liu, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Past reports have shown that the sensitivity of cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is related to their expression of TRAIL-death receptors on the cell surface. However, the level of TRAIL-death receptors expression on cancer cells is always low. Our previous research showed that nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells have a poor sensitivity to low doses of TRAIL. Here, we evaluated combined treatment with the energy inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) and TRAIL as a method to produce an increased apoptotic response in NPC cells. The results showed that 3BP and TRAIL together produced higher cytotoxicity and increased TRAIL-R2 expression in NPC cells compared with the effects of either 3BP or TRAIL alone. These findings led us to hypothesize that 3BP may sensitize NPC cells to TRAIL. 3BP is a metabolic blocker that inhibits hexokinase II activity, suppresses ATP production, and induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Our results showed that 3BP also activated AMP-activated protein kinase, which we found to play an important role in the induction of ER stress by 3BP. Furthermore, the induction of TRAIL-R2 expression and the sensitization of the NPC cells to TRAIL by 3BP were reduced when we inhibited the expression of CHOP. Taken together, our results showed that a low dose of 3BP sensitized NPC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis by the upregulation of CHOP, which was mediated by the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase and ER stress. The results showed that 3BP is a promising candidate agent for enhancing the therapeutic response to TRAIL in NPC.

  6. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Performance of Airfoils Fitted with Morphing Trailing Edges

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Qing; Kamliya Jawahar, Hasan; Azarpeyvand, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The aerodynamic performance and wake development of a NACA 0012 airfoil fitted with morphing trailing edges were studied using experimental and computational techniques. The NACA 0012 airfoil was tested with morphing trailing edges having various camber profiles with the same trailing edge tip deflection. The aerodynamic force measurements for the airfoil were carried out for a wide range of chord-based Reynolds number and angles of attack with trailing edge deflection angle of β= 5◦ and 10◦....

  7. Irradiation specifically sensitises solid tumour cell lines to TRAIL mediated apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Patrizia; Schmid, Angelika; Jendrossek, Verena; Faltin, Heidrun; Daniel, Peter T; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2005-01-01

    TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand) is an apoptosis inducing ligand with high specificity for malignant cell systems. Combined treatment modalities using TRAIL and cytotoxic drugs revealed highly additive effects in different tumour cell lines. Little is known about the efficacy and underlying mechanistic effects of a combined therapy using TRAIL and ionising radiation in solid tumour cell systems. Additionally, little is known about the effect of TRAIL combined with radiation on normal tissues. Tumour cell systems derived from breast- (MDA MB231), lung- (NCI H460) colorectal- (Colo 205, HCT-15) and head and neck cancer (FaDu, SCC-4) were treated with a combination of TRAIL and irradiation using two different time schedules. Normal tissue cultures from breast, prostate, renal and bronchial epithelia, small muscle cells, endothelial cells, hepatocytes and fibroblasts were tested accordingly. Apoptosis was determined by fluorescence microscopy and western blot determination of PARP processing. Upregulation of death receptors was quantified by flow cytometry. The combined treatment of TRAIL with irradiation strongly increased apoptosis induction in all treated tumour cell lines compared to treatment with TRAIL or irradiation alone. The synergistic effect was most prominent after sequential application of TRAIL after irradiation. Upregulation of TRAIL receptor DR5 after irradiation was observed in four of six tumour cell lines but did not correlate to tumour cell sensitisation to TRAIL. TRAIL did not show toxicity in normal tissue cell systems. In addition, pre-irradiation did not sensitise all nine tested human normal tissue cell cultures to TRAIL. Based on the in vitro data, TRAIL represents a very promising candidate for combination with radiotherapy. Sequential application of ionising radiation followed by TRAIL is associated with an synergistic induction of cell death in a large panel of solid tumour cell lines. However, TRAIL receptor

  8. 30 CFR 77.804 - High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Surface High-Voltage Distribution § 77.804 High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design requirements. (a) High-voltage trailing cables used in resistance grounded systems shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage trailing cables; minimum design...

  9. Comprehensive Trail Making Test Performance in Children and Adolescents with Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Daniel N.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik N.; Barney, Sally J.; Mayfield, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The sensitivity of the Trail Making Test to brain damage has been well-established over many years, making it one of the most commonly used tests in clinical neuropsychological evaluations. The current study examined the validity of scores from a newer version of the Trail Making Test, the Comprehensive Trail Making Test (CTMT), in children and…

  10. Home | Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Letters, 1846-1869 | Digital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections | HBLL BYU Harold B. Lee Library Collections Trails of Hope: Overland Diaries and Mormons--Religious Life Religious Life Women Browse Search Browse all Maps Interactive Maps These maps illustrations. Search Browse all Photographs and Illustrations Search Browse all Trail Guides Trails of Hope

  11. Initiation of trailing edge failure in full-scale wind turbine blade test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselbach, Philipp Ulrich; Branner, Kim

    2016-01-01

    non-linear buckling effect of the trailing edge under combined loading, and how it affects the ultimate strength of a blade in a trailing-edge failure dominated load direction were investigated. The study details the interaction between trailing edge buckling on damage onset and sandwich panel failure...

  12. Students’ Use of Knowledge Resources in Environmental Interaction on an Outdoor Learning Trail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Esther; So, Hyo-Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how students leveraged different types of knowledge resources on an outdoor learning trail. We positioned the learning trail as an integral part of the curriculum with a pre- and post-trail phase to scaffold and to support students’ meaning-making process. The study was conducted

  13. Promoting and developing a trail network across suburban, rural, and urban communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schasberger, Michele G; Hussa, Carol S; Polgar, Michael F; McMonagle, Julie A; Burke, Sharon J; Gegaris, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The Wyoming Valley Wellness Trails Partnership received an Active Living by Design grant late in 2003 for a project centered on a growing trail network linking urban, suburban, and rural communities in northeast Pennsylvania, a former coal region, in order to increase physical activity among residents. The partnership conducted research, collected information, created promotional documents, worked with partners on events and programs, and participated in trail planning. Local trail organizations continued planning and construction toward developing a trail network. Other partners spearheaded policy change in schools and worksites and worked toward downtown revitalization. The partnership assisted these efforts by providing a forum in which organizations could meet. The partnership became a central resource for information about local parks, trails, and outdoor recreational activities. The partnership increased awareness and use of recreational facilities. Trail partners constructed 22 miles of walking and biking trails. The partnership took advantage of an allied effort that created organizational capacity for wellness in schools and worksites. Messages promoting social and entertainment benefits of physical activity were more successful than those promoting health benefits. The existence of multiple small, independent trail organizations can help advance trail development through concurrent development efforts. Urban, suburban, and rural residents' conceptions of walkability may differ. Trails provide options for recreational and transportation-related physical activity across urban, suburban, and rural landscapes that are supported by all constituents. Trail builders can be strong allies in bringing active living to suburban and rural places.

  14. 30 CFR 75.907 - Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage... Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 75.907 Design of trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits. [Statutory Provisions] Trailing cables for medium-voltage circuits shall include grounding...

  15. 36 CFR 261.12 - National Forest System roads and trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and trails. 261.12 Section 261.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS General Prohibitions § 261.12 National Forest System roads and trails. The following... by a sign. (c) Damaging and leaving in a damaged condition any such road, trail, or segment thereof...

  16. 36 CFR 212.55 - Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... roads, trails, and areas. 212.55 Section 212.55 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.55 Criteria for designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General criteria for designation of...

  17. 36 CFR 212.51 - Designation of roads, trails, and areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Designation of roads, trails... AGRICULTURE TRAVEL MANAGEMENT Designation of Roads, Trails, and Areas for Motor Vehicle Use § 212.51 Designation of roads, trails, and areas. (a) General. Motor vehicle use on National Forest System roads, on...

  18. National forest trail users: planning for recreation opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    John J. Daigle; Alan E. Watson; Glenn E. Haas

    1994-01-01

    National forest trail users in four geographical regions of the United States are described based on participation in clusters of recreation activities. Visitors are classified into day hiking, undeveloped recreation, and two developed camping and hiking activity clusters for the Appalachian, Pacific, Rocky Mountain, and Southwestern regions. Distance and time traveled...

  19. Double blind clinical trail comparing the safety and efficacy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Double blind clinical trail comparing the safety and efficacy of nimesulide (100g) and diclofenac in osteoarthrosis of the hip and knee joints. ... A significant proportion of the patients in the diclofenac group (50% vs 17.6%) had break through pain that warranted the use of at least two tablets of 500mg of paracetamol per week ...

  20. Photography of a lithium vapor trail during the daytime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Barium and lithium vapors were released from sounding rockets in the thermosphere and observed from aboard a jet aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 ft. The purpose of the releases was to demonstrate the feasibility of an all-weather technique for observing chemical releases and to evaluate methods of observing daytime releases. The selected flight plan of the aircraft allowed a series of observations of the trail from two different straight line paths. Data were recorded photographically. The reduction in sky brightness at the 40,000-ft altitude as compared to the ground allows the use of a filter with a 10-A bandwidth for trail photography in the daytime. These photographs verified the calculation of the usable angular field of the narrow-band filters. Photographs of a 45-min-old trail of lithium vapor were obtained up to 20 min after sunrise at the aircraft. It is concluded that now vapor trail observations may be made during the daytime without regard to weather and logistic restrictions.

  1. The Clam Trail: Blending Science Education, Public Art, and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscio, Cara; Flimlin, Gef; Bushnell, Rick

    2011-01-01

    The Barnegat Bay Shellfish Restoration's Clam Trail is an award-winning scavenger hunt that combines science education, public art, and tourism. This family adventure has participants seeking out giant painted fiberglass clams, upweller clam nurseries, and points of interest in search of science facts to record on their forms. Upon returning these…

  2. Mobilizing coastal resources along a digitally facilitated pilgrim trail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meged, Jane Widtfeldt; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    The recently opened pilgrim trail, Camønoen represents an adapted collaborative business model and as such an appropriate case to study new coastal value creation processes. Our paper will follow the consolidation of Camønoen by analyzing its business model, the institutionalisation of brokers...

  3. Endonucleases induced TRAIL-insensitive apoptosis in ovarian carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geel, Tessa M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Meiss, Gregor [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gun, Bernardina T. van der; Kroesen, Bart Jan; Leij, Lou F. de [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Zaremba, Mindaugas; Silanskas, Arunas [Institute of Biotechnology, Vilnius LT-02241 (Lithuania); Kokkinidis, Michael [IMBB/FORTH and University of Crete/Department of Biology, GR-71409 Heraklion/Crete (Greece); Pingoud, Alfred [Institute of Biochemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Ruiters, Marcel H. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Synvolux therapeutics, Groningen (Netherlands); McLaughlin, Pamela M. [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands); Rots, Marianne G., E-mail: m.g.rots@med.umcg.nl [Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, Groningen University Institute for Drug Exploration (GUIDE), University Medical Center Groningen (UMCG), Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2009-09-10

    TRAIL induced apoptosis of tumor cells is currently entering phase II clinical settings, despite the fact that not all tumor types are sensitive to TRAIL. TRAIL resistance in ovarian carcinomas can be caused by a blockade upstream of the caspase 3 signaling cascade. We explored the ability of restriction endonucleases to directly digest DNA in vivo, thereby circumventing the caspase cascade. For this purpose, we delivered enzymatically active endonucleases via the cationic amphiphilic lipid SAINT-18{sup Registered-Sign }:DOPE to both TRAIL-sensitive and insensitive ovarian carcinoma cells (OVCAR and SKOV-3, respectively). Functional nuclear localization after delivery of various endonucleases (BfiI, PvuII and NucA) was indicated by confocal microscopy and genomic cleavage analysis. For PvuII, analysis of mitochondrial damage demonstrated extensive apoptosis both in SKOV-3 and OVCAR. This study clearly demonstrates that cellular delivery of restriction endonucleases holds promise to serve as a novel therapeutic tool for the treatment of resistant ovarian carcinomas.

  4. Mississippi National River and Recreation Area Water Trail Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Water Trail Plan describes the current conditions of and future plans for the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area (NRRA), a 72-mile stretch of the Mississippi River running through the Twin Cities region of Minnesota. In 2012, the NRRA...

  5. Physiological Responses of Senior Adults Running a Fit Trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundegren, Herberta; And Others

    In this 1977 study the heart rates of 51 men and women ranging in age from 22-72 were continuously monitored while the subjects walked or ran a modified parcour fitness trail. The length of the course, its gradient, the distance between exercise stations, and the elevation of the course were measured. Mean percentage max HR (Karvonen) values were…

  6. A morphing trailing edge flap system for wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Barlas, Athanasios; Løgstrup Andersen, Tom

    2015-01-01

    system has been further developed in corporation with the industrial partners Hydratech Industries (DK) and Rehau (DE). A new trailing edge flap design with spanwise voids (channels) and with a chord of 15cm suitable for a 1m chord blade section was developed. It was then manufactured by extrusion...

  7. Estimating soil erosion on hiking trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Warter, Maria; Peeters, Mattias; Kuppen, Emiel; Blok, Kas; Dilly, Lina

    2017-04-01

    Natural parks and protected natural areas provide excellent recreational opportunities for outdoor activities through the richness of the natural environment and the abundance of walking trails. Hiking, mountain biking and running have rapidly gained popularity over recent years increasing concerns about the erosion and degradation of hiking trails caused by (over)use. This is also the case in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park in southeast Spain, which is a popular destination for tourists due to its diverse fauna and flora. The increasing number of tourists together with the negative impacts of climate change necessitates a better understanding of the key soil erosion processes impacting hiking trails. There are 4 scenic trail routes in the Natural Park amounting to 21 km plus an additional network of unofficial trails. Apart from the heavy touristic traffic on the trails there are large trail running events with up to 1000 participants becoming increasingly popular, however local park authorities have voiced concerns about the impacts of these activities on the trails. Despite the popularity of walking trails around the world, there is a paucity of research exploring soil erosion from these features. Therefore, the aims of this study are: 1) to ascertain the amount of erosion that occurs on trails in the Sierra Mariola Natural Park, and 2) determine the key factors that influence soil erosion. Some 100 km of trails were evaluated (both official and unmarked trails), with route segments ranging between 2 and 10 km. A trail classification system was developed to group trail segments based on their surface characteristics (bedrock, gravel, mixed sediment, soil or man-made) and specific erosion features (rills, ditch-shaped, tilted). For each class, the average erosion rate was calculated which ranged from 262 t/ha for soil-based trails to 2006 t/ha for heavily eroded, ditch-shaped trails. The spatial distribution of the different erosion rates and trail types were

  8. Beyond cosmopolitanism and expat bubbles: challenging dominant representations of knowledge workers and trailing spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bochove, M.; Engbersen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Expatriates - in this paper understood as highly skilled temporary migrants and accompanying spouses - are generally portrayed either as cosmopolitans with universal ties or as organisation men or women who live in a local expat bubble. On the basis of 75 interviews with expatriates in the city of

  9. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. Irigenin sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptosis via enhancing pro-apoptotic molecules in gastric cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Gao, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Zhen-Guo; Zhou, Chuan-Wen

    2018-02-12

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) holds promising value for cancer therapy due to its capacity to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. Nevertheless, TRAIL therapy is greatly hampered by its resistance. Irigenin (Iri), isoflavonoids, can be isolated from the rhizome of Belamcanda chinensis, and has been shown anti-cancer properties. In this study, we explored if Iri could enhance TRAIL-regulated apoptosis in TRAIL resistant gastric cancer cells. Iri significantly potentiated TRAIL-triggered cytotoxicity. Iri alone and TRAIL alone showed no effective role in apoptosis induction, whereas combined treatment with Iri and TRAIL markedly induced apoptosis in cancer cells, as evidenced by the up-regulation of cleaved Caspase-8/-9/-3 and PARP. Additionally, the sensitization to TRAIL was along with the enhancement of pro-apoptotic proteins, including FAS-associated protein with death domain (FADD), death receptor 5 (DR5) and Bax. And suppressing FADD, DR5 and Bax by si RNA significantly reduced the apoptosis and enhanced the cell viability induced by the co-application of Iri and TRAIL. Moreover, the sensitization to TRAIL was accompanied by the decrease of Cellular-FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), Bcl-2 and Survivin. Additionally, Iri could sensitize TRAIL to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Pre-treatment of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), ROS scavenger, attenuated Iri plus TRAIL-induced apoptosis and improved cell viability. Finally, combination of Iri and TRAIL inhibited tumor growth in the xenograft model. Collectively, our present study gave new insights into the effects of Iri on potentiating TRAIL-sensitivity, and suggested that Iri could be a potential candidate for sensitizer of TRAIL-resistant cancer cell treatment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. High susceptibility of metastatic cells derived from human prostate and colon cancer cells to TRAIL and sensitization of TRAIL-insensitive primary cells to TRAIL by 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Won

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor recurrence and metastasis develop as a result of tumors' acquisition of anti-apoptotic mechanisms and therefore, it is necessary to develop novel effective therapeutics against metastatic cancers. In this study, we showed the differential TRAIL responsiveness of human prostate adenocarcinoma PC3 and human colon carcinoma KM12 cells and their respective highly metastatic PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A sublines and investigated the mechanism underlying high susceptibility of human metastatic cancer cells to TRAIL. Results PC3-MM2 and KM12L4A cells with high level of c-Myc and DNA-PKcs were more susceptible to TRAIL than their poorly metastatic primary PC3 and KM12 cells, which was associated with down-regulation of c-FLIPL/S and Mcl-1 and up-regulation of the TRAIL receptor DR5 but not DR4 in both metastatic cells. Moreover, high susceptibility of these metastatic cells to TRAIL was resulted from TRAIL-induced potent activation of caspase-8, -9, and -3 in comparison with their primary cells, which led to cleavage and down-regulation of DNA-PKcs. Knockdown of c-Myc gene in TRAIL-treated PC3-MM2 cells prevented the increase of DR5 cell surface expression, caspase activation and DNA-PKcs cleavage and attenuated the apoptotic effects of TRAIL. Moreover, the suppression of DNA-PKcs level with siRNA in the cells induced the up-regulation of DR5 and active caspase-8, -9, and -3. We also found that 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzaldehyde (DMNB, a specific inhibitor of DNA-PK, potentiated TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in relatively TRAIL-insensitive PC3 and KM12 cells and therefore functioned as a TRAIL sensitizer. Conclusion This study showed the positive relationship between c-Myc expression in highly metastatic human prostate and colon cancer cells and susceptibility to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and therefore indicated that TRAIL might be used as an effective therapeutic modality for advanced metastatic cancers overexpressing c-Myc and

  12. Recreational Trails Reduce the Density of Ground-Dwelling Birds in Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  13. The Prognostic Value of TRAIL and its Death Receptors in Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maduro, John H.; Noordhuis, Maartje G.; Hoor, Klaske A. ten; Pras, Elisabeth; Arts, Henriette J.G.; Eijsink, Jasper J.H.; Hollema, Harry; Mom, Constantijne H.; Jong, Steven de; Vries, Elisabeth G.E. de; Bock, Geertruida H. de; Zee, Ate G.J. van der

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Preclinical data indicate a synergistic effect on apoptosis between irradiation and recombinant human (rh) tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), making the TRAIL death receptors (DR) interesting drug targets. The aim of our study was to analyze the expression of DR4, DR5, and TRAIL in cervical cancer and to determine their predictive and prognostic value. Methods and Materials: Tissue microarrays were constructed from tumors of 645 cervical cancer patients treated with surgery and/or (chemo-)radiation between 1980 and 2004. DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression in the tumor was studied by immunohistochemistry and correlated to clinicopathological variables, response to radiotherapy, and disease-specific survival. Results: Cytoplasmatic DR4, DR5, and TRAIL immunostaining were observed in cervical tumors from 99%, 88%, and 81% of the patients, respectively. In patients treated primarily with radiotherapy, TRAIL-positive tumors less frequently obtained a pathological complete response than TRAIL-negative tumors (66.3% vs. 79.0 %; in multivariate analysis: odds ratio: 2.09, p ≤0.05). DR4, DR5, and TRAIL expression were not prognostic for disease-specific survival. Conclusions: Immunostaining for DR4, DR5, and TRAIL is frequently observed in the cytoplasm of tumor cells in cervical cancer patients. Absence of TRAIL expression was associated with a higher pathological complete response rate to radiotherapy. DR4, DR5, or TRAIL were not prognostic for disease-specific survival.

  14. Multiple effects of TRAIL in human carcinoma cells: Induction of apoptosis, senescence, proliferation, and cytokine production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levina, Vera; Marrangoni, Adele M.; DeMarco, Richard; Gorelik, Elieser; Lokshin, Anna E.

    2008-01-01

    TRAIL is a death ligand that induces apoptosis in malignant but not normal cells. Recently the ability of TRAIL to induce proliferation in apoptosis-resistant normal and malignant cells was reported. In this study, we analyzed TRAIL effects in apoptosis sensitive MCF7, OVCAR3 and H460 human tumor cell lines. TRAIL at low concentrations preferentially induced cell proliferation. At 100 ng/ml, apoptotic death was readily observed, however surviving cells acquired higher proliferative capacity. TRAIL-stimulated production of several cytokines, IL-8, RANTES, MCP-1 and bFGF, and activation of caspases 1 and 8 was essential for this effect. Antibodies to IL-8, RANTES, and bFGF blocked TRAIL-induced cell proliferation and further stimulated apoptosis. For the first time, we report that high TRAIL concentrations induced cell senescence as determined by the altered morphology and expression of several senescence markers: SA-β-gal, p21 Waf1/Cip1 , p16 INK4a , and HMGA. Caspase 9 inhibition protected TRAIL-treated cells from senescence, whereas inhibition of caspases 1 and 8 increased the yield of SLP cells. In conclusion, in cultured human carcinoma cells, TRAIL therapy results in three functional outcomes, apoptosis, proliferation and senescence. TRAIL-induced proapoptotic and prosurvival responses correlate with the strength of signaling. TRAIL-induced cytokine production is responsible for its proliferative and prosurvival effects

  15. Recreational trails reduce the density of ground-dwelling birds in protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bill

    2015-05-01

    Recreational disturbance associated with trails has been identified as one of the major factors causing a decline of native biodiversity within protected areas. However, despite the negative impacts that recreation can have on biodiversity, providing public access to nature is critical for the future of the conservation of biodiversity. As such, many protected area managers are looking for tools to help maintain a balance between public access and biodiversity conservation. The objectives of this study were to examine the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling bird communities in eastern North America, identify functional guilds which are particularly sensitive to recreational trails, and derive guidelines for trail design to assist in managing the impacts of recreational trails on forest-dwelling birds. Trails within 24 publicly owned natural areas were mapped, and breeding bird communities were described with the use of point count surveys. The density of forest birds, particularly of those species which nest or forage on the ground, were significantly positively influenced by the amount of trail-free refuge habitat. Although management options to control trail use in non-staffed protected areas are limited, this study suggests that protected area managers could design and maintain a trail network that would minimize impacts on resident wildlife, while providing recreational opportunities for visitors, by designing their trail network to maximize the area of trail-free habitat.

  16. Beneficial effect of TRAIL on HIV burden, without detectable immune consequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett D Shepard

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During uncontrolled HIV disease, both TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression are increased. Enhanced TRAIL sensitivity is due to TRAIL receptor up-regulation induced by gp120. As a result of successful antiretroviral therapy TRAIL is down-regulated, and there are fewer TRAIL-sensitive cells. In this setting, we hypothesized that all cells that contain virus, including those productively- and latently-infected, have necessarily been "primed" by gp120 and remain TRAIL-sensitive, whereas uninfected cells remain relatively TRAIL-resistant.We evaluated the immunologic and antiviral effects of TRAIL in peripheral blood lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication. The peripheral blood lymphocytes were treated with recombinant TRAIL or an equivalent amount of bovine serum albumin as a negative control. Treated cells were then analyzed by quantitative flow cytometry, ELISPOT for CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell function, and limiting dilution microculture for viral burden. Alterations in the cytokine milieu of treated cells were assessed with a multiplex cytokine assay. Treatment with recombinant TRAIL in vitro reduced viral burden in lymphocytes collected from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load. TRAIL treatment did not alter the cytokine milieu of treated cells. Moreover, treatment with recombinant TRAIL had no adverse effect on either the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral replication.TRAIL treatment may be an important adjunct to antiretroviral therapy, even in patients with suppressed viral replication, perhaps by inducing apoptosis in cells with latent HIV reservoirs. The absence of adverse effect on the quantity or function of immune cells from HIV-infected patients suggests that there is not a significant level of "bystander death" in uninfected cells.

  17. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Nathaniel D.; Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding “fall-line” alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes.This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long

  18. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric M Gese

    Full Text Available Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep, radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13% for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m. Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced

  19. The influence of snowmobile trails on coyote movements during winter in high-elevation landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gese, Eric M; Dowd, Jennifer L B; Aubry, Lise M

    2013-01-01

    Competition between sympatric carnivores has long been of interest to ecologists. Increased understanding of these interactions can be useful for conservation planning. Increased snowmobile traffic on public lands and in habitats used by Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis) remains controversial due to the concern of coyote (Canis latrans) use of snowmobile trails and potential competition with lynx. Determining the variables influencing coyote use of snowmobile trails has been a priority for managers attempting to conserve lynx and their critical habitat. During 2 winters in northwest Wyoming, we backtracked coyotes for 265 km to determine how varying snow characteristics influenced coyote movements; 278 km of random backtracking was conducted simultaneously for comparison. Despite deep snow (>1 m deep), radio-collared coyotes persisted at high elevations (>2,500 m) year-round. All coyotes used snowmobile trails for some portion of their travel. Coyotes used snowmobile trails for 35% of their travel distance (random: 13%) for a mean distance of 149 m (random: 59 m). Coyote use of snowmobile trails increased as snow depth and penetrability off trails increased. Essentially, snow characteristics were most influential on how much time coyotes spent on snowmobile trails. In the early months of winter, snow depth was low, yet the snow column remained dry and the coyotes traveled off trails. As winter progressed and snow depth increased and snow penetrability increased, coyotes spent more travel distance on snowmobile trails. As spring approached, the snow depth remained high but penetrability decreased, hence coyotes traveled less on snowmobile trails because the snow column off trail was more supportive. Additionally, coyotes traveled closer to snowmobile trails than randomly expected and selected shallower snow when traveling off trails. Coyotes also preferred using snowmobile trails to access ungulate kills. Snow compaction from winter recreation influenced coyote

  20. The influence of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss from recreational trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Nathaniel D; Marion, Jeffrey L

    2009-03-01

    Recreational uses of unsurfaced trails inevitably result in their degradation, with the type and extent of resource impact influenced by factors such as soil texture, topography, climate, trail design and maintenance, and type and amount of use. Of particular concern, the loss of soil through erosion is generally considered a significant and irreversible form of trail impact. This research investigated the influence of several use-related, environmental, and managerial factors on soil loss on recreational trails and roads at Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area, a unit of the U.S. National Park Service. Regression modeling revealed that trail position, trail slope alignment angle, grade, water drainage, and type of use are significant determinants of soil loss. The introduction of individual and groups of variables into a series of regression models provides improved understanding and insights regarding the relative influence of these variables, informing the selection of more effective trail management actions. Study results suggest that trail erosion can be minimized by avoiding "fall-line" alignments, steep grades, and valley-bottom alignments near streams, installing and maintaining adequate densities of tread drainage features, applying gravel to harden treads, and reducing horse and all-terrain vehicle use or restricting them to more resistant routes. This research also sought to develop a more efficient Variable Cross-Sectional Area method for assessing soil loss on trails. This method permitted incorporation of CSA measures in a representative sampling scheme applied to a large (24%) sample of the park's 526 km trail system. The variety of soil loss measures derived from the Variable CSA method, including extrapolated trail-wide soil loss estimates, permit an objective quantification of soil erosion on recreational trails and roads. Such data support relational analyses to increase understanding of trail degradation, and long-term monitoring of

  1. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban Training™ of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane Arbillaga-Etxarri

    Full Text Available Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park. We aimed to validate the trails' design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1 different intensities in COPD patients, and (2 same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults.On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression.In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD peak V̇O2 15.9 (3.5, 17.4 (4.7, and 17.7 (4.4 mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02, and MET-min 60 (23, 64 (26, 72 (31 (p-trend<0.01 in low, moderate and high intensity trails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces.We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails' intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community.

