Nyo Nyo Min
Full Text Available AIM:To describe the epidemiology of work-related ocular injuries and its visual outcome in tertiary hospital in southern Malaysia. METHODS:Retrospective review of medical records of patients diagnosed as work-related ocular injuries who attended to the eye casualty of Hospital Sultan Ismail in Johor Bahru, Malaysia from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2013. Data for clinical presentation, types of injuries, use of eye protective device(EPDand visual outcome were collected using a standardized proforma.RESULTS: A total of 935 ocular injuries attended to Hospital Sultan Ismail during 3y period. Among them 440 cases were work-related ocular injuries and included in the study. There was significant male preponderance(98.19%and commonest age group affected was 21 to 30y(45%. The most common type of injury was superficial injuries(70.91%, followed by chemical(11.13%, open globe(8.41%, closed globe(6.83%and thermal(2.72%. Although Malays are commonly involved in work-related ocular injury accounted for 78.47%, two-thirds of open globe injuries were seen in foreign workers. Only 59 patients(13.41%reported that they wore EPD at the time of incident. Generally, 89.86%(n=399had good vision, 5.45%(n=24had moderate vision and 3.86%(n=17poor vision. Visual outcome related to specific types of injuries showed that poor outcome was higher in open globe injuries groups compared with closed globe injuries \\〖odd ratio(OR=3.33, 95% confidence interval(CI=0.68 to 16.33\\〗. Overall hospital attendance rate of work-related ocular trauma ranged from 20.7 to 51.9 per 1000 new cases and decline of approximately 1.5% per year(PCONCLUSION: Work-related ocular trauma is important cause of ocular morbidity in working forces particularly young men. Malay males between 21 to 40y have higher risk. Majority of work-related ocular trauma seen in our hospital are generally of superficial injuries and potentially preventable. This study indicates they need to improve safety measures to
Work-related musculoskeletal injuries remain a concern for the nursing profession. The purpose of this study was to reduce work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries by 10% on the rehabilitation unit in a Midwestern hospital. Using a quality improvement and evidence-based practice lens, one group time-series design was employed. Shift reports, interdisciplinary collaboration, self-study educational packets, and journal club sessions were implemented. Results, although not statistically significant, indicated over a 50% reduction in work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries. Self-engagement and the Hawthorne effect are thought to have contributed to this decline in injury rates. A cost-benefit analysis indicates an estimated savings of $90,000 over 4 months. A yearly practice-based education program and improvement in electronic health records is advocated to sustain this decrease in nursing injury rates. Context-specific interventions, communication, algorithm approach to patient transfers, and research knowledge are needed to decrease rehabilitation work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and health-related problems among computer-user employees in the banking institutions in Nairobi. It was hypothesized that there would be no significant differences in terms of gender and position of work in relation to the above.
Carangan, M; Tham, K Y; Seow, E
Singapore has a resident population of 3.26 million and 0.53 million foreign workers. The objective of the study was to compare the injuries sustained by foreign and local workers presenting to an emergency department (ED). Adult victims of work-related injury who presented to an urban public hospital ED from 1 December 1998 to 31 May 1999 were interviewed. Chart reviews were done for those hospitalised. Data collected were those of demographic, nature of injury, ambulance care, ED and hospital care, outcome and final diagnoses. There were 1244 local workers and 1936 foreign workers, giving a ratio of 1 local:1.6 foreign workers. The mean age of foreign workers was 29.6 years [standard deviation (SD) 6.2], which was younger (P workers. Fridays and Saturdays were the common days for injuries among foreign workers as opposed to Wednesdays and Mondays for local workers. Falls from height > or = 2m occurred among 9.1% of foreign workers, more (P workers, resulting in 2 out of 3 foreign workers death. Though the pattern of injuries was similar between foreign and local workers, foreign workers needed longer (P = 0.03) sick leave and more (P = 0.01) foreign workers were hospitalised, giving a ratio of 2 foreign workers for every 1 local worker hospitalised. Foreign workers had no difficulty accessing ED and hospital care for work-related injuries. The pattern and severity of injuries were similar between foreign and local workers but more foreign workers were hospitalised.
Serinken, Mustafa; Türkçüer, Ibrahim; Dağlı, Bekir; Karcıoğlu, Ozgür; Zencir, Mehmet; Uyanık, Emrah
This study was conducted as a survey including work-related injuries (WRI) of workers in the textile and clothing industry admitted to the emergency department (ED). This prospective study included patients with WRI reportedly occurring in the textile and clothing industry over a two-year period. The study sample comprised only the casualties occurring at the workplace and while working de facto. A total of 374 patients were eligible for the study. More than three-fourths of the study sample were females (76.2%, n=285). A significant proportion of the patients were between 14 and 24 years of age (44.7%, n=167). Approximately two-thirds reported that this was their first admission to a hospital related to WRI (65.8%, n=246). WRIs occurred most frequently between 07:00-09:00 (27.3%) and 23:00-01:00 (17.9%). "Carelessness" and "rushing" were the most commonly reported causes of WRIs from the patients perspective (40.6% and 21.4%, respectively). Three-fourths of the patients reported that they were using protective equipment (74.3%, n=278). With respect to injury types, laceration/puncture/ amputation/avulsion injuries accounted for 55.6% (n=208) of the sample. Trauma to the upper extremities was the main type of injury in 75.1% (n=281) of the cases. Broad population-based studies are needed to define the situation as a whole in WRIs in the textile and clothing industry in the country. Strict measures should be undertaken and revised accordingly to prevent WRIs in these growing sectors.
related injuries and illnesses among the workers. Methodology: A descriptive cross-sectional study was ... Data was collated and analysed with IBM SPSS version 21.0 software. The associations between socio-demographic variables, and ...
Ryu, Jia; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Kang, Chungwon; Kim, Hyunjoo
This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the association between shift work and work-related injuries. We collected data on workers from an electronics factory. This cross-sectional study included 13,610 subjects, who were assessed based on a self-reported questionnaire about their shift work experiences, work-related injuries, and other covariates. Multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the associations between shift work and work-related injuries and were estimated using the odds ratio. We found that the current and past shift workers, compared to non-shift workers, were associated with a 2.7- and 1.7-fold higher risk of work-related injury. There was a dose-response relationship between shift work duration and work-related injury among current female shift workers. Shift work increased the risk of work-related injuries, and the impact could be different depending on gender.
Jovanovic, Nina; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Swanton, Amanda; Alajbegovic-Halimic, Jasmina; Cavaljuga, Semra; Nisic, Faruk
Background Eye injuries are a prevalent workplace injury and cause substantial disability when vision is impaired. Objective To examine work-relatedness of demographic, injury, and clinical characteristics of eye injuries in a large clinic in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods We performed a nine-year retrospective study of patients admitted with an eye injury to the Canton Hospital in Zenica, Bosnia and Herzeogvina. Controlling for age and sex, we used logistic regression to examine the influence of work-relatedness on patient and injury characteristics and clinical outcomes. Results Of 258 patients, 71 (27.5%) had work-related and 180 (69.8%) had non-work-related eye injuries. Work-related eye injury was associated with age, education, occupation, and injury type. Agricultural workers were eight times more likely to experience work-related eye injury (95%CI = 1.21–152.0) compared to manual workers. Work-relatedness of injury did not predict final visual acuity or length of hospital stay. Conclusion Promotion of eye safety is needed countrywide. Occupational eye protection is a priority due to the relatively proportion of eye injuries and the workplace being a relatively controlled environment. PMID:27813453
Anderson, Naomi J; Smith, Caroline K; Byrd, Jesse L
The trucking industry has a high burden of work-related injuries. This study examined factors, such as safety climate perceptions, that may impact injury risk. A random sample of 9800 commercial driver's license holders (CDL) were sent surveys, only 4360 were eligible truck drivers. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were developed to describe the population and identify variables associated with work-related injury. 2189 drivers completed the pertinent interview questions. Driving less-than-truckload, daytime sleepiness, pressure to work faster, and having a poor composite score for safety perceptions were all associated with increased likelihood of work-related injury. Positive safety perception score was protective for odds of work-related injury, and increased claim filing when injured. Positive psychological safety climate is associated with decreased likelihood of work-related injury and increased likelihood that a driver injured on the job files a workers' compensation claim. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Springer, Yuri P; Lucas, Devin L; Castrodale, Louisa J; McLaughlin, Joseph B
Although loggers in Alaska are at high risk for occupational injury, no comprehensive review of such injuries has been performed since the mid-1990s. We investigated work-related injuries in the Alaska logging industry during 1991-2014. Using data from the Alaska Trauma Registry and the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System, we described fatal and nonfatal injuries by factors including worker sex and age, timing and geographic location of injuries, and four injury characteristics. Annual injury rates and associated 5-year simple moving averages were calculated. We identified an increase in the 5-year simple moving averages of fatal injury rates beginning around 2005. While injury characteristics were largely consistent between the first 14 and most recent 10 years of the investigation, the size of logging companies declined significantly between these periods. Factors associated with declines in the size of Alaska logging companies might have contributed to the observed increase in fatal injury rates. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Loisel, F; Bonin, S; Jeunet, L; Pauchot, J; Tropet, Y; Obert, L
The primary objective of this study was to describe the injury characteristics and demographics of patients injured during woodworking activities, upon their arrival to the emergency department in a regional of France where this industry is prevalent. The secondary objective was to compare patient and injury characteristics for work-related and hobby-related accidents. A cohort of 87 patients who had suffered a woodworking accident over a two-year period was evaluated; 79 were available for follow-up. The context and circumstances of the accident, nature and location of the injuries and patient demographics were recorded. Hobby-related accidents accounted for two-thirds of the accidents (51/79). Most of the injured workers were either loggers (35%) or carpenters (46%). The hand was injured in 53 cases (67%). Work-related accidents resulted in significantly more serious consequences in terms of hospital stay, work stoppage, resumption of work or retraining than hobby-related accidents. For the workplace accidents, 86% occurred on new machines; more than 25% of the machines involved in accidents at home were over 15 years. Sixty-eight per cent of workers were wearing their safety gear, while only 31% of those injured during recreational woodworking wore the appropriate gear. Several elements of prevention should be improved: information about the need to maintain the equipment, protect the worker with suitable clothing, and learn which maneuvers are considered hazardous. Safety gear should be regularly inspected in the workplace. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.
Jaeyoung Kim; Yeongchull Choi
Little is known about gender differences in the association between occupational injury and depression. We investigated the bidirectional association and gender differences between work-related injury and depression using the same cohort in the US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). In Analysis 1, the association of occupational injury and subsequent depression was investigated from 35,155 employees without depression. Analysis 2 included 32,355 participants without previous injury and e...
Postel, M W; Jaung, M S; Chen, G; Yu, S; Stallones, L; Xiang, H
Farm work-related injuries are considered an important issue facing rural area adolescents. However, little research has been done in developing countries, including China. This study evaluated agricultural work-related injuries among Chinese middle school adolescents, focusing on the potential association between farm work hours, sleep patterns, school-related stress, and farm work-related injuries. This cross-sectional study surveyed 1,551 middle school students in Hunan Province who reported working on farms. The surveys assessed their involvement in farm work, sleep patterns, school activities, and farm work-related injuries during a three-month recall period. The cumulative incidence of farm work-related injury was 15.6% among the 1187 students who reported working on a farm. Average days per month farming, number of pesticide applications per month, sleep disturbances, and school-related stress were significantly associated with farm work-related injuries (p work days per month, sleep disturbance (less than 7 hours of sleep: OR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.07-5.22; awakening at night and having trouble falling back to sleep: OR = 2.70, 95% CI = 1.36-5.37; having nightmares: OR = 2.24, 95% CI = 1.18-4.24) and school-related stress (difficult homework: OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.21-4.99; extra homework assigned often by parents: OR = 3.62, 95% CI = 1.88-6.97; and scolded/chastised by parents for poor school performance: OR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.75-3.65) were statistically significant risk factors for farm work-related injuries (p < 0.05).
Sang Chul Kim
Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. Methods: We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. Results: A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.42 (0.24–0.73, however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI: 0.83 (0.34–2.03. In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. Conclusions: A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.
Kim, Sang Chul; Ro, Young Sun; Shin, Sang Do; Kim, Joo Yeong
Work-related traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by falls is a catastrophic event that leads to disabilities and high socio-medical costs. This study aimed to measure the magnitude of the preventive effect of safety helmets on clinical outcomes and to compare the effect across different heights of fall. We collected a nationwide, prospective database of work-related injury patients who visited the 10 emergency departments between July 2010 and October 2012. All of the adult patients who experienced work-related fall injuries were eligible, excluding cases with unknown safety helmet use and height of fall. Primary and secondary endpoints were intracranial injury and in-hospital mortality. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of safety helmet use and height of fall for study outcomes, and adjusted for any potential confounders. A total of 1298 patients who suffered from work-related fall injuries were enrolled. The industrial or construction area was the most common place of fall injury occurrence, and 45.0% were wearing safety helmets at the time of fall injuries. The safety helmet group was less likely to have intracranial injury comparing with the no safety helmet group (the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence interval (CI)): 0.42 (0.24-0.73)), however, there was no statistical difference of in-hospital mortality between two groups (the adjusted ORs (95% CI): 0.83 (0.34-2.03). In the interaction analysis, preventive effects of safety helmet on intracranial injury were significant within 4 m height of fall. A safety helmet is associated with prevention of intracranial injury resulting from work-related fall and the effect is preserved within 4 m height of fall. Therefore, wearing a safety helmet can be an intervention for protecting fall-related intracranial injury in the workplace.
Wang, Pin-Chieh; Delp, Linda
Taxi drivers work long hours for low wages and report hypertension, weight gain, and musculoskeletal pain associated with the sedentary nature of their job, stressful working conditions, and poor dietary habits. They also experience a high work-related fatality rate. The objective of this study is to examine the association of taxi drivers' health status and level of job stress with work-related injury and determine if a potential interaction exists. A survey of 309 Los Angeles taxi drivers provides basic data on health status, job stress, and work-related injuries. We further analyzed the data using a Modified Poisson regression approach with a robust error variance to estimate the relative risk (RR) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of work-related injuries. Focus group results supplemented and helped interpret the quantitative data. The joint effect of good health and low job stress was associated with a large reduction in the incidence of injuries, consistent with the hypothesis that health status and stress levels modify each other on the risk of work-related injury. These results suggest that the combination of stress reduction and health management programs together with changes in the stressful conditions of the job may provide targeted avenues to prevent injuries.
The incidence and prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal nursing injuries is a top concern for nurses. These injuries are thought to be a dynamic interplay of multiple factors. A literature review reveals a knowledge gap in understanding context-specific patterns of nursing injuries. Using a cross-sectional descriptive research design, 58 rehabilitation nurses participated in this study. Anonymous paper surveys were sent to all rehabilitation nursing personnel on the unit. Six themes emerged: lack of time and help, patient acuity, ergonomics, body movement issues, knowledge deficit, and communication. Nursing input is critical in understanding and reducing context-specific work-related musculoskeletal injuries. Further research that includes nursing voices is advocated. Rehabilitation nursing injuries appear to be a complex interaction of multiple determinants; therefore, multifaceted solutions using a quality improvement lens are recommended to improve the working conditions on the units. © 2014 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.
McKenzie, Kirsten; Campbell, Margaret A; Scott, Deborah A; Discoll, Tim R; Harrison, James E; McClure, Roderick J
Work-related injuries in Australia are estimated to cost around $57.5 billion annually, however there are currently insufficient surveillance data available to support an evidence-based public health response. Emergency departments (ED) in Australia are a potential source of information on work-related injuries though most ED's do not have an 'Activity Code' to identify work-related cases with information about the presenting problem recorded in a short free text field. This study compared methods for interrogating text fields for identifying work-related injuries presenting at emergency departments to inform approaches to surveillance of work-related injury. Three approaches were used to interrogate an injury description text field to classify cases as work-related: keyword search, index search, and content analytic text mining. Sensitivity and specificity were examined by comparing cases flagged by each approach to cases coded with an Activity code during triage. Methods to improve the sensitivity and/or specificity of each approach were explored by adjusting the classification techniques within each broad approach. The basic keyword search detected 58% of cases (Specificity 0.99), an index search detected 62% of cases (Specificity 0.87), and the content analytic text mining (using adjusted probabilities) approach detected 77% of cases (Specificity 0.95). The findings of this study provide strong support for continued development of text searching methods to obtain information from routine emergency department data, to improve the capacity for comprehensive injury surveillance.
Mansouri, Mohammad Reza; Hosseini, Mona; Mohebi, Masoumeh; Alipour, Fateme; Mehrdad, Ramin
Occupational eye injuries are among the major causes of ocular trauma and can cause severe visual impairment, with even minor injuries incurring considerable financial costs due to work absenteeism. This study was designed to evaluate the epidemiology of eye trauma and the role of occupational injuries at Farabi Eye Hospital, which is the largest eye hospital in Iran. In this prospective, cross-sectional study, 822 eyes from 768 trauma patients presenting to Farabi Eye Hospital were enrolled in the study. The Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System and the United States Eye Injury Registry model were adopted as the basis for the study questionnaire. The questionnaires were completed through in-person interviews and comprehensive ocular examinations. The mean age of ocular trauma patients was 31.11 years, and 685 (89.2%) patients were male. Of all eye injuries, 73.7% were work-related. Only 2.2% of the patients were wearing safety goggles at the time of injury. History of previous eye trauma was positive in 44.3% of cases. An Ocular Trauma Score 3 or more was present in 4% of patients. Work-related eye trauma is the major cause of eye injury in Iran and most often occurs as a result of the lack of proper eye protection. Most work-related eye injury patients are young men.
Awang, Halimah; Mansor, Norma; Rodrigo, Shamsulbahriah K A
Illness and injury have a significant impact on employees, their families and employers. The consequences faced by an injured worker could lead to disability, which could then lead to inability to work. This study examined the patterns of the Return to Work (RTW) using data from The Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) of Malaysia RTW database from 2010 to 2013. Factors of successful return to work, employees' salary upon returning to formal employment were also investigated. Gender, age, year of injury, industry, and job hierarchy were found to be significant predictors of employees' salary upon returning to work. Although there are other costs involved on the part of employers and employees, themselves, in the long term the financial returns that can be brought back by injured workers who have successfully returned to work combined with the qualitative benefits substantially outweighs the costs of RTW program.
Full Text Available To describe the epidemiologic features of work-related eye injuries in Kaohsiung, a hospital-based study was performed. Four hundred and eighty-six patients who were treated at emergency service or were admitted to the ophthalmology ward over a 4-year period were reviewed. Among these, 38.9% of eye injuries in the study were work-related. Male workers had a 3.99 higher odds ratio (OR than females to suffer from eye injuries (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-8.04. Most of the work-related eye injuries occurred in subjects who were 30-49 years old (OR, 3.02, and 95% CI, 1.56-5.82, when compared with those aged ≤29 years. The most common type of eye injury in the occupational exposure group was foreign body injury (31.2%, followed by blunt injuries (20.6%, chemical burn (19.6%, UV light radiation (12.7%, and corneal abrasions (11.6%. On the other hand, in the non-occupational exposure group, the most common types of eye injury were blunt injuries (43.4%, corneal abrasions (28.3%, and foreign body injury (20.2%. Our study found that foreign body injury and blunt injuries were the two highest priority injuries for which prevention strategies should be developed in Kaohsiung city. Furthermore, after advanced examination of types of media that caused eye injuries, we found that being hit by wooden objects around the eye, by flying objects in the eye, and by welding flashes are important risk factors for workers to avoid. In conclusion, most of the occupational eye injuries occurred among male workers aged 30-49 years. Due to the lack of an occupational eye injury surveillance system to monitor the incidence of eye injuries and to undertake risk assessment, preventable occupational eye injuries have not been properly controlled. We hope to provide information for further development of preventive strategies.
Full Text Available Although employees are encouraged to take exercise after work to keep physically fit, they should not suffer injury. Some sports injuries that occur after work appear to be work-related and preventable. This study investigated whether cognitive failure mediates the influence of mental work demands and conscientiousness on risk-taking and risky and unaware behaviour during after-work sports activities. Participants were 129 employees (36% female who regularly took part in team sports after work. A structural equation model showed that work-related cognitive failure significantly mediated the influence of mental work demands on risky behaviour during sports (p < .05 and also mediated the directional link between conscientiousness and risky behaviour during sports (p < .05. A path from risky behaviour during sports to sports injuries in the last four weeks was also significant (p < .05. Performance constraints, time pressure, and task uncertainty are likely to increase cognitive load and thereby boost cognitive failures both during work and sports activities after work. Some sports injuries after work could be prevented by addressing the issue of work redesign.
Xiang, H; Wang, Z; Stallones, L; Keefe, T J; Huang, X; Fu, X
This population-based study evaluated patterns of and risk factors for, agricultural injuries among farmers in the People's Republic of China. A multistage sample of 1500 Chinese farmers was selected from 14 villages. Face-to-face interviews with 1358 farmers were conducted between July 1997 and September 1997 (response rate = 91%). Agricultural work-related injuries that occurred in the previous 24 months and the associated factors were evaluated. A total of 33% of the farmers reported at least 1 work-related injury in the 24 months before the survey. Major external causes of the injuries were hand tools (50%), falls (26%), and heavy falling objects (10%). The statistically significant risk factors for injury were low family income, 1 to 6 school years of education, self-reported pesticide exposure, tension in relationships with neighbors, and stress in life. The most notable result was the relation between self-reported pesticide exposure and injury, with farmers with greater pesticide exposure at significantly greater risk for injury. The results of this study indicated that injuries occurring among Chinese farmers may have unique patterns and potential risk factors.
Alqahtani, Saad M; Alzahrani, Mohammad M; Tanzer, Michael
Adult reconstructive surgery is an orthopedic subspecialty characterized by surgical tasks that are physical, repetitive, and require some degree of stamina from the surgeon. This can result strain and/or injury of the surgeon's musculoskeletal system. This study investigates the prevalence of work-related injuries among arthroplasty surgeons. A modified version of the physical discomfort survey was sent to surgeon members of the Hip Society, the International Hip Society, and the Canadian Orthopedic Arthroplasty via email. One hundred and eighty-three surgeons completed the survey. Overall, 66.1% of the arthroplasty surgeons reported that they had experienced a work-related injury. The most common injuries that occurred were low back pain (28%), lateral epicondylitis of the elbow (14%), shoulder tendonitis (14%), lumbar disc herniation (13%), and wrist arthritis (12%). Overall, 27% of surgeons took time off from work because of the injury. As the number of disorders diagnosed increased, there was a significant increase in the incidence of requiring time off work because of the disorder (P risk of the surgeon requiring time off because of the disorder were age >55 years, practicing for more than >20 years, and performing >100 total hip arthroplasty procedures per year (P related injuries among arthroplasty surgeons and indicates the need for the identification of preventive measures directed toward improving the operative surgical environment and work ergonomics for the surgeons. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Winwood, Peter C; Tuckey, Michelle R; Peters, Roger; Dollard, Maureen F
To develop a self-report measure of work-related psychological injury, the Psychological Injury Risk Indicator (PIRI), with a comparable level of accuracy and reliability to individual clinical assessment by a skilled clinical psychologist. Two pilot studies investigated the responses of a) 34 frontline police officers completing the PIRI measure who were also examined by a highly experienced clinical psychologist and b) 217 officers who completed the PIRI measure and also the General Health Questionnaire 12 measure. The PIRI scale identified both the presence and the level of psychological injury in the clinical group with a remarkably high level of correspondence to concurrent clinical assessment (r = 0.80). The PIRI scale can be used both for the individual assessment of psychological injury and as a potential online screening tool. Its latter use is that it could enable the early identification of evolving psychological injury among workers, facilitating timely and career-preserving intervention.
Hamadi, Hanadi; Probst, Janice C; Khan, Mahmud M; Bellinger, Jessica; Porter, Candace
Home health aides (HHAs) work in a high-risk industry and experience high rates of work-related injury that have been significantly associated with reduction in workers and organisational productivity, quality and performance. The main objective of the study was to examine how worker environment and ergonomic factors affect HHA risk for reporting occupational injuries. We used cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2007 National Home Health and Hospice Aide Survey (NHHAS). The study sample consisted of a nationally represented sample of home health aides (n=3.377) with a 76.6% response rate. We used two scales 1 : a Work Environment Scale and 2 an Ergonomic Scale. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted to describe HHA work-related injury across individual, job and organisational factors. To measure scale reliability, Cronbach's alphas were calculated. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine predictors of reported occupational injury. In terms of Work Environment Scale, the injury risk was decreased in HHAs who did not consistently care for the same patients (OR=0.96, 95% CI: 0.53 to 1.73). In terms of Ergonomic Scale, the injury risk was decreased only in HHAs who reported not needing any other devices for job safety (OR=0.30, 95% (CI): 0.15 to 0.61). No other Work Environment or Ergonomic Scale factors were associated with HHAs' risk of injury. This study has great implications on a subcategory of the workforce that has a limited amount of published work and studies, as of today, as well as an anticipated large demand for them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Smith, Caroline K; Williams, Jena
The trucking industry continues to have some of the highest work-related injury and illness rates and costs of any industry in the United States. Until recently, little focus has been placed on addressing non-motor vehicle collision related injuries within the trucking industry. Drivers are exposed to multiple physical risk factors that contribute to occupational injuries in order to complete their job duties, such as loading/unloading freight, decoupling trailers, strapping down loads and ingress and egress from the cab and trailer. About one-fourth of all truck driver injuries in the United States are related to slips, trips, and falls near the truck. The purpose of this descriptive study is to report on recent injuries in the trucking industry in Washington State. Data are presented by occupation and industry sector, in order to better understand the magnitude of specific injuries in terms of time-loss days and workers' compensation costs. All accepted, compensable (time-loss) claims from 2005 to 2010 within the trucking industry in Washington State were reviewed. Counts, rates, median and quartile data are presented. Logistic regression models are presented to identify factors associated with more severe claims. Non-traumatic musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, back and upper extremities are the most frequent injuries across all industry sectors and occupations in the trucking industry. Vehicle related claims had the highest median costs and time loss days and Courier and Messenger claims had the highest risk for higher time loss claims. Injuries varied substantially by sector and within sectors by occupation. It is important to review work-related injuries within the trucking industry by sector and occupation in order to maximize limited resources for injury prevention within this important sector. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Takara, Matt S; Harrell, Karyn
To determine the most common types of noncombat-related injuries or illnesses in military working dogs in a combat zone. Retrospective descriptive study. 1,350 patient encounters with military working dogs evaluated for noncombat-related reasons. Data regarding noncombat-related veterinary visits were collected on a weekly basis from 13 forward operating bases throughout Iraq from January 2009 through August 2010. Reporting facility location, patient identification, reason for evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment were recorded, and descriptive data were summarized. The most common noncombat-related disease processes or injuries identified were related to the dermatologic system (ie, primary [inflammatory] dermatologic disease; 338/1,350 [25.0%]), soft tissue trauma (284 [21.0%]), alimentary system (231 [17.1%]), or musculoskeletal system (193 [14.3%]). Veterinary Corps officers need to be proficient not only in the management of combat-related injuries but also in the treatment of routine illnesses and injuries. Knowledge of noncombat-related diseases and injuries commonly incurred by military working dogs can be used for targeted training for individuals responsible for medical care of these animals as well as for equipment selection and protocol development.
Bunn, Terry L; Slavova, Svetla; Bernard, Andrew C
Work-related injuries exert a great financial and economic burden on the US population. The study objectives were to identify the industries and occupations associated with worker injuries and to determine the predictors for injured worker drug screening in trauma centers. Work-related injury cases were selected using three criteria (expected payer source of workers' compensation, industry-related e-codes, and work-related indicator) from the Kentucky Trauma Registry data set for years 2008 to 2012. Descriptive analyses and multiple logistic regression were performed on the work-related injury cases. The "other services" and construction industry sectors accounted for the highest number of work-related cases. Drugs were detected in 55% of all drug-screened work-related trauma cases. Higher percentages of injured workers tested positive for drugs in the natural resources and mining, transportation and public utilities, and construction industries. In comparison, higher percentages of injured workers in the other services as well as transportation and public utilities industries were drug screened. Treatment at Level I trauma centers and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores indicating a coma or severe brain injury were both significant independent predictors for being screened for drugs; industry was not a significant predictor for being drug screened. The injured worker was more likely to be drug screened if the worker had a greater than mild injury, regardless of whether the worker was an interfacility transfer. These findings indicate that there may be elevated drug use or abuse in natural resources and mining, transportation and public utilities, as well as construction industry workers; improved identification of the specific drug types in positive drug screen results of injured workers is needed to better target prevention efforts. Epidemiologic study, level III.
Smith, Peter M; Black, Oliver; Keegel, Tessa; Collie, Alex
To examine if the factors associated with days of absence following a work-related injury are similar for mental health versus musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. A secondary analysis of wage replacement workers' compensation claims in the state of Victoria, Australia. We examined the relationship between individual, injury, occupational and workplace variables with days of wage replacement over the 2-year period following first day of absence from work separately for mental health claims and MSK claims using negative binomial regression models. Mental health conditions were associated with a greater number of days of absence over the 2 years following first incapacity compared to MSK conditions. Differences were observed in employment, injury and industry variables on absence from work for mental claims compared to MSK claims. Working in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining industries and employment with a small organisation were more strongly associated with the number of days of wage-replacement among MSK compared to mental health claims, and working in the public administration and safety, or education and training industries or being employed in a position with high time pressure were associated with greater days of wage-replacement among mental health compared to MSK claims. Predictors of days away from work in the 2 years following an injury differ for mental health versus MSK claims. Given the increasing number of mental health claims in Australia more research is required to understand differences in return-to-work for this group of claimants compared to those with physical injuries.
Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Felipe, Nieves; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
Objective: The shift from an industrial to a service-based economy has seen a decline in work-related injuries (WRIs) and mortality. How this relates to migrant workers, who traditionally held high-risk jobs is unknown. This study examined deaths and hospital admissions from WRI, among foreign and
Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.
Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt
To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA).......To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA)....
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the rates and distribution of serious work-related injuries by demographic, work and injury characteristics in British Columbia, Canada from 2002-2008, using population-based data. METHODS: Claims for workers with a serious injury were extracted from workers' compensation data. Serious injuries were defined by long duration, high cost, serious medical diagnosis, or fatality. Workforce estimates were used to calculate stratum-specific rates. Rate-ratios (RR and 95% CIs were calculated using negative binomial regression for the comparison of rates, adjusting for gender, age and occupation. RESULTS: Women had a lower overall serious injury rate compared to men (RR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99. The 35-44 age group had the highest overall rate compared to the youngest age group. The rate for severe strains/sprains was similarly high for men and women in the 35-44 age group, although there was a differential pattern by gender for other injury types: the rate of fracture was similar across age groups for men, but increased with age for women (RR: 2.7, 95% CI: 2.2-3.3; and the rate of severe falls increased with age for men and women, with a larger three-fold increase for older women (men: RR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.7-2.1; women: RR: 3.2, 95% CI: 2.7-3.7. CONCLUSIONS: The risk of serious injuries is higher among specific age groups with different patterns emerging for men and women. Variations persisted within similar injury types and occupation groups in our adjusted models. These results provide evidence for the burden of serious injuries and a basis for future analytic research. Given projected demographic shifts and increasing workforce participation of older workers, intervention programs should be carefully implemented with consideration to demographic groups at risk for serious injuries in the workplace.
Spreeuwers, Dick; Strikwerda, Dagmar C.; Weel, Andre N. H.
Objective. To estimate the incidence of work-related diseases, injuries, and complaints in Aruba, Bonaire, and Curacao and to identify some next steps in the prevention process. Methods. All of the three countries' 18 occupational health specialists were asked to participate; 100% agreed to report
Perritt, Kara R; Herbert, Robin; Levin, Stephen M; Moline, Jacqueline
In 2002, the Mount Sinai Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, with support from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), began coordinating the World Trade Center (WTC) Worker and Volunteer Medical Screening Program (MSP) to monitor the health of qualified WTC responders. Enrolled participants were offered a clinical examination; interviewed to collect medical, mental health, and exposure information; and requested to complete a self-administered medical questionnaire. The objective of this study was to better understand work-related injuries and illnesses sustained on-site by WTC responders. A descriptive analysis of select data from the MSP self-administered medical questionnaire was conducted. Data collected July 2002 through April 2004 from MSP participants enrolled at the Mount Sinai clinic were reviewed using univariate statistical techniques. Records from 7,810 participants were analyzed, with most participants associated with either the construction industry (n = 2,623, 34%) or law enforcement (n = 2,036, 26%). Approximately a third of the participants (n = 2,486, 32%) reported at least one injury or illness requiring medical treatment that was sustained during WTC work/volunteer activities. Of the total 4,768 injuries/illnesses reported by these participants, respiratory complaints were most common (n = 1,350, 28%), followed by traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries (n = 961, 20%), eye injuries/ailments (n = 709, 15%), chest pain (n = 375, 8%), headaches (n = 359, 8%), skin conditions (n = 178, 4%), and digestive system conditions (n = 163, 3%). Participants reported that 36% of injuries/illnesses were treated off-site and 29% were treated on-site, with the remaining not specifying treatment location. Off-site treatment was prevalent for respiratory complaints, psychological stress, and chest pain. On-site treatment was predominate for eye injuries/ailments and traumatic injuries excluding eye injuries. Study
D'Agostin, Flavia; Negro, Corrado
Most research findings show that shift-and night work are associated with cardiovascular, musculoskeletal and neurological disorders as well as work-related injuries among health care workers. This sample based study on 246 hospital workers was performed to determine whether shift work may affect musculoskeletal disorders and injury risk. During the health surveillance program, data were collected by means of the Nordic questionnaire and the risk evaluation document. A sample of 134 shift workers was compared to a sample of 112 day workers. Hospital day workers were found to be at greater risk of musculoskeletal symptoms in single or multiple body sites than shift workers. The prevalence of symptoms in the low back (63% vs 50%), neck (54% vs 42%) and upper extremities (26% vs 12%) was significantly higher in day workers than shift workers. In particular, among day nurses the prevalence of complaints in the upper extremities was more elevated (p<0,01) than nurses working in shifts; whereas, technicians working during the day reported more frequently symptoms in the neck (p<0,05) than technicians working in shifts. However, the average age and work experience were significantly higher in day workers than shift workers. Furthermore, the study showed that nursing personnel was at great risk of sustaining an occupational musculoskeletal injury, especially for nurses working in shifts on medical and surgical wards. Data suggest that, concerning shift work planning, it is important to consider the workload according to activity.
Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Díaz-Garrido, Ramón; González-Gómez, María Fernanda; Fernández-Fernández, Miguel; Capapé-Aguilar, Ana; Garrido-Astray, María Concepción
To study physical harm caused by road accidents (LATT in Spanish) among employees of a Spanish financial institution from 2007 to 2013. Additionally, we tried to define damage features in each sex and at different ages in hurt patients, as well as work disability caused by this type of injury. Cross-sectional study of labor injuries verified by the occupational medical service of the bank. Absolute (n) and relative (%) frequencies related to interesting variables were described. Chi-square test was used to assess correlation. Along the mentioned period of time, 1.517 traumatic occupational injuries were recorded on a population of 14.541 workers. 27% of them were LATT. 1,3% of these were fatal or seriously harmful, significantly associated to sex and age (p < 0,05). Co-driver damage, LATT in itinere and twist or sprain were more common in women. LATT at work and closed fractures were more frequent in men.Work disability caused by LATT was higher than other traumatic occupational injuries. LATT in the studied sample were almost three times higher than LATT are among general Spanish population, but serious lesions in our group were less common.We observed differences in LATT distribution by sexes and ages in workers included in this study, and also a higher incidence of work disability compared to the whole traumatic occupational injuries. Public health and occupational health authorities must find efficient strategies in order to diminish the incidence of these LATT-associated injuries. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.
Mollayeva, Tatyana; Mollayeva, Shirin; Lewko, John; Colantonio, Angela
To examine the etiology, prevalence and severity of assault-precipitated work-related traumatic brain injury (wrTBI) in Ontario, Canada through a sex lens. Cross-sectional study using data abstracted from the Ontario Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB) claims files in 2004. Descriptive analyses were conducted to determine the distribution of worker/employment/incident characteristics. Workplace physical violence that resulted in a TBI accounted for 6.6% percent of all TBI injury claims. Female workers, primarily in the health care/social services sector, accounted for over half of all TBIs. Most workers were assaulted by consumers/clients. Forty five percent of injuries occurred among workers with less than 3 years of employment. This paper identifies profiles of workers and workplaces for targeted preventive efforts. Future studies are needed to further address risk factors by sex and outcomes, such as length of disability and health care cost.
Ponte, Aline Sarturi; Fedosse, Elenir
This study correlated the impact of Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) on the labor activity of individuals of working age on their quality of life (QOL) and that of their relatives/caregivers. It involved qualitative (content analysis) and quantitative (descriptive) research. Forty-eight individuals with ABI and 27 relatives/caregivers were interviewed. The correlation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and the World Health Organization Quality of Life WHOQOL-BREF (52.1% men; mean age 48.7 years at the time of the injury; low schooling; 18,7% domestic) revealed that the Mental Functions compromised by ABI interfered in the four domains of QOL; Heart Functions and Blood Pressure compromised the social domain; Cerebral injury interfered with the Psychological and Environmental domains. With respect to relatives/caregivers (77.7% women; 96.3%, primary caregivers; mean age 52.6 years, and low schooling), we observed changes in the work routine and family structure (85.2%). The onset of ABI disrupts the injured individuals and their families, affecting QOL in all domains, especially in the physical, psychological and environmental domains of individuals with ABI and the physical and environmental domains of relatives/caregivers.
Hispanics are among the fastest-growing segments of the U.S. workforce. In 2006, an estimated 19.6 million workers in the United States were Hispanic, 56% of whom were foreign born. To characterize work-related injury deaths among Hispanic workers in the United States, CDC, the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), and certain state agencies analyzed data from 1992-2006. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that, during 1992-2006, a total of 11,303 Hispanic workers died from work-related injuries. The death rate for Hispanic workers decreased during this period; however, the rate was consistently higher than the rate for all U.S. workers, and the proportion of deaths among foreign-born Hispanic workers increased over time. During 2003-2006, 34% of Hispanic worker deaths occurred in the construction industry. Additional efforts are needed to reduce the risk for death among Hispanic workers because of projected increases in their employment, involvement in work with high risk for injury, susceptibility to miscommunication caused by language differences, and other potential risks associated with culture and economic status.
Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P
To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feveile, Helene
PROBLEM: This study estimated the hazard ratio for disability pension retirement (DPR) for persons who have experienced a work injury causing absence lasting at least one day after the accidental injury occurred and to estimate the fraction of DPR attributable to work injuries. METHODS: A total...
Chercos, Daniel Haile; Berhanu, Demeke
Work injury is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, much of these work injuries burden can be found in industry required heavy manual work such as, agriculture and fishers. Hence; agriculture is consistently cited as one of the most hazardous industry in the world. The objective of this study isto assess the magnitude and associated factors of work related injury among Saudi Star Agro Industry workers in Gambella region, South West Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted on Saudi Star Agro Industry located in Gambella region, from February - June 2014 on 449 randomly selected workers who arestratifiedby working department. Anobservation checklist, factory clinical records and a structured interview questioner were used as a data collection tools. The prevalence of work related injury was 36.7%. Marital status [AOR;1.69, 95%; CI;(1.1-2.7)], service year [AOR;1.9,95%; CI;(1.17-3.1)], working more than 48 h per week [AOR;9.87, 95%; CI;(5.95-16.28)],safety training [AOR;3.38, 95%;CI;1.14-9.98)], regular health checkup [AOR; 12.29, 95%; CI (9-51.35)] and usage of personal protective equipment [AOR; 2.36, 95%; CI; (1.06-5.25)] were significant factors for the occurrence of work related injury. The prevalence of work related injury was high. Working hours, safety training and regular health checkup increases the risk of work related injury.
Smith, Caroline K; Anderson, Naomi J
We analyzed workers' compensation (WC) data to identify characteristics related to workers' compensation claim outcomes among janitorial service workers in Washington State. We analyzed WC data from the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) State Fund (SF) from January 1, 2003 through December 31, 2013, for janitorial service workers employed in the National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) Services Sector. We constructed multivariable models to identify factors associated with higher medical costs and increased time lost from work. There were 2,390 janitorial service compensable claims available for analysis. There were significant differences in injury type and other factors by gender, age, and language preference. Linguistic minority status was associated with longer time loss and higher median medical costs. Women were estimated to account for 35% of janitorial service workers but made up 55% of the compensable claims in this study. Janitorial service workers comprise a large vulnerable occupational group in the U.S. workforce. Identifying differences by injury type and potential inequitable outcomes by gender and language is important to ensuring equal treatment in the workers' compensation process. There were significant differences in injury and individual characteristics between men and women in this study. Women had twice the estimated rate of injury to men, and were more likely to require Spanish language materials. Improving communication for training and knowledge about the workers' compensation system appear to be high priorities in this population of injured janitorial service workers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In Europe, all countries regularly recognise mental disorders as workplace accidents (mainly post-traumatic stress disorders. However, there has been little emphasis on this emerging issue in Italy. Our discussion focuses on a recent case report regarding an employee who was affected by an acute anxiety disorder after a common workplace conflict with a coworker. Given that prolonged and unresolved relationship conflicts may result in more extreme forms of conflict known as workplace bullying, relationship conflicts should be minimised or prevented as early as possible. These conflicts can also lead to acute stress disorders, particularly in workers who are at-risk for stress disorders. To prevent psychological work-related injuries, occupational stakeholders should use assessments for work-related stress as a framework for addressing all organisational risk factors that are related to workplace relationships and conflict.
Liu, Margaret; Wei, Wenli; Fergenbaum, Jennifer; Comper, Paul; Colantonio, Angela
Consequences of traumatic brain injury underscore the need to study high-risk groups. Few studies have investigated work-related traumatic brain injuries (WrTBIs) in the construction industry. To examine WrTBIs in Ontario for the construction industry compared to other industries. A retrospective study of individuals who sustained a WrTBI and had a clinical assessment as an outpatient at a hospital-based referral centre. Data were collected for a number of factors including demographic, injury and occupation and were analyzed according to the Person-Environment-Occupation (PEO) model. 435 individuals who sustained a WrTBI. There were 19.1% in the construction industry, 80.9% in other industries. Compared to other industries, individuals in the construction industry were more likely to be male, to not have attained post-secondary education, and experience multiple traumas. WrTBIs in the construction industry were commonly due to elevated work. The construction occupations involved included skilled workers and general labourers, and compared to other industries, WrTBIs occurred most often for those employed for a short duration in the construction industry. Construction industry workers experience serious WrTBIs that are amenable to prevention. Use of the PEO model increased our understanding of WrTBIs in the construction industry.
Molinero-Ruiz, Emilia; Navarro, Albert; Moriña, David; Albertí-Casas, Constança; Jardí-Lliberia, Josefina; de Montserrat-Nonó, Jaume
To estimate the frequency of non-work sickness absence (ITcc) related to previous occupational injuries with (ATB) or without (ATSB) sick leave. Prospective longitudinal study. Workers with ATB or ATSB notified to the Occupational Accident Registry of Catalonia were selected in the last term of 2009. They were followed-up for six months after returning to work (ATB) or after the accident (ATSB), by sex and occupation. Official labor and health authority registries were used as information sources. An "injury-associated ITcc" was defined when the sick leave occurred in the following six months and within the same diagnosis group. The absolute and relative frequency were calculated according to time elapsed and its duration (cumulated days, measures of central trend and dispersion), by diagnosis group or affected body area, as compared to all of Catalonia. 2,9%of ATB (n=627) had an injury-associated ITcc, with differences by diagnosis, sex and occupation; this was also the case for 2,1% of ATSB (n=496).With the same diagnosis, duration of ITcc was longer among those who had an associated injury, and with respect to all of Catalonia. Some of the under-reporting of occupational pathology corresponds to episodes initially recognized as being work-related. Duration of sickness absence depends not only on diagnosis and clinical course, but also on criteria established by the entities managing the case. This could imply that more complicated injuries are referred to the national health system, resulting in personal, legal, healthcare and economic cost consequences for all involved stakeholders. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Salut Laboral.
Wideman, Timothy H; Sullivan, Michael J L
Psychosocial variables such as fear of movement, depression, and pain catastrophizing have been shown to be important prognostic factors for a wide range of pain-related outcomes. The potential for a cumulative relationship between different elevated psychosocial factors and problematic recovery following physical therapy has not been fully explored. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the level of risk for problematic recovery following work-related injuries is associated with the number of elevated psychosocial factors. This was a prospective cohort study. Two hundred two individuals with subacute, work-related musculoskeletal injuries completed a 7-week physical therapy intervention and participated in testing at treatment onset and 1 year later. An index of psychosocial risk was created from measures of fear of movement, depression, and pain catastrophizing. This index was used to predict the likelihood of experiencing problematic recovery in reference to pain intensity and return-to-work status at the 1-year follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the number of prognostic factors was a significant predictor of persistent pain and work disability at the 1-year follow-up. Chi-square analysis revealed that the risk for problematic recovery increased for patients with elevated levels on at least 1 psychosocial factor and was highest when patients had elevated scores on all 3 psychosocial factors. The physical therapy interventions used in this study were not standardized. This study did not include a specific measure for physical function. The number of elevated psychosocial factors present in the subacute phase of recovery has a cumulative effect on the level of risk for problematic recovery 1 year later. This research suggests that a cumulative prognostic factor index could be used in clinical settings to improve prognostic accuracy and to facilitate clinical decision making.
Lu, Ming-Lun; Nakata, Akinori; Park, Jae Bum; Swanson, Naomi G
Little is known about the association between psychosocial factors and injury absence in the workplace. This study aims to assess the association of comprehensive workplace psychosocial factors with work-related injury absence among Korean workers. The data (n = 7,856) were derived from the First Korean Working Conditions Survey conducted in 2006 with a representative sample (n = 10,043) of the Korean working population. The survey instrument contained questions about hours of work, physical risk factors, work organization, and the effect of work on health/injury. Work-related injury absence was indicated by a dichotomous variable with at least 1 day absence during the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratio and confidence interval (CI). Incremental adjustments for sociodemographic, health behavior, and occupational confounding variables were employed in the models. The overall 1-year prevalence of work-related injury absence in this study was 1.37 % (95 % CI, 1.11-1.63 %). Those who experienced violence at work (adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 7.05 (95 % CI, 2.69-18.5)), threat of violence at work (aOR, 4.25 (95 % CI, 1.32-13.64)), low job autonomy (aOR, 1.79 (95 % CI, 1.17-2.74)), and high job strain (aOR, 2.38 (95 % CI, 1.29-4.42) had an increased risk of injury absence, compared with their respective counterparts (p job types, skilled workers in Korea were at a near fourfold risk of work absence due to occupational injuries, compared with managers in low-risk jobs. Workplace violence and increased job strain were two key workplace psychosocial factors associated with work-related injury absence.
Park, Soo Kyung; Lee, Chung Kwon
This study examined the effect of pre-injury job characteristics on the odds of RTW outcomes for specific socio-demographic and injury-related characteristics among injured workers in South Korea. This study employed first-wave data for 1993 participants from the Panel Study of Workers' Compensation Insurance. A two-step cluster analysis was conducted to profile pre-injury job characteristics, including monthly wages, length of service, company size, contract type, and working hours. For each subsample selected by the characteristics of the independent variables, multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to predict the odds ratio for being unemployed or working in a new firm versus returning to the pre-injury job, depending on cluster membership. Two clusters were identified with pre-injury job characteristics. Workers in the unstable employment cluster were more likely than were workers in the stable employment cluster to be unemployed or work in a new firm rather than return to the pre-injury job; this held for all socio-demographic and injury-related characteristics. Our results showed a need to develop differential RTW strategies for injured workers in insecure jobs at the time of injury. Implications for rehabilitation Policymakers and rehabilitation practitioners need to take into account not only socio-demographic or injury-related characteristics but also working conditions at the time of injury when designing return-to-work programs for injured workers in South Korea. Injured employees in poor working conditions are relatively more vulnerable in the return-to-work process and deserve special attention and supports from the Korean government. The Korean government needs to review return-to-work policies for injured workers in unstable employment environment in the context of employment relationships rather than individual characteristics.
Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Smargiassi, Audrey; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Labrèche, France
To quantify the associations between occupational injury compensations and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures in Quebec (Canada). The relationship between 374,078 injuries compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board (WCB) (between May and September, 2003-2010) and maximum daily outdoor temperatures was modelled using generalised linear models with negative binomial distributions. Pooled effect sizes for all 16 health regions of Quebec were estimated with random-effect models for meta-analyses for all compensations and by sex, age group, mechanism of injury, industrial sector and occupations (manual vs other) within each sector. Time lags and cumulative effect of temperatures were also explored. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures reached statistical significance for three health regions. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily compensations per 1°C increase was 1.002 (95% CI 1.002 to 1.003) for all health regions combined. Statistically significant positive associations were observed for men, workers aged less than 45 years, various industrial sectors with both indoor and outdoor activities, and for slips/trips/falls, contact with object/equipment and exposure to harmful substances/environment. Manual occupations were not systematically at higher risk than non-manual and mixed ones. This study is the first to quantify the association between work-related injury compensations and exposure to summer temperatures according to physical demands of the occupation and this warrants further investigations. In the context of global warming, results can be used to estimate future impacts of summer outdoor temperatures on workers, as well as to plan preventive interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Schlossmacher, Roberta; Amaral, Fernando Gonçalves
Identify the prevalence of low back disorders and associated risks, as well as the characteristics and ergonomic factors present in the work of nursing professionals. Systematic review based on the search of terms such as low back pain, professionals, hospital ergonomics, work organization, nursing found in national and international databases. The prevalence of low back pain symptoms was between 14.7% and 72% and the main cause, that is, the transference of the patient from bed to chair, leaded to the profession abandonment as a main consequence. it was possible to conclude that the prevalence of low back injury is high among nursing professionals and its causes are related to occupational factors - physical or psychological, which are in many cases permanent and disabling.
Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze descriptive data and characteristics of work-related eye injuries (WREI admitted into the emergency department (ED and obtain information to utilize in planning measures to prevent WREI. Materials and Methods: This prospective study recruited patients with WREI admitted to the center in the two-year study period. Only the casualties occurred at the workplace and while working constituted the sample. The data were collected via face-to-face contact in the ED. Results: Males comprised the majority of the sample (95.3%, n = 778 and mean age of the patients was 28.1 ± 6.5 (range: 15-54 with the biggest percentage in between 25 and 34 years of age (46.2%, n = 377. Most patients were working in the metal and machinery sectors (66.4%, n = 542. Nearly half of the patients had less than 1 year of experience (50.4%, n = 411. The most common mechanism of WREI was noted to be exposures to welding light (26.9%, n = 219, followed by drilling/cutting injuries (21.1%, n = 172. "Carelessness" and "hurrying up" were the most commonly reported causes of WREIs among ′worker-related causes′ (21.4% and 16.1%, respectively. Lack of protective measures ranked the highest among workplace-related causes (18.7%, n = 207. Conclusions: Programs to increase awareness on workplace safety and sound preventive strategies for both parties-employers and employees are to be pursued. Occupational safety efforts should include training on workplace eye safety and campaigns to raise knowledgeability on this disease among workers.
Serinken, Mustafa; Turkcuer, Ibrahim; Cetin, Ebru Nevin; Yilmaz, Atakan; Elicabuk, Hayri; Karcioglu, Ozgur
To analyze descriptive data and characteristics of work-related eye injuries (WREI) admitted into the emergency department (ED) and obtain information to utilize in planning measures to prevent WREI. This prospective study recruited patients with WREI admitted to the center in the two-year study period. Only the casualties occurred at the workplace and while working constituted the sample. The data were collected via face-to-face contact in the ED. Males comprised the majority of the sample (95.3%, n = 778) and mean age of the patients was 28.1 ± 6.5 (range: 15-54) with the biggest percentage in between 25 and 34 years of age (46.2%, n = 377). Most patients were working in the metal and machinery sectors (66.4%, n = 542). Nearly half of the patients had less than 1 year of experience (50.4%, n = 411). The most common mechanism of WREI was noted to be exposures to welding light (26.9%, n = 219), followed by drilling/cutting injuries (21.1%, n = 172). "Carelessness" and "hurrying up" were the most commonly reported causes of WREIs among 'worker-related causes' (21.4% and 16.1%, respectively). Lack of protective measures ranked the highest among workplace-related causes (18.7%, n = 207). Programs to increase awareness on workplace safety and sound preventive strategies for both parties-employers and employees are to be pursued. Occupational safety efforts should include training on workplace eye safety and campaigns to raise knowledgeability on this disease among workers.
