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Sample records for work potential predictors

  1. Predictors of nurse manager stress: a dominance analysis of potential work environment stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kath, Lisa M; Stichler, Jaynelle F; Ehrhart, Mark G; Sievers, Andree

    2013-11-01

    Nurse managers have important but stressful jobs. Clinical or bedside nurse predictors of stress have been studied more frequently, but less has been done on work environment predictors for those in this first-line leadership role. Understanding the relative importance of those work environment predictors could be used to help identify the most fruitful areas for intervention, potentially improving recruitment and retention for nurse managers. Using Role Stress Theory and the Job Demands-Resources Theory, a model was tested examining the relative importance of five potential predictors of nurse manager stress (i.e., stressors). The work environment stressors included role ambiguity, role overload, role conflict, organizational constraints, and interpersonal conflict. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey study was conducted with a convenience sample of 36 hospitals in the Southwestern United States. All nurse managers working in these 36 hospitals were invited to participate. Of the 636 nurse managers invited, 480 responded, for a response rate of 75.5%. Questionnaires were distributed during nursing leadership meetings and were returned in person (in sealed envelopes) or by mail. Because work environment stressors were correlated, dominance analysis was conducted to examine which stressors were the most important predictors of nurse manager stress. Role overload was the most important predictor of stress, with an average of 13% increase in variance explained. The second- and third-most important predictors were organizational constraints and role conflict, with an average of 7% and 6% increase in variance explained, respectively. Because other research has shown deleterious effects of nurse manager stress, organizational leaders are encouraged to help nurse managers reduce their actual and/or perceived role overload and organizational constraints. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pride and confidence at work: potential predictors of occupational health in a hospital setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kerstin; Hertting, Anna; Petterson, Inga-Lill; Theorell, Töres

    2005-01-01

    Background This study focuses on determinants of a healthy work environment in two departments in a Swedish university hospital. The study is based on previously conducted longitudinal studies at the hospital (1994–2001), concerning working conditions and health outcomes among health care personnel in conjunction with downsizing processes. Overall, there was a general negative trend in relation to mental health, as well as long-term sick leave during the study period. The two departments chosen for the current study differed from the general hospital trend in that they showed stable health development. The aim of the study was to identify and analyse experiential determinants of healthy working conditions. Methods Thematic open-ended interviews were carried out with seventeen managers and key informants, representing different groups of co-workers in the two departments. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and an inductive content analysis was made. Results In the two studied departments the respondents perceived that it was advantageous to belong to a small department, and to work in cooperation-oriented care. The management approaches described by both managers and co-workers could be interpreted as transformational, due to a strain of visionary, delegating, motivating, confirmative, supportive attitudes and a strongly expressed solution-oriented attitude. The daily work included integrated learning activities. The existing organisational conditions, approaches and attitudes promoted tendencies towards a work climate characterised by trust, team spirit and professionalism. In the description of the themes organisational conditions, approaches and climate, two core determinants, work-pride and confidence, for healthy working conditions were interpreted. Our core determinants augment the well-established concepts: manageability, comprehensiveness and meaningfulness. These favourable conditions seem to function as a buffer against the general negative effects

  3. Predictors of work ability in occupations with psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Seibt, Reingard; Spitzer, Silvia; Blank, Matthes; Scheuch, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Aim This study aimed to detect health- and work-related predictors of poor and good work ability in teachers (TE) and office workers (OW). Method Work ability and its influence factors were analyzed in 100 female TE and 60 female OW aged between 25 and 60 years. The work ability was evaluated with the wo...

  4. Student Admission Criteria as Predictors of Research Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Gary L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A study at one university found that traditional admission criteria for a graduate microbiology program, undergraduate grade point average, and Graduate Record Examination scores, were not good predictors of student potential as a researcher, as measured by faculty ratings. (MSE)

  5. Distal and proximal predictors of snacking at work: A daily-survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Pundt, Alexander; Venz, Laura

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed at examining predictors of healthy and unhealthy snacking at work. As proximal predictors we looked at food-choice motives (health motive, affect-regulation motive); as distal predictors we included organizational eating climate, emotional eating, and self-control demands at work. We collected daily survey data from 247 employees, over a period of 2 workweeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling showed that organizational eating climate predicted health as food-choice motive, whereas emotional eating and self-control demands predicted affect regulation as food-choice motive. The health motive, in turn, predicted consuming more fruits and more cereal bars and less sweet snacks; the affect-regulation motive predicted consuming more sweet snacks. Findings highlight the importance of a health-promoting eating climate within the organization and point to the potential harm of high self-control demands at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina; Wendelbo, Troels

    Nordic countries. We find that the effect of pay and 'sociability' on absence depends on the individual being employed in a private or public organization. We also find that the effect of pay depends on being a manager or not, and so do work pressure, job security, cooperation, climate among colleagues......This paper studies the interaction of sector and occupational status with psychosocial work characteristics, job satisfaction, and work stress as predictors of absenteeism. The odds ratio and population attributable risk are estimated based on data from a survey of 10,748 individuals from four......, and whether work gets the individual down....

  7. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finne, Live Bakke; Christensen, Jan Olav; Knardahl, Stein

    2014-01-01

    Studies exploring psychological and social work factors in relation to mental health problems (anxiety and depression) have mainly focused on a limited set of exposures. The current study investigated prospectively a broad set of specific psychological and social work factors as predictors of potentially clinically relevant mental distress (anxiety and depression), i.e. “caseness” level of distress. Employees were recruited from 48 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 3644 employees responded at both baseline and at follow-up two years later. Respondents were distributed across 832 departments within the 48 organizations. Nineteen work factors were measured. Two prospective designs were tested: (i) with baseline predictors and (ii) with average exposure over time ([T1+T2]/2) as predictors. Random intercept logistic regressions were conducted to account for clustering of the data. Baseline “cases” were excluded (n = 432). Age, sex, skill level, and mental distress as a continuous variable at T1 were adjusted for. Fourteen of 19 factors showed some prospective association with mental distress. The most consistent risk factor was role conflict (highest odds ratio [OR] 2.08, 99% confidence interval [CI]: 1.45–3.00). The most consistent protective factors were support from immediate superior (lowest OR 0.56, 99% CI: 0.43–0.72), fair leadership (lowest OR 0.52, 99% CI: 0.40–0.68), and positive challenge (lowest OR 0.60, 99% CI: 0.41–0.86). The present study demonstrated that a broad set of psychological and social work factors predicted mental distress of potential clinical relevance. Some of the most consistent predictors were different from those traditionally studied. This highlights the importance of expanding the range of factors beyond commonly studied concepts like the demand-control model and the effort-reward imbalance model. PMID:25048033

  8. Sleep Disturbances as a Predictor of Cause-Specific Work Disability and Delayed Return to Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salo, Paula; Oksanen, Tuula; Sivertsen, Børge; Hall, Martica; Pentti, Jaana; Virtanen, Marianna; Vahtera, Jussi; Mika, Kivimäki

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective: To examine sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work. Design: Prospective observational cohort study linking survey data on sleep disturbances with records of work disability (≥ 90 days sickness absence, disability pension, or death) obtained from national registers. Setting: Public sector employees in Finland. Participants: 56,732 participants (mean age 44.4 years, 80% female), who were at work and free of work disability at the study inception. Measurements and Results: During a mean follow-up of 3.3 years, incident diagnosis-specific work disability was observed in 4,028 (7%) employees. Of those, 2,347 (60%) returned to work. Sleep disturbances 5-7 nights per week predicted work disability due to mental disorders (hazard ratio [HR] 1.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.9) and diseases of the circulatory system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1), musculoskeletal system (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.4-1.8) and nervous system (HR = 1.5, 95% CI 1.0-2.2), and injuries and poisonings (HR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.1) after controlling for baseline age, sex, socioeconomic status, night/shift work, health behaviors (e.g., smoking, exercise), diagnosed somatic diseases, use of pain killers, depression, and anxiety. In addition, sleep disturbances prior to disability were associated with higher likelihood of not returning to work after work disability from musculoskeletal diseases (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.7) and, in men, after work disability due to mental disorders (HR = 4.4, 95% CI 1.7-11.1). Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are associated with increased risk for subsequent disabling mental disorders and various physical illnesses. They also predict the outcome of work disability due to musculoskeletal disorders. Citation: Salo P; Oksanen T; Sivertsen B; Hall M; Pentti J; Virtanen M; Vahtera J; Kivimäki M. Sleep disturbances as a predictor of cause-specific work disability and delayed return to work. SLEEP 2010

  9. Work Attitudes and Work Ethic as Predictors of Work Engagement among Polish Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerw Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between work engagement and the psychological traits of employees, such as attitudes towards work and work ethic. Additionally, the study included demographic characteristics of employees and organizational characteristics. Research was conducted using the Polish adaptations of two well known methods: Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile and Utrecht Work Enagagement Scale, as well as the Work Attitude Questionnaire (WAQ - a new Polish method. 360 adult employees of two large Polish regions took part in the study. The analysis showed a significant influence of hedonic-autotelic attitude, as well as four dimensions of work ethic on work engagement. It seems to be an important conclusion that work engagement turned out to be far more determined by the subject’s psychological traits than demographic and organizational ones. These results, indicating the special role of the perception of work as a central value, can be used only in the area of attitudes towards work formed during adolescence (e.g., at school, in career counseling but also in the area of motivating the employees by the organization.

  10. Work characteristics as predictors of physiological recovery on weekends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berset, Martial; Semmer, Norbert K; Elfering, Achim; Amstad, Fabienne T; Jacobshagen, Nicola

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated whether work characteristics predict physiological recovery on a rest day. Specifically, we aimed to show that high demands and low control at work would lead to higher cortisol values and thus poor recovery on a rest day. A total of 69 individuals participated in this study. In addition to analyzing questionnaire responses, we measured salivary cortisol on two workdays and on a subsequent rest day (a Sunday). We used multiple regression analysis. We controlled for the workday cortisol level; results reflect the relative change in cortisol from workday to rest day. In addition, we controlled for gender, since this relates to cortisol levels at work. We found that control at the workplace predicted cortisol levels on a rest day. Specifically, individuals with less job control had higher cortisol levels, and consequently poorer recovery on the rest day than those with more control. Neither job demands nor the interaction of demands and control predicted a change in cortisol levels from workday to rest day. The results indicated that a lack of control at work impairs physiological recovery on the weekend, one of the central recuperation periods. In light of the potential importance of incomplete recovery with respect to long-term ill health, it should be considered crucial to ensure job control at the workplace.

  11. Quick returns and night work as predictors of sleep quality, fatigue, work-family balance and satisfaction with work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Anna; Tucker, Philip; Gustavsson, Petter; Rudman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Quick returns (intervals of sleeps and fatigue on the subsequent shift. Recent evidence suggests that shift workers regard quick returns as being more problematic than night work. The current study explored quick returns and night work in terms of their impact on sleep, unwinding, recovery, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-family interference. Data from the 2006 cohort of Swedish nursing students within the national Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study were analysed (N = 1459). Respondents completed a questionnaire prior to graduation (response rate 69.2%) and 3 years after graduation (65.9%). The analyses examined associations between frequency of quick returns and night work and measures taken in year three, while adjusting for confounding factors (in year three and prior graduation). Frequency of quick returns was a significant predictor of poor sleep quality, short sleeps, unwinding, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-to-family interference, with higher frequency predicting more negative outcomes. Quick returns did not predict recovery after rest days. Frequency of night work did not predict any of the outcomes. In conclusion, quick returns were an important determinant of sleep, recovery and wellbeing, whereas night work did not show such an association.

  12. [Homocysteine metabolism disorders as a potential predictor of preeclamsia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdy, Anna; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2008-11-01

    Preeclampsia is one of the main causes of maternal and fetal mortality. We lack a reliable test that would identify the "at risk" group of pregnant women, thus allowing us to implement a specific prevention, management and treatment program. Recently, a number of theories regarding the pathophysiology of preeclampsia has been published. The role of vascular pathology as a result of an increase in homocysteine level is often mentioned. The aim of this paper is to review the current literature related to the pathology of preeclampsia and to evaluate the usefulness of assessment of homocysteine level and homocysteine metabolism disorders as a potential predictor of preeclamsia. Hiperhomocysteinemia is a known risk factor of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. Different sources report a similar correlation between an increase in homocysteine level and the incidence of preeclampsia. As far as the topic of homocysteine in pregnancy is concerned, numerous questions and problems remain unanswered and unsolved. Although there exists a relationship between an increased values of homocysteine and the incidence of preeclampsia, there is not enough information about what group of patients should be included in the screening test to increase the rate of diagnosis and prevention of the most dangerous sequele.

  13. Predictors of Verbal Working Memory in Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Marieke; Verhoeven, Ludo; de Moor, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by means of a forced-recognition task. As precursors…

  14. Predictors of verbal working memory in children with cerebral palsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.; Verhoeven, L.; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by

  15. Predictors of verbal working memory in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, M.H.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Moor, J.M.H. de

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to examine the precursors of verbal working memory in 52 children with cerebral palsy with varying degrees of speech impairments in the first grade of special education. Following Baddeley's model of working memory, children's verbal working memory was measured by

  16. Hardiness and support at work as predictors of work stress and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalister, Katherine T; Dolbier, Christyn L; Webster, Judith A; Mallon, Mark W; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2006-01-01

    To test a theoretically and empirically based model linking potential protective resources (hardiness, coworker and supervisor support) to the outcomes of work stress and job satisfaction and replicating the relationship of work stress to job satisfaction while accounting for the potential influence of negative affectivity. A cross-sectional research design using survey data collected from two convenience samples. Two worksites: (1) a high-tech company and (2) a government agency. High-tech employees (N = 310; response rate, 73.8%) and government agency employees (N = 745; response rate, 49.7%). The Dispositional Resilience Scale measured hardiness and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule measured negative affectivity. Coworker and supervisor support were measured using the Coworker Support Scale and the Supervisor Support Scale, respectively. The Perceived Work Stress Scale measured work stress, and a single item from the Job Satisfaction Scale assessed overall job satisfaction. A multiple-group path analysis examined the proposed model. Similar patterns of association were found for both samples and suggested a more parsimonious model without the path from negative affectivity to job satisfaction. The model supports the protective nature of hardiness and support at work with regard to work stress and job satisfaction. Explanations of relationships depicted in the model, practical implications for reducing work stress and enhancing job satisfaction, limitations and future directions are discussed.