  2. 78 FR 76176 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the Final Trail Management Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... paddling; and improved parking facilities. Alternative 2A emphasized the importance of enhancing the... 1, the no-action alternative, the trails, authorized uses, and facilities addressed in this Plan/EIS... system, adoption of the Sustainable Trail Guidelines, and the consideration of trail facilities. Trail...

  3. Advanced Trailing Edge Blowing Concepts for Fan Noise Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cezar RIZEA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study documents trailing edge blowing research performed to reduce rotor / stator interaction noise in turbofan engines. The existing technique of filling every velocity deficit requires a large amount of air and is therefore impractical. The purpose of this research is to investigate new blowing configurations in order to achieve noise reduction with lesser amounts of air. Using the new configurations air is not injected into every fan blade, but is instead varied circumferentially. For example, blowing air may be applied to alternating fan blades. This type of blowing configuration both reduces the amount of air used and changes the spectral shape of the tonal interaction noise. The original tones at the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are reduced and new tones are introduced between them. This change in the tonal spectral shape increases the performance of acoustic liners used in conjunction with trailing edge blowing.

  4. The Global and Local Characters of Mars Perihelion Cloud Trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Wolff, M. J.; Smith, M. D.; Cantor, B. A.; Spiga, A.

    2014-12-01

    We present the seasonal and spatial distribution of Mars perihelion cloud trails as mapped from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) MARCI (Mars Color Imager) imaging observations in 2 ultraviolet and 3 visible filters. The extended 2007-2013 period of MARCI daily global image maps reveals the widespread distribution of these high altitude clouds, which are somewhat paradoxically associated with specific surface regions. They appear as longitudinally extended (300-700 km) cloud trails with distinct leading plumes of substantial ice cloud optical depths (0.02-0.2) for such high altitudes of occurrence (40-50 km, from cloud surface shadow measurements). These plumes generate small ice particles (Reff~1 to reflect locally elevated mesospheric water ice formation that may impact the global expression of mesospheric water ice aerosols.

  5. A Dynamic Stall Model for Airfoils with Deformable Trailing Edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter Bjoern; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian; Hansen, Morten Hartvig

    2007-01-01

    The present work contains an extension of the Beddoes-Leishman (B-L) type dynamic stall model, as described by Hansen et al. In this work a Deformable Trailing Edge Geometry (DTEG) has been added to the dynamic stall model. The model predicts the unsteady aerodynamic forces and moments on an airfoil section undergoing arbitrary motion in heave, lead-lag, pitch, Trailing Edge (TE) flapping. In the linear region, the model reduces to the inviscid model of Gaunaa, which includes the aerodynamic effect of a thin airfoil with a deformable camberline in inviscid flow. Therefore, the proposed model can be considered a crossover between the work of Gaunaa for the attached flow region and Hansen et al. The model will be compared to wind tunnel measurements from Velux described by Bak et al

  6. The Relationship between Trail Running Withdrawals and Race Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Philippe Roberta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: A growing amount of recent research in sport psychology has focused on trying to understand withdrawals from ultra-races. However, according to the Four E approach, the studies underestimated the embedded components of these experiences and particularly how they were linked to the specific environmental conditions in which the experiences occurred. Objective: This study aimed to characterize trail running withdrawals in relationship to race topography. Design: Qualitative design, involving self-confrontation interviews and use of a race map. Setting: Use of the race map for description of the race activity and self-confrontation interviews took place 1–3 days after the races. Participants: Ten runners who withdrew during an ultra-trail race. Data Collection and Analysis: Data on past activity traces and experiences were elicited from self-confrontation interviews. Data were coded and compared to identify common sequences and then each type of sequence was counted with regard to race topography. Results: Results showed that each sequence was related to runners’ particular possibilities for acting, feeling, and thinking, which were in turn embedded in the race topography. These sequences allowed the unfolding of the activity and increased its overall effectiveness in relation to the constraints of this specific sport. Conclusion: This study allowed us to highlight important information on how ultra-trail runners manage their races in relationship to the race environment and more specifically to its topography. The result will also help us to recommend potential adjustments to ultra-trail runners’ performance-oriented training and preparation.

  7. Study on Trailing Edge Ramp of Supercritical Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    China Abstract Trailing edge flow control method could improve the performance of supercritical airfoil with a small modification on the original...stall behaviour . As a result, the non-separation ramp could increase the thickness of airfoil, which benefits wing structure and aerodynamic...direction based on the original RAE2822 airfoil, which will thicken the airfoil. The interpolation is implemented as shown in Eqn. 1. This modification could

  8. Design methodology for wing trailing edge device mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Pires, Rui Miguel

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few decades the design of high lift devices has become a very important part of the total aircraft design process. Reviews of the design process are performed on a regular basis, with the intent to improve and optimize the design process. This thesis describes a new and innovative methodology for the design and evaluation of mechanisms for Trailing Edge High-Lift devices. The initial research reviewed existing High-Lift device design methodologies and current f...

  9. Road Expansion and Its Influence on Trail Sustainability in Bhutan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiichi Ito

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bhutan was an inhabited wilderness until 1961, when road construction started after the closure of the Tibetan border. Since then, the road network has expanded from the Indian boarder, often tracing traditional trails. This has accelerated commerce as well as movement of people from India, benefitting both the Bhutanese and foreign tourists. At the same time, dependence on imported automobiles and fossil fuel has risen, and roadless areas have begun to shrink. This brought an inevitable loss of traditional environmental knowledge, such as the care of mules for packing, and reduction in physical and mental health among the Bhutanese. People who lost jobs as horsemen moved into towns to find jobs. Road extension is also a double-edged sword for visitors. It has resulted in shrinking trekking areas and loss of traditional culture, both of which have been sacrificed for easy access. Protected areas often function as fortifications against mechanical civilization. However, protected-area status or its zoning does not guarantee that an area will remain roadless where there is considerable resident population. An analysis in Jigme Dorji National Park showed the gradual retreat of trailheads and increasing dependence on automobiles among residents and trekkers. B. MacKaye, a regional planner in the Eastern United States, proposed using trails as a tool to control such mechanical civilization. His philosophy of regional planning suggests two measures; one is consolidated trailheads as dams, and the other is confinement of roads by levees, consisting of new trails and wilderness belts. According to case studies, the author proposed six options for coexistence of trails with roads.

  10. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation

  11. Using cognitive status to predict crash risk: blazing new trails?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staplin, Loren; Gish, Kenneth W; Sifrit, Kathy J

    2014-02-01

    A computer-based version of an established neuropsychological paper-and-pencil assessment tool, the Trail-Making Test, was applied with approximately 700 drivers aged 70 years and older in offices of the Maryland Motor Vehicle Administration. This was a volunteer sample that received a small compensation for study participation, with an assurance that their license status would not be affected by the results. Analyses revealed that the study sample was representative of Maryland older drivers with respect to age and indices of prior driving safety. The relationship between drivers' scores on the Trail-Making Test and prospective crash experience was analyzed using a new outcome measure that explicitly takes into account error responses as well as correct responses, the error-compensated completion time. For the only reliable predictor of crash risk, Trail-Making Test Part B, this measure demonstrated a modest gain in specificity and was a more significant predictor of future safety risk than the simple time-to-completion measure. Improved specificity and the potential for autonomous test administration are particular advantages of this measure for use with large populations, in settings such as health care or driver licensing. © 2013.

  12. Asymptotic theory of two-dimensional trailing-edge flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.

    1975-01-01

    Problems of laminar and turbulent viscous interaction near trailing edges of streamlined bodies are considered. Asymptotic expansions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the limit of large Reynolds numbers are used to describe the local solution near the trailing edge of cusped or nearly cusped airfoils at small angles of attack in compressible flow. A complicated inverse iterative procedure, involving finite-difference solutions of the triple-deck equations coupled with asymptotic solutions of the boundary values, is used to accurately solve the viscous interaction problem. Results are given for the correction to the boundary-layer solution for drag of a finite flat plate at zero angle of attack and for the viscous correction to the lift of an airfoil at incidence. A rational asymptotic theory is developed for treating turbulent interactions near trailing edges and is shown to lead to a multilayer structure of turbulent boundary layers. The flow over most of the boundary layer is described by a Lighthill model of inviscid rotational flow. The main features of the model are discussed and a sample solution for the skin friction is obtained and compared with the data of Schubauer and Klebanoff for a turbulent flow in a moderately large adverse pressure gradient.

  13. User Manual for SAHM package for VisTrails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbert, C.B.; Talbert, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The Software for Assisted Habitat I\\•1odeling (SAHM) has been created to both expedite habitat modeling and help maintain a record of the various input data, pre-and post-processing steps and modeling options incorporated in the construction of a species distribution model. The four main advantages to using the combined VisTrail: SAHM package for species distribution modeling are: 1. formalization and tractable recording of the entire modeling process 2. easier collaboration through a common modeling framework 3. a user-friendly graphical interface to manage file input, model runs, and output 4. extensibility to incorporate future and additional modeling routines and tools. This user manual provides detailed information on each module within the SAHM package, their input, output, common connections, optional arguments, and default settings. This information can also be accessed for individual modules by right clicking on the documentation button for any module in VisTrail or by right clicking on any input or output for a module and selecting view documentation. This user manual is intended to accompany the user guide which provides detailed instructions on how to install the SAHM package within VisTrails and then presents information on the use of the package.

  14. Vortex coupling in trailing vortex-wing interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Wang, Z.; Gursul, I.

    2018-03-01

    The interaction of trailing vortices of an upstream wing with rigid and flexible downstream wings has been investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel, using particle image velocimetry, hot-wire, force, and deformation measurements. Counter-rotating upstream vortices exhibit increased meandering when they are close to the tip of the downstream wing. The upstream vortex forms a pair with the vortex shed from the downstream wing and then exhibits large displacements around the wing tip. This coupled motion of the pair has been found to cause large lift fluctuations on the downstream wing. The meandering of the vortex pair occurs at the natural meandering frequency of the isolated vortex, with a low Strouhal number, and is not affected by the frequency of the large-amplitude wing oscillations if the downstream wing is flexible. The displacement of the leading vortex is larger than that of the trailing vortex; however, it causes highly correlated variations of the core radius, core vorticity, and circulation of the trailing vortex with the coupled meandering motion. In contrast, co-rotating vortices do not exhibit any increased meandering.

  15. Analysis of the impact of recreational trail usage for prioritising management decisions: a regression tree approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczyk, Aleksandra; Ewertowski, Marek; White, Piran; Kasprzak, Leszek

    2016-04-01

    The dual role of many Protected Natural Areas in providing benefits for both conservation and recreation poses challenges for management. Although recreation-based damage to ecosystems can occur very quickly, restoration can take many years. The protection of conservation interests at the same as providing for recreation requires decisions to be made about how to prioritise and direct management actions. Trails are commonly used to divert visitors from the most important areas of a site, but high visitor pressure can lead to increases in trail width and a concomitant increase in soil erosion. Here we use detailed field data on condition of recreational trails in Gorce National Park, Poland, as the basis for a regression tree analysis to determine the factors influencing trail deterioration, and link specific trail impacts with environmental, use related and managerial factors. We distinguished 12 types of trails, characterised by four levels of degradation: (1) trails with an acceptable level of degradation; (2) threatened trails; (3) damaged trails; and (4) heavily damaged trails. Damaged trails were the most vulnerable of all trails and should be prioritised for appropriate conservation and restoration. We also proposed five types of monitoring of recreational trail conditions: (1) rapid inventory of negative impacts; (2) monitoring visitor numbers and variation in type of use; (3) change-oriented monitoring focusing on sections of trail which were subjected to changes in type or level of use or subjected to extreme weather events; (4) monitoring of dynamics of trail conditions; and (5) full assessment of trail conditions, to be carried out every 10-15 years. The application of the proposed framework can enhance the ability of Park managers to prioritise their trail management activities, enhancing trail conditions and visitor safety, while minimising adverse impacts on the conservation value of the ecosystem. A.M.T. was supported by the Polish Ministry of

  16. Accurate Natural Trail Detection Using a Combination of a Deep Neural Network and Dynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shyam Prasad; Yang, Changju; Slot, Krzysztof; Kim, Hyongsuk

    2018-01-10

    This paper presents a vision sensor-based solution to the challenging problem of detecting and following trails in highly unstructured natural environments like forests, rural areas and mountains, using a combination of a deep neural network and dynamic programming. The deep neural network (DNN) concept has recently emerged as a very effective tool for processing vision sensor signals. A patch-based DNN is trained with supervised data to classify fixed-size image patches into "trail" and "non-trail" categories, and reshaped to a fully convolutional architecture to produce trail segmentation map for arbitrary-sized input images. As trail and non-trail patches do not exhibit clearly defined shapes or forms, the patch-based classifier is prone to misclassification, and produces sub-optimal trail segmentation maps. Dynamic programming is introduced to find an optimal trail on the sub-optimal DNN output map. Experimental results showing accurate trail detection for real-world trail datasets captured with a head mounted vision system are presented.

  17. The impact of glide phases on the trackability of hydrodynamic trails in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieskotten, S; Dehnhardt, G; Mauck, B; Miersch, L; Hanke, W

    2010-11-01

    The mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) constitute a highly sensitive hydrodynamic receptor system enabling the seals to detect and follow hydrodynamic trails. In the wild, hydrodynamic trails, as generated by swimming fish, consist of cyclic burst-and-glide phases, associated with various differences in the physical parameters of the trail. Here, we investigated the impact of glide phases on the trackability of differently aged hydrodynamic trails in a harbour seal. As fish are not easily trained to swim certain paths with predetermined burst-and-glide phases, the respective hydrodynamic trails were generated using a remote-controlled miniature submarine. Gliding phases in hydrodynamic trails had a negative impact on the trackability when trails were 15 s old. The seal lost the generated trails more often within the transition zones, when the submarine switched from a burst to a glide moving pattern. Hydrodynamic parameter analysis (particle image velocimetry) revealed that the smaller dimensions and faster decay of hydrodynamic trails generated by the gliding submarine are responsible for the impaired success of the seal tracking the gliding phase. Furthermore, the change of gross water flow generated by the submarine from a rearwards-directed stream in the burst phase to a water flow passively dragged behind the submarine during gliding might influence the ability of the seal to follow the trail as this might cause a weaker deflection of the vibrissae. The possible ecological implications of intermittent swimming behaviour in fish for piscivorous predators are discussed.

  18. Assessing and Predicting Erosion from Off Highway Vehicle Trails in Front-Range Rocky Mountain Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, M. J.; Silins, U.; Anderson, A.

    2016-12-01

    Off highway vehicle (OHV) trails have the potential to deliver sediment to sensitive headwater streams and increased OHV use is a growing watershed management concern in many Rocky Mountain regions. Predictive tools for estimating erosion and sediment inputs are needed to support assessment and management of erosion from OHV trail networks. The objective of this study was to a) assess erodibility (K factor) and total erosion from OHV trail networks in Rocky Mountain watersheds in south-west Alberta, Canada, and to b) evaluate the applicability of the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) for predicting OHV trail erosion to support erosion management strategies. Measured erosion rates and erodibility (K) from rainfall simulation plots on OHV trails during the summers of 2014 and 2015 were compared to USLE predicted erosion from these same trails. Measured erodibility (K) from 23 rainfall simulation plots was highly variable (0.001-0.273 Mg*ha*hr/ha*MJ*mm) as was total seasonal erosion from 52 large trail sections (0.0595-43.3 Mg/ha) across trail segments of variable slope, stoniness, and trail use intensity. In particular, intensity of trail use had a large effect on both erodibility and total erosion that is not presently captured by erodibility indices (K) derived from soil characteristics. Results of this study suggest that while application of USLE for predicting erosion from OHV trail networks may be useful for initial coarse erosion assessment, a better understanding of the effect of factors such as road/trail use intensity on erodibility is needed to support use of USLE or associated erosion prediction tools for road/trail erosion management.

  19. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban Training™ of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbillaga-Etxarri, Ane; Torrent-Pallicer, Jaume; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Delgado, Anna; Balcells, Eva; Rodríguez, Diego A; Vilaró, Jordi; Vall-Casas, Pere; Irurtia, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high) in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park). We aimed to validate the trails' design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1) different intensities in COPD patients, and (2) same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults. On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression. In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD) peak V̇O2 15.9 (3.5), 17.4 (4.7), and 17.7 (4.4) mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02), and MET-min 60 (23), 64 (26), 72 (31) (p-trendtrails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces. We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails' intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community.

  20. U.S. Food System Working Conditions as an Issue of Food Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Megan L; Smith, Katherine C; Pollack, Keshia M; Neff, Roni A; Rutkow, Lainie

    2017-02-01

    Food workers' health and hygiene are common pathways to foodborne disease outbreaks. Improving food system jobs is important to food safety because working conditions impact workers' health, hygiene, and safe food handling. Stakeholders from key industries have advanced working conditions as an issue of public safety in the United States. Yet, for the food industry, stakeholder engagement with this topic is seemingly limited. To understand this lack of action, we interviewed key informants from organizations recognized for their agenda-setting role on food-worker issues. Findings suggest that participants recognize the work standards/food safety connection, yet perceived barriers limit adoption of a food safety frame, including more pressing priorities (e.g., occupational safety); poor fit with organizational strategies and mission; and questionable utility, including potential negative consequences. Using these findings, we consider how public health advocates may connect food working conditions to food and public safety and elevate it to the public policy agenda.

  1. Worker participation - the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Kwantes, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    Worker participation relates to the involvement of workers in the management decision-making processes. In this article attention is focused on worker participation related to occupational safety and health in the Netherlands. Worker participation can refer either to direct or indirect participation by the worker. Indirect participation involves employee representation, while direct participation relates to individual involvement in management’s decision-making processes. In the Framework Dir...

  2. Human embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells express TRAIL receptors and can be sensitized to TRAIL-Iiduced apoptosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vinarsky, V.; Krivanek, J.; Rankel, Liina; Nahácka, Zuzana; Barta, T.; Jaros, J.; Anděra, Ladislav; Hampl, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 22 (2013), s. 2964-2974 ISSN 1547-3287 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1971 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.100/02/0123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : TRAIL * apoptosis * pluripotent stem cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.202, year: 2013

  3. Candidate Gene Study of TRAIL and TRAIL Receptors: Association with Response to Interferon Beta Therapy in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Órpez-Zafra, Teresa; Pinto-Medel, María Jesús; Oliver-Martos, Begoña; Ortega-Pinazo, Jesús; Arnáiz, Carlos; Guijarro-Castro, Cristina; Varadé, Jezabel; Álvarez-Lafuente, Roberto; Urcelay, Elena; Sánchez-Jiménez, Francisca

    2013-01-01

    TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO) and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p = 8.88×10−4, pc = 0.048, OR = 0.30). This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A), a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells) were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS. PMID:23658636

  4. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horová, Vladimíra; Hradilová, Naďa; Jelínková, Iva; Koc, Michal; Švadlenka, Jan; Bražina, Jan; Klíma, Martin; Slavík, J.; Vaculová, Alena; Anděra, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 14 (2013), s. 3436-3450 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1971; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1730; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : acidification * apoptosis * caspase-8 * TRAIL * V- ATPase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  5. Inhibition of vacuolar ATPase attenuates the TRAIL-induced activation of caspase-8 and modulates the trafficking of TRAIL receptosomes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horová, Vladimíra; Hradilová, Naďa; Jelínková, Iva; Koc, Michal; Švadlenka, Jan; Bražina, Jan; Klíma, Martin; Slavík, J.; Vaculová, Alena; Anděra, Ladislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 280, č. 14 (2013), s. 3436-3450 ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/10/1971; GA ČR(CZ) GAP301/11/1730; GA MŠk 1M0506 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : acidification * apoptosis * caspase-8 * TRAIL * V-ATPase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.986, year: 2013

  6. Candidate gene study of TRAIL and TRAIL receptors: association with response to interferon beta therapy in multiple sclerosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos López-Gómez

    Full Text Available TRAIL and TRAIL Receptor genes have been implicated in Multiple Sclerosis pathology as well as in the response to IFN beta therapy. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association of these genes in relation to the age at disease onset (AAO and to the clinical response upon IFN beta treatment in Spanish MS patients. We carried out a candidate gene study of TRAIL, TRAILR-1, TRAILR-2, TRAILR-3 and TRAILR-4 genes. A total of 54 SNPs were analysed in 509 MS patients under IFN beta treatment, and an additional cohort of 226 MS patients was used to validate the results. Associations of rs1047275 in TRAILR-2 and rs7011559 in TRAILR-4 genes with AAO under an additive model did not withstand Bonferroni correction. In contrast, patients with the TRAILR-1 rs20576-CC genotype showed a better clinical response to IFN beta therapy compared with patients carrying the A-allele (recessive model: p = 8.88×10(-4, pc = 0.048, OR = 0.30. This SNP resulted in a non synonymous substitution of Glutamic acid to Alanine in position 228 (E228A, a change previously associated with susceptibility to different cancer types and risk of metastases, suggesting a lack of functionality of TRAILR-1. In order to unravel how this amino acid change in TRAILR-1 would affect to death signal, we performed a molecular modelling with both alleles. Neither TRAIL binding sites in the receptor nor the expression levels of TRAILR-1 in peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets (monocytes, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were modified, suggesting that this SNP may be altering the death signal by some other mechanism. These findings show a role for TRAILR-1 gene variations in the clinical outcome of IFN beta therapy that might have relevance as a biomarker to predict the response to IFN beta in MS.

  7. Interactions with combined chemical cues inform harvester ant foragers' decisions to leave the nest in search of food.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Greene

    Full Text Available Social insect colonies operate without central control or any global assessment of what needs to be done by workers. Colony organization arises from the responses of individuals to local cues. Red harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex barbatus regulate foraging using interactions between returning and outgoing foragers. The rate at which foragers return with seeds, a measure of food availability, sets the rate at which outgoing foragers leave the nest on foraging trips. We used mimics to test whether outgoing foragers inside the nest respond to the odor of food, oleic acid, the odor of the forager itself, cuticular hydrocarbons, or a combination of both with increased foraging activity. We compared foraging activity, the rate at which foragers passed a line on a trail, before and after the addition of mimics. The combination of both odors, those of food and of foragers, is required to stimulate foraging. The addition of blank mimics, mimics coated with food odor alone, or mimics coated with forager odor alone did not increase foraging activity. We compared the rates at which foragers inside the nest interacted with other ants, blank mimics, and mimics coated with a combination of food and forager odor. Foragers inside the nest interacted more with mimics coated with combined forager/seed odors than with blank mimics, and these interactions had the same effect as those with other foragers. Outgoing foragers inside the nest entrance are stimulated to leave the nest in search of food by interacting with foragers returning with seeds. By using the combined odors of forager cuticular hydrocarbons and of seeds, the colony captures precise information, on the timescale of seconds, about the current availability of food.

  8. Use Deflected Trailing Edge to Improve the Aerodynamic Performance and Develop Low Solidity LPT Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Li; Peigang, Yan; Xiangfeng, Wang; Wanjin, Han; Qingchao, Wang

    2017-08-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of improving the aerodynamic performance of low pressure turbine (LPT) blade cascades and developing low solidity LPT blade cascades through deflected trailing edge. A deflected trailing edge improved aerodynamic performance of both LPT blade cascades and low solidity LPT blade cascades. For standard solidity LPT cascades, deflecting the trailing edge can decrease the energy loss coefficient by 20.61 % for a Reynolds number (Re) of 25,000 and freestream turbulence intensities (FSTI) of 1 %. For a low solidity LPT cascade, aerodynamic performance was also improved by deflecting the trailing edge. Solidity of the LPT cascade can be reduced by 12.5 % for blades with a deflected trailing edge without a drop in efficiency. Here, the flow control mechanism surrounding a deflected trailing edge was also revealed.

  9. Cryptolepine, isolated from Sida acuta, sensitizes human gastric adenocarcinoma cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Firoj; Toume, Kazufumi; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ishibashi, Masami

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay guided separation of Sida acuta whole plants led to the isolation of an alkaloid, cryptolepine (1), along with two kaempferol glycosides (2-3). Compound 1 showed strong activity in overcoming TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells at 1.25, 2.5 and 5 μm. Combined treatment of 1 and TRAIL sensitized AGS cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis at the aforementioned concentrations. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Convenience foods. What, why, and when.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholliers, Peter

    2015-11-01

    An attempt is made to assess the academic interest in convenience foods in the past decades in order to introduce this special section on historical dimensions of convenience foods, prepared by FOST, a unit that investigates the history and culture of food (up to today). First, the rise of academic interest is trailed since the appearance of the concept in the 1920s and, next, themes in connection to this interest are considered (e.g., time, health, or gender). Then, definitions of convenience foods are tracked since the 1950s, which leads to suggesting a clear focus (linking convenience foods to home cooking of meals and industrially produced foods). The conclusion stresses the changing definition of the concept, as well as the need to gain historical insight in present-day issues related to convenience foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Restaurant food cooling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Laura Green; Ripley, Danny; Blade, Henry; Reimann, Dave; Everstine, Karen; Nicholas, Dave; Egan, Jessica; Koktavy, Nicole; Quilliam, Daniela N

    2012-12-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study.