Yoong, W; Sanchez-Crespo, J; Rob, J; Parikh, M; Melendez, J; Pillai, R; Opriou, D
Backache is a common cause of morbidity among doctors and 50% of the obstetricians and gynaecologists suffering from this attribute it to work practice and posture. Occupational injuries remain poorly studied among obstetricians and gynaecologists and we have therefore tried to assess the extent and demographics of work-related injuries sustained during training by sending an eight-item questionnaire to 418 Registrar grade trainees in the London area. A low 23.2% response rate (97/418) was obtained, despite second questionnaires being sent to initial non-responders. Out of the 97 responders, 28 (28.7%) had suffered injuries at work at least once throughout their career. There was female preponderance in those reporting injuries, with a female to male ratio of 3:1. Of the 28 positive responders, 11 were UK graduates, 7 EU and the remaining 10 from Colombia, West Indies, India and Sudan. The mean age was 32.5 +/- 4.2 years, with 21 of the 28 (75%) being senior trainees (post-MRCOG). The injuries reported were: forearm (4); wrist (7); thumb (3); hands (1) shoulder and neck (9), ankle (1) and lower back (6). Of these, 18 sought medical help and received treatment for these injuries, which included long-term physiotherapy, although no-one required surgery. Eight were forced to take time off work, with a cumulative total of 80 days; one had to prolong her training by 3 months. Seven trainees sustained their injuries (e.g. ligamentous strain of wrist and scaphoid fracture) while performing caesarean sections, while forceps deliveries were the cause of six occupational injuries (e.g. ligamentous strain of sacroiliac joint). Work-related injuries can have adverse effects on training and workforce. Awareness of correct surgical techniques and adoption of ergonomic posture when performing procedures may help to minimise the risk of a work-related injury.
Cheng, Wan-Ju; Huang, Ming-Chyi; Cheng, Yawen; Chen, Chun-Hsin; Chen, Chiou-Jung
Alcoholic energy drinks (AEDs) have been popular among Taiwanese manual workers. Study results concerning increased health risks of AED consumption relative to alcohol alone have been inconsistent, and the risk for potential work-related injury or disease has not been studied. Our study goal was to evaluate the association between AED consumption and work-related injury or disease in manual workers in Taiwan. National survey data of the working population in 2007 was utilized. A total of 1192 manual workers, who drank alcohol more than once per week, were divided into AED-drinkers and non-AED drinkers. We compared AED drinking behaviors and risk of work-related injury or disease between the two groups. AED drinkers had a higher risk of work-related injury or disease, with an odds ratio of 1.48 (95% CI: 1.14-1.93), after controlling demographic, smoking and drinking characteristics. The presence of problem drinking (defined by CAGE score equal to or higher than two) was another risk factor of having work-related injury or disease. Compared to non-AED counterparts, AED drinkers had a significantly higher prevalence of work-related injury or disease in the strata of CAGE score of 1 and 2. AED consumers presented increased risks of work-related injury or disease compared with non-AED drinkers among manual workers in Taiwan. In order to conduct an effective intervention program to protect Taiwanese manual workers from potential risks, the reasons for this increased risk among AED drinkers need to be further studied. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Shannon, Candice A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Richman, Judith A; Minich, Lisa M
This study examines whether workplace racial harassment or discrimination mediates the relationship between race or ethnicity and work-related illness, injury, or assault across time. A national random digit dial phone survey was conducted at two points in time (W1: 2003-2004; W2: 2004-2005) among a sample of Black, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white workers. As part of the survey, respondents indicated their experiences with racial harassment or discrimination, and occupational illness, injury, or assault in the past 12 months. Hispanic respondents were more likely than whites to experience work-related illness, injury or assault, and these associations were mediated by experiences of racial harassment or discrimination. Interventions to reduce workplace harassment and discrimination may help decrease risk for work-related illness, injury, or assault among Hispanic workers.
Reid, Alison; Peters, Susan; Felipe, Nieves; Lenguerrand, Erik; Harding, Seeromanie
The shift from an industrial to a service-based economy has seen a decline in work-related injuries (WRIs) and mortality. How this relates to migrant workers, who traditionally held high-risk jobs is unknown. This study examined deaths and hospital admissions from WRI, among foreign and Australian-born workers. Tabulated population data from the 1991 to 2011 censuses, national deaths 1991-2002 and hospital admission for 2001-10. Direct age standardised mortality and hospital admission rates (DSRs) and rate ratios (RRs) were derived to examine differences in work-related mortality/hospital admissions by gender, country of birth, employment skill level and years of residence in Australia. DSRs and RRs were generally lower or no different between Australian and foreign-born workers. Among men, mortality DSRs were lower for nine of 16 country of birth groups, and hospital admissions DSRs for 14 groups. An exception was New Zealand-born men, with 9% (95%CI 9-13) excess mortality and 24% (95%CI 22-26) excess hospital admissions. Four decades ago, foreign-born workers were generally at higher risk of WRI than Australian-born. This pattern has reversed. The local-born comprise 75% of the population and a pro-active approach to health and safety regulation could achieve large benefits. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.
Kontos, P; Grigorovich, A; Nowrouzi, B; Sharma, B; Lewko, J; Mollayeva, T; Colantonio, A
Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers' lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector. Limited research has focused on the perspectives of the workers, a key stakeholder group for informing understanding of vulnerability to work-related head injury. This study explored workers' perspectives to better understand their decision-making and how and why their injuries occurred. We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with thirty-two adult workers who had sustained a work-related head injury. Workers were recruited from an urban clinic in central Ontario, Canada. Labour Process Theory informed the thematic analysis. Three hazardous work conditions were identified: insufficient training; inadequate staffing; and inattention to the physical environment. In addition, professional and organizational norms were implicated in vulnerability to head injury including putting the client before the worker and the pressure to work unsafely. The findings also highlight a complex interrelationship between workers' decision-making and professional and organizational norms that produces vulnerability to head injury, a vulnerability which oftentimes is reproduced by workers' decisions to work despite hazardous conditions. Our findings suggest that, beyond the need to redress the inattention to hazards in the physical environment, there is a need to address norms that influence worker decision-making to improve the safety of workers. Using Labour Process Theory highlights an important social dynamic within workplace sectors that could inform future development and
Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-related head injury is a critical public health issue due to its rising prevalence; the association with profound disruption of workers’ lives; and significant economic burdens in terms of medical costs and lost wages. Efforts to understand and prevent these types of injuries have largely been dominated by epidemiological research and safety science, which has focused on identifying risk at the level of the individual worker, population group, or organizational sector. Limited research has focused on the perspectives of the workers, a key stakeholder group for informing understanding of vulnerability to work-related head injury. This study explored workers’ perspectives to better understand their decision-making and how and why their injuries occurred. Methods We conducted a qualitative study using in-depth semi-structured interviews with thirty-two adult workers who had sustained a work-related head injury. Workers were recruited from an urban clinic in central Ontario, Canada. Labour Process Theory informed the thematic analysis. Results Three hazardous work conditions were identified: insufficient training; inadequate staffing; and inattention to the physical environment. In addition, professional and organizational norms were implicated in vulnerability to head injury including putting the client before the worker and the pressure to work unsafely. The findings also highlight a complex interrelationship between workers’ decision-making and professional and organizational norms that produces vulnerability to head injury, a vulnerability which oftentimes is reproduced by workers’ decisions to work despite hazardous conditions. Conclusions Our findings suggest that, beyond the need to redress the inattention to hazards in the physical environment, there is a need to address norms that influence worker decision-making to improve the safety of workers. Using Labour Process Theory highlights an important social
Lee, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Joung Hee
The study aim was to examine the relationships of organizational safety practices with nurses' perceptions about job and risk and experiences of work-related injury and symptoms. Nursing professions report high rates of work-related injuries. Organizational safety practices have been linked to workers' safety outcomes and perceptions about work. This study analyzed data from a random sample of 280 California RNs in a cross-sectional statewide survey. Data were collected by both postal and online surveys. Higher perceptions of organizational safety practices (safety climate, ergonomic practices, people-oriented culture) were significantly associated with lower physical workload, lower job strain, higher job satisfaction, lower risk perception, and lower work-related injury and symptom experiences. Ergonomic practices and people-oriented culture were associated with less intention of leaving job. Organizational safety practices may play a pivotal role in improving positive perceptions about jobs, reducing injury risks, and promoting nurse retention.
Spangenberg, S.; Baarts, C.; Dyreborg, J.
of injury risk factors at group and individual level for Danish and Swedish workers. LTI-rates and injury risk factors were compared for Danish and Swedish workers during the construction of the combined rail and road link across the 16-km wide sound, Oresund, between Denmark and Sweden. The comparison......Comparison of Danish and Swedish national occupational injury statistics shows that the reported LTI-rate, or number of reported lost-time injuries per million working hours, for Danish construction workers is significantly higher than the reported LTI-rate for Swedish construction workers...... showed that the LTI-rate of the Danish construction workers was approximately fourfold the LTI-rate of the Swedish construction workers. Factors at the micro-level (group and individual level) e.g. differences in education and experience, training and learning, and attitude were important...
Arslan Okuyucu, Kubra; Jeve, Yadava; Doshani, Angie
Work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WRMSI) have been well known amongst obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) practitioners, but limited data have been reported. Our aim is to determine the prevalence, severity and characteristics of WRMSI amongst O&G trainees. A musculoskeletal ergonomic survey was conducted amongst the O&G trainees in the East-Midlands region of United Kingdom (UK). The survey comprised of demographic details, year of training, previous manual handling training, any work-related orthopaedic injury, the type of injury, any treatment received in addition to any sick leave incurred after the injury were also documented. The response rate for the survey was 76% (59/78). The majority (22%) were senior specialist trainee, seventh year (ST7) and between 30 and 34 age groups. Approximately 90% of the trainees reported to have experienced pain in the last year. The most common site was the back, which was followed by the shoulders and the upper limbs. 63% of trainees reported injuries that were attributed to WRMSI. One in ten of the trainees needed time off work due to injury. A total of 20 days were lost in the last 12 months as a result of pain or discomfort attributed to obstetric work. Our results demonstrate the prevalence of work-related injuries and its detrimental effects. Such injuries are underreported on incident reporting system. Ergonomics and WRMSI prevention in obstetrics and gynaecology is an area seldom discussed. Obstetric training sessions should incorporate ergonomic interventions. Further research is required to establish relevant aetiological factors related to WRMSI in this specialty.
Lipscomb, Hester J; Nolan, James; Patterson, Dennis; Sticca, Vince; Myers, Douglas J
In the high-risk construction industry little is known about the prevalence or effects of programs offering rewards for workers and/or their supervisors for improved safety records or those that punish workers in some way for injury. We conducted an anonymous survey of 1,020 carpenter apprentices in three union training programs to document prevalence of their exposure to such efforts. We explored associations between perceptions of the reporting of work-related injury and elements of these programs. Fifty-eight percent (58%; n = 592) reported some safety incentive or negative consequence of work-related injuries on their current jobsite. Reporting of work-related injuries was 50% less prevalent when workers were disciplined for injury experiences. Otherwise, we saw minimal evidence of association between injury reporting practices and safety incentive programs. However, considerable evidence of fear of reprisal for reporting injuries was revealed. Less than half (46.4%) reported that work-related injuries were reported in their current workplace all or most of the time; over 30% said they were almost never or rarely reported. There are multiple layers of disincentives to the reporting of work-related injuries that hamper understanding of risk and pose threats to workplace safety and productivity. These pressures do not arise in a vacuum and are likely influenced by a host of contextual factors. Efforts that help us understand variation across jobsites and time could be enlightening; such inquiries may require mixed methodologies and should be framed with consideration for the upper tiers of the public health hierarchy of hazard control. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mary R. Newsome
Full Text Available Mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI due to blast exposure is frequently diagnosed in veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, it is unclear whether neural damage resulting from blast TBI differs from that found in TBI due to blunt-force trauma (e.g., falls and motor vehicle crashes. Little is also known about the effects of blast TBI on neural networks, particularly over the long term. Because impairment in working memory has been linked to blunt-force TBI, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study sought to investigate whether brain activation in response to a working memory task would discriminate blunt-force from blast TBI. Twenty-five veterans (mean age = 29.8 years, standard deviation = 6.01 years, 1 female who incurred TBI due to blast an average of 4.2 years prior to enrollment and 25 civilians (mean age = 27.4 years, standard deviation = 6.68 years, 4 females with TBI due to blunt-force trauma performed the Sternberg Item Recognition Task while undergoing fMRI. The task involved encoding 1, 3, or 5 items in working memory. A group of 25 veterans (mean age = 29.9 years, standard deviation = 5.53 years, 0 females and a group of 25 civilians (mean age = 27.3 years, standard deviation = 5.81 years, 0 females without history of TBI underwent identical imaging procedures and served as controls. Results indicated that the civilian TBI group and both control groups demonstrated a monotonic relationship between working memory set size and activation in the right caudate during encoding, whereas the blast TBI group did not (p < 0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons using False Discovery Rate. Blast TBI was also associated with worse performance on the Sternberg Item Recognition Task relative to the other groups, although no other group differences were found on neuropsychological measures of episodic memory, inhibition, and general processing speed. These results
van Velzen, Judith M.; van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Faber, Willemijn X. M.; Post, Marcel W. M.
Objective: To describe the proportion of people with spinal cord injury who returned to work 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and to investigate whether return to work is related to wheelchair capacity at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Multi-centre prospective
van Velzen, Judith M.; van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; de Groot, Sonja; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Faber, Willemijn X. M.; Post, Marcel W.
To describe the proportion of people with spinal cord injury who returned to work 5 years after discharge from inpatient rehabilitation, and to investigate whether return to work is related to wheelchair capacity at discharge from inpatient rehabilitation. Multi-centre prospective cohort study. A
and the Risk of Fatal Injury at Work.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 88, no. 1, January 1998, pp. 40–44. 9. Mallon , T. M. and S.E. Cherry...24. Mallon , T., T.L. Grizzell, C.L Nelson, and M. Hodgson. “Federal Workers’ Compensation Program Basics.” Journal of Occupational and Environmental
Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Chae, Duckhee; Yi, Kwan Hyung; Im, Soye; Cho, Sung Hye
Korean-Chinese currently represent the largest group of migrant workers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of risk factors on the occurrence of work-related injuries and illnesses (WII). Data for 486 Korean-Chinese migrant workers were drawn from the 2010 Migrant Workers' Health and Safety Survey in Korea. Logistic regression was used to identify the association between WII and multiple risk factors. Individual health status (OR = 3.83, 95% CI [2.01, 7.30]), safety training (OR = 0.39, 95% CI [0.18, 0.85]), job satisfaction (OR = 1.90, 95% CI [1.07, 3.38]), physical and chemical hazard exposure (OR = 1.05, 95% CI [1.02, 1.08]), and length of stay (OR = 1.01, 95% CI [1.00, 1.01]) were identified as risk factors for WII. The findings suggest the need for a comprehensive approach to assess WII risk factors, including personal, work organization and psychosocial demands, and acculturation in Korean-Chinese migrant workers. © 2015 The Author(s).
Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lander, F; Lauritsen, J M
The current study examines and compares the relationship between both macroeconomic and industry-specific business cycle indicators, and work-related injuries among construction workers in Denmark using emergency department (ED) injury data and also officially reported injuries to the Danish Working Environment Authority (WEA). The correlations between ED and WEA injury data from the catchment area of Odense University Hospital during the period 1984-2010 were tested separately for variability and trend with two general macroeconomic indicators (gross domestic product and the Danish unemployment rate) and two construction industry-specific indicators (gross value added and the number of employees). The results show that injury rates increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions. However, the regression coefficients were generally weak for both the ED (range 0.14-0.20) and WEA injuries (range 0.13-0.36). Furthermore, although there is some variability in the strength of the relationship of the different business cycle indicators, the relationships are generally not stronger for the WEA injuries than for the ED injuries, except for general unemployment. Similarly, no substantial differences in strength of relation between industry-specific and macroeconomic indicators were identified. The study shows that there was no difference in the relationship between business cycle indicators, and WEA and ED injury data. This indicates that changes in reporting behaviour do not seem to play a major role in the relation between the business cycle and workplace injuries in a Danish context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Kool, Bridget; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Scott, Nina; Lawrenson, Ross; Christey, Grant
To describe the epidemiological characteristics of patients with work-related injuries (WRI) admitted to hospitals in New Zealand's Midland Trauma System (MTS) during a four year period. A retrospective review was conducted of trauma registry records for adults (≥15years) admitted to four hospitals in the MTS as a result of WRI between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015. We describe the patterns of injury incidence by demographic characteristics, employment industry, mechanism of injury, body regions injured, injury severity score (ISS), month, day and time of injury, duration of hospital stay, domicile District Health Board (DHB), and discharge destination. The 2169 WRI trauma admissions, corresponded to an annualised rate of 205.8 per 100,000 workers or 234.3 per 100,000 full time employment employees (FTE). Injury rates were highest among males (238.0 per 100,000 workers) and those aged 15-24 years (227.1 per 100,000 workers), and lowest among Asians (83 per 100,000 workers). The highest injury rates occurred among the 'agriculture/forestry/fishing', 'manufacturing', and 'transport/postal/warehousing' industries. 'Contact with machinery' was the most common mechanism of injury, and the 'extremities or pelvic girdle' the most common body region injured. The in-hospital case fatality rate was Midland region is consistent with national estimates. The high rate of injuries amongst males, young adults, and Māori requires further exploration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Janga, D; Akinfenwa, O
The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders amongst practitioners of obstetric and gynaecology ultrasound worldwide, and to establish relevant aetiological factors. A questionnaire survey was conducted amongst the participants at the 2010 ISUOG world congress held in Prague, Czech Republic. All pain complaints were evaluated in relation to the gender, operator experience, average workload and the background prevalence of obesity in the patient population scanned. Joint (neck, shoulder, elbow, wrist) or back pain was considered as repetitive strain injury (RSI). The response rate obtained was 49 %, with 407 questionnaires returned out of a total of 830. Female operators reported more RSI than their male counterparts (70.1 vs. 59.6 %, p = 0.03). We found no significant relationship between the grade of the operator, the number of years of scanning experience, orientation in ergonomics and the occurrence of symptoms. Rest breaks in between cases revealed positive benefit (61.4 % RSI with rest vs. 71 % without rest, p = 0.041). The incidence of the reported RSI in the practitioners who had less than 30 % of their population classified as obese (body mass index of 30 or more) when compared with those who had more than 30 % of their case load classified as obese, was similar (65.3 vs. 64 %, p = 0.83). Operator-dependant factors except gender, had little correlation with symptoms suffered, whilst the number of days worked per week, not taking regular breaks each day, revealed positive correlation. The results suggest that symptoms are both operator and workplace dependent. Though 65.6 % respondents suffered from RSI, less than half (30.5 %) resorted to supportive measures like physiotherapy.
Riedel, Marc; Berrez, Stéphane; Pelisse, Didier; Brousse, Eric; Forget, Coralie; Marlot, Michel; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain
The first aim of the study was to assess clock-time patterning of work-related injuries (WRIs) of firemen (FM) of Saône et Loire-71 (France) during the 4-yr span of 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2007. FM of this service are legally required to log every WRI and seek its evaluation by the medical service, whether the WRI was the result of worksite duties or exercise/sport activities at the station. WRI was defined specifically as a (nonexercise, nonsport, and nonemotional/stress) work-associated trauma, verified both by log book and medical records. For the corresponding years, the 24-h pattern of emergency calls (Calls) plus road traffic (Traffic) on the main roads of the service area was also assessed. Relative risk (R) of WRI was calculated as the quantity of WRIs/h divided by the quantity of Call responses/h × 1000, which takes into account the number of at-risk FM/unit time, since each dispatched emergency vehicle is staffed with 4 FM. Comparably trained regular (RFM) and volunteer (VFM) FM experienced a total of 187 WRIs. The 24-h WRI curve patterns of RFM and VFM were correlated (r = 0.4, p difference (p > .05). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) validated comparable clock-time patterns in WRIs of RFM and VFM each year and each season (all p .0006; Cosinor analysis, p work performance) of FM of the same service to urgent medical calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Highest R of WRI at 02:00 h corresponded closely to longest LT (raw data at ∼02:00 h and Cosinor derived Ø of 02.54 h ± 71 min [SD]), thereby supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism underlying the two 24-h profiles. A third aim was to determine the relevance of a new concept in work safety, "chronoprevention," for future FM training programs.
Full Text Available Unintentional injuries cause much of the global mortality burden, with the workplace being a common accident setting. Even in high-income economies, occupational injury figures remain remarkably high. Because risk factors for occupational injuries are prone to confounding, the present research takes a comprehensive approach. To better understand the occurrence of occupational injuries, sociodemographic factors and work- and health-related factors are tested simultaneously. Thus, the present analysis aims to develop a comprehensive epidemiological model that facilitates the explanation of varying injury rates in the workplace. The representative phone survey German Health Update 2010 provides information on medically treated occupational injuries sustained in the year prior to the interview. Data were collected on sociodemographics, occupation, working conditions, health-related behaviors, and chronic diseases. For the economically active population (18-70 years, n = 14,041, the 12-month prevalence of occupational injuries was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI. Blockwise multiple logistic regression was applied to successively include different groups of variables. Overall, 2.8% (95% CI 2.4-3.2 of the gainfully employed population report at least one occupational injury (women: 0.9%; 95% CI 0.7-1.2; men: 4.3%; 95% CI 3.7-5.0. In the fully adjusted model, male gender (OR 3.16 and age 18-29 (OR 1.54, as well as agricultural (OR 5.40, technical (OR 3.41, skilled service (OR 4.24 or manual (OR 5.12, and unskilled service (OR 3.13 or manual (OR 4.97 occupations are associated with higher chances of occupational injuries. The same holds for frequent stressors such as heavy carrying (OR 1.78, working in awkward postures (OR 1.46, environmental stress (OR 1.48, and working under pressure (OR 1.41. Among health-related variables, physical inactivity (OR 1.47 and obesity (OR 1.73 present a significantly higher chance of occupational injuries
Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.
Over 25,600 lives were lost on the road in the European Union in 2016, of those a large proportion were victims of work-related road (WRR) collisions. Even though the exact number is unknown, it is likely that up to 40% of all road deaths are work-related. Part I: Work-related road safety (WRRS)
Warmerdam, Amanda; Newnam, Sharon; Sheppard, Dianne; Griffin, Mark; Stevenson, Mark
Statistics indicate that employees commuting or traveling as part of their work are overrepresented in workplace injury and death. Despite this, many organizations are unaware of the factors within their organizations that are likely to influence potential reductions in work-related road traffic injury. This article presents a multilevel conceptual framework that identifies health investment as the central feature in reducing work-related road traffic injury. Within this framework, we explore factors operating at the individual driver, workgroup supervisor, and organizational senior management levels that create a mutually reinforcing system of safety. The health investment framework identifies key factors at the senior manager, supervisor, and driver levels to cultivating a safe working environment. These factors are high-performance workplace systems, leader-member exchange and autonomy, trust and empowerment, respectively. The framework demonstrates the important interactions between these factors and how they create a self-sustaining organizational safety system. The framework aims to provide insight into the future development of interventions that are strategically aligned with the organization and target elements that facilitate and enhance driver safety and ultimately reduce work-related road traffic injury and death.
Discussion: This study confirmed the rate of prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders and injuries in occupational and physical therapists, with wrist and lumbar being the most affected. The promotion of therapist’s knowledge about MSD and following ergonomic principles and new approaches in the treatment may lower or prevent MSD.
Kunda, Richard; Frantz, Josè; Karachi, Farhana
Work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WMSIs) are common in both developed and third world countries. Most researchers agree that exposure to ergonomic risk factors is a major contributor to these injuries. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of and ergonomic risk factors associated with WMSIs amongst underground mine workers in Kitwe, Zambia. A cross-sectional quantitative study was conducted using a sample size of 500 workers. A stratified random sampling method according to mining work activity type was used to obtain the sample. Data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire, and the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used to analyze data using descriptive and inferential statistical methods. Results were significant at 5%. A response rate of 40.4% (202) was obtained. The 12-month prevalence of WMSIs was 42.6%. The mean age of the workers was 40.31 years (SD +/- 8.57 years). Electricians and mechanics reported the highest injury frequencies. The back was the most affected body part. Ergonomic risk factors consistently reported by workers included poor postures and heavy lifting. There were significant (p=0.020) associations between working with the back bent and sustaining a back injury. Significant (p=0.049) associations were also found between injuries of the wrists/hands and grasping an unsupported object(s). This study revealed significant associations between WMSIs and ergonomic risk factors like working with the back bent and grasping objects.
McInnes, Judith Anne; MacFarlane, Ewan M.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Smith, Peter
It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia. A time-stratified case crossover study design was utilised to examine the association between two and three consecutive days and two and three consecutive nights of hot weather and the risk of work-related injury, using definitions of hot weather ranging from the 60th to the 95th percentile of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the Melbourne metropolitan area, 2002-2012. Workers' compensation claim data was used to identify cases of acute work-related injury. Overall, two and three consecutive days of hot weather were associated with an increased risk of injury, with this effect becoming apparent at a daily maximum temperature of 27.6 °C (70th percentile). Three consecutive days of high but not extreme temperatures were associated with the strongest effect, with a 15% increased risk of injury (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30) observed when daily maximum temperature was ≥33.3 °C (90th percentile) for three consecutive days, compared to when it was not. At a threshold of 35.5 °C (95th percentile), there was no significant association between temperature and injury for either two or three consecutive days of heat. These findings suggest that warnings to minimise harm to workers from hot weather should be given, and prevention protocol initiated, when consecutive warm days of temperatures lower than extreme heat temperatures are forecast, and well before the upper ranges of ambient daytime temperatures are reached.
McInnes, Judith Anne; MacFarlane, Ewan M.; Sim, Malcolm R.; Smith, Peter
It has been reported that weather-related high ambient temperature is associated with an increased risk of work-related injury. Understanding this relationship is important because work-related injuries are a major public health problem, and because projected climate changes will potentially expose workers to hot days, including consecutive hot days, more often. The aim of this study was to quantify the impact of exposure to sustained periods of hot weather on work-related injury risk for workers in Melbourne, Australia. A time-stratified case crossover study design was utilised to examine the association between two and three consecutive days and two and three consecutive nights of hot weather and the risk of work-related injury, using definitions of hot weather ranging from the 60th to the 95th percentile of daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the Melbourne metropolitan area, 2002-2012. Workers' compensation claim data was used to identify cases of acute work-related injury. Overall, two and three consecutive days of hot weather were associated with an increased risk of injury, with this effect becoming apparent at a daily maximum temperature of 27.6 °C (70th percentile). Three consecutive days of high but not extreme temperatures were associated with the strongest effect, with a 15% increased risk of injury (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.30) observed when daily maximum temperature was ≥33.3 °C (90th percentile) for three consecutive days, compared to when it was not. At a threshold of 35.5 °C (95th percentile), there was no significant association between temperature and injury for either two or three consecutive days of heat. These findings suggest that warnings to minimise harm to workers from hot weather should be given, and prevention protocol initiated, when consecutive warm days of temperatures lower than extreme heat temperatures are forecast, and well before the upper ranges of ambient daytime temperatures are reached.
Schneider, Jeffrey C; Shie, Vivian L; Espinoza, Leda F; Shapiro, Gabriel D; Lee, Austin; Acton, Amy; Marino, Molly; Jette, Alan; Kazis, Lewis E; Ryan, Colleen M
To examine differences in long-term social reintegration outcomes for burn survivors with and without work-related injuries. Cross-sectional survey. Community-dwelling burn survivors. Burn survivors (N=601) aged ≥18 years with injuries to ≥5% total body surface area or burns to critical areas (hands, feet, face, or genitals). Not applicable. The Life Impact Burn Recovery Evaluation Profile was used to examine the following previously validated 6 scale scores of social participation: Family and Friends, Social Interactions, Social Activities, Work and Employment, Romantic Relationships, and Sexual Relationships. Older participants, those who were married, and men were more likely to be burned at work (Preintegration outcomes than those without work-related injuries. Identification of those at higher risk for work reintegration challenges after burn injury may enable survivors, providers, employers, and insurers to better use appropriate resources to promote and target optimal employment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Lipscomb, Hester J; Marshall, Stephen W; Casteel, Carri; Richardson, David B; Brookhart, M Alan; Cameron, Wilfrid
Construction workers are at high risk of work-related musculoskeletal back disorders, and research suggests medical care and costs associated with these conditions may be covered by sources other than workers' compensation (WC). Little is known about the back injury experience and care seeking behavior among drywall installers, a high-risk workgroup regularly exposed to repetitive activities, awkward postures, and handling heavy building materials. Among a cohort of 24,830 Washington State union carpenters (1989-2008), including 5,073 drywall installers, we identified WC claims, visits for health care covered through union-provided health insurance and time at risk. Rates of work-related overexertion back injuries (defined using WC claims data) and health care utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders covered by private health insurance were examined and contrasted over time and by worker characteristics, stratified by type of work (drywall installation, other carpentry). Drywall installers' work-related overexertion back injury rates exceeded those of other carpenters (adjusted IRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.48-1.78). For both carpentry groups, rates declined significantly over time. In contrast, rates of private healthcare utilization for musculoskeletal back disorders were similar for drywall installers compared to other carpenters; they increased over time (after the mid-1990s), with increasing years in the union, and with increasing numbers of work-related overexertion back injuries. Observed declines over time in the rate of work-related overexertion back injury, as based on WC claims data, is encouraging. However, results add to the growing literature suggesting care for work-related conditions may be being sought outside of the WC system. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Carlos-Rivera, Fernando; Aguilar-Madrid, Guadalupe; Gómez-Montenegro, Pablo Anaya; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc A; Sánchez-Román, Francisco Raúl; Durcudoy Montandon, Jaqueline E A; Borja-Aburto, Víctor Hugo
Data on the economic consequences of occupational injuries is scarce in developing countries which prevents the recognition of their economic and social consequences. This study assess the direct heath care costs of work-related accidents in the Mexican Institute of Social Security, the largest health care institution in Latin America, which covered 12,735,856 workers and their families in 2005. We estimated the cost of treatment for 295,594 officially reported occupational injuries nation wide. A group of medical experts devised treatment algorithms to quantify resource utilization for occupational injuries to which unit costs were applied. Total costs were estimated as the product of the cost per illness and the severity weighted incidence of occupational accidents. Occupational injury rate was 2.9 per 100 workers. Average medical care cost per case was $2,059 USD. The total cost of the health care of officially recognized injured workers was $753,420,222 USD. If injury rate is corrected for underreporting, the cost for formal injured workers is 791,216,460. If the same costs are applied for informal workers, approximately half of the working population in Mexico, the cost of healthcare for occupational injuries is about 1% of the gross domestic product. Health care costs of occupational accidents are similar to the economic direct expenditures to compensate death and disability in the social security system in Mexico. However, indirect costs might be as important as direct costs.
Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka
Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P noise exposure and work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution.
Sousa Santana, Vilma; Villaveces, Andrés; Bangdwala, Shrikant L; Runyan, Carol W; Albuquerque Oliveira, Paulo Rogerio
To obtain national estimates of the annual cumulative incidence and incidence density of severe non-fatal injuries using compensation benefits data from the Brazilian National Social Security Institute (INSS), and to describe their sociodemographic distribution among workers aged under 25 years. Data are records of health-related compensation benefits from the Ministry of Social Insurance's information system of compensation benefits of the INSS recorded in 2006. Injuries were cases classified under chapter XIX, ICD-10. The assessment of their relation with work was made by INSS's occupational physician experts. The study population comprised young workers aged 16-24 years. 59,381 workers received compensation benefits for injuries in the study year. Among them 14,491 (24.4%) were work related, 12,501 (86.3%) were male and 1990 were female workers (13.7%). The annual cumulative incidence rate of work-related injuries (ACI-WI) was 2.9×1000 workers, higher among men (4.2×1000) than women (1.0×1000). The incidence density rate (IDR-WI) was 0.7/1000 full-time equivalent (FTE), higher for men (0.97/1000 FTE) than women (0.24/1000 FTE). Both morbidity measures were higher in the younger group (16-19 years), and inversely related to wage, especially for women in the younger group. Logging, extraction, food/beverage and construction industries had higher ACI-WI and IDR-WI for adolescents and young adult workers of both sex groups. These findings suggest that the Brazilian labour laws limiting young adult workers in hazardous settings need to be expanded, adding occupations in other extractive industries and certain types of work in the food/beverage manufacturing industries. Social inequalities associated with sex need to be examined further with more detailed data.
Bonafede, Michela; Marinaccio, Alessandro; Asta, Federica; Schifano, Patrizia; Michelozzi, Paola; Vecchi, Simona
The relationship between extreme temperature and population health has been well documented. Our objective was to assess the evidence supporting an association between extreme temperature and work related injuries. We carried out a systematic search with no date limits using PubMed, the Cochrane central register of controlled trials, EMBASE, Web of Science and the internet sites of key organizations on environmental and occupational health and safety. Risk of bias was evaluated with Cochrane procedure. Among 270 studies selected at the first step, we analyzed 20 studies according to inclusion criteria (4 and 16 referring to extreme cold and heat temperature, respectively). Despite the relevance for policy makers and for occupational safety authorities, the associations between extreme temperature and work related injuries is seldom analyzed. The estimation of risk, the identification of specific jobs involved and the characterization of the complex mechanisms involved could help to define prevention measures.
Arslan Okuyucu, Kubra; Jeve, Yadava; Doshani, Angie
Purpose Work-related musculoskeletal injuries (WRMSI) have been well known amongst obstetrics and gynaecology (O&G) practitioners, but limited data have been reported. Our aim is to determine the prevalence, severity and characteristics of WRMSI amongst O&G trainees. Methods A musculoskeletal ergonomic survey was conducted amongst the O&G trainees in the East-Midlands region of United Kingdom (UK). The survey comprised of demographic details, year of training, previous manual handling trainin...
Hartman, E.; Frankena, K.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Nielen, M.; Metz, J.H.M.; Huirne, R.B.M.
Using data from an insurance company, the occurrence of sick leave among Dutch farmers due to work-related injuries, and the epidemiological risk factors were investigated. In this case-control study the cases had filed a sick leave claim for work-related injury from 19982001 and the controls had
Soori, H; Rahimi, M; Mohseni, H
This study in 2004 and 2005 aimed to present the pattern of job stress among car manufacturing workers in one factory in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and to assess its relationship with occupational injuries. Data were collected from 608 male workers (508 at-risk general workers and 100 with injuries in the last year). Job stress was assessed by the Belkic occupational stress index. The prevalence of job stress was 21.3%. The main occupational stressors were time pressure (78.5%), mode of payment and evaluation (56.4%), and interaction with people and machines (41.3%). The risk of injury among those with job stress was significantly higher than those without job stress (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.20-3.30). Job stress was responsible for 11.9% of all occupational injuries in this group.
Khansa, Ibrahim; Khansa, Lara; Westvik, Tormod S; Ahmad, Jamil; Lista, Frank; Janis, Jeffrey E
Musculoskeletal injuries are more common among surgeons than among the general population. However, little is known about these types of injuries among plastic surgeons specifically. The authors' goals were to evaluate the prevalence, nature, causes, and potential solutions of these musculoskeletal injuries among plastic surgeons in three different countries: the United States, Canada, and Norway. A survey was e-mailed to plastic surgeons in the United States, Canada, and Norway, soliciting their demographics, practice description, history of musculoskeletal issues, potential causes of these symptoms, and proposed suggestions to address these injuries. The prevalence of various musculoskeletal symptoms was calculated, and predictors of these symptoms were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. The survey was sent to 3314 plastic surgeons, with 865 responses (response rate, 26.1 percent); 78.3 percent of plastic surgeons had musculoskeletal symptoms, most commonly in the neck, shoulders, and lower back. U.S. surgeons were significantly more likely to have musculoskeletal symptoms than Norwegian surgeons (79.5 percent versus 69.3 percent; p injuries. Ergonomic principles can be applied in the operating room to decrease the incidence and severity of those injuries, and to avoid downstream sequelae, including the need for surgery.
Full Text Available It has been suggested that one in five riders will be injured due to a fall from a horse, resulting in severe head or torso injuries. Attempts to reduce injury have primarily focussed on low level risk controls, such as helmets. In comparison, risk mitigation in high risk workplaces and sports is directed at more effective and preventative controls like training, consultation, safe work procedures, fit for purpose equipment and regular Workplace Health and Safety (WHS monitoring. However, there has been no systematic consideration of the risk-reduction benefits of applying a WHS framework to reducing horse-related risks in workplaces, let alone competition or leisure contexts. In this article, we discuss the different dimensions of risk during human–horse interaction: the risk itself, animal, human and environmental factors and their combinations thereof. We consider the potential of the WHS framework as a tool for reducing (a situation-specific hazards, and (b the risks inherent in and arising from human–horse interactions. Whilst most—if not all—horses are unpredictable, the majority of horse-related injuries should be treated as preventable. The article concludes with a practical application of WHS to prevent horse-related injury by discussing effective evidence-based guidelines and regulatory monitoring for equestrian sectors. It suggests that the WHS framework has significant potential not only to reduce the occurrence and likelihood of horse-related human accident and injury, but to enable systematic accident analysis and investigation of horse-related adverse events.
Fisher, Thomas F
Employee health and productivity losses as a result of work-related injury are estimated to be US dollars 1.2 trillion annually to US companies. This is approximately 14.3% of the gross domestic product [6,8,11,35]. Workers' compensation, medical care, and short and long-term disability are a part of these costs. Controlling or eliminating these costs is a problem for US employers [3,6,14,21,29]. The study discussed in this article examined the perceptions of manufacturing employees in identifying factors that influence a return to work after a work-related musculoskeletal injury. The classification of employees who participated in this study were safety professionals, supervisors and workers from the manufacturing industry in central Kentucky. The worker group consisted of material handlers, assembly line workers and quality control inspectors. The participants completed a developed survey instrument, the Return to Work Perception Survey. This survey instrument examined the perception of the participants on factors related to return to work: company policies and procedures, job satisfaction, worker relationships and work environment. The results indicated safety professionals and supervisors perceptions differ from workers on the variables of job satisfaction, worker relationships and work environment. Their perceptions did not differ on the variable relating to company policies and procedures. In addition, the safety professional and supervisor groups rated the items addressing job satisfaction higher than did the worker group. The worker group did not differ from one another on any of the factors. Implications of this study for manufacturing companies suggest (a). identifying those issues contributing to employee job satisfaction, (b). developing a plan for achieving increased job satisfaction and employee recognition at the workplace among all workers, and (c). consider allowing employees to develop new capacities and new learning, thus fostering motivation and
A systematic review of the literature related to effective occupational therapy interventions in rehabilitation of individuals with work-related forearm, wrist, and hand injuries and illnesses was conducted as part of the Evidence-Based Literature Review Project of the American Occupational Therapy Association. This review provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of 36 studies that addressed many of the interventions commonly used in hand rehabilitation. Findings reveal that the use of occupation-based activities has reasonable yet limited evidence to support its effectiveness. This review supports the premise that many client factors can be positively affected through the use of several commonly used occupational therapy-related modalities and methods. The implications for occupational therapy practice, research, and education and limitations of reviewed studies are also discussed.
van der Naalt, J; van Zomeren, AH; Sluiter, WJ; Minderhoud, JM
Objectives-To determine the prognostic value of characteristics of acute injury and duration of post-traumatic amnesia (PTA) for long term outcome in patients with mild to moderate head injury in terms of complaints and return to work. Methods-Patients with a Glasgow coma score (GCS) on admission of
Arora, Varun; Kimmel, Lara A; Yu, Kathy; Gabbe, Belinda J; Liew, Susan M; Kamali Moaveni, Afshin
Trampoline-related injuries in adults are uncommon. Participation in trampolining is increasing following its admission as a sport in the Olympics and the opening of local recreational trampoline centres. The aim of this study was to assess the number and outcomes of adult trampoline-related orthopaedic injuries presenting to four trauma hospitals in Victoria. A cohort study was performed for the period 2007-2013. Adult patients registered by the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR) who had sustained a trampolining related injury were included in this study. Descriptive analyses were used to describe the patient population, the injuries sustained and their in-hospital and 6-month outcomes. There was an increase in trampolining injuries from 2007 (n=3) to 2012 (n=14) and 2013 (n=18). Overall, fifty patients with a median age of 25 (range 16-66) were identified. Thirty-five patients (70%) had lower limb injuries, 20 patients (40%) had spinal injuries and one patient had an upper limb injury. Thirty-nine patients (78%) required surgery. Fractures of the tibia (n=13), ankle fractures (n=12) and cervical spine injuries (n=7) were the most common injuries; all of which required surgery. Complications included death, spinal cord injuries, compartment syndrome and open fractures. At 6 months post injury, more than half (52%) of the patients had not achieved a good recovery, 32% had some form of persistent disability, 14% did not get back to work and overall physical health for the cohort was well below population norms for the SF-12. Adult trampoline-related injuries have increased in the last few years in this cohort identified through VOTOR. Lower limb and spinal injuries are most prevalent. Public awareness and education are important to reduce the risk for people participating in this activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nolet, Paul S; Kristman, Vicki L; Côté, Pierre
Purpose: This population-based cohort study investigated the association between a lifetime history of a work-related low back injury, in those who had recovered to have no or mild low back pain, and the development of troublesome low back pain (LBP). A secondary analysis explored the possible...... effects of misclassification of the exposure by examining the association between a lifetime history of having taken time off work or performed light duties at work because of a work-related low back injury. Current evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that individuals with a history of a work....... We found an association between a history of work-related low back injury and the onset of troublesome LBP after controlling for gender (adjusted HRR = 2.24; 95 % CI 1.41–3.56). When covariates that may also be mediators of the association were added to the model, the effect estimate was attenuated...
Lucas, Devin L; Kincl, Laurel D; Bovbjerg, Viktor E; Lincoln, Jennifer M; Branscum, Adam J
Workers onboard freezer-trawl (FT) and freezer-longline (FL) vessels in Alaska may be at high risk for fatal and non-fatal injuries. Traumatic occupational injuries onboard vessels in the FT and FL fleets were identified through two government data sources. The annual risk of fatal injuries was 125 per 100,000 FTEs in the FT fleet, and 63 per 100,000 FTEs in the FL fleet. The annual risk of non-fatal injuries was 43 per 1,000 FTEs in the FT fleet and 35 per 1,000 FTEs in the FL fleet. The majority of injuries in the FT fleet occurred in the factories and freezer holds, whereas the most common injuries in the FL fleet occurred on deck while working the fishing gear. The findings confirmed that workers in those fleets were at high risk for work-related injuries. Injury prevention should focus on removing hazards in the work processes injuring the most workers. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nolet, Paul S; Kristman, Vicki L; Côté, Pierre; Carroll, Linda J; Hincapié, Cesar A; David Cassidy, J
This population-based cohort study investigated the association between a lifetime history of a work-related low back injury, in those who had recovered to have no or mild low back pain, and the development of troublesome low back pain (LBP). A secondary analysis explored the possible effects of misclassification of the exposure by examining the association between a lifetime history of having taken time off work or performed light duties at work because of a work-related low back injury. Current evidence from cross-sectional studies suggests that individuals with a history of a work-related low back injury are more likely to experience future LBP. However, there is a need to examine this association prospectively in a large population-based cohort with adequate control of known confounders. We formed a cohort of 810 randomly sampled Saskatchewan adults with no or mild LBP in September 1995. At baseline, participants were asked if they had ever injured their low back at work. The secondary analysis asked if they had ever had to take time off work or perform light duties at work because of a work-related low back injury. Prospective follow-up 6 and 12 months later, asked about the presence of troublesome LBP (grade II-IV) on the Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate these associations while controlling for known confounders. The proportion followed up at 6 and 12 months was 76 and 65%, respectively. We found an association between a history of work-related low back injury and the onset of troublesome LBP after controlling for gender (adjusted HRR = 2.24; 95% CI 1.41-3.56). When covariates that may also be mediators of the association were added to the model, the effect estimate was attenuated (adjusted HRR = 1.37; 95% CI 1.41-3.56). We found a similar association between a lifetime history of having taken time off work or had to work light duties at work because of a work-related low back
Cassidy J David
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the role of prior occupational low back injury in future episodes of low back pain and disability in the general population. We conducted a study to determine if a lifetime history of work-related low back injury is associated with prevalent severity-graded low back pain, depressive symptoms, or both, in the general population. Methods We used data from the Saskatchewan Health and Back Pain Survey – a population-based cross-sectional survey mailed to a random, stratified sample of 2,184 Saskatchewan adults 20 to 69 years of age in 1995. Information on the main independent variable was gathered by asking respondents whether they had ever injured their low back at work. Our outcomes, the 6-month period prevalence of severity-graded low back pain and depressive symptoms during the past week, were measured with valid and reliable questionnaires. The associations between prior work-related low back injury and our outcomes were estimated through multinomial and binary multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, gender, and other important covariates. Results Fifty-five percent of the eligible population participated. Of the 1,086 participants who responded to the question about the main independent variable, 38.0% reported a history of work-related low back injury. A history of work-related low back injury was positively associated with low intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 3.66; 95%CI, 2.48–5.42, with high intensity/low disability low back pain (OR, 4.03; 95%CI, 2.41–6.76, and with high disability low back pain (OR, 6.76; 95%CI, 3.80–12.01. No association was found between a history of work-related low back injury and depression (OR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.55–1.30. Conclusion Our analysis shows an association between past occupational low back injury and increasing severity of prevalent low back pain, but not depression. These results suggest that past work-related low back injury
Szatko, Franciszek; Ulrichs, Magdalena
(1) Background: An analysis of work-related accidents in paramedics in Poland by presenting the model and trend of accidents, accident rates and by identifying causes and results of accidents; (2) Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical documentation regarding work-related accidents in a multi-specialist hospital, located in central Poland, in the period 2005–2015. The study group included paramedics who had an accident while being on duty; (3) Results: According to hospital records, 88 paramedics were involved in 390 accidents and 265 injuries caused by sharp instruments. The annual accident rate was 5.34/100 employed paramedics. Most of the accidents occurred at night. The most common reason for the accident was careless behaviour of the paramedic, which resulted in joint sprains and dislocations. Injuries accounted for a huge portion of the total number of events. As many as 45% of injuries were not officially recorded; (4) Conclusion: High rates of work-related accidents and injuries caused by sharp instruments in paramedics are a serious public health problem. Further studies should be conducted in order to identify risk factors of accidents, particularly injuries, and to implement preventative programmes, aiming to minimise rates of occupational hazards for paramedics. PMID:28796193
Full Text Available (1 Background: An analysis of work-related accidents in paramedics in Poland by presenting the model and trend of accidents, accident rates and by identifying causes and results of accidents; (2 Methods: A retrospective analysis of medical documentation regarding work-related accidents in a multi-specialist hospital, located in central Poland, in the period 2005–2015. The study group included paramedics who had an accident while being on duty; (3 Results: According to hospital records, 88 paramedics were involved in 390 accidents and 265 injuries caused by sharp instruments. The annual accident rate was 5.34/100 employed paramedics. Most of the accidents occurred at night. The most common reason for the accident was careless behaviour of the paramedic, which resulted in joint sprains and dislocations. Injuries accounted for a huge portion of the total number of events. As many as 45% of injuries were not officially recorded; (4 Conclusion: High rates of work-related accidents and injuries caused by sharp instruments in paramedics are a serious public health problem. Further studies should be conducted in order to identify risk factors of accidents, particularly injuries, and to implement preventative programmes, aiming to minimise rates of occupational hazards for paramedics.
E Niki Guerriero
Full Text Available To report on and examine differences in the use of four types of rehabilitation services (occupational therapy, physiotherapy, psychology, and speech therapy by men and women following a work-related traumatic brain injury in Victoria, Australia; and to examine the importance of demographic, need, work-related and geographic factors in explaining these differences.A retrospective cohort design was used to analyze 1786 work-related traumatic brain injury workers' compensation claims lodged between 2004 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. ZINB regressions were conducted for each type of rehabilitation service to examine the relationship between sex and rehabilitation use. Covariates included demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors.Out of all claims (63% male, 37% female, 13% used occupational therapy, 23% used physiotherapy, 9% used psychology, and 2% used speech therapy at least once during the first year of service utilization. After controlling for demographic, need-related, work-related, and geographic factors, women were more likely to use physiotherapy compared to men. Men and women were equally likely to use occupational therapy and psychology services. The number of visits in the first year for each type of service did not differ between male and female users.Our findings support a sex-based approach to studying rehabilitation utilization in work-related populations. Future research is needed to examine other factors associated with rehabilitation utilization and to determine the implications of different rehabilitation utilization patterns on health and return-to-work outcomes.
Girard, Serge-André; Leroux, Tony; Courteau, Marilene; Picard, Michel; Turcotte, Fernand; Richer, Olivier
This study focuses on work-related injuries that required admission to hospital in a population of male workers exposed to occupational noise (≥80 dBA) which some displayed a hearing loss due to their exposure. The study population count 46 550 male workers, 1670 (3.6%) of whom incurred at least one work-related injury requiring admission to hospital within a period of 5 years following hearing tests conducted between 1987 and 2005. The noise exposure and hearing loss-related data were gathered during occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) screening. The hospital data were used to identify all members of the study population who were admitted, and the reason for admission. Finally, access to the death-related data made it possible to identify participants who died during the course of the study. Cox proportional hazards model taking into account hearing status, noise levels, age and cumulative duration of noise exposure at the time of the hearing test established the risk of work-related injuries leading to admission to hospital. For each dB of hearing loss, a statistically significant risk increase was observed (HR=1.01 dB 95% CI 1.006 to 1.01). An association (HR=2.36 95% CI 2.01 to 2.77) was also found between working in an occupational ambient noise ≥100 dBA and the risk of injury. From a safety perspective, this issue is highly relevant; especially when workers are exposed to intense ambient noise and NIHL. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Maempel, J F; Mackenzie, S P; Stirling, P H C; McCann, C; Oliver, C W; White, T O
Understanding of tram-system related cycling injuries (TSRCI) is poor. The aim of this study was to report the spectrum of injuries, demographics and social deprivation status of patients. Secondary aims included assessment of accident circumstances, effects of TSRCI on patients' confidence cycling, together with time off work and cycling. A retrospective review of patients presenting to emergency services across all hospitals in Edinburgh and West Lothian with tram related injuries between May 2009 and April 2016 was undertaken. Medical records and imagining were analysed and patients were contacted by telephone. 191 cyclists (119 males, 72 females) were identified. 63 patients sustained one or more fractures or dislocations. Upper limb fractures/dislocations occurred in 55, lower limb fractures in 8 and facial fractures in 2. Most patients demonstrated low levels of socioeconomic deprivation. In 142 cases, the wheel was caught in tram-tracks, while in 32 it slid on tracks. The latter occurred more commonly in wet conditions (p = 0.028). 151 patients answered detailed questionnaires. Ninety-eight were commuting. 112 patients intended to cross tramlines and 65 accidents occurred at a junction. Eighty patients reported traffic pressures contributed to their accident. 120 stated that their confidence was affected and 24 did not resume cycling. Female gender (p cycling (median 57 days vs 21, p cycling. TSRCI can result in significant loss of working and cycling days.
Molla, Getnet Abebe; Salgedo, Waju Beyene; Lemu, Yohannes Kebede
To assess the prevalence and determinants of work-related injuries among small and medium scale industrial workers in Bahir Dar town, northwest Ethiopia. Cross sectional comparative study design was used. Purposive sampling method was used to choose the specific Kebele 14 of the study area, for its relatively high number of industries. The study units were stratified into small and medium scale industries. All workers who were available at the time of interview were included in the study. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect data. Data was analyzed using SPSS for windows 16.0. A total of 328 and 655 workers from small and medium-scale industries respectively participated in the study. Seven hundred sixty nine (78.2%) were males. Three hundred thirty six workers (34.2%) reported that they had experienced work-related injuries. Sex, monthly salary, age, work experience and use of personal protective equipment were found to be different in the small and medium industries (P industries need to focus on training and installing safer work environment and Further studies with large-scale coverage and prospective study designs are warranted.