  17. Predictors of impaired work functioning in employees with major depression in remission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G. de; Koeter, M.W.; Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Hees, H.L.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aims to (i) assess work functioning in employees returning to work with a major depression in remission, (ii) study the predictors of impaired work functioning. METHODS: Participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), on long term sick leave (mean 27 weeks) and

  18. Predictors of impaired work functioning in employees with major depression in remission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Gabe; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hees, Hiske L.; Schene, Aart H.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to (i) assess work functioning in employees returning to work with a major depression in remission, (ii) study the predictors of impaired work functioning. Participants diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD), on long term sick leave (mean 27 weeks) and treated in a

  19. Prevalence and Predictors of Social Work Student Food Insecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Rhen; McBeath, Bowen; Brockett, Stephanie; Sorenson, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Food security is an essential component of material wellness and social justice. This study draws on a 2013 survey of 496 students within a school of social work in a Pacific Northwestern U.S. public university to (a) provide the first estimate of the prevalence of food insecurity among social work students and (b) investigate coping strategies…

  20. Predictors and risk factors for the intestinal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 among working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedial, Jesse T; Shittu, Aminu; Tambuwal, Faruk M; Abubakar, Mikail B; Garba, Muhammed K; Kwaga, Jacob P; Fasina, Folorunso O

    2015-01-01

    Escherichia coli are an important group of bacteria in the normal gastrointestinal system but can sometimes cause infections in domestic animals and man. Donkeys are routinely used as multipurpose animal but details of burdens of potentially infectious bacteria associated with it are limited. The prevalence and associations between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and animal characteristics and management factors were studied among 240 randomly selected working donkeys in north-western Nigeria. Four local government areas, of Sokoto State in north-western Nigeria were recruited in this study. A multistage randomised cluster design was used to select subjects and donkey owners within selected zones. Confirmation of infection was based on bacterial culture, isolation and biochemical test for E. coli O157 from faecal samples. Of the total bacteria isolated, 203 of the 329 (61.70 per cent) were E. coli, 76 of which was E. coli serotype O157. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the relation between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and selected variables. The analysis yielded five potential predictors of shedding: soft faeces in donkeys, Akaza and Fari ecotypes of donkey were positive predictors while maize straw as feed and sampling during the cold dry period were negative predictors. This study concludes that controlling intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 among working donkeys in Nigeria is possible using the identified predictors in planning appropriate interventions to reduced human risk of infection.

  1. Predictors of Political Activism among Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    This article identifies factors inspiring greater political participation among undergraduate social work students (N=125). When separating students into self-identified liberals and conservatives, the study uses resource, mobilizing, and framing variables to explain greater levels of activism. After several multivariate regressions, this article…

  2. Predictors for bullying at work in the field of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Félix Raya Trenas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to analyse the possible relationship between psychological harassment and determined psychosocial factors such as burnout, with its related factors of emotional tiredness, depersonalisation and personal fulfilment, type A behaviour pattern and its factors related to impatience, competitiveness, overload and hostility, psychological wellbeing in the work setting or general stress in social and work settings. Different standardised questionnaires were given to a sample of 220 teachers (93 males and 127 females so that information could be collected about the aforementioned factors and other epidemiological data. The results revealed the existence of a significant relationship between psychological harassment and most predictive factors. A model able to predict 24.3% of variance regarding psychological harassment, consisting of variables regarding depersonalisation, hostility and stress was also established.

  3. [Psychosocial risk factors at work as predictors of mobbing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meseguer de Pedro, Mariano; Soler Sánchez, María I; García-Izquierdo, Mariano; Sáez Navarro, M C; Sánchez Meca, Julio

    2007-05-01

    This work analyses the way in which various psychosocial risk indicators may predict mobbing. A sample of 638 workers, 168 men and 470 women, from the fruit-and-vegetable sector was evaluated. An anonymous questionnaire was administered to all employees who were present on the evaluation days in the companies comprising the study. After analysing the data obtained with the mobbing questionnaire NAQ-RE (Sáez, García-Izquierdo, and Llor, 2003) and with the psychosocial risk factors evaluation method of the INSHT (Martín and Pérez, 1997), using canonical regression, we found that several psychosocial factors such as role definition, mental workload, interest in the workers, and supervision / participation predict two types of mobbing: personal mobbing and work-performance-related mobbing.

  4. Work-related basic need satisfaction as a predictor of work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of basic psychological needs is regarded as a significant predictor of individual function in life (Van den Broeck, Vanteenkiste, De ... There are studies that investigate the basic psychological need satisfaction in relation to different variables. For example Andreassen ..... Journal of Happiness. Studies, 3:71-92.

  5. Personality, organizational stress, and attitudes toward work as prospective predictors of professional burnout in hospital nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudek-Knežević, Jasna; Kalebić Maglica, Barbara; Krapić, Nada

    2011-01-01

    Aim To examine to what extent personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), organizational stress, and attitudes toward work and interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work prospectively predict 3 components of burnout. Methods The study was carried out on 118 hospital nurses. Data were analyzed by a set of hierarchical regression analyses, in which personality traits, measures of organizational stress, and attitudes toward work, as well as interactions between personality and either organizational stress or attitudes toward work were included as predictors, while 3 indices of burnout were measured 4 years later as criteria variables. Results Personality traits proved to be significant but weak prospective predictors of burnout and as a group predicted only reduced professional efficacy (R2 = 0.10), with agreeableness being a single negative predictor. Organizational stress was positive, affective-normative commitment negative predictor, while continuance commitment was not related to any dimension of burnout. We found interactions between neuroticism as well as conscientiousness and organizational stress, measured as role conflict and work overload, on reduced professional efficacy (βNRCWO = -0.30; ßcRCWO = -0.26). We also found interactions between neuroticism and affective normative commitment (β = 0.24) and between openness and continuance commitment on reduced professional efficacy (β = -0.23), as well as interactions between conscientiousness and continuance commitment on exhaustion. Conclusion Although contextual variables were strong prospective predictors and personality traits weak predictors of burnout, the results suggested the importance of the interaction between personality and contextual variables in predicting burnout. PMID:21853549

  6. Dissolved organic carbon and its potential predictors in eutrophic lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toming, Kaire; Kutser, Tiit; Tuvikene, Lea; Viik, Malle; Nõges, Tiina

    2016-10-01

    Understanding of the true role of lakes in the global carbon cycle requires reliable estimates of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and there is a strong need to develop remote sensing methods for mapping lake carbon content at larger regional and global scales. Part of DOC is optically inactive. Therefore, lake DOC content cannot be mapped directly. The objectives of the current study were to estimate the relationships of DOC and other water and environmental variables in order to find the best proxy for remote sensing mapping of lake DOC. The Boosted Regression Trees approach was used to clarify in which relative proportions different water and environmental variables determine DOC. In a studied large and shallow eutrophic lake the concentrations of DOC and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were rather high while the seasonal and interannual variability of DOC concentrations was small. The relationships between DOC and other water and environmental variables varied seasonally and interannually and it was challenging to find proxies for describing seasonal cycle of DOC. Chlorophyll a (Chl a), total suspended matter and Secchi depth were correlated with DOC and therefore are possible proxies for remote sensing of seasonal changes of DOC in ice free period, while for long term interannual changes transparency-related variables are relevant as DOC proxies. CDOM did not appear to be a good predictor of the seasonality of DOC concentration in Lake Võrtsjärv since the CDOM-DOC coupling varied seasonally. However, combining the data from Võrtsjärv with the published data from six other eutrophic lakes in the world showed that CDOM was the most powerful predictor of DOC and can be used in remote sensing of DOC concentrations in eutrophic lakes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictors of return to work in employees sick-listed with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D.Nielsen, Maj Britt; Madsen, Ida E.H.; Bültmann, Ute

    2011-01-01

    Sickness absence due to mental health problems (MHPs) is increasing in several European countries. However, little is known about return to work (RTW) for employees with MHPs. This prospective study aimed to identify predictors for RTW in employees sick-listed with MHPs....

  8. Examining Education and Newsroom Work Experience as Predictors of Communication Students' Perceptions of Journalism Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenber, Benjamin H.; Cenite, Mark; Malik, Shelly; Neo, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines education and work experience in newsrooms as predictors of ethical perceptions among communication undergraduates at a large Singaporean university (N = 826). Results indicate that education is associated with ethical ideologies, perceived importance of journalism ethics codes, justifiability of using contentious news…

  9. Predictors of Hospital Nurses' Safety Practices: Work Environment, Workload, Job Satisfaction, and Error Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hui-Ying; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Lee, Huan-Fang

    Nurses' safety practices of medication administration, prevention of falls and unplanned extubations, and handover are essentials to patient safety. This study explored the prediction between such safety practices and work environment factors, workload, job satisfaction, and error-reporting culture of 1429 Taiwanese nurses. Nurses' job satisfaction, error-reporting culture, and one environmental factor of nursing quality were found to be major predictors of safety practices. The other environment factors related to professional development and participation in hospital affairs and nurses' workload had limited predictive effects on the safety practices. Increasing nurses' attention to patient safety by improving these predictors is recommended.

  10. Predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment outside work in patients with spondyloarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglund, Emma; Petersson, Ingemar F; Bremander, Ann; Bergman, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    To assess predictors of presenteeism (reduced productivity at work) and activity impairment outside work in patients with spondyloarthritis (SpA). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment in 1,253 patients with SpA based on a 2.5 year follow-up questionnaire. The Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI) questionnaire was used as main outcome. Age, gender, lifestyle factors, subgroups, disease duration, and different patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) were studied as possible predictors. The association between presenteeism and WPAI activity impairment outside work was assessed. Out of 1,253 patients, 757 reported being in work and of these 720 responded to the WPAI questionnaire. The mean (confidence interval, CI) reported presenteeism was 25% (23-27%) and mean activity impairment 33% (31-35%) (0-100%, 0 = no reduction). Significant predictors of presenteeism and activity impairment at follow-up (controlled for gender, age, spondyloarthritis subgroups and presenteeism at baseline) were presenteeism at baseline, poor quality of life, worse disease activity, decreased physical function, lower self-efficacy pain and symptom, higher scores of anxiety, depression, smoking and low education level, and for activity impairment also female sex. There was a strong association between presenteeism and activity impairment outside work (OR 16.7; 95% CI 11.6-24.3; p Presenteeism and activity impairment were not only predicted by presenteeism at baseline, but also by several PROMs commonly used in clinical rheumatology practice. Impaired activity outside work could indicate problems also at work suggesting why both areas need to be addressed in the clinical situation.

  11. Effect of yoga practices in reducing counterproductive work behavior and its predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Dwivedi, Umesh; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H. R.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Aggression and negative affectivity (NA) are known for moderating relationship between job stressors and counterproductive work behavior. Yoga has been demonstrated earlier to reduce the parameters of aggression and negative emotions. Aim: The present study examined the effectiveness of yoga practices in reducing counterproductive work behavior and its predictors such as aggression and NA. Settings and Design: A pretest?posttest randomized controlled design. Materials and Methods: Th...

  12. The Job Demands-Resources model as predictor of work identity and work engagement: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roslyn De Braine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research shows that engaged employees experience high levels of energy and strong identification with their work, hence this study’s focus on work identity and dedication.Research purpose: This study explored possible differences in the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R as predictor of overall work engagement, dedication only and work-based identity, through comparative predictive analyses.Motivation for the study: This study may shed light on the dedication component of work engagement. Currently no literature indicates that the JD-R model has been used to predict work-based identity.Research design: A census-based survey was conducted amongst a target population of 23134 employees that yielded a sample of 2429 (a response rate of about 10.5%. The Job Demands- Resources scale (JDRS was used to measure job demands and job resources. A work-based identity scale was developed for this study. Work engagement was studied with the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES. Factor and reliability analyses were conducted on the scales and general multiple regression models were used in the predictive analyses.Main findings: The JD-R model yielded a greater amount of variance in dedication than in work engagement. It, however, yielded the greatest amount of variance in work-based identity, with job resources being its strongest predictor.Practical/managerial implications: Identification and work engagement levels can be improved by managing job resources and demands.Contribution/value-add: This study builds on the literature of the JD-R model by showing that it can be used to predict work-based identity.

  13. A systematic review of studies identifying predictors of poor return to work outcomes following workplace injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Tamara D; Lacey, Sarah J

    2015-06-05

    Injuries occurring in the workplace can have serious implications for the health of the individual, the productivity of the employer and the overall economic community. The objective of this paper is to increase the current state of understanding of individual demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with extended absenteeism from the workforce due to a workplace injury. Studies included in this systematic literature review tracked participants' return to work status over a minimum of three months, identified either demographic, psychosocial or general injury predictors of poor return to work outcomes and included a heterogeneous sample of workplace injuries. Identified predictors of poor return to work outcomes included older age, female gender, divorced marital status, two or more dependent family members, lower education levels, employment variables associated with reduced labour market desirability, severity or sensitive injury locations, negative attitudes and outcome perceptions of the participant. There is a need for clear and consistent definition and measurement of return to work outcomes and a holistic theoretical model integrating injury, psychosocial and demographic predictors of return to work. Through greater understanding of the nature of factors affecting return to work, improved outcomes could be achieved.

  14. Work-related basic need satisfaction as a predictor of work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement ...

  15. Work-related stress and its predictors among Canadian dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locker, D; Burman, D; Otchere, D

    1989-10-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of 1000 certified dental assistants in Ontario, Canada. The aim was to obtain data on work-related stress, its sources and predictors. Of those responding to the survey, 38.8% said that their work was moderately stressful and 14.5% said it was very or extremely stressful. Approximately one-third had been bothered by stress at work on three or more days in the previous week. The main sources of stress were working under constant time pressures, running behind schedule and feeling undervalued by the dentist. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that the main predictors of work stress were not having a clear job description, working long hours, life stress while not at work and age. However, these variables explained less than 10% of the variance in job stress scores. Overall, 22.8% said it was very likely that they would seek work in another practice or seek work outside dentistry in the coming year. There was a significant association between work stress and job intentions; 43.0% of those reporting high levels of stress intended to change jobs compared to 8.9% of those who said that their job was not at all stressful (P less than 0.0001). These findings have implications for the way in which dental practice is organised and managed.