  12. Food hygienics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Gwang Bae; Lee, Han Gi; Kim, Se Yeol

    1993-01-01

    This book deals with food hygienics with eighteen chapters, which mention introduction on purpose of food hygienics, administration of food hygienics, food and microscopic organism, sanitary zoology, food poisoning, food poisoning by poisonous substance, chronic poisoning by microscopic organism, food and epidemic control , control of parasitic disease, milk hygiene meat hygiene, an egg and seafood hygiene, food deterioration and preservation, food additives, food container and field hygiene, food facilities hygiene, food hygiene and environmental pollution and food sanitation inspection.

  13. Accelerometer and GPS Analysis of Trail Use and Associations With Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kosuke; Wilson, Jeffrey S; Puett, Robin C; Klenosky, David B; Harper, William A; Troped, Philip J

    2018-03-26

    Concurrent use of accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data can be used to quantify physical activity (PA) occurring on trails. This study examined associations of trail use with PA and sedentary behavior (SB) and quantified on trail PA using a combination of accelerometer and GPS data. Adults (N = 142) wore accelerometer and GPS units for 1-4 days. Trail use was defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive minutes occurring on a trail, based on GPS data. We examined associations between trail use and PA and SB. On trail minutes of light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity PA, and SB were quantified in 2 ways, using accelerometer counts only and with a combination of GPS speed and accelerometer data. Trail use was positively associated with total PA, moderate-intensity PA, and light-intensity PA (P GPS and accelerometer data for quantifying on trail activity may be more accurate than accelerometer data alone and is useful for classifying intensity of activities such as bicycling.

  14. Assessing the influence of sustainable trail design and maintenance on soil loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff; Wimpey, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Natural-surfaced trail systems are an important infrastructure component providing a means for accessing remote protected natural area destinations. The condition and usability of trails is a critical concern of land managers charged with providing recreational access while preserving natural conditions, and to visitors seeking high quality recreational opportunities and experiences. While an adequate number of trail management publications provide prescriptive guidance for designing, constructing, and maintaining natural-surfaced trails, surprisingly little research has been directed at providing a scientific basis for this guidance. Results from a review of the literature and three scientific studies are presented to model and clarify the influence of factors that substantially influence trail soil loss and that can be manipulated by trail professionals to sustain high traffic while minimizing soil loss over time. Key factors include trail grade, slope alignment angle, tread drainage features, and the amount of rock in tread substrates. A new Trail Sustainability Rating is developed and offered as a tool for evaluating or improving the sustainability of existing or new trails.

  15. CD25 targeted therapy of chemotherapy resistant leukemic stem cells using DR5 specific TRAIL peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakasam Madhumathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy resistant leukemic stem cells (LSCs are being targeted as a modern therapeutic approach to prevent disease relapse. LSCs isolated from methotrexate resistant side population (SP of leukemic cell lines HL60 and MOLT4 exhibited high levels of CD25 and TRAIL R2/DR5 which are potential targets. Recombinant immunotoxin conjugating IL2α with TRAIL peptide mimetic was constructed for DR5 receptor specific targeting of LSCs and were tested in total cell population and LSCs. IL2-TRAIL peptide induced apoptosis in drug resistant SP cells from cell lines and showed potent cytotoxicity in PBMCs derived from leukemic patients with an efficacy of 81.25% in AML and 100% in CML, ALL and CLL. IL2-TRAIL peptide showed cytotoxicity in relapsed patient samples and was more effective than TRAIL or IL2-TRAIL proteins. Additionally, DR5 specific IL2-TRAIL peptide was effective in targeting and killing LSCs purified from cell lines [IC50: 952 nM in HL60, 714 nM in MOLT4] and relapsed patient blood samples with higher efficacy (85% than IL2-TRAIL protein (46%. Hence, CD25 and DR5 specific targeting by IL2-TRAIL peptide may be an effective strategy for targeting drug resistant leukemic cells and LSCs.

  16. Assessing the influence of sustainable trail design and maintenance on soil loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L; Wimpey, Jeremy

    2017-03-15

    Natural-surfaced trail systems are an important infrastructure component providing a means for accessing remote protected natural area destinations. The condition and usability of trails is a critical concern of land managers charged with providing recreational access while preserving natural conditions, and to visitors seeking high quality recreational opportunities and experiences. While an adequate number of trail management publications provide prescriptive guidance for designing, constructing, and maintaining natural-surfaced trails, surprisingly little research has been directed at providing a scientific basis for this guidance. Results from a review of the literature and three scientific studies are presented to model and clarify the influence of factors that substantially influence trail soil loss and that can be manipulated by trail professionals to sustain high traffic while minimizing soil loss over time. Key factors include trail grade, slope alignment angle, tread drainage features, and the amount of rock in tread substrates. A new Trail Sustainability Rating is developed and offered as a tool for evaluating or improving the sustainability of existing or new trails. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Frequency-Weighted Model Predictive Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Couchman, Ian; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    flapwise blade root moment and trailing edge flap deflection. Frequency-weighted MPC is chosen for its ability to handle constraints on the trailing edge flaps deflection, and to target at loads with given frequencies only. The controller is first tested in servo-aeroelastic simulations, before being......This paper presents the load reduction achieved with trailing edge flaps during a full-scale test on a Vestas V27 wind turbine. The trailing edge flap controller is a frequency-weighted linear model predictive control (MPC) where the quadratic cost consists of costs on the zero-phase filtered...

  18. Effects of the built environment on childhood obesity: the case of urban recreational trails and crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, Robert; Tchernis, Rusty; Wilson, Jeffrey; Liu, Gilbert; Zhou, Xilin

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of urban environment on childhood obesity by concentrating on the effects of walking trails and crime close to children's homes on their BMI and obesity status. We use a unique dataset, which combines information on recreational trails in Indianapolis with data on violent crimes and anthropomorphic and diagnostic data from children's clinic visits between 1996 and 2005. We find that having a trail near a home reduces children's weight. However, the effect depends on the amount of nearby violent crimes. Significant reductions occur only in low crime areas and trails could have opposite effects on weight in high crime areas. These effects are primarily among boys, older children, and children who live in higher income neighborhoods. Evaluated at the mean length of trails this effect for older children in no crime areas would be a reduction of 2 lb of the body weight. Falsification tests using planned trails instead of existing trails, show that trails are more likely to be located in areas with heavier children, suggesting that our results on effects of trails represent a lower bound. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Female Sex Pheromone in Trails of the Minute Pirate Bug, Orius minutus (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Taro; Fujiwara-Tsujii, Nao; Yasui, Hiroe; Matsuyama, Shigeru

    2016-05-01

    Orius minutus (L.) (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) is a natural enemy of agricultural pests such as thrips, aphids, and various newly hatched insect juveniles. In this study, we conducted 1) behavioral assays for evidence of contact sex pheromone activity in trails of O. minutus, and 2) chemical analysis to identify the essential chemical components of the trails. Males showed arrestment to trails of mature virgin females but not to trails from either conspecific nymphs or immature females. Females also showed arrestment to trails from conspecific males, although the response was weaker than that exhibited by males. The activity of female trails lasted for at least 46 h after deposition. Males showed a response irrespective of mating experience. Following confirmation that a contact sex pheromone was present in the trails of female O. minutus, we used a bioassay-driven approach to isolate the active chemicals. After fractionation on silica gel, the n-hexane fraction was found to be biologically active to males. A major compound in the active fraction was (Z)-9-nonacosene; this compound was found only in trail extracts of mature virgin females. Synthetic (Z)-9-nonacosene arrested O. minutus males, indicating that it is the major active component of the contact sex pheromone in the trails of female O. minutus.

  20. Sodium arsenite accelerates TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in melanoma cells through upregulation of TRAIL-R1/R2 surface levels and downregulation of cFLIP expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Hei, Tom K.

    2006-01-01

    AP-1/cJun, NF-κB and STAT3 transcription factors control expression of numerous genes, which regulate critical cell functions including proliferation, survival and apoptosis. Sodium arsenite is known to suppress both the IKK-NF-κB and JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathways and to activate the MAPK/JNK-cJun pathways, thereby committing some cancers to undergo apoptosis. Indeed, sodium arsenite is an effective drug for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with little nonspecific toxicity. Malignant melanoma is highly refractory to conventional radio- and chemotherapy. In the present study, we observed strong effects of sodium arsenite treatment on upregulation of TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in human and mouse melanomas. Arsenite treatment upregulated surface levels of death receptors, TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2, through increased translocation of these proteins from cytoplasm to the cell surface. Furthermore, activation of cJun and suppression of NF-κB by sodium arsenite resulted in upregulation of the endogenous TRAIL and downregulation of the cFLIP gene expression (which encodes one of the main anti-apoptotic proteins in melanomas) followed by cFLIP protein degradation and, finally, by acceleration of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Direct suppression of cFLIP expression by cFLIP RNAi also accelerated TRAIL-induced apoptosis in these melanomas, while COX-2 suppression substantially increased levels of both TRAIL-induced and arsenite-induced apoptosis. In contrast, overexpression of permanently active AKTmyr inhibited TRAIL-mediated apoptosis via downregulation of TRAIL-R1 levels. Finally, AKT overactivation increased melanoma survival in cell culture and dramatically accelerated growth of melanoma transplant in vivo, highlighting a role of AKT suppression for effective anticancer treatment

  1. Analysis of the quality of hospital information systems Audit Trails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Boldt, Isabel; Lapão, Luís; Santos-Pereira, Cátia; Rodrigues, Pedro Pereira; Ferreira, Ana Margarida; Freitas, Alberto

    2013-08-06

    Audit Trails (AT) are fundamental to information security in order to guarantee access traceability but can also be used to improve Health information System's (HIS) quality namely to assess how they are used or misused. This paper aims at analysing the existence and quality of AT, describing scenarios in hospitals and making some recommendations to improve the quality of information. The responsibles of HIS for eight Portuguese hospitals were contacted in order to arrange an interview about the importance of AT and to collect audit trail data from their HIS. Five institutions agreed to participate in this study; four of them accepted to be interviewed, and four sent AT data. The interviews were performed in 2011 and audit trail data sent in 2011 and 2012. Each AT was evaluated and compared in relation to data quality standards, namely for completeness, comprehensibility, traceability among others. Only one of the AT had enough information for us to apply a consistency evaluation by modelling user behaviour. The interviewees in these hospitals only knew a few AT (average of 1 AT per hospital in an estimate of 21 existing HIS), although they all recognize some advantages of analysing AT. Four hospitals sent a total of 7 AT - 2 from Radiology Information System (RIS), 2 from Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS), 3 from Patient Records. Three of the AT were understandable and three of the AT were complete. The AT from the patient records are better structured and more complete than the RIS/PACS. Existing AT do not have enough quality to guarantee traceability or be used in HIS improvement. Its quality reflects the importance given to them by the CIO of healthcare institutions. Existing standards (e.g. ASTM:E2147, ISO/TS 18308:2004, ISO/IEC 27001:2006) are still not broadly used in Portugal.

  2. Water in the trail of the Chelyabinsk bolide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladysheva, O. G.

    2017-09-01

    At 03:20 UTC on February 15, 2013 a very bright bolide entered Earth's atmosphere. Fragments of the meteorite fell to the earth's surface. Examination of these fragments revealed that several of them were located directly on the surface of the celestial body [1], while the majority lay at a depth of less than 2.5 m from the surface [2, 3]. The stone meteorite's durability, >15 MPa, corresponded to Feng-Yun 2D discovered ice debris (water) in the bolide trail [6]. Here, we will demonstrate that the Chelyabinsk chondrite was delivered to the Earth by an ice-bearing celestial body.

  3. Airfoil Trailing Edge Noise Generation and Its Surface Pressure Fluctuation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows over a NACA 0015 airfoil is performed. The purpose of such numerical study is to relate the aerodynamic surface pressure with the noise generation. The results from LES are validated against detailed surface pressure measurements...... where the time history pressure data are recorded by the surface pressure microphones. After the flow-field is stabilized, the generated noise from the airfoil Trailing Edge (TE) is predicted using the acoustic analogy solver, where the results from LES are the input. It is found that there is a strong...

  4. Blazing the trail essays by leading women in science

    CERN Document Server

    Ideal, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Name a famous scientist. Got one? Now name a famous physicist. Ok, now name a famous female physicist. Ok, now name a famous living female physicist. Stumped? In Blazing the Trail: Essays by Leading Women in Science, 35 highly successful physicists, engineers, and chemists share their personal histories, their passion for discovery, and their secrets for success with the next generation. Essayists candidly recount their experiences – both positive and negative – with an uplifting tone, focusing on lessons learned along the way. The combination of personal stories and advice sends a powerful message to all young women considering scientific careers: I did it, so can you. Here’s how.

  5. ONC201 demonstrates anti-tumor effects in both triple negative and non-triple negative breast cancers through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Ralff, Marie D.; Kline, Christina L.B.; Küçükkase, Ozan C; Wagner, Jessica; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death. TRAIL has been of interest as a cancer therapeutic, but only a subset of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) is sensitive to TRAIL. The small molecule ONC201 induces expression of TRAIL and its receptor DR5. ONC201 has entered clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here we show that ONC201 is efficacious against both TNBC and non-TNBC cells (n=13). A subset of TNBC and non-TNBC cells succumb to ONC201-induced cell death. In 2/8 TNBC cell...

  6. SAHA-induced TRAIL-sensitisation of Multiple Myeloma cells is enhanced in 3D cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arhoma, A; Chantry, A D; Haywood-Small, S L; Cross, N A

    2017-11-15

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is currently incurable despite many novel therapies. Tumour Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL) is a potential anti-tumour agent although effects as a single agent are limited. In this study, we investigated whether the Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor SAHA can enhance TRAIL-induced apoptosis and target TRAIL resistance in both suspension culture, and 3D cell culture as a model of disseminated MM lesions that form in bone. The effects of SAHA and/or TRAIL in 6 Multiple Myeloma cell lines were assessed in both suspension cultures and in an Alginate-based 3D cell culture model. The effect of SAHA and/or TRAIL was assessed on apoptosis by assessment of nuclear morphology using Hoechst 33342/Propidium Iodide staining. Viable cell number was assessed by CellTiter-Glo luminescence assay, Caspase-8 and -9 activities were measured by Caspase-Glo™ assay kit. TRAIL-resistant cells were generated by culture of RPMI 8226 and NCI-H929 by acute exposure to TRAIL followed by selection of TRAIL-resistant cells. TRAIL significantly induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in OPM-2, RPMI 8226, NCI-H929, U266, JJN-3 MM cell lines and ADC-1 plasma cell leukaemia cells. SAHA amplified TRAIL responses in all lines except OPM-2, and enhanced TRAIL responses were both via Caspase-8 and -9. SAHA treatment induced growth inhibition that further increased in the combination treatment with TRAIL in MM cells. The co-treatment of TRAIL and SAHA reduced viable cell numbers all cell lines. TRAIL responses were further potentiated by SAHA in 3D cell culture in NCI-H929, RPMI 8226 and U266 at lower TRAIL + SAHA doses than in suspension culture. However TRAIL responses in cells that had been selected for TRAIL resistance were not further enhanced by SAHA treatment. SAHA is a potent sensitizer of TRAIL responses in both TRAIL sensitive and resistant cell lines, in both suspension and 3D culture, however SAHA did not sensitise TRAIL-sensitive cell

  7. Differences in the impacts of formal and informal recreational trails on urban forest loss and tree structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Recreational trails are one of the most common types of infrastructure used for nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking worldwide. Depending on their design, location, construction, maintenance and use, these trails differ in their environmental impacts. There are few studies, however, comparing the impacts of different trail types including between formal management-created trails and informal visitor-created trails. Although both types of trails can be found in remote natural areas, dense networks of them often occur in forests close to cities where they experience intense visitor use. To assess the relative impacts of different recreational trails in urban forests, we compared the condition of the trail surface, loss of forest strata and changes in tree structure caused by seven types of trails (total network 46.1 km) traversing 17 remnants of an endangered urban forest in Australia. After mapping and classifying all trails, we assessed their impact on the forest condition at 125 sites (15 sites per trail type, plus 15 control sites within undisturbed forest). On the trail sites, the condition of the trail surface, distance from the trail edge to four forest strata (litter, understory, midstorey and tree cover) and structure of the tree-line were assessed. Informal trails generally had poorer surface conditions and were poorly-designed and located. Per site, formal and informal trails resulted in similar loss of forest strata, with wider trails resulting in greater loss of forest. Because there were more informal trails, however, they accounted for the greatest cumulative forest loss. Structural impacts varied, with the widest informal trails and all formal hardened trails resulting in similar reductions in canopy cover and tree density but an increase in saplings. These structural impacts are likely a function of the unregulated and intense use of large informal trails, and disturbance from the construction and maintenance of formal trails

  8. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000130.htm Coal worker's pneumoconiosis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a lung disease that ...

  9. How Networks of Informal Trails Cause Landscape Level Damage to Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Marina Pickering, Catherine

    2017-07-01

    When visitors are not constrained to remain on formal trails, informal trail networks can develop and damage plant communities in protected areas. These networks can form in areas with low growing vegetation, where formal trails are limited, where there is limited regulation and where vegetation is slow to recover once disturbed. To demonstrate the extent of impacts from unregulated recreational use, we assessed damage to alpine vegetation by hikers and pack animals in the highest protected area in the southern Hemisphere: Aconcagua Park, in the Andes. Within the 237 ha area surveyed in the Horcones Valley, over 19 km of trails were found, nearly all of which (94%) were informal. This network of trails resulted in the direct loss of 11.5 ha of vegetation and extensive fragmentation of alpine meadows (21 fragments) and steppe vegetation (68 fragments). When levels of disturbance off these trails were quantified using rapid visual assessments, 81% of 102 randomly located plots showed evidence of disturbance, with the severity of disturbance greatest close to trails. As a result, vegetation in 90% of the Valley has been damaged by visitor use, nearly all of it from unregulated use. These results highlight the extent to which informal trails and trampling off-trail can cause landscape damage to areas of high conservation value, and hence the importance of better regulation of visitor use. The methodology used for off-trail impact assessment can be easily applied or adapted for other popular protected areas where trampling off-trail is also an issue.

  10. Validation of Walking Trails for the Urban TrainingTM of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbillaga-Etxarri, Ane; Torrent-Pallicer, Jaume; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Delgado, Anna; Balcells, Eva; Rodríguez, Diego A.; Vilaró, Jordi; Vall-Casas, Pere; Irurtia, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Accessible interventions to train patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are needed. We designed urban trails of different intensities (low, moderate and high) in different types of public spaces (boulevard, beach and park). We aimed to validate the trails’ design by assessing the physiological response to unsupervised walking trails of: (1) different intensities in COPD patients, and (2) same intensity from different public spaces in healthy adults. Methods On different days and under standardized conditions, 10 COPD patients walked the three intensity trails designed in a boulevard space, and 10 healthy subjects walked the three intensity trails in three different spaces. We measured physiological response and energy expenditure using a gas analyzer. We compared outcomes across trails intensity and/or spaces using mixed-effects linear regression. Results In COPD patients, physiological response and energy expenditure increased significantly according to the trails intensity: mean (SD) peak V˙O2 15.9 (3.5), 17.4 (4.7), and 17.7 (4.4) mL/min/kg (p-trend = 0.02), and MET-min 60 (23), 64 (26), 72 (31) (p-trendtrails, respectively. In healthy subjects there were no differences in physiological response to walking trails of the same intensity across different spaces. Conclusions We validated the trails design for the training of COPD patients by showing that the physiological response to and energy expenditure on unsupervised walking these trails increased according to the predefined trails’ intensity and did not change across trails of the same intensity in different public space. Walkable public spaces allow the design of trails that could be used for the training of COPD patients in the community. PMID:26766184

  11. Target Trailing With Safe Navigation for Maritime Autonomous Surface Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Michael; Kuwata, Yoshiaki; Zarzhitsky, Dimitri V.

    2013-01-01

    This software implements a motion-planning module for a maritime autonomous surface vehicle (ASV). The module trails a given target while also avoiding static and dynamic surface hazards. When surface hazards are other moving boats, the motion planner must apply International Regulations for Avoiding Collisions at Sea (COLREGS). A key subset of these rules has been implemented in the software. In case contact with the target is lost, the software can receive and follow a "reacquisition route," provided by a complementary system, until the target is reacquired. The programmatic intention is that the trailed target is a submarine, although any mobile naval platform could serve as the target. The algorithmic approach to combining motion with a (possibly moving) goal location, while avoiding local hazards, may be applicable to robotic rovers, automated landing systems, and autonomous airships. The software operates in JPL s CARACaS (Control Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing) software architecture and relies on other modules for environmental perception data and information on the predicted detectability of the target, as well as the low-level interface to the boat controls.

  12. Semiflexible crossing-avoiding trails on plane-filling fractals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Živić, I.; Elezović-Hadžić, S.; Milošević, S.

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the statistics of semiflexible polymer chains modeled by crossing-avoiding trails (CAT) situated on the family of plane-filling (PF) fractals. The fractals are compact, that is, their fractal dimension d_f is equal to 2 for all members of the fractal family. By applying the exact and Monte Carlo real-space renormalization group method we have calculated the critical exponent ν, which governs the scaling behavior of the end-to-end distance of the polymer, as well as the entropic critical exponent γ, for a large set of fractals, and various values of polymer flexibility. Our results, obtained for CAT model on PF fractals, show that both critical exponents depend on the polymer flexibility, in such a way that less flexible polymer chains display enlarged values of ν, and diminished values of γ. We have compared the obtained results for CAT model with the known results for the self-avoiding walk and self-avoiding trail models and discussed the influence of excluded volume effect on the values of semiflexible polymer critical exponents, for a large set of studied compact fractals.

  13. Current Interview Trail Metrics in the Otolaryngology Match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina; Chang, C W David; Puscas, Liana

    2017-06-01

    Objectives To identify how applicants to otolaryngology residency determine how to apply to, interview with, and rank programs on the interview trail and to determine the extent of the financial burden of the otolaryngology interview trail. Study Design Web-based survey distributed in March and April 2016. Setting Otolaryngology residency applicants throughout the United States. Subjects and Methods Applicants to otolaryngology residency during the 2016 match cycle and current otolaryngology residents were surveyed. Results Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked was not different during the 2016 match and the previous 5 match years. The most important factor affecting the number of applications was the need to apply widely to ensure sufficient interview offers. The most common reason for declining an interview offer was scheduling conflict. Applicants during the 2016 match spent a median of $5400 applying and interviewing for otolaryngology residency. Conclusions Median number of applications, interview offers, interviews attended, and programs ranked has not changed. The most cited reason for applying to many programs was to increase the chances of matching, but this is not statistically likely to increase match success. We advocate for continued attempts to make the otolaryngology match process more transparent for both applicants and resident selection committees, but recognize that applicants are likely to continue to overapply for otolaryngology residency positions.

  14. The influence of trailed vorticity on flutter speed estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirrung, Georg R; Madsen, Helge Aa; Kim, Taeseong

    2014-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the implementation of a coupled near and far wake model for wind turbine rotor induction in the aeroelastic code HAWC2 and its application for flutter analysis of the NREL 5 MW wind turbine. The model consists of a far wake part based on Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory, which is coupled with Beddoes' near wake model for trailed vorticity. The first part of this work outlines the implementation in HAWC2, with a focus on the interaction of the induction from the blade based near wake model with the induction from the polar grid based BEM model in HAWC2. The influence of the near wake model on the aeroelastic stability of the blades of the NREL 5 MW turbine in overspeed conditions is investigated in the second part of the paper. The analysis is based on a runaway case in which the turbine is free to speed up without generator torque and vibrations start building up at a critical rotor speed. Blades with modified torsional and flapwise stiffness are also investigated. A flutter analysis is often part of the stability investigations for new blades but is normally carried out with engineering models that do not include the influence of unsteady trailed vorticity. Including this influence results in a slightly increased safety margin against classical flutter in all simulated cases

  15. Experimental testing of spanwise morphing trailing edge concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankonien, Alexander; Inman, Daniel J.

    2013-04-01

    Aircraft wings with smooth, hinge-less morphing ailerons exhibit increased chordwise aerodynamic efficiency over conventional hinged ailerons. Ideally, the wing would also use these morphing ailerons to smoothly vary its airfoil shape between spanwise stations to optimize the lift distribution and further increase aerodynamic efficiency. However, the mechanical complexity or added weight of achieving such a design has traditionally exceeded the potential aerodynamic gains. By expanding upon the previously developed cascading bimorph concept, this work uses embedded Macro-Fiber Composites and a flexure box mechanism, created using multi-material 3D printing, to achieve the Spanwise Morphing Trailing Edge (SMTE) concept. The morphing actuators are spaced spanwise along the wing with an elastomer spanning the gaps between them, which allows for optimization of the spanwise lift distribution while maintaining the continuity and efficiency of the morphing trailing edge. The concept is implemented in a representative section of a UAV wing with a 305 mm chord. A novel honeycomb skin is created from an elastomeric material using a 3D printer. The actuation capabilities of the concept are evaluated with and without spanning material on a test stand, free of aerodynamic loads. In addition, the actuation restrictions of the spanning elastomer, necessary in adapting the morphing concept from 2D to 3D, are characterized. Initial aerodynamic results from the 1'×1' wind-tunnel also show the effects of aerodynamic loading on the actuation range of the SMTE concept for uniform morphing.

  16. Sex-specific trail pheromone mediates complex mate finding behavior in Anoplophora glabripennis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelli Hoover; Melody Keena; Maya Nehme; Shifa Wang; Peter Meng; Aijun Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a polyphagous member of the Cerambycidae, and is considered, worldwide, to be one of the most serious quarantine pests of deciduous trees. We isolated four chemicals from the trail of A. glabripennis virgin and mated females that were not present in trails of mature males. These compounds were...