Lia Thieme Oikawa Zangirolani
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a distribuição espacial do risco de acidente do trabalho controlado por variáveis nutricionais e outras co-variáveis. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle espacial de base hospitalar, tendo como variável de interesse a localização espacial dos acidentes do trabalho. Foram amostrados 794 trabalhadores, no período de maio a outubro de 2004. Os critérios de inclusão para casos (N=263 foram: ser trabalhador acidentado do trabalho, morador de Piracicaba, com idade entre 15 e 60 anos, e atendido em centro de ortopedia e traumatologia. Os controles (N=531 tiveram o mesmo critério de idade e residência na cidade, exceto que o acidente não era do trabalho, tendo sido considerandos também trabalhadores acompanhantes dos casos. A distribuição espacial da estimativa baseou-se no ajuste do modelo aditivo generalizado, tendo as coordenadas geográficas dos casos e controles como componente espacial não linear e as demais co-variáveis como componente linear. RESULTADOS: A variação da estimativa do risco espacial de acidentes do trabalho, controlada por sexo (OR=1,87; pOBJECTIVE: To assess spatial distribution of risks for work-related injuries controlled for nutritional variables and other covariables. METHODS: Hospital-based spatial case-control study with work-related injuries spatial distribution as the main variable of interest. A total of 794 workers were selected between May and October 2004. Inclusion criteria for cases (N=263 were: worker with work-related injury; living in Piracicaba (Southeastern Brazil; age between 15 and 60 years old; and cared at an orthopedics and trauma center. Controls (N=531 met the same criteria for age and residence, but had non-work-related injuries and workers accompanying cases were included as well. Spatial distribution was estimated by adjusting a generalized additive model with geographical coordinates of cases and controls as spatial non-linear component and the remaining covariables
Low, J M; Griffith, G R; Alston, C L
Information on farm work-related injuries was sought to assist in the design of effective farm safety prevention programs. A telephone survey was conducted using a stratified random sample of 919 sheep/wool, beef cattle and dryland broadacre cropping farms from three shires in the wheat/sheep belt of New South Wales. The adjusted response rate was 84%. There were 425 reported injuries over an 18-month period. One in five farms reported at least one injury per year, while one in 12 farms reported at least one serious injury per year. Animal-related injuries were the largest major category for agent of injury, while the largest category for nature of injury was sprain and strain, recording almost one-quarter of all injuries. The farm workshop or shed was the most common location of injury, with more than 20% of all reported injuries occurring there. Personal risk factors thought to contribute to these farm work-related injuries were examined. The statistically significant personal risk factors for injury occurrence were age (and/or experience), previous injury status, body mass index, hours of sleep, a variable measuring daytime drowsiness and a variable measuring perceived stress.
Biering, Karin; Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt
. Workers who had migrated recently were at even higher risk. CONCLUSIONS: We found increased risk of work injuries among migrant workers. Studying migrants in registers is a methodological challenge as some migrants are not registered, for legal or illegal reasons; thus, only a selected group is studied...... to methodological difficulties and cultural disparities. We set out to meet these challenges using population-based work injury registers, targeting a specific and representative region in Denmark. METHODS: This population-based study used data on work injuries from an emergency department (ED) and reported...... injuries from the ED's catchment area to the Danish Working Environment Authority during 11 years. We calculated incidences of work injury for groups of migrant workers compared with native Danes and adjusted incidence rate ratios based on information on the complete working population. RESULTS...
Zhang, Xiaofei; Yu, Songlin; Wheeler, Krista; Kelleher, Kelly; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
Millions of foreign-born workers are employed in the US. Population-based surveys have value in describing the non-fatal work-related injuries that these workers suffer. Using data from the 1997-2005 National Health Interview Survey, we compared the rates of non-fatal work-related injuries among foreign-born and US-born adult workers. Logistic regression was used to produce work-related injury odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) by nativity and years of residence while controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, poverty, family size, insurance status, delayed medical care, and alcohol use. Industry-specific rates were also compared. Foreign-born workers reported a lower rate of work-related injuries than US-born workers, 50 per 10,000 foreign-born workers versus 89 per 10,000 US-born workers (P foreign-born workers as compared to US-born workers was 0.50 (95% CI = 0.38-0.66). The construction, agriculture/forestry and fisheries, and manufacturing industries had the highest work-related injury rates for both groups of workers. Foreign-born workers had a lower overall rate of work-related injury when compared to US-born workers. Both US-born and foreign-born workers face significant injury risks, especially in certain industries. Interventions tailored with ethnic and cultural differences in mind are still warranted. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Sze, Gordon; Bluth, Edward I; Bender, Claire E; Parikh, Jay R
Increasingly, radiologists' workplaces revolve around PACS and digital imaging. Use of these technologies can lead to repetitive strain injuries, many of which can be exacerbated by specific features of a radiology practice environment. Ergonomic approaches, such as proper reading room structure, lighting, temperature, noise, and equipment setup, can help decrease the frequency and severity of repetitive strain injuries and improve radiologist productivity. However, ergonomic approaches are complex, include all aspects of the radiology practice environment, and are best implemented along with proper training of the practicing radiologists. The ergonomic approaches considered most important by members of the ACR Commission on Human Resources are presented in this report, and this information may serve as an aid in departmental planning. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tak, SangWoo; Alterman, Toni; Baron, Sherry; Calvert, Geoffrey M
We aimed to estimate the proportion of nursing assistants (NAs) in the US with work-related injuries and insufficient socio-economic resources by race/ethnicity. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a nationally representative sample survey of NAs employed in United States nursing homes, were analyzed accounting for the complex survey design. Among 2,880 participants, 44% reported "scratch, open wounds, or cuts" followed by "back injuries" (17%), "black eyes or other types of bruising" (16%), and "human bites" (12%). When compared to non-Hispanic white NAs, the adjusted rate ratio (RR) for wound/cut was 0.74 for non-Hispanic black NAs (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.65-0.85). RRs for black eyes/bruises were 0.18 for non-Hispanic black NAs (95% CI: 0.12-0.26), and 0.55 for Hispanic NAs (95% CI: 0.37-0.82). Minority racial and ethnic groups were less likely to report having experienced injuries compared with non-Hispanic white NAs. Future research should focus on identifying preventable risk factors, such as differences by race and ethnicity in the nature of NA jobs and the extent of their engagement in assisting patients with activities of daily living. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Changes in the content and organisation of work in recent decades have resulted in an intensification of work, which is commonly regarded as a cause of stress. This report presents trends in the risks and consequences of work-related stress, and identifies how these can be prevented. The focus
Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Møller, Simone V
Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the association between night work or long work weeks and the risk of accidental injuries and (ii) test if the association is affected by age, sex or socioeconomic status. Methods The study population was drawn from the Danish version...... of the interview. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative rates (RR) of accidental injuries as a function of night work or long work weeks (>40 hours per week) adjusted for year of interview, sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), industry, and weekly working hours or night work. Age, sex and SES were....... No associations were found between long work weeks (>40 hours) and accidental injuries. Conclusion We found a modest increased risk of accidental injuries when reporting night work. No associations between long work weeks and risk of accidental injuries were observed. Age, sex and SES showed no trends when...
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
Epidemiological studies of occupational injury document the incidence rates of the main structures as type of workplace and the work departments. The work processes within the departments represent an internal structure where the injury rates have not been given much attention before. The purpose...... of the present study was to relate the length of the working time to the number of injuries for the speciWc working processes in Wshing. Time measurements were performed during participation in Wshing trips with four diVerent kinds of vessels. Risk index numbers for the speciWc working processes were calculated...... by dividing the number of injuries within a 5-year period with the total sum of minutes used for each working process as measured during one Wshing trip for each type of Wshing. The highest risk index numbers were found for embarking and disembarking the vessel, which only takes a minimum of time...
Biering, Karin; Lander, Flemming; Rasmussen, Kurt
Work migration into Denmark has increased during the recent decades, especially after the enlargement of the European Union (EU) in 2004. Whether or not migrant workers experience more work injuries than the native workforce has been debated and results are conflicting, most likely due to methodological difficulties and cultural disparities. We set out to meet these challenges using population-based work injury registers, targeting a specific and representative region in Denmark. This population-based study used data on work injuries from an emergency department (ED) and reported injuries from the ED's catchment area to the Danish Working Environment Authority during 11 years. We calculated incidences of work injury for groups of migrant workers compared with native Danes and adjusted incidence rate ratios based on information on the complete working population. The incidences of work injuries among migrant workers from the new EU countries and from the rest of the world were higher compared with Danish workers and workers from the old EU countries and other Western countries. Especially migrants older than 30 years and in low-risk industries were at higher risk. Workers who had migrated recently were at even higher risk. We found increased risk of work injuries among migrant workers. Studying migrants in registers is a methodological challenge as some migrants are not registered, for legal or illegal reasons; thus, only a selected group is studied, but this may most likely underestimate the risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Stergiou-Kita, M.; Mansfield, E.; Bayley, M.
injuries to advocate on their behalf. Immediate and persistent physical, cognitive, psychosocial, and support factors can affect individuals' abilities to successfully return to work after an electrical injury. Specialized services and advocacy were viewed as beneficial to successful return to work....... were conducted with individuals who experienced an electrical injury at the workplace. Participants were recruited from specialized burns rehabilitation programs in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis used to analyze the qualitative interviews. Data regarding...... workers' demographics, injury events, and occupational categories were also gathered to characterize the sample. Participants identified three distinct categories of challenges: 1) physical, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments and their effects on their work performance; 2) feelings of guilt, blame...
Svendsen, Susanne Wulff; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mathiassen, S.E.
Aims: To determine quantitative exposure-response relations between work with highly elevated arms and supraspinatus tendinitis, shoulder pain with disability, and shoulder pain without disability. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in a historical cohort of 1886 males from three occu...... between current work with highly elevated arms and clinically verified shoulder disorders. Substantial long term cumulative effects were not shown. A potential for primary prevention was revealed....
Fischer, Frida Marina; Martinez, Maria Carmen
To investigate factors associated with work ability among nursing professionals. They comprised 514 nursing professionals (83.8% of the total number of workers) from a hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. In 2009, we conducted a cross-sectional study that was a part of a 5-year planned cohort study initiated in 2008. We administered a comprehensive questionnaire to the participants in order to obtain data on their sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyles, and working conditions. The questionnaire also contained the Brazilian versions of the following: the Job Stress Scale (JSS), Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) Questionnaire, Work-Related Activities That May Contribute To Job-Related Pain and/or Injury (WRAPI), and Work Ability Index (WAI). The results were analyzed using descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate linear regression analyses. On the WAI, 74.9% of the workers obtained a score of over 40 points (score range 7-49); the mean score was 42.3 points (SD=4.5). The final multivariate model showed that lower WAI scores were related to the work-related outcome, which was work injury, and the following individual characteristics and working conditions: body mass index (p=0.001), sex (female; p=0.002), sedentariness (p social support at work (p=0.003), effort-reward ratio (p=0.001), violence at work (p=0.005), WRAPI score (p work injuries (yes; p=0.001). Various factors were associated with work ability. The results showed that a number of variables should be considered when planning and implementing actions to maintain or improve work ability among nursing professionals.
Skov, O; Jeune, B; Lauritsen, Jens
This study analysed the impact of several factors on the start and duration of time off work among 802 patients with occupational hand injuries, in order to identify prognostic indicators. The study showed that external factors such as work and social condition seemed to have less influence on time...
Lombardi, David A; Wirtz, Anna; Willetts, Joanna L; Folkard, Simon
Fatigue has been linked to adverse safety outcomes, and poor quality or decreased sleep has been associated with obesity (higher body mass index, BMI). Additionally, higher BMI is related to an increased risk for injury; however, it is unclear whether BMI modifies the effect of short sleep or has an independent effect on work-related injury risk. To answer this question, the authors examined the risk of a work-related injury as a function of total daily sleep time and BMI using the US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). The NHIS is an in-person household survey using a multistage, stratified, clustered sample design representing the US civilian population. Data were pooled for the 7-yr survey period from 2004 to 2010 for 101 891 "employed" adult subjects (51.7%; 41.1 ± yrs of age [mean ± SEM]) with data on both sleep and BMI. Weighted annualized work-related injury rates were estimated across a priori defined categories of BMI: healthy weight (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99), and obese (BMI: ≥30) and also categories of usual daily sleep duration: sleep duration and BMI, controlling for weekly working hours, age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, type of pay, industry, and occupation. No significant interaction was found between usual daily sleep duration and BMI (p = .72); thus, the interaction term of the final logistic model included these two variables as independent predictors of injury, along with the aforementioned covariates. Statistically significant covariates (p ≤ .05) included age, sex, weekly work hours, occupation, and if the worker was paid hourly. The lowest categories of usual sleep duration (sleep), whereas sleeping >7-8 h did not significantly elevate risk. The adjusted injury risk odds ratio (OR) for a worker with a usual daily sleep of BMI, the adjusted injury risk OR comparing workers who were obese (BMI: ≥30) to healthy weight workers (BMI: BMI: 25-29.99) to healthy weight risk was elevated, but not statistically significant (OR = 1
Li, Xue-feng; Wang, Xian
Cardiac injury is the most serious adverse event in acupuncture therapy. The causes include needling chest points near the heart, the cardiac enlargement and pericardial effusion that will enlarge the projected area on the body surface and make the proper depth of needling shorter, and the incorrect needling method of the points. Therefore, acupuncture practitioners must be familiar with the points of the heart projected area on the chest and the correct needling methods in order to reduce the risk of acupuncture therapy related cardiac injury.
Bhattacherjee, Ashis; Kunar, Bijay Mihir
The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW) following a miner's injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person's social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners' injuries. A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000-2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners' return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6):729-742.
Full Text Available Background: The occupational injuries in mines are common and result in severe socio-economical consequences. Earlier studies have revealed the role of multiple factors such as demographic factors, behavioral factors, health-related factors, working environment, and working conditions for mine injuries. However, there is a dearth of information about the role of some of these factors in delayed return to work (RTW following a miner’s injury. These factors may likely include personal characteristics of injured persons and his or her family, the injured person’s social and economic status, and job characteristics. This study was conducted to assess the role of some of these factors for the return to work following coal miners’ injuries. Material and Methods: A study was conducted for 109 injured workers from an underground coal mine in the years 2000–2009. A questionnaire, which was completed by the personnel interviews, included among others age, height, weight, seniority, alcohol consumption, sleeping duration, presence of diseases, job stress, job satisfaction, and injury type. The data was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier estimates and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: According to Kaplan-Meier estimate it was revealed that a lower number of dependents, longer sleep duration, no job stress, no disease, no alcohol addiction, and higher monthly income have a great impact on early return to work after injury. The Cox regression analysis revealed that the significant risk factors which influenced miners’ return to work included presence of disease, job satisfaction and injury type. Conclusions: The mine management should pay attention to significant risk factors for injuries in order to develop effective preventive measures. Med Pr 2016;67(6:729–742
Larsen, Ann D; Hannerz, Harald; Møller, Simone V; Dyreborg, Johnny; Bonde, Jens Peter; Hansen, Johnni; Kolstad, Henrik A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene
Objectives The aims of this study were to (i) investigate the association between night work or long work weeks and the risk of accidental injuries and (ii) test if the association is affected by age, sex or socioeconomic status. Methods The study population was drawn from the Danish version of the European Labour Force Survey from 1999-2013. The current study was based on 150 438 participants (53% men and 47% women). Data on accidental injuries were obtained at individual level from national health registers. We included all 20-59-year-old employees working ≥32 hours a week at the time of the interview. We used Poisson regression to estimate the relative rates (RR) of accidental injuries as a function of night work or long work weeks (>40 hours per week) adjusted for year of interview, sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), industry, and weekly working hours or night work. Age, sex and SES were included as two-way interactions. Results We observed 23 495 cases of accidental injuries based on 273 700 person years at risk. Exposure to night work was statistically significantly associated with accidental injuries (RR 1.11, 99% CI 1.06-1.17) compared to participants with no recent night work. No associations were found between long work weeks (>40 hours) and accidental injuries. Conclusion We found a modest increased risk of accidental injuries when reporting night work. No associations between long work weeks and risk of accidental injuries were observed. Age, sex and SES showed no trends when included as two-way interactions.
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Wäljas, Minna; Iverson, Grant L; Lange, Rael T; Liimatainen, Suvi; Hartikainen, Kaisa M; Dastidar, Prasun; Soimakallio, Seppo; Ohman, Juha
To examine factors relating to return to work (RTW) following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). One hundred and nine patients (Age: M = 37.4 years, SD = 13.2; 52.3% women) who sustained an mTBI. Inception cohort design with questionnaires and neuropsychological testing completed approximately 3 to 4 weeks postinjury. Emergency Department of Tampere University Hospital, Finland. Self-report (postconcussion symptoms, depression, fatigue, and general health) and neurocognitive measures (attention and memory). The cumulative RTW rates were as follows: 1 week = 46.8%, 2 weeks = 59.6%, 3 weeks = 67.0%, 4 weeks = 70.6%, 2 months = 91.7%, and 1 year = 97.2%. Four variables were significant predictors of the number of days to RTW: age, multiple bodily injuries, intracranial abnormality at the day of injury, and fatigue ratings (all P work fewer than 30 days after injury (n = 82, 75.2%) versus more than 30 days (n = 27, 24.8%) did not differ on demographic or neuropsychological variables. The vast majority of this cohort returned to work within 2 months. Predictors of slower RTW included age, multiple bodily injuries, intracranial abnormality at the day of injury, and fatigue.
Blustein, David L.
Building on diverse influences from critical perspectives in vocational psychology and the relational movement in contemporary psychological discourse, this article introduces the relational theory of working. Attending to the full array of people who work and who want to work, the relational theory conceptualizes working as an inherently…
grain dust, welding fumes and wood dust. (Table III).1 Exposure to animal epithelia, hairs and secretions is commonly reported among laboratory animal workers and agricultural workers. Latex allergy-related asthma appears to be less common due to the introduction of latex-free gloves in most health care settings.
Prevention of work disability is a primary goal within treatment of spinal disorders. Work-related outcome measures therefore are essential indices within evidence-based medicine. So far many measures suffer, however, from standardized measurement, standardized terminology, and a lack of theoretical background. This review addresses traditional indicators like work status and sickness absence, and discusses more theory-bound concepts, i.e. work ability, occupational risk factors for recurrence of symptoms and re-injury, work-related attitudes that may become obstacles to recovery, and individual reactions to occupational stressors that increase the risk of maintenance and recurrence of symptoms. The review includes methodological and theoretical considerations and recommendations for the use of work-related outcome measures in future outcome research.
Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Rasmussen, Kurt; Lauritsen, Jens M
To compare work injuries treated in an emergency department (ED) and injuries reported to the Danish Working Environment Authority (DWEA). Work injuries of the ED, Odense University Hospital, and injuries from the geographical catchment area reported to the DWEA between 2003 and 2010 were included. The injuries included in both datasets were identified by merging the ED file and the DWEA file using the civil registry number and injury date information as key. Approximately 50 000 work injuries occurred in the catchment area of the ED. The intersection between the two injury registration systems was 16%. A major discordance concerned the type of injuries, as some injuries were seen frequently in the ED but not reported to the DWEA to any significant extent, for example 'eye injuries' and 'superficial lacerations or wounds'. On the other hand, some injuries are rarely seen in the ED, but often reported to the DWEA, for example 'low back pain'. Additionally, younger workers visit the ED more often than older workers, and injuries in the high risk sectors have the lowest reporting proportion. Neither the ED nor DWEA injury files alone give a complete picture of work injuries. But merged, they represent a significant number of injuries, taking into account differences in data sources, for example concerning uneven distribution of age, sex, type of injury and type of industry. Obviously, not all serious work related ED injuries resulting in lost work time are reported to the DWEA.
Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent Jacob; Lauritsen, Jens
were calculated. Employment levels in the construction sector were used as an indicator of fluctuations in the business cycle since 1980. Results: Through the last three decades the overall trend of work-related injuries was unchanged. For some subgroups of injuries, such as major injuries and injuries......Objectives: The aim was to analyze injury trends according to age, severity, work activity and business cycle in the construction sector. Methods: From 1980 to 2010 a total of 23.464 work related injuries were treated at the emergency department at Odense University Hospital. The annual incidences...... due to young workers use of small powered tools significant downward trends were seen, but trends within different age groups of workers were unchanged and young workers have at least twice the risk compared to older workers. The fluctuations in work injury trends among workers under 30 years of age...
Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Stage, Søren; Noer, Preben
BACKGROUND: Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. METHODS: A classification system of the work processes was deve......BACKGROUND: Work-related injuries in commercial fishing are of concern internationally. To better identify the causes of injury, this study coded occupational injuries by working processes in commercial fishing for fresh market fish. METHODS: A classification system of the work processes...... for 50% of the injuries; they were most serious type of injuries such as fractures and sprains. Walking about the ship, in particular embarking and disembarking, climbing and descending ladders accounted for nearly one-fifth of the injuries. CONCLUSION: We found that the working processes related...
Full Text Available PURPOSE To investigate the accuracy of MRI in evaluation of sports related knee injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS From June 2015 to 1 st week of July 2016. Thirty patients referred for sports related knee pain have been included in this study. Patients were subjected to a dedicated MR knee study (GE HD XT 1.5T MR System and correlated knee arthroscopy and surgery. RESULTS The study included Thirty patients complaining of sports related knee pain, only 5 patients (16.67 % were with normal MRI findings and 25 patients (83.33% were with abnormal MRI findings. Among the 25 patients who had injuries of their knees, 15 patients (60% had ACL injuries, 6 patients (24% had PCL injuries, 10 patients (40% had meniscal injuries, 8 patients (32% had collateral ligament injuries, 5 patients (20% had bone injuries and 2 patients (8% had muscular injuries. Only 5 patients (20% were represented with isolated injury and 20 patients (80% were represented with combined injuries. In correlation with arthroscopies and surgeries, morphological analysis was true-positive in 23 (92% patients of the 25 injured patients, and true-negative in 1 (60% patient of the 2 normal patients. Morphological analysis revealed overall 92% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Regarding the 15 patients who had ACL injuries, 13 patients (86.6% were true-positive and 8 patients (80% of the 10 patients who had meniscal injuries were true-positive. CONCLUSION MRI represents the optimal imaging modalities in the evaluation of the sports related knee injuries, which has been shown to be an accurate and non-invasive method of diagnosing ligament, meniscal, cartilage and muscular knee injuries.
Okamoto, Yoshifumi; Morikawa, Shohei; Okamoto, Fumiki; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Ishikawa, Hiroto; Ueda, Tetsuo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sugitani, Kazuhiko; Sawada, Osamu; Mori, Junya; Takamura, Yoshihiro; Oshika, Tetsuro
To evaluate the clinical characteristics and visual outcomes of patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries, and to examine preoperative factors influencing the visual prognosis after pars plana vitrectomy, as compared with common open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries, who underwent pars plana vitrectomy, were identified. Patients' demographic and clinical data were entered into a computerized database for review and analysis; data included age, sex, initial visual acuity, duration between onset of injury and surgery, information about the type and cause of injury, wound location and length, presence of ocular complications, and final visual acuity. Of the 355 open globe injuries, 14 were sustained during a traffic-related accident; the average age was 50.4 years (range: 20-85) and most (78.6%) were men. Of these 14 patients, 9 (64.3%) presented with rupture and 5 (35.7%) with laceration. Injuries were caused while driving (6 eyes; 42.9%), riding a bicycle (5 eyes; 35.7%), involved in car accident while walking (2 eyes; 14.3%), and riding a motorbike (1 eye; 7.1%). Initial visual acuity was significantly related to final visual acuity (P = 0.003, R = 0.80). The final visual acuity in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries was significantly better than that of the total group (P = 0.01). Traffic accident-related open globe injuries had better visual outcomes than common open globe injuries. Visual outcomes in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries were related to the initial visual acuity. No eyes developed endophthalmitis in patients with traffic accident-related open globe injuries.
Shankar, Amitabh; Williams, Kim; Ryan, Mary
To quantify and describe trampoline-related injuries in children attending an urban pediatric emergency department. Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients attending a children's emergency department with trampoline-related injuries over a 3-month period (May-July 2005). One hundred and sixty-eight children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the period reviewed. Sixty-three percent were girls. Their age ranged between 4 months and 16 years (mean, 10.4 years [SD, 3 years and 10 months]). Lower limb injuries (51%) were more common overall. The most common injuries were to the ankle (31%), followed by foot (9.2%), and neck (8.4%). Sprain or soft tissue injuries (68%) were the most common type of injury, followed by fracture (12.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was inversion of the ankle on a trampoline (18.4%). Trampoline-related injuries represented 2.5% of morbidity from accidental trauma in children presenting to emergency department in our study. The rate and severity of injury has become a significant public health concern. It appears that current preventative strategies are inadequate in making children's carers aware of the potential risks of trampoline use, particularly when used recreationally.
Burt, C W; Overpeck, M D
We sought to estimate the effect and magnitude of patients with sports-related injuries presenting to hospital emergency departments in the United States and to examine differences in patient and visit characteristics between sports- and nonsports-related injuries. Data from the 1997 and 1998 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey, a national probabilistic sample of 496 US hospital EDs, were combined to examine emergency visits for sports-related injuries. Data from 16,997 sample ED encounter records for injuries that included narrative cause of injury text were analyzed. Narrative text entries were coded to 1 of 84 sport and recreational activity codes. Sample weights were applied to provide annual national estimates. Estimates of sports-related injury visits were based on 1,775 records with an assigned sports-related activity code. There were an average annual estimated 2.6 million emergency visits for sports-related injuries by persons between the ages of 5 and 24 years. They accounted for over 68% of the total 3.7 million sport injuries presented to the ED by persons of all ages. As a proportion of all kinds of injuries presenting to the ED, sports-related injuries accounted for more than one fifth of the visits by persons 5 to 24 years old. The use rate was 33.9 ED visits per 1,000 persons in this age group (95% confidence interval 30.3 to 37.5). The sports-related injury visit rate for male patients was more than double the rate for female patients (48.2 versus 19.2 per 1,000 persons between 5 and 24 years of age). Visits from sports-related activities for this age group were more frequent for basketball and cycling compared with other categories (eg, baseball, skateboarding, gymnastics). Compared with nonsports-related injuries for this age group, sports-related injuries were more likely to be to the brain or skull and upper and lower extremities. Patients with sports-related injuries were more likely to have a diagnosis of fracture and sprain or
... Snowboarding, Snowmobiling): 16,948 Horseback Riding: 14,466 Gymnastics/Dance/Cheerleading: 10,223 Golf: 10,035 Hockey: ... changes that are not picked up by CT. Brain Injury Symptoms Pain: Constant or recurring headache Motor ...
Nielsen, Rasmus Østergaard; Buist, Ida; Sørensen, Henrik
The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries.......The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the link between training characteristics (volume, duration, frequency, and intensity) and running related injuries....
Cancelliere, Carol; Donovan, James; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen
, which were primarily spine related (e.g., neck and low back pain). The other half of studies assessed workers with mental health or cardiovascular conditions, stroke, cancer, multiple sclerosis or other non-specified health conditions. Many factors have been assessed, but few consistently across......, depression, workplace factors, and access to multidisciplinary resources are important modifiable factors in progressing RTW across health and injury conditions. Employers, healthcare providers and other stakeholders can use this information to facilitate RTW for injured/ill workers regardless...... of the specific injury or illness. Future studies should investigate the cost-effectiveness of implementing these principles, novel interventions and other factors that may be common across health conditions. Key Words: return to work, work disability, prognosis, intervention, sick leave, absenteeism...
Mullen, Kathleen; Gillen, Marion; Kools, Susan; Blanc, Paul
Despite the high rate of work-related injuries among hospital nurses, there is limited understanding of factors that serve to motivate or hinder nurses return to work following injury. Perspectives of nurses with work related injuries, as they relate to obstacles and motivations to return to work, consequences of injury, and influences of work climate were documented. This was a sub-study of nurses taken from a larger investigation of hospital workers. A purposive sample of 16 nurses was interviewed. Analysis was carried out using grounded theory as the research method. Nurses' responses fell into four concepts: organizational influences, personal conditions, costs and losses, and employee health as influenced by workers' compensation systems. Conceptualization of these concepts resulted in key categories: injury as an expected consequence of hospital work; nursing alone versus nursing together; the impact of injury on professional, family, and social roles; and nurses' understanding of and involvement with the workers' compensation system. The findings provide new perspective into features that support or hinder nurses' with injuries return to work and corroborate existing occupational health research. Consideration of these findings by hospital and employee health managers may help promote more effective return to work programs within the hospital setting.
Eberl, Robert; Schalamon, Johannes; Singer, Georg; Huber, Sarah S; Spitzer, Peter; Höllwarth, Michael E
Recommendations to prevent trampoline injuries were given since the 1970s. However, despite these educational efforts, safety recommendations seem to be ignored and the number of trampoline injuries is increasing. All children referred to our department for injuries related to trampolines over a period of 3 years were included. The patients' records were reviewed and a questionnaire was sent out in order to gain additional information. Injuries were classified as severe and mild. A total of 265 children (46% m, 54% f) with a median age of 8.2 years (range 1 to 14) were included. The injury rate was continuously growing from the year 2005 (10.6%) to 2007 (58.1%). Most of the injuries were recorded between April and September with a peak of injuries in August. Seventy-five percent of all accidents happened in the afternoon; 40% of the injuries were classified as severe, 60% as mild. Nets or equal security devices were used in 56.6%. Trampolining is associated with a significant risk for bodily harm at any age and results in severe injuries in 40% of cases. Though there may be still room for improvement in safety recommendations, all attempts over a period of more than 30 years to reduce the number of trampoline-related backyard injuries failed and the incidence is still increasing. At present, trampolines cannot be made safe for recreational activities and are of an unacceptable risk even under supervision.
Landers, Merrill; Maguire, Lynn
The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the effectiveness of a work injury prevention program in the housekeeping department of a hotel. Studies have validated the use of different injury prevention strategies to decrease the incidence of work-related injuries. Few studies, however, have reported the efficacy of an on-site work injury prevention program by a physical therapist. In 1995, implementation of a work injury prevention program by a physical therapist to 50 housekeeping supervisors, 60 house persons and 340 guest room attendants at a large hotel began. This program included a detailed work risk analysis of the work environment, development of job descriptions, identification of injury-related problematic work situations, and implementation of a job specific supervisor-training program. Supervisor, house person and guest room attendant training was also conducted at the end of 1995 and the beginning of 1997. Data of injury reports in 1995, 1996, and 1997 were analyzed to determine the results of the program. There was a reduction in total injury claims, total medical expenses, total lost work time and total restricted duty time. These results demonstrate the cost effectiveness of implementing a work injury prevention program for housekeeping guest room attendants in the hotel industry. Copyright 2004 IOS Press
Work-related medical rehabilitation (WMR) is a strategy to improve work participation in patients with poor work ability. This review summarizes the state of knowledge on WMR. The prevalence of poor work ability and corresponding need for WMR is high (musculoskeletal disorders: 43%; mental disorders: 57%). The meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in patients with musculoskeletal disorders shows better return to work outcomes after one year in favor of WMR patients than compared to patients participating in usual medical rehabilitation. The amount of work-related measures in rehabilitation was clearly increased during recent years. A direct involvement of the workplace and a closer cooperation with employers and occupational health physicians may further improve the outcomes of WMR. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Ye, Chi-yu; Dong, Heng-jin; Wu, Yuan; Duan, Sheng-nan; Liu, Xiao-fang; You, Hua; Hu, Hui-mei; Wang, Lin-hao; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Jing
To explore an optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme, which is in line with the wishes of workers, based on the problems in the implementation of work injury insurance in China and to provide useful information for relevant policy makers. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select subjects: first, 9 small, medium, and large enterprises were selected from three cities (counties) in Zhejiang Province, China according to the economic development, transportation, and cooperation; then, 31 workshops were randomly selected from the 9 enterprises. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained interviewers using a pre-designed questionnaire among all workers in the 31 workshops. After optimization of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme, the willingness to participate in the scheme increased from 73.87%to 80.96%; the average willingness to pay for the scheme increased from 2.21% (51.77 yuan) to 2.38% of monthly wage (54.93 Yuan); the median willingness to pay for the scheme increased from 1% to 1.2% of monthly wage, but decreased from 35 yuan to 30 yuan. The optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance scheme covers all national and provincial statutory occupational diseases and work accidents, as well as consultations about occupational diseases. The scheme is supposed to be implemented worldwide by the National Social Security Department, without regional differences. The premium is borne by the state, enterprises, and individuals, and an independent insurance fund is kept in the lifetime personal account for each of insured individuals. The premium is not refunded in any event. Compensation for occupational diseases or work accidents is unrelated to the enterprises of the insured workers but related to the length of insurance. The insurance becomes effective one year after enrollment, while it is put into effect immediately after the occupational disease or accident occurs. The optimal model of hypothetical work injury insurance
Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie; Lynnerup, Niels; Banner, Jytte
the operator or a bystander is impacted by an object mobilized from the grass by the rotating mower blades. This type of injury often leaves only modest external trauma, which increases the risk of overlooking an entry wound. In this paper we present a case of a fatal lawn mower related projectile injury which...
Full Text Available Lethal or non-lethal extremity injuries are often seen in medico-legal practice. In this study, we planned to investigate medico-legal properties of deaths related to vessel injuries in extremities. In forensic autopsies performed in Bursa, we examined total 4242 autopsy reports between 1996-2003 in included 40 (0,94% cases of deaths caused by vessel injuries in extremities. 90% of cases were male with median age 35.87 (17-66. Stabbing device account for 60% of injuries. Most frequent injuries were in femoral artery and branches. In 82.5% of cases, homicide was the origin of death. In 30% of cases, mean 159.33 mg/dl alcohol blood concentration was detected. In the scene investigation reports, 47.5% of documented incidents were outdoor and 47.5% of the cases died in the scene. As a conclusion, it is observed that alcoholic males of middle age are the risk group for vascular injuries in extremities. In the deaths related to isolated vessel injuries in extremities, the detection of injured vessel, localisation and number of total and lethal wounds would offer a solution for the evil intent; and as in the other violent death cases autopsy is required in the deaths due to vessel injuries in extremities. Key words: Vascular injuries, Extremity, Forensic autopsy.
Smith, G A; Shields, B J
To describe the epidemiological features of trampoline-related injuries among children treated in an urban pediatric emergency department. A descriptive study of a consecutive series of patients. The emergency department of a large, urban, academic children's hospital. Children treated for trampoline-related injuries from May 1, 1995, through April 30, 1997. Two hundred fourteen children were treated for trampoline-related injuries during the study period, representing, on average, 1 child treated approximately every 3 days. Children ranged in age from 1 to 16 years (mean [SD], 9.4 [3.6] years). The area of the body most commonly injured was a lower extremity (36.0%), followed by an upper extremity (31.8%), the head (14.5%), the trunk (9.8%), and the neck (7.9%). The most common type of injury was a soft tissue injury (51.9%), followed by fracture (34.6%) and laceration (11.7%). Several patterns of trampoline-related injury were identified. Extremity fractures were more common in the upper extremities (P=.006; relative risk [RR]=1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16-2.31); however, soft tissue injuries were more common in the lower extremities (P=.006; RR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.16-2.38). Lacerations were associated with injury to the head region (Ptrampoline was located in the backyard in 96% (119/124) of cases. Adult supervision was present at the time of injury for 55.6% (65/117) of children, including 73.3% (22/30) of children younger than 6 years. Parents reported that they had been aware of the potential dangers of trampolines before the injury event (73% [81/111]), that their child had previously attempted a flip on a trampoline (56.9% [66/116]), that this was not the child's first injury on a trampoline (10% [12/120]), and that their child continued to use a trampoline after the current injury event (54.8% [63/115]). Trampoline-related injuries to children treated in the emergency department are almost exclusively associated with the use of backyard trampolines
Wagener, D K; Winn, D W
BACKGROUND. Although "accidents and adverse effects" mortality is higher among Blacks than Whites, annual injury rates reported in the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are lower among Blacks. We evaluated the influence of sociodemographic risk factors on injury rates among working adults. METHODS. NHIS data from 1983 through 1987 for currently working adults were used. Methods were developed to estimate standard errors using data from different sample frames and sample sizes. RESULTS. Working Blacks had fewer reported injuries requiring medical attention or restriction of usual activities than working Whites (22.0 vs 27.0 per 100 persons per year). The difference was pronounced among younger adults in both sexes and among both poor and nonpoor. However, age, sex, and income could not completely explain racial differentials. "At-work" injury rates (36% of all injury episodes) were similar for Blacks and Whites (9.2 vs 9.9 per 100 persons per year), except low-income Blacks and Blacks in service or blue-collar occupations had nonsignificantly smaller at-work injury rates. CONCLUSION. Possible reporting biases could not be completely eliminated. However, available evidence does not rule out a true difference in injury rates by race, highlighting the complexity of understanding the etiology of injuries and, hence, developing public health programs to prevent injuries. PMID:1951796
Landex, Nadia Lander
A medical doctor occasionally experienced itching papular exanthema during work hours. Careful history taking and a diary of symptoms demonstrated an association between the urticaria and stressful work situations. Urticaria can have many triggers, and stress is among the well-known triggers. The usual treatment of urticaria consists of avoiding triggers and, if necessary, antihistamines. Whereas it might be difficult to follow these recommendations in the case of work-related urticaria, the disorder may be perceived as a reminder of work situations which are going awry.
P value = Fisher's Exact Test. The femur was the most commonly fractured bone in the lower limbs (54.6%). The neck was the most frequent fractured region of the femur (80%) (Table 2). (57 injuries in 55 patients). Number. %. Male n = 20. Female n =35. P value. Hip fracture. 7. 12.7. 2. 5. 0.99. Femur fracture. 30. 54.6. 14.
Scheuring, Rick; McCulloch, Pat; Van Baalen, Mary; Watson, Richard; Bowen, Steve; Blatt, Terri
There are multiple factors associated with the mechanism of injury that leads to shoulder injury requiring surgical repair. Despite the injury prevention measures taken from the 2003 Shoulder Tiger Team recommendations, shoulder injuries and subsequent shoulder surgeries remain relatively unchanged.
Paulo Eduardo Przysiezny
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dysphonia is the main symptom of the disorders of oral communication. However, voice disorders also present with other symptoms such as difficulty in maintaining the voice (asthenia, vocal fatigue, variation in habitual vocal fundamental frequency, hoarseness, lack of vocal volume and projection, loss of vocal efficiency, and weakness when speaking. There are several proposals for the etiologic classification of dysphonia: functional, organofunctional, organic, and work-related voice disorder (WRVD.OBJECTIVE: To conduct a literature review on WRVD and on the current Brazilian labor legislation.METHODS: This was a review article with bibliographical research conducted on the PubMed and Bireme databases, using the terms "work-related voice disorder", "occupational dysphonia", "dysphonia and labor legislation", and a review of labor and social security relevant laws.CONCLUSION: WRVD is a situation that frequently is listed as a reason for work absenteeism, functional rehabilitation, or for prolonged absence from work. Currently, forensic physicians have no comparative parameters to help with the analysis of vocal disorders. In certain situations WRVD may cause, work disability. This disorder may be labor-related, or be an adjuvant factor to work-related diseases.
Premji, Stephanie; Smith, Peter M
To examine the association between education-to-job mismatch and work injury. Cross-sectional data from the 2003 and 2005 Canadian Community Health Surveys (n=63,462) were used to examine the relationship between having an educational level that is incongruent with occupational skills requirements and the risk of sustaining a work injury requiring medical attention or a work-related repetitive movement injury (RMI). The effect on injury of the interaction of overeducation with recent immigrant status was also examined. Models were stratified by sex and adjusted for possible confounders. Occupational physical demands were conceptualised as a potential mediating variable. After adjustment for covariates, over-education was associated with work injury and RMI for both sexes. Adjustment for occupational demands attenuated the impact on work injury but did not eliminate the effect on RMI among men. The interaction of over-education and recent immigrant status resulted among men in a fourfold increase in the odds of work injury compared with non-recent immigrants who were not over-educated. After adjustment for occupational demands, over-educated recent immigrant men still had more than a twofold increase in the odds of injury. The risk of sustaining a work injury is higher among those whose education exceeds that of job requirements. These findings highlight the need to address barriers to suitable employment, particularly among recent immigrants.
Koisaari, Tapio; Leivo, Tiina; Sahraravand, Ahmad; Haavisto, Anna-Kaisa; Sulander, Pekka; Tervo, Timo M T
We studied the correlation between airbag deployment and eye injuries using 2 different data sets. The registry of the Finnish Road Accident (FRA) Investigation Teams was analyzed to study severe head- and eyewear-related injuries. All fatal passenger car or van accidents that occurred during the years 2009-2012 (4 years) were included (n = 734). Cases in which the driver's front airbag was deployed were subjected to analysis (n = 409). To determine the proportion of minor, potentially airbag-related eye injuries, the results were compared to the data for all new eye injury patients (n = 1,151) recorded at the Emergency Clinic of the Helsinki University Eye Hospital (HUEH) during one year, from May 1, 2011, to April 30, 2012. In the FRA data set, the unbelted drivers showed a significantly higher risk of death (odds ratio [OR] = 5.89, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.33-10.9, P = 2.6E-12) or of sustaining head injuries (OR = 2.50, 95% CI, 1.59-3.97, P = 3.8E-5). Only 4 of the 1,151 HUEH patients were involved in a passenger car accident. In one of the crashes, the airbag operated, and the belted driver received 2 sutured eye lid wounds and showed conjunctival sugillation. No permanent eye injuries were recorded during the follow-up. The calculated annual airbag-related eye injury incidence was less than 1/1,000,000 people, 4/100,000 accidents, and 4/10,000 injured occupants. Airbag-related eye injuries occurred very rarely in car accidents in cases where the occupant survived and the restraint system was appropriately used. Spectacle use did not appear to increase the risk of eye injury in restrained occupants.
. These companies employ highly educated and com-petent people who apply their personal knowledge to generate new knowledge in close relationship with both custom-ers and colleagues. The employees are self-managed and work in networks and decentralised structures around pro-jects. Their working life is described...... tied to the employees. The opportunities are on the other more financially tangible in terms of increased efficiency, decreased sick-leave, extra time for new developments, less mistakes made, increased working capacity, quality, effi-ciency and productivity....
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar se a exposição ocupacional ao ruído é fator de risco relevante para acidentes do trabalho. MÉTODOS: Estudo de caso-controle de base populacional. Os dados foram coletados entre 16/5/2002 e 15/10/2002, na cidade de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo. Os casos foram definidos como trabalhadores que sofreram acidentes ocupacionais típicos nos últimos 90 dias, identificados por intermédio de amostragem aleatória sistemática de domicílios residenciais. Os controles foram trabalhadores não acidentados, aleatoriamente alocados a partir da mesma população que originou os casos, emparelhados na razão 3:1 segundo sexo, faixa etária e setor censitário de moradia. Ajustou-se um modelo de regressão logística múltipla, tendo como variável independente a exposição ocupacional ao ruído, controlada por covariáveis de interesse. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 94 casos e 282 controles. Ajustando-se um modelo de regressão logística condicional múltipla observou-se que trabalhar sempre e às vezes exposto a ruído intenso associou-se a um risco relativo de acidentar-se de 5,0 (IC 95%: 2,8-8,7; pOBJECTIVE: To assess whether exposure to occupational noise is an important risk factor for work-related injuries. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was performed. Data collection was carried out from May 16, 2002 to October 15, 2002 in the city of Botucatu, southeast Brazil. Cases were defined as workers who had suffered typical work-related injuries in a 90-day period previously to the study, and who identified through systematic random sampling of their households. Controls were non-injured workers randomly sampled from the same population, matched on 3:1 ratio according to sex, age group and census track. A multiple logistic regression model was adjusted, where the independent variable was exposure to occupational noise, controlled for covariates of interest. RESULTS: A total of 94 cases and 282 controls were analyzed
Castro, Charita L; Hunting, Katherine
Global consensus is lacking, especially among developing countries, on whether agricultural work is detrimental to children's health and safety. We aimed to measure the degree to which Philippine children working in agriculture have a higher risk of injury compared with children working in other industries, and to uncover potential risk factors for their non-fatal injuries. Using the Philippine Survey of Children (SOC) 2001, we calculated injury incidence rates and relative risk measures across industries, and employed a multivariate logistic regression on the sample of working children in agriculture to ascertain the association of various exposures with the occurrence of work-related injuries. Children working in agriculture had a fivefold risk of non-fatal injury compared to children working in other industries. Logistic regression indicated that the most robust risk factor for the occurrence of non-fatal injury was the use of tools (OR = 3.12). The results of this study demonstrate agriculture to be a hazardous industry for children. Further research should focus on identifying the most dangerous tools and restricting their use. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda
With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for
Cooper, Sharon P.; Weller, Nancy F.; Fox, Erin E.; Cooper, Sara R.
Context: Little is known about substance use, work characteristics, and injuries of youth from migrant farmworker families. Some evidence suggests that migrant youth may be at greater risk for substance use and work-related injuries than nonmigrant youth. Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare substance use, employment, and injury data from…
Norup, Anne; Petersen, Janne; Lykke Mortensen, Erik
relatives of patients with severe brain injury. METHODS: The relatives were assessed on the anxiety and depression scales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised and latent variable growth curve models were used to model the trajectories. The effects of patient's age, patient's Glasgow Coma Score, level...... improvement. Higher initial level of symptoms of depression was seen in female relatives. Higher initial level of anxiety was associated with younger patient age, lower level of function and consciousness in the patient and the relative being female or the spouse. CONCLUSION: Future research and interventions......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: To investigate trajectories and predictors of trajectories of anxiety and depression in relatives of patients with a severe brain injury during the first year after injury. RESEARCH DESIGN: A prospective longitudinal study with four repeated measurements. SUBJECTS: Ninety...
Rickert, Dale L; Barrett, Margaret S; Ackermann, Bronwen J
That orchestral musicians are exposed to a high risk of playing-related injury is well established, but despite this, little is known about how work organisation and psychosocial factors may contribute to this risk. Lack of research in this area is surprising considering the importance of these factors in managing occupational health risks in a wide range of other working populations. To address this, we conducted a qualitative study with the following aims: to investigate orchestral musicians' and managers' perceptions of those workplace environmental factors that contribute to injury, and to investigate the potential influence of work organisation and psychosocial factors on injury risk for orchestral musicians. Using a qualitative case-study methodology, in-depth, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 10 professional orchestral cellists (2 casual and 8 full-time members) from a single Australian orchestra. After initial data analysis, further interviews were undertaken with a set of 5 orchestral management staff as a means of data triangulation. All data were analysed using a "themes-based" analysis of narrative approach. The findings indicate that musicians perceive that stress in the orchestral environment increases injury risk. The perceived stressors were divided into two broad categories: psychosocial injury risks, which included performance stress and interpersonal relationships, and combined psychosocial/physical injury risks such as work organisation and lack of control. This article evaluates the findings in terms of existing literature and makes recommendations for better management of environmental injury risk for orchestral musicians.
Ok, Engin; Küçük, Can; Deneme, M Ali; Ylmaz, Zeki; Sözüer, Erdoğan M
This study investigated injuries to the abdominal area of the body caused by large animals, as well as the management of this problem. All the patients with large animal-related abdominal injuries over a 10-year period were identified retrospectively through the general surgery registrations. Overall, 113 patients were hospitalized after large animal encounters during the 10-year study period, 33 (30%) of which had large animal-related abdominal injuries. These patients comprised 10 women (30%) and 23 men (70%) with a mean age of 56 +/- 14 years. Of the 33 patients, 31 (93.9%) sustained blunt injuries and 2 (6.1%) experienced penetrating abdominal trauma. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.7 +/- 4.0, and the mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 10.6 +/- 3.2. The mean intensive care unit stay was 0.8 +/- 2.2 days, and the total hospital length of stay was 7.3 +/- 5.6 days. Whereas 12 patients (36.4%) were managed nonoperatively, 21 patients (63.6%) required surgery. Laparotomy showed injuries to the jejunum in three patients (9.1%), to the ileum in 13 patients (39.4%), to the ileal mesenterium in 1 patient (3%), to the liver in 4 patients (12.1%), and to the spleen in 2 patients (6.1%). One patient died of myocardial infarction on the second day after admission. Large animal-related injuries to the abdominal area can be serious. Immediate transportation and early diagnosis of abdominal insults are important because of the frequencies of small bowel and mesenteric injuries, which are difficult to diagnose using currently available diagnostic tools.
Cancelliere, Carol; Donovan, James; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen
, which were primarily spine related (e.g., neck and low back pain). The other half of studies assessed workers with mental health or cardiovascular conditions, stroke, cancer, multiple sclerosis or other non-specified health conditions. Many factors have been assessed, but few consistently across......Purpose: To identify common prognostic factors for return to work (RTW) across different health and injury conditions and to describe their association with RTW outcomes. Methods: Medline, Embase, PsychINFO, Cinahl, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the grey literature were searched...... and stakeholders. Common factors associated with negative RTW outcomes were older age, being female, higher pain or disability, depression, higher physical work demands, previous sick leave and unemployment, and activity limitations. Conclusions: Expectations of recovery and RTW, pain and disability levels...
Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…
Fayard, Gregory M
Although a goal of disaster preparedness is to protect vulnerable populations from hazards, little research has explored the types of risks that workers face in their encounters with natural disasters. This study examines how workers are fatally injured in severe natural events. A classification structure was created that identified the physical component of the disaster that led to the death and the pursuit of the worker as it relates to the disaster. Data on natural disasters from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries for the years 1992 through 2006 were analyzed. A total of 307 natural disaster deaths to workers were identified in 1992-2006. Most fatal occupational injuries were related to wildfires (80 fatalities), hurricanes (72 fatalities), and floods (62 fatalities). Compared with fatal occupational injuries in general, natural disaster fatalities involved more workers who were white and more workers who were working for the government. Most wildfire fatalities stemmed directly from exposure to fire and gases and occurred to those engaged in firefighting, whereas hurricane fatalities tended to occur more independently of disaster-produced hazards and to workers engaged in cleanup and reconstruction. Those deaths related to the 2005 hurricanes occurred a median of 36.5 days after landfall of the associated storm. Nearly half of the flood deaths occurred to passengers in motor vehicles. Other disasters included tornadoes (33 fatalities), landslides (17), avalanches (16), ice storms (14), and blizzards (9). Despite an increasing social emphasis on disaster preparation and response, there has been little increase in expert knowledge about how people actually perish in these large-scale events. Using a 2-way classification structure, this study identifies areas of emphasis in preventing occupational deaths from various natural disasters.
Mark, Barbara A; Hughes, Linda C; Belyea, Michael; Chang, Yunkyung; Hofmann, David; Jones, Cheryl B; Bacon, Cynthia T
Hospital nurses have one of the highest work-related injury rates in the United States. Yet, approaches to improving employee safety have generally focused on attempts to modify individual behavior through enforced compliance with safety rules and mandatory participation in safety training. We examined a theoretical model that investigated the impact on nurse injuries (back injuries and needlesticks) of critical structural variables (staffing adequacy, work engagement, and work conditions) and further tested whether safety climate moderated these effects. A longitudinal, non-experimental, organizational study, conducted in 281 medical-surgical units in 143 general acute care hospitals in the United States. Work engagement and work conditions were positively related to safety climate, but not directly to nurse back injuries or needlesticks. Safety climate moderated the relationship between work engagement and needlesticks, while safety climate moderated the effect of work conditions on both needlesticks and back injuries, although in unexpected ways. DISCUSSION AND IMPACT ON INDUSTRY: Our findings suggest that positive work engagement and work conditions contribute to enhanced safety climate and can reduce nurse injuries.
Mardassi, Ali; Turki, Senda; Mbarek, Hajer; Hachicha, Amani; Chebbi, Ghassen; Benzarti, Sonia; Abouda, Maher
Combat-related facial injuries involve various lesions of the mouth, the eye sockets and the facial bones. The goal of this study is to precise the particularities of these affections and their therapeutic management. A retrospective study was performed about 56 cases of combat-related facial injuries over a period of 5 years (2010 - 2014). Our study included 56 male patients with an average age of 29 years (20-37). The trauma occurred during a real security intervention in all the cases. It was isolated in 18 cases and associated to other lesions in 38 cases. Clinical examination revealed facial edema (57%), facial cuts and lacerations (74%), broken teeth (14%), nasal deformation (26%), skin defect (16%) and periorbital ecchymosis (32%). The diagnosis retained after clinical examination and imaging exams were: fractures of the mandible (34 cases), of the eye sockets (18 cases), of the nasal bones (15 cases), parotid gland injury (5 cases) and facial arterial injuries in (24 cases). The treatment was surgical in all the cases: stabilization of fractured segments (43 cases), suture of facial and vascular lacerations (51 cases), reduction of nasal fractures (15 cases), and reposition of teeth dislocations (35 cases). The evolution was good in 34 cases. The functional sequelae noted were ophthalmic (7 cases), dental abnormal occlusions (11 cases), residual trismus (4 cases) and facial palsy in 2 cases. Combat related facial injuries must be diagnosed and treated early to prevent the functional and, sometimes, life-threatening damages dues to those lesions.