  16. Predictors of work presence--sickness absence in a salutogenic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, Lars-Gunnar; Janson, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify determinants of work presence, i.e. factors that counteract short and/or long term sickness absence. The analyses were based on logistic regression analyses on Swedish regional survey data. Individuals who had not reported sickness absence during the preceding year were compared to on one hand individuals with short term sickness absence ( 28 days). We found predictors of work presence in personal background as well as in work related variables. A high level of sense of coherence was found to counteract short as well as long term sickness absence. Gender specific differences were observed. Although a set of predictors common for the short and long term perspective were found the predictors in general were found to differentiate substantially with respect to short or long term sickness absence. Implications for sickness absence prevention and health promotion could be drawn from the results. Primarily different aspects of control over working situation, work satisfaction and for women a high level of sense of coherence were believed to have these implications.

  17. Work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Ketola, R; Toivonen, R; Luukkonen, R; Häkkänen, M; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2003-07-01

    To investigate work related and individual factors as predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units (VDUs). Employees in three administrative units of a medium sized city in Finland (n = 515) received mailed questionnaires in the baseline survey in 1998 and in the follow up survey in 1999. Response rate for the baseline was 81% (n = 416); respondents who reported neck pain for less than eight days during the preceding 12 months were included into the study cohort as healthy subjects (n = 232). The follow up questionnaire 12 months later was completed by 78% (n = 180). Incident neck cases were those reporting neck pain for at least eight days during the preceding 12 months. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4% (95% CI 25.5 to 41.3). Poor physical work environment and poor placement of the keyboard increased the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. Smoking showed a tendency for an increased risk of neck pain. There was an interaction between mental stress and physical exercise, those with higher mental stress and less physical exercise having especially high risk. In the prevention of neck disorders in office work with a high frequency of VDU tasks, attention should be given to the work environment in general and to the more specific aspects of VDU workstation layout. Physical exercise may prevent neck disorders among sedentary employees.

  18. Coming back to work in the morning: Psychological detachment and reattachment as predictors of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kühnel, Jana

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Work climate, work values and professional commitment as predictors of job satisfaction in nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Sala, Rachele La; Marletta, Giuseppe; Pelosi, Giulia; Ampollini, Monica; Fabbri, Anna; Ricchi, Alba; Scardino, Marcello; Artioli, Giovanna; Mancini, Tiziana

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effect of some psychosocial variables on nurses' job satisfaction. Nurses' job satisfaction is one of the most important factors in determining individuals' intention to stay or leave a health-care organisation. Literature shows a predictive role of work climate, professional commitment and work values on job satisfaction, but their conjoint effect has rarely been considered. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was adopted. Participants were hospital nurses and data were collected in 2011. Professional commitment and work climate positively predicted nurses' job satisfaction. The effect of intrinsic vs. extrinsic work value orientation on job satisfaction was completely mediated by professional commitment. Nurses' job satisfaction is influenced by both contextual and personal variables, in particular work climate and professional commitment. According to a more recent theoretical framework, work climate, work values and professional commitment interact with each other in determining nurses' job satisfaction. Nursing management must be careful to keep the context of work tuned to individuals' attitude and vice versa. Improving the work climate can have a positive effect on job satisfaction, but its effect may be enhanced by favouring strong professional commitment and by promoting intrinsic more than extrinsic work values. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Intrinsic motivation as a predictor of work outcome after vocational rehabilitation in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saperstein, Alice M; Fiszdon, Joanna M; Bell, Morris D

    2011-09-01

    Intrinsic motivation is a construct commonly used in explaining goal-directed behavior. In people with schizophrenia, intrinsic motivation is usually subsumed as a feature of negative symptoms or underlying neurocognitive dysfunction. A growing literature reflects an interest in defining and measuring motivational impairment in schizophrenia and in delineating the specific role of intrinsic motivation as both an independent predictor and a mediator of psychosocial functioning. This cross-sectional study examined intrinsic motivation as a predictor of vocational outcomes for 145 individuals with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder participating in a 6-month work rehabilitation trial. Correlation and mediation analyses examined baseline intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms in relation to work hours and work performance. Data support a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and negative symptoms and significant correlations with outcome variables, such that lower negative symptoms and greater intrinsic motivation were associated with better work functioning. Moreover, in this sample, intrinsic motivation fully mediated the relationships between negative symptoms, work productivity, and work performance. These results have significant implications on the design of work rehabilitation interventions for people with schizophrenia and support a role for targeting intrinsic motivation directly to influence vocational functioning. Future directions for research and intervention are discussed.

  1. Surgeons' work ability and performance in surgical care: relations between organisational predictors, work engagement and work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Danzer, Gerhard; Klapp, Burghard F; Groneberg, David A

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine relations and influences between work-related factors, personal resources, work engagement and work ability of surgeons working in German hospitals. The study was conducted as a cross-sectional survey investigation. We used the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire and the Work Ability Index to evaluate surgeons' work engagement, working conditions and work ability. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. Surgeons reported a moderate work ability and work engagement. The results indicated significant associations between surgeons' sources of work engagement, work ability and work-related factors (e.g. job resources). Significant differences regarding these variables were also detected between males and females and the various age groups. The study results reflect the positive effect of supportive working conditions and work engagement on the preservation of work ability, indicating their importance in promoting surgeons' work ability. Due to the elderly population and the continuing development of health care in Germany, the demand for surgeons increases. These circumstances give reasons for a strong need to preserve and restore surgeons' work ability. New strategies for training and improving the capacity and performance of surgeons are necessary.

  2. Nurse moral distress: A survey identifying predictors and potential interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathert, Cheryl; May, Douglas R; Chung, Hye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Ethical dilemmas and conflicts are inherent in today's health care organizations and may lead to moral distress, which is often associated with physical and psychological symptoms. Although the existence of moral distress has been observed by scholars for decades, most of the research has been descriptive and has examined what types of health care conflicts lead to distress. This study tested a comprehensive model, underpinned by Social Cognitive Theory, that examined work environment and intrapersonal variables that may influence moral distress. We surveyed nursing staff employed in a U.S. acute care hospital (response rate=45%; n=290). More than half of the respondents reported they experience ethical dilemmas and conflicts from several times a month to daily, and nearly half reported they experience moral distress at least several times a month. Structural equation modeling analysis simultaneously examined the effects of five independent variables on moral distress and moral voice: (a) frequency of ethical dilemmas and conflicts; (b) moral efficacy; (c) ethics communication; (d) ethical environment; and (e) organizational ethics support. Results revealed significant independent effects of the frequency of ethics issues and organizational ethics support on moral distress. Bootstrapping analysis indicated that voice fully mediated the relationship between moral efficacy and moral distress, and partially mediated the relationship between organizational ethics support and distress. Supplemental analysis revealed that organizational ethics support moderated the moral efficacy-voice-moral distress relationship such that when organizational support was low, moral efficacy was negatively related to moral distress via voice. Although it may be impossible to eliminate all ethical dilemmas and conflicts, leaders and organizations may wish to help improve nurses' moral efficacy, which appears to give rise to voice, and reduced moral distress. Increasing organizational

  3. Psychological Empowerment and Work Engagement as Predictors of Work Satisfaction: A Sample of Hotel Employees .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Moura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With more organizations looking for employees who take initiative and respond creatively to the challenges of the job, engagement and psychological empowerment becomes important at both individual and organizational levels. Engaged employees are generally more satisfied with their work, committed and effective at work. According to the JDR model (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2004, engagement may be produced by two types of working conditions: job demands (i.e., role stress and job resources (i.e., psychological empowerment; self-efficacy. This study examines the role of psychological empowerment and work engagement as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using online questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 152 Portuguese workers in hotels. Tourism is an important tool for profit and the Portuguese hotels are fundamental for the growth of the country. Employee satisfaction increases employee retention and increases productivity influencing the income / profits for hotels. Hierarchical multiple regressions analyses revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by psychological empowerment and work engagement. Results support JDR model by showing that positive outcomes, such as job satisfaction, may be predicted by motivational process and job demands. On a practical level, JDR model provides a framework for understanding motivating workplaces and engaged and satisfied hotel employees.

  4. Effect of yoga practices in reducing counterproductive work behavior and its predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Umesh; Kumari, Sony; Nagendra, H R

    2016-01-01

    Aggression and negative affectivity (NA) are known for moderating relationship between job stressors and counterproductive work behavior. Yoga has been demonstrated earlier to reduce the parameters of aggression and negative emotions. The present study examined the effectiveness of yoga practices in reducing counterproductive work behavior and its predictors such as aggression and NA. A pretest-posttest randomized controlled design. The study sample included yoga group (n = 80) and control group (n = 80). Yoga module that included asanas, pranayama, meditation, and yogic theory were taught to the yoga group. Mild to moderate physical exercises and management theories were taught to the control group. Both groups received intervention for 10 weeks, covering 1 h daily, 5 days a week. Measurements of self-reported counterproductive work behaviors, aggression, and NA were taken as baseline and postintervention for assessment. Yoga group reported significant reductions in aggression, NA, and counterproductive work behavior in comparison with the control group after 10 weeks. This study contributes by introducing a cost-effective way to prevent the heavy losses organizations are incurring due to counterproductive work behavior and its predictors. The findings support that yoga at workplace may result in positive psychological empowerment of the employees as well.

  5. Quality of life as a predictor of work ability of employees of Sarajevo Tobacco Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enisa Sljivo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Our aim was to evaluate quality of life (QOL as a predictor of work abilities of employees in a tobacco factory.Methods: The study was performed in the period between 2011 and 2012. The sample comprised of 270 workers, males and females, aged from 20-65, with different educational backgrounds. The study was performed as cross-sectional research, on a voluntary basis, using two standardized and anonymous questionnaires: The World Health Organization Quality of Life-Brief Version questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF and the Work Ability Index questionnaire (WAI.Results: The participants subjectively perceived high values of QOL in general, with the highest values in the area of living environment. The lowest value was in the area of social interactions. Statistically significant differences were observed in the subjective assessments of QOL, especially in three defined areas (physical health, mental health, and social interactions.  Workers age 50-65 years and workers with basic (primary level of education exhibited a suboptimal (<70% values in total value and the values of individually defined areas of QOL.Conclusions: Strong predictors of exemplary work ability of employees are good physical and mental health, younger age, and higher level of education. A link was observed between suboptimal work ability and dissatisfaction with profession and working environment, frequent illness, absenteeism, and exposure to health risks at the workplace. 

  6. Are the predictors of work absence following a work-related injury similar for musculoskeletal and mental health claims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter M; Black, Oliver; Keegel, Tessa; Collie, Alex

    2014-03-01

    To examine if the factors associated with days of absence following a work-related injury are similar for mental health versus musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions. A secondary analysis of wage replacement workers' compensation claims in the state of Victoria, Australia. We examined the relationship between individual, injury, occupational and workplace variables with days of wage replacement over the 2-year period following first day of absence from work separately for mental health claims and MSK claims using negative binomial regression models. Mental health conditions were associated with a greater number of days of absence over the 2 years following first incapacity compared to MSK conditions. Differences were observed in employment, injury and industry variables on absence from work for mental claims compared to MSK claims. Working in the agriculture, forestry, fishing and mining industries and employment with a small organisation were more strongly associated with the number of days of wage-replacement among MSK compared to mental health claims, and working in the public administration and safety, or education and training industries or being employed in a position with high time pressure were associated with greater days of wage-replacement among mental health compared to MSK claims. Predictors of days away from work in the 2 years following an injury differ for mental health versus MSK claims. Given the increasing number of mental health claims in Australia more research is required to understand differences in return-to-work for this group of claimants compared to those with physical injuries.

  7. Getting Back to Work: Cognitive Behavioral Predictors of Depressive Symptoms and Job Search Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Benjamin J; Strunk, Daniel R

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about how cognitive behavioral approaches to depression might explain functional impairments associated with the disorder, such as extended periods of unemployment. To address this issue, we examined 5 cognitive behavioral predictors of depressive symptom change and job search outcome. Using a sample of 75 unemployed adults, we examined cognitive style, brooding, dysfunctional attitudes, avoidance, and cognitive behavioral (CB) skills as predictors of change in depressive symptoms, job search self-efficacy, and receipt of a job offer over a 3-month period. CB skills predicted lower depressive symptoms and increased odds of having received a job offer at the follow-up. Brooding predicted change in job search self-efficacy, but not in the expected direction. CB skills appear to predict job search outcomes as well as depressive symptoms. We encourage future work examining how CB skills may affect depressive symptoms, job search behaviors, and other areas of functioning. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Predictors for postpartum pelvic girdle pain in working women: the Mom@Work cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp-van den Berg, G.M.; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Mechelen, W. van; Poppel, M.N.M. van

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine which factors during pregnancy and postpartum predict pelvic girdle pain (PGP) at 12 weeks postpartum among working women. A total of 548 Dutch pregnant employees were recruited in 15 companies, mainly health care, child care, and supermarkets. The

  9. Gender Differences and Predictors of Work Hours in a Sample of Ontario Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Julia C; Ahmad, Atyub; Shaw, Jodi L; Rashid, Faahim; Clancy, Alicia; David, Courtney; Figueiredo, Rafael; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of gender on weekly work hours of Ontario dentists. In 2012, a 52-item survey was sent to a random sample of 3000 Ontario dentists (1500 men and 1500 women) to collect information on personal, professional and sociodemographic characteristics. The resulting data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression modeling. The 867 respondents included 463 men, 401 women and 3 people whose gender was unreported, yielding a response rate of 29%.Most dentists worked full-time, with men working, on average, 2 h/week longer than women. Younger dentists worked more than older dentists. Practice ownership increased weekly work hours, and men reported ownership more often than women. Canadian-trained women worked significantly fewer hours than those trained internationally. Women were more likely than men to work part time and take parental leave and more often reported being primary caregivers and solely responsible for household chores. Women with partner support for such tasks worked more hours than those who were solely responsible. Dentists with children ≤ 3 years of age worked fewer hours than those without children; however, after controlling for spousal responsibility for caregiver duties, this effect was eliminated. More women than men reported making concessions in their career to devote time to family. Gender, age, practice ownership, training location and degree of spousal support for household and caregiving responsibilities were predictors of weekly work hours. For women specifically, training location and household and caregiving responsibilities predicted weekly work hours.