  17. Comparative efficacy of multimodal digital methods in assessing trail/resource degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan O. Park

    2014-01-01

    Outdoor recreation can cause both positive and negative impacts on associated forest ecosystems. Forest recreation trails localize negative impacts to a controlled spatial extent while providing recreation access beyond developed areas and transportation networks. Current methods for assessing extent and severity of trail and proximal resource degradation require...

  18. Op het spoor van een 'multifunctionele' test: Over de geschiedenis van de Trail Making Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, P.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    De Trail Making Test is een van de meest gebruikte tests in de neuropsychologische praktijk. Hij ziet er gemakkelijk uit en al snel scoren patiënten slechter dan gezonden, het lijkt dus ook een gevoelig instrument. Net als andere populaire tests is de Trail Making al behoorlijk oud en heeft hij in

  19. 77 FR 37438 - Draft Trail Management Plan and Environmental Impact Statement for Cuyahoga Valley National Park...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [NPS-MWR-CUVA-10100; 6065-4000-409] Draft Trail... Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Availability. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS... blueprint to guide the expansion, elimination, restoration, management, and use of the trail system and its...

  20. Why Individuals Hike the Appalachian Trail: A Qualitative Approach to Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Marni; Hill, Eddie; Freidt, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    The Appalachian Trail (AT) is a 2,175 mile-long National Scenic Trail extending from Maine to Georgia. Since its inception in the early 1920s, individuals, families, schools, and other organizations, just to name a few, have used the AT. Approximately 3 to 4 million visitors hike a portion of the AT each year (ATC, 2006). Throughout its 80-year…

  1. Changes in soil bulk density resulting from construction and conventional cable skidding using preplanned skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingxin Wang; Chris B. LeDoux; Pam Edwards

    2007-01-01

    A harvesting system consisting of chainsaw felling and cable skidder extraction was studied to determine soil bulk density changes in a central Appalachian hardwood forest site. Soil bulk density was measured using a nuclear gauge preharvest and postharvest systematically across the harvest site, on transects across skid trails, and for a subset of skid trail transects...

  2. Path Tortuosity and the Permeability of Roads and Trails to Wolf Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Whittington

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effects of human development on fine-scale movement behavior, yet understanding animal movement through increasingly human-dominated landscapes is essential for the persistence of many wild populations, especially wary species. In mountainous areas, roads and trails may be particularly deserving of study because they are concentrated in the valley bottoms where they can impede animal movement both across and between valleys. In this study, we tracked wolf (Canis lupus movement in the snow for two winters in Jasper National Park, Alberta, Canada to examine how wolves navigate through or around human-use features. We quantified the effects of human development and topography on the tortuosity of wolf paths and then tested the permeability of roads, trails, and a railway line to wolf movement by comparing the frequency with which actual wolf paths and a null model of random paths crossed these features. Wolf path tortuosity increased near high-use trails, within areas of high-trail and road density, near predation sites, and in rugged terrain. Wolves crossed all roads, trails, and the railway line 9.7% less often than expected, but avoided crossing high-use roads more than low-use trails. Surprisingly, trails affected movement behavior of wolves equally, if not more, than roads. These results suggest that although roads and trails in this study were not absolute barriers to wolf movement, they altered wolf movements across their territories.

  3. 77 FR 1723 - Notice of Availability, Potomac Heritage National Scenic Trail

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-11

    ... Availability of a ``Foundation for Planning, Administration, Management and Interpretation of Potomac Heritage... the availability of a ``Foundation for Planning, Administration, Management and Interpretation of... planned Trail segments for non-motorized travel. Communities have invested in the Trail concept for a...

  4. Model Predictive Control of Trailing Edge Flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Buhl, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Trailing Edge Flaps on wind turbine blades have been studied in order to achieve fatigue load reduction on the turbine components. We show in this paper how Model Predictive Control can be used to do frequency weighted control of the trailing edge flaps in order to reduce fatigue damage on the bl...

  5. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae-Hee, E-mail: leedneo@gmail.com [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kim, Dong-Wook [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Cancer Biology, University of VA (United States); Jung, Chang-Hwa [Division of Metabolism and Functionality Research, Korea Food Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yong J. [Departments of Surgery and Pharmacology and Cell Biology, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Park, Daeho, E-mail: daehopark@gist.ac.kr [School of Life Sciences, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway.

  6. 30 CFR 77.601 - Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary splices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.601 Trailing cables or portable cables; temporary... or splices that heat or spark under load shall not be used. ...

  7. Managing outdoor recreation conflict on the Squamish, British Columbia Trail Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ana Elia Ramón Hidalgo; Howard. Harshaw

    2012-01-01

    Recreationists with high expectations of satisfaction from outdoor recreation activities are increasingly using trails networks near urban areas. But differences in expectations, behaviors and values of trail users may create conflicts resulting in unsatisfactory experiences. The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of management practices that may reduce...

  8. 76 FR 54730 - Rubicon Trail Easement, Eldorado National Forest, Pacific Ranger District

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... waters of the state, and address human waste management on the Rubicon Trail. Proposed Action The... through these low spots thereby accelerating trail erosion and sedimentation. In July 2004, the El Dorado... fecal waste littered around the Spider Lake area. The amount of fecal waste was determined to pose a...

  9. 76 FR 35468 - Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail... the Advisory Committee on the Star-Spangled Banner National Historic Trail will hold a meeting... Council is John Maounis, Superintendent, Chesapeake Bay Office, telephone: (410) 260-2471. DATES: The Star...

  10. Dichotomous scoring of Trails B in patients referred for a dementia evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Andrew L; Livingston, Ronald B; Smernoff, Eric N; Waits, Bethany L; Harris, James B; Davis, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    The Trail Making Test is a popular neuropsychological test and its interpretation has traditionally used time-based scores. This study examined an alternative approach to scoring that is simply based on the examinees' ability to complete the test. If an examinee is able to complete Trails B successfully, they are coded as "completers"; if not, they are coded as "noncompleters." To assess this approach to scoring Trails B, the performance of 97 diagnostically heterogeneous individuals referred for a dementia evaluation was examined. In this sample, 55 individuals successfully completed Trails B and 42 individuals were unable to complete it. Point-biserial correlations indicated a moderate-to-strong association (r(pb)=.73) between the Trails B completion variable and the Total Scale score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neurological Status (RBANS), which was larger than the correlation between the Trails B time-based score and the RBANS Total Scale score (r(pb)=.60). As a screen for dementia status, Trails B completion showed a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 100% in this sample. These results suggest that dichotomous scoring of Trails B might provide a brief and clinically useful measure of dementia status.

  11. Web-Based Museum Trails on PDAs for University-Level Design Students: Design and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R.; Walker, K.; Speight, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of web-based museum trails for university-level design students to access on handheld devices in the Victoria and Albert Museum (V&A) in London. The trails offered students a range of ways of exploring the museum environment and collections, some encouraging students to interpret objects and…

  12. 77 FR 32178 - Notification of Trails Act Agreement/Substitute Sponsorship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [STB Ex Parte No. 702] Notification of Trails Act Agreement/Substitute Sponsorship AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of OMB... Trails System Act and Railroad Rights-of-Way, STB Ex Parte No. 702 (STB served Apr. 30, 2012) (77 FR...

  13. Gingerol sensitizes TRAIL-induced apoptotic cell death of glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jung, Chang-Hwa; Lee, Yong J.; Park, Daeho

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal and aggressive astrocytoma of primary brain tumors in adults. Although there are many clinical trials to induce the cell death of glioblastoma cells, most glioblastoma cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here, we showed that gingerol as a major component of ginger can induce TRAIL-mediated apoptosis of glioblastoma. Gingerol increased death receptor (DR) 5 levels in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, gingerol decreased the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins (survivin, c-FLIP, Bcl-2, and XIAP) and increased pro-apoptotic protein, Bax and truncate Bid, by generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that the sensitizing effects of gingerol in TRAIL-induced cell death were blocked by scavenging ROS or overexpressing anti-apoptotic protein (Bcl-2). Therefore, we showed the functions of gingerol as a sensitizing agent to induce cell death of TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma cells. This study gives rise to the possibility of applying gingerol as an anti-tumor agent that can be used for the purpose of combination treatment with TRAIL in TRAIL-resistant glioblastoma tumor therapy. - Highlights: • Most GBM cells have been reported to be resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. • Gingerol enhances the expression level of anti-apoptotic proteins by ROS. • Gingerol enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis through actions on the ROS–Bcl2 pathway

  14. ONC201 Demonstrates Antitumor Effects in Both Triple-Negative and Non-Triple-Negative Breast Cancers through TRAIL-Dependent and TRAIL-Independent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralff, Marie D; Kline, Christina L B; Küçükkase, Ozan C; Wagner, Jessica; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T; Prabhu, Varun V; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has been of interest as a cancer therapeutic, but only a subset of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) is sensitive to TRAIL. The small-molecule ONC201 induces expression of TRAIL and its receptor DR5. ONC201 has entered clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here, we show that ONC201 is efficacious against both TNBC and non-TNBC cells ( n = 13). A subset of TNBC and non-TNBC cells succumbs to ONC201-induced cell death. In 2 of 8 TNBC cell lines, ONC201 treatment induces caspase-8 cleavage and cell death that is blocked by TRAIL-neutralizing antibody RIK2. The proapoptotic effect of ONC201 translates to in vivo efficacy in the MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. In most TNBC lines tested (6/8), ONC201 has an antiproliferative effect but does not induce apoptosis. ONC201 decreases cyclin D1 expression and causes an accumulation of cells in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle. pRb expression is associated with sensitivity to the antiproliferative effects of ONC201, and the compound synergizes with taxanes in less sensitive cells. All non-TNBC cells ( n = 5) are growth inhibited following ONC201 treatment, and unlike what has been observed with TRAIL, a subset ( n = 2) shows PARP cleavage. In these cells, cell death induced by ONC201 is TRAIL independent. Our data demonstrate that ONC201 has potent antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects in a broad range of breast cancer subtypes, through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms. These findings develop a preclinical rationale for developing ONC201 as a single agent and/or in combination with approved therapies in breast cancer. Mol Cancer Ther; 16(7); 1290-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. ONC201 demonstrates anti-tumor effects in both triple negative and non-triple negative breast cancers through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralff, Marie D.; Kline, Christina L.B.; Küçükkase, Ozan C; Wagner, Jessica; Lim, Bora; Dicker, David T.; Prabhu, Varun V.; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer-related death. TRAIL has been of interest as a cancer therapeutic, but only a subset of triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) is sensitive to TRAIL. The small molecule ONC201 induces expression of TRAIL and its receptor DR5. ONC201 has entered clinical trials in advanced cancers. Here we show that ONC201 is efficacious against both TNBC and non-TNBC cells (n=13). A subset of TNBC and non-TNBC cells succumb to ONC201-induced cell death. In 2/8 TNBC cell lines, ONC201 treatment induces caspase-8 cleavage and cell death that is blocked by TRAIL-neutralizing antibody RIK2. The pro-apoptotic effect of ONC201 translates to in vivo efficacy in the MDA-MB-468 xenograft model. In most TNBC lines tested (6/8) ONC201 has an anti-proliferative effect but does not induce apoptosis. ONC201 decreases cyclin D1 expression and causes an accumulation of cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. pRb expression is associated with sensitivity to the anti-proliferative effects of ONC201, and the compound synergizes with taxanes in less sensitive cells. All non-TNBC cells (n=5) are growth inhibited following ONC201 treatment, and unlike what has been observed with TRAIL, a subset (n=2) show PARP cleavage. In these cells, cell death induced by ONC201 is TRAIL-independent. Our data demonstrate that ONC201 has potent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects in a broad range of breast cancer subtypes, through TRAIL-dependent and TRAIL-independent mechanisms. These findings develop a pre-clinical rationale for developing ONC201 as a single agent and/or in combination with approved therapies in breast cancer. PMID:28424227

  16. Sediment pathways in a tropical forest: effects of logging roads and skid trails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidle, Roy C.; Sasaki, Shozo; Otsuki, Mieko; Noguchi, Shoji; Rahim Nik, Abdul

    2004-03-01

    Significant erosion occurred from recently constructed forest logging roads and skid trails in a small headwater catchment in Peninsular Malaysia. Soil loss was estimated by measuring dimensions of all significant rills and gullies along the road, as well as by measuring height of preserved soil pedestals in sidecast and fill material and on skid trails. Estimates of surface erosion from logging roads and skid trails were 272 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 and 275 +/- 20 t ha-1 year-1 respectively. However, owing to lack of connectivity of skid trails to the stream, much of the sediment mobilized on skid trails was stored either on adjacent hillslopes or the trails themselves, rather than being transported to the stream system, as was the case for the road. Steeper skid trails (>20% gradient) had slightly higher erosion rates (320 +/- 24 t ha-1 year-1) than trails with gentler gradients (245-264 t ha-1 year-1). Some 60% of the soil loss on logging roads comes from erosion of the running surface. Disturbed cut and fill material along the road supplied the remaining 40% of the soil loss from roads. Roads and skid trails had no designed drainage systems; runoff discharged onto the hillslope at 25 major discharge nodes from the logging road (690 m total length) and at 34 nodes from skid trails (2300 m). Sediment pathways were either fully or moderately connected to headwater channels at 64% of the logging road nodes, but at only 26% of the nodes emanating from skid trails. A detailed sediment budget revealed that 78% of the soil loss from the road system (including log landings) was delivered to the stream in the first 16 months after logging began. Most (90%) of the deposition from skid trails occurred below just three discharge nodes. Runoff from and onto skid trails often exacerbated the sediment connectivity to channels. Clearly, sediment discharge from logging roads was more highly connected to the stream than discharge from skid trails. Once in the channel, much of this

  17. Model predictive control of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaignet, Damien Bruno

    of the wind turbine fatigue and extreme loads. This potential was confirmed with wind tunnel tests made on blade sections with trailing edge flaps and on a scaled two-bladed wind turbine in a wind tunnel. The work presented in this thesis includes a full-scale test run on a Vestas V27 wind turbine equipped...... fatigue loads by 23%, but also the main shaft and the tower fatigue loads by up to 32%. Extreme loads during normal production also benefit from the trailing edge flaps. At last, the same controller was run on the Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Risø Campus of the Technical University of Denmark......Trailing edge flaps on wind turbine blades have been investigated for several years. Aero-servoelastic simulations carried out with different simulation tools, trailing edge flaps configurations and controller designs proved that trailing edge flaps are a suitable solution for reducing some...

  18. Attitudes and intentions of off-highway vehicle riders toward trail use: implications for forest managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, D.M.; D'Luhosch, P. D.; Luzadis, V.A.; Malmsheimer, R.W.; Schuster, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    Management of off-highway vehicles (OHV) in public forest areas requires up-to-date information about the attitudes and intentions of OHV riders toward trail use. A survey of 811 members of the New England Trail Riders Association was conducted in fall 2007; 380 questionnaires were completed and returned. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to identify relationships between OHV rider attitudes, management preferences, and intentions toward two trail use-related behaviors (i.e., illegal use of trails by OHVs and the creation and/or use of unauthorized trails by OHV riders). Results reveal that the average responding association member has a negative attitude toward the two depreciative behaviors, intends to ride OHVs legally, and slightly prefers indirect over direct forms of management. Significant relationships between intentions and both attitudes and management preferences are identified. Policy and management implications and strategies are discussed. ?? 2011 by the Society of American Foresters.

  19. Trail marking by caterpillars of the silverspot butterfly Dione juno huascuma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescador-Rubio, Alfonso; Stanford-Camargo, Sergio G; Páez-Gerardo, Luis E; Ramírez-Reyes, Alberto J; Ibarra-Jiménez, René A; Fitzgerald, Terrence D

    2011-01-01

    A pheromone is implicated in the trail marking behavior of caterpillars of the nymphalid silverspot butterfly, Dione juno huascuma (Reakirt) (Lepidoptera: Heliconiinae) that feed gregariously on Passiflora (Malpighiales: Passifloraceae) vines in Mexico. Although they mark pathways leading from one feeding site to another with silk, this study shows that the silk was neither adequate nor necessary to elicit trail following behavior. Caterpillars marked trails with a long-lived pheromone that was deposited when they brushed the ventral surfaces of the tips of their abdomens along branch pathways. The caterpillars distinguished between pathways deposited by different numbers of siblings and between trails of different ages. Caterpillars also preferentially followed the trails of conspecifics over those of another nymphalid, Nymphalis antiopa L., the mourning cloak butterfly.

  20. Expression and significance of TRAIL and NF-kB in osteosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Xiumin; You Murong; Qi Falian; Hu Chengjin

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between expressions of TRAIL, NF-kB and cell proliferation in human osteosarcomas, the expressions of TRAIL and NF-kB in 16 cases of osteosarcoma, 5 cases of giant cell tumor of bone and 6 cases of chondrosarcoma were studied by flow cytometry. The expressions of TRAIL and NF-kB in osteosarcomas of different differentiation states were higher than those in other two kinds of tumors significantly in our study(P 0.05). The expressions of TRAIL and NF-kB in chondrosarcoma and giant cell tumor of bone were not different significantly(P>0.05). The higher expression of TRAIL in osteosarcoma with different differentiation states could not induce apoptosis because of the higher expression of NF-kB. NF-kB may restrain the apoptosis of tumor cells by regulating the NF-kB- induced apoptosis path way in osteosarcoma. (authors)

  1. TRAIL Death Receptor-4 Expression Positively Correlates With the Tumor Grade in Breast Cancer Patients With Invasive Ductal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanlioglu, Ahter D.; Korcum, Aylin F.; Pestereli, Elif; Erdogan, Gulgun; Karaveli, Seyda; Savas, Burhan; Griffith, Thomas S.; Sanlioglu, Salih V.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells but not in normal cells, and a number of clinical trials have recently been initiated to test the safety and antitumoral potential of TRAIL in cancer patients. Four different receptors have been identified to interact with TRAIL: two are death-inducing receptors (TRAIL-R1 [DR4] and TRAIL-R2 [DR5]), whereas the other two (TRAIL-R3 [DcR1] and TRAIL-R4 [DcR2]) do not induce death upon ligation and are believed to counteract TRAIL-induced cytotoxicity. Because high levels of DcR2 expression have recently been correlated with carcinogenesis in the prostate and lung, this study investigated the importance of TRAIL and TRAIL receptor expression in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, taking various prognostic markers into consideration. Methods and Materials: Immunohistochemical analyses were performed on 90 breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma using TRAIL and TRAIL receptor-specific antibodies. Age, menopausal status, tumor size, lymph node status, tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular tumor extension, presence of an extensive intraductal component, multicentricity, estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and CerbB2 expression levels were analyzed with respect to TRAIL/TRAIL receptor expression patterns. Results: The highest TRAIL receptor expressed in patients with invasive ductal carcinoma was DR4. Although progesterone receptor-positive patients exhibited lower DR5 expression, CerbB2-positive tissues displayed higher levels of both DR5 and TRAIL expressions. Conclusions: DR4 expression positively correlates with the tumor grade in breast cancer patients with invasive ductal carcinoma

  2. Molecular requirements for the combined effects of TRAIL and ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marini, Patrizia; Jendrossek, Verena; Durand, Elise; Gruber, Charlotte; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Previously it was shown that combination of death ligand TRAIL and irradiation strongly increases cell kill in several human tumour cell lines. Since Bcl-2 overexpression did not strongly interfere with the efficacy, components of the mitochondrial death pathway are not required for an effective combined treatment. In the present study the minimal molecular prerequisites for the efficacy of a combined treatment were determined. Materials and methods: Apoptosis induction in control, caspase-8 and FADD negative Jurkat cells, BJAB control and FADD-DN cells was analysed by FACS. Activation of caspase-8, -10 and -3 and cleavage of PARP was determined by immunoblotting. TRAIL receptors were activated using recombinant human TRAIL. Surface expression of TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 was analysed by FACS. Results: Jurkat T-cells express the agonistic DR5 receptor but not DR4. Presence of FADD was found to be essential for TRAIL induced apoptosis. Caspase-8 negative cells show very low rates of apoptosis after prolonged stimulation with TRAIL. No combined effects of TRAIL with irradiation could be found in FADD-DN over expressing and FADD deficient cells. However, the combination of TRAIL and irradiation clearly lead to a combined effect in caspase-8 negative Jurkat cells, albeit with reduced death rates. In these cells activation of the alternative initiator caspase-10 could be detected after combined treatment. Conclusion: Our data show that a combined therapy with TRAIL and irradiation will only be effective in cells expressing at least one agonistic TRAIL receptor, FADD and caspase-8 or caspase-10

  3. Association between shift work history and performance on the trail making test in middle-aged and elderly humans: the EpiHealth study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Olga E; Lindberg, Eva; Elmståhl, Sölve; Lind, Lars; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Shift work has been proposed to promote cognitive disturbances in humans; however, conflicting evidence is also present. By using data from 7143 middle-aged and elderly humans (45-75 years) who participated in the Swedish EpiHealth cohort study, the present analysis sought to investigate whether self-reported shift work history would be associated with performance on the trail making test (TMT). The TMT has been proposed to be a useful neuropsychological tool to evaluate humans' executive cognitive function, which is known to decrease with age. After adjustment for potential confounders (e.g., age, education, and sleep duration), it was observed that current and recent former shift workers (worked shifts during the past 5 years) performed worse on the TMT than nonshift workers. In contrast, performance on the TMT did not differ between past shift workers (off from shift work for more than 5 years) and nonshift workers. Collectively, our results indicate that shift work history is linked to poorer performance on the TMT in a cohort of middle-aged and elderly humans. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality assurance and halal control points for the food industry

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, An Nee; Jamaludin, Mohd Hafiz; Soon, Jan Mei

    2016-01-01

    Purpose\\ud To determine the understanding of halal concept among food production workers and to develop a generic Halal Control Point (HCP) Plan for the manufacturing of processed foods.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud A mixed method (interviews, surveys and microbiological analyses) approach was used to analyze the hygiene and halal practices of four food processing plants in Penang, Malaysia. Two hundred food production workers were surveyed (and quality assurance staff were interview...

  5. Atmospheric testing of wind turbine trailing edge aerodynamic brakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L.S. [Wichita State Univ., KS (United States); Migliore, P.G. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Quandt, G.A.

    1997-12-31

    An experimental investigation was conducted using an instrumented horizontal-axis wind turbine that incorporated variable span trailing-edge aerodynamic brakes. A primary goal was to directly compare study results with (infinite-span) wind tunnel data and to provide information on how to account for device span effects during turbine design or analysis. Comprehensive measurements were utilized to define effective changes in the aerodynamic coefficients, as a function of angle of attack and control deflection, for three device spans and configurations. Differences in the lift and drag behavior are most pronounced near stall and for device spans of less than 15%. Drag performance is affected only minimally (<70%) for 15% or larger span devices. Interestingly, aerodynamic controls with characteristic vents or openings appear most affected by span reductions and three-dimensional flow.

  6. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, A.; Blaylock, M.; van Dam, C. P.

    2014-12-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust.

  7. Experimental and simulated control of lift using trailing edge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperman, A; Blaylock, M; Van Dam, C P

    2014-01-01

    Two active aerodynamic load control (AALC) devices coupled with a control algorithm are shown to decrease the change in lift force experienced by an airfoil during a change in freestream velocity. Microtabs are small (1% chord) surfaces deployed perpendicular to an airfoil, while microjets are pneumatic jets with flow perpendicular to the surface of the airfoil near the trailing edge. Both devices are capable of producing a rapid change in an airfoil's lift coefficient. A control algorithm for microtabs has been tested in a wind tunnel using a modified S819 airfoil, and a microjet control algorithm has been simulated for a NACA 0012 airfoil using OVERFLOW. In both cases, the AALC devices have shown the ability to mitigate the changes in lift during a gust

  8. Numerical simulation of airfoil trailing edge serration noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    In the present work, numerical simulations are carried out for a low noise airfoil with and without serrated Trailing Edge. The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings acoustic analogy is implemented into the in-house incompressible flow solver EllipSys3D. The instantaneous hydrodynamic pressure and velocity...... field are obtained using Large Eddy Simulation. To obtain the time history data of sound pressure, the flow quantities are integrated around the airfoil surface through the FW-H approach. The extended length of the serration is about 16.7% of the airfoil chord and the geometric angle of the serration...... is 28 degrees. The chord based Reynolds number is around 1.5x106. Simulations are compared with existing wind tunnel experiments at various angles of attack. Even though the airfoil under investigation is already optimized for low noise emission, numerical simulations and wind tunnel experiments show...

  9. Vindicating capital: heroes and villains in A Lion's Trail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Havard Ovesen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2011n61p073 This paper analyses François Verster’s A Lion’s Trail (2002, a documentary about the late musician Solomon Linda andhis hit song, Mbube. Linda died a pauper, despite the fact that his composition became one of the most commerciallysuccessful songs in the history of popular music. Considering the potentially substantial financial benefits due to SolomonLinda’s daughters as heirs to his intellectual property rights, the story of Mbube can easily be read as having a happy, ifsomewhat bittersweet, ending. This ending is remarkably similar to the grand narrative of the new and democraticSouth Africa; in the end, justice was served, although not everybody was around to enjoy it. Such readings, however,obscure certain aspects of the new South African realities. The power structures that enable the continuation of huge socioeconomicdisparities are still in place. We contend that the film’s characertisationof protagonists and antagonists in its narrative as well as the closure that is provided by the actions of Gallo allow viewers to overlook some key problems thatpersist in dominant assumptions about intellectual property, the ill-treatment of countless other black musicians during apartheid, as well as racialised class inequalities that persistnearly two decades after apartheid. The paper will commence with a brief description of Linda’s career in order to set the scene for our analysis of Verster’s documentary. This analysiswill be informed by insights into intellectual property; we will then relate these insights to a discussion of South Africa’sadoption of neo-liberal economic policies. In essence, we argue that, much like the country’s implementation of neoliberalstrategies like Black Economic Empowerment (BEE, the assumptions inherentin A Lion’s Trail about intellectual property vindicate capital and, by implication, the racialised classdivide in post-apartheid South Africa.