Increased intensity of sports activities combined with a decrease in daily physical activity is making overuse injuries in children more common. These injuries are located mainly in the epiphyseal cartilage. The broad term for these injuries is osteochondrosis, rather than osteochondritis, which more specifically refers to inflammatory conditions of bone and cartilage. The osteochondrosis may be epiphyseal, physeal, or apophyseal, depending on the affected site. The condition can either be in the primary deformans form or the dissecans form. While there is no consensus on the etiology of osteochondrosis, multiple factors seem to be involved: vascular, traumatic, or even microtraumatic factors. Most overuse injuries involve the lower limbs, especially the knees, ankle and feet. The most typical are Osgood-Schlatter disease and Sever's disease; in both conditions, the tendons remain relatively short during the pubescent grown spurt. The main treatment for these injuries is temporary suspension of athletic activities, combined with physical therapy in many cases. Surgery may be performed if conservative treatment fails. It is best, however, to try to prevent these injuries by analyzing and correcting problems with sports equipment, lifestyle habits, training intensity and the child's level of physical activity, and by avoiding premature specialization. Pain in children during sports should not be considered normal. It is a warning sign of overtraining, which may require the activity to be modified, reduced or even discontinued. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Taylor, B L; Attia, M W
To describe the demographics and types of sports-related injuries (SRIs) in children. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of children 5-18 years of age diagnosed as having an SRI in a pediatric emergency department (ED) during a two-year period. Patients were identified by ICD-9 codes. Data collected were age, sex, sport, ED interventions, consultations, mechanism, location, and injury type. Pairwise comparisons were reported as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Six hundred seventy-seven SRIs fit the inclusion criteria; 480 of the patients were male (71%). The mean ages of the males and females were 13.0 years (SD +/- 3.0 yr) and 12.4 years (SD +/- 2.9 yr), respectively. The six most common sports implicated were basketball (19.5%), football (17.1%), baseball/softball (14.9%), soccer (14.2%), in-line skating (Rollerblading)/skating (5.7%), and hockey (4.6%). Sprains/strains (32.0%), fractures (29.4%), contusions/abrasions (19. 3%), and lacerations (9.7%) accounted for 90% of injury types. Pairwise comparison of the four injury types in the six sports listed showed significant associations for contusions/abrasions in baseball, sprains/strains in basketball, fractures in Rollerblading/skating, and lacerations in hockey. Age variance, including all sports, of the younger group (5-11 yr) in fractures and the older group (12-18 yr) in sprains was significant. The most common injury location was wrist/hand (28%), followed by head/face (22%) and ankle/foot (18%). Each had significant sport-specific predilections. Contact with person or object was the mechanism for >50% of the SRIs. Sport-specific mechanisms followed lines drawn from the sport-specific injury types and locations. The pediatric age group incurs a variety of injuries in numerous sports with diverse sex, age, mechanism, location, injury type, and sport-specific differences.
Parikh, Kavita; Silver, Alyssa; Patel, Shilpa J; Iqbal, Sabah F; Goyal, Monika
Pediatric firearm-related deaths and injuries are a national public health crisis. In this Special Review Article, we characterize the epidemiology of firearm-related injuries in the United States and discuss public health programs, the role of pediatricians, and legislative efforts to address this health crisis. Firearm-related injuries are leading causes of unintentional injury deaths in children and adolescents. Children are more likely to be victims of unintentional injuries, the majority of which occur in the home, and adolescents are more likely to suffer from intentional injuries due to either assault or suicide attempts. Guns are present in 18% to 64% of US households, with significant variability by geographic region. Almost 40% of parents erroneously believe their children are unaware of the storage location of household guns, and 22% of parents wrongly believe that their children have never handled household guns. Public health interventions to increase firearm safety have demonstrated varying results, but the most effective programs have provided free gun safety devices to families. Pediatricians should continue working to reduce gun violence by asking patients and their families about firearm access, encouraging safe storage, and supporting firearm-related injury prevention research. Pediatricians should also play a role in educating trainees about gun violence. From a legislative perspective, universal background checks have been shown to decrease firearm homicides across all ages, and child safety laws have been shown to decrease unintentional firearm deaths and suicide deaths in youth. A collective, data-driven public health approach is crucial to halt the epidemic of pediatric firearm-related injury. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Kabak, Banu; Karanfilci, Muharrem; Ersöz, Taner; Kabak, Mehmet
Athletes typically maintain rigorous training and work programs to be able to participate in competitions. An injury that occurs during the competition that causes withdrawal from the competition and a possible departure from sports, can render results athletes' and their support staff's efforts as meaningless. The early detection of injuries in the competition and developing preventive training programs can help ensure that participating in competitions and the associated preparatory efforts are not wasted. In this study, the sports injuries discussed occurred during training and competition events of the Turkish Shooting Sportive group. Body parts of injuries are determined and exercise programs focused on the affected body parts are developed. A total of 729 athletes (285 female, 444 male) who participated in Turkish Shooting Sports Championship during the 2010-2011 competition period participated in the study. Athletes were given a questionnaire that was developed prior to the event, and the questionnaire was filled in during interviews conducted one-on-one. Data was collected from the questionnaire and SPSS v.16.0 was used to analyze the results. The study was completed in six months. The results showed that the most of the injuries that occurred during training were strain and muscle tears whereas most of the injuries occurred during the actual competition were strain, muscle tears, tendinitis, and sprain. The results also indicated that during training, the most frequently-occurring injuries were in shoulder, calf-thigh, hand and wrist; whereas during the competition, it was manifested in the shoulder, foot and ankle. Muscle strengthening, stretching and proprioception exercises for these body parts should be included as part of the athletic training program.
Wong, Imelda S; Smith, Peter M; Mustard, Cameron A; Gignac, Monique A M
The purpose of this study is to examine the risk of a work-injury absence and the likelihood of receiving compensation among partnered and lone mothers and fathers. This study utilized data from an annual survey of Canadian residents. Logistic regression models examined the association between family status and the receipt of workers' compensation, and absences due to work-related injury or illnesses of 7 or more days. Being a lone mother was significantly associated with the risk of work-injury absence. Gender differences were observed for workers' compensation: mothers were half as likely as fathers to receive workers' compensation benefits, which may be attributed to differences in work experiences between men and women. Findings may help in understanding whether some parental situations are more vulnerable than others and may contribute to identifying policies that could help workers sustain employment or return to work following an injury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Webb, Timothy S; Wells, Timothy S
With the advent of electronic records, the opportunity to conduct research on workplace-related injuries and musculoskeletal disorders has increased dramatically. The purpose of this study was to examine the United States Air Force Civil Engineering career field to determine if they are negatively impacted by their work environment. Specifically, the objective of this study was to determine if enlisted Civil Engineering Airmen (n = 25,385) were at increased risk for injury or injury-related musculoskeletal disorders compared to enlisted Information Management/Communications Airmen (n = 28,947). Using an historical prospective design, electronic data were assembled and analyzed using Cox's proportional hazards modeling. Models were stratified by gender and adjusted for race/ethnicity, marital status, birth year, and deployment status. Male Civil Engineers were observed to be at greater risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.54-2.26) and injuries (HR = 1.77; 95% CI = 1.48-2.11), while female Civil Engineers were more than double the risk for both inpatient injury-related musculoskeletal disorders (HR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.28-3.73) and injuries (HR = 2.22; 95% CI = 1.27-3.88) compared to Information Management/Communications Airmen. Although analyses do not allow exploration of specific causes, they highlight the utility of using electronic data to identify occupations for further evaluation. Based on these results, additional resources were allocated to survey Civil Engineers on their physical work demands and job requirements to identify key problem areas for further study and mitigation. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Swanton, Amanda R; Young, Tracy L; Leinenkugel, Kathy; Torner, James C; Peek-Asa, Corinne
To identify tractor-related injuries using data from a statewide trauma system, to characterize the mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injury, and to determine which injuries are associated with higher severity injury. A retrospective observational study was conducted using the Iowa State Trauma Registry to identify cases of nonfatal tractor-related injuries over an 11-year period from 2002 to 2012. Frequency of injury was reported by age, sex, severity, and nature. Injuries were classified by mechanism and a polytomous regression model was used to predict injury severity adjusting for sex and age. Five-hundred thirteen nonfatal tractor-related injuries were identified with 18% classified as severe. Injuries were most frequent among males and among those ≥45years of age. Rollovers were the most frequent mechanism of both total (25%) and severe injury (38%), although the frequency of injury mechanism varied by age. Falls were the next most frequent mechanism of injury (20%) but resulted in fewer high-severity injuries. Collision (adjOR=1.89, 95% CI=1.01-3.51), rollover (adjOR=2.03, 95% CI=1.21-3.40), and run over/rolled on (adjOR=2.06, 95% CI=1.17-3.62) injuries were significantly associated with higher injury severity. Advanced age was also a significant predictor of higher severity injury (adjOR=1.82, 95% CI=1.06-3.12). Mechanisms of nonfatal tractor-related injuries are heterogeneous, differ by age, and are associated with varying level of severity. This work shows the burden of nonfatal tractor injuries on a rural state trauma system. These findings also demonstrate the heterogeneous nature of nonfatal tractor injuries and underscore the need for a multi-level approaches to injury prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Koning, Myrthe E; Scheenen, Myrthe E; van der Horn, Harm J; Timmerman, Marieke E; Hageman, Gerard; Roks, Gerwin; Spikman, Jacoba M; van der Naalt, Joukje
To study return to work (RTW) after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at several intervals after injury and to predict RTW on the basis of occupational factors in addition to demographic, personality, and injury-related factors at 6 and 12 months after injury. This was a prospective cohort study (UPFRONT study, n = 1,151) of patients with mTBI admitted to the emergency department. Patients received questionnaires at 2 weeks and 3, 6, and 12 months after injury. RTW was divided into 3 levels: complete (cRTW), partial (pRTW), and no RTW. Rates of cRTW increased from 34% at 2 weeks to 77% at 12 months after injury, pRTW varied from 8% to 16% throughout the year. Logistic regression (complete vs incomplete RTW) demonstrated that apart from previously identified predictors such as demographics (e.g., age and education) and injury characteristics (e.g., cause and severity of injury) and indicators of psychological distress, occupational factors were of influence on work resumption after 6 months (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82), At 12 months, however, the model was based solely on the presence of extracranial injuries and indicators of maladaptation after injury (AUC = 0.81). RTW after mTBI is a gradual process, with varying levels of RTW throughout the first year after injury. Different predictors were relevant for short- vs long-term work resumption, with occupational factors influencing short-term RTW. However, for both short- and long-term RTW, posttraumatic complaints and signs of psychological distress early after injury were relevant predictors, allowing early identification of patients at risk for problematic work resumption. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.
Browning, Steven R; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B
Children residing on farms with livestock may be at an increased risk for work-related injuries, compared to children who work on other commodity farms. This study characterizes children's work tasks on Kentucky farms and assesses whether children who work on beef cattle farms are at an increased risk for farm work injuries. The results of a cohort study of children aged 5-18 years (N=999 at baseline) working on family farms in Kentucky, followed for two consecutive years after an initial enumeration five years previously, found that 70% of the children were involved in animal-related chores. Across all age groups, children on beef cattle farms devoted a greater number of hours per week to farm work, compared to children living on other commodity farms, especially during the school year. For all children in the study, working more than 180 days per year, performing farm work independently, and working on a beef cattle farm (compared to other commodity farm), increased the risk of a farm work injury. However, none of these associations were statistically significant. For male children only, the performance of work tasks independently was significantly associated with a 2.4-fold increased risk (OR = 2.41; 95% CI: 1.15-5.06; P=0.02) for a farm work injury, after controlling for days of working, age, period of data collection, and commodity type of the farm.
Luck, Joshua; Bell, Daniel; Bashir, Gareth
Paintball is a popular recreational sport played at both amateur and professional level. Ocular injuries are well recognised, although there is a growing body of literature documenting superficial vascular as well as deep solid organ injuries. An 18-year-old man presented with signs and symptoms consistent with acute appendicitis. Intraoperatively, a grade III liver injury was identified and packed before a relook at 48 h. No further active bleeding was identified; however, follow-up ultrasound at 3 weeks demonstrated non-resolution of a large subcapsular haematoma. The patient was readmitted for a short period of observation and discharged with repeat ultrasound scheduled for 3 months. This represents the first report of paintball-related blunt traumatic injury to the liver. Solid organ injuries of this nature have only been reported three times previously-all in the urological setting. This case also highlights issues surrounding the use of routine follow-up imaging in blunt liver trauma and provides a concise discussion of the relevant literature. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.
Vanlaar, Ward; McAteer, Heather; Brown, Steve; Crain, Jennifer; McFaull, Steven; Hing, Marisela Mainegra
Off-road vehicles (ORVs; this includes snowmobiles, all-terrain vehicles or ATVs and dirt bikes) were once used primarily for work and travel. Such use remains common in Canada, although their recreational use has also gained popularity in recent years. An epidemiological injury profile of ORV users is important for better understanding injuries and their risk factors to help inform injury prevention initiatives. The Traffic Injury Research Foundation (TIRF) partnered with the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) to analyze the epidemiology of ORV-related injuries. The primary aim was to assess crashes and injuries in Canada, including the extent of alcohol involvement. Secondly, the burden of injury among children and teen ORV drivers in Canada, as well as passengers, was investigated. Descriptive and inferential epidemiological statistics were generated using the following data sources: first, TIRF's National Fatality Database, which is a comprehensive, pan-Canadian, set of core data on all fatal motor vehicle crashes; second, TIRF's Serious Injury Database, which contains information on persons seriously injured in crashes; and, third, PHAC's Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program (CHIRPP), a surveillance system currently operating in the emergency departments of some pediatric and general hospitals across Canada. Exposure data have been used in the analyzes where available. Between 1990 and 2010, fatality rates increased among ATV and dirt bike operators. The fatality rate among snowmobilers declined during this period. Of particular concern, among fatally injured female ATV users, children aged 0-15 years comprised the highest proportion of any age group at 33.8%. Regarding alcohol use, among fatally injured snowmobile and ATV/dirt bike operators tested for alcohol, 66% and 55% tested positive, respectively. Alcohol involvement in adult ORV crashes remains an important factor. In light of the growing popularity of ORVs, prevention and
Kendrick, Denise; Dhiman, Paula; Kellezi, Blerina; Coupland, Carol; Whitehead, Jessica; Beckett, Kate; Christie, Nicola; Sleney, Judith; Barnes, Jo; Joseph, Stephen; Morriss, Richard
The benefits of work for physical, psychological, and financial wellbeing are well documented. Return to work (RTW) after unintentional injury is often delayed, and psychological morbidity may contribute to this delay. The impact of psychological morbidity on RTW after a wide range of unintentional injuries in the UK has not been adequately quantified. To quantify the role of psychological factors, including anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic distress, on RTW following unintentional injuries. A longitudinal multicentre prospective study was undertaken in Nottingham, Bristol, Leicester, and Guildford, UK. Participants (n = 273) were 16-69-year-olds admitted to hospital following unintentional injury, who were in paid employment prior to injury. They were surveyed at baseline, then at 1, 2, 4, and 12 months following injury; demographic data were collected along with injury characteristics, psychological morbidity, and RTW status. Associations between demographic, injury and psychological factors, and RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury were quantified using random effects logistic regression. The odds of RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury reduced as depression scores early in the recovery period (1 month after injury) increased (odds ratio [OR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79 to 0.95) and as length of hospital stay increased (OR 0.91, 95% CI] = 0.86 to 0.96). For those experiencing threatening life events following injury (OR 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.72) and with higher scores on the Crisis Support Scale (OR 0.93, 95% CI] = 0.88 to 0.99), the odds of RTW between 2 and 12 months after injury were lower. Multiple imputation analysis found similar results, but those relating to crisis support did not remain statistically significant. Primary care professionals can identify patients at risk of delayed RTW who may benefit from management of psychological morbidity and support to RTW. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Mustard, Cameron A; Chambers, Andrea; McLeod, Christopher; Bielecky, Amber; Smith, Peter M
Objective To estimate the rate of work injury over the 24 h clock in Ontario workers over 5 years (2004–2008). Methods A cross-sectional, observational study of work-related injury and illness was conducted for a population of occupationally active adults using two independent data sources (lost-time compensation claims and emergency department encounter records). Hours worked annually by the Ontario labour force by time of day, age, gender and occupation were estimated from population-based surveys. Results There was an approximately 40% higher incidence of emergency department visits for work-related conditions than of lost-time workers’ compensation claims (707 933 emergency department records and 457 141 lost-time claims). For men and women and across all age groups, there was an elevated risk of work-related injury or illness in the evening, night and early morning periods in both administrative data sources. This elevated risk was consistently observed across manual, mixed and non-manual occupational groups. The fraction of lost-time compensation claims that can be attributed to elevated risk of work injury in evening or night work schedules is 12.5% for women and 5.8% for men. Conclusions Despite the high prevalence of employment in non-daytime work schedules in developed economies, the work injury hazards associated with evening and night schedules remain relatively invisible. This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using administrative data sources to enhance capacity to conduct surveillance of work injury risk by time of day. More sophisticated aetiological research is needed to understand the specific mechanisms of hazards associated with non-regular work hours. PMID:23014592
Filipowicz, Ewa; Staszków, Monika
Acute kidney injury (AKI) in obstetrics may be caused by the same disorders that are observed in the general population or may be specific for a pregnancy such as: preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome or acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The renal changes may be only temporary, and resolve within a few weeks postpartum, or may become irreversible leading to a progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In the article the most important pregnancy related syndromes associated with AKI have been shortly reviewed.
Florence, Curtis; Haegerich, Tamara; Simon, Thomas; Zhou, Chao; Luo, Feijun
A large number of nonfatal injuries are treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs) every year. CDC's National Center for Health Statistics estimates that approximately 29% of all ED visits in 2010 were for injuries. To assess the economic impact of ED-treated injuries, CDC examined injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) for 2013, as well as injury-related lifetime medical and work-loss costs from the Web-Based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS). NEISS-AIP collects data from a nationally representative sample of EDs, using specific guidelines for recording the primary diagnosis and mechanism of injury. Number of injuries, crude- and age-specific injury rates, and total lifetime work-loss costs and medical costs were calculated for ED-treated injuries, stratified by sex, age groups, and intent and mechanism of injury. ED-treated injuries were further classified as those that were subsequently hospitalized or treated and released. The rate of hospitalized injuries was 950.8 per 100,000, and the rate of treated and released injuries was 8,549.8 per 100,000. Combined medical and work-loss costs for all ED-treated injuries (both hospitalized and treated and released) were $456.9 billion, or approximately 68% of the total costs of $671 billion associated with all fatal and ED-treated injuries. The substantial economic burden associated with nonfatal injuries underscores the need for effective prevention strategies.
Yoon, Yong-Cheol; Jeon, Sung-Soo; Sim, Jae-Ang; Kim, Byung-Kag; Lee, Beom-Koo
Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries and direct injury-related patellar fractures have similar causative factors. However, the mechanisms underlying these injuries differ. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and relationship between PCL injuries and direct injury-related patellar fractures. Of the 195 patients diagnosed with a patellar fracture at our clinic during 2007-2011, 104 required surgical treatment and underwent the posterior drawer test under general anesthesia and magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed whether the causes of trauma, fracture classification, compression of the fracture fragment, and fracture displacement were related to the incidence of PCL injuries. Of the 104 patients, 26 had concomitant PCL injuries with direct injury-related patellar fractures. Most of the PCL injuries were grades 1 and 2, observed in 14 and 9 patients, respectively. Among three patients with grade 3 PCL injury, only two required PCL reconstruction. No significant relationship was observed between the causes of trauma and the incidence of PCL injury. According to the fracture classification, lower pole and comminuted fractures were associated with higher incidence rates of PCL injury than transverse and vertical fractures. Compressed and displaced patellar fractures were also associated with higher incidence rates of PCL injury. Although a PCL injury requiring surgical intervention was extremely rare, 25 % patients who required surgery for patellar fractures presented with a PCL injury. The incidence of a PCL injury was higher in the lower pole, comminuted, displaced, and compressed patellar fractures.
Raghubar, Kimberly P.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Prasad, Mary; Johnson, Chad P.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda
This study compared mathematical outcomes in children with predominantly moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI; n =50) or orthopedic injury (OI; n=47) at 2 and 24 months post-injury. Working memory and its contribution to math outcomes at 24 months post-injury was also examined. Participants were administered an experimental cognitive addition task and standardized measures of calculation, math fluency, and applied problems; as well as experimental measures of verbal and visual-spatial working memory. Although children with TBI did not have deficits in foundational math fact retrieval, they performed more poorly than OIs on standardized measures of math. In the TBI group, performance on standardized measures was predicted by age at injury, socioeconomic status, and the duration of impaired consciousness. Children with TBI showed impairments on verbal, but not visual working memory relative to children with OI. Verbal working memory mediated group differences on math calculations and applied problems at 24 months post-injury. Children with TBI have difficulties in mathematics, but do not have deficits in math fact retrieval, a signature deficit of math disabilities. Results are discussed with reference to models of mathematical cognition and disability and the role of working memory in math learning and performance for children with TBI. PMID:23164058
Mai, G Z; Chan, K K; Lo, H Y L K
As China has gradually transformed from agricultural economy into industrial economy since 1978, occupational injuries and diseases become a serious social problem in China. For occupational rehabilitation professionals, helping workers with occupational injuries and diseases, return to work and re-integrate to community are the ultimate goals of occupational rehabilitation. This article reports a new indigenous initiative with cultural notions in occupational rehabilitation piloted by Guangdong Provincial Rehabilitation Center. Case studies reflected that by learning and practicing traditional Chinese paper cutting, workers with occupational injury and disease could regain their self confidence, identity their strengths, learn more vocational skills as well as to re-integrate into community.
Despite an ethical and legal obligation, the information given to patients in the event of a care-related injury is still often poor. It is expected by patients but the situation is difficult for health professionals. In order to be beneficial for all parties, it requires professionals to have a certain amount of expertise and people skills to enable them to empathise and communicate. It should be included in initial and continuing training and in institutions' quality of care policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin Na; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S
Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. The cross-sectional survey involves data searching related to RTI in Malaysia from the relevant agencies such as the Ministry of Health Malaysia, Royal Police Force, and Malaysia Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) through their official websites and PubMed search. The three agencies are well established and recognized by the Malaysian government in dealing with data collection for the injury nationwide. The primary aim is to determine the prevalence of motorcycle-related RTI, and secondary outcomes are the overall mortality and the contributing factors. Of the cause of trauma, 80 % is due to RTI, and the most vulnerable road users such as pedestrians and motorcyclists are affected the most. Of all RTI, 70 % is contributed by the motorcycle crash, and there are a significant number of deaths for both rider and pillion rider of the motorcycle than for other types of vehicles. Human error is the main reason to be blamed, specifically the attitude of the riders on the road. Trauma is one of the common reasons for death and hospitalization in Malaysia. Motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in Malaysia. The Malaysian government and non-government agencies have worked together seriously in implementing a preventive measure to reduce the incidence and aftermath of motorcycle-related RTI. However, data is still lacking, and every effort is made to increase the amount of research in the field. Strengths of the article are as follows:Latest alarming data on motorcycle-related
Lundqvist, Anna; Samuelsson, Kersti
To study significant factors supporting vocational rehabilitation after acquired brain injury from a patient perspective. Two focus group interviews were accomplished with former patients. One focus group interview with professional rehabilitation personnel was performed to review the correspondence between patients' and professionals' opinion. Fourteen informants with acquired brain injury (ABI) were interviewed. All were working at the time of the focus group interviews. Three occupational therapists and two psychologists participated in the professional group. Two themes were identified as significant for returning to work: Personal and Society factors. Identified meaningful units could be categorized into sub-categories, which were grouped into six main- and 14 sub-categories. The main categories were: Self-continuity, Coping, Social factors, Rehabilitation intervention, Professionalism and Health insurance. Length of treatment time was described as crucial for the rehabilitation process and for utilizing individual resources. The effects of various synergies and processes form the basis for a successful return to work, which are dependent on, influence and reinforce each other. Society factors support personal factors to be used for returning to work after acquired brain injury. The impact of individual resources and rehabilitation highlights that vocational rehabilitation is inseparable from the individual's capacity, society and the context in which the individual lives.
Geriatric fall-related injuries. Ashraf F. Hefny, Alaa K. Abbas, Fikri M. Abu-Zidan. Abstract. Background: Falls are the leading cause of geriatric injury. Objectives: We aimed to study the anatomical distribution, severity, and outcome of geriatric fall-related injuries in order to give recommendations regarding their prevention.
Conclusion: MRI represents the optimal imaging tool in the evaluation of the sports related knee injuries, which has been shown to be an accurate and non invasive method of diagnosing ligament, meniscal, cartilage and muscular knee injuries.
Christensen, Lars Rune; Jensen, Rasmus Eskild; Bjørn, Pernille
, emergent in personal and often humorous situations. Relation work is intertwined with other activities such as articulation work and it is rhythmic by following the work patterns of the participants. By comparing how relation work is conducted in collocated and geographically distributed settings we...
Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R
Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuries: ankle sprains, patellar tendinopathy, and shoulder overuse. PMID:16799111
Reeser, J C; Verhagen, E.; Briner, W W; Askeland, T I; Bahr, R
Although the overall injury rate in volleyball and beach volleyball is relatively low compared with other team sports, injuries do occur in a discipline specific pattern. Epidemiological research has revealed that volleyball athletes are, in general, at greatest risk of acute ankle injuries and overuse conditions of the knee and shoulder. This structured review discusses both the known and suspected risk factors and potential strategies for preventing the most common volleyball related injuri...
Cancelliere, Carol; Donovan, James; Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen
and stakeholders. Common factors associated with negative RTW outcomes were older age, being female, higher pain or disability, depression, higher physical work demands, previous sick leave and unemployment, and activity limitations. Conclusions: Expectations of recovery and RTW, pain and disability levels......, depression, workplace factors, and access to multidisciplinary resources are important modifiable factors in progressing RTW across health and injury conditions. Employers, healthcare providers and other stakeholders can use this information to facilitate RTW for injured/ill workers regardless...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Considerable indirect costs are incurred by time taken off work following accidental injuries. The aim of this study was to predict return to work following serious accidental injuries. Method 121 severely injured patients were included in the study. Complete follow-up data were available for 85 patients. Two weeks post trauma (T1, patients rated their appraisal of the injury severity and their ability to cope with the injury and its job-related consequences. Time off work was assessed at one (T2 and three years (T3 post accident. The main outcome was the number of days of sick leave taken due to the accidental injury. Results The patients' appraisals a of the injury severity and b of their coping abilities regarding the accidental injury and its job-related consequences were significant predictors of the number of sick-leave days taken. Injury severity (ISS, type of accident, age and gender did not contribute significantly to the prediction. Conclusions Return to work in the long term is best predicted by the patients' own appraisal of both their injury severity and the ability to cope with the accidental injury.
Colin James Smith
Full Text Available More than 2.5 million Americans suffer a traumatic brain injury (TBI each year. Even mild to moderate traumatic brain injury causes long-lasting neurological effects. Despite its prevalence, no therapy currently exists to treat the underlying cause of cognitive impairment suffered by TBI patients. Following lateral fluid percussion injury (LFPI, the most widely used experimental model of TBI, we investigated alterations in working memory and excitatory/inhibitory synaptic balance in the prefrontal cortex. LFPI impaired working memory as assessed with a T-maze behavioral task. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials recorded in the prefrontal cortex were reduced in slices derived from brain-injured mice. Spontaneous and miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were more frequent in slices derived from LFPI mice while inhibitory currents onto layer 2/3 neurons were smaller after LFPI. Additionally, an increase in action potential threshold and concomitant decrease in firing rate was observed in layer 2/3 neurons in slices from injured animals. Conversely, no differences in excitatory or inhibitory synaptic transmission onto layer 5 neurons were observed; however, layer 5 neurons demonstrated a decrease in input resistance and action potential duration after LFPI. These results demonstrate synaptic and intrinsic alterations in prefrontal circuitry that may underlie working memory impairment caused by TBI.
Rasmussen, Kurt; Hansen, Claus D.; Nielsen, Kent Jacob
BACKGROUND: The objective was to examine the incidence of work accidents that required medical attention among Danish adolescents and to identify possible work environment factors associated with such accidents. METHODS: We collected information in two questionnaire rounds (2004 and 2007) from a ...... significantly raised adolescents' risk of experiencing a work injury. This suggests that more direct supervision may be a good way of preventing accidents in this age group...
Rahman, Nik Hisamuddin NA; Baharuddin, Kamarul A; Mohamad, Syarifah Mastura S
Background Road traffic injury (RTI) contributes to major morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Most of the injuries are caused by road-related injuries that specifically relate to motorcycle crash. We attempted to conduct a short survey to determine the magnitude of burden related to motorcycle-related RTIs in Malaysia. We hypothesize that motorcycle-related RTI in Malaysia contributes significantly to the health burden in the country. Methods The cross-sectiona...
Takala, Jukka; Hämäläinen, Päivi; Saarela, Kaija Leena; Yun, Loke Yoke; Manickam, Kathiresan; Jin, Tan Wee; Heng, Peggy; Tjong, Caleb; Kheng, Lim Guan; Lim, Samuel; Lin, Gan Siok
This article reviews the present indicators, trends, and recent solutions and strategies to tackle major global and country problems in safety and health at work. The article is based on the Yant Award Lecture of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) at its 2013 Congress. We reviewed employment figures, mortality rates, occupational burden of disease and injuries, reported accidents, surveys on self-reported occupational illnesses and injuries, attributable fractions, national economic cost estimates of work-related injuries and ill health, and the most recent information on the problems from published papers, documents, and electronic data sources of international and regional organizations, in particular the International Labor Organization (ILO), World Health Organization (WHO), and European Union (EU), institutions, agencies, and public websites. We identified and analyzed successful solutions, programs, and strategies to reduce the work-related negative outcomes at various levels. Work-related illnesses that have a long latency period and are linked to ageing are clearly on the increase, while the number of occupational injuries has gone down in industrialized countries thanks to both better prevention and structural changes. We have estimated that globally there are 2.3 million deaths annually for reasons attributed to work. The biggest component is linked to work-related diseases, 2.0 million, and 0.3 million linked to occupational injuries. However, the division of these two factors varies depending on the level of development. In industrialized countries the share of deaths caused by occupational injuries and work-related communicable diseases is very low while non-communicable diseases are the overwhelming causes in those countries. Economic costs of work-related injury and illness vary between 1.8 and 6.0% of GDP in country estimates, the average being 4% according to the ILO. Singapore's economic costs were estimated to be equivalent to 3
Airbags are designed to protect occupants of motor vehicles from injuries in the event of a crash but have been implicated in some serious ocular injuries after road traffic accidents (RTAs). Diagnosis of airbag related ocular injuries requires a high index of suspicion. Using a retrospective hospital‑based, noninterventional ...
Luke, Anthony; Lazaro, Rondy M; Bergeron, Michael F; Keyser, Laura; Benjamin, Holly; Brenner, Joel; d'Hemecourt, Pierre; Grady, Matthew; Philpott, John; Smith, Angela
To examine the association between "overscheduling" and sports-related overuse and acute injuries in young athletes and to identify other potential contributing factors to create a working definition for "overscheduling injury." Survey. Six university-based sports medicine clinics in North America. Athletes aged 6 to 18 years (13.8 ± 2.6) and their parents and pediatric sports medicine-trained physicians. Questionnaires developed from literature review and expert consensus to investigate overscheduling and sports-related injuries were completed over a 3-month period. Physician's clinical diagnosis and injury categorization: acute not fatigue related (AI), overuse not fatigue related (OI), acute fatigue related (AFI), or overuse fatigue related (OFI). Overall, 360 questionnaires were completed (84% response rate). Overuse not fatigue-related injuries were encountered most often (44.7%), compared with AI (41.9%) and OFI (9.7%). Number of practices within 48 hours before injury was higher (1.7 ± 1.5) for athletes with OI versus those with AI (1.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.025). Athlete or parent perception of excessive play/training without adequate rest in the days before the injury was related to overuse (P = 0.016) and fatigue-related injuries (P = 0.010). Fatigue-related injuries were related to sleeping ≤6 hours the night before the injury (P = 0.028). When scheduling youth sporting events, potential activity volume and intensity over any 48-hour period, recovery time between all training and competition bouts, and potential between-day sleep time (≥ 7 hours) should be considered to optimize safety. An overscheduling injury can be defined as an injury related to excessive planned physical activity without adequate time for rest and recovery, including between training sessions/competitions and consecutive days.
Mansfield, Elizabeth; Stergiou-Kita, Mary; Cassidy, John David; Bayley, Mark; Mantis, Steve; Kristman, Vicki; Kirsh, Bonnie; Gomez, Manuel; Jeschke, Mark G; Vartanian, Oshin; Moody, Joel; Colantonio, Angela
To explore how individuals with work-related mild traumatic brain injury (wrMTBI) experience return-to-work (RTW) processes when returning to the workplace where the injury occurred. RTW experiences were explored using in-depth interviews and an inductive analytic approach. Qualitative analysis guided by the research question moved through phases of line-by-line and thematic coding through which categories and the interaction between categories emerged. Twelve workers diagnosed with a wrMTBI reported on their RTW experiences following wrMTBIs that occurred 3-5 years prior to the time of the interview. Participants perceived employer and workers' compensation factors as profoundly influencing their RTW experiences. Participants consistently reported that employers and workers' compensation representatives had an inadequate understanding of wrMTBI sequelae. Six of 12 participants were re-injured following their wrMTBI, with three of these injuries occurring at work. Employers, co-workers and workers' compensation representatives should be aware of wrMTBI sequelae so injured workers can receive appropriate supports and both stigmatization and re-injury can be mitigated. Greater attention to the structural and social elements of workplace and compensation environments could inform strategies to break down barriers to successful return-to-work following a wrMTBI.
Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Sumi, Hiroshi; Sumi, Yasuhiko; Shimizu, Katsuji
Snowboarding-related injuries have been associated with specific snowboarding skill levels, but differences in specific skill level have not been identified. Injury patterns are different among skill levels. Descriptive epidemiology study. The subjects were 19 539 snowboarders from the Oku-Mino region in Gifu Prefecture, Japan, who were admitted to our hospital during the 12 snowboarding seasons from 1996 to 2008. They were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding age, gender, self-estimated skill level, injury location, injury type, mechanism of injury, and protective gear. Physicians documented diagnostic variables and injury severity score; these variables were compared among the self-estimated skill levels. Of the total 19 539 injured snowboarders, 1204 (6.2%) were novices, 6409 (32.8%) were beginners, 9260 (47.4%) were intermediates, 1918 (9.8%) were experts, and the skill level was not known in 748 (3.8%). Proportions of the trunk and multiple injuries increased with increases in skill level; however, the number of head/face injuries decreased with increase in skill level. Upper extremity injuries also decreased with increase in skill level, except in novices. Dislocations and multiple injuries increased with increase in skill level, while lacerations/contusions, fractures, and bruises decreased. The mean overall injury severity score was 3.28 + or - 0.02, and the value increased significantly with increase in skill level. The proportion of collision and isolated fall injuries significantly decreased with increase in skill level, but that of jump injuries significantly increased. The percentage of protective gear use increased with the increase in skill level. Prevalence of injury type, injury location, mechanism of injury, and percentage of protective gear use varied according to skill level, and the severity of the injury increased with increase in skill level. On the basis of our observations, we believe that snowboarding injury prevention strategies
intraocular pressure to a point that the sclera tears . The documented use of eye protection was only 24% among all 523 ocular injury cases (Weichel...involves the following subtasks: (a) Literature review of blast induced ocular injury and TBI (b) Development and integration of the eye model...with the human head model (c) Validation of the eye model against cadaveric impact test data (a) Literature review of blast induced ocular injury
P.S. Paul [Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad (India). Department of Mining Engineering
Mine accidents and injuries are complex and generally characterized by several factors starting from personal to technical, and technical to social characteristics. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the various factors responsible for work related injuries in mines and to estimate the risk of work injury to mine workers. The prediction of work injury in mines was done by a step-by-step multivariate logistic regression modeling with an application to case study mines in India. In total, 18 variables were considered in this study. Most of the variables are not directly quantifiable. Instruments were developed to quantify them through a questionnaire type survey. Underground mine workers were randomly selected for the survey. Responses from 300 participants were used for the analysis. Four variables, age, negative affectivity, job dissatisfaction, and physical hazards bear significant discriminating power for risk of injury to the workers, comparing between cases and controls in a multivariate situation while controlling all the personal and socio-technical variables. The analysis reveals that negatively affected workers are 2.54 times more prone to injuries than the less negatively affected workers and this factor is a more important risk factor for the case-study mines. Long term planning through identification of the negative individuals, proper counseling regarding the adverse effects of negative behaviors and special training is urgently required. Care should be taken for the aged and experienced workers in terms of their job responsibility and training requirements. Management should provide a friendly atmosphere during work to increase the confidence of the injury prone miners. 44 refs., 4 tabs.
The main message in this paper is that the discussion on sustainable consumption should also incorporate the consumption that occurs in relation to work and, more generally, the relationship between consumption at work and consumption at home. I start by considering how domestic consumption...... is encouraged by work-related factors and continue to consider how consumption activities occur in the workplace, so illustrating that production and consumption are intertwined. The main part of the paper deals in detail with the conceptual distinction between production and consumption. Inspiration is drawn...
Sandvall, Brinkley K; Jacobson, Lauren; Miller, Erin A; Dodge, Ryan E; Alex Quistberg, D; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Vavilala, Monica S; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Keys, Kari A
There is a paucity of clinical data on severe fireworks-related injuries, and the relationship between firework types, injury patterns, and magnitude of impairment is not well understood. Our objective was to describe the relationship between fireworks type, injury patterns, and impairment. Retrospective case series (2005-2015) of patients who sustained consumer fireworks-related injuries requiring hospital admission and/or an operation at a Level 1 Trauma/Burn Center. Fireworks types, injury patterns (body region, injury type), operation, and permanent impairment were examined. Data from 294 patients 1 to 61years of age (mean 24years) were examined. The majority (90%) were male. 119 (40%) patients were admitted who did not undergo surgery, 163 (55%) patients required both admission and surgery, and 12 (5%) patients underwent outpatient surgery. The greatest proportion of injuries was related to shells/mortars (39%). There were proportionally more rocket injuries in children (44%), more homemade firework injuries in teens (34%), and more shell/mortar injuries in adults (86%). Brain, face, and hand injuries were disproportionately represented in the shells/mortars group. Seventy percent of globe-injured patients experienced partial or complete permanent vision loss. Thirty-seven percent of hand-injured patients required at least one partial or whole finger/hand amputation. The greatest proportion of eye and hand injuries resulting in permanent impairment was in the shells/mortars group, followed by homemade fireworks. Two patients died. Severe fireworks-related injuries from homemade fireworks and shells/mortars have specific injury patterns. Shells/mortars disproportionately cause permanent impairment from eye and hand injury. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Baarveld, Frank; Visser, Chantal A. N.; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Backx, Frank J. G.
Methods. Survey study conducted in 612 patients with sports-related injuries by 21 GP trainees in as many GP practices. Inclusion of study subjects took place between September 2007 and April 2009. Results. In total, 694 sports-related injuries were registered. The incidence of sports-related
Conclusion: We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern.
Warner, B L; Kenney, B D; Rice, M
To describe washing machine related injuries in children in the United States. Injury data for 496 washing machine related injuries documented by the Consumer Product Safety Commission's National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and death certificate data files were analyzed. Gender, age, diagnosis, body part injured, disposition, location and mechanism of injury were considered in the analysis of data. The upper extremities were most frequently injured in washing machine related injuries, especially with wringer machines. Fewer than 10% of patients required admission, but automatic washers accounted for most of these and for both of the deaths. Automatic washer injuries involved a wider range of injury mechanism, including 23 children who fell from the machines while in baby seats. Though most injuries associated with washing machines are minor, some are severe and devastating. Many of the injuries could be avoided with improvements in machine design while others suggest a need for increased education of potential dangers and better supervision of children if they are allowed access to areas where washing machines are operating. Furthermore, washing machines should only be used for their intended purpose. Given the limitations of educational efforts to prevent injuries, health professionals should have a major role in public education regarding these seemingly benign household appliances.
Pickett, W; Brison, R J; Berg, R L; Zentner, J; Linneman, J; Marlenga, B
To describe pediatric farm injuries experienced by children who were not engaged in farm work, but were injured by a farm work hazard and to identify priorities for primary prevention. Secondary analysis of data from a novel evaluation of an injury control resource using a retrospective case series. Fatal, hospitalized, and restricted activity farm injuries from Canada and the United States. Three hundred and seventy known non-work childhood injuries from a larger case series of 934 injury events covering the full spectrum of pediatric farm injuries. Recurrent injury patterns were described by child demographics, external cause of injury, and associated child activities. Factors contributing to pediatric farm injury were described. New priorities for primary prevention were identified. The children involved were mainly resident members of farm families and 233/370 (63.0%) of the children were under the age of 7 years. Leading mechanisms of injury varied by data source but included: bystander and passenger runovers (fatalities); drowning (fatalities); machinery entanglements (hospitalizations); falls from heights (hospitalizations); and animal trauma (hospitalizations, restricted activity injuries). Common activities leading to injury included playing in the worksite (all data sources); being a bystander to or extra rider on farm machinery (all data sources); recreational horseback riding (restricted activity injuries). Five priorities for prevention programs are proposed. Substantial proportions of pediatric farm injuries are experienced by children who are not engaged in farm work. These injuries occur because farm children are often exposed to an occupational worksite with known hazards. Study findings could lead to more refined and focused pediatric farm injury prevention initiatives.
Waller, J A; Payne, S R; Skelly, J M
Treatment cost and payment patterns and disability for work, home, and recreation activities were examined for 495 consecutive persons seen as primary care patients over one year in Northern Vermont with injuries associated with woodworking, wood related construction, and home repair activities and materials. These primary care patients were from a larger sample of 601 persons with such injuries who received either primary or tertiary care. Mean total charges were $530 and $342 respectively for work and nonwork related injuries, with highest costs for back and arm injuries, and injuries involving powered equipment and elevations. At six months post injury, patients averaged 11.6 days of disability for work, 10.3 days for home activities, and 13.1 days for recreation. Overwhelmingly, this disability was experienced by nonhospitalized patients. Median charges and disability days were far lower, reflecting the fact that the majority of injuries were minor and only 6% resulted in hospitalization. Only 29% of hospital charges for injuries at work were paid by workmen's compensation, and a third either were unpaid or were paid by the injured party. Self-employed contractors and carpenters, in particular, lacked coverage by workmen's compensation.
Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation making seatbelt use mandatory is considered to have reduced fatal and serious injuries by 25%, with UK government estimates predicting more than 50,000 lives saved since its introduction. However, whilst the widespread use of seatbelts has reduced the incidence of major traumatic injury and death from road-traffic collisions (RTCs, their use has also heralded a range of different injuries. The first ever seatbelt related injury was described in 1956, and since then clear patterns of seatbelt-related injuries have been recognised. Methodology and Findings: This review of the published literature demonstrates that the combination of airbags and three-point seatbelts renders no part of the body free from injury. Serious injuries can, and do, occur even when passengers are properly restrained and attending clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for overt or covert intra-abdominal injuries when patients involved in RTCs attend the Emergency Department. Bruising to the trunk and abdomen in a seatbelt distribution is an obvious sign that suggests an increased risk of abdominal and thoracic injury, but bruising may not be apparent and its absence should not be falsely reassuring. A high index of suspicion should be retained for other subtler signs of injury. Children and pregnant women represent high-risk groups who are particularly vulnerable to injuries. Conclusion: In this review we highlight the common patterns of seatbelt-related injuries. A greater awareness of the type of injuries caused by seatbelt use will help clinicians to identify and treat overt and covert injuries earlier, and help reduce the rates of morbidity and mortality following RTCs.
Fagher, Kristina; Forsberg, Anna; Jacobsson, Jenny; Timpka, Toomas; Dahlström, Örjan; Lexell, Jan
Our knowledge of sports-related injuries in para-sport is limited and there are no data on how Paralympic athletes themselves perceive an injury. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries, risk factors and preventive possibilities. Eighteen Swedish Paralympic athletes with vision impairment, intellectual impairment, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy, myelomeningocele, dysplasia and neuromuscular disorder, representing 10 different para-sports, were interviewed. The qualitative phenomenographic method was used to interpret the data. The analysis revealed nine categories of perceptions of experiences. The athletes perceived that their impairments were involved in the cause and consequential chains associated with a sports-related injury. Other categories that denoted and described these injuries were: sport overuse, risk behaviour, functional limitations, psychological stressors, the normalised pain, health hazards, individual possibilities to prevent sports-related injuries and unequal prerequisites. This qualitative study revealed that Paralympic athletes' perceptions of their experiences of sports-related injuries are complex and multifactorial, and in several ways differ from able-bodied athletes. This needs to be considered in the sports health and safety work within the Paralympic Movement as well as in the design of future injury surveillance systems and preventive programmes.
Powell, Elizabeth C; Jovtis, Edward; Tanz, Robert R
To describe the incidence, circumstances, and types of stroller-related injuries among US children. Retrospective review of data for children 3 years old and younger from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission for 1994-1998. There were an estimated 64 373 stroller-related injuries (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49 223-79 514) to children 3 years old and younger treated in hospital emergency departments in the United States during the 5-year study period. The median age at the time of the injury was 11 months; 51% were males. The annual rate of injury among children stroller. A motor vehicle was involved in strollers are common, particularly among children in the first year of life. They often result from falls from the stroller. The data suggest that restraint use would prevent many stroller-related injuries.
Westfall, Daniel R.; West, John D.; Bailey, Jessica N.; Arnold, Todd W.; Kersey, Patrick A.; Saykin, Andrew J.; McDonald, Brenna C.
Purpose The neural substrate of post-concussive symptoms following the initial injury period after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in pediatric populations remains poorly elucidated. This study examined neuropsychological, behavioral, and brain functioning in adolescents post-mTBI to assess whether persistent differences were detectable up to a year post-injury. Methods Nineteen adolescents (mean age 14.7 years) who experienced mTBI 3–12 months previously (mean 7.5 months) and 19 matched healthy controls (mean age 14.0 years) completed neuropsychological testing and an fMRI auditory-verbal N-back working memory task. Parents completed behavioral ratings. Results No between-group differences were found for cognition, behavior, or N-back task performance, though the expected decreased accuracy and increased reaction time as task difficulty increased were apparent. However, the mTBI group showed significantly greater brain activation than controls during the most difficult working memory task condition. Conclusion Greater working memory task-related activation was found in adolescents up to one year post-mTBI relative to controls, potentially indicating compensatory activation to support normal task performance. Differences in brain activation in the mTBI group so long after injury may indicate residual alterations in brain function much later than would be expected based on the typical pattern of natural recovery, which could have important clinical implications. PMID:26684070
Woratanarat, Patarawan; Ingsathit, Atiporn; Chatchaipan, Pornthip; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
A retrospective cohort study was conducted in Thailand from 2007 to 2009 to evaluate the efficacy of a safety riding program in preventing motorcycle-related injuries. A training group of motorcyclists were certified by the Asia-Pacific Honda Safety Riding Program in either 30-h instruction (teaching skills, riding demonstration) or 15-h license (knowledge, skills, and hazard perception) courses. The control group consisted of untrained motorcyclists matched on an approximately 1:1 ratio with the training group by region and date of licensure. In total, there were 3250 subjects in the training group and 2963 in the control group. Demographic data and factors associated with motorcycle-related injuries were collected. Motorcycle-related injuries were identified using the Road Injuries Victims Protection for injuries claims and inpatient diagnosis-related group datasets from the National Health Security Office. The capture-recapture technique was used to estimate the prevalence of injuries. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to motorcycle-related injuries. The prevalence of motorcycle-related injuries was estimated to be 586 out of 6213 riders (9.4%) with a 95% confidence interval (CI): 460-790. The license course and the instruction course were significantly associated with a 30% and 29% reduction of motorcycle-related injuries, respectively (relative risk 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92 and 0.71, 95% CI: 0.42-1.18, respectively). Other factors associated with the injuries were male gender and young age. Safety riding training was effective in reducing injuries. These training programs differ from those in other developed countries but display comparable effects. Hazard perception skills might be a key for success. This strategy should be expanded to a national scale. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced
Suggs, Bradley J; Cannon, C Ron
To evaluate sports-related ENT injuries regarding demographical trends of patients, location and mechanism of injuries, treatments required, and ability to return to sports activities, an observational study of patients was conducted. Each of the 120 participants in the study was evaluated in a private practice clinic. Males were injured more frequently, and the most common ages affected were 12 to 15-year-olds. Most injuries were the result of collision with other players or from impact of game balls, and most injuries occurred during sporting competitions. The most commonly injured structure was the nose. Most patients were managed medically and able to return to sporting activities quickly. While the most frequent mechanisms for sports injuries are not always preventable, health care providers should be aware of these trends described regarding types of sports commonly producing injuries and the predominant sites of injury to provide optimal care for athletic participants.
Lischuk, Andrew W; Dorantes, Thomas M; Wong, William; Haims, Andrew H
A normally functioning hip joint is imperative for athletes who use their lower extremities with running, jumping, or kicking activities. Sports-related injuries of the hip and groin are far less frequent than injuries to the more distal aspect of the extremity, accounting for less than 10% of lower extremity injuries. Despite the lower incidence, hip and groin injuries can lead to significant clinical and diagnostic challenges related to the complex anatomy and biomechanical considerations of this region. Loads up to 8 times normal body weight have been documented in the joint in common daily activities, such as jogging, with significantly greater force expected during competitive athletics. Additionally, treatment for hip and groin injuries can obviate the participation of medical and surgical specialties, with a multidisciplinary approach frequently required. Delay in diagnosis and triage of these injuries may cause loss of time from competition and, potentially, early onset of degenerative changes. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the hip has proven to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of sports-related hip and groin injuries in the setting of negative radiographs. With its exquisite soft tissue contrast, multiplanar capabilities, and lack of ionizing radiation, MRI is unmatched in the noninvasive diagnosis of intra-articular and extra-articular pathology, as well as intraosseous processes. This review focuses on MRI of common athletic injuries of the hip and groin, including acetabular labral tears, femoral acetabular impingement syndrome, muscle injuries around the hip and groin (including athletic pubalgia), and athletic osseous injuries.
Anca Jarmila Guţă
The paper presents the way work relations develop between public administration institution clerks, their relations with their superiors, the main subordination types of public administration clerks. The paper also dwells on the role played by the head of an institution belonging to public administration in establishing the most favorable work relations, the behaviour the subordinates should have with the institution head, the way a superior exerts his prerogative of making a decision and the...
Background: Fireworks related injuries in children occur in Kosovo particularly during New Year celebrations. Aim: To report the pattern of fireworks- related injuries in children up to 16 years of age treated at the Emergency Center and Plastic Surgery, University Clinical Centre of Kosovo during the 2008 and 2009 New ...
Suominen, Tarja; Rankinen, Sirkku; Kuokkanen, Liisa; Kukkurainen, Marja Leena; Savikko, Niina; Doran, Diane Irvine
This study describes experiences of work empowerment among staff members at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital in Helsinki, Finland. The data were collected on two occasions in 2004 and 2005 using a structured questionnaire with background variables and items concerning verbal, behavioural and outcome empowerment. The questionnaires were sent to all (n1=115, n2=112) members of multidisciplinary teams at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, with the exception of physicians, departmental secretaries and administrative personnel. The response rate at both data collections was 58%. The data were analysed by statistical methods. No statistically significant differences were seen in work empowerment between the two data collections. Perceptions of work-related empowerment were relatively strong. Work-related empowerment appears to be relatively constant and independent of changes in the organization. Indeed there is good reason to ask whether work empowerment is primarily a function of the individual employee's strengths and competencies.
Seminati, Elena; Minetti, Alberto Enrico
Overuse injuries are predominant in sports involving the repetition of similar movements patterns, such as in volleyball or beach volleyball, and they may represent as much a problem as do acute injuries. This review discusses the prevalence of two of the most common overuse-related injuries in volleyball: shoulder and back/spine injuries. Risk factors and the aetiology of these injuries are illustrated in order to make possible to initiate preventive programme or post-injuries solutions. Data collected from literature showed a moderately higher injury rate for overuse shoulder injuries compared to the back/spine (19.0 ± 11.2% and 16.8 ± 9.7%, respectively). These data could be underestimated, and future epidemiological studies should consider overuse injuries separately from the others, with new methodological approaches. In addition to age, biomechanical and anatomical features of a volleyball technique utilised in game and the amount of hours played are considered as the main risk factors for overuse upper limb injuries, both for professional and recreational athletes. Together with post-injuries solutions, great importance has to be placed on preventive programmes, such as preventive rehabilitation, stretching, adequate warm up, strength-power exercises, etc. Furthermore, it is particularly suggested that coaches and players work together in order to develop new game/training techniques that minimise stresses and range of motion of the principal anatomical structures involved, while maintaining athletes performance.