  10. Dimensions of work ethic as predictors of strategies to cope with stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Grabowski

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article presents the mutual relations between the components of work ethic and the strategies of coping with stress used by employees of different branches. Material and Methods: Work ethic was presented as a syndrome of the following attitudes: perceiving work as a moral value, treating work as a central value in life, and the belief in the importance of hard work that leads to success. This ethic also consists of the following components: unwillingness to waste time, disapproval of spare time (anti-leisure, willingness to delay gratification, willingness to act honestly at work (morality/ethic, and being independent (self-reliance. Coping strategies were presented as 3 dimensions (obtained by application of factor analysis of the questionnaire scales COPE (Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced: proactive cognitive operations, avoidance of action and seeking support. Results: The study conducted on 360 employees of different branches shows that the dimensions of the work ethic are moderately related to strategies emphasizing proactive cognitive operations and poorly related to seeking support and avoidance of action. At the same time, the relations between work ethic and avoidance of action are negative (higher work ethic is linked with lower tendency to avoid action. Conclusions: Predictors of proactive cognitive operations are unwillingness to waste time, treating work as a central value in life, willingness to act honestly at work (morality/ethic and being independent (self-reliance. Med Pr 2017;68(6:711–724

  11. [Dimensions of work ethic as predictors of strategies to cope with stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, Damian; Pollak, Anita; Czerw, Agnieszka

    2017-10-17

    The article presents the mutual relations between the components of work ethic and the strategies of coping with stress used by employees of different branches. Work ethic was presented as a syndrome of the following attitudes: perceiving work as a moral value, treating work as a central value in life, and the belief in the importance of hard work that leads to success. This ethic also consists of the following components: unwillingness to waste time, disapproval of spare time (anti-leisure), willingness to delay gratification, willingness to act honestly at work (morality/ethic), and being independent (self-reliance). Coping strategies were presented as 3 dimensions (obtained by application of factor analysis of the questionnaire scales COPE (Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced)): proactive cognitive operations, avoidance of action and seeking support. The study conducted on 360 employees of different branches shows that the dimensions of the work ethic are moderately related to strategies emphasizing proactive cognitive operations and poorly related to seeking support and avoidance of action. At the same time, the relations between work ethic and avoidance of action are negative (higher work ethic is linked with lower tendency to avoid action). Predictors of proactive cognitive operations are unwillingness to waste time, treating work as a central value in life, willingness to act honestly at work (morality/ethic) and being independent (self-reliance). Med Pr 2017;68(6):711-724.

  12. Predictors of Creative Achievement: Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurial Potential, Perfectionism, and Employee Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmetoglu, Gorkan; Harding, Xanthe; Akhtar, Reece; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Creativity is a key ingredient of organizational effectiveness, business innovation, and entrepreneurship. Yet there remain substantial gaps in the literature in terms of understanding the antecedents of creative achievement. This study investigated the effect of perfectionism, employee engagement, and entrepreneurial potential as predictors of…

  13. Potential Predictors of Poor Visual Outcome in Human Leukocyte Antigen-B27-Associated Uveitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Fleurieke H; Brouwer, Anna H; Kuiper, Jonas J W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/342171070; Ossewaarde-van Norel, Jeannette; ten Dam-van Loon, Ninette H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304816957; de Boer, Joke H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140201890

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To identify potential predictors of permanent vision loss in patients with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27-associated uveitis in a tertiary referral center. Design: Retrospective case-control study. Methods: The charts of 212 patients (338 eyes) with HLA-B27-associated uveitis that

  14. Self-efficacy beliefs and leader potentials as predictors of leadership ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Independently, self-efficacy beliefs and leader potentials account for a significant proportion of the variance (β = .79, P<.01 and β = .56, P<.01 respectively) in leadership effectiveness. These findings emphasise the importance of the predictor variables in leadership effectiveness and underscore the need for intervention ...

  15. Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Chris Bothma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work-based identity, used as a reference to the self, is the answer to the question ’Who am I at work?’ Work-related identities, derived from different social foci through identity formation processes, have as behavioural guides a significant influence on employee behaviour, which, in turn has an impact on work outcomes. Engagement, presented in different conceptualisations, is viewed by practitioners and academic researchers as an important antecedent of employee behaviour.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to investigate whether work-based identity and work engagement differed (in combination with personal alienation, helping behaviour and burnout as potential antecedents (amongst numerous others of task performance and turnover intention.Research design: A census-based sampling approach amongst 23 134 employees in the employment of an ICT company yielded a sample of 2429 usable questionnaires. Scales used in the study were the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-HSS-20, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES, Work-based Identity, Personal Alienation, Helping Behaviour, Turnover Intention and Task Performance Scales.Main findings: The findings indicate that work-based identity and work engagement give similar appearing results as potential predictors of turnover intention and task performance. Practical/managerial implications: Reducing withdrawal behaviours and enhancing work performance are everyday challenges for organisations. Interventions focused on enhancing work-based identity and work engagement in the work environment should have a meaningful impact when these behaviours need to be addressed.Contribution/value-add: Work-based identity as a multidimensional construct has the potential, with further refinement, to become a valuable construct that can play a leading role in future work engagement research.

  16. Predictors of lost time from work among nursing personnel who sought treatment for back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa A; Lipscomb, Hester J; Dement, John M

    2010-01-01

    To examine possible predictors of lost workdays among nurses and nurses' aides who sought treatment for work-related back pain. Nursing staff employed at a tertiary care medical center over a 13-year time period (1994 through 2006). We used existing data from clinic surveys administered to nursing personnel during their initial treatment visit to the hospital's occupational health clinic. Predictors of losing ≤ 7 and ≥ 8 workdays was examined. 589 of 708 (83%) nursing personnel with complaints of work-related back pain completed the survey, with 31% resulting in lost workdays. Experiencing sudden onset of pain (RR:1.9; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), a combination of severe pain with numbness and tingling in the back/legs (RR: 7.4; 95% CI: 2.9, 18.6), severe pain only (RR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.8, 11.1), numbness and tingling in the back/legs only (RR: 3.5; 95% CI: 1.0, 12.2), and working < 5 years at the hospital (RR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2, 4.7) were predictive of losing ≥ 8 workdays. Job title, work demands, work conflicts, and most psychosocial factors were not predictive. Severe pain, neurologic symptoms and sudden onset of pain were predictive of delayed return-to-work; however, these symptoms alone should not be considered indicators of poor outcomes given that most workers who reported these symptoms returned to work in less than 8~days. Among these health care workers, lost workdays appear to be related to more severe pathology rather than workplace characteristics.

  17. Psychological career resources as predictors of working adults’ career anchors: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between the psychological career resources and career anchors of a sample of 2 997 working adults at predominantly managerial and supervisory levels in the service industry. The Psychological Career Resources Inventory and the Career Orientations Inventory were applied. Stepwise regression analyses indicated dimensions of psychological career resources as significant predictors of  participants’ career anchors. The findings add valuable new knowledge that can be used to inform organisational career development support practices as well as career counselling and guidance services concerned with promoting individuals’ employability and experiences of intrinsic career success.

  18. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as predictors of work effort: the moderating role of achievement goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysvik, Anders; Kuvaas, Bård

    2013-09-01

    This research explored the roles of intrinsic motivation (IM) and extrinsic motivation (EM) and the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals as predictors of increased work effort (WE). A cross-lagged field study was conducted among 1,441 employees from three large Norwegian service organizations across a 10-month time span. The results showed that the relationship between IM and increased WE was more positive for employees with high levels of mastery-approach goals. This observation suggests that having congruent goals may accentuate the positive relationship between IM and WE. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.

  19. Predictors of early return to work after a coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Mehrdad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Identifying factors predictive of early return to work in patients who underwent a coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG. Material and Methods: Two hundred twenty-six working patients who volunteered and underwent a primary coronary artery bypass surgery between September 2013 and May 2014 were selected for the study and followed up for 6 months. Predictors of early return to work (RTW (within 2 months were analyzed from variables in a prospectively collected database and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire carried out in the hospital and rehabilitation center as well as from the follow-up performed via the phone. Results: One hundred and two (45.1% and 155 (68.9% patients returned to work within 2 and 3 months after the surgery, respectively. Furthermore, 196 patients (87.1% returned to work within 6 months after the surgery. In the univariate analysis, demographic or socioeconomic factors (such as age, level of education, income, occupational factors (such as occupation type, working hours per week, duration of the preoperative absence from work, psychological factors (such as a patient’s concern about adverse health effects of RTW, feeling depressed, a patient’s attitude towards his/her ability to RTW and a patient’s perception of his/her job stress level and medical factors (such as serum troponin T and creatine kinase MB (CKMB level, pump time in surgery, co-surgery and dyslipidemia history had a statistically significant correlation with early return to work. The patients who early returned to work had significantly higher scores in 3 domains on the SF-36 questionnaire (used for assessing the patients’ quality of life, compared to those who did not return to work early (including physical functioning, role limitations due to physical health and pain. Conclusions: In the present study we identified 4 new medical factors that could be used as predictors of early return to work after CABG. These

  20. A study into psychosocial factors as predictors of work-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Hanif Abdul; Abdul-Mumin, Khadizah; Naing, Lin

    2016-07-14

    To explore and determine relationship between psychosocial factors and work-related fatigue among emergency and critical care nurses in Brunei. Cross-sectional study conducted on all emergency and critical care nurses across Brunei public hospitals from February to April 2016. 201 nurses participated in the study (82% response rate). A total of 36% of the variance of chronic fatigue was explained by stress, trust in management, decision latitude, self-rated health, and work-family conflict. Burnout, self-rated health, commitment to workplace, and trust in management explained 30% of the variance of acute fatigue. Stress, work-family conflict and reward explained 28% of the variance of intershift recovery after controlling for significant sociodemographic variables. Smoking was identified as an important sociodemographic factor for work-related fatigue. Psychosocial factors were good predictors of work-related fatigue. A range of psychosocial factors were established, however more research is required to determine all possible causation factors of nurses' work-related fatigue.

  1. Comparing safety climate factors as predictors of work-related driving behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Andrew R; Watson, Barry; Biggs, Herbert C

    2006-01-01

    Research suggests safety climate (SC) is a strong predictor of safety-related outcomes in organizations. This study explores the relationship between six SC dimensions and four aspects of work-related driving. The SC factors measured were "communication and procedures," "work pressures," "relationships," "safety rules," "driver training," and "management commitment." The aspects of self-reported occupational driving measured were traffic violations, driver error, driving while distracted, and pre-trip vehicle maintenance. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the SC factors accounted for significant amounts of variance in all four aspects of work-related driving, over and above the control factors of age, sex, and work-related driving exposure. However, further investigation indicated certain SC factors (particularly safety rules, communication, and management commitment) were more strongly related to specific aspects of work-related driving behavior than others. Together, the SC factors were better able to predict self-reported distraction from the road than the other aspects of driving behavior measured. Implications for occupational safety, particularly for the management of work-related drivers are discussed.

  2. Sleepiness, long distance commuting and night work as predictors of driving performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Di Milia

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the effect of working night shift and long distance commuting. We examined the association between several sleep related and demographic variables, commuting distance, night work and use of mobile phones on driving performance. We used a prospective design to recruit participants and conducted a telephone survey (n = 649. The survey collected demographic and journey details, work and sleep history and driving performance concerning the day the participant was recruited. Participants also completed the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Night workers reported significantly more sleepiness, shorter sleep duration and commuting longer distances. Seven variables were significant predictors of lane crossing. The strongest predictor was acute sleepiness (OR = 5.25, CI, 1.42-19.49, p<0.01 followed by driving ≥150 kms (OR = 3.61, CI, 1.66-7.81, p<0.001, obtaining less than 10 hours sleep in the previous 48 hours (OR = 2.58, CI, 1.03-6.46, p<0.05, driving after night shift (OR = 2.19, CI, 1.24-3.88, p<0.001, being <43 years old (OR = 1.95, CI, 1.11-3.41, p<0.05 and using mobile phones during the journey (OR = 1.90, CI, 1.10-3.27, p<0.05. Sleep related variables, long-distance commuting and night work have a major impact on lane crossing. Several interventions should be considered to reduce the level of sleepiness in night workers.

  3. Predictors of death anxiety among midwives who have experienced maternal death situations at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muliira, Rhoda Suubi; Sendikadiwa, Vito Bosco; Lwasampijja, Fred

    2015-05-01

    One of the hardships faced by midwives in developing countries is dealing with maternal death. Taking care of pregnant women who end up dying makes midwives mindful of their own mortality and this experience provokes discomfort and anxiety. To determine the predictors of death anxiety among midwives who have experienced maternal death at work in order to recommend interventions to facilitate effective coping with the distress. An exploratory, descriptive design was used to collect data about death anxiety from 224 midwives working in two rural districts of Uganda. Death anxiety was measured using a subscale of the Death Distress Scale. The majority of participants were female (80 %) and with associate degree level professional education (92 %). Participant's mean age and years of professional experience were 34 (±6.3) and 4 (±2.1) years, respectively. Most participants (74.6 %) had moderate or high death anxiety. The predictors of death anxiety were: having witnessed two and more maternal death in the past 2 years [odds ratio (OR) = 3.175; p ≤ .01]; being in charge of four or more maternal deaths (OR = 5.13; p ≤ .01); lack of professional training in handling death situations (OR = 3.32; p ≤ .01); and coping with maternal death situations using methods such as: planning (OR = 4.90; p ≤ .01), active coping (OR = 3.43; p ≤ .05) and acceptance (OR = 2.99; p ≤ .05). Multiple exposure to maternal death situations is associated with an increase in death anxiety among midwives working in rural settings. Employers need to provide deliberate support to enable midwives to cope effectively with death anxiety at work.