  10. Designing trails for subaquatic tourism in Marine Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Piñeiro-Corbeira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although the range of touristic activities that take place in the sea has greatly expanded in recent years, the marine realm continues to be one of the least known to the public. Scuba diving and snorkeling are popular activities in the marine environment. Among its benefits, snorkeling is simple, cheap, and accessible to a wide range of population. In this regard, it has considerable potential as a tool for environmental education as it allows a firsthand observation of the subaquatic seascape as well as a direct interaction with marine wildlife. These attributes, together with its low ecological impact, make snorkeling an activity particularly suitable for marine protected areas. Yet, its implementation in marine protected areas requires new tools for an appropriate use. Here, we show an innovative procedure for assessing the underwater seascape that should help in the designation of touristic subaquatic trails analogous to those commonly used in terrestrial landscapes. We elaborated a system of 18 “Perceptible Seascape Elements”, grouped into 9 Concepts, that leads to a “Potential Observation Index” summarizing the seabed landscape qualities that can be observed while snorkeling. Tests of this approach in a National Park (Parque Nacional Marítimo-Terrestre de las Islas Atlánticas de Galicia led to the design and ranking of 6 underwater trails. On the other hand, we used standardized questionnaires to determine the attributes of park’s visitors, their expectative, their perception of the marine environment, and previous skills in snorkeling. Many visitors were mostly unaware of the qualities of the marine environment of the National Park but we found considerable interest in new alternatives to enjoy the marine environment such as snorkeling. Our procedure and results could help to add snorkeling to the set of environmental education strategies already used in the Park.

  11. The emphysematous lung is abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milot Julie

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar apoptosis is increased in the emphysematous lung. However, mechanisms involved are not fully understood. Recently, we demonstrated that levels of TRAIL receptor 1 and 2, levels of p53, and Bax/Bcl-xL ratio were elevated in the lung of subjects with emphysema, despite smoking cessation. Thus, we postulate that due to chronic pulmonary oxidative stress, the emphysematous lung would be abnormally sensitive to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Methodology A549 cells were exposed to rTRAIL, cigarette smoke extract, and/or H2O2 prior to caspase-3 activity measurement and annexin V staining assessment. In addition, freshly resected lung samples were obtained from non-emphysematous and emphysematous subjects and exposed ex vivo to rTRAIL for up to 18 hours. Lung samples were harvested and levels of active caspase-3 and caspase-8 were measured from tissue lysates. Results Both cigarette smoke extract and H2O2 were able to sensitize A549 cells to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Moreover, following exposure to rTRAIL, caspase-3 and -8 were activated in lung explants from emphysematous subjects while being decreased in lung explants from non-emphysematous subjects. Significance of the study Alveolar sensitivity to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis is strongly increased in the emphysematous lung due to the presence of oxidative stress. This might be a new mechanism leading to increased alveolar apoptosis and persistent alveolar destruction following smoking cessation.

  12. Potential prognostic significance of decreased serum levels of TRAIL after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Secchiero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since soluble TRAIL exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities both in vitro and in animal models, this study was designed to assess the relationship between the serum levels of TRAIL and clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Levels of TRAIL were measured by ELISA in serial serum samples obtained from 60 patients admitted for AMI, both during hospitalization and in a follow-up of 12 months, as well as in 60 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of TRAIL were significantly decreased in patients with AMI at baseline (within 24 hours from admission, compared with healthy controls, and showed a significant inverse correlation with a series of negative prognostic markers, such as CK, CK-MB and BNP. TRAIL serum levels progressively increased at discharge, but normalized only at 6-12 months after AMI. Of note, low TRAIL levels at the patient discharge were associated with increased incidence of cardiac death and heart failure in the 12-month follow-up, even after adjustment for demographic and clinical risk parameters (hazard ratio [HR] of 0.93 [95% CI, 0.89 to 0.97]; p = 0.001. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although the number of patients studied was limited, our findings indicate for the first time that circulating TRAIL might represent an important predictor of cardiovascular events, independent of conventional risk markers.

  13. Cellular characterisation of Candida tropicalis presenting fluconazole-related trailing growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Dornelas-Ribeiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We assessed fluconazole susceptibility in 52 Candida tropicalis clinical strains using seven antifungal susceptibility methods, including broth microdilution (BMD [standard M27 A3 (with neutral and acid pH, ATB Fungus 3, Vitek 2 system and flow cytometric analysis] and agar-based methods (disk diffusion and E-test. Trailing growth, detection of cell-associated secreted aspartic proteases (Saps and morphological and ultrastructural traits of these clinical strains were also examined. The ranges of fluconazole 24 h-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values were similar among all methods. The essential agreement among the methods used for MIC determinations was excellent and all methods categorised all strains as susceptible, except for one strain that showed a minor error. The presence of the trailing effect was assessed by six methods. Trailing positivity was observed for 86.5-100% of the strains. The exception was the BMD-Ac method where trailing growth was not observed. Morphological and ultrastructural alterations were detected in C. tropicalis trailing cells, including mitochondrial swelling and cell walls with irregular shapes. We tested the production of Saps in 13 C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth through flow cytometry. Our results showed that all of the C. tropicalis strains up-regulated surface Sap expression after 24 h or 48 h of exposure to fluconazole, which was not observed in untreated yeast strains. We concluded that C. tropicalis strains expressing trailing growth presented some particular features on both biological and ultrastructural levels.

  14. Spatially characterizing visitor use and its association with informal trails in Yosemite Valley meadows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  15. Comparison of trailside degradation across a gradient of trail use in the Sonoran Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Helen Ivy; Tluczek, Melanie; Broatch, Jennifer; Gruber, Dan; Jones, Steve; Langenfeld, Debbie; McNamara, Peggy; Weinstein, Leona

    2018-02-01

    As recreational visitation to the Sonoran Desert increases, the concern of scientists, managers and advocates who manage its natural resources deepens. Although many studies have been conducted on trampling of undisturbed vegetation and the effects of trails on adjacent plant and soil communities, little such research has been conducted in the arid southwest. We sampled nine 450-m trail segments with different visitation levels in Scottsdale's McDowell Sonoran Preserve over three years to understand the effects of visitation on soil erosion, trailside soil crusts and plant communities. Soil crust was reduced by 27-34% near medium and high use trails (an estimated peak rate of 13-70 visitors per hour) compared with control plots, but there was less than 1% reduction near low use trails (peak rate of two to four visitors per hour). We did not detect soil erosion in the center 80% of the trampled area of any of the trails. The number of perennial plant species dropped by less than one plant species on average, but perennial plant cover decreased by 7.5% in trailside plots compared with control plots 6 m off-trail. At the current levels of visitation, the primary management focus should be keeping people on the originally constructed trail tread surface to reduce impact to adjacent soil crusts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatially Characterizing Visitor Use and Its Association with Informal Trails in Yosemite Valley Meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden-Schreiner, Chelsey; Leung, Yu-Fai

    2013-07-01

    Ecological impacts associated with nature-based recreation and tourism can compromise park and protected area goals if left unrestricted. Protected area agencies are increasingly incorporating indicator-based management frameworks into their management plans to address visitor impacts. Development of indicators requires empirical evaluation of indicator measures and examining their ecological and social relevance. This study addresses the development of the informal trail indicator in Yosemite National Park by spatially characterizing visitor use in open landscapes and integrating use patterns with informal trail condition data to examine their spatial association. Informal trail and visitor use data were collected concurrently during July and August of 2011 in three, high-use meadows of Yosemite Valley. Visitor use was clustered at statistically significant levels in all three study meadows. Spatial data integration found no statistically significant differences between use patterns and trail condition class. However, statistically significant differences were found between the distance visitors were observed from informal trails and visitor activity type with active activities occurring closer to trail corridors. Gender was also found to be significant with male visitors observed further from trail corridors. Results highlight the utility of integrated spatial analysis in supporting indicator-based monitoring and informing management of open landscapes. Additional variables for future analysis and methodological improvements are discussed.

  17. Advances in Viral Vector-Based TRAIL Gene Therapy for Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norian, Lyse A.; James, Britnie R.; Griffith, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous biologic approaches are being investigated as anti-cancer therapies in an attempt to induce tumor regression while circumventing the toxic side effects associated with standard chemo- or radiotherapies. Among these, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has shown particular promise in pre-clinical and early clinical trials, due to its preferential ability to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells and its minimal toxicity. One limitation of TRAIL use is the fact that many tumor types display an inherent resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. To circumvent this problem, researchers have explored a number of strategies to optimize TRAIL delivery and to improve its efficacy via co-administration with other anti-cancer agents. In this review, we will focus on TRAIL-based gene therapy approaches for the treatment of malignancies. We will discuss the main viral vectors that are being used for TRAIL gene therapy and the strategies that are currently being attempted to improve the efficacy of TRAIL as an anti-cancer therapeutic

  18. Combination of systemic chemotherapy with local stem cell delivered S-TRAIL in resected brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redjal, Navid; Zhu, Yanni; Shah, Khalid

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in standard therapies, the survival of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients has not improved. Limitations to successful translation of new therapies include poor delivery of systemic therapies and use of simplified preclinical models which fail to reflect the clinical complexity of GBMs. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis specifically in tumor cells and we have tested its efficacy by on-site delivery via engineered stem cells (SC) in mouse models of GBM that mimic the clinical scenario of tumor aggressiveness and resection. However, about half of tumor lines are resistant to TRAIL and overcoming TRAIL-resistance in GBM by combining therapeutic agents that are currently in clinical trials with SC-TRAIL and understanding the molecular dynamics of these combination therapies are critical to the broad use of TRAIL as a therapeutic agent in clinics. In this study, we screened clinically relevant chemotherapeutic agents for their ability to sensitize resistant GBM cell lines to TRAIL induced apoptosis. We show that low dose cisplatin increases surface receptor expression of death receptor 4/5 post G2 cycle arrest and sensitizes GBM cells to TRAIL induced apoptosis. In vivo, using an intracranial resection model of resistant primary human-derived GBM and real-time optical imaging, we show that a low dose of cisplatin in combination with synthetic extracellular matrix encapsulated SC-TRAIL significantly decreases tumor regrowth and increases survival in mice bearing GBM. This study has the potential to help expedite effective translation of local stem cell-based delivery of TRAIL into the clinical setting to target a broad spectrum of GBMs. © 2014 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Absence of death receptor translocation into lipid rafts in acquired TRAIL-resistant NSCLC cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wen; Yang, Chunxu; Zhang, Simin; Liu, Yu; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Junhong; Zhou, Fuxiang; Zhou, Yunfeng; Xie, Conghua

    2013-02-01

    Resistance to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a major limitation for its clinical use. The mechanisms of TRAIL resistance have been mostly studied in the context of cell lines that are intrinsically resistant to TRAIL. However, little is known about the molecular alterations that contribute to the development of acquired resistance during treatment with TRAIL. In this study, we established H460R, an isogenic cell line with acquired TRAIL resistance, from the TRAIL‑sensitive human lung cancer cell line H460 to investigate the mechanisms of acquired resistance. The acquired TRAIL‑resistant H460R cells remained sensitive to cisplatin. The mRNA and protein expression levels of death receptor 4 (DR4) and death receptor 5 (DR5) were not altered in either of the TRAIL-treated cell lines. Nevertheless, tests in which the DR4 or DR5 gene was overexpressed or silenced suggest that death receptor expression is necessary but not sufficient for TRAIL‑induced apoptosis. Compared with parental TRAIL-sensitive H460 cells, H460R cells showed a decreased TRAIL-induced translocation of DR4/DR5 into lipid rafts. Further studies showed that nystatin partially prevented lipid raft aggregation and DR4 and DR5 clustering and reduced apoptosis in H460 cells again. Analysis of apoptotic molecules showed that more pro-caspase-8, FADD, caspase-3 and Bid, but less cFLIP in H460 cells than in H460R cells. Our findings suggest that the lack of death receptor redistribution negatively impacts DISC assembly in lipid rafts, which at least partially leads to the development of acquired resistance to TRAIL in H460R cells.

  20. Recreational trails as corridors for alien plants in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Floye H.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Alien plant species often use areas of heavy human activity for habitat and dispersal. Roads and utility corridors have been shown to harbor more alien species than the surrounding vegetation and are therefore believed to contribute to alien plant persistence and spread. Recreational trails represent another corridor that could harbor alien species and aid their spread. Effective management of invasive species requires understanding how alien plants are distributed at trailheads and trails and how their dispersal may be influenced by native vegetation. Our overall goal was to investigate the distribution of alien plants at trailheads and trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado. At trailheads, we found that although the number of alien species was less than the number of native species, alien plant cover ( x̄=50%) did not differ from native plant cover, and we observed a large number of alien seedlings in the soil seed bank, suggesting that alien plants are a large component of trailhead communities and will continue to be so in the future. Along trails, we found higher alien species richness and cover on trail (as opposed to 4 m from the trail) in 3 out of 4 vegetation types, and we observed higher alien richness and cover in meadows than in other vegetation types. Plant communities at both trailheads and trails, as well as seed banks at trailheads, contain substantial diversity and abundance of alien plants. These results suggest that recreational trails in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado may function as corridors that facilitate the spread of alien species into wildlands. Our results suggest that control of alien plants should begin at trailheads where there are large numbers of aliens and that control efforts on trails should be prioritized by vegetation type.

  1. Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, T.; Ernst, B.; Seume, J. R.

    2014-06-01

    The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated.

  2. Aerodynamic behavior of an airfoil with morphing trailing edge for wind turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolff, T; Ernst, B; Seume, J R

    2014-01-01

    The length of wind turbine rotor blades has been increased during the last decades. Higher stresses arise especially at the blade root because of the longer lever arm. One way to reduce unsteady blade-root stresses caused by turbulence, gusts, or wind shear is to actively control the lift in the blade tip region. One promising method involves airfoils with morphing trailing edges to control the lift and consequently the loads acting on the blade. In the present study, the steady and unsteady behavior of an airfoil with a morphing trailing edge is investigated. Two-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations are performed for a typical thin wind turbine airfoil with a morphing trailing edge. Steady-state simulations are used to design optimal geometry, size, and deflection angles of the morphing trailing edge. The resulting steady aerodynamic coefficients are then analyzed at different angles of attack in order to determine the effectiveness of the morphing trailing edge. In order to investigate the unsteady aerodynamic behavior of the optimal morphing trailing edge, time- resolved RANS-simulations are performed using a deformable grid. In order to analyze the phase shift between the variable trailing edge deflection and the dynamic lift coefficient, the trailing edge is deflected at four different reduced frequencies for each different angle of attack. As expected, a phase shift between the deflection and the lift occurs. While deflecting the trailing edge at angles of attack near stall, additionally an overshoot above and beyond the steady lift coefficient is observed and evaluated

  3. Dust dynamics in off-road vehicle trails: Measurements on 16 arid soil types, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Dirk; Buck, Brenda

    2009-08-01

    Soil analyses and measurements with the Portable In Situ Wind Erosion Laboratory (PI-SWERL) were conducted on 16 soil types in an area heavily affected by off-road vehicle (ORV) driving. Measurements were performed in ORV trails as well as on undisturbed terrain to investigate how ORV driving affects the vulnerability of a soil to emit PM10 (particlestrail affects those properties of the topsoil that determine its capability to emit PM10. Also, recommendations are given for adequate management of ORV-designed areas. The type of surface (sand, silt, gravel, drainage) is a key factor with respect to dust emission in an ORV trail. Trails in sand, defined in this study as the grain size fraction 63-2000microm, show higher deflation thresholds (the critical wind condition at which wind erosion starts) than the surrounding undisturbed soil. Trails in silt (2-63microm) and in drainages, on the other hand, have lower deflation thresholds than undisturbed soil. The increase in PM10 emission resulting from the creation of a new ORV trail is much higher for surfaces with silt than for surfaces with sand. Also, the creation of a new trail in silt decreases the supply limitation in the top layer: the capacity of the reservoir of emission-available PM10 increases. For sand the situation is reversed: the supply limitation increases, and the capacity of the PM10 reservoir decreases. Finally, ORV trails are characterized by a progressive coarsening of the top layer with time, but the speed of coarsening is much lower in trails in silt than in trails in sand or in drainages. The results of this study suggest that, to minimize emissions of PM10, new ORV fields should preferably be designed on sandy terrain rather than in silt areas or in drainages.

  4. More than Food and Drink: Careers in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    In restaurants, the food's the thing. But the drinks, presentation, service, and ambiance are important, too. And it's up to restaurant workers to provide diners with a square meal that's well rounded. The hard work of the kitchen, bar, and dining-room staff gets food and drink from menu to mouth. Some of the more visible workers may include…

  5. Elastically Deformable Side-Edge Link for Trailing-Edge Flap Aeroacoustic Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mehdi R. (Inventor); Lockard, David P. (Inventor); Moore, James B. (Inventor); Su, Ji (Inventor); Turner, Travis L. (Inventor); Lin, John C. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor); Kahng, Seun K. (Inventor); Verden, Scott A. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system is provided for reducing aeroacoustic noise generated by an aircraft having wings equipped with trailing-edge flaps. The system includes a plurality of elastically deformable structures. Each structure is coupled to and along one of the side edges of one of the trailing-edge flaps, and is coupled to a portion of one of the wings that is adjacent to the one of the side edges. The structures elastically deform when the trailing-edge flaps are deployed away from the wings.

  6. The impacts of trail infrastructure on vegetation and soils: Current literature and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-12-01

    Reflecting the popularity of nature-based activities such as hiking and mountain biking, there are thousands of kilometres of recreational trails worldwide traversing a range of natural areas. These trails have environmental impacts on soils and vegetation, but where has there been research, what impacts have been found and how were they measured? Using a systematic quantitative literature review methodology, we assessed the impacts of trails on vegetation and soils, highlighting what is known, but also key knowledge gaps. Of the 59 original research papers identified on this topic that have been published in English language peer-reviewed academic journals, most were for research conducted in protected areas (71%), with few from developing countries (17%) or threatened ecosystems (14%). The research is concentrated in a few habitats and biodiversity hotspots, mainly temperate woodland, alpine grassland and Mediterranean habitats, often in the USA (32%) or Australia (20%). Most examined formal trails, with just 15% examining informal trails and 11% assessing both types. Nearly all papers report the results of observational surveys (90%), collecting quantitative data (66%) with 24% using geographic information systems. There was an emphasis on assessing trail impacts at a local scale, either on the trail itself and/or over short gradients away from the trail edge. Many assessed changes in composition and to some degree, structure, of vegetation and soils with the most common impacts documented including reduced vegetation cover, changes in plant species composition, trail widening, soil loss and soil compaction. There were 14 papers assessing how these local impacts can accumulate at the landscape scale. Few papers assessed differences in impacts among trails (7 papers), changes in impacts over time (4), species-specific responses (3) and only one assessed effects on plant community functioning. This review provides evidence that there are key research gaps

  7. Model predictive control of trailing edge flaps on a wind turbine blade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaignet, D.B.

    2011-11-15

    Trailing edge flaps on wind turbine blades have been investigated for several years. Aero-servoelastic simulations carried out with different simulation tools, trailing edge flaps configurations and controller designs proved that trailing edge flaps are a suitable solution for reducing some of the wind turbine fatigue and extreme loads. This potential was confirmed with wind tunnel tests made on blade sections with trailing edge flaps and on a scaled two-bladed wind turbine in a wind tunnel. The work presented in this thesis includes a full-scale test run on a Vestas V27 wind turbine equipped with three trailing edge flaps on one blade, located on DTU's Risoe Campus in Roskilde, Denmark. This thesis is divided into three parts: the controller design, results from simulations, and results from the experiments. The trailing edge flaps controller designed for this project is based on a frequency-weighted model predictive control, tuned in order to target only the flapwise blade root loads at the frequencies contributing the most to blade root fatigue damage (the 1P, 2P and 3P frequencies), and to avoid unnecessary wear and tear of the actuators at high frequencies. A disturbance model consisting in periodic disturbances at the rotor speed harmonic frequencies and a quasi-steady input disturbance is aggregated to an analytical model of a spinning blade with trailing edge flaps. Simulations on a multi-megawatt wind turbine show the potential of the trailing edge flaps to reduce the flapwise blade root fatigue loads by 23%, but also the main shaft and the tower fatigue loads by up to 32%. Extreme loads during normal production also benefit from the trailing edge flaps. At last, the same controller was run on the Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Risoe Campus of the Technical University of Denmark, in Roskilde, Denmark. One blade of the turbine was equipped with three independent trailing edge flaps. In spite of the failure of several sensors and actuators, the

  8. Primary control of a Mach scale swashplateless rotor using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Anand

    The focus of this research was to demonstrate a four blade rotor trim in forward flight using integrated trailing edge flaps instead of using a swashplate controls. A compact brushless DC motor was evaluated as an on-blade actuator, with the possibility of achieving large trailing edge flap amplitudes. A control strategy to actuate the trailing edge flap at desired frequency and amplitude was developed and large trailing edge flap amplitudes from the motor (instead of rotational motion) were obtained. Once the actuator was tested on the bench-top, a lightweight mechanism was designed to incorporate the motor in the blade and actuate the trailing edge flaps. A six feet diameter, four bladed composite rotor with motor-flap system integrated into the NACA 0012 airfoil section was fabricated. Systematic testing was carried out for a range of load conditions, first in the vacuum chamber followed by hover tests. Large trailing edge flap deflections were observed during the hover testing, and a peak to peak trailing edge flap amplitude of 18 degree was achieved at 2000 rotor RPM with hover tip Mach number of 0.628. A closed loop controller was designed to demonstrate trailing edge flap mean position and the peak to peak amplitude control. Further, a soft pitch link was designed and fabricated, to replace the stiff pitch link and thereby reduce the torsional stiffness of the blade to 2/rev. This soft pitch link allowed for blade root pitch motion in response to the trailing edge flap inputs. Blade pitch response due to both steady as well as sinusoidal flap deflections were demonstrated. Finally, tests were performed in Glenn L. Martin wind tunnel using a model rotor rig to assess the performance of motor-flap system in forward flight. A swashplateless trim using brushless DC motor actuated trailing edge flaps was achieved for a rotor operating at 1200 RPM and an advance ratio of 0.28. Also, preliminary exploration was carried out to test the scalability of the motor

  9. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration

  10. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  11. Silencing the epigenetic silencer KDM4A for TRAIL and DR5 simultaneous induction and antitumor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junjian; Wang, Haibin; Wang, Ling-Yu; Cai, Demin; Duan, Zhijian; Zhang, Yanhong; Chen, Peng; Zou, June X; Xu, Jianzhen; Chen, Xinbin; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Chen, Hong-Wu

    2016-11-01

    Recombinant TRAIL and agonistic antibodies to death receptors (DRs) have been in clinical trial but displayed limited anti-cancer efficacy. Lack of functional DR expression in tumors is a major limiting factor. We report here that chromatin regulator KDM4A/JMJD2A, not KDM4B, has a pivotal role in silencing tumor cell expression of both TRAIL and its receptor DR5. In TRAIL-sensitive and -resistant cancer cells of lung, breast and prostate, KDM4A small-molecule inhibitor compound-4 (C-4) or gene silencing strongly induces TRAIL and DR5 expression, and causes TRAIL-dependent apoptotic cell death. KDM4A inhibition also strongly sensitizes cells to TRAIL. C-4 alone potently inhibits tumor growth with marked induction of TRAIL and DR5 expression in the treated tumors and effectively sensitizes them to the newly developed TRAIL-inducer ONC201. Mechanistically, C-4 does not appear to act through the Akt-ERK-FOXO3a pathway. Instead, it switches histone modifying enzyme complexes at promoters of TRAIL and DR5 transcriptional activator CHOP gene by dissociating KDM4A and nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR)-HDAC complex and inducing the recruitment of histone acetylase CBP. Thus, our results reveal KDM4A as a key epigenetic silencer of TRAIL and DR5 in tumors and establish inhibitors of KDM4A as a novel strategy for effectively sensitizing tumors to TRAIL pathway-based therapeutics.

  12. Efforts of a Kansas foundation to increase physical activity and improve health by funding community trails, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Katie M; Lightner, Joseph; Oestman, Katherine B; Hughey, S Morgan; Kaczynski, Andrew T

    2014-11-26

    Trails are associated with increased physical activity; however, little is known about the process of building trails by various types of organizations. From 2005 through 2012 the Sunflower Foundation: Health Care for Kansans (Sunflower) funded multiple organizations to construct 70 trails of varying lengths and surfaces in municipalities, schools, and communities across Kansas. The purpose of this study was to assess the process of developing and implementing community trail projects across Kansas with funding from a public foundation. In 2012, we stratified funded organizations by type and conducted proportional random sampling to select 20 key informants from those organizations to participate in structured telephone interviews. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Two researchers coded interview transcripts according to issues identified by participants. Issues associated with trail-building identified as important were collaboration among groups, unexpected construction costs, champions for the project, and level of difficulty of construction. Participants indicated that trails facilitated physical activity. Trails were integrated into communities through events such as walking events and other promotional efforts; these efforts were thought to increase trail use. The perceived outcomes of building the trails included providing the community with a physical activity resource, inspiring the community to start additional trail projects, and increasing the physical activity of local residents. Sunflower's funding was instrumental in developing trail projects to provide new physical activity resources across Kansas. Public health practitioners seeking to increase physical activity should seek funding from foundations that focus on health.

  13. Heat Transfer and Friction Studies in a Tilted and Rib-Roughened Trailing-Edge Cooling Cavity with and without the Trailing-Edge Cooling Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Taslim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Local and average heat transfer coefficients and friction factors were measured in a test section simulating the trailing-edge cooling cavity of a turbine airfoil. The test rig with a trapezoidal cross-sectional area was rib-roughened on two opposite sides of the trapezoid (airfoil pressure and suction sides with tapered ribs to conform to the cooling cavity shape and had a 22-degree tilt in the flow direction upstream of the ribs that affected the heat transfer coefficients on the two rib-roughened surfaces. The radial cooling flow traveled from the airfoil root to the tip while exiting through 22 cooling holes along the airfoil trailing-edge. Two rib geometries, with and without the presence of the trailing-edge cooling holes, were examined. The numerical model contained the entire trailing-edge channel, ribs, and trailing-edge cooling holes to simulate exactly the tested geometry. A pressure-correction based, multiblock, multigrid, unstructured/adaptive commercial software was used in this investigation. Realizable k-ε turbulence model in conjunction with enhanced wall treatment approach for the near wall regions was used for turbulence closure. The applied thermal boundary conditions to the CFD models matched the test boundary conditions. Comparisons are made between the experimental and numerical results.