Lagunju, IkeOluwa A; Oyinlade, Alexander O; Babatunde, Olubusayo D
Children with epilepsy are reported to be at a greater risk of injuries compared with their peers who do not have epilepsy. We set out to determine the frequency and pattern of seizure-related injuries in children with epilepsy seen at the University College Hospital (UCH), Ibadan, Nigeria. Consecutive cases of epilepsy seen at the pediatric neurology clinic of the UCH, Ibadan over a period of 6months were evaluated for injuries in the preceding 12months using a structured questionnaire. These were compared with age- and sex-matched controls. A total of 125 children with epilepsy and 125 age- and sex-matched controls were studied. Injuries occurred more frequently in children with epilepsy than in their peers (p=0.01, OR 1.935, 95% CI 1.142-3.280). Epilepsy was generalized in 80 (64.0%), and localization-related in 45 (36.0%). Idiopathic epilepsy accounted for 74 (59.2%), and the remaining 51 (40.8%) had remote symptomatic epilepsy. Fifty-seven (45.6%) children had suffered seizure-related injuries with multiple injuries in 31 (24.8%). The most frequent were skin/soft tissue lacerations (26.4%), injuries to the tongue and soft tissues of the mouth (19.2%), minor head injuries (15.2%), and dental injuries with tooth loss (8.0%). There was a statistically significant association between seizure frequency and seizure-related injuries (p=0.002). Children on polytherapy had a significantly higher frequency of seizure-related injuries (pinjuries in childhood. High seizure frequency increases the risk of multiple injuries in children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Work-related stress is a well documented condition, resulting from a distorted interaction between working conditions and individual coping resources, that may have a negative impact on workers' health and well-being, as well as nd on performance efficiency and productivity: hence high costs for workers companies and society. It is a complex multifaceted and multidimensional phenomenon, whose assessment needs a multidisciplinary approach (work management, psychology, physiology, ergonomics, sociology, medicine). That is why risk assessment and management require a careful analysis of work organization (i.e. working time, work load, autonomy, environment, human relations) and individual aspects (i.e. demography, personality, attitudes, motivation, coping strategies). The consequent actions, targeted to the individuals, groups and organizations, should be aimed at preventing or reducing work-related stress, on the one hand, and supporting and protecting the worker, on the other, considering cost/effectiveness and risk/benefit ratios. This can be achieveds to be done with the participation and close collaboration of all the social actors involved (employers, employees, technicians, work organization and occupational health experts), according to the European Framework Agreement on Work-related Stress, signed on October 2004 and included into the Italian Law Decree 81/2008.
Gorman, Stephanie; Barnes, Marcia A; Swank, Paul R; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda
In a prospective longitudinal study, the trajectory of verbal and visual-spatial working memory (WM) development was examined 2-, 6-, 12-, and 24-months following complicated-mild to severe pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI; n = 55) relative to an orthopedic injury comparison group (n = 47). Individual growth curve modeling revealed an interaction of age, severity, and time for verbal, but not visual-spatial WM. The youngest children with severe TBI had the lowest scores and slowest verbal WM growth. WM outcome is best understood in light of age at injury and TBI severity. Findings support the early vulnerability hypothesis and highlight the need for long-term follow-up.
Merghati Khoi, Effat; Latifi, Sahar; Rahdari, Fereshteh; Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid; Koushki, Davood; Norouzi Javidan, Abbas; Taheri Otaghsara, Seyede-Mohadeseh
Spinal cord injury (SCI) imposes a significant burden on the social and marital life. Here, we assessed the divorce rate and changes in marital status among a sample of Iranian individuals with SCI. Referred patients to Brain and Spinal Cord Injury Research Center were invited to participate in this cross-sectional investigation. The Main exclusion criteria were coincidental brain injury, history of chronic diseases before SCI and substance use. Demographic characteristics (including age, gender, educational level, marital status before and after injury and duration of marriage) and Injury characteristics (level of the injury, American spinal injury association (ASIA) scale and Spinal cord independence measure III (SCIM)) were collected. Total of 241 subjects with SCI participated in this investigation (164 (68%) male and 77 (32%) female). Among men, 16.5% [95% CI: 10.81%-22.18%] and among women 18.2% [95% CI: 9.58%-26.81%] got divorced after injury. Duration of marriage before injury was significantly related to lower divorce rate (Pdivorce rate of 17% [95% CI: 13%-20.9%] after SCI in a sample of Iranian population. The protective influence of age in maintenance of marriage was only detected in men, which proposes existence of a sexual polymorphism in the role of age. Divorce rate was similar between two genders and injury characteristics were not related to divorce rate as well.
Mondor, Luke; Charland, Katia; Verma, Aman; Buckeridge, David L
weather predictions are a useful tool for informing public health planning and prevention strategies for non-injury health outcomes, but the association between winter weather warnings and fall-related injuries has not been assessed previously. to examine the association between fall-related injuries among older adults and government-issued winter weather warnings. using a dynamic cohort of individuals ≥65 years of age who lived in Montreal between 1998 and 2006, we identified all fall-related injuries from administrative data using a validated set of diagnostic and procedure codes. We compared rates of injuries on days with freezing rain or snowstorm warnings to rates observed on days without warnings. We also compared the incidence of injuries on winter days to non-winter days. All analyses were performed overall and stratified by age and sex. freezing rain alerts were associated with an increase in fall-related injuries (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.08-1.32), particularly among males (IRR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.10-1.56), and lower rates of injuries were associated with snowstorm alerts (IRR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.80-0.99). The rate of fall-related injuries did not differ seasonally (IRR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.97-1.03). official weather warnings are predictive of increases in fall-related injuries among older adults. Public health agencies should consider using these warnings to trigger initiation of injury prevention strategies in advance of inclement weather. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Background: Work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are one of the common occupational hazards among health care providers. Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate MSDs in terms of perception of pain experienced by physicians, surgeons and dental surgeons during professional work. Subjects and ...
Podniece, Z.; Heuvel, S. van den; Blatter, B.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) can interfere with activities at work and can lead to reduced productivity, sickness absence and chronic occupational disability. The aim of this report is to systematic evaluate the effectiveness of interventions at the workplace since 2002 and to
Uehli, Katrin; Miedinger, David; Bingisser, Roland; Dürr, Selina; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Maier, Sabrina; Mehta, Amar J; Müller, Roland; Schindler, Christian; Zogg, Stefanie; Künzli, Nino; Leuppi, Jörg D
Sleep problems are a well-known risk factor for work injuries, but less is known about which vulnerable populations are most at risk. The aims of this study were to investigate the association between sleep quality and the risk of work injury and to identify factors that may modify the association. A case-control study including 180 cases and 551 controls was conducted at the University Hospital in Basel, Switzerland, from 1 December 2009 to 30 June 2011. Data on work injuries and sleep quality were collected. Adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the association between sleep quality and work injury were estimated in multivariable logistic regression analyses and were stratified by hypothesized effect modifiers (age, gender, job risk, shift work, sleep duration and working hours). Poor sleep quality was associated significantly with work injury of any type (P work injury was significantly higher for workers older than 30 years (odds ratio>30 1.30 versus odds ratio≤30 0.91, P 7 0.79, P working 50 h or more per week (odds ratio≥50 1.79 versus odd ratioWork injury risk increased with increasing severity of sleep problems (P work injury frequency increased with decreasing sleep quality (P working hours may enhance the risk of work injuries associated with sleep quality. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.
Riva, M M; Bancone, C; Bigoni, F; Bresciani, M; Santini, M; Mosconi, G
The construction industry is characterized by a high number of fatal and nonfatal injuries and even higher prevalence of work-related diseases. The aim of this work is to analyze the results of a research project that has among its objectives the study of the prevalence of work-related diseases and the fitness to work in construction industry. In the period 2003-2011 were evaluated 2069 construction workers, from 218 companies (average age 37.9 years, mean seniority 21.1 years, 17.1 in the construction industry). The prevalence of work-related diseases was 14.06%, in the first place the noise-induced hearing loss, followed by musculoskeletal disorders and entrapment neuropathies. The 24.7% of fitness to work was influenced by the presence of limitations, the 0.6% of the population was not suitable for the specific task. The prevalence of work-related diseases in construction industry is high, with a peak among the elderly, but also significant occurrence among young people. It is important the percentage of the population with health problems that limit the fitness to work.
Oun, Abdulhakim M; Hadida, Elmokhtar M; Stewart, Charles
Introduction No study on hospital staff preparedness for managing blast injuries has been conducted in Libya. The internal conflict in Libya since 2011 and the difficulties faced by the hospitals has highlighted the need for such studies. Hypothesis Physicians working in Tripoli (capital city Libya) hospitals are inadequately prepared for the management of blast injuries. A survey was conducted in all 13 hospitals in Tripoli between June 2014 and May 2015 by using interviews based on a questionnaire consisting of 29 questions covering physicians' education related to blast injury, hospital management of mass casualties, and aspects of hospital preparedness for such incidents. Of 3,799 physicians working in Tripoli hospitals, 607 physicians were interviewed (16.0%). All but one of the physicians reported that there was no disaster response plan, none of them had read such a plan, 496 (81.7%) reported that hospitals were not prepared, and 471 (77.6%) that hospitals were not equipped for blast injuries. Though 414 (68.2%) reported that radiological equipment was available, 597 (98.3%) revealed that hospitals do not adopt training for blast injury. Only 39 (6.4%) had received professional training, though 183 (30.1%) were seeing blast injury patients at least once a week in their daily practice. Nevertheless, 185 (30.5%) had previous knowledge and experience in blast injuries management and 338 (55.70%) were aware of the major physical findings, but only 75 (12.4%) were following specific guidelines. According to approximately one-third of the physicians (192; 31%), staff and patient safety were not priorities for the hospital administration. Almost all (606; 99.9%) revealed that personal protective equipment for chemical and nuclear accidents was not available. Preparedness for blast injuries in Tripoli hospitals is seriously deficient. Planning optimized blast and disaster management in Libya is essential. Oun AM , Hadida EM , Stewart C . Assessment of the knowledge
Fagher, K; Lexell, J
The number of athletes with disabilities participating in organized sports and the popularity of the Paralympic Games is steadily increasing around the world. Despite this growing interest and the fact that participation in sports places the athlete at risk for injury, there are few studies concerning injury patterns, risk factors, and prevention strategies of injuries in disabled athletes. In this systematic literature search and critical review, we summarize current knowledge of the epidemiology of sports-related injuries in disabled athletes and describe their characteristics, incidence, prevalence, and prevention strategies. The outcomes of interest were any injury, either an acute trauma or an overuse event. PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Google Scholar were systematically searched and 25 of 605 identified studies met the inclusion criteria. Lower extremity injuries were more common in walking athletes, whereas upper extremity injuries were more prevalent in wheelchair athletes. The methodologies and populations varied widely between the studies. Few studies were sports or disability specific, which makes it difficult to determine specific risk factors, and few studies reported injury severity and prevention of injuries. Further longitudinal, systematic sports and disability specific studies are needed in order to identify and prevent injuries in athletes with disabilities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a serious problem during pregnancy. Once occurred, it brings about devastating maternal and fetal outcomes. Among developed nations, the trend of pregnancy-related AKI (PRAKI is on a decline due to the advances in obstetrics care and the legality of abortion. On the contrary, this situation remains one of the major health problems in the developing countries. Though some improvements have been observed, PRAKI still causes high maternal morbidity and mortality, leading to fetal losses. This article aims to review current studies with regards to obstetrics related AKI. Most of the studies in this review were carried out in observational, both prospective and retrospective, studies. Results demonstrated a variety of major PRAKI causes such as hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, obstetric hemorrhage, sepsis, thrombotic microangiopathy and acute fatty liver in pregnancy. Aside from awareness of the etiologies of PRAKI, understanding the physiological renal adaptation during pregnancy is crucial for early detection, diagnosis, and proper management to prevent the obstetric complications.
Kotler, Dana H; Babu, Ashwin N; Robidoux, Greg
The unique quality of the bicycle is its ability to accommodate a wide variety of injuries and disabilities. Cycling for recreation, transportation, and competition is growing nationwide, and has proven health and societal benefits. The demands of each type of cycling dictate the necessary equipment, as well as potential for injury. Prevention of cycling-related injury in both the athlete and the recreational cyclist involves understanding the common mechanisms for both traumatic and overuse injury, and early correction of strength and flexibility imbalances, technique errors, and bicycle fit.
Quirce, Santiago; Campo, Paloma; Domínguez-Ortega, Javier; Fernández-Nieto, Mar; Gómez-Torrijos, Elisa; Martínez-Arcediano, Ana; Mur, Pilar; Delgado, Julio
Work-related asthma includes two subtypes: occupational asthma or asthma caused by specific agents (sensitizers or irritants) in the workplace, and work-exacerbated asthma or pre-existing asthma worsened by workplace exposures. Areas covered: This review provides an update on the definitions and the clinical features of the different work-related asthma subtypes as well as new insights into their etiology and the pathophysiological mechanisms involved. The diagnosis of work-related asthma should be made on objective basis using a constellation of clinical, physiologic and allergologic tests. Specific inhalation challenge with the suspected occupational agent(s) remains as the reference standard for diagnosis. A literature search was performed using the following terms: work-related asthma, occupational asthma, work-exacerbated asthma, irritant-induced asthma and etiological agents. Expert commentary: Studies focusing on the biological effects and mechanisms of environmental exposures in the development of sensitizer-induced or irritant-induced asthma in various workplace settings are of greatest interest. An integrative approach that combines clinical parameters with component-resolved diagnosis as well as inflammatory biomarkers appears to be very promising. Occupational allergy provides a good opportunity to understand the complex relationships between exposure to allergens in the workplace, interaction with genes and the co-exposures to other factors in the working environment.
Olesen, Henning Salling
of societal change. The article develops this argument on the basis of empirical research from the Life history project and other research at Roskilde University, which studies gendered, work related learning as re-configuration of identities. Gender has not been the point of departure, but empirical studies......The basic societal transformation to a “learning society” presupposes learning and identity processes. In order to understand the conditions and dynamics of work related learning we need to theorize the subjective significance of work and we need to study work related learning processes in a way...... which reflects the societal transitions. The aim of this article is to consider the connection between these theoretical and methodological questions: Studies into subjective processes (individual and collective learning and identity processes) helps us theorise the contradictory and asynchronous nature...
Background: Injuries and violence posses a major public health and development problem worldwide. The problem is recognized in Ethiopia but there are limited data that can guide public health action. The aim of our study was to investigate patterns of interpersonal violence related intentional injury. Methods: This is a ...
We present a case of an adult male who sustained severe spinal injury following relatively minor injury. Plain film, computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance (MR) images aided the diagnosis of os odontoideum with C1-2 subluxation and high cervical spinal cord compression. Incidental detection of an os ...
Hopkins, Benjamin S; Cloney, Michael B; Kesavabhotla, Kartik; Yamaguchi, Jonathon; Smith, Zachary A; Koski, Tyler R; Hsu, Wellington K; Dahdaleh, Nader S
Exercise-related injuries (ERIs) are a common cause of nonfatal emergency department and hospital visits. CrossFit is a high-intensity workout regimen whose popularity has grown rapidly. However, ERIs due to CrossFit remained under investigated. All patients who presented to the main hospital at a major academic center complaining of an injury sustained performing CrossFit between June 2010 and June 2016 were identified. Injuries were classified by anatomical location (eg, knee, spine). For patients with spinal injuries, data were collected including age, sex, body mass index (BMI), CrossFit experience level, symptom duration, type of symptoms, type of clinic presentation, cause of injury, objective neurological examination findings, imaging type, number of clinic visits, and treatments prescribed. Four hundred ninety-eight patients with 523 CrossFit-related injuries were identified. Spine injuries were the most common injuries identified, accounting for 20.9%. Among spine injuries, the most common location of injury was the lumbar spine (83.1%). Average symptom duration was 6.4 months ± 15.1, and radicular complaints were the most common symptom (53%). A total of 30 (32%) patients had positive findings on neurologic examination. Six patients (6.7%) required surgical intervention for treatment after failing an average of 9.66 months of conservative treatment. There was no difference in age, sex, BMI, or duration of symptoms of patients requiring surgery with those who did not. CrossFit is a popular, high-intensity style workout with the potential to injure its participants. Spine injuries were the most common type of injury observed and frequently required surgical intervention.
Wilson, Sean P; Miller, Joseph; Mahan, Meredith; Krupp, Seth
Health care workers are at risk for sharps-related injuries while working in the clinical arena. The authors sought to quantify and compare the frequency of these injuries for all health care personnel between the urban and community emergency department (ED). A retrospective review was performed on the institutional human resources database of all self- or supervisor-reported sharps-related injuries that occurred to ED personnel in a single health system from January 2010 through September 2014. The health system was composed of a single urban academic Level I trauma center and seven community EDs, two of which were academic Level III trauma centers. Each sharps-related injury was reviewed for site of injury, job class, and type of instrument causing the injury. There were 171 sharps-related injuries reported during 447,986 urban and 1,350,623 community patient visits. Of the 171 injuries, 44.4% occurred to physicians, 39.2% to nurses, 12.9% to support staff, and 3.5% to physician assistants. Injuries occurred more frequently at the urban academic medical center when compared to the pooled community sites: 20.3 per 100,000 patient visits (n = 91) versus 5.9 per 100,000 patient visits (n = 80), respectively (odds ratio = 3.43, 95% confidence interval = 2.54 to 4.63, p < 0.001). They also occurred more frequently at the urban site when individually compared to each community site. Physicians accounted for the largest proportion of health care workers reporting sharps-related injuries. These injuries occurred more frequently in the urban ED than in the community EDs. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.
Laukkanen, Laura; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
Nurse managers are responsible for solving work-related ethical problems to promote a positive ethical culture in healthcare organizations. The aim of this study was to describe the activities that nurse managers use to solve work-related ethical problems. The ultimate aim was to enhance the ethical awareness of all nurse managers. The data for this descriptive cross-sectional survey were analyzed through inductive content analysis and quantification. Participants and research context: The data were collected in 2011 using a questionnaire that included an open-ended question and background factors. Participants were nurse managers working in Finnish healthcare organizations (n = 122). Ethical considerations: Permission for the study was given by the Finnish Association of Academic Managers and Experts of Health Sciences. Nurse managers identified a variety of activities they use to solve work-related ethical problems: discussion (30%), cooperation (25%), work organization (17%), intervention (10%), personal values (9%), operational models (4%), statistics and feedback (4%), and personal examples (1%). However, these activities did not follow any common or systematic model. In the future, nurse managers need a more systematic approach to solve ethical problems. It is important to establish new kinds of ethics structures in organizations, such as a common, systematic ethical decision-making model and an ethics club for nurse manager problems, to support nurse managers in solving work-related ethical problems.
Weston, Eric; Pollard, Jonisha P.
Work-related musculoskeletal disorder (WMSD) prevention measures have been studied in great depth throughout various industries. While the nature and causes of these disorders have been characterized in many industries, WMSDs occurring in the U.S. mining sector have not been characterized for several years. In this report, MSHA accident/injury/illness data from 2009 to 2013 were characterized to determine the most frequently reported WMSDs in the U.S. mining sector. WMSDs were most frequently reported in workers with less than 5 years or more than 20 years of mining experience. The number of days lost from work was the highest for shoulder and knee injuries and was found to increase with worker age. Underground and surface coal, surface stone and stone processing plants experienced the greatest number of WMSDs over the period studied. WMSDs were most commonly caused by an employee suffering from an overexertion, falls or being struck by an object while performing materials handling, maintenance and repair tasks, getting on or off equipment or machines, and walking or running. The injury trends presented should be used to help determine the focus of future WMSD prevention research in mining. PMID:27294012
Marsal, C; Abry, F; Bouyon, M; Meyer, N; Bourcier, T; Speeg-Schatz, C
The purpose of the study was to review cases of serious fireworks-related eye injuries presented in the Strasbourg (France) University Hospital ophthalmology emergency department and to analyze epidemiological and clinical data such as visual outcomes and risk factors. A 13-year retrospective study (1994-2007) including fireworks-related ocular and adnexal injuries requiring hospitalization was conducted. Thirty-nine patients were reported; 95% were male. The mean age was 19.38 years old. There was 61.5% contusions, 33.3% eye and adnexal burns, and 15.4% of the patients suffered from a penetrating injury. More than half of the patients required emergency ophthalmic surgical procedures. Twenty-six percent of the patients had final visual acuity of 20/400 or less. Fireworks are a cause of severe eye injury in France. These injuries are potentially preventable, especially in young males. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
but show persistent symptoms such as fatigue , headaches, and delayed recall of memory.10-12 It is still not clear how a blast wave interacts with the...anesthesia (ketamine 20mg/kg intra muscular and xylazine 2mg/kg intra muscular ). The ambulance was equipped with an examination table and equipment for...10. Lemke S, Cockerham GC, Glynn-Milley C, Cockerham KP (2013) Visual quality of life in veterans with blast-induced traumatic brain injury. JAMA
de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G
The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.
Full Text Available Background: Musculoskeletal system disorders are common among health care workers worldwide. They are common causes of severe long-term pain and physical disability. Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs are defined as “regional impairments of the muscles, tendons, nerves and joints. Physiotherapy can lead to WRMSDs in physiotherapist because of the nature of their profession. Despite of having expert knowledge of musculoskeletal injuries and injury prevention strategies they still report a high incidence of work-related injuries during their professional practice due to their training and continuous professional development Methods: A total of 100 Physiotherapists which included 78 females and 22 males in the age group of 21 to 40 years were recruited in the study. The subjects were taken as per the inclusion and exclusion criteria from Tricity. Results: Pearson’s correlation and Chi square analysis was used to determine correlation and the association of prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms with personal characteristics, job risk factors and coping strategies. The data obtained from this study documents that majority of Physiotherapists have experienced WRMSDs at some time. The prevalence of WRMSDs among Physiotherapists in Tricity is high (91%. The most common risk factors identified in the present study were dealing with an excessive number of patients in one day; continuing to work while injured or hurt; lifting or transferring dependent patients and work scheduling. In present study, the low back and neck regions were the most commonly affected site among physiotherapists (72.5% each followed by upper back (28.6 %, shoulder (20.9%, wrist and hand (17.6%, knee (12.1%, ankle and foot (12.1% and hip (7.70% Conclusions: Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are an important health risk within the physiotherapy profession. The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the Physiotherapists in Tricity is high that
Eckleberry-Hunt, Jodie; Kirkpatrick, Heather; Taku, Kanako; Hunt, Ronald; Vasappa, Rashmi
Although we know much about work-related physician burnout and the subsequent negative effects, we do not fully understand work-related physician wellness. Likewise, the relation of wellness and burnout to physician happiness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine how physician burnout and wellness contribute to happiness. We sampled 2000 full-time physician members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Respondents completed a demographics questionnaire, questions about workload, the Physician Wellness Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. We performed a hierarchical regression analysis with the burnout and wellness subscales as predictor variables and physician happiness as the outcome variable. Our response rate was 22%. Career purpose, personal accomplishment, and perception of workload manageability had significant positive correlations with physician happiness. Distress had a significant negative correlation with physician happiness. A sense of career meaning and accomplishment, along with a lack of distress, are important factors in determining physician happiness. The number of hours a physician works is not related to happiness, but the perceived ability to manage workload was significantly related to happiness. Wellness-promotion efforts could focus on assisting physicians with skills to manage the workload by eliminating unnecessary tasks or sharing workload among team members, improving feelings of work accomplishment, improving career satisfaction and meaning, and managing distress related to patient care.
Work-related injuries among child street-laborers in Latin America: prevalence and predictors Lesiones laborales en niños que trabajan en la calle en América Latina: prevalencia y factores de predicción
Angela Maria Pinzon-Rondon
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and nature of occupational injuries among children working in the streets of four major cities in Latin America, as well as to identify factors that predict these work-related injuries. METHODS: This cross-sectional study interviewed 584 children from 5-17 years of age working on the streets of Bogotá, Colombia; Lima, Peru; Quito, Ecuador; and São Paulo, Brazil. Descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted, with incidence and serious injuries regressed on occupational and sociodemographic variables. RESULTS: Approximately 39.6% of the child street-laborers surveyed reported an injury sustained while working in the streets: scratches (19.5%, cuts/lacerations (16.4%, burns (8.6%, car accidents (8.9%, sprains (4.6%, and amputations (0.3%. Working a high number of daytime hours and performing on the street predicted the greatest risk of injury, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors; specifically, each additional hour of daytime work increased the risk of injury by 1.4%. Child performers had three times the injury rate of children primarily selling products. Boys, older children, and children in Quito were more likely to experience moderate-to-severe injuries, than girls, younger children, and street children in the other study cities. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed to address the substantial risk of injury experienced by children working on the city streets of Latin America.OBJETIVOS: Determinar la prevalencia y la naturaleza de las lesiones laborales en niños que trabajan en las calles de cuatro grandes ciudades de América Latina e identificar los factores de predicción de esas lesiones. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal mediante entrevistas a 584 niños de 5 a 17 años que trabajaban en las calles de Bogotá, Colombia; Lima, Perú; Quito, Ecuador; y São Paulo, Brasil. Se realizaron análisis descriptivos y regresiones logísticas multifactoriales de la
Evensen, Christian T.; Schulman, Michael D.; Runyan, Carol W.; Zakocs, Ronda C.; Dunn, Kathleen A.
Surveys teenagers employed in three different retail trade settings in North Carolina to examines how experience, gender, work settings, and pace of work are associated with hazard exposures and injury experiences. Discusses evidence that work-place pressure and hazard exposure are associated with types of injury experiences, in light of…
Li, Xiaoxuan; Yun, Zhe; Li, Xiaoxiang; Wang, Yucai; Yang, Tongtao; Zheng, Lianhe; Qian, Jixian
Although electric bicycle-related injuries have become the most common reason for hospitalization due to a road crash in China, no study has comprehensively investigated electric bicycle collisions and their impact on orthopedic injuries; such a study may provide evidence to support a new road safety policy. A retrospective review of orthopedic injuries from electric bicycle collisions was performed in an urban trauma center. We collected variables including age, gender, location of fracture, presence of open or closed fractures, concomitant vascular, and neurologic injuries. A total of 2,044 cases were involved in electric bicycle collisions. The orthopedic injury victims were predominantly male and middle aged. The most common orthopedic injury was a femur fracture. Open fractures frequently involved the forearm and tibia/fibula. Male patients were more likely to suffer from multiple fractures and associated injuries than female patients. Fewer patients age 60 years old or older wore helmets at the time of the accident compared to those in other age groups. Orthopedic injuries from electric bicycle-related accidents cause patients substantial suffering that could lead to serious social consequences. Helmet use and protective clothing or similar safety gear, especially for electric bicycle users, should be required to provide greater protection.
Heuvel, S.G. van den; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Bossche, S.N.J. van den
Introduction Productivity loss is an increasing problem in an aging working population that is decreasing in numbers. The aim of this study is to identify work-related and health-related characteristics associated with productivity loss, due to either sickness absence or reduced performance at work.
Grivna, Michal; Eid, Hani O; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.
Background Traffic-related injuries are the most common cause of morbidity and mortality of the youth. Our aim was to study epidemiology, risk factors and outcome of hospitalized youth patients injured in road traffic collisions in order to give recommendations for prevention. Methods We prospectively studied all youth (15?24?years) patients having traffic-related injuries who were admitted to Al Ain or Tawam Hospitals, Al Ain City, or who died after arrival to these hospitals during an 18?mo...
Pressley, Joyce C; Trieu, Lisa; Kendig, Tiffany; Barlow, Barbara
Examination of expenditures in areas where more universal application of effective injury prevention approaches is indicated could identify specific mechanisms and age groups where effective intervention may impact public injury-related expenditures. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project 2003 (KID-HCUP) contains acute care hospitalization data for U.S. children and adolescents residing in 36 states. The study population includes 240,248 unweighted (397,943 weighted) injury-related hospital discharges for ages 0 to 19 years. Injury severity was assessed using ICDMAP-90 and International Classification of Injury Severity Scores (ICISS). SUDAAN was employed to adjust variances for stratified sampling. Expenditures were weighted to represent the U.S. population. Injury-related hospitalizations (mean $28,137 +/- 64,420, median $10,808) were more costly than non-injury discharges, accounting for approximately 10% of all persons hospitalized (unweighted), but more than one-fifth of expenditures. Public sources were the primary payor for 37.7% of injured persons. Incidence and cost per case variations across specific injury mechanisms heavily influenced total mechanism specific expenditures. Motor vehicle crashes were the largest expenditures for private and public payors with two thirds of expenditures in teenagers - more than 40% for drivers. Medicaid covered 45.6% ($192 million) of burn expenditures and 59.2% in 0-4 year olds. Expenditures per case (mean +/- SD, median) were: firearm ($36,196 +/- 58,052, $19,020), motor vehicle driver ($33,731 +/- 50,583, $18,431), pedestrian ($31,414 +/- 57,103, $16,552); burns ($29,242 +/- 64,271, $10,739); falls ($13,069 +/- 20,225, $8,610); and poisoning ($8,290 +/- $15,462, $5,208). More universal application of proven injury prevention has the potential to decrease both the public and private health expenditure burden among several modifiable injury mechanisms.
Full Text Available Abstract This article introduces key concepts of work-related stress relevant to the clinical and research fields of psychosomatic medicine. Stress is a term used to describe the body's physiological and/or psychological reaction to circumstances that require behavioral adjustment. According to the Japanese National Survey of Health, the most frequent stressors are work-related problems, followed by health-related and then financial problems. Conceptually, work-related stress includes a variety of conditions, such as overwork, unemployment or job insecurity, and lack of work-family balance. Job stress has been linked to a range of adverse physical and mental health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, insomnia, depression, and anxiety. Stressful working conditions can also impact employee well-being indirectly by directly contributing to negative health behaviors or by limiting an individual's ability to make positive changes to lifestyle behaviors, such as smoking and sedentary behavior. Over the past two decades, two major job stress models have dominated the occupational health literature: the job demand-control-support model and the effort-reward imbalance model. In both models, standardized questionnaires have been developed and frequently used to assess job stress. Unemployment has also been reported to be associated with increased mortality and morbidity, such as by cardiovascular disease, stroke, and suicide. During the past two decades, a trend toward more flexible labor markets has emerged in the private and public sectors of developed countries, and temporary employment arrangements have increased. Temporary workers often complain that they are more productive but receive less compensation than permanent workers. A significant body of research reveals that temporary workers have reported chronic work-related stress for years. The Japanese government has urged all employers to implement four approaches to comprehensive mind
Carter, Cordelia W; Sharkey, Melinda S; Fishman, Felicity
Firearm injuries are a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children and adolescents in the United States and take financial and emotional tolls on the affected children, their families, and society as a whole. Musculoskeletal injuries resulting from firearms are common and may involve bones, joints, and neurovascular structures and other soft tissues. Child-specific factors that must be considered in the setting of gunshot injuries include physeal arrest and lead toxicity. Understanding the ballistics associated with various types of weaponry is useful for guiding orthopaedic surgical treatment. Various strategies for preventing these injuries range from educational programs to the enactment of legislation focused on regulating guns and gun ownership. Several prominent medical societies whose members routinely care for children and adolescents with firearm-related injuries, including the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Pediatric Surgical Association, have issued policy statements aimed at mitigating gun-related injuries and deaths in children. Healthcare providers for young patients with firearm-related musculoskeletal injuries must appreciate the full scope of this important public health issue.
Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Rich, Yisrael
This study investigated interrelations between conflict and facilitation in work and family domains, with spousal, managerial, and collegial social support serving as antecedents, and professional vigor and burnout as outcomes. Participants were 322 female, married teachers. Regression analyses revealed complex relations between conflict and…
Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Hansen, Åse Marie; Garde, Anne Helene
Objective: We investigated whether social relations at work were associated with incident dementia in old age. Methods: One thousand five hundred seventy-two occupationally active men from the Copenhagen Male Study Cohort were followed from 1986 to 2014. Participants underwent a clinical examinat...
Roda, C.; Bluyssen, P.M.; Mandin, C.; Fossati, S.; Carrer, P.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Mihucz, V.G.; Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bartzis, J.
There is growing evidence that the psychosocial work environment may affect health (Marmot et al. 2006). Nevertheless, these factors are still not commonly taken into account in the studies examining the relations between indoor environmental quality and employee’s health and wellbeing. Several
Jungbauer, Franciscus Henricus Wilhelmus
This thesis describes the nature and the quantity of work-related skin exposure in occupations where ‘wet work’ is performed. Activities that cause one or both hands to become wet, in contact with detergents or other skin irritating substances or activities that need to be done with occlusive gloves
Coded data from 83 work ethnographies and a telephone survey of 371 workers found that coworker solidarity generates high job satisfaction and better relations with management. Effects of the quality of coworker relationships equaled or exceeded the effects of job characteristics on satisfaction or management relations. (SK)
Pransky, Glenn; Benjamin, Katy; Hill-Fotouhi, Carolyn; Fletcher, Kenneth E; Himmelstein, Jay; Katz, Jeffrey N
This pilot study explored a broad range of work-related outcomes for occupational low back injuries. A model of occupational outcomes and a survey instrument were developed on the basis of interviews, expert opinion, and literature reviews. New Hampshire workers who had an occupational back injury a year before the study were sampled from first reports of injury and sent a mailed survey about their postinjury experiences and related factors. Of 251 randomly selected cases, a valid address could be identified for 121, and 99 patients responded. Almost 60% of the respondents had lost 1 week of work or more. At 1 year after injury, half of the respondents had returned to their preinjury job and employer, and 20% were unemployed, half of them because of the injury. Most working respondents reported no decrease in their work capacity. However, 68% still had pain exacerbated by work, and 47% worried that their condition would worsen with continued work. Reinjury occurred in 42% of the respondents. The work-related outcome measures were largely independent of each other. Exploratory multivariate analyses demonstrated unique patterns of factors associated with each outcome. Reinjury risk was significantly greater in respondents whose employers offered accommodations or whose postinjury jobs had greater ergonomic risk. The small sample size limited the ability to achieve statistically significant results in multivariate analyses. Simply measuring return to work did not appear to capture the full range of job-related consequences from occupational back injuries in this pilot evaluation. Timing of return to work, occupational ergonomic risks, and appropriate job modifications appeared to be particularly important in a safe return to the job after an occupational low back injury. Results suggest opportunities to address risk factors that may improve work outcomes.
Chou, Li-Ping; Li, Chung-Yi; Hu, Susan C
The association of psychosocial stress with cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still inconclusive. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between arteriosclerosis and various work-related conditions among medical employees with various job titles.A total of 576 medical employees of a regional hospital in Taiwan with a mean age of 43 years and female gender dominance (85%) were enrolled. Arteriosclerosis was evaluated by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). Workrelated conditions included job demands, job control, social support, shift work, work hours, sleep duration, and mental health. The crude relationship between each of the selected covariates and baPWV was indicated by Spearman correlation coefficients. A multiple linear regression model was further employed to estimate the adjusted associations of selected covariates with arteriosclerosis.The mean baPWV of participants was 11.4 ± 2.2 m/s, with the value for males being significantly higher than that for females. The baPWV was associated with gender, age, medical profession, work hours, work type, depression, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting glucose, and cholesterol. After being fully adjusted by these factors, only sleep duration of less than 6 hours and weekly work hours longer than 60 hours were significantly associated with increased risk of arteriosclerosis. The conditions of job demands, job control, social support, shift work, and depression showed no significant association with baPWV.Longer work hours and shorter sleep durations were associated with an increased risk of arteriosclerosis. These findings should make it easier for the employer or government to stipulate rational work hours in order to avoid the development of cardiovascular disease among their employees.
Full Text Available Work-related asthma is asthma that is caused or exacerbated by exposures at work. It is the most common form of occupational lung disease in developed countries. It has important impacts on the health and well-being of the affected individual, as well as consequences for society because of unemployment issues and workers' compensation claims. With ongoing exposure, occupational asthma can result in persistent airway hyperresponsiveness and, possibly, permanent disability for the individual. Thus, it is important for the clinician to be able to diagnose this disorder as quickly and accurately as possible. The evaluation of a patient with work-related asthma can be extensive. It includes obtaining a consistent history, identifying the cause in the workplace, and confirming the diagnosis with objective tests. After a diagnosis has been made, treatment must sometimes go beyond the medications used for nonoccupational asthma and include interventions to minimize or completely remove the individual from exposure to the causal agent if he or she has sensitizer-induced occupational asthma. In addition, once an individual has been identified with occupational asthma, steps should be taken to prevent the development of this disorder in other workers. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature and provide the clinician with a stepwise approach to the diagnosis and management of a patient with work-related asthma.
Collins, J W; Smith, G S; Baker, S P; Warner, M
The Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries, estimates that approximately 100 workers are fatally injured each year in forklift and other powered industrial vehicle (PIV) incidents, and an estimated 34,000 work-related injuries involving forklifts are treated in U.S. emergency rooms each year. This paper presents a descriptive analysis of 916 incidents involving forklifts and other PIVs that occurred in 54 plants operated by a major U.S. automobile manufacturer over a 3-year period. The injury data were obtained from a company-wide occupational injury and illness surveillance system which was implemented in 1989. The 916 PIV-related incidents resulted in 3 fatalities and 913 nonfatal injuries. The most common incident involved pedestrians (35%) who were struck by a PIV, or the load being carried by a PIV, or a rack or bin that had been struck by a PIV. Of the 913 nonfatal injuries, 41% resulted in an employee missing work and incurred a total of 22,730 lost workdays, an average of 61 days per lost workday incident. Recommendations are presented to reduce the risk of injury, for example by separating PIV and pedestrian traffic, restricting the use of forklifts in an area where a large number of pedestrians travel and improving the training of all personnel who drive PIVs. Am. J. Ind. Med. 36:513-521, 1999. Published 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Kuokkanen, Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Rankinen, Sirkku; Kukkurainen, Marja-Leena; Savikko, Nina; Doran, Diane
This study describes the views of multidisciplinary teams on work-related empowerment in a transitional organization. The data were collected between September 2003 and January 2004 (n=115) and one year later (n=112) using a self-administered questionnaire consisting of verbal and behavioural items, empowerment outcomes, and factors promoting and impeding empowerment. The target population consisted of all members working in multidisciplinary teams at the Rheumatism Foundation Hospital in Finland. The response rate was 58% at both data collections. The data were analysed statistically using SPSS software. The multidisciplinary teams rated their work empowerment quite highly. The number of empowerment promoting factors was lowest for the category of future orientedness, consisting of continuity of work, opportunities for advancement, and access to information. The number of impeding factors was also highest for the same category of future orientedness, consisting here of organizational bureaucracy and hierarchy, authoritarian leadership, poor access to information, and short working periods. It is important not to underestimate the impacts of organizational changes: they have a direct effect on the work environment and may contribute to higher rates of dissatisfaction, burnout and absenteeism among health care workers.
Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n=1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol and cannabis. The response rate at the beginning of the study was 99.6% (1,369 students). The incidence rate of alcohol-related injuries was 3.2 per 100 students year. After adjusting for alcohol consumption and cannabis use, the multivariate model revealed that a high frequency of heavy drinking was a risk factor for alcohol-related injuries (Odds Ratio=3.89 [95%CI: 2.16 - 6.99]). The proportion of alcohol-related injuries in exposed subjects attributable to heavy drinking was 59.78% [95%CI: 32.75 - 75.94] while the population attributable fraction was 45.48% [95%CI: 24.91 - 57.77]. We can conclude that heavy drinking leads to an increase of alcohol-related injuries. This shows a new dimension on the consequences of this public concern already related with a variety of health and social problems. Furthermore, our results allow us to suggest that about half of alcohol-related injuries could be avoided by removing this consumption pattern. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Andrade, Gabriela Oliveira; Dantas, Rosa Amélia Andrade
Anaesthesiology is a specialty whose specificity of the working process results in high levels of stress as an inevitable condition - a particularly worrying situation in the daily life of these professionals. This study, based on data from national and international literature, aims to discuss the basis of the occurrence of mental and behavioural disorders or of psychopathological injuries (psychological distress) related to working activity in anesthesiologists. A literature review was conducted, with papers selected from Medline and Lilacs databases, published between 2000 and 2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish, and addressing the possible association between occupational hazards of the anaesthesiologist profession and mental health problems and psychic distress. Twenty-six publications were listed. Several aspects of the anesthesiologist's work are important points to better understand the relationship between mental health at work and working organization. Poor temporal structuring of work, conflictuous interpersonal relationships and poor control over the activity itself may be mentioned as illness enhancers. The working organization, when not appropriate, is an important occupational risk factor for the life and mental health of workers, mainly of professionals focused on the care of people. This paper focuses on anesthesiologists, who are constantly exposed to stressful and anxiogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Andrade, Gabriela Oliveira; Andrade Dantas, Rosa Amélia
Anaesthesiology is a specialty whose specificity of the working process results in high levels of stress as an inevitable condition - a particularly worrying situation in the daily life of these professionals. This study, based on data from national and international literature, aims to discuss the basis of the occurrence of mental and behavioural disorders or of psychopathological injuries (psychological distress) related to working activity in anesthesiologists. A literature review was conducted, with papers selected from Medline and Lilacs databases, published between 2000 and 2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish, and addressing the possible association between occupational hazards of the anaesthesiologist profession and mental health problems and psychic distress. Twenty-six publications were listed. Several aspects of the anesthesiologist's work are important points to better understand the relationship between mental health at work and working organization. Poor temporal structuring of work, conflictuous interpersonal relationships and poor control over the activity itself may be mentioned as illness enhancers. The working organization, when not appropriate, is an important occupational risk factor for the life and mental health of workers, mainly of professionals focused on the care of people. This paper focuses on anesthesiologists, who are constantly exposed to stressful and anxiogenic factors. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Keightley, Michelle L.; Yule, Ashley; Garland, Kimberley; Reed, Nicholas; McAuliffe, Jim; Garton, Janice; Green, Stephanie; Taha, Tim
Sports-related concussion or mild-traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common in children who participate in organised sports. We describe two case studies involving 14-year-old girls who each sustained a mTBI during ice hockey competition. Neurocognitive functioning post-injury is compared to baseline pre-injury assessment on the same measures. Results from Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II) and the Attention Netw...
Matshes, Evan W; Lew, Emma O
Occasionally, individuals accused of inflicting fatal injuries on infants and young children will claim some variant of the "CPR defense," that is, they attribute the cause of injuries found at autopsy to their "untrained" resuscitative efforts. A 10-year (1994-2003) historical fixed cohort study of all pediatric forensic autopsies at the Miami-Dade County Medical Examiner Department was undertaken. To be eligible for inclusion in the study, children had to have died of atraumatic causes, with or without resuscitative efforts (N(atraumatic) = 546). Of these, 382 had a history of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR; average age of 4.17 years); 248 had CPR provided by trained individuals only; 133 had CPR provided by both trained and untrained individuals; 1 had CPR provided by untrained individuals only. There was no overlap between these 3 distinct groups. Twenty-two findings potentially attributable to CPR were identified in 19:15 cases of orofacial injuries compatible with attempted endotracheal intubation; 4 cases with focal pulmonary parenchymal hemorrhage; 1 case with prominent anterior mediastinal emphysema; and 2 cases with anterior chest abrasions. There were no significant hollow or solid thoracoabdominal organ injuries. There were no rib fractures. The estimated relative risk of injury subsequent to resuscitation was not statistically different between the subset of decedents whose resuscitative attempts were made by trained individuals only, and the subset who received CPR from both trained and untrained individuals. In the single case of CPR application by an untrained individual only, no injuries resulted. The remaining 164 children dying from nontraumatic causes and who did not undergo resuscitative efforts served as a control group; no injuries were identified. This study indicates that in the pediatric population, injuries secondary to resuscitative efforts are infrequent or rare, pathophysiologically inconsequential, and predominantly orofacial in
Barnes, Shawn S; Wong, William; Affeldt, John C
While airbags have saved many lives and are clearly beneficial overall, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) powder produced by the inflation reaction can cause significant alkali ocular injury if not irrigated promptly. Here we report a case of severe airbag related ocular alkali injury as a way to bring attention to the need for prompt ocular irrigation following motor vehicle accidents (MVA) with airbag deployment. A 47-year-old man was involved in a MVA with airbag deployment in a rural setting. Attention was paid to several other life-threatening traumatic injuries, however, ocular irrigation was not performed until some 6-7 hours after the MVA. Over the course of 6 months, airbag related alkali injury caused severe limbal ischemia, conjunctivalization of the cornea, corneal epithelial defects, cicatricial scarring, haze, and corneal/limbal vascularization despite amniotic membrane graft. Awareness of the importance of ocular irrigation following airbag deployment must be raised both in the ophthalmology and emergency medicine communities.
Zadow, Amy Jane; Dollard, Maureen Frances; Mclinton, Sarven Savia; Lawrence, Peter; Tuckey, Michelle Rae
Preventing work injuries requires a clear understanding of how they occur, how they are recorded, and the accuracy of injury surveillance. Our innovation was to examine how psychosocial safety climate (PSC) influences the development of reported and unreported physical and psychological workplace injuries beyond (physical) safety climate, via the erosion of psychological health (emotional exhaustion). Self-report data (T2, 2013) from 214 hospital employees (18 teams) were linked at the team level to the hospital workplace injury register (T1, 2012; T2, 2013; and T3, 2014). Concordance between survey-reported and registered injury rates was low (36%), indicating that many injuries go unreported. Safety climate was the strongest predictor of T2 registered injury rates (controlling for T1); PSC and emotional exhaustion also played a role. Emotional exhaustion was the strongest predictor of survey-reported total injuries and underreporting. Multilevel analysis showed that low PSC, emanating from senior managers and transmitted through teams, was the origin of psychological health erosion (i.e., low emotional exhaustion), which culminated in greater self-reported work injuries and injury underreporting (both physical and psychological). These results underscore the need to consider, in theory and practice, a dual physical-psychosocial safety explanation of injury events and a psychosocial explanation of injury underreporting. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lederer, R; Bennett, D; Parkin, T
Working dog owners in Scotland were invited to take part in an internet survey regarding the 2010/2011 shooting season, which was designed to estimate the prevalence of tail injuries; assess the risk of tail injuries in docked and undocked working dogs; and identify risk factors for owner-reported tail injuries. Of 2860 working dogs, 13.5 per cent sustained at least one tail injury during the 2010/2011 shooting season. Undocked spaniels and hunt point retrievers (HPRs) were at greatest risk of tail injury with 56.6 per cent of undocked spaniels and 38.5 per cent of undocked HPRs sustaining at least one tail injury during the season. There was no statistically significant difference in the risk of tail injury in dogs with tails docked by one-third, half or shorter. To prevent one tail injury in one shooting season, between two and 18 spaniels or HPRs would need to be docked as puppies. The authors believe that this work provides the best available evidence on which to base a consultation for changes to the legislation on tail docking in working dogs in Scotland. Docking the tails of HPRs and spaniels by one-third would significantly decrease the risk of tail injury sustained while working in these breeds.
Dau, Brynie Kaplan; Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Gulland, Frances M; Higgins, Ali; Holcomb, Jay B; Leger, Judy St; Ziccardi, Michael H
We reviewed medical records from select wildlife rehabilitation facilities in California to determine the prevalence of injury in California Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis), gulls (Larus spp.), and pinniped species (Zalophus californianus, Mirounga angustirostris, and Phoca vitulina) due to fishing gear entanglement and ingestion from 2001 to 2006. Of 9,668 Brown Pelican, gull, and pinniped cases described during the 6-yr study period (2001-06), 1,090 (11.3%) were fishing gear-related. Pelican injuries caused by fishing gear were most common in the Monterey Bay region, where 59.6% of the pelicans rescued in this area and admitted to a rehabilitation center were injured by fishing gear over the 6-yr period. The highest prevalence of fishing gear-related injury in gulls was documented in the Los Angeles/Orange County region (16.1%), whereas the highest prevalences in pinnipeds were seen in the San Diego region (3.7%). Despite these higher prevalences of gull and pinniped fishing gear-related injuries in these specific regions, there was no statistical significance in these trends. Juvenile gulls and pinnipeds were more commonly injured by fishing gear than adults (gulls: P = 0.03, odds ratio = 1.29; pinnipeds: P = 0.01, odds ratio = 2.07). Male pinnipeds were twice as likely to be injured by fishing gear as females (P gear-related injury cases that were successfully rehabilitated and released (percentage of cases successfully rehabilitated to the point of release out of the total number of fishing gear-related injury cases) was high in all three species groups (pelicans: 63%; gulls: 54%; pinnipeds: 70%). Fishing gear-related injuries in Brown Pelicans and gulls were highest in the fall, but there was only a significant difference between seasons for fishing gear-related injuries in pelicans. Fishing gear-related injuries in pinnipeds most commonly occurred in summer; however, a statistical difference was not detected between seasons for pinnipeds. Derelict
de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.
Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the
Al-Amry, Mohammad; Al-Ghadeer, Huda
Paintball is a popular recreational sport. This case series describes three Saudi patients exposed to paintball ocular injuries with sever ocular trauma. Two patients developed hyphema and traumatic cataract and one patient had vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, commotio retinae and retinal tear. All patients require surgical intervention. Final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200, 20/30 and 20/50 respectively. Paintball related ocular injuries can result in severe visual loss and...
Hong, Choon Chiet; Nashi, Nazrul; Kuan, Win Sen; Teh, Jing Wen Daniel; Tan, Ken Jin
Forklift-related crush injuries of the foot and ankle are relatively common in cities with shipping and construction industries. There is a paucity of literature on the incidence and sequelae of such injuries. We aimed to describe the incidence, patterns of injuries, sequelae, and morbidity associated with this type of injury. A retrospective review of all patients with forklift-related crush injuries of the foot and ankle for 4 years was conducted. Patients' demographics, mechanisms and patterns of injury, fracture type, compartment syndrome, number of reconstructive operations, operative details, length of hospital stay, medical leave, repeat evaluation in emergency room, and complications were recorded and analyzed. There were 113 (2.17%) patients with forklift-related crush injuries out of 5209 patients seen in our institution for injuries of the foot and ankle. Crush injury from the wheels of the forklift truck was the most common mechanism at 71 (62.8%) patients. The forefoot was the most commonly injured region, followed by the midfoot, hindfoot, and ankle, with almost one-third (28.3%) of the patients having multiple injuries to the foot. Nine (8%) had open fractures, while 5 (4.4%) had compartment syndromes. Forty (35.4%) patients required hospitalization, and 35 (87.5%) of those hospitalized required operative intervention. Those who had surgery were more likely to have complications compared with those who did not require operative intervention (16 [45.7%] of 35 patients vs 7 [9%] of 78 patients; P Forklift-related crush injuries of the foot and ankle are increasingly common in industrialized cities. The forefoot is commonly affected with involvement of multiple regions. Up to one-third of affected patients required hospitalization and multiple operative interventions resulting in loss of productivity, income, and significant morbidity. The possibility of residual disabilities must be clearly defined to the patients and their employers to manage
Tuominen, Tiina; Fuglsang, Lars; Hasu, Mervi
In this paper, we aim to understand how elderly care work is changing alongside the introduction of new co-creative frameworks and practices. The ideas of value co-creation and service co-production are expanding rapidly to new service areas also in the public sector. The elderly care context may...... the concept of ‘relational agency’ to discuss how the interests and capabilities of the workers and users to co-create value are relationally constructed, and how these agentic properties contribute to the manner in which value is co-created. We demonstrate the usefulness of this approach by analysing...
Inceoglu, I; Bartram, D; Segers, J.
This paper examines age-related differences in work motivation in two samples of 9,388 and 2,512 individuals who completed a comprehensive motivation questionnaire for selection or development purposes. In the first sample, age differences were examined by controlling for gender and investigating whether relationships between age and motivation were non-linear. Statistically significant relationships between motivation and age were found for most motivation scales, explaining up to 12% of the...
Shibuya, Hitomi; Hannerz, Harald; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Cleal, Bryan; Gubba, Lotte
To establish a detailed picture of injury pattern among professional goods-transport drivers in Denmark. For each calendar year over the period of 1995-2003, the age-standardized hospital contact ratios (SHRs) for injury were calculated for male drivers working for road goods-transport contractors in Denmark. The reference population was the male skilled/semiskilled subpopulation of the general workforce in Denmark. No differences in the rate of injury-related hospital contact could be found between male goods-transport drivers and the reference population between 1995 and 1999. However, in the following period of 2000-2003, elevated rates of injury-related hospital contact were noted among goods-transport drivers, compared with the reference population. Furthermore, the injury-related SHR of goods-transport drivers showed a significant increase throughout the period of 1995-2003. Injuries to ankles/feet/toes were prominent among goods-transport drivers. Compared with the reference population, male goods-transport drivers had elevated rates of superficial injuries, dislocations/sprains/strains, fractures, and concussion. The superficial injuries were sustained most frequently in the ankles/feet/toes, open wounds in head/neck, dislocations/sprains/strains in ankles/feet/toes, and fractures in wrists/hands/fingers and ankles/feet/toes. There is a clear need for efforts to prevent work injuries among goods-transport drivers. Special attention should be paid to preventing fractures in wrists/hands/fingers and ankles/feet/toes, dislocations/sprains/strains in ankles/feet/toes, open wounds in head/neck, and concussion.
Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole
be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure......Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of the incidence and seriousness of accidental injuries. Research with other occupational groups has drawn attention to the role of psychosocial factors and stress. Such research needs to be extended to agriculture. Since stress may......-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of 794 farms, 10% of all farms in Ringkoebing County, Denmark, 393 farmers completed completed weekly accident registration over 12 months. The study sample consisted of 310 farmers who also completed questionnaires on psychosocial factors. Results indicated...
Full Text Available Transfusion-related acute lung injury is defined as acute respiratory failure which develops during or within 6 hours after transfusion of a blood component in a patient with no risk factors for respiratory insufficiency. Transfusion-related acute lung injury is diagnosed based on clinical manifestation and by excluding other causes of acute lung injury. Unambiguous diagnosis is difficult. Looking for anti-HLA and/or anti-HNA antibodies in donors and sometimes in recipients plays an important role in lab tests. Negative antibody findings, either in a donor or in a recipient, do not exclude transfusion-related acute lung injury, which, however, does not exempt from performing leukocyte antibody tests since they are extremely important for transfusion-related acute lung injury prophylaxis. The ways to prevent this reaction include: disqualifying donors with anti-HLA/HNA antibodies, screening for antibodies in multiparous women and in individuals after transfusion, modifying the way blood components are prepared and limiting blood transfusion in clinical practice. The paper presents a case of a 38-year-old woman with acute myeloid leukaemia, hospitalised at the Department of Internal Diseases and Haematology of the Military Institute of Medicine for subsequent courses of chemotherapy. During treatment, the patient had red cells and platelets concentrates transfused several times with no transfusion-related reactions. Eight days after the last chemotherapy infusion, the patient developed high temperature and her platelet count was 14 × 103 /mL. Therefore, the patient received a platelet concentrate again. About 1 hour after transfusion, the patient complained about chest pain and dyspnoea. She needed oxygen therapy. Chest X-ray revealed lung oedema with no signs of left ventricular failure. Once other causes of acute lung injury were excluded, transfusion-related acute lung injury was diagnosed.
Rozenfeld, Michael; Givon, Adi; Peleg, Kobi
To demonstrate the gap between injury epidemiology of terror-related stabbings (TRS) and non-terror-related intentional stabbings. Terror attacks with sharp instruments have multiplied recently, with many victims of these incidents presented to hospitals with penetrating injuries. Because most practical experience of surgeons with intentional stabbing injuries comes from treating victims of interpersonal violence, potential gaps in knowledge may exist if injuries from TRS significantly differ from interpersonal stabbings (IPS). A retrospective study of 1615 patients from intentional stabbing events recorded in the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the period of "Knife Intifada" (January 2013-March 2016). All stabbings were divided into TRS and IPS. The 2 categories were compared in terms of sustained injuries, utilization of hospital resources, and clinical outcomes. TRS patients were older, comprised more females and were ethnically homogenous. Most IPS incidents happened on weekdays and at night hours, whereas TRS events peaked midweek during morning and afternoon hours. TRS patients had more injuries of head, face, and neck, and severe head and neck injuries. IPS patients had more abdomen injuries; however, respective injuries in the TRS group were more severe. Greater injury severity of the TRS patients reflected on their higher hospital resources utilization and greater in-hospital mortality. Victims of terror stabbings are profoundly different in their characteristics, sustain injuries of a different profile and greater severity, require more hospital resources, and have worse off clinical outcomes, emphasizing the need of the healthcare systems to adjust itself appropriately to deal successfully with future terror attacks.
Awang, Halimah; Tan, Lih Yoong; Mansor, Norma; Tongkumchum, Phattrawan; Eso, Mayuening
To examine factors associated with successful return to work among participants in a Social Security Organisation Return To Work programme. Secondary data for 9,850 participants were obtained from the Social Security Organisation Return To Work database. The dependent variable was the Return To Work programme outcome, successful return to employment (same employer or different employer) or unsuccessful return. Logistic regression analysis with weighted sum contrasts was performed to assess the odds ratios with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for successful return to employment across the various subgroups of participants. Overall, 65.5% of participants successfully returned to employment, either with their former employers or with new employers. Successful return to employment was found to be significantly higher than the overall proportion among those participants who had had commuting accidents, followed by those who had had workplace accidents. Successful return to employment was also associated with injuries of the upper and lower limbs, employers who were interested in hiring disabled workers, motivation to participate in the programme, an intervention period of 3 months or less, age 29 years or younger, and male participants. A structured multidisciplinary intervention programme provides a positive outcome in terms of returning to work. Related factors have various impacts on successful return to work.
Full Text Available Background Built environment is a major determinant in injuries and deaths during natural disasters. Purpose of the present paper was to study the effect of built environment on tsunami injuries.Methods A retrospective residential cohort was constructed one month after the tsunami, based on the cross sectional household survey. Household structure was categorised as a binary variable based on the definition used department of census and statistics for the census.Results The constructed cohort consisted of 4178 individuals, 2143 (51.3% males and 2034 (48.7% females from 1047 households. Mean age of the study sample was 25 years with a standard deviation of 17 years. Out of the 4178 study units studied, 43 (1.1% died during the acute incidence and 19(0.5% died later due to complications. Twenty eight (0.7% people were reported missing at the time of data collection. Moderate to severe injuries were reported by 508 individuals (12.5%. To investigate the injury incidence all tsunami related deaths, missing personals and injuries were classified in to a single group as injuries. Reported number of injuries were 302 (14.4%, and 296 (14.9% among males and females respectively. In multivariate analysis, living in a temporary shelter (OR=0.259, 95% CI 0.351-0.797 shown a protective effect on injuries whereas, residing within the 100 meter boundary from sea (OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.1-1.8 and destruction of house (OR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.07 were predictors of injuries.Conclusion Policies on building construction in coastal areas should be done considering these findings to mitigate the effect of future disasters.
Downey, La Vonne A; Zun, Leslie S; Burke, Trena; Jefferson, Tangula
Because of high rates of violent gun-related injuries seen in emergency department (EDs), the ED has become involved in prevention violence intervention. The purpose of the study was to determine the relation between access to guns and the risk of violence-related injuries in youth and young adults. This study was a convenience sample in an inner-city level I trauma center. A 28-item validated questionnaire consisting of a short questionnaire about guns, the New York City Youth Violence Survey, and the SAGE Baseline Survey was given to 201 subjects. Half of the subjects were victims of violence and half were seen for nonviolence-related problems. Subjects with violence-related injuries did not have a higher rate of accessibility to guns. They did, however, show a difference in their attitudes toward guns. The subjects who came into the ED with violence-related injuries believed that having a weapon was a way to avoid a fight (F = 4.68, P = 0.032). They were more likely to have grabbed or shoved someone in the last 6 months (F = 5.18, P = 0.025), punched someone in the last 6 months (F = 11.9, P = 0.011), and have been seen in the ED within the last 6 months for a injury related to being punched, attacked, or shot (F = 117, P = 0.00), as compared to those with nonviolence-related injuries. There was no difference between the two subject groups in terms of their being victims of violence and the rate of gun accessibility. There was, however, a difference in their attitudes toward guns.
Luo, Feijun; Florence, Curtis
Injury-associated deaths have substantial economic consequences in the United States. The total estimated lifetime medical and work-loss costs associated with fatal injuries in 2013 were $214 billion (1). In 2014, unintentional injury, suicide, and homicide (the fourth, tenth, and seventeenth leading causes of death, respectively) accounted for 194,635 deaths in the United States (2). In 2014, a total of 199,756 fatal injuries occurred in the United States, and the associated lifetime medical and work-loss costs were $227 billion (3). This report examines the state-level economic burdens of fatal injuries by extending a previous national-level study (1). Numbers and rates of fatal injuries, lifetime costs, and lifetime costs per capita were calculated for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia (DC) and for four injury intent categories (all intents, unintentional, suicide, and homicide). During 2014, injury mortality rates and economic burdens varied widely among the states and DC. Among fatal injuries of all intents, the mortality rate and lifetime costs per capita ranged from 101.9 per 100,000 and $1,233, respectively (New Mexico) to 40.2 per 100,000 and $491 (New York). States can engage more effectively and efficiently in injury prevention if they are aware of the economic burden of injuries, identify areas for immediate improvement, and devote necessary resources to those areas.
Keightley, Michelle L; Yule, Ashley; Garland, Kimberley; Reed, Nicholas; McAuliffe, Jim; Garton, Janice; Green, Stephanie; Taha, Tim
Sports-related concussion or mild-traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is common in children who participate in organised sports. We describe two case studies involving 14-year-old girls who each sustained a mTBI during ice hockey competition. Neurocognitive functioning post-injury is compared to baseline pre-injury assessment on the same measures. Results from Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT), Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II) and the Attention Network Test (ANT) revealed decreased performance in attention, memory functioning and reaction time. Furthermore, some measures had not returned to baseline at midseason testing sessions approximately 30–40 days post-injury. The results are discussed with respect to the difference in recovery profiles and the need for thorough and ongoing evaluation following mTBI in the paediatric population, and for girls in particular. PMID:22791784
Full Text Available Paintball is a popular recreational sport. This case series describes three Saudi patients exposed to paintball ocular injuries with sever ocular trauma. Two patients developed hyphema and traumatic cataract and one patient had vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, commotio retinae and retinal tear. All patients require surgical intervention. Final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200, 20/30 and 20/50 respectively. Paintball related ocular injuries can result in severe visual loss and in most of the time requires surgical intervention. Most injuries occur in under-supervised settings and are easily preventable. Our main aim was to increase awareness among local ophthalmologists and eye professionals about this new game. Improved safety measures and appropriate public education could prevent such serious ocular injuries.
Al-Amry, Mohammad; Al-Ghadeer, Huda
Paintball is a popular recreational sport. This case series describes three Saudi patients exposed to paintball ocular injuries with sever ocular trauma. Two patients developed hyphema and traumatic cataract and one patient had vitreous hemorrhage, choroidal detachment, commotio retinae and retinal tear. All patients require surgical intervention. Final best corrected visual acuity was 20/200, 20/30 and 20/50 respectively. Paintball related ocular injuries can result in severe visual loss and in most of the time requires surgical intervention. Most injuries occur in under-supervised settings and are easily preventable. Our main aim was to increase awareness among local ophthalmologists and eye professionals about this new game. Improved safety measures and appropriate public education could prevent such serious ocular injuries.
Vlaar, A. P.; Schultz, M. J.; Juffermans, N. P.
Two decades ago, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) was considered a rare complication of transfusion medicine. Nowadays, TRALI has emerged as the leading cause of transfusion-related mortality, presumably as a consequence of reaching international agreement on defining TRALI with
Gonzalez Perez, L.M.; Wideberg, J.; Gonzalez Perez-Somarriba, B.
Objective: This study was conducted to find the epidemiological characteristics of bicycling-related maxillofacial fractures in a defined population, and identify factors contributing to injury. Methodology: A prospective study was carried out involving patients presenting with maxillofacial fractures sustained in bicycling-related accidents. Results: Between 908 of all cycling accidents attending for medical treatment, 122 patients (13% of all cycling accidents) were admitted with facial fractures between 2007 and 2014. Male and female ratio was 2.6:1, and the mean age was 29.4 years (standard deviation: 12.8, range: 12-79 years). Causes of injury included collisions (63%) and accidental falls (37%). The fracture patterns seen were mandibular (49%), zygomatic (32%), orbital (13%), nasal (7%), maxillary (2%), and frontal (2%). Condylar fractures were the most common of the mandibular fractures (63%). The most frequently observed concomitant lesions were orthopedic injuries. Conclusions: Bicycling-related maxillofacial injuries are common and therefore important to identify in order to design a sustainable transport system and for units that provide assistance to traffic accident victims. Missed diagnosis or delayed treatment can lead to facial deformities and functional problems. Wearing protective helmets and the improvement of the helmets design is one aspect that would be of interest for the prevention of injuries. Keywords: Cycling; bicycle-related trauma; maxillofacial fractures; risk factors; helmets. (Author)
Smith, Peter M; Ibrahim-Dost, Jihan; Keegel, Tessa; MacFarlane, Ewan
To examine the relationship between shiftwork and work injury among men and women, taking into account the presence of dependent children. An analysis of respondents to the 2009-2010 Multipurpose Household Survey (n = 6927 women and 7340 men). Logistic regression models examined the work injury risk, adjusting for various covariates. The risk of work injury associated with shiftwork was higher for women than for men. Nevertheless, gender differences were present only among respondents with dependent children. Shiftworking women with children also had a greater risk of work injury than shiftworking women without children. This previously noted elevated risk of injury associated with shiftwork among women compared with that in men may be a product of increased household responsibilities or other factors particular to female shiftworkers with dependent children.
Königshausen, M; Gothner, M; Kruppa, C; Dudda, M; Godry, H; Schildhauer, T A; Seybold, D
The sales of recreational trampolines have increased during the past few years. Severe injuries are associated in part with trampoline sport in the domestic setting. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm the hypothesis of an increase in trampoline-related injuries in conjunction with the increasing sales of recreational trampolines and to find out what kind of injuries are most frequent in this context. Between 01/1999 and 09/2013 all trampoline-related injuries of children (0-16 years of age) were assessed retrospectively. Only those cases were evaluated which described with certainty a trampoline-associated trauma. The fractures were considered separately and assigned to specific localisations. Additionally, accidents at home were differentiated from institutional accidents. Within the past 13 years and 9 months trampoline-related injuries were seen in 195 infants. Fractures were present in 83 cases (42 %). The average age was 10 ± 3.4 years (range: 2-16 years). Within first half of the observed time period (7½ years; 01/1999 to 06/2006) 73 cases were detected with a significantly increasing number of injuries up to 122 cases between 07/2006 and 09/2013 (7 years, 3 months), which corresponds to an increase of 67 % (p = 0,028). The vast majority of these injuries happened in the domestic setting (90 %, n = 175), whereas only 10 % (n = 20) of the traumas occurred in public institutions. In 102 children (52 %) the lower extremity was affected and in 51 patients (26 %) the upper extremity was involved (head/spine/pelvis: n = 42, 22 %). The upper extremity was primarily affected by fractures and dislocations (n = 38, 76 %). At the upper extremity there were more injuries requiring surgery in contrast to the lower extremity (n = 11) or cervical spine (n = 1). The underlying data show a significant increase of trampoline-related injuries within the past years. The upper extremity is the second most affected
Nicole Ruas de Sousa
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Equine sport modalities influence the prevalence and predisposition of musculoskeletal injuries in horses. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of location and type of orthopedic injuries of horses undergoing various physical activities. Data from 116 horses of different breeds and ages was analyzed. Physical activities included dressage, racing, polo pony, jumping, work and western performance. All horses had history of orthopedic lameness diagnosed by radiographs and/or ultrasound scans. The effect of sport on the affected anatomical site and type of lesion was performed using Fisher's exact test. Desmitis was more prevalent in animals that performed western sports than in the working ones. The number of fractures was greater in racing and polo pony animals than in working horses. Stifle lesions were more prevalent in dressage horses than working horses and had lower occurrence of shoulder injuries than jumping horses. Hind limb tendon injuries were lower in jumping than in dressage and western horses. We conclude that there is a relationship between location and type of injury and physical activities. In racing horses there is a predominance of young animals and higher prevalence of orthopedic injuries from traumatic events such as tendonitis, desmitis and fractures. In physical activities that require longer training and that animals were used for longer periods, eg. jumping, polo pony, dressage and work, age-related degenerative, such as joint disease, were predominant. In western sport animals the most common lesion was desmitis. Regarding limbs, forelimb injures were more often observed in racing horses, polo pony, jumping and working animals; whereas, dressage and Western sports horses presented more injuries in hind limbs.
Saadat, Soheil; Hafezi-Nejad, Nima; Ekhtiari, Yalda Soleiman; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Motevalian, Abbas; Amin-Esmaeili, Masoumeh; Sharifi, Vandad; Hajebi, Ahmad; Radgoodarzi, Reza; Hefazi, Mitra; Eslami, Vahid; Karimi, Hasti; Mohammad, Kazem; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
Fall-related injuries are considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and disability worldwide. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of fall-related injuries and its determinants in Iran. A cross-sectional household survey of a representative sample of 15-64 years old Iranians was carried out in 2011. A three-stage cluster sampling design was used. Total of 1525 clusters were randomly selected. Six households in each cluster were randomly selected, and one member of each household was interviewed. Data on the demographics and history of fall-related injury were obtained using the previously validated and reliability tested Short Form Injury Questionnaire 7 (SFIQ7). In all, 7886 subjects responded to the survey. The incidence rate of all fall-related injuries was 59 (95%CI: 45-72) per 1000 person-year. The incidence rate of First Aid Fall-Related Injuries (FAFRIs) and Medical Attended Fall-Related Injuries (MAFRIs) were 30±5 and 28±12, respectively. Homes were the most common place of falls (52.5%). For all and MAFRIs, the most common activity leading to fall injury was walking (37.8% and 47.6%, respectively) whereas for FAFRIs was playing (31.9%). For all and FAFRIs, the most common description was as follows: upper limb as the injured organ (52.0% and 61.2%, respectively) and superficial wound as the most prevalent type of injury (39.0% and 61.8%, respectively). However, for MAFRIs, lower limb injuries (52.9%) and fracture (43.6%) were more pronounced. Risk factors for MAFRI were as follows: paid work activity (OR: 3.11; 95%CI: 2.07-4.67), playing (OR: 14.64; 95%CI: 6.34-33.80), walking (OR: 57.09; 95%CI: 28.95-112.59), driving (OR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.23-6.63), and recreation activities (OR: 44.11; 95%CI: 14.04-138.54). Higher age and education were the other risk factors for MAFRI, as well as residing in rural areas. This study revealed considerable incidence of fall injuries in Iranian population especially in rural regions who need access to
Lilley, Rebbecca; Derrett, Sarah; Davie, Gabrielle
Little empirical examination of the relationship between work organisational factors and return to work following injury has been undertaken despite the growing recognition of examining broader multi-dimensional contexts for recovery following injury. To explore relationships between pre-injury work organisational factors and work status (working/work absent) 3-month after injury among people employed prior to injury. Cases (work absent) and controls (working), selected from a larger study of injury outcomes according to reported work status 3-month after injury, completed a postal questionnaire. Work organisational factors were compared between cases and controls using univariate and multivariable analyses. One hundred and twelve participants completed the questionnaire (44 cases; 68 controls). Of 11 work organisation factors examined, organisational size was the only explanatory variable significantly associated with work status in the multivariable model. Higher odds of work absence were found in small ( 500 employees) (OR 7.2) workplaces, compared with medium-sized (50-500 employees) organisations. Variations in post-injury work patterns among those working pre-injury may be partly explained by organisation size. Future research examining work status following injury should examine the influence of work organisational factors in larger studies.
Moure-Rodríguez, Lucía; Caamaño-Isorna, Francisco; Doallo, Sonia; Juan-Salvadores, Pablo; Corral, Montserrat; Rodríguez-Holguín, Socorro; Cadaveira, Fernando
Objective: The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of heavy drinking on alcohol-related injuries. Material and methods: We carried out an open cohort study among university students in Spain (n = 1,382). Heavy drinking and alcohol-related injuries were measured by administrating AUDIT questionnaires to every participant at the ages of 18, 20, 22 and 24. For data analysis we used a Multilevel Logistic Regression for repeated measures adjusting for consumption of alcohol a...
Pearson, Emma-Leigh; Whelan, Megan; Bracker, Kiko
To describe a population of dogs affected by escalator-related injuries, and to characterize the types of injuries sustained and describe treatment administered. Retrospective study from March 2007 to November 2014. Large urban referral and emergency facility. Thirty client-owned dogs presenting with injuries acquired while riding an escalator. None. All injuries in this study occurred secondary to entrapment of 1 or more paws in the moving parts of an escalator; 39 paws were injured in total. The median body weight of the patients in this study was 4.25 kg, with 73.3% of the patients weighing less than 10 kg. Fifteen patients (50.0%) were treated surgically, the remainder were managed conservatively. Eight patients (26.7%) underwent digit or partial-digit amputation. Of the conservatively managed patients, 10 were treated with bandaging of the wounds. Antimicrobials, opiate analgesics, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were administered in both surgically and conservatively managed patients. While uncommon, escalator accidents can result in significant injury to dogs. Measures can be taken to prevent these injuries from occurring, whether through client education, dog training, structural modifications in the escalators themselves, or avoidance of escalators. In the present study, the survival rate of dogs injured on escalators was 100%. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.
Fineman, M S; Fischer, D H; Jeffers, J B; Buerger, D G; Repke, C
To describe the type and severity of ocular injuries caused by paintballs, to summarize the outcomes, to determine if the injury occurred in a commercial or noncommercial setting, to compare the number of injuries in each setting as a function of time, and to ascertain whether eye-protective devices were worn and why they were removed. Retrospective analysis of 35 patients who sustained ocular injuries caused by paintballs and underwent evaluation and treatment at an eye hospital from January 1, 1985, to September 30, 1998. Thirty-five eyes of 35 patients underwent a complete ocular examination, diagnostic testing, and surgical intervention when indicated. All patients were male (average age, 22 years). Twenty-six patients (74%) had an initial visual acuity of 20/200 or worse, and visual acuity in 16 (46%) remained 20/200 or worse on follow-up (range, 2 weeks to 22 months). Traumatic hyphema was seen in 21 patients (60%). Twenty-two patients (63%) had access to goggles, 7 (33%) of whom removed them due to fogging before the injury. Injuries sustained after 1995 were 5.8 times (relative risk, 5.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-22.4) more likely to occur during a noncommercial war game than those occurring in 1995 or before. As the popularity of war games increases, so does the potential for serious ocular injury caused by paint pellet guns. Most injuries seen after 1995 occurred in noncommercial war game settings, where the use of eye-protective devices is not required. Industry standards for eye protection have been developed recently and should be implemented.
Tomei, G; Ricci, S; Fidanza, L; Sacco, C; De Cesare, D P; Ricci, P; Pimpinella, B; Giubilati, R; Suppi, A; Anzelmo, V; Tomei, F; Casale, T; Rosati, M V
In the assessment of work-related stress it is crucial to find the factors that generate and increase it in order to identify categories of individuals at risk, to plan interventions for prevention, elimination or reduction of risk. The aim of the study is to assess the subjective stress in 68 workers of a large Italian company dealing with human health, through the use of a questionnaire-indicating tool, elaborated by the Italian National Institute for insurance against accidents at work (INAIL) and developed by the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). We studied a final sample of 68 individuals (34 drivers/rescuers and 34 video display unit (VDU) operators). The questionnaire consists of 35 items (divided into six areas) with five possible answers each, that cover working conditions considered potential causes of stress. The drivers/rescuers had a better performance than the VDU operators, especially in the areas "demand", "relationships" and "role". We compared men and women in the two groups, finding that, in VDU operators, women had a better performance than men in all areas, except "role" and "changes", in which the overall scores were the same in men and women. In the drivers/rescuers women showed more critical scores in the items "relationships" and "change". The results show that: the questionnaire-indicating tool is useful, with a demonstrated effectiveness for the occupational physician during the visits and proven validity; additional future efforts should focus on understanding the psycho-social, organizational and individual problems related to stress and the consequent implementation of preventive measures.
Poston, Walker S C; Jitnarin, Nattinee; Haddock, C Keith; Jahnke, Sara A; Tuley, Brianne C
A consistent relationship has been demonstrated between obesity and absenteeism in the workplace. However, most studies have focused on primarily sedentary occupational groups. Firefighting is a physically demanding profession that involves significant potential for exposure to dangerous situations and strenuous work. No studies to date have evaluated the impact of obesity on risk for absenteeism among firefighters. We examined the cross-sectional association between BMI and obesity and injury-related absenteeism. BMI, body fat percentage (BF%), waist circumference (WC), injury, and injury-related absenteeism were assessed in 478 career male firefighters. One hundred and fifteen firefighters reported an injury in the previous year and the number of days absent from work due to their injury. BMI was an independent predictor of absenteeism due to injury even after adjustment for confounding variables. Firefighters meeting the definition of class II and III obesity had nearly five times (odds ratio (OR) = 4.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.63-6.58) the number missed work days due to injury when compared to their normal weight counterparts and their elevated risk was greater than firefighters with class I obesity (OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 2.01-3.65) or those who were overweight (OR = 2.55; 95% CI = 1.90-3.41). The attributable per capita costs of class II and III obesity-related absenteeism over the last year were $1,682.90 per firefighter, $254.00 per firefighter for class I obesity, and $74.41 per firefighter for overweight. Our findings suggest that class II and III obesity were associated with substantial attributable costs to employers and our cost estimates probably underestimate the actual financial burden.
Park, Min S; Levy, Michael L
With the increased conditioning, size, and speed of professional athletes and the increase in individuals engaging in sports and recreational activities, there is potential for rising numbers of traumatic brain injuries in sports. Fortunately, parallel strides in basic research technology and improvements in computer and video technology have created a new era of discovery in the study of the biomechanical aspects of sports-related head injuries. Although prevention will always be the most important factor in reducing the incidence of sports-related traumatic brain injuries, ongoing studies will lead to the development of newer protective equipment, improved recognition and management of concussions on the field of play, and modification of rules and guidelines to make these activities safer and more enjoyable.
Hitchcock, Jan; Savine, Louise
Establishing vascular access and preventing infection, both at insertion and during ongoing care is generally the top priority; the maintenance of optimal skin integrity is often a distant secondary consideration. Skin can react to different types of dressings or adhesives, or problems can arise relating to the securement of lines or the development of sensitivities to cleaning solutions. Clearly, these scenarios are not limited to the securement of vascular access devices; however, a patient with a long-term vascular access device may not have other options for vascular access, which makes this a very important and yet largely unrecognised area. A review of the limited literature that existed up to March 2015 showed it was typically concerned with skin tears connected with dressings and removal, and contact irritant dermatitis. The tissue viability team and vascular access team reviewed the current products associated with a typical vascular access dressing to ensure it was fit for purpose and where at all possible had good scientific literature for validation. The team worked proactively to recognise those patients at risk with the early identification of potential medical adhesive-related skin injuries (MARSI). To facilitate this an algorithm was developed that offers a step-by-step approach, clearly outlining what to do to prevent MARSI and its treatment should it develop. These reactions can result from other factors than the dressing alone, and an increase in these kinds of skin reaction in patients who are on chemotherapy regimens is being explored further. Through the implementation of an algorithm, education for both staff and patients and collaborative working between vascular access and tissue viability teams, a reduction in these phenomena has been seen despite an increasing number of at-risk patients.
Gee, Gilbert C.; de Castro, A. B.
Objectives. We examined whether workplace aggression was associated with self-rated health and work-related injury and illness among nurses in the Philippines. Methods. Our data came from a cross-sectional survey of nurses (n = 687) in the Philippines. We assessed the associations of self-reported physical assault and verbal abuse with self-rated health, work-related injury and illness, and missed workdays with Poisson regression. Control variables included demographic and work characteristics (e.g., hours worked, work setting, shift). Results. Verbal abuse was associated with poor general health (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09, 3.45). Both physical assault and verbal abuse were associated with work-related injury (PR = 1.48; 95% CI = 1.00, 2.20; PR = 1.72; 95% CI = 1.34, 2.23, respectively) and work-related illness (PR = 1.46; 95% CI = 0.99, 2.15; PR = 1.68; 95% CI = 1.32, 2.14, respectively) after demographic and work characteristics were accounted for in the model. In addition, physical assault was associated with missed workdays (PR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.33). Conclusions. Workplace aggression was associated with increased risks of poor general health and adverse work-related health outcomes among nurses in the Philippines. PMID:21088262
McDonald, Dylan; Orr, Robin M; Pope, Rodney
Part-time personnel are an integral part of the Australian Army. With operational deployments increasing, it is essential that medical teams identify the patterns of injuries sustained by part-time personnel in order to mitigate the risks of injury and optimize deployability. To compare the patterns of reported work health and safety incidents and injuries in part-time and full-time Australian Army personnel. Retrospective cohort study. The Australian Army. Australian Army Reserve and Australian regular Army populations, July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2014. Proportions of reported work health and safety incidents that resulted in injuries among Army Reserve and regular Army personnel and specifically the (a) body locations affected by incidents, (b) nature of resulting injuries, (c) injury mechanisms, and (d) activities being performed when the incidents occurred. Over 2 years, 15 065 work health and safety incidents and 11 263 injuries were reported in Army Reserve and regular Army populations combined. In the Army Reserve population, 85% of reported incidents were classified as involving minor personal injuries; 4% involved a serious personal injury. In the regular Army population, 68% of reported incidents involved a minor personal injury; 5% involved a serious personal injury. Substantially lower proportions of Army reservist incidents involved sports, whereas substantially higher proportions were associated with combat training, manual handling, and patrolling when compared with regular Army incidents. Army reservists had a higher proportion of injuries from Army work-related activities than did regular Army soldiers. Proportions of incidents arising from combat tasks and manual handling were higher in the Army Reserve. Understanding the sources of injuries will allow the medical teams to implement injury-mitigation strategies.
Airbag Related Ocular Injuries: A Short Case. Series. Adeola O. Onakoya, Chigozie A. Mbadugha, Olufisayo T. Aribaba. Department of Ophthalmology, Guinness Eye Centre, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, PMB 12003, Lagos, Nigeria. Address for correspondence. Dr. Chigozie A. Mbadugha, Lions' Eye ...
Aug 23, 2006 ... intoxicated driver), carrying a weapon, bullying and suicidal behaviour. Despite the extent of injuries among South African adolescents, relatively little research on risk behaviour is available. A previous study5 among Cape Town high-school learners showed trends similar to those found internationally.
May 11, 2011 ... 21. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Mar 2012 • Vol 15 • Issue 1. Abbas, et al.: Epidemiology of armed robbery‑related gunshot injuries. It is a common practice in this country for long distance travelers to prefer travelling at night rather than travelling during the day, unfortunately, this is the time that ...
Background: Pregnancy related acute kidney injury (AKI) severe enough to require dialysis is now rare in developed countries but is still a significant cause of maternal mortality in many resource constrained countries. However, there is scanty information from many sub-Saharan countries about outcomes of patient who ...
Motorcycle crashes account for a disproportionate share of the deaths and disabilities that result from road traffic accidents. We undertook a prospective descriptive study of all children aged 15 years or under with motorcycle-related injuries (MCRIs) who presented at the emergency room of the University of Ilorin Teaching ...
Nagahiro, Shinji; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi
We review the current topic in sports-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football in the USA and judo in Japan. It is thought that rotational acceleration is most likely to produce not only cerebral concussion but also ASDH due to the rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein, depending on the severity of the rotational acceleration injury. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risk for future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH or CTE. To avoid fatal consequences or CTE resulting from repeated concussions, an understanding of the criteria for a safe post-concussion return to play (RTP) is essential. Once diagnosed with a concussion, the athlete must not be allowed to RTP the same day and should not resume play before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. If brain damage has been confirmed or a subdural hematoma is present, the athlete should not be allowed to participate in any contact sports. As much remains unknown regarding the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of sports-related concussion, ASDH, and CTE, basic and clinical studies are necessary to elucidate the crucial issues in sports-related head injuries.
Injury-related behaviour among South African high-school students at six sites. Alan J :Flisher ... Research Council, and Department of Psychology, University of KwaZulu-Natal,. Durban. Arvin Bhana, PhD. Alcohol and Drug ... A previous study5 among Cape Town high-school learners showed trends similar to those found ...
Mar 16, 2002 ... Corticosteroids are used in the sports arena in many different forms and for many different reasons. They are potent anti- inflammatory drugs that inhibit the inflammatory cascade, and are thus seen as useful adjuncts in the treatment of some sports- related injuries. On the basis of their ability to down ...
...-related injuries to human subjects. 17.85 Section 17.85 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Research-Related Injuries § 17.85 Treatment of research-related injuries... apply to: (1) Treatment for injuries due to noncompliance by a subject with study procedures, or (2...
This book provides a state-of-the-art update, as well as perspectives on future directions of research and clinical applications in the implementation of biomechanical and biophysical experimental, theoretical and computational models which are relevant to military medicine. Such experimental and modeling efforts are helpful, on the one hand, in understanding the aetiology, pathophysiology and dynamics of injury development and on the other hand in guiding the development of better equipment and protective gear or devices that should ultimately reduce the prevalence and incidence of injuries or lessen their hazardous effects. The book is useful for military-oriented biomedical engineers and medical physicists, as well as for military physiologists and other medical specialists who are interested in the science and technology implemented in modern investigations of military related injuries.
Kim, David H; Vaccaro, Alexander R; Berta, Scott C
Improvements in helmet and equipment design have led to significant decreases in overall injury incidence, but no available helmet can prevent catastrophic injury to the neck and cervical spine. The most effective strategy for preventing this type of injury appears to be careful instruction, training, and regulations designed to eliminate head-first contact. The incidence of football-related quadriplegia has decreased from a peak of 13 cases per one million players between 1976 and 1980 to 3 per million from 1991 to 1993, mostly as a result of systematic research and an organized effort to eliminate high-risk behavior. An episode of transient quadriparesis does not appear to be a risk factor for catastrophic spinal cord injury. Torg reported that 0 of 117 quadriplegics in the National Football Head and Neck Injuries Registry recalled a prior episode of transient quadriparesis, and 0 of the 45 patients originally studied in his transient quadriparesis cohort have subsequently suffered quadriplegia. The significance of developmental spinal stenosis is unclear. Plain radiographic identification of a narrow spinal canal in a player sustaining cervical cord neurapraxia warrants further evaluation by MRI to rule out functional stenosis. The presence of actual cord deformation or compression on MRI should preclude participation in high-risk contact or collision sports.
McLoughlin, E; Clarke, N; Stahl, K; Crawford, J D
Review of the records of 678 children with acute injuries referred during an eight-year period to this burn unit indicated that flame burns from a single ignition source (50%) outranked scalds (27%) or house fires (12%) as causes of injury. There was no temporal trend in the rank pattern. The majority of these single-source flame injuries were severe and involved ignition of the child's clothing. From 1969 through 1973, sleepwear was the clothing involved in 32% of the instances. Since that time and coincident with promulgation of strict federal and state standards for flammability of children's night clothing, a dramatic decline in the number of children, referred with injuries of this type has taken place. It is probable that the single factor most important to the decline, in our experience with these injuries, is lower fabric flammability but, because our data may not be representative, corroboration is needed before one can exclude factors such as altered garment design, fire safety-related practices at home, or changing patterns of hospital referral.
McLoughlin, E.; Clarke, N.; Stahl, K.; Crawford, J.
Review of the records of 678 children with acute injuries referred during an eight year period to this burn unit indicated that flame burns from a single ignition source (50%) outranked scalds (27%) or house fires (12%) as causes of injury. There was no temporal trend in the rank pattern. The majority of these single-source flame injuries were severe and involved ignition of the child's clothing. From 1969 through 1973, sleepwear was the clothing involved in 32% of the instances. Since that time and coincident with promulgation of strict federal and state standards for flammability of children's night clothing, a dramatic decline in the number of children referred with injuries of this type has taken place. It is probable that the single factor most important to the decline, in our experience with these injuries, is lower fabric flammability but, because our data may not be representative, corroboration is needed before one can exclude factors such as altered garment design, fire safety related practices at home, or changing patterns of hospital referral. PMID:9887427
Shaver, Jackson; McRoberts, Drew; O'Byrne, Brian; Morgan, Bill; Krall, Kevin; Surjan, Christian; Mayberry, John
Agriculture is an inherently dangerous industry. We sought injury data for use with the Idaho Time Sensitive Emergency (TSE) system to formulate goals and track improvements. Registries in southern Idaho were queried for ICD-9-CM diagnoses related to agriculture in 2014. Injuries known or likely to have occurred on properties intended for farming, ranching, animal care, or milk production, and relating to those activities were included. Among 72 patients, injuries were related to horses (31%), machinery (17%), ATVs (17%), and hay bales/haystacks (13%). Average age was 45 (3-82), 82% male, and mean ISS of 13 (1-50). Transportation utilized air (31%) and ground (69%) methods, with an average of 35 min (9-132). There was 1 inhospital death and 4 on-scene fatalities. We established baseline transport and injury data for the Idaho TSE system. These results can help our TSE system track improvements intended to increase quality of care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Klimek, Peter Michael; Juen, David; Stranzinger, Enno; Wolf, Rainer; Slongo, Theddy
Backyard trampolines are immensely popular among children, but are associated with an increase of trampoline-related injuries. The aim of this study was to evaluate radiographs of children with trampoline related injuries and to determine the risk factors. Between 2003 and 2009, 286 children under the age of 16 with backyard trampoline injuries were included in the study. The number of injuries increased from 13 patients in 2003 to 86 in 2009. The median age of the 286 patients was 7 years (range: 1-15 years). Totally 140 (49%) patients were males, and 146 (51%) females. Medical records and all available diagnostic imaging were reviewed. A questionnaire was sent to the parents to evaluate the circumstances of each injury, the type of trampoline, the protection equipment and the experience of the children using the trampoline. The study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the University Hospital of Bern. The questionnaires and radiographs of the 104 patients were available for evaluation. A fracture was sustained in 51 of the 104 patients. More than 75% of all patients sustaining injuries and in 90% of patients with fractures were jumping on the trampoline with other children at the time of the accident. The most common fractures were supracondylar humeral fractures (29%) and forearm fractures (25%). Fractures of the proximal tibia occurred especially in younger children between 2-5 years of age. Children younger than 5 years old are at risk for specific proximal tibia fractures ("Trampoline Fracture"). A child jumping simultaneously with other children has a higher risk of suffering from a fracture.
Kwan, M K; Saw, A; Sara Ahmad, T
We are reporting four cases of serious washing machine related injury that presented within a period of 5 months. All patients were young children with the mean age of 9 year-old and three had their dominant hand injured. The washing machines involved were the automatic top loader type and all injuries occurred during the spinning phase. Serious automatic washing machine injury is not uncommon in Malaysia. We feel that there is a need to improve the safety features especially during the spinning phase. The operating instructions and safety precautions on the washing machine should be displayed in different languages that can be understood well. Parents should also aware of the potential risks of this seemingly benign household appliance.
Manktelow, Anne E; Menon, David K; Sahakian, Barbara J; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task. The patients were studied on two occasions after the administration of either placebo or 30 mg of methylphenidate. Between group tests revealed a significant difference in performance when HCs were compared to TBI patients on placebo [F(1, 28) = 4.426, p working memory network and (b) Methylphenidate improves the cognitive outcomes on a working memory task. Therefore, we conclude that methylphenidate may render the working memory network in a TBI group more consistent with that of an intact working memory network.
Taino, Giuseppe; Pizzuto, Cristina; Pezzuto, Cristina; Pucci, Ennio; Imbriani, Marcello
The present study aims to describe a case of work injury and occupational disease which is unique for the type of disease diagnosed, conditions of onset and mode of management by INAIL (Italian National Institute of Insurance for Injuries at Work and Occupational Diseases). A worker, after a verbal animated dispute with some collegues and superiors, had an acute psychiatric agitation attack and went to the nearest emergency room, where he was subjected to clinical exams. No neuropsychiatric alteration was found, but the physicians diagnosed an anxiety crisis reactive to the work environment. Consequently, the medical certificate for work injury was edited and sent to INAIL. The worker has been off work for 110 days because of a anxious and depressive syndrome, due to the verbal conflict. In a later assessment, INAIL recognized only the first 30 days of the employee's time off as injury at work, while judging the following period off work as related to affectivity disturbance due to common disease, not related to work environment. The following year, "anxious-depressive syndrome" is worsened and attributed by the same worker to the recurrence of acts of persecution and discrimination against him at work. For this reason he applied for recognition of occupational disease diagnosed as "Chronic Adjustment Disorder with prolonged depressive reaction and somatic anxiety, which developed into a protracted conflict marked the employment situation". INAIL rejected that request, but in the same year the employee has submitted the complaint for "mobbing". Even this request was rejected. Literature shows many examples of traumatic events during working activities which cause psychiatric disturbances. These events include industrial disasters, explosions, transport and mining accidents, accidents in psychiatric units with high risks of assaults, armed conflicts, war, assault and sexual assault, natural disasters. Victims show symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) or post
Rauner, M S; Mayer, B; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, M M
Occupational injuries cause short-term, direct costs as well as long-term follow-up costs over the lifetime of the casualties. Due to shrinking budgets accident insurance companies focus on cost reduction programmes and prevention measures. For this reason, a decision support system for consequential cost calculation of occupational injuries was developed for the main Austrian social occupational insurance institution (AUVA) during three projects. This so-called cost calculation tool combines the traditional instruments of accounting with quantitative methods such as micro-simulation. The cost data are derived from AUVA-internal as well as external economic data sources. Based on direct and indirect costs, the subsequent occupational accident costs from the time of an accident and, if applicable, beyond the death of the individual casualty are predicted for the AUVA, the companies in which the casualties are working, and the other economic sectors. By using this cost calculation tool, the AUVA classifies risk groups and derives related prevention campaigns. In the past, the AUVA concentrated on falling, accidents at construction sites and in agriculture/forestry, as well as commuting accidents. Currently, among others, a focus on hand injuries is given and first prevention programmes have been initiated. Hand injuries represent about 38% of all casualties with average costs of about 7,851 Euro/case. Main causes of these accidents are cutting injuries in production, agriculture, and forestry. Beside a low, but costly, number of amputations with average costs of more than 100,000 Euro/case, bone fractures and strains burden the AUVA-budget with about 17,500 and 10,500 € per case, respectively. Decision support systems such as this cost calculation tool represent necessary instruments to identify risk groups and their injured body parts, causes of accidents, and economic activities, which highly burden the budget of an injury company, and help derive
Arcury, Thomas A; Summers, Phillip; Rushing, Julia; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Mora, Dana C; Quandt, Sara A; Lang, Wei; Mills, Thomas H
This analysis describes work safety climate, personal protective equipment (PPE) use, and injuries among Latino residential roofers, and examines the associations of work safety climate with PPE use and injuries. Eighty-nine North Carolina residential roofers completed a baseline interview and daily logs about perceptions and use of PPE, occurrence of injuries in last 12 months, and work safety climate. The mean work safety climate score was 26.5 (SD = 5.6). In the baseline interview, participants reported that the majority of employers provided PPE and that they used it most or all of the time; daily log data indicated that PPE was used for half or fewer of hours worked. 39.9% reported any injury in the last 12 months. Work safety climate was significantly correlated with the provision and use of most types of PPE, and was inversely associated with injury. Supervisors promoting safety may increase the PPE use and decrease injuries. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J
Injuries occurring in the workplace can have serious implications for the health of the individual, the productivity of the employer and the overall economic community. The objective of this paper is to increase the current state of understanding of individual demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with extended absenteeism from the workforce due to a workplace injury. Studies included in this systematic literature review tracked participants' return to work status over a minimum of three months, identified either demographic, psychosocial or general injury predictors of poor return to work outcomes and included a heterogeneous sample of workplace injuries. Identified predictors of poor return to work outcomes included older age, female gender, divorced marital status, two or more dependent family members, lower education levels, employment variables associated with reduced labour market desirability, severity or sensitive injury locations, negative attitudes and outcome perceptions of the participant. There is a need for clear and consistent definition and measurement of return to work outcomes and a holistic theoretical model integrating injury, psychosocial and demographic predictors of return to work. Through greater understanding of the nature of factors affecting return to work, improved outcomes could be achieved.
Mokarami, Hamidreza; Mortazavi, Seyed Bagher; Asgari, Ali; Choobineh, Alireza; Stallones, Lorann
The present study was designed to investigate the simultaneous effects of physical, psychosocial and other work-related risk factors on the work ability index (WAI) score among industrial workers. This study used a cross-sectional design with a questionnaire survey. A total of 280 workers were included in the study. Data were collected using three questionnaires including the Persian version of the WAI, the Persian version of the job content questionnaire and an author-developed measure (to assess work-related factors, health-related factors and socio-demographic characteristics). The majority of the participants were young, but they had poor WAI scores (mean 37.3 ± 6.4) and 44.3% of them had poor or moderate work ability. Occupational accidents and injuries were found to be the strongest predictors of WAI scores. Additionally, there was a strong association between WAI scores and supervisor support, skill discretion, occupational training, sleep quality, work nature and educational level. Intervention programs should focus on improving supervisor support, sleep quality, job skills and knowledge and on decreasing physical and mental work demands. Additionally, implementing a comprehensive occupational health and ergonomics program for controlling and reducing hazardous working environments and occupational injury rates should be considered.
Clouser, Jessica Miller; Bush, Ashley; Gan, Wenqi; Swanberg, Jennifer
Little is known about how psychosocial work factors such as work stress, supervisor fairness, and language barriers affect risk of occupational injury among Latino farmworkers. This study attempts to address these questions. Surveys were administered via interviews to 225 Latino thoroughbred farmworkers. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of occupational injury in the past year in relation to occupational characteristics. Work stress (OR 6.70, 95% CI 1.84-24.31), supervisor unfairness (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.14-9.73), longer tenure at farm (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.13-6.34), and supervisor inability to speak Spanish (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.05-5.00) were significantly associated with increased odds of occupational injury. Due to the associations between work stress, supervisor unfairness, supervisor inability to speak Spanish and injury, supervisor training to improve Spanish language ability and equitable management practices is merited. Future research is needed to understand the antecedents of work stress for Latino farmworkers.
Prabhakar Srinivasapuram Krishnacharya
Full Text Available This case report aims at investigating whether two consecutive surgical settings would be beneficial in achieving postoperative success for the patient with blast eye injury. A 45-year-old male patient admitted on 17 th October 2011 with history of blast eye injury. Right eye examination revealed central corneal laceration with incarceration of lens matter, multiple foreign bodies also seen embedded in the eyelid margins and in the left cornea. Computed ocular tomography showed a retained intraocular foreign body (IOFB in the right eye. Simultaneous corneal laceration repair and extraction of the ruptured lens performed as primary procedure under general anesthesia. Intraoperative posterior capsule loss was noticed with vitreous presentation. Anterior vitrectomy with removal of the IOFB was done. Foreign bodies were also removed from the left cornea. Penetrating keratoplasty (PK with scleral fixated intraocular lens implantation executed 4 months later as secondary procedure. Visual acuity maintained at 6/24 in 2 years follow-up. In conclusion, two consecutive surgical settings has the advantage of calculating the intra ocular lens power.
Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Arjona, Antonio; Morales, Manuel; Gómez, Carlos M
Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS). The RTs, total errors, and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in the phases of encoding, retention, and matching were obtained. Results revealed a decrease in the amplitude of ERPs with age, paralleled by improved performance on the DMTS task (i.e., shorter RTs and fewer errors). None of these variables were affected by gender. To determine whether memory performance was influenced by the individual pattern of maturation beyond age, the amplitude of the different ERP components was correlated with RT and errors on the WM task after removing the effect of age. Frontal N2 and posterior P1 and the Late Positive Component were the only ERPs that presented significant correlations with behavioral errors. Behavioral performance was predicted by age and by the scores on the first component extracted from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the ERPs. Age (under 17 years old) explained 85.04% and the PCA component explained 14.96% of the variance explained by the bivariate model predicting behavioral errors (1/age + scores of 1st PCA component). From the age of 17 on, the principal PCA component ceases to be an independent component predicting error performance. The results suggest that the individual maturation of ERP components seems to be of particular importance in controlling behavioral errors in WM, as measured by the DMTS. Copyright © 2016
Leijon, O; Lindahl, E; Torén, K; Vingård, E; Josephson, M
This study presents an investigation of first-time decisions regarding work injury annuity due to occupational disease. Focus is a number of potential underlying factors behind the gender gap, where women are disadvantaged, in the granting of work injury annuity. All 99 subjects (80 men and 19 women) who met the conditions of long-lasting reduction of work ability due to occupational disease (not occupational accident) in the Swedish Work Injury Insurance Act and were granted work injury annuity in 2010, together with a random sample of 118 subjects (55 men and 63 women) who were denied annuity in the same year, were selected for analysis. Each subject's case file from the Social Insurance Agency was examined with regards to cause of disease, diagnosis and the Social Insurance Agency's management and decision making of claims. The data were analysed by logistic regression analysis. Men had a higher probability of being granted work injury annuity than women for musculoskeletal disorders (OR 4.16), mental disorders (OR 7.93) and diseases in other diagnostic chapters (OR 3.65). After adjustment for age, country of birth, diagnosis, work exposure factors and decision support factors, the higher probability for men of being granted work injury annuity remained (full model: OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.20 to 5.94). Actions are necessary in order to establish equitable and gender-neutral treatment of work injury insurance claims. There is a need for more detailed knowledge of exposures in female-dominated jobs and the relationship between these exposures and occupational disease.
Shahan, C Patrick; Emmett, Katrina; Zarzaur, Ben L
Due to the infrequent occurrence of large animal-related injury (LARI) in many areas, their significance as a public health problem could be overlooked. The purpose of this study was to examine the demographics and injury disparities associated with LARI. The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Survey from 2001 was used to construct a cohort of patients admitted after LARI. Patients were stratified by age, gender, race, and median household income of patient's zip code. Where available total hospital charges were converted to cost using the hospital's cost-to-charge ratio. To determine variables associated with injury type, univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used. 2424 LARI admissions were identified within the database. The largest proportion of admitted patients were female (53.8%), Caucasian (64.6%), and from areas with median income >$45,000 (41.8%). Average hospital cost was $5062. Overall, the most common injuries were rib fractures (15.2%), vertebral fractures (11.6%) and haemo-pneumothorax (9%). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age disparities with older patients receiving more rib fractures, haemo-pneumothorax, vertebral fractures, and pelvic fractures. Skull fractures and head injuries are disproportionately seen in younger patients. Gender disparities were also present, with females more likely to have vertebral fractures but less likely to have rib fractures and heart and lung injuries. Disparities based on age and gender are associated with hospital admission for LARI in the United States. These admissions have a significant impact on the healthcare system with nationwide cost estimates of nearly $60 million. These findings represent potential areas for targeted prevention efforts. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xujun; Cui, Mengjing; Gu, Yue; Stallones, Lorann; Xiang, Huiyun
This study describes electric bike-related injuries from 2004 to 2010, and suggests injury prevention strategies to reduce electric bike-related injuries in China and other countries. Electric bike-related injuries data were obtained from the Bureau of Traffic Management at the Ministry of Public Security. Linear regression was used to identify statistically significant trends in electric bike-related injuries over the period. The results showed electric bike-related nonfatal injury rate had increased almost 4-fold and mortality rate increased 6-fold from 2004 to 2010. Linear regression showed a significant increase of 0.23 per 100 000 population per year (95% confidence interval = 0.18-0.29, P bike-related road traffic injuries. China will face new challenges arising from electric bike-related injuries. Programs need to be developed to prevent nonfatal injuries and fatalities caused by electric bike-related crashes in this country. © 2013 APJPH.
Allred, Sarah R; Flombaum, Jonathan I
Color is the most frequently studied feature in visual working memory (VWM). Oddly, much of this work de-emphasizes perception, instead making simplifying assumptions about the inputs served to memory. We question these assumptions in light of perception research, and we identify important points of contact between perception and working memory in the case of color. Better characterization of its perceptual inputs will be crucial for elucidating the structure and function of VWM. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Boukrina, Olga; Wylie, Glenn R
Working memory (WM) is often compromised after traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of functional and effective connectivity studies investigated the interaction between brain regions during WM task performance. However, previously used WM tasks did not allow differentiation of WM subprocesses such as capacity and manipulation. We used a novel WM paradigm, CapMan, to investigate effective connectivity associated with the capacity and manipulation subprocesses of WM in individuals with TBI relative to healthy controls (HCs). CapMan allows independent investigation of brain regions associated with capacity and manipulation, while minimizing the influence of other WM-related subprocesses. Areas of the fronto-parietal WM network, previously identified in healthy individuals as engaged in capacity and manipulation during CapMan, were analyzed with the Independent Multiple-sample Greedy Equivalence Search (IMaGES) method to investigate the differences in information flow between healthy individuals and individuals with TBI. We predicted that diffuse axonal injury that often occurs after TBI might lead to changes in task-based effective connectivity and result in hyperconnectivity between the regions engaged in task performance. In accordance with this hypothesis, TBI participants showed greater inter-hemispheric connectivity and less coherent information flow from posterior to anterior brain regions compared with HC participants. Thus, this study provides much needed evidence about the potential mechanism of neurocognitive impairments in individuals affected by TBI.