  4. The work environment and empowerment as predictors of patient safety culture in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirik, Hasan Fehmi; Intepeler, Seyda Seren

    2017-05-01

    As scant research based information is available regarding the work environment, empowerment and patient safety culture, this study from a developing country (Turkey) in which health care institutions are in a state of transition, aimed to investigate further the relationships between these three variables. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. The sample comprised 274 nurse participants working in a university hospital located in Izmir (Turkey). In data evaluation, descriptive statistics and hierarchical regression analyses were applied. The work environment and structural empowerment were related to the patient safety culture and explained 55% of the variance in patient safety culture perceptions. 'Support for optimal patient care', 'nurse/physician relationships' and 'staff involvement in organisational affairs' were the significant predictors. An enhancement of the work environment and providing access to empowerment structures may help health care organisations improve the patient safety culture. In light of the findings, the following actions can be recommended to inform health care leaders: providing necessary resources for nursing practise, encouraging nurses' participation in decision-making, strengthening communication within the team and giving nurses the opportunities to cope with challenging work problems to learn and grow. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Working alliance and treatment fidelity as predictors of externalizing problem behaviors in parent management training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hukkelberg, Silje S; Ogden, Terje

    2013-12-01

    The study investigated treatment fidelity and working alliance in the Parent Management Training-Oregon model (PMTO) and investigated how these relate to children's externalizing problem behaviors, as reported by parents and teachers. Participants were 331 Norwegian parents who rated the client-therapist working alliance at 3 time points (Sessions 3, 12, and 20). Competent adherence to the PMTO treatment protocol was assessed by PMTO specialists from evaluations of videotaped therapy sessions using the Fidelity of Implementation (FIMP) system (Knutson, Forgatch, & Rains, 2003). Parents and teachers reported children's problem behaviors at baseline and at the end of therapy. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the repeated measures data. Parents reported high and stable levels of alliance and fidelity from Time 1 to Time 3, with no correlational or direct relations between the 2. Treatment fidelity predicted reductions in parent-reported externalizing behavior, whereas working alliance was related to less change in problem behavior. Alliance and fidelity were unrelated to teacher-reported behavior problems. The findings point to treatment fidelity as an active ingredient in PMTO and working alliance as a negative predictor of postassessment parent-reported externalizing behavior. More research is needed to investigate whether these findings can be replicated and extended beyond PMTO.

  6. A prospective study of work related factors and physical exercise as predictors of shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, H; Viikari-Juntura, E; Martikainen, R; Takala, E P; Riihimäki, H

    2001-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of work related and individual factors as well as physical activity and sports on the incidence and persistence of shoulder pain among forestry workers. Workers in a large Finnish forestry company replied to a questionnaire (a modified version of the Nordic questionnaire) on musculoskeletal pain and its possible risk factors for 4 consecutive years 1992-5. This 1 year follow up study covers the time 1994-5. Year 1994 was chosen as baseline because in that year the questionnaire contained for the first time more detailed questions about different sports. The response rate in 1995 was 90%. The effects of the predictors on 1 year incidence and persistence of shoulder pain were studied with multivariate logistic regression modelling. At baseline, 2094 subjects had been free of shoulder pain during the preceding 12 months. After 1 year, 14% (n=285) reported having mild or severe shoulder pain. Higher age, obesity, and mental stress as well as physically strenuous work and working with trunk forward flexed or with a hand above shoulder level increased the risk of incident shoulder pain. Of the different sports activities, dancing increased the risk of incident pain whereas jogging decreased the risk significantly. Of those 419 workers who had severe shoulder pain at baseline, 55% (n=230) still had severe pain 1 year later. Higher age, overload at work, and working with a hand above shoulder level increased the risk of persistent severe shoulder pain whereas cross country skiing and general sports activity decreased the risk. Our results support the current view that shoulder pain is the result of many factors, including occupational and individual factors. In this longitudinal study, physical work with a heavy load, awkward work postures, mental stress, and obesity were the risk factors at which preventive measures could be aimed. As a new finding, physical exercise had more protective than impairing effects on the shoulders.

  7. Work engagement, burnout and related constructs as predictors of turnover intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine du Plooy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The focus of the study was to investigate the predictive relationship between the work engagement-burnout continuum and turnover intentions.Research purpose: The main purpose of the study was to determine whether work engagement, burnout, organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB and work alienation are predictors of turnover intentions.Motivation for the study: Organisations operating within the 21st century face significant challenges in the management of talent and human capital. One in particular is voluntary employee turnover and the lack of appropriate business models to track this process.Research design, approach and method: A secondary data analysis (SDA was performed in a quantitative research tradition on the cross-sectional survey data collected from a large South African Information and Communication Technologies (ICT sector company (n = 2429.Main findings: The results of the study confirmed the predictive model (work engagement, burnout, OCB and work alienation of turnover intention. Specifically, work engagement and OCBs were significantly negatively related to turnover intention; whilst burnout and work alienation were significantly positively related to turnover intention. Several third-variable relationships, such as biographic and demographic variables, indicated statistical significance.Practical/managerial implications: Practical implications of the study could impact on human resource (HR value-chain activities in the form of evidence-based and improved recruitment and selection procedures, employee retention strategies and training and development interventions. Issues concerning talent management could also be addressed.Contribution/value-add: The study described in this article took Industrial/Organisational (I/O psychological concepts and linked them in unique combinations to establish better predictive validity of a new turnover intentions model.

  8. Psychosocial factors and safety behaviour as predictors of accidental work injuries in farming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasscock, David John; Rasmussen, Kurt; Carstensen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    be a problem faced by farmers, there is a particular need to investigate the associations between farm accidents and work stressors and stress reactions. Using multivariate logistic regression analyses, this study aimed to uncover the best psychosocial predictors of injury, while controlling for exposure......Farming is one of the most hazardous occupations in terms of the incidence and seriousness of accidental injuries. Research with other occupational groups has drawn attention to the role of psychosocial factors and stress. Such research needs to be extended to agriculture. Since stress may......-related confounders. From a randomly selected sample of 794 farms, 10% of all farms in Ringkoebing County, Denmark, 393 farmers completed completed weekly accident registration over 12 months. The study sample consisted of 310 farmers who also completed questionnaires on psychosocial factors. Results indicated...

  9. Verbal and visuospatial working memory as predictors of children's reading ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Andy V; Hasson, Ramzi M

    2014-08-01

    Children with reading difficulties often demonstrate weaknesses in working memory (WM). This research study explored the relation between two WM systems (verbal and visuospatial WM) and reading ability in a sample of school-aged children with a wide range of reading skills. Children (N = 157), ages 9-12, were administered measures of short-term memory, verbal WM, visuospatial WM, and reading measures (e.g., reading fluency and comprehension). Although results indicated that verbal WM was a stronger predictor in reading fluency and comprehension, visuospatial WM also significantly predicted reading skills, but provided more unique variance in reading comprehension than reading fluency. These findings suggest that visuospatial WM may play a significant role in higher level reading processes, particularly in reading comprehension, than previously thought. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Oncologist burnout and compassion fatigue: investigating time pressure at work as a predictor and the mediating role of work-family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Sibyl; Wallace, Jean E

    2017-09-11

    Oncologists are at high risk of poor mental health. Prior research has focused on burnout, and has identified heavy workload as a key predictor. Compassion fatigue among physicians has generally received less attention, although medical specialties such as oncology may be especially at risk of compassion fatigue. We contribute to research by identifying predictors of both burnout and compassion fatigue among oncologists. In doing so, we distinguish between quantitative workload (e.g., work hours) and subjective work pressure, and test whether work-family conflict mediates the relationships between work pressure and burnout or compassion fatigue. In a cross-sectional study, oncologists from across Canada (n = 312) completed questionnaires assessing burnout, compassion fatigue, workload, time pressure at work, work-family conflict, and other personal, family, and occupational characteristics. Analyses use Ordinary Least Squares regression. Subjective time pressure at work is a key predictor of both burnout and compassion fatigue. Our results also show that work-family conflict fully mediates these relationships. Overall, the models explain more of the variation in burnout as compared to compassion fatigue. Our study highlights the need to consider oncologists' subjective time pressure, in addition to quantitative workload, in interventions to improve mental health. The findings also highlight a need to better understand additional predictors of compassion fatigue.

  11. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, I.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; van Rhenen, W.; de Boer, M.R.; Bultmann, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  12. Predictors of recurrent sickness absence among workers having returned to work after sickness absence due to common mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arends, Iris; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; van Rhenen, Willem; de Boer, Michiel R.; Bultmann, Ute

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate whether sociodemographic, disease-related, personal, and work-related factors - measured at baseline - are predictors of recurrent sickness absence (SA) at 6 and 12 months follow-up among workers who returned to work after SA due to common mental

  13. Predictors of long-term return to work and symptom remission in sick-listed patients with major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hees, Hiske L.; Koeter, Maarten W. J.; Schene, Aart H.

    2012-01-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) has substantial negative effects on work outcomes, little is known regarding how to promote a return to work (RTW) after MDD-related sickness absence. The present study aimed to examine predictors across multiple domains for long-term RTW in patients who are

  14. The work-based predictors of job engagement and job satisfaction experienced by community health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblet, Andrew J; Allisey, Amanda F; Nielsen, Ingrid L; Cotton, Stacey; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Page, Kathryn M

    Job engagement represents a critical resource for community-based health care agencies to achieve high levels of effectiveness. However, studies examining the organizational sources of job engagement among health care professionals have generally overlooked those workers based in community settings. This study drew on the demand-control model, in addition to stressors that are more specific to community health services (e.g., unrewarding management practices), to identify conditions that are closely associated with the engagement experienced by a community health workforce. Job satisfaction was also included as a way of assessing how the predictors of job engagement differ from those associated with other job attitudes. Health and allied health care professionals (n = 516) from two Australian community health services took part in the current investigation. Responses from the two organizations were pooled and analyzed using linear multiple regression. The analyses revealed that three working conditions were predictive of both job engagement and job satisfaction (i.e., job control, quantitative demands, and unrewarding management practices). There was some evidence of differential effects with cognitive demands being associated with job engagement, but not job satisfaction. The results provide important insights into the working conditions that, if addressed, could play key roles in building a more engaged and satisfied community health workforce. Furthermore, working conditions like job control and management practices are amenable to change and thus represent important areas where community health services could enhance the energetic and motivational resources of their employees.

  15. Three functional aspects of working memory as strong predictors of early school achievements: The review and illustrative evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedek Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research on working memory as a predictor of early school achievements. We contrast two main areas of research on the role of working memory in school achievements: the first concerns the structural model of working memory and the second focuses on executive functions. Then, we discuss the facet model of working memory as a promising approach merging the two research branches on working memory tasks as predictors of early school achievements. At the end we present exemplary results of the research conducted on a national sample of six- and seven-year-olds in Poland, which indicates strong relation of working memory functions with the measures of competences in mathematics, reading, and writing. Additionally, the mediation analyses, with parents’ education as a covariate, indicate that the influence of age on achievements in math, reading, and writing in six- and seven-year olds is mediated by working memory functions.

  16. Intrinsic motivation and metacognition as predictors of learning potential in patients with remitted schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Cumhur; Brown, Elliot C; Esen-Danaci, Aysen; Lysaker, Paul H; Brüne, Martin

    2012-08-01

    Previous research has suggested that neurocognitive functioning predicts best the potential of patients with schizophrenia to acquire newly learned material, which, in turn may impact patients' social functioning. Recent studies have also shown that intrinsic motivation and metacognitive abilities play a decisive role in social functioning in schizophrenia. Accordingly, the present study sought to examine the relationship between intelligence, motivation, metacognition, and learning during a cognitive remediation experimental training. We hypothesized that metacognition and intrinsic motivation would have a strong relationship and independently predict learning potential. Thirty-two patients with schizophrenia who fulfilled the criteria of functional remission were recruited. In a pre-training-post experimental design, patients' learning potential was assessed using previously defined cognitive remediation training for WCST. Intrinsic motivation was examined using Intrinsic Motivation Inventory for schizophrenia; mastery, a domain of metacognition, was measured using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale. Metacognition significantly correlated with subdomains of intrinsic motivation. Patients with higher intrinsic motivation and preserved metacognition improved more in the learning paradigm compared to poorly motivated patients and patients with reduced metacognitive abilities. In particular, "mastery" was determined as an independent predictor of learning potential. Motivation and metacognition are important predictors of learning in schizophrenia. Psychological interventions in schizophrenia may therefore consider incorporating techniques to stimulate metacognitive and motivational abilities as well as developing individualized training programs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential predictors of lower extremity impairments in motor coordination of stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Kenia K; Scianni, Aline A; Faria-Fortini, Iza; Avelino, Patrick R; Carvalho, Augusto C; Faria, Christina D; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2016-06-01

    It is well recognized that the negative motor impairments following upper motor neuron damage, e.g., loss of strength and dexterity (motor coordination), mostly contribute to disability. Many factors may predict impairments in motor coordination (MC) and the identifications of these factors could help rehabilitation professionals to select variables to be considered in the evaluation and interventions aimed at improving MC of the lower limbs after stroke. To investigate the potential predictors of motor coordination (MC) of the paretic lower limb with stroke subjects, as assessed by the Lower Limb Motor Coordination Test (LEMOCOT). Cross-sectional, observational study. University laboratory. One hundred and six stroke subjects. The selected potential predictors of the LEMOCOT scores were age, gender, motor recovery and sensation of the lower limb, tonus of the knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles, and strength of the hip flexor and knee flexor/extensor muscles. Step-wise multiple regression was employed for analysis. Only motor recovery, tonus of the plantar flexor muscles, and age reached significance (Pmuscles and age were included in the model, the explained variance increased to 54% (F=42.0, PLower limb motor recovery was positively associated with the LEMOCOT scores, whereas the tonus of the plantar flexor muscles and age were negatively correlated. Motor recovery of the lower limb, tonus of the plantar flexor muscles, and age were significant predictors of MC of the paretic lower limb. These findings could help rehabilitation professionals to evaluate MC deficits and plan interventions aimed at improving MC of the lower limbs for stroke subjects, based upon the knowledge of the possible factors that could contribute to MC impairments.