  14. Avaliação de políticas públicas de segurança alimentar e combate à fome no período 1995-2002: 2 - Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador Evaluation of Brazilian public policies to promote food security and fight hunger, 1995-2002: 2 - the Workers' Nutrition Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Maria Pacheco Santos

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O estudo avaliou o Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador (PAT entre 1995 e 2002, sob a ótica da estrutura-processo-resultado. A metodologia consistiu em pesquisa documental e estudo de caso em 45 municípios na Bahia, resultando em 2.389 questionários domiciliares. Em termos de estrutura analisou-se a evolução normativa do programa até 2002. Quanto ao atendimento das necessidades nutricionais dos trabalhadores, o programa passou de uma insuficiente adequação calórica nos anos 80 para uma associação positiva entre sobrepeso e trabalho em empresa com PAT. Na Bahia a cobertura foi insuficiente entre os 5.120 adultos maiores de 20 anos investigados. Houve diferença significativa no acesso a benefícios alimentares entre trabalhadores do interior (26,1% e da capital (6,1%. Contudo, a focalização foi adequada: todos os beneficiados no interior e 92,4% na capital tinham renda menor que cinco salários mínimos. Faz-se necessária uma maior divulgação do PAT junto à população alvo, de forma a conscientizar os trabalhadores sobre os seus direitos e as ações desenvolvidas pelo Programa.This study evaluated the Workers' Nutrition Program in Brazil from 1995 to 2002, from a structure-process-results perspective. The methodology involved documental research and a case study in 45 municipalities in the State of Bahia, resulting in 2,389 household interviews. In relation to structure, we analyzed the program's normative evolution until 2002. As for nutritional recommendations, the program shifted from insufficient calorie supply in the 1980s to a positive association between overweight and employment in companies adopting the Workers' Nutrition Program. In Bahia, overall program coverage was insufficient among the 5,120 adults 20 years or older who were interviewed. A significant difference was observed in access to food benefits among workers in the interior of the State (6.1% as compared to the State capital, Salvador (26.1%. However

  15. Restaurant Food Cooling Practices†

    Science.gov (United States)

    BROWN, LAURA GREEN; RIPLEY, DANNY; BLADE, HENRY; REIMANN, DAVE; EVERSTINE, KAREN; NICHOLAS, DAVE; EGAN, JESSICA; KOKTAVY, NICOLE; QUILLIAM, DANIELA N.

    2017-01-01

    Improper food cooling practices are a significant cause of foodborne illness, yet little is known about restaurant food cooling practices. This study was conducted to examine food cooling practices in restaurants. Specifically, the study assesses the frequency with which restaurants meet U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendations aimed at reducing pathogen proliferation during food cooling. Members of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Environmental Health Specialists Network collected data on food cooling practices in 420 restaurants. The data collected indicate that many restaurants are not meeting FDA recommendations concerning cooling. Although most restaurant kitchen managers report that they have formal cooling processes (86%) and provide training to food workers on proper cooling (91%), many managers said that they do not have tested and verified cooling processes (39%), do not monitor time or temperature during cooling processes (41%), or do not calibrate thermometers used for monitoring temperatures (15%). Indeed, 86% of managers reported cooling processes that did not incorporate all FDA-recommended components. Additionally, restaurants do not always follow recommendations concerning specific cooling methods, such as refrigerating cooling food at shallow depths, ventilating cooling food, providing open-air space around the tops and sides of cooling food containers, and refraining from stacking cooling food containers on top of each other. Data from this study could be used by food safety programs and the restaurant industry to target training and intervention efforts concerning cooling practices. These efforts should focus on the most frequent poor cooling practices, as identified by this study. PMID:23212014

  16. Workers' Education in Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayassa, Wajih

    2013-01-01

    Due to the political context and the restrictions placed on general freedoms and trade union activities, workers' education in Palestine remained informal and largely reliant on oral memory until the early 1990s. For decades, it was an integral part of political education. Workers' education only became a stand-alone field after the establishment…

  17. What makes workers happy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, P.H.; Wielers, R.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    This article answers the question what makes workers happy? It does so by combining insights from micro-economics, sociology and psychology. Basis is the standard utility function of a worker that includes income and hours of work and is elaborated with job characteristics. In this way it is

  18. Conservatism amongst Nigerian workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Waterman (Peter)

    1975-01-01

    textabstractIn a recent paper (Waterman 1974) I discussed the debate that has been taking place, largely amongst socialists, over the role of workers and unions in Africa. I identified three major positions that have emerged. One was the traditional Communist position that the workers and unions are

  19. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of physical activity among trail users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Reed, Julian A; Price, Anna E; Hooker, Steven P

    2012-01-01

    Rail trails are elements of the built environment that support the Task Force on Community Preventive Services' recommendation to create, or enhance access to, places for physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment with the frequency, type, and duration of PA among users of an urban, paved rail trail segment. Interviewers conducted intercept surveys with 431 rail trail users and analyzed data by using logistic regression to estimate odds ratios between sociodemographic characteristics and perceptions of the built environment on the frequency, type, and duration of PA performed on the trail. Adults who used the trail in the cool months, traveled to the trail by a motorized vehicle, used the trail with others, and had some graduate school education visited the trail less often. Younger adults, men, whites, and those with some graduate school education were more likely to engage in vigorous activities on the trail. Adults who traveled to the trail by a motorized vehicle spent more time engaged in PA on the trail. Our results suggest that the most frequent users of a rail trail for PA are those who use the trail alone and travel to the trail by bicycle or on foot. Trails are an aspect of the built environment that supports active lifestyles, and future studies should evaluate different types of trails among more diverse populations and locations.

  20. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Aims: Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. Materials and Methods: The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. Statistical analysis used: The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as ‘outcome’ variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. Results: The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 – 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 – 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Conclusions: Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks PMID:27390474

  1. Chronic disease risk factors among hotel workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawde, Nilesh Chandrakant; Kurlikar, Prashika R

    2016-01-01

    Non-communicable diseases have emerged as a global health issue. Role of occupation in pathogenesis of non-communicable diseases has not been explored much especially in the hospitality industry. Objectives of this study include finding risk factor prevalence among hotel workers and studying relationship between occupational group and chronic disease risk factors chiefly high body mass index. A cross-sectional study was conducted among non-managerial employees from classified hotels in India. The study participants self-administered pre-designed pilot-tested questionnaires. The risk factor prevalence rates were expressed as percentages. Chi-square test was used for bi-variate analysis. Overweight was chosen as 'outcome' variable of interest and binary multi-logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants. The prevalence rates of tobacco use, alcohol use, inadequate physical activity and inadequate intake of fruits and vegetables were 32%, 49%, 24% and 92% respectively among hotel employees. Tobacco use was significantly common among those in food preparation and service, alcohol use among those in food service and security and leisure time physical activity among front office workers. More than two-fifths (42.7%) were overweight. Among the hotel workers, those employed in food preparation and security had higher odds of 1.650 (CI: 1.025 - 2.655) and 3.245 (CI: 1.296 - 8.129) respectively of being overweight. Prevalence of chronic disease risk factors is high among hotel workers. Risk of overweight is significantly high in food preparation and security departments and workplace interventions are necessary to address these risks.

  2. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Allergies KidsHealth / For Kids / Food Allergies What's in this ... milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system makes ...

  3. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  4. Curcumin enhances TRAIL-induced apoptosis of breast cancer cells by regulating apoptosis-related proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Park, S.; Cho, D. J.; Anděra, Ladislav; Suh, N.; Kim, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 383, 1-2 (2013), s. 39-48 ISSN 0300-8177 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : TRAIL * curcumin * apoptosis * breast cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.388, year: 2013

  5. VisTrails is an open-source scientific workflow and provenance management system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mthombeni, Thabo DM

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available VisTrails is an open-source scientific workflow and provenance management system that provides support for simulations, data exploration and visualization. Whereas workflows have been traditionally used to automate repetitive tasks, for applications...

  6. Effect of Her-2/neu Signaling on Sensitivity to TRAIL in Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Yong J

    2005-01-01

    .... In this study, we observed that pretreatment of acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) augmented TRAIL-induced apoptotic death in human prostate adenocarcinoma LNCaP and human colorectal carcinoma CX-1 cells...

  7. Fast Trailed Vorticity Modeling for Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and its Influence on Aeroelastic Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirrung, Georg

    In this work, an aerodynamic model for the use in aeroelastic wind turbine codes is presented. It consists of a simplified lifting line model covering the induction due to the trailed vorticity in the near wake, a 2D shed vorticity model and a far wake model using the well known blade element...... to earlier implementations, the model has been improved in several ways: Among other things, the need for model-specific user input has been removed, the effect of downwind convection of the trailed vorticity is modeled, the near wake induction is iterated to stabilize the computations and the numerical......-of-plane vibrations agrees much better with high fidelity models. Further, the trailed vorticity effects on the aerodynamic work are found to be of the same order of magnitude as the shed vorticity effects. The trailed vorticity effects are, however, mainly important close to the tip in the investigated cases, which...

  8. Trail pheromone of the leaf-cutting ant,Acromyrmex octospinosus (Reich), (Formicidae: Myrmicinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, J H; West, J R; Silverstein, R M; Jutsum, A R; Cherrett, J M

    1982-08-01

    The most active component of the trail pheromone of the leafcutting ant,Acromyrmex octospinosus, is methyl 4-methylpyrrole-2-carboxylate (I). Two pyrazine isomers (II) and (III) are present but inactive.

  9. Numerical Investigation of Flow Control Feasibility with a Trailing Edge Flap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, W J; Shen, W Z; Sørensen, J N

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns a numerical study of employing an adaptive trailing edge flap to control the lift of an airfoil subject to unsteady inflow conditions. The periodically varying inflow is generated by two oscillating airfoils, which are located upstream of the controlled airfoil. To establish the control system, a standard PID controller is implemented in a finite volume based incompressible flow solver. An immersed boundary method is applied to treat the problem of simulating a deformable airfoil trailing edge. The flow field is solved using a 2D Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes finite volume solver. In order to more accurately simulate wall bounded flows around the immersed boundary, a modified boundary condition is introduced in the k- ω turbulence model. As an example, turbulent flow over a NACA 64418 airfoil with a deformable trailing edge is investigated. Results from numerical simulations are convincing and may give some highlights for practical implementations of trailing edge flap to a wind turbine rotor blade

  10. Fascaplysin sensitizes cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through upregulating DR5 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Haimin; Yan, Xiaojun; Zheng, Yanling

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of anti-tumor effect of fascaplysin, a nitrogenous red pigment firstly isolated from a marine sponge. Microarray analysis show that the TNF and TNF receptor superfamily in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human hepatocarcinoma cells (BEL-7402) were significantly regulated by fascaplysin. Western Blot results reveal that fascaplysin increased the expression of cleaved caspase-9, active caspase-3, and decreased the level of procaspase-8 and Bid. Flow cytometry and cytotoxicity tests indicate that fascaplysin sensitized cells to tumor necrosis-related apoptosisinducing ligand-(TRAIL) induced apoptosis, which was markedly blocked by TRAIL R2/Fc chimera, a dominant negative form of TRAIL receptor DR5. Therefore, our results demonstrate that fascaplysin promotes apoptosis through the activation of TRAIL signaling pathway by upregulating DR5 expression.

  11. Regulation of TRAIL-Mediated Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer by Overexpression in XIAP

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonavida, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    .... Among the TNF-alpha superfamily, TRAIL has been shown to be selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells and poorly cytotoxic to normal cells and is, therefore, considered as a good candidate for prostate cancer therapy...

  12. Recreational trails as a source of negative impacts on the persistence of keystone species and facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, Mark; Pickering, Catherine Marina

    2015-08-15

    Hiking trails, which are among the most common forms of infrastructure created for nature-based tourism, can alter key ecological processes. Trails can damage plants that facilitate the establishment and growth of other species leading to changes in community and functional composition. This can be a particular concern in harsh alpine ecosystems where plant communities are often dominated by one or two keystone species that provide shelter to a suite of beneficiary species. We analysed how a hiking trail affects interspecific facilitation by a dominant trampling-sensitive nurse shrub in the highest National Park in Australia. First we assessed the effects of the trail on the abundance, size and density of the nurse shrub at different distances from the trail. We then compared species richness and composition between areas in, and out, of the nurse shrub's canopy at different distances from the trail. To better understand why some species may benefit from facilitation and any effects of the trail on the quality of facilitation we compared functional composition between quadrats using community trait weighted means calculated by combining plant composition with species functional traits (canopy height, leaf area, % dry weight of leaves and specific leaf area). The abundance, size and density of nurse shrubs was lower on the trail edges than further away, particularly on the leeward edge, where there was more bare ground and less shrub cover. There were differences in species richness, cover, composition and functional composition in and outside the nurse shrub canopy. The shrubs appeared to facilitate species with more competitive, but less stress tolerant traits (e.g. taller plants with leaves that were larger, had high specific leaf area and low dry matter content). However, despite reductions in nurse shrubs near the trail, where they do exist, they appear to provide the same 'quality' of facilitation as nurse shrubs further away. However, longer-term effects may

  13. Desenvolvimento de um questionário de freqüência alimentar e caracterização do padrão de consumo dos trabalhadores de baixo nível sócio-econômico da cidade de Goiânia, Estado de Goiás, Brasil Development of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and characterization of the food pattern consumption for low - income workers in the city of Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Ferreira Stringhini

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Um questionário de freqüência de consumo alimentar (QFA foi planejado para avaliar a freqüência média de consumo de alguns alimentos e caracterizar o padrão alimentar entre os trabalhadores. Uma lista de alimentos consumidos e as porções servidas, usualmente, foram obtidas através de prévias entrevistas locais, usando-se o recordatório de 24 horas e o questionário de freqüência. Uma lista foi elaborada com 127 alimentos e a composição nutricional foi calculada utilizando-se o programa DietPro versão 3.0. O QFA foi aplicado, por duas vezes, em cada indivíduo num período de seis meses. Para caracterizar o padrão de consumo alimentar, os alimentos mais freqüentemente mencionados foram identificados. Foram estudados 104 trabalhadores selecionados ao acaso. Os itens consumidos, no mínimo uma vez ao dia, por 50% dos trabalhadores foram o pão branco, margarina, café preto, açúcar branco, feijão roxinho e arroz branco. A variedade dos alimentos diariamente consumidos foi pequena. Os 30 principais alimentos básicos diários variaram de menos que 1,5 a 92%. Este questionário é um instrumento de fácil aplicação para estudar o consumo alimentar de população semelhante ao do presente trabalhoA food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ was designed to assess the average consumption frequency of food items and to characterize the food pattern among workers. A list of consumed food and usual serving sizes was compiled from previous local survey, using single 24 hours dietary recalls and frequency questionnaires. The list was composed of 127 items and the nutrient composition was calculated by the computer program DietPro version 3.0. The FFQ was administered to each subject twice in a period of six months. To characterize food pattern consumption, the most frequently mentioned foods were identified. One hundred and four (104 workers were studied, randomly selected. Items consumed at least once a day by 50% of the workers were: white

  14. Ischemic tolerance modulates TRAIL expression and its receptors and generates a neuroprotected phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarella, G; Pignataro, G; Di Benedetto, G; Anzilotti, S; Vinciguerra, A; Cuomo, O; Di Renzo, G F; Parenti, C; Annunziato, L; Bernardini, R

    2014-01-01

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF superfamily released by microglia, appears to be involved in the induction of apoptosis following focal brain ischemia. Indeed, brain ischemia is associated with progressive enlargement of damaged areas and prominent inflammation. As ischemic preconditioning reduces inflammatory response to brain ischemia and ameliorates brain damage, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of TRAIL and its receptors in strok...

  15. Novel HTS strategy identifies TRAIL-sensitizing compounds acting specifically through the caspase-8 apoptotic axis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Finlay

    Full Text Available Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand (TRAIL is potentially a very important therapeutic as it shows selectivity for inducing apoptosis in cancer cells whilst normal cells are refractory. TRAIL binding to its cognate receptors, Death Receptors-4 and -5, leads to recruitment of caspase-8 and classical activation of downstream effector caspases, leading to apoptosis. As with many drugs however, TRAIL's usefulness is limited by resistance, either innate or acquired. We describe here the development of a novel 384-well high-throughput screening (HTS strategy for identifying potential TRAIL-sensitizing agents that act solely in a caspase-8 dependent manner. By utilizing a TRAIL resistant cell line lacking caspase-8 (NB7 compared to the same cells reconstituted with the wild-type protein, or with a catalytically inactive point mutant of caspase-8, we are able to identify compounds that act specifically through the caspase-8 axis, rather than through general toxicity. In addition, false positive hits can easily be "weeded out" in this assay due to their activity in cells lacking caspase-8-inducible activity. Screening of the library of pharmacologically active compounds (LOPAC was performed as both proof-of-concept and to discover potential unknown TRAIL sensitizers whose mechanism is caspase-8 mediated. We identified known TRAIL sensitizers from the library and identified new compounds that appear to sensitize specifically through caspase-8. In sum, we demonstrate proof-of-concept and discovery of novel compounds with a screening strategy optimized for the detection of caspase-8 pathway-specific TRAIL sensitizers. This screen was performed in the 384-well format, but could easily be further miniaturized, allows easy identification of artifactual false positives, and is highly scalable to accommodate diverse libraries.

  16. Self-guided trails – a route to more responsible tourism?

    OpenAIRE

    MacLeod, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the tourism industry has faced criticism by turning its attention to the development of more responsible tourism. This is a form of tourism that is mindful of the diverse needs of host communities, local business and the visitor. This paper investigates the development of more responsible tourism from the perspective of a popular tourist product – the self-guided trail or route. The trail or route provides a themed and interpreted journey through the urban or rural landscape,...

  17. BAG3 promotes the phenotypic transformation of primary rat vascular smooth muscle cells via TRAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yao; Chang, Ye; Chen, Shuang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Yintao; Sun, Guozhe; Yu, Shasha; Ye, Ning; Li, Chao; Sun, Yingxian

    2018-05-01

    Under normal physiological condition, the mature vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show differentiated phenotype. In response to various environmental stimuluses, VSMCs convert from the differentiated phenotype to dedifferentiated phenotype characterized by the increased ability of proliferation/migration and the reduction of contractile ability. The phenotypic transformation of VSMCs played an important role in atherosclerosis. Both Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) and tumor necrosis factor-related apopt-osis inducing ligand (TRAIL) involved in apoptosis. The relationship between BAG3 and TRAIL and their effects the proliferation and migration in VSMCs are rarely reported. This study investigated the effects of BAG3 on the phenotypic modulation and the potential underlying mechanisms in primary rat VSMCs. Primary rat VSMCs were extracted and cultured in vitro. Cell proliferation was detected by cell counting, real-time cell analyzer (RTCA) and EdU incorporation. Cell migration was detected by wound healing, Transwell and RTCA. BAG3 and TRAIL were detected using real-time PCR and western blotting and the secreted proteins in the cultured media by dot blot. The expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages in cultured primary VSMCs. BAG3 promoted the proliferation and migration of primary rat VSMC in a time-dependent manner. BAG3 significantly increased the expression of TRAIL while had no effects on its receptors. TRAIL knockdown or blocking by neutralizing antibody inhibited the proliferation of VSMCs induced by BAG3. TRAIL knockdown exerted no obvious influence on the migration of VSMCs. Based on this study, we report for the first time that BAG3 was expressed in cultured primary rat VSMCs and the expression of BAG3 increased with continued passages. Furthermore, BAG3 promoted the proliferation of VSMCs via increasing the expression of TRAIL. In addition, we also demonstrated that BAG3 promoted the migration of VSMCs independent of TRAIL

  18. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  19. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  20. Cooking smoke and respiratory symptoms of restaurant workers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Juntarawijit, Chudchawal; Juntarawijit, Yuwayong

    2017-01-01

    Background Restaurant workers are at risk from exposure to toxic compounds from burning of fuel and fumes from cooking. However, the literature is almost silent on the issue. What discussion that can be found in the literature focuses on the potential effects from biomass smoke exposure in the home kitchen, and does not address the problem as occurring in the workplace, particularly in restaurants. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 224 worker from 142 food restaurants in the Tha Ph...

  1. Aerodynamic Characteristics of Airfoils with Blunt Trailing Edge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Gómez

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available El siguiente trabajo estudia de manera computacional el comportamiento de las características aerodinámicas de perfiles NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, hoy conocido como NASA, con modificaciones en el borde de salida. Las modificaciones consisten en remover secciones del borde de fuga del perfil. La investigación realizada estudia 39 perfiles diferentes de la familia NACA de 4 dígitos, con modelos teóricos sencillos para explicar los fenómenos. Los resultados muestran los cambios en las características de sustentación y arrastre del perfil, y cambios en cuanto a la entrada en pérdida del mismo./ This paper is a computational study of the behaviour of aerodynamic characteristics of NACA (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, today known as NASA profiles with tailored trailing edges. 39 different profiles 4-digit NACA family were studied during the research. A computational research was made, using simple theoretical models to explain and to understand the results. The results describe the changes in lift and drag characteristics and changes in stall angle of attack.

  2. Eulerian graph embeddings and trails confined to lattice tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soteros, C E

    2006-01-01

    Embeddings of graphs in sublattices of the square and simple cubic lattice known as tubes (or prisms) are considered. For such sublattices, two combinatorial bounds are obtained which each relate the number of embeddings of all closed eulerian graphs with k branch points (vertices of degree greater than two) to the number of self-avoiding polygons. From these bounds it is proved that the entropic critical exponent for the number of embeddings of closed eulerian graphs with k branch points is equal to k, and the entropic critical exponent for the number of closed trails with k branch points is equal to k + 1. One of the required combinatorial bounds is obtained via Madras' 1999 lattice cluster pattern theorem, which yields a bound on the number of ways to convert a self-avoiding polygon into a closed eulerian graph embedding with k branch points. The other combinatorial bound is established by constructing a method for sequentially removing branch points from a closed eulerian graph embedding; this yields a bound on the number of ways to convert a closed eulerian graph embedding into a self-avoiding polygon

  3. Aerodynamic Characteristic of the Active Compliant Trailing Edge Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Rui; Qiu, Jinhao; Ji, Hongli; Li, Dawei

    2016-06-01

    This paper introduces a novel Morphing Wing structure known as the Active Compliant Trailing Edge (ACTE). ACTE structures are designed using the concept of “distributed compliance” and wing skins of ACTE are fabricated from high-strength fiberglass composites laminates. Through the relative sliding between upper and lower wing skins which are connected by a linear guide pairs, the wing is able to achieve a large continuous deformation. In order to present an investigation about aerodynamics and noise characteristics of ACTE, a series of 2D airfoil analyses are established. The aerodynamic characteristics between ACTE and conventional deflection airfoil are analyzed and compared, and the impacts of different ACTE structure design parameters on aerodynamic characteristics are discussed. The airfoils mentioned above include two types (NACA0012 and NACA64A005.92). The computing results demonstrate that: compared with the conventional plane flap airfoil, the morphing wing using ACTE structures has the capability to improve aerodynamic characteristic and flow separation characteristic. In order to study the noise level of ACTE, flow field analysis using LES model is done to provide noise source data, and then the FW-H method is used to get the far field noise levels. The simulation results show that: compared with the conventional flap/aileron airfoil, the ACTE configuration is better to suppress the flow separation and lower the overall sound pressure level.

  4. Trail networks formed by populations of immune cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Taeseok Daniel; Kwon, Tae Goo; Park, Jin-sung; Lee, Kyoung J

    2014-01-01

    Populations of biological cells that communicate with each other can organize themselves to generate large-scale patterns. Examples can be found in diverse systems, ranging from developing embryos, cardiac tissues, chemotaxing ameba and swirling bacteria. The similarity, often shared by the patterns, suggests the existence of some general governing principle. On the other hand, rich diversity and system-specific properties are exhibited, depending on the type of involved cells and the nature of their interactions. The study on the similarity and the diversity constitutes a rapidly growing field of research. Here, we introduce a new class of self-organized patterns of cell populations that we term as ‘cellular trail networks’. They were observed with populations of rat microglia, the immune cells of the brain and the experimental evidence suggested that haptotaxis is the key element responsible for them. The essential features of the observed patterns are well captured by the mathematical model cells that actively crawl and interact with each other through a decomposing but non-diffusing chemical attractant laid down by the cells. Our finding suggests an unusual mechanism of socially cooperative long-range signaling for the crawling immune cells. (paper)

  5. Public health practitioner incubation plight: following the money trail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L J; McFarlane, D R

    1996-01-01

    Schools of public health have a proud history of educating personnel for leadership roles in the field of practice. Such personnel have played key roles in developing public health. Over the years, however, the missions of the schools of public health have become blurred. To a significant degree, a focus on health care has displaced public health as schools have followed the money trail. Often research takes precedence over teaching, so that, ironically, research findings are not disseminated to those who will practice public health. Educating personnel for practitioner leadership roles in environmental health and protection is inadequate. These and other trends have serious, long-term ramifications for public health practice. This article offers suggestions for improving the situation, including making use of practitioners in schools of public health, encouraging partnerships between practitioners and academics for research and funding support, developing paid student practica, developing a market for MPH graduates, and changing the accreditation requirements of the Council on Education for Public Health.

  6. Management of Vortices Trailing Flapped Wings via Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, David

    2005-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted on a flapped semi-span model to investigate the concept and viability of near-wake vortex management via separation control. Passive control was achieved by means of a simple fairing and active control was achieved via zero mass-flux blowing slots. Vortex sheet strength, estimated by integrating surface pressure ports, was used to predict vortex characteristics by means of inviscid rollup relations. Furthermore, vortices trailing the flaps were mapped using a seven-hole probe. Separation control was found to have a marked effect on vortex location, strength, tangential velocity, axial velocity and size over a wide range of angles of attack and control conditions. In general, the vortex trends were well predicted by the inviscid rollup relations. Manipulation of the separated flow near the flap edges exerted significant control over both outboard and inboard edge vortices while producing negligible lift excursions. Dynamic separation and attachment control was found to be an effective means for dynamically perturbing the vortex from arbitrarily long wavelengths down to wavelengths less than a typical wingspan. In summary, separation control has the potential for application to time-independent or time-dependent wake alleviation schemes, where the latter can be deployed to minimize adverse effects on ride-quality and dynamic structural loading.