Manktelow, Anne E.; Menon, David K.; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in cognitive impairments for patients. The aim of this proof of concept study was to establish the nature of abnormalities, in terms of activity and connectivity, in the working memory network of TBI patients and how these relate to compromised behavioral outcomes. Further, this study examined the neural correlates of working memory improvement following the administration of methylphenidate. We report behavioral, functional and structural MRI data from a group of 15 Healthy Controls (HC) and a group of 15 TBI patients, acquired during the execution of the N-back task. The patients were studied on two occasions after the administration of either placebo or 30 mg of methylphenidate. Between group tests revealed a significant difference in performance when HCs were compared to TBI patients on placebo [F(1, 28) = 4.426, p memory network and (b) Methylphenidate improves the cognitive outcomes on a working memory task. Therefore, we conclude that methylphenidate may render the working memory network in a TBI group more consistent with that of an intact working memory network. PMID:28424597
Buitrago Echeverri, María Teresa; Abadía-Barrero, César Ernesto; Granja Palacios, Consuelo
The impacts of neoliberal or market-based social security reforms in health have been extensively studied. How such reforms transformed employment-related insurance and entitlements, however, has received significantly less attention. This study aims to understand how the employment insurance system operates in Colombia and to assess how the experience of workers seeking social security entitlements relates to the system's structure. We conducted an ethnographic study of the Colombian Occupational Risk System between May 2014 and March 2016, with two main components: 1) analysis of the system itself through in-depth interviews with 32 people working in leadership positions and a systematic review of the system's most important legislation, and 2) a study of people who experienced problems receiving entitlements and were challenging the assessment of their work-related illness or accident. We conducted in-depth interviews with 22 people, followed up with half of them, and reviewed their case files. We found that difficulties accessing health care services, payments for medical leave, job reassignments, severance packages, and filing for pension benefits were common to all cases and resulted from overwhelming bureaucratic and administrative demands. Regional and national evaluation bodies dictate whether a given illness or accident is work-related, and establish a percentage of Loss of Wage Earning Capacity (LWEC). People's disabled bodies rarely reached the threshold of 50% LWEC to qualify for disability pensions. The lengthy process that workers were forced to endure to obtain work-related entitlements always involved the judiciary. The three competing for-profit financial sectors (health insurance, pension funds, and Occupational Risk Administrators) actively challenged workers' demands in order to increase their profits. We conclude that these for-profit sectors work contrary to the principles that sustain social security. Indeed, they push sick and disabled
Bunn, F; Collier, T; Frost, C; Ker, K; Roberts, I; Wentz, R
It is estimated that by 2020 road traffic crashes will have moved from ninth to third in the world disease burden ranking, as measured in disability adjusted life years, and second in developing countries. The identification of effective strategies for the prevention of traffic related injuries is of global health importance. Area-wide traffic calming schemes that discourage through traffic on residential roads is one such strategy. To evaluate the effectiveness of area-wide traffic calming in preventing traffic related crashes, injuries, and deaths. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Injuries Group's Specialised Register, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and TRANSPORT (NTIS, TRIS, TRANSDOC). We searched the web sites of road safety organisations, handsearched conference proceedings, checked reference lists of relevant papers and contacted experts in the area. The search was not restricted by language or publication status. Randomised controlled trials, and controlled before-after studies of area-wide traffic calming schemes. Two reviewers independently extracted data on type of study, characteristics of intervention and control areas, and length of data collection periods. Before and after data were collected on the total number of road traffic crashes, all road user deaths and injuries, pedestrian-motor vehicle collisions and road user deaths. The statistical package STATA was used to calculate rate ratios for each study, which were then pooled to give an overall estimate using a random effects model. We found no randomised controlled trials, but 16 controlled before-after trials met our inclusion criteria. Seven studies were done in Germany, six in the UK, two in Australia and one in the Netherlands. There were no studies in low or middle income countries. Eight trials reported the number of road traffic crashes resulting in deaths. The pooled rate ratio was 0.63 (0.14, 2.59 95% CI). Sixteen studies reported the number
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Work-related death. 301.302 Section 301... COMPENSATION Compensation for Work-Related Physical Impairment or Death § 301.302 Work-related death. A claim for compensation as the result of work-related death may be filed by a dependent of the deceased...
Deng, Xiao; Jin, Ye; Ye, Pengpeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yuan; Ji, Cuirong; Er, Yuliang; Wang, Linhong; Duan, Leilei
To understand the trend and characteristics of sports and recreation related injuries reported from National Injury Surveillance System (NISS) to provide basis for corresponding prevention strategies and decision-making. Descriptive analysis was applied to display the overall trend, general information, injury event and clinical characteristics of sports and recreation related injuries from 2009 to 2013. The proportion of sports and recreation related injuries among all injuries increased from 2009 to 2013, with an annual increase exceeding 45% (46.21%, 47.32%, 48.14%, 52.00%, 53.65%, respectively). Sports and recreation related injuries mainly involved males, with 15-29 age groups, particularly in summer and autumn. Sports and recreation related injuries mostly occurred at home, with annual rates of proportion as 33.07%, 34.16%, 32.98%, 34.57 and 36.22%, mostly caused by falls (41.19%, 41.64%, 44.70%, 47.41%, 47.96%). Contusion and abrasion were the leading types of injuries (43.49%, 44.56%, 45.14%, 45.02%, 45.62%) with the serious leading types as fracture, concussion/cerebral contusion or laceration, and sharp force injury/bite/open wounds. Head was the part mainly involved (31.30%, 32.48%, 31.89%, 30.88%, 29.44%) in injuries. Most sports and recreation related injuries were minor and most of the patients headed home after treatment. Sports and recreation related injury appeared a growing public health problem in China. Children and the elderly should be the target groups for intervention. Falls prevention in sports and the use of protection gears should be the focus countermeasures for prevention.
On August 26, 1992, Hurricane Andrew struck Louisiana. On August 24, in anticipation of hurricane-related injuries and illnesses, the Office of Public Health (OPH), Louisiana Department of Health and Hospitals, in cooperation with hospital emergency room (ER) and public utility personnel and coroners, established an active emergency surveillance system in 19 parishes to monitor these events. This report summarizes the findings from this emergency surveillance system.
Tripathi, Manasvin; Tyebally, Arif; Feng, Jasmine Xun Yi; Chong, Shu-Ling
Prams and strollers are commonly used in daily childcare. We aim to study the type and severity of injuries associated with prams and strollers in an Asian population. We performed a retrospective review of children below the age of 6 who presented to a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore, from January 2012 to June 2015, with such injuries. There were 248 pram-related and stroller-related injuries. The median age was 12.5 months old. 69 (27.8%) sustained open wounds, 17 (6.9%) suffered fractures or dislocations and 2 children had significant head injuries. 29 patients (11.7%) sustained injuries while on stairs or escalators. Most of the injuries (197 cases, 79.4%) occurred despite adult supervision. The need for intervention was associated with older age and entrapment injuries (pstrollers without exposed hinges should be used. These should not be deployed on stairs and escalators. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Kennedy, P; Hasson, L
Single-centre, retrospective cohort study. To analyse the return-to-work intentions during spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation. Tertiary care, spinal cord injury rehabilitation unit, National Spinal Injuries Centre, Stoke Mandeville Hospital, Ayelsbury, UK. Employment outcomes were obtained from the Needs Assessment Checklist (NAC), for all patients admitted to the unit between February 2008 and October 2014. NAC1 is completed within 4 weeks post-mobilisation and NAC2 upon the patient moving to the pre-discharge ward. Data from 362 participants were analysed for return-to-work intentions, by gender, age and injury severity. Seventy-six percent of the sample population was employed at the time of their injury. At NAC1, 22.4% of individuals had made plans to return to work, whereas 44.2% had not; at NAC2, 34.3% had made plans to return to work and 31.2% had not. This difference was found to be statistically significant. There were significant differences in return-to-work intentions by injury severity at NAC1 but not NAC2, and by age group at NAC2 but not NAC1. Less than half of those employed at the time of their injury had made plans to return to work before their discharge from the unit. The low proportion of individuals with SCI returning to work--just one in three--is concerning in view of the lost health and psychosocial benefits, and requires greater prominence during rehabilitation. Future research into effective employment interventions to improve employment outcomes in this population is required.
McNabb, S J; Kelso, K Y; Wilson, S A; McFarland, L; Farley, T A
To determine the extent and types of injuries and illnesses in Louisiana associated with or related to Hurricane Andrew, we gathered data from hospital emergency departments and coroner's offices on demographic variables, institution, nature and cause of the injury or illness, body part affected, location, and date and time of the event. A hurricane-related injury or illness was defined as one that occurred from noon on August 24, 1992, through midnight on September 21, 1992, as a direct or indirect result of the preparation for (preimpact), the impact of, or the clean-up after the hurricane (postimpact). Nineteen parishes in south-central Louisiana that were most affected by Hurricane Andrew provided data from patients seen in emergency departments and reports from coroner's offices. Active, advance surveillance of this type promotes and facilitates the reporting of disaster-related health outcomes. Future planning for hurricanes should take into account the high rate of cuts, lacerations, and puncture wounds, particularly during the postimpact phase.
Jordan, Barry D
Acute and chronic sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are a substantial public health concern. Various types of acute TBI can occur in sport, but detection and management of cerebral concussion is of greatest importance as mismanagement of this syndrome can lead to persistent or chronic postconcussion syndrome (CPCS) or diffuse cerebral swelling. Chronic TBI encompasses a spectrum of disorders that are associated with long-term consequences of brain injury, including chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), dementia pugilistica, post-traumatic parkinsonism, post-traumatic dementia and CPCS. CTE is the prototype of chronic TBI, but can only be definitively diagnosed at autopsy as no reliable biomarkers of this disorder are available. Whether CTE shares neuropathological features with CPCS is unknown. Evidence suggests that participation in contact-collision sports may increase the risk of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer disease, but the data are conflicting. In this Review, the spectrum of acute and chronic sport-related TBI is discussed, highlighting how examination of athletes involved in high-impact sports has advanced our understanding of pathology of brain injury and enabled improvements in detection and diagnosis of sport-related TBI.
Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nagahiro, Shinji
We review current topics in sport-related head injuries including acute subdural hematoma (ASDH), traumatic cerebrovascular disease, cerebral concussion, and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). Sports-related ASDH is a leading cause of death and severe morbidity in popular contact sports like American football and Japanese judo. Rotational acceleration can cause either cerebral concussion or ASDH due to rupture of a parasagittal bridging vein. Although rare, approximately 80% of patients with cerebral infarction due to sport participation are diagnosed with ischemia or infarction due to arterial dissection. Computed tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and ultrasound are useful for diagnosing arterial dissection; ultrasound is particularly useful for detecting dissection of the common and internal carotid arteries. Repeated sports head injuries increase the risks of future concussion, cerebral swelling, ASDH, and CTE. To avoid fatal consequences of CTE, it is essential to understand the criteria for safe post-concussion sports participation. Once diagnosed with a concussion, an athlete should not be allowed to return to play on the same day and should not resume sports before the concussion symptoms have completely resolved. Information about the risks and management of head injuries in different sports should be widely disseminated in educational institutions and by sport organization public relations campaigns.
Hampson, Michelle; Driesen, Naomi R; Skudlarski, Pawel; Gore, John C; Constable, R. Todd
.... This study investigated the functional connectivity between the PCC and MFG/vACC during a working memory task and at rest by examining temporal correlations in magnetic resonance signal levels between the regions...
Bunzli, Samantha; Singh, Nabita; Mazza, Danielle; Collie, Alex; Kosny, Agnieszka; Ruseckaite, Rasa; Brijnath, Bianca
Return to work (RTW) is important for recovery post-injury. Fear of (re)injury is a strong predictor of delayed RTW, and therefore much attention has been given to addressing injured workers' fear beliefs. However, RTW is a socially-negotiated process and it may be important to consider the wider social context of the injured worker, including the beliefs of the key people involved in their RTW journey. This paper involves data collected as part of a wider study in which semi-structured interviews explored RTW from the perspectives of 93 key stakeholders: injured workers, GPs, employers and insurance case managers in Victoria, Australia. Inductive analysis of interview transcripts identified fear of (re)injury as a salient theme across all stakeholder groups. This presented an opportunity to analyse how the wider social context of the injured worker may influence fear and avoidance behaviour. Two co-authors performed inductive analysis of the theme 'fear of (re)injury'. Codes identified in the data were grouped into five categories. Between and within category analysis revealed three themes describing the contextual factors that may influence fear avoidance and RTW behaviour. Theme one described how injured workers engaged in a process of weighing up the risk of (re)injury in the workplace against the perceived benefits of RTW. Theme two described how workplace factors could influence an injured workers' perception of the risk of (re)injury in the workplace, including confidence that the source of the injury had been addressed, the availability and suitability of alternative duties. Theme three described other stakeholders' reluctance to accept injured workers back at work because of the fear that they might reinjure themselves. Our findings illustrate the need for a contextualised perspective of fear avoidance and RTW behaviour that includes the beliefs of other important people surrounding the injured worker (e.g. employers, family members, GPs). Existing models
Clay, Fiona J; Fitzharris, Michael; Kerr, Emily; McClure, Roderick J; Watson, Wendy L
Understanding individual factors associated with return to work (RTW) post-injury is an important goal of compensation systems research. The aim of the present study was to determine factors associated with time to return to work following acute unintentional injuries. A prospective cohort study was conducted in Victoria, Australia. The cohort comprised 133 persons who were employed at the time they were admitted to one of three study hospitals. Baseline health status data was obtained retrospectively at one-week post-injury and participants were further surveyed at 1, 6, 12, 26 and 52 weeks post-injury to measure recovery. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to examine the association between potential prognostic factors and time to RTW during the 12 month study. At the end of 12 months follow-up, 81.2% of the study cohort had returned to work. Older age, increased injury severity, self reported symptomatic pain and poor mental health at 1 week post-injury were associated with extended time to RTW. A significant statistical interaction between the receipt of compensation and high social functioning as measured by the SF-36 or strong social relationships as measured by the Assessment of Quality of Life was associated with earlier RTW. Participants reporting strong social relationships and high social functioning at 1 week post-injury and entitled to injury compensation returned to work 2.05 and 3.66 times earlier respectively, than similar participants with no entitlement to compensation. Both injury-related and psychosocial factors were associated with the duration of time to RTW following acute unintentional injuries. This study replicated previously reported findings on social functioning and compensation from an independent acute trauma sample. Programs or policies to improve social functioning early post-injury may provide opportunities to improve the duration of time to RTW following injury.
Kissinger, Daniel B
Individuals who have suffered polytrauma injuries must often contend with a complex constellation of physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors. These variables must be understood and addressed by rehabilitation specialists in order to optimize employment outcomes and overall quality of life for persons who have incurred these injuries. This article provides an abridged review of the current empirical data concerning the relationship between polytrauma and employment outcomes, with a focus on traumatic brain injury (TBI). In addition, Bordin's  working alliance model is recommended as a framework for strengthening the relationship between rehabilitation professionals and persons with TBI, thereby optimizing their employment outcomes.
Lemen, R A; Layne, L A; Castillo, D N; Lancashire, J H
Because children are an isolated population that generally lacks a collective political voice, it is up to the rest of society to look after their well-being. The grim economic circumstances that plague impoverished nations around the world have resulted in many young children having to work to help their families survive. Often, these children have no choice but to work in dangerous places and under generally appalling conditions. Even in wealthy countries like the United States, the problems associated with child labor are a legitimate threat to our single most important investment for the future--the safety and health of our children.
... days away from work 3 by ownership, industry, musculoskeletal disorders 4 , and event or exposure, 2015 Industry Event or exposure leading to injury or illness 5 Number Median days away from work Musculo- skeletal disorders (inci- dence rate) Inci- dence rate Contact ...
English, J F
To investigate reported needlestick injuries in hospital workers from an adult learner theory perspective: identifying safe needle device knowledge and practice, and flaws in needle designs and management practices surrounding such problems. Exploratory descriptive study of reported needlestick injuries from hollow needled devices in a hospital. Injured healthcare workers were counseled via hospital protocol, then a survey was filled out containing no identifiers of individual or institution. Seventeen Metropolitan Washington, DC, area hospitals. All workers reporting needlestick injuries during February 1-28, 1990. Seventy-two injuries were reported; there were no multiple injuries to any individual. Thirty-three (45.8%) were to registered nurses (RNs)-more than any other group of workers. Recapping accounted for a higher percentage than any other activity (10 sticks, 14.1%). Of workers incurring recapping injuries, 3 identified a knowledge of a one-handed spearing technique and did not practice it; 4 neither knew nor practiced it. Eighteen (25.0%) were to "down-stream" housekeepers and aides who did not use such devices in their practice. Disposable needle/syringes caused 49.3% of injuries; hypodermic needles on intravenous lines caused 16.9%. Of the needlesticks, 60.6% were after use and before disposal, 4.2% occurred as the worker was putting an item into a needlebox, and 9.9% occurred from needles protruding from inappropriate bags. Many injuries occurred in the first 2 hours of work after being off the previous day, on Sunday, and on Monday. Of nurses and medical technologists reporting knowledge of a spearing recapping technique, 97.3% suffered injury via other methods. This strongly suggests that knowledge leads to different action. Safer needled devices and needle-free systems would make a safer workplace. Further study is indicated to identify if and why the first two hours after returning to work on Sunday or Monday are risky for needlestick injuries
Johansson, Mats Peter; Baann Liane, Martin Skogheim; Bendix, Tom
The mechanisms for developing long-lasting neck pain after whiplash injuries are still largely unrevealed. In the present study it was investigated whether a kyphotic deformity of the cervical spine, as opposed to a straight or a lordotic spine, was associated with the symptoms at baseline......, and with the prognosis one year following a whiplash injury. MRI was performed in 171 subjects about 10 d after the accident, and 104 participated in the pain recording at 1-year follow-up. It was demonstrated that postures as seen on MRI can be reliably categorized and that a straight spine is the most frequent...... appearance of the cervical spine in supine MRI. In relation to symptoms it was seen that a kyphotic deformity was associated with reporting the highest intensities of headache at baseline, but not with an increased risk of long-lasting neck pain or headache. In conclusion, a kyphotic deformity...
Jennings, Fabio; Lambert, Elaine; Fredericson, Michael
Most individuals seeking consultation at sports medicine clinics are young, healthy athletes with injuries related to a specific activity. However, these athletes may have other systemic pathologies, such as rheumatic diseases, that may initially mimic sports-related injuries. As rheumatic diseases often affect the musculoskeletal system, they may masquerade as traumatic or mechanical conditions. A systematic review of the literature found numerous case reports of athletes who presented with apparent mechanical low back pain, sciatica pain, hip pain, meniscal tear, ankle sprain, rotator cuff syndrome and stress fractures and who, on further investigation, were found to have manifestations of rheumatic diseases. Common systemic, inflammatory causes of these musculoskeletal complaints include ankylosing spondylitis (AS), gout, chondrocalcinosis, psoriatic enthesopathy and early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Low back pain is often mechanical among athletes, but cases have been described where spondyloarthritis, especially AS, has been diagnosed. Neck pain, another common mechanical symptom in athletes, can be an atypical presentation of AS or early RA. Hip or groin pain is frequently related to injuries in the hip joint and its surrounding structures. However, differential diagnosis should be made with AS, RA, gout, psudeogout, and less often with haemochromatosis and synovial chondochromatosis. In athletes presenting with peripheral arthropathy, it is mandatory to investigate autoimmune arthritis (AS, RA, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus), crystal-induced arthritis, Lyme disease and pigmented villonodular synovitis. Musculoskeletal soft tissue disorders (bursitis, tendinopathies, enthesitis and carpal tunnel syndrome) are a frequent cause of pain and disability in both competitive and recreational athletes, and are related to acute injuries or overuse. However, these disorders may occasionally be a manifestation of RA, spondyloarthritis
Full Text Available Abstract Background The investigation of geographic variation in occupational injuries has received little attention. Young workers 15 to 24 years are of particular concern because they consistently show elevated occupational injury rates compared to older workers. The present study sought to: (a to describe the geographic variation of work injuries; (b to determine whether geographic variation remained after controlling for relevant demographic and job characteristics; (c to identify the region-level factors that correlate with the geographic variation. Methods Using workers compensation claims and census data, we estimated claim rates per 100 full-time equivalents for 15 to 24 year olds in 46 regions in Ontario. A total of 21 region-level indicators were derived primarily from Census and Labour Force Survey data to reflect social and material deprivation of the region as well as demographic and employment characteristics of youth living in those areas. Results Descriptive findings showed substantial geographic variation in young worker injury rates, even after controlling for several job and demographic variables. Region-level characteristics such as greater residential stability were associated with low work injury rates. Also, regions with the lowest claim rates tended to have proportionally fewer cuts and burns than high-claim-rate regions. Conclusion The finding of substantial geographic variation in youth claim rates even after controlling for demographic and job factors can aid in targeting prevention resource. The association between region-level indicators such as residential stability and youth work injury suggests that work injury prevention strategies can be integrated with other local economic development measures. The findings partially support the notion that work safety measures may be unevenly distributed with respect to regional socio-economic factors.
Rasouli, Mohammad R; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Maheronnaghsh, Radin; Yousefian, Ali; Vaccaro, Alexander R
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating event that results in permanent disability for injured children. Among all etiologies of SCI, motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) are the leading cause and account for 29% of all traumatic SCIs in children. We tried to evaluate types and mechanisms of MVC-related spinal column and spinal cord injuries, risk factors, safety issues and legislation. A literature review was performed using PubMed from 1966 to 12th April 2010 with the following key words: children OR pediatric, spine, injury OR trauma, restraint, seat belt, motor vehicle, road OR traffic, collision OR crash, safety. Cross referencing of discovered articles was also performed. Risk factors for MVC-related SCI include single vehicle crashes, vehicle rollover, and ejection of the passenger from the vehicle. Any anatomic region of the spinal cord may be injured as a result of MVC and may vary according to the type of accident and restraint system usage. Increasing use of three-point seat belts, which are more protective than isolated lap seat belts, has decreased the incidence of MVC-related SCI. There is evidence that airbag use without seatbelt use is associated with an increased risk of cervical spine fractures with or without SCI. Vehicle designers need to give more attention to the prevention of vehicle rollover and to improve occupant protection when rollover occurs. MVC is a common cause of SCI in children; therefore, paying attention to risk factors and modes of prevention is important. As MVC-related SCI can lead to permanent disability, prevention and education play an important role in decreasing childrens' morbidity and mortality. Making behavior, roads and vehicles safer can significantly reduce MVC-related SCI in children.
Workewych, Adriana M; Ciuffetelli Muzzi, Madeline; Jing, Rowan; Zhang, Stanley; Topolovec-Vranic, Jane; Cusimano, Michael D
Sport-related traumatic brain injuries are a significant public health burden, with hundreds of thousands sustained annually in North America. While sports offer numerous physical and social health benefits, traumatic brain injuries such as concussion can seriously impact a player's life, athletic career, and sport enjoyment. The culture in many sports encourages winning at all costs, placing athletes at risk for traumatic brain injuries. As social media has become a central part of everyday life, the content of users' messages often reflects the prevailing culture related to a particular event or health issue. We hypothesized that Twitter data might be useful for understanding public perceptions and misperceptions of sport-related traumatic brain injuries. We performed a content and sentiment analysis of 7483 Twitter® tweets related to traumatic brain injuries in sports collected during June and July 2013. We identified five major themes. Users tweeted about personal traumatic brain injuries experiences, reported traumatic brain injuries in professional athletes, shared research about sport-related concussions, and discussed policy and safety in injury prevention, such as helmet use. We identified mixed perceptions of and sentiment toward traumatic brain injuries in sports: both an understanding that brain injuries are serious and disregard for activities that might reduce the public burden of traumatic brain injuries were prevalent in our Twitter analysis. While the scientific and medical community considers a concussion a form of traumatic brain injuries, our study demonstrates a misunderstanding of this fact among the public. In our current digital age, social media can provide useful insight into the culture around a health issue, facilitating implementation of prevention and treatment strategies.
Pollard, Katherine A; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A
This study describes the epidemiology of pediatric volleyball-related injuries treated in US hospital emergency departments. Data for children younger than 18 years obtained from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System of the US Consumer Product Safety Commission from 1990 through 2009 were analyzed. An estimated 692 024 volleyball-related injuries to children younger than 18 years occurred during the study period. The annual number of injuries declined significantly by 23% during the study period; however, the annual injury rate remained unchanged, and the number of volleyball-related concussions/closed head injuries increased significantly. Upper (48%) and lower (39%) extremity injuries occurred most frequently, as did strains/sprains (54%). Contact with the net/pole was associated with concussions/closed head injury our findings indicate opportunities for making volleyball an even safer sport for children. Protective padding, complying with US volleyball standards, should cover all volleyball poles and protruding hardware to prevent impact-related injuries.
Murray, Eleanor; Franche, Renée-Louise; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Smith, Peter; Carnide, Nancy; Côté, Pierre; Gibson, Jane; Guzman, Jaime; Koehoorn, Mieke; Mustard, Cameron
To examine the role of pain experiences in relation to work absence, within the context of other worker health factors and workplace factors among Canadian nurses with work-related musculoskeletal (MSK) injury. Structural equation modeling was used on a sample of 941 employed, female, direct care nurses with at least one day of work absence due to a work-related MSK injury, from the cross-sectional 2005 National Survey of the Work and Health of Nurses. The final model suggests that pain severity and pain-related work interference mediate the impact of the following worker health and workplace factors on work absence duration: depression, back problems, age, unionization, workplace physical demands and low job control. The model accounted for 14 % of the variance in work absence duration and 46.6 % of the variance in pain-related work interference. Our findings support a key role for pain severity and pain-related work interference in mediating the effects of workplace factors and worker health factors on work absence duration. Future interventions should explore reducing pain-related work interference through addressing workplace issues, such as providing modified work, reducing physical demands, and increasing job control.
Anderson, Vern Putz; Schulte, Paul A; Sestito, John; Linn, Herb; Nguyen, Long S
The wholesale and retail trade (WRT) sector employs over 21 million workers, or nearly 19% of the annual average employment in private industry. The perception is that workers in this sector are generally at low risk of occupational injury and death. These workers, however, are engaged in a wide range of demanding job activities and are exposed to a variety of hazards. Prior to this report, a comprehensive appraisal of the occupational fatal and nonfatal burdens affecting the retail and wholesale sectors was lacking. The focus of this review is to assess the overall occupational safety and health burden in WRT and to identify various subsectors that have high rates of burden from occupational causes. Ultimately, these findings should be useful for targeted intervention efforts. We reviewed Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), 2006 fatality, injury, and illness data for the WRT sector and provide comparisons between the WRT sector, its' subsectors, and private industry, which serves as a baseline. The BLS data provide both counts and standardized incidence rates for various exposures, events, and injury types for fatalities, injuries, and illnesses. In an effort to estimate the economic burden of these fatalities, injuries, and illnesses, a focused review of the literature was conducted. In 2006, WRT workers experienced 820,500 injuries/illnesses and 581 fatalities. The total case injury/illness rate for the retail sector was 4.9/100 FTE and for the wholesale sector 4.1/100 FTE. The WRT sector represents 15.5% of the private sector work population in 2006, yet accounts for 20.1% of nonfatal injuries and illnesses of the private sector. In 2003, the disparity was only 2% but increased to 3% in 2004 and 2005. Three WRT subsectors had injury/illness rates well above the national average: beer/wine/liquor (8.4/100); building materials/supplies (7.6/100); and grocery-related products (7.0/100). Occupational deaths with the highest rates were found in gasoline stations (9
Grant, E; Fuller, C; Birckmayer, J; Marshall, S; Peterson, H D
In December 1993, the State of North Carolina legalized the sale of certain types of fireworks. To date, no study has examined the impact of legalization of fireworks on health care and public safety. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of legalized pyrotechnics specific to our state with regard to injury, property damage, and suppression costs. The population groups surveyed were the state fire departments, county fire marshals, hospital emergency departments, and county forest rangers. Each group was asked to complete a questionnaire on all incidents involving pyrotechnics devices, both legal and illegal, used during the study period. A total of 233 responses were received from the 1644 agencies surveyed. Forty-one injuries and 129 fireworks-related fires were reported. Total property loss was $185,570. Property loss, injury costs, and fire suppression costs totaled $799,450. This study provides a very conservative estimate of the problem within our state. Stronger legislation to restrict access to pyrotechnics may reduce the damage and costs they cause.
Milsten, Andrew M; Tennyson, Joseph; Weisberg, Stacy
Moshing is a violent form of dancing found world-wide at rock concerts, festivals, and electronic dance music events. It involves crowd surfing, shoving, and moving in a circular rotation. Moshing is a source of increased morbidity and mortality. The goal of this study was to report epidemiologic information on patient presentation rate (PPR), transport to hospital rate (TTHR), and injury patterns from patients who participated in mosh-pits. Materials and Methods Subjects were patrons from mosh-pits seeking medical care at a single venue. The events reviewed were two national concert tours which visited this venue during their tour. The eight distinct events studied occurred between 2011 and 2014. Data were collected retrospectively from prehospital patient care reports (PCRs). A single Emergency Medical Service (EMS) provided medical care at this venue. The following information was gathered from each PCR: type of injury, location of injury, treatment received, alcohol or drug use, Advanced Life Support/ALS interventions required, age and gender, disposition, minor or parent issues, as well as type of activity engaged in when injured. Attendance for the eight events ranged from 5,100 to 16,000. Total patient presentations ranged from 50 to 206 per event. Patient presentations per ten thousand (PPTT) ranged from 56 to 130. The TTHR per 10,000 ranged from seven to 20. The mean PPTT was 99 (95% CI, 77-122) and the median was 98. The mean TTHR was 16 (95% CI, 12-29) and the median TTHR was 17. Patients presenting from mosh-pits were more frequently male (57.6%; PTennyson J , Weisberg S , Retrospective analysis of mosh-pit-related injuries. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(6):636-641.
Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.
This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…
Monuteaux, Michael C; Fleegler, Eric W; Lee, Lois K
Violent-related (assault) injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in the United States. Many violent injury victims seek treatment in the emergency department (ED). Our objectives were to (1) estimate rates of violent-related injuries evaluated in United States EDs, (2) estimate linear trends in ED visits for violent-related injuries from 2000 to 2010, and (3) to determine the associated health care and work-loss costs. We examined adults 18 years and older from a nationally representative survey (the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey) of ED visits, from 2000 to 2010. Violent injury was defined using International Classification of Diseases-9th Rev.-Clinical Modification, diagnosis and mechanism of injury codes. We calculated rates of ED visits for violent injuries. Medical and work-loss costs accrued by these injuries were calculated for 2005, inflation-adjusted to 2011 dollars using the WISQARS Cost of Injury Reports. An annual average of 1.4 million adults were treated for violent injuries in EDs from 2000 to 2010, comprising 1.6% (95% confidence interval, 1.5%-1.6%) of all US adult ED visits. Young adults (18-25 years), men, nonwhites, uninsured or publically insured patients, and those residing in high poverty urban areas were at increased risk for ED visits for violent injury. The 1-year, inflation-adjusted medical and work-loss cost of violent-inflicted injuries in adults in the United States was US $49.5 billion. Violent injuries account for over one million ED visits annually among adults, with no change in rates over the past decade. Young black men are at especially increased risk for ED visits for violent injuries. Overall, violent-related injuries resulted in substantial financial and societal costs. Epidemiological study, level III.
Courtney, Michael; 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.05.025
Research in blast-induced lung injury resulted in exposure thresholds that are useful in understanding and protecting humans from such injury. Because traumatic brain injury (TBI) due to blast exposure has become a prominent medical and military problem, similar thresholds should be identified that can put available research results in context and guide future research toward protecting warfighters as well as diagnosis and treatment. At least three mechanical mechanisms by which the blast wave may result in brain injury have been proposed - a thoracic mechanism, head acceleration and direct cranial transmission. These mechanisms need not be mutually exclusive. In this study, likely regions of interest for the first two mechanisms based on blast characteristics (positive pulse duration and peak effective overpressure) are developed using available data from blast experiments and related studies, including behind-armor blunt trauma and ballistic pressure wave studies. These related studies are appropriate to in...
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...
Scafa, F; Panigazzi, M; Nuccio, C; Dondi, E; Scovazzi, G; Canal, E; Saade, A; Stancanelli, M; Bazzini, G; Candura, S M
A protocol for work resumption after occupational osteoarticular injury and subsequent rehabilitation is presented: 97 patients (68 males and 29 females; mean age 42 years) were evaluated by the physiatrist and the occupational physician, providing indications based on their functional capabilities and task features. Up to date, 38 underwent follow-up at 6 months: 30 had returned to work (3 after changing tasks, 4 part-time). The mean time for work resumption was 15 days for the 26 subjects who resumed working completely, 1 month for the 4 who resumed partially. These data are encouraging, and highlight the importance of a multidisciplinary rehabilitative approach to facilitate return to work after occupational injuries.
Bricout, John C
Return-to-work is an area of critical concern for individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI), because of the psychological, psychosocial and economic benefits of employment. Although the majority of individuals with SCI are employed pre-injury, they are impeded from maintaining those jobs due to personal, organizational and systems level barriers. Telework, which permits home-based work through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), alleviates many of return-to-work barriers for individuals with SCI, including job demands, mobility limitations, transportation needs and fatigue imposed by medical complications. For telework to fulfill its potential as a return-to-work strategy, rehabilitation professionals and employers must assess and enhance the readiness of the individual, workgroup and organization within the context of a disability management program. Strategies for successfully implementing telework as a return-to-work strategy for individuals with SCI are discussed, along with implications for future research.
Frostad Liaset, Ingeborg; Lorås, Håvard
A substantial proportion of survivors after brain injuries originating from trauma, tumour, or stroke may experience reduced ability to work due to a number of challenges. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight factors that have been perceived and reported as important in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury. A qualitative ethnographic meta-synthesis is used to interpret and develop concepts from studies retrieved from systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science. A total of 16 studies were included in the meta-synthesis. Four key concepts were identified as important for return to work after an acquired brain injury: empowerment, self-awareness, motivation, and facilitation. The results of the meta-synthesis indicate that personal development is experienced as essential in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury, involving identification of each individual's strengths and weaknesses. These personal factors intersect with an emphasis of the employer providing a certain degree of facilitation in the workplace. All of these aspects will affect one's motivation to return to work and can therefore be crucial to succeed.
Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of
Mache, Stefanie; Bernburg, Monika; Groneberg, David A; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard
These days physicians' work is characterized by an increase in economic demands, pressure and challenges in establishing a balance between work and family life. The current study investigates the relationship between physicians' job demands and resources, perceived job stress, work-family conflict, work engagement and job satisfaction. 564 clinicians specialising in different medical fields participated in the cross-sectional study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the COPSOQ and the UWES- Scale were administered. Our results illustrated significant relationships between physicians' work engagement and their job satisfaction as well as between job stress and work family conflict. Moreover, perceived job stress moderated the effect of high job demands on work family conflict. In addition, significant gender differences have been found in perceived stress levels, work family conflict and work engagement. This study proves and verified associations between work engagement, work-family conflict, job demands and resources that may influence employees' satisfaction. Implications for both working physicians and hospital management are given.
Perhats, Cydne; Keough, Vicki; Fogarty, Jeanne; Hughes, Nancy L; Kappelman, Carol J; Scott, Mary; Moretz, Jason
Health care workers are more likely than most other occupations to experience work-related injuries, and emergency nurses frequently encounter job-related hazards in their daily routine. Risk factors for non-violence-related workplace injuries among nurses include heavy workloads, aging of the nursing workforce, workplace environmental factors, obesity, and non-standard work schedules. These factors impact nurses' decisions regarding whether or not to return to their job or to stay in their field of practice, thereby exacerbating workforce shortages and hindering recruitment and retention efforts. To better understand non-violence-related workplace injuries among emergency nurses, ENA conducted a survey of its members in 2009. Of the 2294 nurses who responded to the survey, one in five nurses (n = 440) reported that they experienced a non-violence-related injury while working in their emergency department during the previous year. The logistic regression model found three factors that were related to the occurrence of a non-violence-related workplace injury: (1) hospitals having safe patient handling policies and programs, (2) access to decontamination and post-exposure treatment, and (3) emergency nurses' perception of staffing in their emergency department. While these results provide only a preliminary understanding of ED non-violence-related workplace injuries, they form the basis of a fundamental model for prevention of workplace injuries among emergency nurses. The model can be used to help establish a culture of ED workplace safety through the integration of safety policies and programs, access to safety equipment and controls, and optimal staffing levels. Support from hospital administrators for ED workplace safety initiatives that address these three components, along with current best practice recommendations from the field of occupational health and safety, have the potential to improve workplace safety for emergency nurses. Copyright © 2012 Emergency
Björnstig, Johanna; Bylund, Per-Olof; Björnstig, Ulf
A data acquisition from the medical sector may give one important view of the burden on the society caused by vehicle related injuries. The official police-reported statistics may only reflect a part of all vehicle-related injured seeking medical attention. The aim is to provide a comprehensive picture of the burden of vehicle related injuries on the medical sector (2013), and to compare with official police-reported statistics and the development year 2000-2013. The data set includes 1085 injured from the Injury Data Base at Umeå University Hospital's catchment area with 148,500 inhabitants in 2013. Bicyclists were the most frequently injured (54%). One-third had non-minor (MAIS2+) injuries, and bicyclists accounted for 58% of the 1071 hospital bed days for all vehicle-related injuries. Car occupants represented 23% of all injured, and only 9% had MAIS2+ injuries. They accounted for 17% of the hospital bed days. Motorized two wheel vehicle riders represented 11% of the injured and 39% had MAIS2+ injuries and they occupied 11% of the hospital bed days. Of the 1085 medically treated persons, 767 were injured in public traffic areas, and, therefore, should be included in the official police statistics; however, only a third (232) of them were reported by the police. The annual injury rate had not changed during 2000-2013 for bicyclists, motor-cycle riders, pedestrians or snowmobile riders. However, for passenger car occupants a decrease was observed after 2008, and for mopedists the injury rate was halved after 2009 when a licensing regulation was introduced. The Swedish traffic injury reducing strategy Vision Zero, may have contributed to the reduction of injured car occupants and moped riders. The official police-reported statistics was a biased data source for vehicle related injuries and the total number medically treated was in total five times higher. Bicyclists caused the heaviest burden on the medical sector; consequently, they need to be prioritized in
Finkelstein, David Ritz
A quantum universe is expressed as a finite unitary relativistic quantum computer network. Its addresses are subject to quantum superposition as well as its memory. It has no exact mathematical model. It Its Hilbert space of input processes is also a Clifford algebra with a modular architecture of many ranks. A fundamental fermion is a quantum computer element whose quantum address belongs to the rank below. The least significant figures of its address define its spin and flavor. The most significant figures of it adress define its orbital variables. Gauging arises from the same quantification as space-time. This blurs star images only slightly, but perhaps measurably. General relativity is an approximation that splits nature into an emptiness with a high symmetry that is broken by a filling of lower symmetry. Action principles result from self-organization pf the vacuum.
Hooff, M.L.M. van; Hooft, E.A.J. van
Boredom occurs regularly at work and can have negative consequences. This study aimed to increase insight in the antecedents and processes underlying the development of work-related boredom by (a) examining whether work-related need satisfaction and the quality-of-work motivation mediate the
Worp, M.P. van der
Running is a popular sport worldwide and has a positive effect on health and well-being. However, the rate of running-related injuries and the associated costs are high. Van der Worp performed a systematic review to examine which factors increase the risk of running injuries, and whether this is the
Lipscomb, Hester J; Schoenfisch, Ashley L; Cameron, Wilfrid
Declining work injury rates may reflect safer work conditions as well as under-reporting. Union carpenters were invited to participate in a mailed, cross-sectional survey designed to capture information about injury reporting practices. Prevalence of non-reporting and fear of repercussions for reporting were compared across exposure to behavioral-based safety elements and three domains of the Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50). The majority (>75%) of the 1,155 participants felt they could report work-related injuries to their supervisor without fear of retribution, and most felt that the majority of injuries on their jobsites got reported. However, nearly half indicated it was best not to report minor injuries, and felt pressures to use their private insurance for work injury care. The prevalence of non-reporting and fear of reporting increased markedly with poorer measures of management safety justice (NOSACQ-50). Formal and informal policies and practices on jobsites likely influence injury reporting. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Evans, Rachel; Reynolds, Katy; Creedon, Joseph; Murphy, Michelle
This study documented the incidence of acute injuries related to the Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). A questionnaire was administered to 1,532 soldiers after they completed a biannual APFT. Self-reported injury responses determined the rates of injuries resulting from the push-up, sit-up, and 2-mile run events and were classified into three categories, i.e., all injuries, performance-limiting injuries, and time-loss injuries. A total of 117 soldiers (injury rate, 7.6%) reported sustaining an injury (all injuries), with 11% attributed to the push-up event, 56% to the sit-up event, and 32% to the run event. Forty-six of these injuries reportedly limited performance (injury rate, 3.0%), and 11 soldiers received a duty-limiting profile (time-loss injury rate, 0.7%), which did not differ among events. Injury rates were not significantly associated with the number of sit-ups performed per week or the number of days per week a soldier participated in physical training and were not greater for soldiers who trained specifically for the APFT. History of previous injury was a significant risk factor for injury. The push-up, sit-up, and run events of the APFT do not pose a considerable acute injury risk to active duty soldiers.
Ihlen, Ø.; van Ruler, B.
Public relations is often studied from a managerial, instrumental perspective or a psychological, behavioral perspective. To understand the role of public relations in building trust or mistrust and to develop - or destroy - a license to operate, it needs also to be studied as a social phenomenon.
This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement ...
Full Text Available Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI and suicidal behaviors, both important issues in adolescent health care, are frequently associated and possibly clinically related. Our objective was to explore the views of relations between nonsuicidal self-injury and suicidal behaviors during adolescence and young adulthood (11-25 years expressed in the scientific (medical and psychological literature. We adopted a textual approach to the process of synthesis to tell the story of the findings from the included studies. Our narrative systematic review of 64 articles found that they share the same risk factors. Integrated models envision nonsuicidal self-injury as a gateway enabling teens to acquire the capability for suicide. Because suicidal behavior short-circuits thought, it is difficult to conceive an intention to die during adolescents' acts of self-injury. Intention is constructed by the narrative of the act, influenced by numerous elements from the psychopathologic, cultural, religious, and philosophic context. Techniques of mentalizing-based treatments and work on the meaning that adolescents attribute to their behaviors might improve care.
Nippert, Angela H; Smith, Aynsley M
Injury rates are high among children and adolescent athletes. Psychosocial stressors, such as personality, history of stressors, and life event stress can influence injury occurrence. After injury, those same factors plus athletic identity, self-esteem, and significant others-such as parents, coaches, and teammates-can affect injury response, recovery and subsequent sport performance. Goal setting, positive self-talk, attribution theory, and relaxation or mental imagery are psychologic interventions that can help injured athletes cope with psychosocial stressors. Medical professionals should be aware of the potential influence that psychosocial stressors and psychologic interventions can have on injury occurrence, injury recovery, and sport performance.
Spencer, Sandra P; Shields, Brenda J; Smith, Gary A
This study was conducted to describe the epidemiology of childhood bathtub-related injuries and to recommend methods for prevention of bathtub-related slips and falls. A consecutive series of 204 children, who were treated for bathtub-related injuries in a pediatric emergency department during a 3-year period were included in the study. The age range was 4 months to 16 years (mean 3.1, SD 2.8, median 2.8 years). Slips and falls accounted for 82.3% (168/204) of mechanisms of injuries. Lacerations, the most common injury type, accounted for 66.7% (136/204) of cases. The most frequent anatomic location of injury was the head or face (68.1%, 139/204). Adult supervision was present during 84.8% (67/79) of the injuries among children younger than 5 years. Parents changed the bathing environment after the patients' injury in 82.3% (65/79) of cases. Injuries due to slips and falls are the most common type of childhood bathtub-related injury. Increased supervision alone will not be sufficient to prevent these injuries, given that adult supervision is already present in most cases. These injuries are most effectively prevented by passive methods, such as providing an effective slip-resistant bathtub surface. The large number of bathtub-related injuries associated with slips and falls argues for exploring a higher coefficient of friction standard for bathtubs, which may lead to fewer injuries.
Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M. A.; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ronald; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke
Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors
Kluitenberg, Bas; van der Worp, Henk; Huisstede, Bionka M A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298688719; Hartgens, Fred; Diercks, Ron; Verhagen, Evert; van Middelkoop, Marienke
Objectives: The incidence of running-related injuries is high. Some risk factors for injury were identified in novice runners, however, not much is known about the effect of training factors on injury risk. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the associations between training factors
Kammerlander, Christian; Braito, Matthias; Kates, Stephen; Jeske, Christian; Roth, Tobias; Blauth, Michael; Dallapozza, Christian
The population is rapidly aging and remaining more active over the age of 65. An increasing number of sports related injuries in individuals 65 and older are thus anticipated. The aim of this study is to analyze the epidemiology of sports injuries in the age group aged 65 and older. Data from the medical records of adults aged 65 years and older who were treated for sports-related injuries at a level one trauma center between December 1994 and February 2008 was collected and statistically analyzed. A total of 2635 patients met our inclusion criteria. There were 1647 men (62.5%) and 988 women (37.5%) with a mean age of 70.9 years. The yearly number of injuries doubled during the study period (1996-2007). The most common mechanism of injury was a simple fall from standing height (69%). Nearly 75% of all injuries occurred during alpine skiing, cycling or mountain climbing. The median Injury Severity Score was 4. Minor injuries and wounds (40%) were recorded most commonly followed by fractures (27%), sprains, ligament injuries (19%) and injuries of muscles and tendons (6%). The most frequent diagnoses were minor injuries to the head and ligament injuries around the knee joint. Injuries to the upper extremities occurred in 33.7%, injuries to the lower extremities in 29.4% and injuries to the head occurred in 20% of the patients. Women sustained substantially more fractures than men. Adults aged 65 and older are remaining active in sports, which results in higher numbers of sports related injuries in this age group. Identification of type, mechanism and distribution of the injuries can help with the recognition of risk factors for injury. This may enable us to develop appropriate preventative measures to reduce the incidence, and morbidity of such injuries.
Gaw, Christopher E; Chounthirath, Thiphalak; Smith, Gary A
The goal of this study was to determine the epidemiology of injuries associated with nursery products among young children treated in US emergency departments. Data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System were retrospectively analyzed for patients aged injuries among children aged injuries per 10 000 children. The annual injury rate decreased significantly by 33.9% from 1991 to 2003, followed by a significant increase of 23.7% from 2003 to 2011. The decrease was driven by a significant decline in baby walker/jumper/exerciser-related injuries; the increase was driven by a significant increase in concussions and closed head injuries. Nursery product-related injuries were most commonly associated with baby carriers (19.5%), cribs/mattresses (18.6%), strollers/carriages (16.5%), or baby walkers/jumpers/exercisers (16.2%). The most common mechanism of injury was a self-precipitated fall (80.0%), and the most frequently injured body region was the head or neck (47.1%). Although successful injury prevention efforts with baby walkers led to a decline in nursery product-related injuries from 1991 to 2003, the number and rate of these injuries have been increasing since 2003. Greater efforts are warranted to prevent injuries associated with other nursery products, especially baby carriers, cribs, and strollers. Prevention of falls and concussions/closed head injuries associated with nursery products also deserves special attention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Cancelliere, Carol; Kristman, Vicki L; Cassidy, John David
OBJECTIVE: To synthesize the best available evidence on return to work (RTW) after mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI). DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and other databases were searched (2001-2012) with terms including "craniocerebral trauma" and "employment." Reference lists of eligible articles were also...
Patel, DP; Redshaw, JD; Breyer, BN; Smith, TG; Erickson, BA; Majercik, SD; Gaither, TW; Craig, JR; Gardner, S.; Presson, AP; Zhang, C.; Hotaling, JM; Brant, WO; Myers, JB
© 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Introduction: Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. Material and methods: We identified patients with AAST grades III...
van de Ven, Hardy A.; Hesselink, John Klein; Bultmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R.; de Looze, Michiel P.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra
Objectives The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of
Ven, H.A. van de; Klein Hesselink, J.; Bultmann, U.; Boer, M.R. de; Looze, M.P. de; Klink, J.J.L. van der; Brouwer, S.
The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of N=5640
Hansen, Lane A; Hazenfield, Kurt M; Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Smeak, Dan D
This study reports the findings of 120 traumatic pad injuries in pet and military dogs. Most dogs (68%) presented with a laceration to a thoracic limb footpad, and one-third of dogs were middle-aged castrated males. Metacarpal pads were most commonly injured. Short-term complications were noted in 27% of dogs. No long-term complications were identified. No disability from pad injury was present at the completion of healing. Concurrent injuries to adjacent structures were uncommon and did not affect outcome. Dogs with full-thickness pad lacerations were at greater risk for major short-term complications compared to dogs with partial-thickness pad lacerations (odds ratio, 7.27; P = .001). Military working dogs with full-thickness pad lacerations were at greater risk for major short-term complications than pet dogs with a similar injury. When major complications developed in dogs with full-thickness pad injuries, time to final healing was significantly longer (by a median of 12 days). The partial-thickness pad lesions healed uneventfully regardless of whether they were bandaged, surgically repaired, or left to heal by second intention. Suture repair and bandaging of full-thickness lesions could not be shown to either decrease the risk for complications or improve healing. Future work should focus on establishing standards for footpad treatment to reduce complications.
Jensen, Olaf C
-ratios for the main work processes in commercial fishing. A case-referent design with samples of person-time was used. The reported injuries to the National Maritime Authorities for a 5-year period for four types of commercial fishing defined the cases. The odds for the referents were calculated from samples...... types of fishing. The OR's for traffic on board was 15.3 (12.0-19.4). The variations in the odds ratios indicate that the fishermen continuously shift between low and high-risk areas pointing out areas for prevention. The case-referent design with samples of person-time is useful for other areas...... of person-times for the specific working processes. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated for the specific working processes. A total of 560 cases were included and the samples of referent working periods were 63110 min in total. The largest part of the injuries (n = 318...
McKee, Ann C.; Robinson, Meghan E.
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) includes concussion, subconcussion, and most exposures to explosive blast from improvised explosive devices. mTBI is the most common traumatic brain injury affecting military personnel; however, it is the most difficult to diagnose and the least well understood. It is also recognized that some mTBIs have persistent, and sometimes progressive, long-term debilitating effects. Increasing evidence suggests that a single traumatic brain injury can produce long-term gray and white matter atrophy, precipitate or accelerate age-related neurodegeneration, and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and motor neuron disease. In addition, repetitive mTBIs can provoke the development of a tauopathy, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. We found early changes of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in four young veterans of the Iraq and Afghanistan conflict who were exposed to explosive blast and in another young veteran who was repetitively concussed. Four of the five veterans with early-stage chronic traumatic encephalopathy were also diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder. Advanced chronic traumatic encephalopathy has been found in veterans who experienced repetitive neurotrauma while in service and in others who were accomplished athletes. Clinically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy is associated with behavioral changes, executive dysfunction, memory loss, and cognitive impairments that begin insidiously and progress slowly over decades. Pathologically, chronic traumatic encephalopathy produces atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes, thalamus, and hypothalamus; septal abnormalities; and abnormal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau as neurofibrillary tangles and disordered neurites throughout the brain. The incidence and prevalence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and the genetic risk factors critical to its development are currently unknown. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy has clinical and
Lee, Hyo Jeong; Jung, Seung Mun; Shin, Myung Jin [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soon Tae [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
To evaluate the MR findings of knee injuries in skiing and to explain the mechanism of injury with MR findings. We reviewed MR findings of 18 patients with history of knee injuries in skiing. The MR images were evaluated retrospectively to identify the ligament injuries, bone lesions and meniscal injuries. Ligament injuries were seen in 16 patients, bone contusions in 16 patients, meniscal lesions in two patients. The most common group of injury was anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries with bone contusion on posterior lip of the lateral tibial plateau (LTP). The second common group of injury was isolated ACL injury with bone contusions on the lateral femoral condyle (LFC) and posterior lip of the LTP. We considered that the mechanism of injury of the former group may be correlated with the valgus torque with secondary anterior displacement of the tibia and the latter group may be correlated with the pivot shift phenomenon. MR may play an important role in the diagnosis of knee injuries in skiing and its findings may explain the mechanism of injury.
Nagata, Takashi; Abe, Takeru; Takamori, Ayako; Kimura, Yoshinari; Hagihara, Akihito
Pedestrian injuries among older people tend to occur near their residence. However, knowledge regarding whether distance travelled from home to the injury site or road environmental/socioeconomic factors affect injury severity remains limited. A cross-sectional study was performed using injury registry data from the Kurume City Fire Department, Japan. Distance travelled from home was determined with geographic information system (GIS) software. Data were analyzed for potential association with injury occurrence and severity, with stratification by age. Signal detection analysis using 10 variables was applied to identify factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries. Among the 545 adult pedestrian injuries reviewed, the factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries for older people and working-age people were evaluated, focusing on the effect of the network distance travelled from home to injury site. Network distance travelled from home to injury site was not associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries among older people. By applying signal detection analysis, for older people, higher socioeconomic status, wider road width per lane, and higher aging rate in the residential area were significant factors, and for working-age pedestrians, longer network distance travelled between injury place and their residential area and a higher aging rate in the residential area were significantly associated. To reduce severe pedestrian injuries among older people, improvement of road infrastructure in areas with wider roads, higher socioeconomic status and higher aging rates is required.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pedestrian injuries among older people tend to occur near their residence. However, knowledge regarding whether distance travelled from home to the injury site or road environmental/socioeconomic factors affect injury severity remains limited. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed using injury registry data from the Kurume City Fire Department, Japan. Distance travelled from home was determined with geographic information system (GIS software. Data were analyzed for potential association with injury occurrence and severity, with stratification by age. Signal detection analysis using 10 variables was applied to identify factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries. Results Among the 545 adult pedestrian injuries reviewed, the factors associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries for older people and working-age people were evaluated, focusing on the effect of the network distance travelled from home to injury site. Network distance travelled from home to injury site was not associated with the occurrence of severe pedestrian injuries among older people. By applying signal detection analysis, for older people, higher socioeconomic status, wider road width per lane, and higher aging rate in the residential area were significant factors, and for working-age pedestrians, longer network distance travelled between injury place and their residential area and a higher aging rate in the residential area were significantly associated. Conclusions To reduce severe pedestrian injuries among older people, improvement of road infrastructure in areas with wider roads, higher socioeconomic status and higher aging rates is required.