  18. Cognitive Potential And Its Predictors In Children From A Rural District Of Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Irum

    2017-01-01

    Effective interventions are available to reduce cognitive deficit currently estimated to affect more than 200 million children under 5 years of age in developing countries. However, developing world's investment is negligible in this regard mainly because of non-existent global indicators to monitor progress with respect to the childhood cognitive development. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) or Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) is an indicator of the cognitive development. This study was designed to assess cognitive potential of 6-7 years old children from a rural district of Pakistan by calculating their FSIQ. Predictors of the FSIQ were also determined. This cross-sectional research was carried out in 40 rural Union Councils (UCs) of 2 subdistricts in district Rawalpindi utilizing simple random sampling technique. Wechsler Pre-school and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI-IV) was administered to 6-7 years old children (n=300) for measuring their FSIQ. FSIQ of rural Pakistani children, relative to the normative sample, was found to be in the category of low-average. Findings of multiple regression analysis concluded grade/class of the child as the most influential predictor of the FSIQ followed by the level of mother's and then father's education. FSIQ of the rural Pakistani children, relative to the normative sample, was found to be in the category of low-average. Predictors of the FSIQ, seen in this research, were school grades and non-educated parents of the children warranting future research on the contribution of environmental influences to the variability in cognitive potential.

  19. Demand, control and social climate as predictors of emotional exhaustion symptoms in working Swedish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson Hanson, Linda L; Theorell, Töres; Oxenstierna, Gabriel; Hyde, Martin; Westerlund, Hugo

    2008-09-01

    Most studies on burnout have been cross-sectional and focused on specific occupations. In the present study we prospectively investigated the association between demands, control, support and conflicts as well as downsizing and emotional exhaustion in men and women derived from a representative sample of the working population in Sweden. The study comprised working men (1,511) and women (1,493), who participated in the Swedish Work Environment Survey (SWES) in 2003 and had no physical exhaustion and prior sick leave at baseline. These participants were followed up in 2006 as part of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH). Demands, decision authority, support from fellow workers and superiors, conflicts with fellow workers and superiors, and downsizing were utilized as predictors and the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscale of emotional exhaustion as the outcome in multiple logistic regression analyses. High demands were a highly significant predictor of symptoms of emotional exhaustion (>/=75th percentile). Downsizing and lack of support from superiors were also independent predictors for men as well as lack of support from fellow workers and low decision authority for women. This study indicates that high demands, low decision authority, lack of support at work and downsizing could be important predictors of emotional exhaustion symptoms among working men and women.

  20. Potentiality, Development Ideals, and Realities of Social Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringø, Pia

    2017-01-01

    The article illustrates how existing policies and new technologies in the social work with people with functional handicaps are based on new forms of potentialization which fundamentally change the view of humans, social problems, and social work. Social work and management is no longer seen...... through a series of concepts in social work. The vision of potentialization is in part 1: an organizational and management tool, a management technological vision that is expressed in the political plans, in diagnostic tools, in referrals and that is implemented in social work with the citizens, and 2...... to this development. But what is the news in relation to social work? In the article I approach this question by showing 1: how potentionalization influences the perception as well as the concrete distribution of social problems. 2: how potentionalization influences the concrete practices of welfare services...

  1. Physician burnout in Hungary: a potential role for work-family conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Szilvia; Györffy, Zsuzsa; Susánszky, Eva

    2008-10-01

    In a study among Hungarian physicians (N = 420), we tested the hypothesis that compared to men female physicians experience higher work-family conflict (WFC) and consequent burnout. As predicted, female physicians scored significantly higher on the emotional exhaustion subscale of the Maslach Burnout Inventory and significantly more female physicians experienced high levels of emotional exhaustion compared to male physicians. WFC emerged as a significant predictor of burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalization). These findings suggest a potential path from WFC to burnout in a scarcely researched population of physicians in a unique cultural setting and provide further data for cross-cultural burnout research.

  2. Do Social Casino Gamers Migrate to Online Gambling? An Assessment of Migration Rate and Potential Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoun S; Wohl, Michael J A; Salmon, Melissa M; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2015-12-01

    Social casino games (i.e., free-to-play online gambling games) are enjoyed by millions of players worldwide on a daily basis. Despite being free to play, social casino games share many similarities to traditional casino games. As such, concerns have been raised as to whether social casino games influences the migration to online gambling among people who have not engaged in such activity (see Griffiths in World Online Gambl 9:12-13, 2010). To date, however, no empirical research has assessed this possibility. Thus, the purpose of the present research was to assess the extent to which social casino gamers migrate to online gambling and potential predictors (time spent on social casino games, skill building, enhancement and micro-transactions) of such migration. To this end, social casino gamers who never gambled online (N = 409) completed a questionnaire battery assessing our variables of interest and were re-contacted 6-months later to see if they had engaged in online gambling during the intervening months. Approximately 26% of social casino gamers reported having migrated to online gambling. Importantly, engagement in micro-transactions was the only unique predictor of migration from social casino gaming to online gambling. The implications for the potential harms associated with social casino gaming are discussed.

  3. Depression as a predictor of work resumption following myocardial infarction (MI): a review of recent research evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Adrienne; Sanderson, Kristy; Oldenburg, Brian

    2010-09-06

    Depression often coexists with myocardial infarction (MI) and has been found to impede recovery through reduced functioning in key areas of life such as work. In an era of improved survival rates and extended working lives, we review whether depression remains a predictor of poorer work outcomes following MI by systematically reviewing literature from the past 15 years. Articles were identified using medical, health, occupational and social science databases, including PubMed, OVID, Medline, Proquest, CINAHL plus, CCOHS, SCOPUS, Web of Knowledge, and the following pre-determined criteria were applied: (i) collection of depression measures (as distinct from 'psychological distress') and work status at baseline, (ii) examination and statistical analysis of predictors of work outcomes, (iii) inclusion of cohorts with patients exhibiting symptoms consistent with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS), (iv) follow-up of work-specific and depression specific outcomes at minimum 6 months, (v) published in English over the past 15 years. Results from included articles were then evaluated for quality and analysed by comparing effect size. Of the 12 articles meeting criteria, depression significantly predicted reduced likelihood of return to work (RTW) in the majority of studies (n = 7). Further, there was a trend suggesting that increased depression severity was associated with poorer RTW outcomes 6 to 12 months after a cardiac event. Other common significant predictors of RTW were age and patient perceptions of their illness and work performance. Depression is a predictor of work resumption post-MI. As work is a major component of Quality of Life (QOL), this finding has clinical, social, public health and economic implications in the modern era. Targeted depression interventions could facilitate RTW post-MI.

  4. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, pexhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found.

  5. Differences in predictors for return to work following musculoskeletal injury between workers with and without somatic comorbidities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, Cecile R. L.; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bultmann, Ute; Amick, Ben C.; van der Beek, Allard J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose In workers with musculoskeletal injuries, comorbidity is associated with worse return to work (RTW) outcomes. In the context of RTW, it is unclear whether associations between predictors and RTW are similar or different for workers with and without comorbidity. This study aims to investigate

  6. Cognitive predictors of a common multitasking ability: Contributions from working memory, attention control, and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redick, Thomas S; Shipstead, Zach; Meier, Matthew E; Montroy, Janelle J; Hicks, Kenny L; Unsworth, Nash; Kane, Michael J; Hambrick, D Zachary; Engle, Randall W

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has identified several cognitive abilities that are important for multitasking, but few studies have attempted to measure a general multitasking ability using a diverse set of multitasks. In the final dataset, 534 young adult subjects completed measures of working memory (WM), attention control, fluid intelligence, and multitasking. Correlations, hierarchical regression analyses, confirmatory factor analyses, structural equation models, and relative weight analyses revealed several key findings. First, although the complex tasks used to assess multitasking differed greatly in their task characteristics and demands, a coherent construct specific to multitasking ability was identified. Second, the cognitive ability predictors accounted for substantial variance in the general multitasking construct, with WM and fluid intelligence accounting for the most multitasking variance compared to attention control. Third, the magnitude of the relationships among the cognitive abilities and multitasking varied as a function of the complexity and structure of the various multitasks assessed. Finally, structural equation models based on a multifaceted model of WM indicated that attention control and capacity fully mediated the WM and multitasking relationship. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Childcare work between the existing and the potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingstrup, Signe Hvid

    The paper discusses preliminary findings from an action research project on professionals’ work with children’s wellbeing in Danish childcare institutions. Focus is on democratic potentials of and tensions in professional practices. Democracy is a pressing concern for childcare institutions: Inst...... of these types of processes and explores possibilities for empowerment of professionals and for the reintroduction of democratic perspectives into research on and development of childcare work....

  8. Negative Acts at Work as Potential Bullying Behavior and Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, Annie; Conway, Paul M; Grynderup, Matias B

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the 2-year prospective association between exposure to negative acts at work and depression. Methods: A questionnaire study was carried out among 3363 employees and followed up 2 years later. Negative acts as potential bullying behavior were assessed by the Revi......Objective: This study investigates the 2-year prospective association between exposure to negative acts at work and depression. Methods: A questionnaire study was carried out among 3363 employees and followed up 2 years later. Negative acts as potential bullying behavior were assessed...

  9. Predictors of having a potential live donor: a prospective cohort study of kidney transplant candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, Peter P.; Shea, Judy A.; Bloom, Roy D.; Berns, Jeffrey S.; Grossman, Robert; Joffe, Marshall; Huverserian, Ari; Feldman, Harold I.

    2010-01-01

    The barriers to live donor transplantation are poorly understood. We performed a prospective cohort study of individuals undergoing renal transplant evaluation. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed clinical characteristics as well as knowledge and beliefs about transplantation. A participant satisfied the primary outcome if anyone contacted the transplant center to be considered as a live donor for that participant. The final cohort comprised 203 transplant candidates, among whom 80 (39.4%) had a potential donor contact the center and 19 (9.4%) underwent live donor transplantation. In multivariable logistic regression, younger candidates (OR 1.65 per 10 fewer years, p=$15,000 (OR 4.22, p=0.03) were more likely to attract a potential live donor. Greater self-efficacy, a measure of the participant’s belief in his or her ability to attract a donor, was a predictor of having a potential live donor contact the center (OR 2.73 per point, p<0.01), while knowledge was not (p=0.56). The lack of association between knowledge and having a potential donor suggests that more intensive education of transplant candidates will not increase live donor transplantation. On the other hand, self-efficacy may be an important target in designing interventions to help candidates find live donors. PMID:19845584

  10. Organization specific predictors of job satisfaction: findings from a Canadian multi-site quality of work life cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohfeld Lynne

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organizational features can affect how staff view their quality of work life. Determining staff perceptions about quality of work life is an important consideration for employers interested in improving employee job satisfaction. The purpose of this study was to identify organization specific predictors of job satisfaction within a health care system that consisted of six independent health care organizations. Methods 5,486 full, part and causal time (non-physician staff on active payroll within six organizations (2 community hospitals, 1 community hospital/long-term care facility, 1 long-term care facility, 1 tertiary care/community health centre, and 1 visiting nursing agency located in five communities in Central West Ontario, Canada were asked to complete a 65-item quality of work life survey. The self-administered questionnaires collected staff perceptions of: co-worker and supervisor support; teamwork and communication; job demands and decision authority; organization characteristics; patient/resident care; compensation and benefits; staff training and development; and impressions of the organization. Socio-demographic data were also collected. Results Depending on the organization, between 15 and 30 (of the 40 potential predictor variables were found to be statistically associated with job satisfaction (univariate analyses. Logistic regression analyses identified the best predictors of job satisfaction and these are presented for each of the six organizations and for all organizations combined. Conclusions The findings indicate that job satisfaction is a multidimensional construct and although there appear to be some commonalities across organizations, some predictors of job satisfaction appear to be organization and context specific.

  11. Early predictors of not returning to work in low-income breast cancer survivors: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blinder, Victoria; Patil, Sujata; Eberle, Carolyn; Griggs, Jennifer; Maly, Rose C

    2013-07-01

    Low-income women may be especially vulnerable to job loss after a breast cancer diagnosis. The identification of early risk factors for not returning to work in the long term could inform interventions to help survivors avoid this outcome. A consecutive sample of low-income, employed, underinsured/uninsured women treated for stage 0-III breast cancer was surveyed 6, 18, 36, and 60 months after diagnosis. Participants were classified according to the survey in which they first reported return to work. If they were not working in every survey they were classified as not returning to work. Correlates of not returning to work were identified. Of 274 participants, 36 % returned to work by 6 months, an additional 21 % by 18, 10 % by 36, and 5 % by 60 months. 27 % never returned to work. Of those not working at 6 months, 43 % never returned. Independent predictors of never returning to work included lowest annual income (working during chemotherapy for breast cancer are at risk of not returning to work months and years following treatment. These findings may have clinical and policy implications. Conversely, radiation therapy, axillary node dissection, age, and job type do not appear to be associated with return to work. Clinicians should discuss work-related concerns with patients and facilitate early return to work when desired by the patient. Additional research is needed to develop interventions to optimize return to work.

  12. Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction as a Predictor of Work Engagement among Academic Staff in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silman, Fatos

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were utilized. The data were…

  13. Activating the working behavior of citizens by motivation potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Nikolayevna Lobanova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the possibility to change the working behavior of employees by actualizing their motivational potential. Methods the methods of survey questionnaires focus groups coaching and interview were used in the study. Results the studies have shown that the employeesrsquo motivational potential is revealed through a complex system of labor motivation taking into account the needs and interests of a particular employee and forming the motivational and stimulating environment. Scientific novelty the research includes the development of methods to analyze the employeesrsquo interests and dominant motives and building of the structural system of employeesrsquo motivation to effective action. Practical value developing a method to increase the employeesrsquo motivation for efficient work in the form of a systematic set of actions. The application of this method allows to increase the efficiency and productivity of workers to gain additional profit which is especially important in the context of the economic crisis and the lack of additional investment. nbsp

  14. Work-related basic need satisfaction as a predictor of work engagement among academic staff in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatos Silman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between work-related basic need satisfaction and work engagement. Data were obtained from a total of 203 academics who are employed in various universities of Turkey. In this research Work-Related Basic Need Satisfaction Scale and The Turkish Form of Utrecht Work Engagement Scale were utilized. The data were analysed through multiple regression and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient analysis methods. The findings revealed that the sub-dimensions of work-related basic need satisfaction significantly predicted work engagement. Upper management should improve work conditions of their personnel, which are related with competency, autonomy, and relatedness needs of academics. This way, academic staff will have better efficiency in terms of work engagement, which will also result in higher work adaptation and participation.