  7. The Trails of Superluminal Jet Components in 3C 111

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadler, M.; Ros, E.; Perucho, M.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Homan, D. C.; Agudo, I.; Kellermann, K. I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Lister, M. L.; hide

    2007-01-01

    The parsec-scale radio jet of the broad-line radio galaxy 3C 111 has been monitored since 1995 as part of the 2cm Survey and MOJAVE monitoring observations conducted with the VLBA. Here, we present results from 18 epochs of VLBA observations of 3C 111 and from 18 years of radio flux density monitoring observations conducted at the University of Michigan. A major radio flux-density outburst of 3C 111 occurred in 1996 and was followed by a particularly bright plasma ejection associated with a superluminal jet component. This major event allows us to study a variety of processes associated with outbursts of radio-loud AGN in much greater detail than possible in other cases: the primary perturbation gives rise to the formation of a forward and a backward-shock, which both evolve in characteristically different ways and allow us to draw conclusions about the workflow of jet-production events; the expansion, acceleration and recollimation of the ejected jet plasma in an environment with steep pressure and density gradients are revealed; trailing components are formed in the wake of the primary perturbation as a result of Kelvin- Helmholtz instabilities from the interaction of the jet with the external medium. The jet-medium interaction is further scrutinized by the linear-polarization signature of jet components traveling along the jet and passing a region of steep pressure/density gradients.

  8. Trails of meaning construction: Symbolic artifacts engage the social brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylén, Kristian; Philipsen, Johanne Stege; Roepstorff, Andreas; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    Symbolic artifacts present a challenge to theories of neurocognitive processing due to their hybrid nature: they are at the same time physical objects and vehicles of intangible social meanings. While their physical properties can be read of their perceptual appearance, the meaning of symbolic artifacts depends on the perceiver's interpretative attitude and embeddedness in cultural practices. In this study, participants built models of LEGO bricks to illustrate their understanding of abstract concepts. They were then scanned with fMRI while presented to photographs of their own and others' models. When participants attended to the meaning of the models in contrast to their bare physical properties, we observed activations in mPFC and TPJ, areas often associated with social cognition, and IFG, possibly related to semantics. When contrasting own and others' models, we also found activations in precuneus, an area associated with autobiographical memory and agency, while looking at one's own collective models yielded interaction effects in rostral ACC, right IFG and left Insula. Interestingly, variability in the insula was predicted by individual differences in participants' feeling of relatedness to their fellow group members during LEGO construction activity. Our findings support a view of symbolic artifacts as neuro-cognitive trails of human social interactions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aptamer-miRNA-212 Conjugate Sensitizes NSCLC Cells to TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Iaboni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL is a promising antitumor agent for its remarkable ability to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells, without affecting the viability of healthy bystander cells. The TRAIL tumor suppressor pathway is deregulated in many human malignancies including lung cancer. In human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cells, sensitization to TRAIL therapy can be restored by increasing the expression levels of the tumor suppressor microRNA-212 (miR-212 leading to inhibition of the anti-apoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 implicated in treatment resistance. In this study, we exploited a previously described RNA aptamer inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase receptor Axl (GL21.T expressed on lung cancer cells, as a means to deliver miR-212 into human NSCLC cells expressing Axl. We demonstrate efficient delivery of miR-212 following conjugation of the miR to GL21.T (GL21.T-miR212 chimera. We show that the chimera downregulates PED and restores TRAIL-mediate cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Importantly, treatment of Axl+ lung cancer cells with the chimera resulted in (i an increase in caspase activation and (ii a reduction of cell viability in combination with TRAIL therapy. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the GL21.T-miR212 chimera can be employed as an adjuvant to TRAIL therapy for the treatment of lung cancer.

  10. Effect of a serrated trailing edge on sound radiation from nearby quadrupoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mahmoud; Croaker, Paul; Kinns, Roger; Kessissoglou, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    A periodic boundary element technique is implemented to study the noise reduction capability of a plate with a serrated trailing edge under quadrupole excitation. It is assumed for this purpose that the quadrupole source tensor is independent of the trailing edge configuration and that the effect of the trailing edge shape is to modify sound radiation from prescribed boundary layer sources. The flat plate is modelled as a continuous structure with a finite repetition of small spanwise segments. The matrix equation formulated by the periodic boundary element method for this 3D acoustic scattering problem is represented as a block Toeplitz matrix. The discrete Fourier transform is employed in an iterative algorithm to solve the block Toeplitz system. The noise reduction mechanism for a serrated trailing edge in the near field is investigated by comparing contour plots obtained from each component of the quadrupole for unserrated and serrated trailing edge plate models. The noise reduction due to the serrated trailing edge is also examined as a function of the source location.

  11. Experimental investigation of airfoil trailing edge heat transfer and aerodynamic losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brundage, A.L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Plesniak, M.W.; Lawless, P.B. [School of Mechanical Engineering, Maurice J. Zucrow Laboratories, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Ramadhyani, S. [132 Cecil Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55414 (United States)

    2007-01-15

    Modern gas turbine development is being driven by the often-incompatible goals of increased efficiency, better durability, and reduced emissions. High turbine inlet temperatures and ineffective cooling at the trailing edge of a first-stage stator vane lead to corrosion, oxidation, and thermal fatigue. Observations of this region in engines frequently reveal burn marks, cracks, and buckling. Fundamental studies of the importance of trailing edge heat transfer to the design of an optimal cooling scheme are scarce. An experimental study of an actively cooled trailing edge configuration, in which coolant is injected through a slot, is performed. Trailing edge heat transfer and aerodynamic measurements are reported. An optimum balance between maximizing blade row aerodynamic efficiency and improving thermal protection at the trailing edge is estimated to be achieved when blowing ratios are in the range between 2.1% and 2.8%. The thermal phenomena at the trailing edge are dominated by injection slot heat transfer and flow physics. These measured trends are generally applicable over a wide range of gas turbine applications. (author)

  12. Effect of Wavy Trailing Edge on 100meter Flatback Wind Turbine Blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, SJ; Baeder, J D

    2016-01-01

    The flatback trailing edge design for modern 100meter wind turbine blade has been developed and proposed to make wind turbine blade to be slender and lighter. On the other hand, it will increase aerodynamic drag; consequently the increased drag diminishes turbine power generation. Thus, an aerodynamic drag reducing technique should be accompanied with the flatback trailing edge in order to prevent loss of turbine power generation. In this work, a drag mitigation design, span-wise wavy trailing edge blade, has been applied to a modern 100meter blade. The span-wise trailing edge acts as a vortex generator, and breaks up the strong span-wise coherent trailing edge vortex structure at the flatback airfoil trailing edge which is a major source of large drag. Three-dimensional unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations have been performed for real scale wind turbine blade geometries. Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) with the modified laminar-turbulent transition model has been applied to obtain accurate flow field predictions. Graphical Processor Unit (GPU)-accelerated computation has been conducted to reduce computational costs of the real scale wind turbine blade simulations. To verify the structural reliability of the wavy modification of the blade a simple Eigen buckling analysis has been performed in the current study. (paper)

  13. Differential expression of TRAIL and its receptors relative to calcification in AAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xun; Winrow, Vivienne R.; Horrocks, Michael; Stevens, Cliff R.

    2007-01-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is commonly associated with atherosclerosis. Human AAA tissue displays cells undergoing all stages of apoptosis. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in tumour cells but not in normal cells. It has death receptors and decoy receptors. An inhibitor of TRAIL, osteoprotegerin (OPG), is involved in osteogenesis and vascular calcification. We investigated TRAIL and its receptors in AAA compared within normal aorta (NA). Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of calcification in AAA walls were determined using Von Kossa staining and pre-operation computer tomography (CT) scans. There was a significant difference in calcification level at different locations in the AAA wall (p < 0.05). Apoptosis was confirmed in AAA by TUNEL assay. A significant difference in TRAIL and its receptor expression was observed between normal aortae and AAA (p < 0.05). Significant differences were also observed between tissues displaying different extents of calcification for TRAIL mRNA (p < 0.05) by RT-PCR examination and OPG protein (p < 0.01) by protein blotting examination. We propose that this pattern of expression of TRAIL and its receptors may contribute to AAA formation and calcification in the AAA wall

  14. TRAIL-induced cleavage and inactivation of SPAK sensitizes cells to apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polek, Tara C.; Talpaz, Moshe; Spivak-Kroizman, Taly R.

    2006-01-01

    Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) has been linked to various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and ion transport regulation. Recently, we showed that SPAK mediates signaling by the TNF receptor, RELT. The presence of a caspase cleavage site in SPAK prompted us to study its involvement in apoptotic signaling induced by another TNF member, TRAIL. We show that TRAIL stimulated caspase 3-like proteases that cleaved SPAK at two distinct sites. Cleavage had little effect on the activity of SPAK but removed its substrate-binding domain. In addition, TRAIL reduced the activity of SPAK in HeLa cells in a caspase-independent manner. Thus, TRAIL inhibited SPAK by two mechanisms: activation of caspases, which removed its substrate-binding domain, and caspase-independent down-regulation of SPAK activity. Furthermore, reducing the amount of SPAK by siRNA increased the sensitivity of HeLa cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Thus, TRAIL down-regulation of SPAK is an important event that enhances its apoptotic effects

  15. The Murine Natural Cytotoxic Receptor NKp46/NCR1 Controls TRAIL Protein Expression in NK Cells and ILC1s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Sheppard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: TRAIL is an apoptosis-inducing ligand constitutively expressed on liver-resident type 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s and a subset of natural killer (NK cells, where it contributes to NK cell anti-tumor, anti-viral, and immunoregulatory functions. However, the intrinsic pathways involved in TRAIL expression in ILCs remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the murine natural cytotoxic receptor mNKp46/NCR1, expressed on ILC1s and NK cells, controls TRAIL protein expression. Using NKp46-deficient mice, we show that ILC1s lack constitutive expression of TRAIL protein and that NK cells activated in vitro and in vivo fail to upregulate cell surface TRAIL in the absence of NKp46. We show that NKp46 regulates TRAIL expression in a dose-dependent manner and that the reintroduction of NKp46 in mature NK cells deficient for NKp46 is sufficient to restore TRAIL surface expression. These studies uncover a link between NKp46 and TRAIL expression in ILCs with potential implications in pathologies involving NKp46-expressing cells. : Sheppard et al. find that mice deficient in the activating receptor NCR1/NKp46 (Ncr1−/− fail to express the apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL at the surface of group 1 innate lymphoid cells (ILC1s. Keywords: NK cell, natural killer cell, NKp46, ILC1, TRAIL, IL-15, IL-2

  16. A novel combination of TRAIL and doxorubicin enhances antitumor effect based on passive tumor-targeting of liposomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Liangran; Fan Li; Ren Jinfeng; Pang Zhiqing; Ren Yulong; Li Jingwei; Jiang Xinguo; Wen Ziyi

    2011-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a novel anticancer agent for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, approximately half of NSCLC cell lines are highly resistant to TRAIL. Doxorubicin (DOX) can sensitize NSCLC cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, indicating the possibility of combination therapy. Unfortunately, the therapeutic effect of a DOX and TRAIL combination is limited by multiple factors including the short serum half-life of TRAIL, poor compliance and application difficulty in the clinic, chronic DOX-induced cardiac toxicity, and the multidrug resistance (MDR) property of NSCLC cells. To solve such problems, we developed the combination of TRAIL liposomes (TRAIL-LP) and DOX liposomes (DOX-LP). An in vitro cytotoxicity study indicated that DOX-LP sensitized the NSCLC cell line A-549 to TRAIL-LP-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, this combination therapy of TRAIL-LP and DOX-LP displayed a stronger antitumor effect on NSCLC in xenografted mice when compared with free drugs or liposomal drugs alone. Therefore, the TRAIL-LP and DOX-LP combination therapy has excellent potential to become a new therapeutic approach for patients with advanced NSCLC.

  17. Impacts of informal trails on vegetation and soils in the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Agustina; Gonnet, Jorge; Pickering, Catherine

    2013-09-30

    There is limited recreation ecology research in South America, especially studies looking at informal trails. Impacts of informal trails formed by hikers and pack animals on vegetation and soils were assessed for the highest protected area in the Southern Hemisphere, Aconcagua Provincial Park. The number of braided trails, their width and depth were surveyed at 30 sites along the main access route to Mt Aconcagua (6962 m a.s.l.). Species composition, richness and cover were also measured on control and trail transects. A total of 3.3 ha of alpine meadows and 13.4 ha of alpine steppe were disturbed by trails. Trails through meadows resulted in greater soil loss, more exposed soil and rock and less vegetation than trails through steppe vegetation. Trampling also affected the composition of meadow and steppe vegetation with declines in sedges, herbs, grasses and shrubs on trails. These results highlight how visitor use can result in substantial cumulative damage to areas of high conservation value in the Andes. With unregulated use of trails and increasing visitation, park agencies need to limit the further spread of informal trails and improve the conservation of plant communities in Aconcagua Provincial Park and other popular parks in the region. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits.

  19. Asthma among mink workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Berit; Carstensen, Ole; Petersen, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of asthma among mink workers. The first case is about a mink farmer who had asthma that was difficult to treat. In the medical history there was no clear relation to work, and no conclusive work relation with peak flow monitoring. He had a positive histamine release test to mink...... urine. The second case is about a mink farm worker, who had an asthma attack when handling mink furs. Peak flow monitoring showed a clear relation to this work, but there were no signs of allergy. We conclude that these two cases suggest an increased risk of asthma among mink workers....

  20. Novel targets for sensitizing breast cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis with siRNA delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Bindu; Bahadur Kc, Remant; Uludağ, Hasan

    2018-02-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) induces apoptosis in variety of cancer cells without affecting most normal cells, which makes it a promising agent for cancer therapy. However, TRAIL therapy is clinically not effective due to resistance induction. To identify novel regulators of TRAIL that can aid in therapy, protein targets whose silencing sensitized breast cancer cells against TRAIL were screened with an siRNA library against 446 human apoptosis-related proteins in MDA-231 cells. Using a cationic lipopolymer (PEI-αLA) for delivery of library members, 16 siRNAs were identified that sensitized the TRAIL-induced death in MDA-231 cells. The siRNAs targeting BCL2L12 and SOD1 were further evaluated based on the novelty and their ability to sensitize TRAIL induced cell death. Silencing both targets sensitized TRAIL-mediated cell death in MDA-231 cells as well as TRAIL resistant breast cancer cells, MCF-7. Combination of TRAIL and siRNA silencing BCL2L12 had no effect in normal human umbilical vein cells and human bone marrow stromal cell. The silencing of BCL2L12 and SOD1 enhanced TRAIL-mediated apoptosis in MDA-231 cells via synergistically activating capsase-3 activity. Hence, here we report siRNAs targeting BCL2L12 and SOD1 as a novel regulator of TRAIL-induced cell death in breast cancer cells, providing a new approach for enhancing TRAIL therapy for breast cancer. The combination of siRNA targeting BCL2L12 and TRAIL can be a highly effective synergistic pair in breast cancer cells with minimal effect on the non-transformed cells. © 2017 UICC.

  1. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  2. Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Törn, A; Tolvanen, A; Norokorpi, Y; Tervo, R; Siikamäki, P

    2009-03-01

    Nature-based tourism in protected areas has increased and diversified dramatically during the last decades. Different recreational activities have a range of impacts on natural environments. This paper reports results from a comparison of the impacts of hiking, cross-country skiing and horse riding on trail characteristics and vegetation in northern Finland. Widths and depths of existing trails, and vegetation on trails and in the neighbouring forests were monitored in two research sites during 2001 and 2002. Trail characteristics and vegetation were clearly related to the recreational activity, research site and forest type. Horse trails were as deep as hiking trails, even though the annual number of users was 150-fold higher on the hiking trails. Simultaneously, cross-country skiing had the least effect on trails due to the protective snow cover during winter. Hiking trail plots had little or no vegetation cover, horse riding trail plots had lower vegetation cover than forest plots, while skiing had no impact on total vegetation cover. On the other hand, on horse riding trails there were more forbs and grasses, many of which did not grow naturally in the forest. These species that were limited to riding trails may change the structure of adjacent plant communities in the long run. Therefore, the type of activities undertaken and the sensitivity of habitats to these activities should be a major consideration in the planning and management of nature-based tourism. Establishment of artificial structures, such as stairs, duckboards and trail cover, or complete closure of the site, may be the only way to protect the most sensitive or deteriorated sites.

  3. Stress in Humanitarian Workers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    recognized as one of the most serious occupational health hazards reducing workers' satisfaction and productivity,. 1-3 ... Using a self- ... Kan D, Yu X. Occupational Stress, Work-Family. Conflict and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese.

  4. Risks for radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotblat, J.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection; methods for determining dose limits to workers; use of data from survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for estimating risk factors; use of data from survivors of nuclear explosions in Marshall Islands, uranium miners, and patients exposed to diagnostic and therapeutic radiation; risk factors for radioinduced malignancies; evidence that risk factors for persons exposed to partial-body radiation and Japanese survivors are too low; greater resistance of A-bomb survivors to radiation; and radiation doses received by U.K. medical workers and by U.K. fuel reprocessing workers. It is suggested that the dose limit for radiation workers should be reduced by a factor of 5

  5. Telecommuting: The Wired Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilles, Jack M.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the use of home computers and how they allow the worker to work at home rather than commuting. Discusses the growing trend of telecommuting, cost of operation, how it will affect company structure, and productivity. (CT)

  6. Social Workers Versus Bureaucracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Wilbur A., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The literature on the conflict between professional autonomy and bureaucratic controls is extensive. The author examines this literature in detail and concludes that the trend is toward further intrusions on worker autonomy.

  7. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  8. Workers Compensation Claim Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains DOT employee workers compensation claim data for current and past DOT employees. Types of data include claim data consisting of PII data (SSN,...

  9. Longevity extension of worker honey bees (Apis mellifera) by royal jelly: optimal dose and active ingredient

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenchao; Tian, Yuanyuan; Han, Mingfeng; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2017-01-01

    In the Western honey bee, Apis mellifera, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution,...

  10. 76 FR 50267 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... American Food and Vending. The workers produce passenger and light truck tires. The notice was published in... Engineering, Rockwell Engineering, Excel Logistics, and American Food and Vending, Calhoun Spotting Services..., Excel Logistics, and American Food and Vending, Calhoun Spotting Service, and Job World, Inc. working on...

  11. Worker in nuclear activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goes Fischer, M.D. de; Associacao Brasileira de Direito Nuclear, Rio de Janeiro)

    1984-01-01

    Juridical aspects with respect to the workers in nuclear activity are presented. Special emphasis is given to the clauses of the statute of workers (Consolidacao das Leis do Trabalho) the rules of the Ministerio do Trabalho and the rules of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear. The performance of the international authorities is also emphasized such as the International Labour Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the International Radiological Protection Commission. (Author) [pt

  12. Stressgevoeligheid als onderliggend mechanisme voor angstproblemen? Bevindingen uit de TRAILS-studie. [Stress reactivity as an underlying mechanism of anxiety? Findings from the TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greaves-Lord, K.; Verhulst, F.C.; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.; Huizink, A.C.

    2009-01-01

    Het recente Nederlandse trails-onderzoek richtte zich onder meer op de relatie tussen angst en de reactiviteit van twee belangrijke stresssystemen: het autonome zenuwstelsel en de hypofyse-bijnieras. Beide systemen bleken, wanneer men ze geïsoleerd onderzoekt, een bescheiden rol te spelen in het

  13. Emergency Food Programs: Untapped Opportunities for Extension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports results from a questionnaire that assessed the frequency and type of nutrition questions asked at emergency food programs to determine if Extension professionals need to increase direct outreach efforts. Emergency food program workers (n = 460) were recruited via mail to complete a self-administered survey. More than one-third…

  14. Advanced worker protection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J. [Oceaneering Space Systems, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  15. Radiation haunts shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrey, L.

    1978-01-01

    The apparent link recently found by Dr. Najarian between cancer among workers at a US Naval dockyard where up to 5000 civilian employees have been exposed to low dose irradiation while servicing nuclear ships and their radiation exposure is discussed. The study has revealed that 38.4% of the deaths of nuclear workers at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in New Hampshire were caused by cancer while the comparable rate for non-nuclear shipyard workers was 21.7% and the national average in the United States is 18%. The Portsmouth study, launched in October 1977, was based on a survey of 1722 death certificates of shipyard employees and interviews with 592 next-of-kin. In addition the results show that the rate of leukaemia of the shipyard workers was 450% higher than that of the general population, and the incidence of lymph gland cancers was 125% higher than the national rate. The most startling statistics compared mortality among workers aged 60 to 69. In this age group nearly 60% of the nuclear employees had died of cancer, while the cancer death rate among non-nuclear workers was only 26%. If these results are confirmed present ideas concerning the effects of low doses of radiation must be challenged. (U.K.)

  16. Advanced worker protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D ampersand D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D ampersand D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment

  17. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  18. Interferon-α and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor cooperatively mediates TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Chaohui, E-mail: zuochaohui@vip.sina.com [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Qiu, Xiaoxin [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Liu, Nianli; Yang, Darong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); Xia, Man [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine and Shands Cancer Center, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Liu, Jingshi [Department of Gastroduodenal and Pancreatic Surgery, Translation Medicine Research Center of Liver Cancer, Hunan Province Tumor Hospital & Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China); Wang, Xiaohong [Cancer Research Institute, University of South China, Hengyang, Hunan Province (China); and others

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Interferon-alpha (IFN-α) has recently been recognized to harbor therapeutic potential in the prevention and treatment of HCC, but it remains controversial as to whether IFN-α exerts direct cytotoxicity against HCC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is overexpressed in HCC and is considered to play a role in hepatocarcinogenesis. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the combined effect of a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, and IFN-α on in vitro growth suppression of HCC using the hepatoma cell line HLCZ01 and the in vivo nude mouse xenotransplantation model using HLCZ01 cells. Treatment with celecoxib and IFN-α synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptosis was identified by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride and fluorescent staining. IFN-α upregulated the expression of TRAIL, while celecoxib increased the expression of TRAIL receptors. The combined regimen with celecoxib and IFN-α reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice. The regulation of IFN-α- and COX-2 inhibitor-induced cell death is impaired in a subset of TRAIL-resistant cells. The molecular mechanisms of HCC cells resistant to TRAIL-induced apoptosis were explored using molecular biological and immunological methods. Interferon-α and the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib synergistically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. These data suggest that IFN-α and celecoxib may offer a novel role with important implications in designing new therapeutics for TRAIL-resistant tumors. - Highlights: ●The cytotoxic effect of TRAIL on a developed HCC HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●IFN-α and celecoxib induced apoptosis in HLCZ01 cells infected with HBV. ●The combined regime reduced the growth of xenotransplanted HCCs in nude mice model.

  19. HIF-2α dictates the susceptibility of pancreatic cancer cells to TRAIL by regulating survivin expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harashima, Nanae; Takenaga, Keizo; Akimoto, Miho; Harada, Mamoru

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells develop resistance to therapy by adapting to hypoxic microenvironments, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play crucial roles in this process. We investigated the roles of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in cancer cell death induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) using human pancreatic cancer cell lines. siRNA-mediated knockdown of HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, increased susceptibility of two pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1 and AsPC-1, to TRAIL in vitro under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. The enhanced sensitivity to TRAIL was also observed in vivo. This in vitro increased TRAIL sensitivity was observed in other three pancreatic cancer cell lines. An array assay of apoptosis-related proteins showed that knockdown of HIF-2α decreased survivin expression. Additionally, survivin promoter activity was decreased in HIF-2α knockdown Panc-1 cells and HIF-2α bound to the hypoxia-responsive element in the survivin promoter region. Conversely, forced expression of the survivin gene in HIF-2α shRNA-expressing Panc-1 cells increased resistance to TRAIL. In a xenograft mouse model, the survivin suppressant YM155 sensitized Panc-1 cells to TRAIL. Collectively, our results indicate that HIF-2α dictates the susceptibility of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, Panc-1 and AsPC-1, to TRAIL by regulating survivin expression transcriptionally, and that survivin could be a promising target to augment the therapeutic efficacy of death receptor-targeting anti-cancer therapy. PMID:28476028

  20. Resveratrol sensitizes melanomas to TRAIL through modulation of antiapoptotic gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Vladimir N.; Partridge, Michael A.; Johnson, Geoffrey E.; Huang, Sarah X.L.; Zhou, Hongning; Hei, Tom K.

    2008-01-01

    Although many human melanomas express the death receptors TRAIL-R2/DR5 or TRAIL-R1/DR4 on cell surface, they often exhibit resistance to exogenous TRAIL. One of the main contributors to TRAIL-resistance of melanoma cells is upregulation of transcription factors STAT3 and NF-κB that control the expression of antiapoptotic genes, including cFLIP and Bcl-xL. On the other hand, the JNK-cJun pathway is involved in the negative regulation of cFLIP (a caspase-8 inhibitor) expression. Our observations indicated that resveratrol, a polyphenolic phytoalexin, decreased STAT3 and NF-κB activation, while activating JNK-cJun that finally suppressed expression of cFLIP and Bcl-xL proteins and increased sensitivity to exogenous TRAIL in DR5-positive melanomas. Interestingly, resveratrol did not increase surface expression of DR5 in human melanomas, while γ-irradiation or sodium arsenite treatment substantially upregulated DR5 expression. Hence, an initial increase in DR5 surface expression (either by γ-irradiation or arsenite), and subsequent downregulation of antiapoptotic cFLIP and Bcl-xL (by resveratrol), appear to constitute an efficient approach to reactivate apoptotic death pathways in TRAIL-resistant human melanomas. In spite of partial suppression of mitochondrial function and the mitochondrial death pathway, melanoma cells still retain the potential to undergo the DR5-mediated, caspase-8-dependent death pathway that could be accelerated by either an increase in DR5 surface expression or suppression of cFLIP. Taken together, these results suggest that resveratrol, in combination with TRAIL, may have a significant efficacy in the treatment of human melanomas

  1. Ischemic tolerance modulates TRAIL expression and its receptors and generates a neuroprotected phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarella, G; Pignataro, G; Di Benedetto, G; Anzilotti, S; Vinciguerra, A; Cuomo, O; Di Renzo, G F; Parenti, C; Annunziato, L; Bernardini, R

    2014-07-17

    TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL), a member of the TNF superfamily released by microglia, appears to be involved in the induction of apoptosis following focal brain ischemia. Indeed, brain ischemia is associated with progressive enlargement of damaged areas and prominent inflammation. As ischemic preconditioning reduces inflammatory response to brain ischemia and ameliorates brain damage, the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the role of TRAIL and its receptors in stroke and ischemic preconditioning and to propose, by modulating TRAIL pathway, a new therapeutic strategy in stroke. In order to achieve this aim a rat model of harmful focal ischemia, obtained by subjecting animals to 100 min of transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery followed by 24 h of reperfusion and a rat model of ischemic preconditioning in which the harmful ischemia was preceded by 30 mins of tMCAO, which represents the preconditioning protective stimulus, were used. Results show that the neuroprotection elicited by ischemic preconditioning occurs through both upregulation of TRAIL decoy receptors and downregulation of TRAIL itself and of its death receptors. As a counterproof, immunoneutralization of TRAIL in tMCAO animals resulted in significant restraint of tissue damage and in a marked functional recovery. Our data shed new light on the mechanisms that propagate ongoing neuronal damage after ischemia in the adult mammalian brain and provide new molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Strategies aimed to repress the death-inducing ligands TRAIL, to antagonize the death receptors, or to activate the decoy receptors open new perspectives for the treatment of stroke.