Laura N. Syron
Full Text Available Background: The US commercial fishing industry is hazardous, as measured by mortality data. However, research on non-fatal injuries is limited. Non-fatal injuries constitute the majority of occupational injuries and can result in workers’ lowered productivity and wages, lost quality of life, and disability. In the United States, a Work Process Classification System (WPCS has previously been applied in Alaskan freezer-trawl and freezer-longline fleets to identify causes of injuries and specific hazards, but not to other fishing fleets. Objectives: This descriptive epidemiologic study aimed to explore the application and modification of the WPCS in multiple Alaskan fleets, characterize non-fatal occupational injuries in these fleets, and identify work processes that could be targeted for further investigation and future injury prevention efforts. Design: Traumatic, non-fatal injuries on-board Alaskan commercial fishing vessels were identified through United States Coast Guard investigative reports. Characteristics of injuries, as well as worker characteristics, were analysed. Injuries were coded using the WPCS. Results: We successfully utilized the WPCS to code non-fatal injury cases (n = 136. The most frequent main work processes associated with non-fatal injuries included: on-board trawlers, handling frozen fish and processing the catch; on-board vessels using pot/trap gear, handling the gear and shooting/setting the gear; on-board longliners, traffic on board and hauling the gear; and on-board processor vessels, processing the catch, other work with the catch, and handling frozen fish. Conclusions: The study confirmed that a WPCS can be applied to multiple Alaskan fleets to identify hazardous tasks. Hazards were unique for each vessel gear type. Future injury prevention efforts should target work processes associated with the most frequent and most severe injuries. Future studies should establish time estimates for work processes in order to
Aas, Randi Wågø; Haveraaen, Lise Aasen; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Skarpaas, Lisebet Skeie
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employees return to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might contribute to successful RTW. To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with ABI, participating in a RTW-program. The study was designed as a cohort study of patients on sick leave due to mild or moderate ABI (n = 137). The mean age of the patients was 51 years, and 58% were men. The most common diagnoses were stroke (75%) and traumatic brain injury (12%). Data were collected through questionnaires, and combined with register data on sickness absence. Survival analyses were used to analyse the effect of different variables on time to first RTW (full or partial), at one- and two-year follow-up. Generally, women (HR = 0.447; CI: 0.239-0.283) had higher RTW-rates than men, and patients with non-comorbid impairments returned to work earlier than patients with multiple impairments. Although not statistically significant, receiving individual consultations and participating in group-sessions were generally associated with a delayed RTW at both follow-up-times. The only service-related factor significantly associated with delayed RTW was meetings with the social insurance office (HR = 0.522; CI: 0.282-0.965), and only at one-year follow-up. Women and patients with non-comorbid impairments returned to work earlier than men and patients with multiple impairments. There seems to be an association between intense and long-lasting participation in the RTW program and prolonged time-to first-RTW, even after controlling for level of cognitive impairments and comorbidity. Implications for Rehabilitation Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling, and persons with ABI often experience difficulties in regard to returning to work. This study provides information on prognostic factors that might contribute to return to work (RTW
Work-related rehabilitation has for several years been gaining greater importance in orthopaedic rehabilitation. High-quality studies have confirmed that work-related medical rehabilitation has favourable effects on earning capacity and work-life participation. This does however not hold true for all work-related rehabilitation programmes. In this context, 5 theses concerning success factors of work-related medical rehabilitation are developed. It is set out that the effects of work-related medical rehabilitation on work ability and work-life participation can be improved if programmes realize a needs-oriented assignment, include cognitive-behavioural components, follow a multimodal approach, step up treatment intensity, and if treatments are manualized. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Soccer in Rwandan high schools can expose players to the risk of injury warranting prevention programmes. The aim of this study was to determine the type, causes, severity and management of injuries among high school soccer players in Rwanda, in order to obtain baseline data for injury prevention programmes.
CONCLUSION: Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers’ stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Work related learning is a topic of considerable interest currently and can be broadly seen to be concerned with all forms of training and learning closely related to the daily work of employees. From the angle of higher education work related learning is an important development because parts of the formal curriculum tend to be as closely related as possible to the future jobs of students.
McHugh, E E
This paper outlines the preventive health strategic measures that are currently in place and it endeavours to consider how improvements can be made to our national preventive strategy with the goal of reducing alcohol-related facial injuries. It is based on a review of the literature sourced through PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane database. The main findings are that increased funding, legislative amendment and media involvement are key to improving the work of the health services in their struggle to limit the ever increasing alcohol-related incidents that are experienced by society today.
Goldstein, Yariv; Dolkart, Oleg; Kaufman, Ehud; Amar, Eyal; Sharfman, Zachary T; Rath, Ehud; Mozes, Gavriel; Maman, Eran
The popularity of bicycle riding for recreation, exercise and transportation has grown enormously in recent years, which has led to an increased incidence of bicycle-related injuries. While these injuries involve mainly the musculoskeletal system, data on shoulder-specific injuries incurred while bike riding are lacking. Classifying these shoulder injuries may provide insight and assistance in the creation and implementation of effective protective gear and measures. To investigate the types and mechanisms of shoulder injuries among cyclists. This study retrospectively examined all cyclists who incurred shoulder injuries while riding and were admitted to the emergency department and shoulder clinic between January 2008 and November 2013. The study included 157 subjects with various bicycle-related shoulder injuries treated with either conservative or surgical measures. Eighty-four percent of injuries were caused by a direct blow to the shoulder, 7% by falling on an outstretched hand, 6% were traction injuries, and 3% were due to hyperabduction. Nine different clinical types of injury were observed; the most common injuries were clavicle fractures (32%), followed by acromioclavicular joint dislocations (22%), rotator cuff tears (22%), and humeral fractures (8%). Fifty-one percent of subjects were managed with conservative care and the remaining patients required surgical interventions. Shoulder injuries incurred while riding a bicycle span the entire spectrum of shoulder injuries and often result in debilitating conditions. Although the use of helmets is increasing, there is currently no effective protective gear or measures to prevent riders from suffering shoulder injuries.
Serranheira, Florentino; Smith, Derek
Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD) represent a major occupational health concern when considering the relationships between work and disease but associations between MSD and hospital work, especially in the nursing profession, aren't yet full understanded.QMSDuestions that still need to be answered include: Are nurses' work-related musculoskeletal symptoms and injuries dependent on the wards, the hospital organization and even the national occupational health policies that they originated from? Is their MSD related with workplaces demands, equipment, and nurse-patient ratios? Do these factors highlight different nursing occupational exposure to MSD hazards? What are the individual and psychosocial contributes to nurses WRMSDs in different nursing contexts? As such, a new approach which integrates more realistic working conditions, real hospital equipment, workplace features, and individual information would likely be a better way forwards in the addressing the current MSD epidemic among hospital nurses, worldwide......
Mache, Stefanie; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A
The aim of this study was to examine relations and influences between work-related factors, personal resources, work engagement and work ability of surgeons working in German hospitals. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey investigation. We used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and the Work Ability Index to evaluate surgeons' work engagement, working conditions and work ability. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. Surgeons reported a moderate work ability and work engagement. The results indicated significant associations between surgeons' sources of work engagement, work ability and work-related factors (e.g. job resources). Significant differences regarding these variables were also detected between males and females and the various age groups. The study results reflect the positive effect of supportive working conditions and work engagement on the preservation of work ability, indicating their importance in promoting surgeons' work ability. Due to the elderly population and the continuing development of health care in Germany, the demand for surgeons increases. These circumstances give reasons for a strong need to preserve and restore surgeons' work ability. New strategies for training and improving the capacity and performance of surgeons are necessary.
Dons, R. F.; Fohlmeister, U.
The risk of combined injury (CI) to space travelers is a function of exposure to anomalously large surges of a broad spectrum of particulate and photon radiations, conventional trauma (T), and effects of weightlessness including decreased intravascular fluid volume, and myocardial deconditioning. CI may occur even at relatively low doses of radiation which can synergistically enhance morbidity and mortality from T. Without effective countermeasures, prolonged residence in space is expected to predispose most individuals to bone fractures as a result of calcium loss in the microgravity environment. Immune dysfunction may occur from residence in space independent of radiation exposure. Thus, wound healing would be compromised if infection were to occur. Survival of the space traveler with CI would be significantly compromised if there were delays in wound closure or in the application of simple supportive medical or surgical therapies. Particulate radiation has the potential for causing greater gastrointestinal injury than photon radiation, but bone healing should not be compromised at the expected doses of either type of radiation in space.
Background: Motorcycles are an emerging means of public transportation in many developing countries and has a poor safety record when compared to other road users. Subsequently, motorcycle injuries have been on the rise and head injuries are the leading cause of death, severe injury and disability globally.
Park, T A; Hartley, J
Economic incentives are emerging as useful preventive approaches to motivating farmers to adopt safer farming and managerial practices. The effectiveness of these programs and incentives will be enhanced by focusing resources on factors that play a critical role in contributing to farm accidents and the injury severity. A primary objective is to identify and assess the relative impact of factors that jointly influence the probability of work-related farm accidents relative to nonwork-related accidents and the severity of farm accidents. The model uses survey data on producer characteristics, farm organization, and work routines from the Georgia Healthy Farmers Project (GHFP). A probit model describing the factors that influence the probability of a work-related accident is estimated jointly with an ordered probit model for farm accident severity. The probit model indicates that older farmers and hired farm workers have higher probabilities of experiencing work-related accidents relative to nonwork-related events. Significant variables that influence the severity of farm accidents are more difficult to identify from the ordered probit models for both work-related and nonwork-related farm accidents.
Gattinoni, L; Tonetti, T; Cressoni, M; Cadringher, P; Herrmann, P; Moerer, O; Protti, A; Gotti, M; Chiurazzi, C; Carlesso, E; Chiumello, D; Quintel, M
We hypothesized that the ventilator-related causes of lung injury may be unified in a single variable: the mechanical power. We assessed whether the mechanical power measured by the pressure-volume loops can be computed from its components: tidal volume (TV)/driving pressure (∆P aw), flow, positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and respiratory rate (RR). If so, the relative contributions of each variable to the mechanical power can be estimated. We computed the mechanical power by multiplying each component of the equation of motion by the variation of volume and RR: [Formula: see text]where ∆V is the tidal volume, ELrs is the elastance of the respiratory system, I:E is the inspiratory-to-expiratory time ratio, and R aw is the airway resistance. In 30 patients with normal lungs and in 50 ARDS patients, mechanical power was computed via the power equation and measured from the dynamic pressure-volume curve at 5 and 15 cmH2O PEEP and 6, 8, 10, and 12 ml/kg TV. We then computed the effects of the individual component variables on the mechanical power. Computed and measured mechanical powers were similar at 5 and 15 cmH2O PEEP both in normal subjects and in ARDS patients (slopes = 0.96, 1.06, 1.01, 1.12 respectively, R (2) > 0.96 and p ventilator-related causes of lung injury and of their variations. The equation can be easily implemented in every ventilator's software.
Patel, Darshan P; Redshaw, Jeffrey D; Breyer, Benjamin N; Smith, Thomas G; Erickson, Bradley A; Majercik, Sarah D; Gaither, Thomas W; Craig, James R; Gardner, Scott; Presson, Angela P; Zhang, Chong; Hotaling, James M; Brant, William O; Myers, Jeremy B
Most high-grade renal injuries (American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) grades III-V) result from motor vehicle collisions associated with numerous concomitant injuries. Sports-related blunt renal injury tends to have a different mechanism, a solitary blow to the flank. We hypothesized that high-grade renal injury is often isolated in sports-related renal trauma. We identified patients with AAST grades III-V blunt renal injuries from four level 1 trauma centres across the United States between 1/2005 and 1/2014. Patients were divided into "Sport" or "Non-sport" related groups. Outcomes included rates of hypotension (systolic blood pressure 110bpm), concomitant abdominal injury, and procedural/surgical intervention between sports and non-sports related injury. 320 patients met study criteria. 18% (59) were sports-related injuries with the most common mechanisms being skiing, snowboarding and contact sports (25%, 25%, and 24%, respectively). Median age was 24 years for sports and 30 years for non-sports related renal injuries (p=0.049). Males were more commonly involved in sports related injuries (85% vs. 72%, p=0.011). Median injury severity score was lower for sports related injuries (10 vs. 27, ptrauma was more likely to be isolated without other significant injury (69% vs. 39% (ptrauma is more likely to occur in isolation without other abdominal or thoracic injuries and clinicians must have a high suspicion of renal injury with significant blows to the flank during sports activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
.... To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience...
Introduction: Farming is a physically laborious occupation and farm workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal complaints. Objective: To determine the work related ... them from musculoskeletal complaints. Improvement in farm work practices through ergonomic training might help reduce musculoskeletal complaints.
Karjalainen, K A; Malmivaara, A O; van Tulder, M W; Roine, R P; Jauhiainen, S; Hurri, H O; Koes, B W
The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation for upper-limb repetitive-strain injuries among working-age adults. Studies were identified from electronic bibliographic databases, reference checks, and consultations with experts in rehabilitation. Four blinded reviewers selected randomized controlled and controlled trials. Two experts evaluated the clinical relevance of the findings. Two other reviewers extracted the data and assessed the main results and the methodological quality of the studies. Finally, a qualitative analysis was performed. Only 2 studies satisfied the criteria. They were both considered to be low-quality trials. The clinical relevance of the included studies was also unsatisfactory. The level of scientific evidence was limited, showing that hypnosis as a supplement to comprehensive treatment can decrease the pain intensity of acute repetitive-strain injury in short follow-ups. There appears to be little scientific evidence for the effectiveness of biopsychosocial rehabilitation with respect to repetitive-strain injuries.
Esbensen, Morten; Bardram, Jakob
Distributed collaboration has a number of problems associated with it. One of these problems is the fact that distributed actors have to engage in explicit work to achieve the connections between them needed in a collaboration. The work of creating these connections have been named relation work....... Relation work is performed throughout a collaboration, however it is especially interesting to investigate in the context of the video meeting. This report asks the question “How can we design support for relation work in distributed video meetings?”. The two main contributions of this report are; (i......) the design, implementation and evaluation of SideBar - a videoconferencing system supporting relation work, and (ii) the proposal of three guidelines relevant for the design of relation work support....
Kearney, Gregory D; Rodriguez, Guadalupe; Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Justin T; Arcury, Thomas A
The aims of this project were to describe the work safety climate and the association between occupational safety behaviors and injuries among hired youth farmworkers in North Carolina (n = 87). We conducted personal interviews among a cross-sectional sample of youth farmworkers aged 10 to 17 years. The majority of youths reported that work safety practices were very important to management, yet 38% stated that supervisors were only interested in "doing the job quickly and cheaply." Few youths reported appropriate work safety behavior, and 14% experienced an injury within the past 12 months. In bivariate analysis, perceptions of work safety climate were significantly associated with pesticide exposure risk factors for rewearing wet shoes (P = .01), wet clothes (P = .01), and shorts (P = .03). Youth farmworkers perceived their work safety climate as being poor. Although additional research is needed to support these findings, these results strengthen the need to increase employer awareness to improve the safety climate for protecting youth farmworkers from harmful exposures and injuries.
A.C. Scholten (Annemieke); J.A. Haagsma (Juanita); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); E.F. van Beeck (Ed); S. Polinder (Suzanne)
textabstractBackground: Insight into the change from pre- to post-injury health-related quality of life (HRQL) of trauma patients is important to derive estimates of the impact of injury on HRQL. Prospectively collected pre-injury HRQL data are, however, often not available due to the difficulty to
Mendonca, S; Gupta, D; Valsan, A; Tewari, R
Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant used extensively in clinical practice; However, its side-effect of causing renal damage has been recently detected. The mechanism leading to renal damage is glomerular hemorrhage and red blood cell tubular casts prothrombin time. Recently, it was found that warfarin causes renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease and is also associated with progression of renal disease. Warfarin causing acute kidney injury in patients with normal renal function is a rare manifestation. It is important to be aware of this condition as its innocuous presence can lead to chronic kidney disease if not corrected in time. Further studies have also found that novel oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran also cause a similar syndrome and hence a new term called anticoagulant-related nephropathy is now in vogue.
Full Text Available Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant used extensively in clinical practice; However, its side-effect of causing renal damage has been recently detected. The mechanism leading to renal damage is glomerular hemorrhage and red blood cell tubular casts prothrombin time. Recently, it was found that warfarin causes renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease and is also associated with progression of renal disease. Warfarin causing acute kidney injury in patients with normal renal function is a rare manifestation. It is important to be aware of this condition as its innocuous presence can lead to chronic kidney disease if not corrected in time. Further studies have also found that novel oral anticoagulants such as dabigatran also cause a similar syndrome and hence a new term called anticoagulant-related nephropathy is now in vogue.
Brauchli, Rebecca; Peeters, Maria C W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07487893X; van Steenbergen, Elianne F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304847895; Wehner, Theo; Hämmig, Oliver
An abundance of research shows the benefits of participation in volunteer work for individuals, employers and the society as a whole. However, relatively little is known about the precursors of volunteer work. In this study, we aim to fill this gap by investigating to what extent work-related
Li, Li; Lin, Trisha T.C
... criticality) and organizational norms influence the work-related smartphone dependency of Chinese young workers. Implications for theories and practices are discussed. Keywords: smartphone dependency, young working adults, dependency relations, task characteristics, organizational norms People use smartphones for day-to-day working practices in a variet...
Windt, Johann; Gabbett, Tim J
Injury aetiology models that have evolved over the previous two decades highlight a number of factors which contribute to the causal mechanisms for athletic injuries. These models highlight the pathway to injury, including (1) internal risk factors (eg, age, neuromuscular control) which predispose athletes to injury, (2) exposure to external risk factors (eg, playing surface, equipment), and finally (3) an inciting event, wherein biomechanical breakdown and injury occurs. The most recent aetiological model proposed in 2007 was the first to detail the dynamic nature of injury risk, whereby participation may or may not result in injury, and participation itself alters injury risk through adaptation. However, although training and competition workloads are strongly associated with injury, existing aetiology models neither include them nor provide an explanation for how workloads alter injury risk. Therefore, we propose an updated injury aetiology model which includes the effects of workloads. Within this model, internal risk factors are differentiated into modifiable and non-modifiable factors, and workloads contribute to injury in three ways: (1) exposure to external risk factors and potential inciting events, (2) fatigue, or negative physiological effects, and (3) fitness, or positive physiological adaptations. Exposure is determined solely by total load, while positive and negative adaptations are controlled both by total workloads, as well as changes in load (eg, the acute:chronic workload ratio). Finally, we describe how this model explains the load-injury relationships for total workloads, acute:chronic workload ratios and the training load-injury paradox. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Mink van der Molen, AB; Groothoff, JW; Visser, GJP; Robinson, PH; Eisma, WH
This study assessed the epidemiology, treatment, disability and time off work due to carpal injuries in the Netherlands in the period from 1990 to 1993. Most injuries were scaphoid fractures and carpal instabilities were rare, The time off work was considerable (mean, 155 days; median, 105 days;
Morken, Tone; Mehlum, Ingrid Sivesind; Moen, Bente E
Since 1992, physicians have reported work-related diseases among workers in Norway's offshore petroleum industry to the Petroleum Safety Authority, as required by law. To analyse the number of reported work-related musculoskeletal disorders and risk factors (occupation and reported exposure) from 1992 to 2003. Data from the Petroleum Safety Authority's registry of work-related diseases were analysed. During the 12 years, 3131 new work-related musculoskeletal disorders were reported and this was the category of work-related disease most frequently reported (47%). The number of work-related musculoskeletal disorders varied substantially from year to year. Disorders of the upper limb accounted for 53% and back disorders for 20% of all work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Lower limb disorders accounted for 16%, of which knee disorders dominated (12% of all cases). The dominant occupational categories were maintenance work (40%) and catering (21%). Frequently reported types of exposure were high physical workload, repetitive work and walking on hard surfaces/climbing stairs and ladders. Strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders should be carried out to reduce the burden of high physical workload and repetitive work, especially in maintenance work and catering. Further research is recommended on the association between walking on hard surfaces/climbing stairs and ladders and knee disorders. Reporting routines need to be improved to monitor trends over time and to assess the effects of interventions.
Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc., site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc., dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion, causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and c2 , ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%, aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years, had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma, dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion, and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%, 55 (45.1%, 53 (44.2%, and 8 (6.7% cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7% were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7% was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%. Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather
Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr
This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ(2), ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18-25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather than amateur athletes. In this study
Xiang, Huiyun; Kelleher, Kelly; Shields, Brenda J; Brown, Keri J; Smith, Gary A
This study aims to describe the characteristics of skiing- and snowboarding-related injuries treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs). Skiing- and snowboarding-related injuries collected by the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System in 2002 were analyzed. Data regarding skiing and snowboarding participation were used to calculate injury rates by age group and activity (skiing versus snowboarding). An estimated 77,300 (95% CI = 11,600-143,000) skiing- and 62,000 (95% CI = 32,800-91,200) snowboarding-related injuries were treated in U.S. hospital EDs in 2002. Wrist injuries (17.9%) and arm injuries (16.6%) among snowboarders and knee injuries (22.7%) among skiers were the most common injuries. The age groups that have the highest skiing-related injury rates were the 55-64 years (29.0 per 1,000 participants), the 65+ years (21.7 per 1,000 participants), and the 45-54 years (15.5 per 1,000 participants). The age groups that have the highest snowboarding-related injuries were the 10-13 years (15.9 per 1,000 participants), the 14-17 years (15.0 per 1,000 participants), and the 18-24 years (13.5 per 1,000 participants). Traumatic brain injury (TBI) rates were higher among older skiers, 55-64 years (2.15 per 1,000 participants), and younger skiers, 10-13 years (1.69 per 1,000 participants). Our study is the first to demonstrate that older skiers are at highest risk for injury. Adolescents are at highest risk for snowboarding-related injury. Prevention of TBI should be a top injury control priority among skiers and snowboarders.
Ullah, Mohammad Mosayed; Fossey, Ellie; Stuckey, Rwth
Scoping review. To explore the meaning of work after spinal cord injury (SCI) in existing literature. Arksey and O'Malley's widely used methodological framework for scoping reviews was used to guide this review. Studies involving adults with SCI, conducted using qualitative methods, and published in peer reviewed literature were identified based on key terms and searches in three databases (CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO). Further search steps included checking citations in identified articles and citation tracking for other relevant articles and reviews. Reported qualitative data were then thematically analysed to generate themes. Twelve studies were included. Three themes were identified across these studies that describe the meanings of work after spinal cord injury: re-developing a sense of self, re-establishing place in the community and regaining economic self-sufficiency. The varied meanings of work after SCI identified in this review may be used in rehabilitation programs to explore ideas about work, the types of work they wish to pursue, and the ways in which work may be meaningful for people with SCI, so as to identify individually and contextually relevant work. Taking account of meaning in ICF based models of work participation could enhance patient-centred approaches in SCI rehabilitation.
Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van
Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch
Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van
Objectives - We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods - We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch
Wang, Li-min; Sun, Yao-wu; Han, Yun-feng; Xiang, Huiyun; Stallones, Lorann; Xue, Hai-feng; Cheng, Yu; Li, Sheng-san
To understand the incidence rates of agricultural profession-related injuries and the relationship to alcohol consumption. A multistage sample of 2366 villagers was selected from Minority Nationality Villages, Heilongjiang province. Face-to-face interviews were conducted by trained interviewers during May 2008. 2198 (92.9%) of the eligible questionnaires were available. Incidence rate of agricultural profession-related injury rate was 11.8% (260/2198) from May 2007 to April 2008. Higher proportions of injuries were seen for males, 30 - 49 year olds, farmers and among those people working on farms for 10 years or more, smoking during farm work, with sleeping disorder, using motor vehicles, and those using agricultural machinery. Rate of alcohol drinking was 29.1% (640/2198) in the month prior to the investigation. Results from logistic regression models showed that alcohol consumption patterns and other alcohol-related behavior were examined in separate logistic models because of collinearity by controlling the variables that were associated with agricultural profession-related injury including sex, age, years of farm work, driving a motor vehicle, and agricultural machinery use etc. In each model, the reference group was those villagers who did not drink in the past month. The odds of injury among villagers with history of past month drinking, who drank distilled spirits, and alcohol drinking at breakfast and lunch were 1.80 (95%CI: 1.24 - 2.62), 2.09 (95%CI: 1.38 - 3.15), 2.15(95%CI: 1.43 - 3.22) respectively. The odds of agricultural injury also significantly increased with greater average amounts of pure alcohol per day, with increased frequency of drinking per week, and reported years of drinking. Intervention efforts should include increasing awareness about alcohol drinking as a major risk factor causing agricultural injuries as well as controlling alcohol drinking, improving knowledge about driving motor vehicle and using agricultural machinery.
Weigel, M M; Armijos, R X; Beltran, O
Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are at high risk for musculoskeletal and other occupational injuries. Although persons aged 40-80 years account for 40 % of all US farmworkers and as many as 50 % in certain regions, little is known about their occupational health issues. The current study examined work-related persistent musculoskeletal injuries (PMIs) and their association with clinical and functional indicators of disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in 177 middle-aged and elderly US-Mexico border farmworkers. At interview, 68 % reported current PMI pain; 51 % had pain at multiple sites. PMI pain was associated with increased shoulder, knee, and lower extremity dysfunction and reduced HRQOL scores. However, fewer than 25 % of injured participants received any conventional medical treatment. The study results indicated that work-related PMIs, especially multiple PMIs, caused significant functional impairment, disability, and poorer HRQOL, adversely affecting the ability of the aging farmworkers to perform work, self-care, and other daily activities.
Kinnunen-Amoroso, Maritta; Liira, Juha
Work-related stress has become one of the major problems in working societies and it increases employees' risk of disease. Its importance has been emphasized also due to its' great socio-economic consequences. Different stress management and worksite interventions have been implemented, however, the actual practices in companies have been assessed little. The purpose of this study was to examine how enterprises in Finland manage work-related stress. An assessment of work-related stress methods was conducted in 40 enterprises acting in the metropolitan area of Finland in May 2010 by a questionnaire. The concept of work-related stress was well known by participants. Enterprises rarely had their own work-related stress management protocol even though all of the workplaces had experienced work-related stress at some point. The collaboration between the workplace and occupational health services varied. Companies easily placed the responsibility for work-related stress assessment and handling on occupational health services. Workplaces have to pay more attention to work-related stress and related issues. The easiest way to do this is to collaborate with occupational health services. Protocols for collaboration should be developed jointly using the available models which have been established as cost-effective.
This interpretivist study contributes to our scholarly understanding of how everyday practices surrounding work-related stress in education affect teacher leadership and successful learning outcomes...
Opollo, J G; Gray, J; Spies, L A
To describe perceived work-related quality of life of Ugandan healthcare workers. A secondary aim was to seek participant input on ways to improve work environments. Poor patient outcomes, decreased employee motivation and decisions to leave the organization have been linked to poor work conditions. Interventions to correct healthcare worker shortage in developing countries require information about work quality of life. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in health and educational settings in Uganda in July 2011. Participants completed the Biographical Information Scale demographic questionnaire and the validated 24-item Work-Related Quality of Life scale. Sample included 146 healthcare workers employed in various settings. Participants reported poorer quality of work life on the work conditions, control at work and home-work interface subscales. Participants perceived stress at work to be low and experienced higher job career satisfaction. There was a significant relationship between work-related quality of life, gender and hours worked. Participants' suggestions to improve work life ranged from simple no-cost suggestions to more complex system level interventions. Work-related quality of life was low in this convenience sample. Perceived stress at work was lower than expected, but may have been due to nurses' expectations of a normal work assignment. Predominantly women, the participants had significant caregiving responsibilities. Nurses must acquire a seat at the table where crucial decisions about nursing and its future are made. By advancing leadership skills, nurses can effectively advocate for organizational changes that address broad factors related to increasing job satisfaction, and retaining and attracting nurses. Nurses can influence work quality of life individually and collectively by identifying workplace concerns, demanding safe work environments, fostering teamwork and enhancing professional growth. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.
Ipsen, Christine; Jensen, Per Langaa
Recent studies point to work-related stress as an increasing problem for knowledge workers. However, the working life in knowledge-intensive companies is often described as good and stimulating. The aim of this study is to explore the organizational options for preventing work-related problems...... productivity. Relevance to industry: The paper identifies organizational options on which managers, employees and ergonomists can focus when initiating new stress management practices and preventive changes aimed at redesigning knowledge work. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....... in knowledge work. This calls for a study of the characteristics of knowledge work, stress management interventions and an in-depth analysis of the organizational factors causing frustrations and work-related problems in relation to knowledge work. In a qualitative study, 27 respondents were interviewed...
Lee, Byoung-kwon; Seo, Dong-kwon; Lee, Jang-Tae; Lee, A-Ram; Jeon, Ha-Neul; Han, Dong-Uk
.... It should help create efficient personnel and organization management by exploring the impact of the work environment and work-related stress on turnover intention and analyzing the correlation between them...
Collard, Dorine C M; Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Mechelen, Willem; Heymans, Martijn W; Chinapaw, Mai J M
Injuries in children occur most often in physical activity-related activities. A lot of these injuries result in direct and indirect costs. A detailed overview of the economic burden of those injuries in children is lacking. A prospective study was conducted with 996 children in Dutch primary schools to describe the economic burden of injuries that occur during organised sports, leisure time and physical education (PE) class activities. Injuries were continuously monitored by PE teachers during the school year 2006-2007. An injury was recorded if it occurred during PE class, leisure time or organised sports activity and caused the child to at least stop the current activity. If an injury was recorded, parents received a cost diary to report the direct and indirect costs of the child's injury. Costs were collected from a societal perspective. During one school year, a total of 119 injuries were reported by 104 children. The mean total costs as a result of an injury were €188 ± 317. The mean direct costs as a result of an injury were much higher than the mean indirect costs (€131 ± 213 and €57 ± 159, respectively). The highest costs were found for upper extremity and leisure time injuries. Physical activity-related injuries are common in children and result in medical costs. Injuries that lead to the highest costs are those that occur during leisure time activities and upper extremity injuries. Intervention programmes for children to prevent upper extremity injuries and leisure time activity injuries may reduce direct (ie, healthcare) and indirect costs. ISRCTN78846684.
Perreira, Tyrone; Berta, Whitney; Ginsburg, Liane; Barnsley, Jan; Herbert, Monique
Work attitudes have been associated with work productivity. In health care, poor work attitudes have been linked to poor performance, decreased patient safety, and quality care. Hence, the importance, ascribed in the literature, of work that clearly identifies the relationships between and among work attitudes and work behaviors linked to performance. The purpose of this study is to better understand the relationships between work attitudes-perceived organizational justice, perceived organizational support (POS), affective commitment-consistently associated with a key type of performance outcome among nurses' organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). A survey was developed and administered to frontline nurses working in the province of Ontario, Canada. Data analysis used path analytic techniques. Direct associations were identified between interpersonal justice and POS, procedural justice and POS, and POS and affective commitment to both one's supervisor and one's co-workers. Affective commitment to patients and career was directly associated with OCBs. Affective commitment to one's co-worker was directly associated with OCBs directed toward individuals, as affective commitment to one's organization was with OCBs directed toward the organization. Finally, OCBIs and OCBs were directly associated. Examining the relationships of these constructs in a single model is novel and provides new information regarding their complexity. Findings suggest that prior approaches to studying these relationships may have been undernuanced, and conceptualizations may have led to somewhat inaccurate conclusions regarding their associations. With limited resources, knowledge of nurse work attitudes can inform human resource practices and operational policies involving training programs in employee communication, transparency, interaction, support, and performance evaluation.
Olsen, Ingrid Blø; Øverland, Simon; Reme, Silje Endresen; Løvvik, Camilla
Common mental disorders (CMDs) are major causes of sickness absence and disability. Prevention requires knowledge of how individuals perceive causal mechanisms, and in this study we sought to examine work-related factors as causal attribution of CMDs. A trial sample of n = 1,193, recruited because they struggled with work participation due to CMDs, answered an open-ended questionnaire item about what they believed were the most important causes of their CMDs. The population included participants at risk of sickness absence, and participants with reduced work participation due to sickness absence, disability or unemployment. We used thematic content analysis and categorized responses from 487 participants who reported work-related factors as causal attributions of their CMDs. Gender differences in work-related causal attributions were also examined. The participants attributed their CMDs to the following work-related factors; work stress, leadership, reduced work participation, job dissatisfaction, work conflict, social work environment, job insecurity and change, workplace bullying, and physical strain. Women tended to attribute CMDs to social factors at work. Findings from this study suggest several work-related risk factors for CMDs. Both factors at the workplace, and reduced work participation, were perceived by study participants as contributing causes of CMDs. Thus, there is a need to promote work participation whilst at the same time targeting aversive workplace factors. Further, our findings indicate that work-related factors may affect women and men differently. This illustrates that the association between work participation and CMDs is complex, and needs to be explored further.
Murphy, Colin G
INTRODUCTION: Bovine-related injuries to farmers are common in rural communities. Many injuries are significant requiring hospital admission and surgery. We reviewed all cattle-related injuries admitted to a regional trauma centre over 10 years and detail the nature of the injuries. METHOD: A retrospective review was undertaken, using hospital inpatient coding system (HIPE) to identify patients admitted following cow-related trauma for the last 10 years. From retrieved charts mechanism of injury was identified, demographics recorded and Injury Severity Score (ISS) and Trauma Injury Severity Score (TRISS) calculated based on the injuries sustained. RESULTS: 47 patients were identified, with a median age of 53 years. 4 injuries occurred in children, and 12 in patients over 65 years old. Three-quarters of those injured were male. Kicking was the most common mechanism of injury (n=21), but charge\\/head-butt injuries and trampling injuries were associated with more serious injury scores. 72% of patients were admitted under Orthopaedics as their primary care team, 25% under General Surgeons, with one patient admitted medically. Mean ISS score was 6.9 (range 1-50). 41 operative interventions were performed on 30 patients during their admission. 6.3% of patients required admission to Intensive Care with a mean length of stay of 12.3 days (range 2-21 days). There was no mortality. CONCLUSION: Cow-related trauma is a common among farming communities and is a potentially serious mechanism of injury that appears to be under-reported in a hospital context. Bovine-related head-butt and trampling injuries should be considered akin to high-velocity trauma.
Ye, C; Sun, T; Li, J; Zhang, F
Retrospective study. To determine the characteristics of sports- and recreation-related (SR-related) spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in Beijing. Beijing, China. A review of the complete medical records of 57 consecutive SR-related SCI patients referred to four general hospitals and two rehabilitation institutions was carried out. Patients were injured between 1993 and 2006. The variables studied included demography, sports and recreation characteristics, diagnoses and outcome. There were 44 males and 13 females with a ratio of 3.3:1. The mean age was 24.49+/-11.92 years. In 37 patients (64.9%), water sports was the single most commont cause. Of them, injury because of diving was seen in 34, which constituted 59.6% of the total. Other types of sports and recreation accounted for 35.1%. Level of cord lesion was cervical in 89.5% and thoracic in 10.5% of the injured. The lesion of C4 alone constituted 45.6% of the total. The ratio of complete to incomplete lesion was 1.2:1. In all, two patients died, and one with an injury at the C4 level recovered completely. Of the other 54 survivals, 48 (89%) remained tetraplegic and six remained paraplegic (11%). The main underlying cause was the lack of safety awareness, safety regulations and their implementation. SR-related SCI was most commonly seen among young male adults, predominantly as a result of diving accidents. There was a significant increase in sports injuries, other than those caused by diving, in later years. Successful prevention programs of other countries are being adopted in Beijing in recent years, hence an improvement in safety is expected in the years to come. This work was sponsored by Funding Project for Academic Human Resources Development in Institutions of Higher Learning Under the Jurisdiction of Beijing Municipality(2007) and Funding Project for Science and Technology Development of Beijing Municipality(km200710029003).
Karakolis, Thomas; Bhan, Shivam; Crotin, Ryan L
In Major League Baseball (MLB), games pitched, total innings pitched, total pitches thrown, innings pitched per game, and pitches thrown per game are used to measure cumulative work. Often, pitchers are allocated limits, based on pitches thrown per game and total innings pitched in a season, in an attempt to prevent future injuries. To date, the efficacy in predicting injuries from these cumulative work metrics remains in question. It was hypothesized that the cumulative work metrics would be a significant predictor for future injury in MLB pitchers. Correlations between cumulative work for pitchers during 2002-07 and injury days in the following seasons were examined using regression analyses to test this hypothesis. Each metric was then "binned" into smaller cohorts to examine trends in the associated risk of injury for each cohort. During the study time period, 27% of pitchers were injured after a season in which they pitched. Although some interesting trends were noticed during the binning process, based on the regression analyses, it was found that no cumulative work metric was a significant predictor for future injury. It was concluded that management of a pitcher's playing schedule based on these cumulative work metrics alone could not be an effective means of preventing injury. These findings indicate that an integrated approach to injury prevention is required. This approach will likely involve advanced cumulative work metrics and biomechanical assessment.
Davies, Patrick; Surridge, Julia; Hole, Laura; Munro-Davies, Lisa
Five cases of serious injuries to children wearing superhero costumes, involving extreme risk-taking behaviour, are presented here. Although children have always displayed behaviour seemingly unwise to the adult eye, the advent of superhero role models can give unrealistic expectations to the child, which may lead to serious injury. The children we saw have all had to contemplate on their way to hospital that they do not in fact possess superpowers. The inbuilt injury protection which some costumes possess is also discussed.
Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann
Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated r...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....
Aas, R.W.; Haveraaen, L.A.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Skarpaas, L.S.
Acquired brain injury (ABI) is known to be severely disabling. On average, 40% of employeesreturn to work (RTW) within two years after injury. There is, however, limited research on what might con-tribute to successful RTW. To examine factors that might impact the time-to first RTW for patients with
van Mol, Margo M C; Nijkamp, Marjan D; Bakker, Jan; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kompanje, Erwin J O
Working in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is increasingly complex and is also physically, cognitively and emotionally demanding. Although the negative emotions of work-related stress have been well studied, the opposite perspective of work engagement might also provide valuable insight into how these emotional demands may be countered. This study focused on the work engagement of ICU professionals and explored the complex relationship between work engagement, job demands and advantageous personal resources. This was a cross-sectional survey study among ICU professionals in a single-centre university hospital. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, which included items about opinions related to the respondent's work environment. Additionally, 14 items based on the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy were included to measure empathic ability. A digital link to the questionnaire was sent in October 2015 to a population of 262 ICU nurses and 53 intensivists. The overall response rate was 61% (n=193). Work engagement was negatively related both to cognitive demands among intensivists and to emotional demands among ICU nurses. No significant relationship was found between work engagement and empathic ability; however, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional stability were highly correlated with work engagement. Only the number of hours worked per week remained as a confounding factor, with a negative effect of workload on work engagement after controlling for the effect of weekly working hours. Work engagement counterbalances work-related stress reactions. The relatively high workload in ICUs, coupled with an especially heavy emotional burden, may be acknowledged as an integral part of ICU work. This workload does not affect the level of work engagement, which was high for both intensivists and nurses despite the known high job demands. Specific factors that contribute to a healthy and successful work life among ICU professionals need
van Markus-Doornbosch, F; de Kloet, A J; Berger, M A M; Lambregts, S A M; Wolterbeek, R; Vliet Vlieland, T P M
To assess the degree of fatigue in children and youth after traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury (TBI and NTBI) and related factors. Follow-up study including patients with a hospital-based diagnosis of acquired brain injury (ABI), aged 4-20 years at onset and their parents. Parents and children (dependent on age) completed the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL™ MFS), which measures general fatigue (GF), sleep/rest fatigue (SRF) and cognitive fatigue (CF). Additional assessments included the Child & Family Follow-up Survey (CFFS) and PedsQL™ 4.0 General Core Scales and sociodemographic and disease characteristics. Eighty-eight parents completed the PedsQL™ MFS 24-30 months after diagnosis, with 49/88 patients (56%) completing the child version. The median age of the patients was 11 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 7). There were 69 patients with TBI (16% moderate/severe TBI) and 19 patients with NTBI (16% moderate/severe NTBI). The median parent-reported and child-reported PedsQL™ MFS Total Scale Scores were 76.5 (SD = 16.4) and 78.5 (12.9), respectively (Spearman r = 0.450, p = 0.001). Apart from NTBI, increasing age and a single-parent household were significantly associated with more fatigue according to the parent-reported PedsQL™ MFS Total Score (and/or one or more sub-scale scores). Two years after onset, in particular, the parent-reported fatigue after NTBI was considerable. Moreover, older children and children from a single-parent household were found to have higher fatigue levels.
Rahul G Sangani
Full Text Available Rahul G Sangani, Andrew J GhioEnvironmental Public Health Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking are yet to be delineated. We propose that 1 injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure to and retention of particles produced during smoking and 2 the biological effects of particles associated with cigarette smoking share a single mechanism of injury with all particles. Smoking one cigarette exposes the human respiratory tract to between 15,000 and 40,000 µg particulate matter; this is a carbonaceous product of an incomplete combustion. There are numerous human exposures to other particles, and these vary widely in composition, absolute magnitude, and size of the particle. Individuals exposed to all these particles share a common clinical presentation with a loss of pulmonary function, increased bronchial hyperresponsiveness, pathologic changes of emphysema and fibrosis, and comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cancers. Mechanistically, all particle exposures produce an oxidative stress, which is associated with a series of reactions, including an activation of kinase cascades and transcription factors, release of inflammatory mediators, and apoptosis. If disease associated with cigarette smoking is recognized to be particle related, then certain aspects of the clinical presentation can be predicted; this would include worsening of pulmonary function and progression of pathological changes and comorbidity (eg, emphysema and carcinogenesis after smoking cessation since the particle is retained in the lung and the exposure continues.Keywords: particulate matter, smoking, oxidants, oxidative stress, air pollution
Wills, Andrew; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert
Few studies have examined the impact of safety climate upon occupational safety behavior or intentions, focusing instead on the event of incidents and injuries. Similarly, while safety climate has been studied in numerous industrial settings, limited attention has been given to the motor vehicle fleet context. This study conceptualized safety climate and work-related driver safety within a model informed by Bandura's Reciprocal Determinism and the Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior. The relative impact of safety climate upon four self-reported measures of work-related driver safety was investigated including: 1) current work-related driver behavior, 2) future work-related driving intentions, and 3) past crash involvement while driving for work. There was a moderate relationship between safety climate perceptions and the safety of current driver behavior at work (r = 0.40). The relationship with the safety of future driving intentions was also moderate (r = 0.29). Multiple regression analyses revealed that safety climate was a significant predictor of current driver behavior (beta = 0.30) and future driving intentions (beta = 0.18) at work. However, attitude was the stronger predictor of future driving intentions (beta = 0.28). Logistic regression analyses showed that neither fleet safety climate, nor the other factors included, predicted work-related crash involvement or traffic offences. Possible explanations for these results are outlined. Implications of the findings for occupational safety management, particularly in the fleet setting, are also discussed.
Choi, Eun Sook; Ha, Yeongmi
Work-related stress and risk factors among Korean employees were identified in this study. Data were obtained from employees aged 20 to 64 using the Korean Working Conditions Survey 2006 (KWCS). Multiple logistic regression analysis using SAS version 9.1 was performed to examine risk factors of work-related stress by gender. The age-adjusted prevalence of work-related stress among male and female employees was 18.4% and 15.1% respectively. After adjustments for multiple variables among both male and female employees, there was a significant relationship between work-related stress and risk factors including education, company size, work time, ergonomic risks, biological.chemical risks, and job demands. The significant variables for male employees were housework load, occupational class, and shift work, and for female employees, type of employment. There is a need to develop and support intensive stress management programs nationally giving consideration to work-related stress associated with working time, physical working environment, and job demands. Based on gender specific approaches, for male employes, stress management programs should be developed with consideration being given to occupational class and shift work. For stress management programs for female employees, consideration needs to be given to permanent employment status, specifically those in small companies.
The concept of work engagement has existed in business and psychology literature for some time. There is a significant body of research that positively correlates work engagement with organizational outcomes. To date, the interest in the work engagement of nurses has primarily been related to these organizational outcomes. However, the value of work engagement in nursing practice is not only an issue of organizational interest, but of ethical interest. The dialogue on work engagement in nursing must expand to include the ethical importance of engagement. The relational nature of work engagement and the multiple levels of influence on nurses' work engagement make a relational ethics approach to work engagement in nursing appropriate and necessary. Within a relational ethics perspective, it is evident that work engagement enables nurses to have meaningful relationships in their work and subsequently deliver ethical care. In this article, I argue that work engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice. If engagement is essential for ethical nursing practice, the environmental and organizational factors that influence work engagement must be closely examined to pursue the creation of moral communities within healthcare environments. © The Author(s) 2014.
Pritzker, Suzanne; Burwell, Christianna
Political involvement is an integral component of the social work profession, yet there is no explicit reference to social work participation in election-related activities in either the National Association of Social Workers Code of Ethics or the Council on Social Work Education Educational Policy and Accreditation Standards. Social work…
Norup, Anne; Siert, Lars; Lykke Mortensen, Erik
31 primary relatives of patients with severe brain injury. The participants were recruited at admission to Traumatic Brain Injury Unit, Copenhagen University Hospital, Glostrup. All relatives completed the depression and anxiety scales from SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist) and the Role Emotional, Social...... of life and symptoms of anxiety and depression at the time of admission. Future research should focus on developing and evaluating interventions in the acute phase....... Function, Mental Health and Vitality scale of the SF-36 approximately 36 days after injury. Data concerning severity of injury, the patients' level of consciousness and function was also collected. MAIN OUTCOME AND RESULTS: The participants had significantly lower scores on all quality of life scales (p...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Polypharmacy is regarded as an important risk factor for fallingand several studies and meta-analyses have shown an increased fall risk in users of diuretics, type 1a antiarrhythmics, digoxin and psychotropic agents. In particular, recent evidence has shown that fall risk is associated with the use of polypharmacy regimens that include at least one established fall risk-increasing drug, rather than with polypharmacy per se. We studied the role of polypharmacy and the role of well-known fall risk-increasing drugs on the incidence of injurious falls. Methods A retrospective observational study was carried out in a population of elderly nursing home residents. An unmatched, post-stratification design for age class, gender and length of stay was adopted. In all, 695 falls were recorded in 293 residents. Results 221 residents (75.4% were female and 72 (24.6% male, and 133 (45.4% were recurrent fallers. 152 residents sustained no injuries when they fell, whereas injuries were sustained by 141: minor in 95 (67.4% and major in 46 (32.6%. Only fall dynamics (p = 0.013 and drugs interaction between antiarrhythmic or antiparkinson class and polypharmacy regimen (≥7 medications seem to represent a risk association for injuries (p = 0.024; OR = 4.4; CI 95% 1.21 - 15.36. Conclusion This work reinforces the importance of routine medication reviews, especially in residents exposed to polypharmacy regimens that include antiarrhythmics or antiparkinson drugs, in order to reduce the risk of fall-related injuries during nursing home stays.
Baranzini, Federico; Diurni, Marcello; Ceccon, Francesca; Poloni, Nicola; Cazzamalli, Sara; Costantini, Chiara; Colli, Cristiano; Greco, Laura; Callegari, Camilla
Polypharmacy is regarded as an important risk factor for fallingand several studies and meta-analyses have shown an increased fall risk in users of diuretics, type 1a antiarrhythmics, digoxin and psychotropic agents. In particular, recent evidence has shown that fall risk is associated with the use of polypharmacy regimens that include at least one established fall risk-increasing drug, rather than with polypharmacy per se. We studied the role of polypharmacy and the role of well-known fall risk-increasing drugs on the incidence of injurious falls. A retrospective observational study was carried out in a population of elderly nursing home residents. An unmatched, post-stratification design for age class, gender and length of stay was adopted. In all, 695 falls were recorded in 293 residents. 221 residents (75.4%) were female and 72 (24.6%) male, and 133 (45.4%) were recurrent fallers. 152 residents sustained no injuries when they fell, whereas injuries were sustained by 141: minor in 95 (67.4%) and major in 46 (32.6%). Only fall dynamics (p = 0.013) and drugs interaction between antiarrhythmic or antiparkinson class and polypharmacy regimen (> or =7 medications) seem to represent a risk association for injuries (p = 0.024; OR = 4.4; CI 95% 1.21 - 15.36). This work reinforces the importance of routine medication reviews, especially in residents exposed to polypharmacy regimens that include antiarrhythmics or antiparkinson drugs, in order to reduce the risk of fall-related injuries during nursing home stays.
Full Text Available In this fMRI study, the functions of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex were studied in a group of adolescents who had sustained a moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury. A spatial working memory task with varying working memory loads, representing experimental conditions of increasing difficulty, was administered.In a cross-sectional comparison between the patients and a matched control group, patients performed worse than Controls, showing longer reaction times and lower response accuracy on the spatial working memory task. Brain imaging findings suggest a possible double-dissociation: activity of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex in the Traumatic Brain Injury group, but not in the Control group, was associated with task difficulty; conversely, activity of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in the Control group, but not in the TBI group, was correlated with task difficulty.In addition to the main cross-sectional study, a longitudinal study of a group of adolescent patients with moderate to severe Traumatic Brain Injury was done using fMRI and the same spatial working memory task. The patient group was studied at two time points: one time point during the post-acute phase and one time point 12 months later, during the chronic phase. Results indicated that patients' behavioral performance improved over time, suggesting cognitive recovery. Brain imaging findings suggest that, over this 12 month period, patients recruited less of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex and more of the left Sensorimotor Cortex in response to increasing task difficulty.The role of Anterior Cingulate Cortex in executive functions following a moderate to severe brain injury in adolescence is discussed within the context of conflicting models of the Anterior Cingulate Cortex functions in the existing literature.
Jensen, Sune Qvotrup; Kyed, Morten; Christensen, Ann Dorte
of safety and the practices that lead to work-related accidents. The article concludes that the gender perspective is useful to expand the knowledge about safety and work-accidents in relation to for instance pride and bodily strength as well as the struggles between different masculinities....
Agai-Demjaha, Teuta; Bislimovska, Jovanka Karadzinska; Mijakoski, Dragan
Teaching is considered a highly stressful occupation, with work-related stress levels among teachers being among the highest compared to other professions. Unfortunately there are very few studies regarding the levels of work-related stress among teachers in the Republic of Macedonia. To identify the level of self-perceived work-related stress among teachers in elementary schools and its relationship to gender, age, position in the workplace, the level of education and working experience. We performed a descriptive-analytical model of a cross-sectional study that involved 300 teachers employed in nine elementary schools. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a specially designed questionnaire. We found that the majority of interviewed teachers perceive their work-related stress as moderate. The level of work-related stress was significantly high related to the gender, age, position in workplace, as well as working experience (p related to level of education (p grade teachers perceives the workplace as extremely stressful as compared to the upper-grade teachers (18.5% vs. 5.45%), while the same is true for female respondents as compared to the male ones (15.38% vs. 3.8%). In addition, our results show that teachers with university education significantly more often associate their workplace with stronger stress than their colleagues with high education (13.48% vs. 9.4%). We also found that there is no significant difference of stress levels between new and more experienced teachers. Our findings confirm that the majority of interviewed teachers perceived their work-related stress as high or very high. In terms of the relationship between the level of teachers' stress and certain demographic and job characteristics, according to our results, the level of work-related stress has shown significantly high relation to gender, age, levels of grades taught as well as working experience, and significant relation to the level of education.
Hyatt, Kyong S; Davis, Linda L; Barroso, Julie
More than 300,000 soldiers have returned from Southwest Asia (i.e., Iraq and Afghanistan) with combat-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBIs). Despite less visible physical injuries, these soldiers demonstrate various physical and cognitive symptoms that impact their ability to reintegrate post-mTBI. This study explores family reintegration experiences, as described by married dyads, following a combat-related mTBI. Nine soldiers with mTBI and their spouses participat