  15. Cognitive Predictors of Work Among Social Security Disability Insurance Beneficiaries With Psychiatric Disorders Enrolled in IPS Supported Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGurk, Susan R; Drake, Robert E; Xie, Haiyi; Riley, Jarnee; Milfort, Roline; Hale, Thomas W; Frey, William

    2017-08-31

    Impaired cognitive functioning is a significant predictor of work dysfunction in schizophrenia. Less is known, however about relationships of cognition and work in people with less severe disorders with relatively normal cognitive functioning. This secondary analysis evaluated cognitive predictors of work in Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) beneficiaries with a recent work history who were randomized to receive mental health services, supported employment, and freedom from work disincentives over a 2-year study period in the Mental Health Treatment Study. Of the 1045 participants randomized to the treatment package, 945 (90.4%) received a cognitive assessment at study entry. Competitive work activity was evaluated using a computer-assisted timeline follow-back calendar at baseline and quarterly for 24 months. Mood disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses (64.9%), followed by schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (35.1%). Tobit regression analyses predicting the average number of hours worked per week, controlling for demographic characteristics, diagnosis, and work history indicated that the cognitive composite score (P work over the study period. Cognitive functioning predicted work over 2 years in SSDI beneficiaries with mood or schizophrenia-spectrum disorders who were receiving supported employment and mental health interventions, despite a relative absence of cognitive impairment in the study participants. The findings suggest cognitive functioning contributes to competitive work outcomes in persons with psychiatric disorders who have relatively unimpaired cognitive abilities, even under optimal conditions of treatment and vocational support. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Assessment of potential asbestos exposures from jet engine overhaul work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S P; Van Orden, D R

    2012-06-01

    Asbestos fibers have been used in a wide variety of products and numerous studies have shown that exposures from the use or manipulation of these products can vary widely. Jet engines contained various components (gaskets, clamps, o-rings and insulation) that contained asbestos that potentially could release airborne fibers during routine maintenance or during an engine overhaul. To evaluate the potential exposures to aircraft mechanics, a Pratt & Whitney JT3D jet engine was obtained and overhauled by experienced mechanics using tools and work practices similar to those used since the time this engine was manufactured. This study has demonstrated that the disturbance of asbestos-containing gaskets, o-rings, and other types of asbestos-containing components, while performing overhaul work to a jet engine produces very few airborne fibers, and that virtually none of these aerosolized fibers is asbestos. The overhaul work was observed to be dirty and oily. The exposures to the mechanics and bystanders were several orders of magnitude below OSHA exposure regulations, both current and historic. The data presented underscore the lack of risk to the health of persons conducting this work and to other persons in proximity to it from airborne asbestos. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  18. Individual and work-related predictors of work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Ven, Hardy A.; Hesselink, John Klein; Bultmann, Ute; de Boer, Michiel R.; de Looze, Michiel P.; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Brouwer, Sandra

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of

  19. Individual and work-related predictors of work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, H.A. van de; Klein Hesselink, J.; Bultmann, U.; Boer, M.R. de; Looze, M.P. de; Klink, J.J.L. van der; Brouwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine which individual and work-related characteristics predict work outcomes related to sustainable employment among male shift and day workers. Methods Between 1 September 2005 and 31 December 2009, data on individual and work-related characteristics of N=5640

  20. Community-based health information technology alliances: potential predictors of early sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Lisa M; Wilcox, Adam B; Shapiro, Jason; Yoon-Flannery, Kahyun; Abramson, Erika; Barron, Yolanda; Kaushal, Rainu

    2011-04-01

    To determine potential predictors of sustainability among community-based organizations that are implementing health information technology (HIT) with health information exchange, in a state with significant funding of such organizations. A longitudinal cohort study of community-based organizations funded through the first phase of the $440 million Healthcare Efficiency and Affordability Law for New Yorkers program. We administered a baseline telephone survey in January and February 2007, using a novel instrument with open-ended questions, and collected follow-up data from the New York State Department of Health regarding subsequent funding awarded in March 2008. We used logistic regression to determine associations between 18 organizational characteristics and subsequent funding. All 26 organizations (100%) responded. Having the alliance led by a health information organization (odds ratio [OR] 11.4, P = .01) and having performed a community-based needs assessment (OR 5.1, P = .08) increased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. Having the intervention target the long-term care setting (OR 0.14, P = .03) decreased the unadjusted odds of subsequent funding. In the multivariate model, having the alliance led by a health information organization, rather than a healthcare organization, increased the odds of subsequent funding (adjusted OR 6.4; 95% confidence interval 0.8, 52.6; P = .08). Results from this longitudinal study suggest that both health information organizations and healthcare organizations are needed for sustainable HIT transformation.

  1. Part-time work or social benefits as predictors for disability pension: a prospective study of Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2014-04-01

    To a large extent, it is unknown whether work absences other than sickness absence (SA) covered by social benefits such as parental leave, rehabilitation, or unemployment would predict disability pension (DP). We investigated whether part-time work or having received social benefits for sick leave, rehabilitation, or parental leave would be predictors for DP taking into account familial confounding (genetics and shared environment, e.g., social background) in these associations. A sample of 17,640 same-sex Swedish twin ndividuals [corrected] was followed from 2000 to 2008 via national registries for their receipt of social benefits and DP including additional baseline questionnaire data. Cox proportional hazard ratios were estimated. Full-time work was less common (47 %) among those being granted DP during the follow-up compared to those without DP (69 %). Self-reported full-time work, part-time work (≥50 %), and self-employment and registry data of caring for a child were the direct protective factors, whereas self-reported part-time work (work were the direct risk factors for DP, i.e., independent of familial confounding. Part-time work and social benefits play different roles in predicting DP. Thus, full-time work, part-time work (≥50 %), self-employment, and benefits for parental leave seem to protect from DP. In contrast, SA and part-time work (social benefits, or severity of diseases.

  2. Health, work, and personal-related predictors of time to return to work among employees with mental health problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Maj Britt D.; Bültmann, Ute; Madsen, Ida E.H.

    2012-01-01

    returned to work. In the fitted Cox model we found that fulfilling the DSM-IV criteria for depression predicted a longer time to RTW (HR: 0.61, CI: 0.45–0.84), whereas a better self-rated health predicted a shorter time to RTW (HR: 1.18, CI: 1.03–1.34). Employees working in the municipal (HR: 0.62, CI: 0......Purpose: To identify health-, personal- and work-related factors predictive of return to work (RTW) in employees sick-listed due to common mental health problems, such as, stress, depression, burnout, and anxiety. Methods: We distributed a baseline questionnaire to employees applying for sickness...

  3. MODIFIED FUNCTIONAL MOVEMENT SCREENING AS A PREDICTOR OF TACTICAL PERFORMANCE POTENTIAL IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE ADULTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Stephen M; Ross, Scott E

    2015-10-01

    Failure to meet minimum performance standards is a leading cause of attrition from basic combat training. A standardized assessment such as the Functional Movement Screen™ (FMS™) could help identify movement behaviors relevant to physical performance in tactical occupations. Previous work has demonstrated only marginal association between FMS™ tests and performance outcomes, but adding a load challenge to this movement assessment may help highlight performance-limiting behaviors. The purposes of this investigation were to quantify the effect of load on FMS™ tests and determine the extent to which performance outcomes could be predicted using scores from both loaded and unloaded FMS™ conditions. Crossover Trial. Thirteen female and six male recreationally active college students (21 ± 1.37 years, 168 ± 9.8 cm, 66 ± 12.25 kg) completed the FMS™ under (1) a control condition (FMS™C), and (2) an 18.10kg weight vest condition (FMS™W). Balance was assessed using a force plate in double-legged stance and tactical physical performance was evaluated via completion times in a battery of field tests. For each condition, penalized regression was used to select models from the seven FMS™ component tests to predict balance and performance outcomes. Data were collected during a single session lasting approximately three hours per participant. For balance, significant predictors were identified from both conditions but primarily predicted poorer balance with increasing FMS™ scores. For tactical performance, models were retained almost exclusively from FMS™W and generally predicted better performance with higher item scores. The current results suggest that FMS™ screening with an external load could help predict performance relevant to tactical occupations. Sports medicine and fitness professionals interested in performance outcomes may consider assessing movement behaviors under a load. 3.

  4. Beyond Histological Remission: Intramucosal Calprotectin as a Potential Predictor of Outcomes in Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Marianne; Wendt, Emily; Wang, Lai Mun; Walsh, Alissa; Burger, Daniel; Bryant, Robert V; Kent, Alex; Adamson, Rebecca; Brain, Oliver; Travis, Simon P L; Keshav, Satish

    2017-04-01

    Histological remission and low faecal calprotectin are positive prognostic factors in ulcerative colitis [UC]. Intramucosal calprotectin [iMC], which can be readily determined by immunohistochemistry, has not so far been evaluated as a predictor of outcome in UC. We aimed to investigate the relationship between iMC and clinical, endoscopic, and histological measures of remission in UC, and the independent prognostic value of iMC. Ambulant patients with UC were recruited for a study comparing clinical activity indices. Sigmoidoscopy and biopsy were performed at the index visit. Clinical, endoscopic, and histological activity were scored and iMC semi-quantitatively measured using immunohistochemistry for the S100A8/9 heterodimer on colonic biopsies, scored as the mean number of positive cells in five high-power fields [HPF]. At the end of follow-up [6 years], data on steroid use, hospitalisation, and colectomy ['adverse outcomes'] were collected. iMC was determined in 83 patients and 20 controls, and correlated with clinical, endoscopic, and histological activity [r = 0.51, 0.65, 0.53, p > 0.001, respectively]. iMC was lowest (median 2.4, interquartile range [IQR]: 5.2-5, p iMC > 5/HPF was associated with adverse outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 3.36, confidence interval [CI] 1.58, 7.15, p iMC > 5 cells/HPF avoided an adverse outcome after 1, 3, and 6 years, respectively. iMC was lowest in patients with concordant clinical, endoscopic, and histological remission. Median iMC > 5/HPF was associated with adverse outcomes despite histological remission. Therefore iMC is a potentially useful independent marker of activity.

  5. Serum ghrelin, but not obestatin, is a potential predictor of acute pancreatitis severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huilin; Qin, Mengbin; Liang, Zhihai; Chang, Renjie; Fu, Hongzong; Wei, Yule; Tang, Guodu

    2017-09-01

    The roles of ghrelin and obestatin in AP remain controversial.This study investigates the effects and the predictive value of serum ghrelin and obestatin levels in the early stage of AP.A total of 193 consecutive patients with AP and 24 healthy controls were included. Patients were divided into mild acute pancreatitis (MAP), moderately severe acute pancreatitis (MSAP), and severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) groups. Serum levels of ghrelin and obestatin were measured on the first, third, and fifth days of hospitalization. The predictive value of serum ghrelin and obestatin levels on the first day in AP was examined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves.On the first day of hospitalization, the mean serum ghrelin level was significantly lower in patients with AP than in controls (P ghrelin concentration decreased with increasing AP severity and was lower in patients with SAP than in those with MAP and MSAP (P ghrelin level on the first day had some predictive value for AP severity (area under the ROC curve = 0.646), with an optimal cut-off value of 87.83 pg/mL. Logistic regression showed that the serum ghrelin level had independent predictive value for non-MAP (odds ratio = 10.94; 95% confidence interval, 5.08-23.55; P ghrelin and obestatin levels may be related to the progression of AP in the early stage. Only the serum ghrelin level is a potential predictor of AP severity in the early stage. Obestatin may be involved in the pathogenesis of AP caused by hypertriglyceridemia.

  6. Predictors of return to work among patients in treatment for common mental disorders: a pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattias Victor

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of return to work (RTW interventions vary, and more knowledge is needed about the factors that contribute to RTW. This study investigated changes in work participation and mental health, and predictors of RTW among patients being treated for common mental disorders (CMDs. Methods The study was a prospective pre–post study of 164 patients treated at an RTW outpatient clinic for CMDs. Differences between before and after treatment were analysed using paired t tests for continuous variables and marginal homogeneity test for categorical variables. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with RTW. Baseline data (patient characteristics, clinical status, generalized self-efficacy, expectations of future work ability and treatment variables were used as independent variables in logistic regressions. Further analysis investigated whether improvements in symptoms, work ability, expectations of future work ability and generalized self-efficacy were associated with RTW. Results Number of individuals with full work participation increased, and there were improvements in symptoms, work ability and generalized self-efficacy. In the final model for predicting RTW, baseline work ability and expectancy of future work ability, a history of psychiatric treatment and focus on RTW in the treatment predicted RTW. Improvement in expectations of future work ability at post-treatment did also predict RTW. Conclusions Assessing work ability and expectations of RTW at the beginning of treatment is recommended to identify patients at risk of long-term sick leave. Individuals with a history of psychiatric treatment are also risking long-term work disability. It is essential that treatment focus not only on symptom-relief, but also on improving work ability and expectations of RTW. An RTW-focused approach in therapy is associated with RTW. Trail registration ClinicalTrails.gov ID NCT

  7. Work Valence as a Predictor of Academic Achievement in the Family Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik; Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura

    2013-01-01

    This study asserts a theoretical model of academic and work socialization within the family setting. The presumed associations between parents' work valences, children's work valences and valence perceptions, and children's academic interest and achievement are tested. The results suggest that children's perceptions of parents mediate the…

  8. Predictors of sustainable work participation of young adults with developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, A.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) work participation is a challenge, as shown by their low employment rates. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors predict work participation, finding work as well as maintaining

  9. Predictors of sustainable work participation of young adults with developmental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) work participation is a challenge, as shown by their low employment rates. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors predict work participation, finding work as well as maintaining

  10. Cancer Patients' Use of Social Work Services in Canada: Prevalence, Profile, and Predictors of Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadalla, Tahany M.