  2. Interferon beta induces apoptosis in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells via the TRAIL-signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Anna; Wahab, Lora; Braunschweig, Till; Kapetanakis, Nikiforos-Ioannis; Vokuhl, Christian; Denecke, Bernd; Shen, Lian; Busson, Pierre; Kontny, Udo

    2018-03-06

    The combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiochemotherapy, and maintenance therapy with interferon beta (IFNβ) has led to superior results in the treatment of children and adolescents with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, nothing is known about the mechanism of the antitumor activity of IFNβ in NPC. Here, we investigate the role of IFNβ on apoptosis in NPC cells. Six NPC cell lines, one patient-derived NPC xenograft (PDX) and one SV40-transformed nasoepithelial cell line were used. Induction of apoptosis by IFNβ was measured by flow cytometric analysis of subG1-DNA-content, Hoechst 33258 staining and activation of caspase-3. Dissection of death ligand signaling pathways included measuring surface expression of its components by flow cytometry, activation by death ligands and neutralization with specific antibodies and siRNA. IFNβ induced apoptosis at concentrations achievable in humans in five of six NPC cell lines and in PDX cells but not in nasoepithelial cells. Inhibition of caspases-3 and -8 abrogated this effect suggesting IFNβ promoted apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. IFNβ induced surface expression of TRAIL and TRAIL-R2 and the addition of an anti-TRAIL-antibody or transfection with TRAIL-siRNA blocked IFNβ-induced apoptosis. No induction of TRAIL-expression was noted in the IFNβ-resistant cell line. In conclusion, IFNβ leads to apoptosis in NPC cells in an autocrine way via the induction of TRAIL expression and subsequent activation of the TRAIL-signaling pathway. The mechanism described could at least partly explain the clinical benefit of IFNβ in the treatment of NPC. Further studies in a mouse-xenograft model are warranted to substantiate this effect in vivo .

  3. Fasting enhances TRAIL-mediated liver natural killer cell activity via HSP70 upregulation.

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    Vu T A Dang

    Full Text Available Acute starvation, which is frequently observed in clinical practice, sometimes augments the cytolytic activity of natural killer cells against neoplastic cells. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the enhancement of natural killer cell function by fasting in mice. The total number of liver resident natural killer cells in a unit weight of liver tissue obtained from C57BL/6J mice did not change after a 3-day fast, while the proportions of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL+ and CD69+ natural killer cells were significantly elevated (n = 7, p <0.01, as determined by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, we found that TRAIL- natural killer cells that were adoptively transferred into Rag-2-/- γ chain-/- mice could convert into TRAIL+ natural killer cells in fasted mice at a higher proportion than in fed mice. Liver natural killer cells also showed high TRAIL-mediated antitumor function in response to 3-day fasting. Since these fasted mice highly expressed heat shock protein 70 (n = 7, p <0.05 in liver tissues, as determined by western blot, the role of this protein in natural killer cell activation was investigated. Treatment of liver lymphocytes with 50 µg/mL of recombinant heat shock protein 70 led to the upregulation of both TRAIL and CD69 in liver natural killer cells (n = 6, p <0.05. In addition, HSP70 neutralization by intraperitoneally injecting an anti- heat shock protein 70 monoclonal antibody into mice prior to fasting led to the downregulation of TRAIL expression (n = 6, p <0.05. These findings indicate that acute fasting enhances TRAIL-mediated liver natural killer cell activity against neoplastic cells through upregulation of heat shock protein 70.

  4. Leading and trailing cells cooperate in collective migration of the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Nogare, Damian; Somers, Katherine; Rao, Swetha; Matsuda, Miho; Reichman-Fried, Michal; Raz, Erez; Chitnis, Ajay B

    2014-08-01

    Collective migration of cells in the zebrafish posterior lateral line primordium (PLLp) along a path defined by Cxcl12a expression depends on Cxcr4b receptors in leading cells and on Cxcr7b in trailing cells. Cxcr7b-mediated degradation of Cxcl12a by trailing cells generates a local gradient of Cxcl12a that guides PLLp migration. Agent-based computer models were built to explore how a polarized response to Cxcl12a, mediated by Cxcr4b in leading cells and prevented by Cxcr7b in trailing cells, determines unidirectional migration of the PLLp. These chemokine signaling-based models effectively recapitulate many behaviors of the PLLp and provide potential explanations for the characteristic behaviors that emerge when the PLLp is severed by laser to generate leading and trailing fragments. As predicted by our models, the bilateral stretching of the leading fragment is lost when chemokine signaling is blocked in the PLLp. However, movement of the trailing fragment toward the leading cells, which was also thought to be chemokine dependent, persists. This suggested that a chemokine-independent mechanism, not accounted for in our models, is responsible for this behavior. Further investigation of trailing cell behavior shows that their movement toward leading cells depends on FGF signaling and it can be re-oriented by exogenous FGF sources. Together, our observations reveal the simple yet elegant manner in which leading and trailing cells coordinate migration; while leading cells steer PLLp migration by following chemokine cues, cells further back play follow-the-leader as they migrate toward FGFs produced by leading cells. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. 4D planning over the full course of fractionation: assessment of the benefit of tumor trailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, D.; Bortfeld, T.

    2011-11-01

    Tumor trailing techniques have been proposed as a method of reducing the problem of intrafraction motion in radiotherapy. However the dosimetric assessment of trailing strategies is complicated by the requirement to study dose deposition over a full fraction delivery. Common 4D planning strategies allowing assessment of dosimetric motion effects study a single cycle acquired with 4DCT. In this paper, a methodology to assess dose deposited over an entire treatment course is advanced and used to assess the potential benefit of tumor trailing strategies for lung cancer patients. Two digital phantoms mimicking patient anatomy were each programmed to follow the tumor respiratory trajectory observed from 33 lung cancer patients. The two phantoms were designed to represent the cases of a small (volume = 13.6 cm3) and large (volume = 181.7 cm3) lung lesion. Motion margins required to obtain CTV coverage by 95% of the prescription dose to 90% of the available cases were computed for a standard treatment strategy and a trailing treatment strategy. The trailing strategy facilitated a margin reduction of over 30% relative to the conventional delivery. When the dose was computed across the entire delivery for the 33 cases, the trailing strategy was found to significantly reduce the underdosage to the outlier cases and the reduced trailing margin facilitated a 15% (small lesion) and 4% (large lesion) reduction for the mean lung dose and 7% (small lesion) and 10% (large lesion) for the mean esophagus dose. Finally, for comparison an ideal continuous tracking strategy was assessed and found to further reduce the mean lung and esophagus dose. However, this improvement comes at the price of increased delivery complexity and increased reliance on tumor localization accuracy.

  6. 4D planning over the full course of fractionation: assessment of the benefit of tumor trailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McQuaid, D; Bortfeld, T

    2011-01-01

    Tumor trailing techniques have been proposed as a method of reducing the problem of intrafraction motion in radiotherapy. However the dosimetric assessment of trailing strategies is complicated by the requirement to study dose deposition over a full fraction delivery. Common 4D planning strategies allowing assessment of dosimetric motion effects study a single cycle acquired with 4DCT. In this paper, a methodology to assess dose deposited over an entire treatment course is advanced and used to assess the potential benefit of tumor trailing strategies for lung cancer patients. Two digital phantoms mimicking patient anatomy were each programmed to follow the tumor respiratory trajectory observed from 33 lung cancer patients. The two phantoms were designed to represent the cases of a small (volume = 13.6 cm 3 ) and large (volume = 181.7 cm 3 ) lung lesion. Motion margins required to obtain CTV coverage by 95% of the prescription dose to 90% of the available cases were computed for a standard treatment strategy and a trailing treatment strategy. The trailing strategy facilitated a margin reduction of over 30% relative to the conventional delivery. When the dose was computed across the entire delivery for the 33 cases, the trailing strategy was found to significantly reduce the underdosage to the outlier cases and the reduced trailing margin facilitated a 15% (small lesion) and 4% (large lesion) reduction for the mean lung dose and 7% (small lesion) and 10% (large lesion) for the mean esophagus dose. Finally, for comparison an ideal continuous tracking strategy was assessed and found to further reduce the mean lung and esophagus dose. However, this improvement comes at the price of increased delivery complexity and increased reliance on tumor localization accuracy.

  7. Food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soothill, R.

    1987-01-01

    The issue of food irradiation has become important in Australia and overseas. This article discusses the results of the Australian Consumers' Association's (ACA) Inquiry into food irradiation, commissioned by the Federal Government. Issues discussed include: what is food irradiation; why irradiate food; how much food is consumer rights; and national regulations

  8. NF-κB targeting by way of IKK inhibition sensitizes lung cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karacay Bahri

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lung cancer causes the highest rate of cancer-related deaths both in men and women. As many current treatment modalities are inadequate in increasing patient survival, new therapeutic strategies are required. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells, prompting its current evaluation in a number of clinical trials. The successful therapeutic employment of TRAIL is restricted by the fact that many tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL. The goal of the present study was to test a novel combinatorial gene therapy modality involving adenoviral delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL and IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA to overcome TRAIL resistance in lung cancer cells. Methods Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect optimum doses of adenovirus vectors to transduce lung cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed via a live/dead cell viability assay. Luciferase assays were employed to monitor cellular NF-κB activity. Apoptosis was confirmed using Annexin V binding. Results Neither Ad5hTRAIL nor AdIKKβKA infection alone induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but the combined use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA significantly increased the amount of A549 apoptosis. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both endogenous and TRAIL-induced NF-κB activity was down-regulated by AdIKKβKA expression. Conclusions Combination treatment with Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA induced significant apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant A549 cells, suggesting that dual gene therapy strategy involving exogenous TRAIL gene expression with concurrent IKK inhibition may be a promising novel gene therapy modality to treat lung cancer.

  9. The Roles of ROS and Caspases in TRAIL-Induced Apoptosis and Necroptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

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    Min Zhang

    Full Text Available Death signaling provided by tumor necrosis factor (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL can induce death in cancer cells with little cytotoxicity to normal cells; this cell death has been thought to involve caspase-dependent apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are also mediators that induce cell death, but their roles in TRAIL-induced apoptosis have not been elucidated fully. In the current study, we investigated ROS and caspases in human pancreatic cancer cells undergoing two different types of TRAIL-induced cell death, apoptosis and necroptosis. TRAIL treatment increased ROS in two TRAIL-sensitive pancreatic cancer cell lines, MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3, but ROS were involved in TRAIL-induced apoptosis only in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Unexpectedly, inhibition of ROS by either N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a peroxide inhibitor, or Tempol, a superoxide inhibitor, increased the annexin V-/propidium iodide (PI+ early necrotic population in TRAIL-treated cells. Additionally, both necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIP1, and siRNA-mediated knockdown of RIP3 decreased the annexin V-/PI+ early necrotic population after TRAIL treatment. Furthermore, an increase in early apoptosis was induced in TRAIL-treated cancer cells under inhibition of either caspase-2 or -9. Caspase-2 worked upstream of caspase-9, and no crosstalk was observed between ROS and caspase-2/-9 in TRAIL-treated cells. Together, these results indicate that ROS contribute to TRAIL-induced apoptosis in MiaPaCa-2 cells, and that ROS play an inhibitory role in TRAIL-induced necroptosis of MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3 cells, with caspase-2 and -9 playing regulatory roles in this process.

  10. NF-κB targeting by way of IKK inhibition sensitizes lung cancer cells to adenovirus delivery of TRAIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Cigdem; Sanlioglu, Ahter D; Bisgin, Atil; Yoldas, Burcak; Dertsiz, Levent; Karacay, Bahri; Griffith, Thomas S; Sanlioglu, Salih

    2010-01-01

    Lung cancer causes the highest rate of cancer-related deaths both in men and women. As many current treatment modalities are inadequate in increasing patient survival, new therapeutic strategies are required. TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) selectively induces apoptosis in tumor cells but not in normal cells, prompting its current evaluation in a number of clinical trials. The successful therapeutic employment of TRAIL is restricted by the fact that many tumor cells are resistant to TRAIL. The goal of the present study was to test a novel combinatorial gene therapy modality involving adenoviral delivery of TRAIL (Ad5hTRAIL) and IKK inhibition (AdIKKβKA) to overcome TRAIL resistance in lung cancer cells. Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry were used to detect optimum doses of adenovirus vectors to transduce lung cancer cells. Cell viability was assessed via a live/dead cell viability assay. Luciferase assays were employed to monitor cellular NF-κB activity. Apoptosis was confirmed using Annexin V binding. Neither Ad5hTRAIL nor AdIKKβKA infection alone induced apoptosis in A549 lung cancer cells, but the combined use of Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA significantly increased the amount of A549 apoptosis. Luciferase assays demonstrated that both endogenous and TRAIL-induced NF-κB activity was down-regulated by AdIKKβKA expression. Combination treatment with Ad5hTRAIL and AdIKKβKA induced significant apoptosis of TRAIL-resistant A549 cells, suggesting that dual gene therapy strategy involving exogenous TRAIL gene expression with concurrent IKK inhibition may be a promising novel gene therapy modality to treat lung cancer

  11. Human agonistic TRAIL receptor antibodies Mapatumumab and Lexatumumab induce apoptosis in malignant mesothelioma and act synergistically with cisplatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felley-Bosco Emanuela

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM is associated with exposure to asbestos, and projections suggest that the yearly number of deaths in Western Europe due to MPM will increase until 2020. Despite progress in chemo- and in multimodality therapy, MPM remains a disease with a poor prognosis. Inducing apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or agonistic monoclonal antibodies which target TRAIL-receptor 1 (TRAIL-R1 or TRAIL-R2 has been thought to be a promising cancer therapy. Results We have compared the sensitivity of 13 MPM cell lines or primary cultures to TRAIL and two fully human agonistic monoclonal antibodies directed to TRAIL-R1 (Mapatumumab and TRAIL-R2 (Lexatumumab and examined sensitization of the MPM cell lines to cisplatin-induced by the TRAIL-receptor antibodies. We found that sensitivity of MPM cells to TRAIL, Mapatumumab and Lexatumumab varies largely and is independent of TRAIL-receptor expression. TRAIL-R2 contributes more than TRAIL-R1 to death-receptor mediated apoptosis in MPM cells that express both receptors. The combination of cisplatin with Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab synergistically inhibited the cell growth and enhanced apoptotic death. Furthermore, pre-treatment with cisplatin followed by Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab resulted in significant higher cytotoxic effects as compared to the reverse sequence. Combination-induced cell growth inhibition was significantly abrogated by pre-treatment of the cells with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. Conclusion Our results suggest that the sequential administration of cisplatin followed by Mapatumumab or Lexatumumab deserves investigation in the treatment of patients with MPM.

  12. A qualidade das refeições de empresas cadastradas no Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador na cidade de São Paulo The quality of meals in companies participating in the worker's food program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Henrique Bandoni

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a qualidade global das refeições oferecidas por Unidades de Alimentação e Nutrição de empresas beneficiárias do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador, na cidade de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal realizado com 72 empresas cadastradas no programa. Foram coletadas informações de três dias consecutivos das refeições oferecidas no almoço, no jantar e na ceia. A qualidade das refeições oferecidas foi avalia pelo Índice de Qualidade da Refeição, e sua análise foi feita de forma estratificada segundo o perfil da empresa obtido pela análise de cluster. RESULTADOS: A média do Índice de Qualidade da Refeição para as grandes refeições foi de 66,25. Foram obtidos dois grupos de empresas na análise de cluster. As empresas do primeiro, composto em sua maioria por empresas do setor de comércio de micro e pequeno porte, cadastradas na modalidade de autogestão e sem supervisão de nutricionista, obtiveram pior qualidade da refeição (Índice=56,23. As empresas do segundo cluster, constituído principalmente por empresas de médio e grande porte do setor industrial, com gestão terceirizada e supervisão de nutricionista, obtiveram pontuação média do Índice de 82,95. CONCLUSÃO: As refeições oferecidas pelas empresas participantes do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador não estavam adequadas, segundo o Índice de Qualidade da Refeição. As empresas de menor porte e estrutura tiveram refeições de pior qualidade quando comparadas com as demais, demonstrando que empresas deste perfil são prioritárias para intervenções dentro do Programa de Alimentação do Trabalhador.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the global quality of the meals offered in the Food and Nutrition Units of companies participating in the Worker's Food Program, in the city of São Paulo . METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 72 companies participating in the program. Information regarding three

  13. Latex Allergy In Health Care Workers

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    Hayriye Sarıcaoğlu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: We aimed to determine the frequency of latex allergy in our hospital and to to evaluate the clinical and demographical features of the cases.Materials and Methods: A detailed questionnaire was administered to healthcare workers by a physician. Skin prick test with latex and patch test with rubber chemicals and a piece of latex glove were performed for all healthcare workers. Latex-specific IgE was measured in serum.Results: The study sample consisted of 36 nurses, 14 doctors, and 50 healthcare workers. While 46 subjects had symptoms, 54 subjects had no symptoms. The relationship of clinical disease with working duration, exposure duration (hour/day, history of atopy, and drug/food allergies was statistically significant. Five nurses and 1 healthcare worker had positive skin prick test. Two of them had positive latex-specific IgE. Positive skin prick test statistically significantly correlated with occupation, working duration, exposure duration (hour/day and positive latex-specific IgE. Two nurses and 2 healthcare workers had positive latex-specific IgE. Two of them had positive skin prick test. Positive latexspecific IgE statistically significantly correlated with working duration, exposure duration, and positive skin prick test. Patch test with a piece of latex glove was negative in all subjects. Three healthcare workers had positive patch test with thiuram-mix, one of them had also positive patch test with mercaptobenzothiazole.Discussion: One of the risk factors for latex allergy is occupations involving frequent exposure to latex products. Latex allergy should be taken into consideration if type I hypersensitivity reactions occur in occupational groups at risk for anaphylactic reaction.

  14. Response of Runoff and Sediment on Skid Trails of Varying Gradient and Traffic Intensity over a Two-Year Period

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    Meghdad Jourgholami

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compacted soil has lower water infiltration and hydraulic conductivity, which contributes to increased runoff and erosion on slopes. The aim of the present study was to assess runoff and sediment on three skidding trail longitudinal gradients (15%, 25%, and 35% and different levels of machine traffic (low, medium, and high, over a two-year period following the impact in the Hyrcanian forest, Iran. The results show that trail gradient and traffic intensity have a significant effect on soil bulk density and total porosity on the skid trails. The average runoff amount varied significantly among trail gradients and ranged from 1.59 mm on the 15% trail gradient and 2.76 mm on the 25% trail gradient, to 4.76 mm on the 35% trail gradient in the low traffic intensity. Average sediment also increased significantly with increasing trail gradient. Average sediment was 0.01 kg m−2, 0.03 kg m−2, and 0.05 kg m−2 on the low traffic intensity in the first year for the 15%, 25%, and 35% trail gradients, respectively. The largest runoff and sediment occurred in the first year and stressed the need for applying forestry Best Management Practices such as the use of brush mats during harvesting operations, as well as the installation of water diversion structures or seeding immediately after initial soil compaction and disturbance, in order to protect the bare soil from heavy rainfall.

  15. Identification of Flap Motion Parameters for Vibration Reduction in Helicopter Rotors with Multiple Active Trailing Edge Flaps

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    Uğbreve;ur Dalli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An active control method utilizing the multiple trailing edge flap configuration for rotorcraft vibration suppression and blade loads control is presented. A comprehensive model for rotor blade with active trailing edge flaps is used to calculate the vibration characteristics, natural frequencies and mode shapes of any complex composite helicopter rotor blade. A computer program is developed to calculate the system response, rotor blade root forces and moments under aerodynamic forcing conditions. Rotor blade system response is calculated using the proposed solution method and the developed program depending on any structural and aerodynamic properties of rotor blades, structural properties of trailing edge flaps and properties of trailing edge flap actuator inputs. Rotor blade loads are determined first on a nominal rotor blade without multiple active trailing edge flaps and then the effects of the active flap motions on the existing rotor blade loads are investigated. Multiple active trailing edge flaps are controlled by using open loop controllers to identify the effects of the actuator signal output properties such as frequency, amplitude and phase on the system response. Effects of using multiple trailing edge flaps on controlling rotor blade vibrations are investigated and some design criteria are determined for the design of trailing edge flap controller that will provide actuator signal outputs to minimize the rotor blade root loads. It is calculated that using the developed active trailing edge rotor blade model, helicopter rotor blade vibrations can be reduced up to 36% of the nominal rotor blade vibrations.

  16. Impacts of Different Hiking-trail Use Frequency on Soil Erosion: a Case of Mt. Mudeng National Park, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J.; Kim, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain National Parks have been suffered serious soil erosion by hiking in Korea. To identify the impacts of different human's trampling intensities, a comparative study was conducted in Mt. Mudeungsan National Park where has been very intensive recreational activities. For this study, trail-conditions and soil properties were discovered on the 1.9km trail of high traffic (A) and 3.8km trail of low traffic (B) in the study area. Width was significantly wider on the A than B, but there was no significant difference in the values of other factors. With compaction and erosion of topsoil on the trail, penetration resistance and bulk density were significantly higher, but water content and the ratio of silt and clay were significantly lower than those of undisturbed areas around the trails. These were not statistically significant spatial difference from the use frequency of the trails. This result implies that the characteristics of surface soil on trails were not largely affected by use frequency, and the evolution of cross-section form of trails would be dominated by widening. This study will help in managing trail system and establishing conservation policy sustainably.

  17. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... questions about the food you are served. When buying food, read package ingredients carefully. ... allergies in breastfed or other children to prevent future food allergies. Always discuss this with your child's ...

  18. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  19. TRAIL causes deletions at the HPRT and TK1 loci of clonogenically competent cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miles, Mark A.; Shekhar, Tanmay M. [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Hall, Nathan E. [La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); Life Sciences Computation Centre, Victorian Life Sciences Computation Initiative, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Hawkins, Christine J., E-mail: c.hawkins@latrobe.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry and Genetics, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia); La Trobe Institute for Molecular Science, La Trobe University, Bundoora, Victoria (Australia)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Treatment with TRAIL or EMS provokes mutations in clonogenically viable TK6 cells. • TRAIL is 2–5-fold less mutagenic than an equivalently lethal concentration of EMS. • EMS mainly causes transition mutations at the HPRT and TK1 loci of TK6 cells. • Most loss-of-function HPRT or TK1 mutations caused by TRAIL treatment are deletions. - Abstract: When chemotherapy and radiotherapy are effective, they function by inducing DNA damage in cancerous cells, which respond by undergoing apoptosis. Some adverse effects can result from collateral destruction of non-cancerous cells, via the same mechanism. Therapy-related cancers, a particularly serious adverse effect of anti-cancer treatments, develop due to oncogenic mutations created in non-cancerous cells by the DNA damaging therapies used to eliminate the original cancer. Physiologically achievable concentrations of direct apoptosis inducing anti-cancer drugs that target Bcl-2 and IAP proteins possess negligible mutagenic activity, however death receptor agonists like TRAIL/Apo2L can provoke mutations in surviving cells, probably via caspase-mediated activation of the nuclease CAD. In this study we compared the types of mutations sustained in the HPRT and TK1 loci of clonogenically competent cells following treatment with TRAIL or the alkylating agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). As expected, the loss-of-function mutations in the HPRT or TK1 loci triggered by exposure to EMS were almost all transitions. In contrast, only a minority of the mutations identified in TRAIL-treated clones lacking HPRT or TK1 activity were substitutions. Almost three quarters of the TRAIL-induced mutations were partial or complete deletions of the HPRT or TK1 genes, consistent with sub-lethal TRAIL treatment provoking double strand breaks, which may be mis-repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Mis-repair of double-strand breaks following exposure to chemotherapy drugs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of

  20. Modulation of TRAIL resistance in colon carcinoma cells: Different contributions of DR4 and DR5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geelen, Caroline MM van; Pennarun, Bodvael; Le, Phuong TK; Vries, Elisabeth GE de; Jong, Steven de

    2011-01-01

    rhTRAIL is a therapeutic agent, derived from the TRAIL cytokine, which induces apoptosis in cancer cells by activating the membrane death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). Here, we investigated each receptor's contribution to rhTRAIL sensitivity and rhTRAIL resistance. We assessed whether agonistic DR4 or DR5 antibodies could be used to circumvent rhTRAIL resistance, alone or in combination with various chemotherapies. Our study was performed in an isogenic model comprised of the SW948 human colon carcinoma cell line and its rhTRAIL resistant sub-line SW948-TR. Effects of rhTRAIL and agonistic DR4/DR5 antibodies on cell viability were measured using MTT assays and identification of morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis, after acridine orange staining. Sensitivity to the different death receptor ligands was stimulated using pretreatment with the cytokine IFN-gamma and the proteasome inhibitor MG-132. To investigate the mechanisms underlying the changes in rhTRAIL sensitivity, alterations in expression levels of targets of interest were measured by Western blot analysis. Co-immunoprecipitation was used to determine the composition of the death-inducing signalling complex at the cell membrane. SW948 cells were sensitive to all three of the DR-targeting agents tested, although the agonistic DR5 antibody induced only weak caspase 8 cleavage and limited apoptosis. Surprisingly, agonistic DR4 and DR5 antibodies induced equivalent DISC formation and caspase 8 cleavage at the level of their individual receptors, suggesting impairment of further caspase 8 processing upon DR5 stimulation. SW948-TR cells were cross-resistant to all DR-targeting agents as a result of decreased caspase 8 expression levels. Caspase 8 protein expression was restored by MG-132 and IFN-gamma pretreatment, which also re-established sensitivity to rhTRAIL and agonistic DR4 antibody in SW948-TR. Surprisingly, MG-132 but not IFN-gamma could also increase DR5-mediated apoptosis in SW948