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the demographic and physical and mental health characteristics of social work clients among cancer patients in Canada as compared with nonusers of social work services, and factors that affect use of social work services among cancer patients. On the basis of data from two cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, the…

  11. Coping as a Predictor of Burnout and General Health in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, G. M.; Barbakou, A.; Hastings, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the work-related well-being of applied behaviour analysis (ABA) therapists who work in school-based contexts and deliver ABA interventions to children with autism. Methods: A questionnaire on work-related stress (burnout), general distress, perceived supervisor support and coping was completed by 45 ABA therapists…

  12. The work-home interface : The role of home-based predictors of burnout among mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Missler, M.A.; Stroebe, M.S.; van der Laan, G.

    2014-01-01

    Research into the work–home interface has mainly focused on work-related variables, leaving aspects associated with the home domain relatively understudied. This investigation examined both facilitation and conflict between home and work in a sample of 260 working mothers with children up to four

  13. Supervisory behaviour as a predictor of return to work in employees absent from work due to mental health problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuijsen, K.; Verbeek, J.H.A.M.; Boer, A.G.E.M. de; Blonk, R.W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To study supervisory behaviour as a predictive factor for return to work of employees absent due to mental health problems; and to explore the association between conditional factors and supervisory behaviour. Methods: Eighty five supervisors of employees were interviewed by telephone.

  14. Do predictors of return to work and recurrence of work disability due to mental disorders vary by age? A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila-Holappa, Pauliina; Ervasti, Jenni; Joensuu, Matti; Ahola, Kirsi; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Vahtera, Jussi; KivimÄki, Mika; Virtanen, Marianna

    2017-03-01

    The extent to which predictors of return to work (RTW) and recurrence of work disability episodes vary by age group is not well understood. We examined the associations of sociodemographic and clinical factors with RTW and recurrence after mental-disorder-related work disability episodes in a cohort of 10,496 Finnish public sector employees. Disability records were derived from national disability registers between 2005 and 2011. Effect modification by age was examined in age groups of 21-34, 35-50 and >50 years. A total of 16,551 disability episodes from mental disorders were recorded. The likelihood of RTW was elevated in age group 21-34 (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.28-1.46) and 35-50 years (HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.18-1.26) compared to age group >50 years. The risk of a recurrent episode of work disability was higher in age groups >50 (HR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.09-1.52) and 35-50 years (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.03-1.41) compared to the youngest age group. Employees with depressive disorders were less likely to RTW than employees with neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders, and this difference increased with age. Low education was associated with increased risk of recurrent work disability episode in age groups of 50 years or younger, while no such association was observed in age group >50 years. The importance of depressive symptoms over neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders as predictors of delayed RTW increases with age, whereas educational differences in the recurrence of an episode diminish by age.

  15. Developmental trajectories of event related potentials related to working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga-Paulino, Catarina I; Rodríguez-Martínez, Elena I; Arjona, Antonio; Morales, Manuel; Gómez, Carlos M

    2017-01-27

    Working memory is an important cognitive function, and it is crucial to better understand its neurophysiological mechanisms. The developmental trajectories of the Event Related Potentials related to this important function have hardly been studied. However, these ERPs may provide some clues about the individual state of maturation, as has been demonstrated for anatomical brain images. The present study aims to determine the behavioral and neurophysiological development of Working Memory (WM) processes. For this purpose, 170 subjects with ages ranging from 6 to 26 years performed a visual Delayed Match-to-Sample task (DMTS). The RTs, total errors, and Event Related Potentials (ERPs) in the phases of encoding, retention, and matching were obtained. Results revealed a decrease in the amplitude of ERPs with age, paralleled by improved performance on the DMTS task (i.e., shorter RTs and fewer errors). None of these variables were affected by gender. To determine whether memory performance was influenced by the individual pattern of maturation beyond age, the amplitude of the different ERP components was correlated with RT and errors on the WM task after removing the effect of age. Frontal N2 and posterior P1 and the Late Positive Component were the only ERPs that presented significant correlations with behavioral errors. Behavioral performance was predicted by age and by the scores on the first component extracted from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the ERPs. Age (under 17 years old) explained 85.04% and the PCA component explained 14.96% of the variance explained by the bivariate model predicting behavioral errors (1/age + scores of 1st PCA component). From the age of 17 on, the principal PCA component ceases to be an independent component predicting error performance. The results suggest that the individual maturation of ERP components seems to be of particular importance in controlling behavioral errors in WM, as measured by the DMTS. Copyright © 2016

  16. Prospective study of predictors and consequences of insomnia: personality, lifestyle, mental health, and work-related stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedaa, Øystein; Krossbakken, Elfrid; Grimsrud, Ingse Dagny; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Sivertsen, Børge; Magerøy, Nils; Einarsen, Ståle; Pallesen, Ståle

    2016-04-01

    To prospectively investigate the reciprocal relationships between personality traits, lifestyle factors, mental health, sleepiness, and work-related stressors against insomnia. A total of 799 Norwegian shift-working nurses (mean age 33.2 years, 90% female) participated in this prospective cohort study. They were assessed on self-report instruments (Bergen Insomnia Scale, Diurnal Type Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised, Work-Family Interface Scale, among others) in 2008/2009 (wave 1) and 2011 (wave 3). Structural equation modeling was employed to investigate the bidirectional relationship between a wide range of individual and work-related variables and insomnia. Languidity (β = 0.18***), anxiety (β = 0.11**), depression (β = 0.14***), exposure to bullying behavior (β = 0.08*), and negative spillover between work and family life (work to family, β = 0.08*; family to work, β = 0.07*) predicted increased symptoms of insomnia over time. Morningness (β = -0.09*) and positive spillover from work to family (β = -0.11**) predicted less symptoms of insomnia over time. No support was found for night work as a predictor of increased insomnia. Insomnia was a precursor for anxiety (β = 0.11**), but not for depression (*p work-related factors than as a precursor to them. The scope of factors causing insomnia, and factors protecting against it, should be further investigated. Insomnia should be considered in prediction models for mental illnesses and as an outcome of adverse work-related experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Attributes of nursing work environment as predictors of registered nurses' job satisfaction and intention to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sandy Pin-Pin; Cheung, Kin; Pang, Samantha Mei-Che

    2013-04-01

    To examine how front-line registered nurses' perception of their work environment associates with and predicts nurse outcomes in terms of job satisfaction and turnover intention. Mounting evidence has pointed to an inseparable link between attributes of the nursing work environment and nurse outcomes. However, there is a paucity of research examining nurses' perception of their work environment beyond the Western context. This cross-sectional survey involved 1271 registered nurses working in 135 inpatient units in 10 public hospitals in Hong Kong. The instrument comprised items developed from in-depth interviews with front-line nurses that explored nurses' perception of their work environment. Factor analysis identified five dimensions (professionalism, co-worker relationship, management, staffing and resources, and ward practice) of the nursing work environment. Logistic regression analysis further identified professionalism, management and ward practice as significant factors in predicting nurses' turnover intention, and staffing and resources as an additional factor in predicting their job satisfaction. Attributes of the nursing work environment have a significant bearing on nurses' job satisfaction and intention to leave. Managerial effort should focus on improving nurses' work conditions through detailed resource planning, effective management and removal of work constraints that affect nursing practice. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Creativity as Predictor of Mathematical Abilities in Fourth Graders in Addition to Number Sense and Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn H. Kroesbergen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was investigated how domain-specific (number sense and domain-general (working memory, creativity factors explain the variance in mathematical abilities in primary school children. A total of 166 children aged 8 to 10 years old participated. Several tests to measure math ability, mathematical creativity, number sense, verbal and visual spatial working memory and creativity were administered. Data were analyzed with a series of correlation and regression analyses. Number sense, working memory and creativity were all found to be important predictors of academic and creative mathematical ability. Furthermore, groups with math learning disabilities (MLD and mathematical giftedness (MG were compared to a typically developing (TD group. The results show that the MLD group scored lower on number line estimation and visual spatial working memory than the TD group, while the MG group differed from the TD group on visual spatial working memory and creativity. It is concluded that creativity plays a significant role in mathematics, above working memory and number sense.

  19. Person-organization fit and organizational identification as predictors of positive and negative work-home interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merecz, Dorota; Andysz, Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the presented research was to explore the links between complementary and supplementary dimensions of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit), organizational identification (OI) and negative (WHI(-)) versus positive (WHI(+)) work-home interactions. It was assumed that both complementary and supplementary P-O fit and OI were positively related to WHI(+) and negatively to WHI(-). The study was conducted on a large sample of Polish blue and white collar workers. The subjects were interviewed by means of questionnaires measuring: supplementary and complementary dimensions of P-O fit, OI and WHI. General work ability and demographic variables were also controlled in the study, and statistical analysis of ANOVA, pairwise comparison as well as regression were performed. P-O fit and OI differentiated the subjects in terms of WHI. For women supplementary fit was a significant predictor of WHI(-) and explained 12% of its variance, for men it was complementary fit with the number of working days per week and the level of education, which explained 22% of variance. Supplementary fit and OI explained 16% of WHI(+) variance in women; OI, tenure at the main place of employment and the level of education explained 8% of WHI(+) variance in men. It has been proven that not only are the effects of P-O fit and OI limited to the work environment but they also permeate boundaries between work and home and influence private life - good level of P-O fit and good OI play facilitating role in the positive spillover between work and home. Gender differences in the significance and predictive values of P-O fit and OI for WHI were also found. The innovative aspect of the work is the inclusion of P-O fit and OI in the range of significant predictors of work-home interaction. The results can serve as rationale for employers that improvement of P-O fit and employees' organizational identification should be included in work-life balance programs.

  20. Person-organization fit and organizational identification as predictors of positive and negative work-home interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Merecz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the presented research was to explore the links between complementary and supplementary dimensions of Person-Organization fit (P-O fit, organizational identification (OI and negative (WHI- versus positive (WHI+ work-home interactions. It was assumed that both complementary and supplementary P-O fit and OI were positively related to WHI+ and negatively to WHI-. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on a large sample of Polish blue and white collar workers. The subjects were interviewed by means of questionnaires measuring: supplementary and complementary dimensions of P-O fit, OI and WHI. General work ability and demographic variables were also controlled in the study, and statistical analysis of ANOVA, pairwise comparison as well as regression were performed. Results: P-O fit and OI differentiated the subjects in terms of WHI. For women supplementary fit was a significant predictor of WHI- and explained 12% of its variance, for men it was complementary fit with the number of working days per week and the level of education, which explained 22% of variance. Supplementary fit and OI explained 16% of WHI+ variance in women; OI, tenure at the main place of employment and the level of education explained 8% of WHI+ variance in men. Conclusions: It has been proven that not only are the effects of P-O fit and OI limited to the work environment but they also permeate boundaries between work and home and influence private life - good level of P-O fit and good OI play facilitating role in the positive spillover between work and home. Gender differences in the significance and predictive values of P-O fit and OI for WHI were also found. The innovative aspect of the work is the inclusion of P-O fit and OI in the range of significant predictors of work-home interaction. The results can serve as rationale for employers that improvement of P-O fit and employees' organizational identification should be included in work

  1. Working memory and number sense as predictors of mathematical (dis-)ability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesbergen, E.H.; Dijk, M. van

    2015-01-01

    Recent research has pointed to two possible causes of mathematical (dis-)ability: working memory and number sense, although only few studies have compared the relations between working memory and mathematics and between number sense and mathematics. In this study, both constructs were studied in

  2. Working Memory and Dynamic Measures of Analogical Reasoning as Predictors of Children's Math and Reading Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.; Bergwerff, C.E.; Heiser, W.J.; Resing, W. C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory and inductive reasoning ability each appear related to children's achievement in math and reading. Dynamic measures of reasoning, based on an assessment procedure including feedback, may provide additional predictive value. The aim of this study was to investigate whether working

  3. Working Memory and Dynamic Measures of Analogical Reasoning as Predictors of Children's Math and Reading Achievement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevenson, C.E.; Bergwerff, C.E.; Heiser, W.J.; Resing, W.C.M.

    Working memory and inductive reasoning ability each appear related to children's achievement in math and reading. Dynamic measures of reasoning, based on an assessment procedure including feedback, may provide additional predictive value. The aim of this study was to investigate whether working

  4. Workaholism vs. work engagement : the two different predictors of future well-being and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073779563; Kamiyama, Kimika; Kawakami, Norito

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigated the distinctiveness of two types of heavy work investment (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) by examining their 2-year longitudinal relationships with employee well-being and job performance. Based on a previous cross-sectional study by Shimazu and Schaufeli

  5. Preoperative predictors of returning to work following primary total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styron, Joseph F; Barsoum, Wael K; Smyth, Kathleen A; Singer, Mendel E

    2011-01-05

    There is little in the literature to guide clinicians in advising patients regarding their return to work following a primary total knee arthroplasty. In this study, we aimed to identify which factors are important in estimating a patient's time to return to work following primary total knee arthroplasty, how long patients can anticipate being off from work, and the types of jobs to which patients are able to return following primary total knee arthroplasty. A prospective cohort study was performed in which patients scheduled for a primary total knee arthroplasty completed a validated questionnaire preoperatively and at four to six weeks, three months, and six months postoperatively. The questionnaire assessed the patient's occupational physical demands, ability to perform job responsibilities, physical status, and motivation to return to work as well as factors that may impact his or her recovery and other workplace characteristics. Two survival analysis models were constructed to evaluate the time to return to work either at least part-time or full-time. Acceleration factors were calculated to indicate the relative percentage of time until the patient returned to work. The median time to return to work was 8.9 weeks. Patients who reported a sense of urgency about returning to work were found to return in half the time taken by other employees (acceleration factor = 0.468; p job (acceleration factor = 1.116), and receiving Workers' Compensation (acceleration factor = 4.360). Although the physical demands of a patient's job have a moderate influence on the patient's ability to return to work following a primary total knee arthroplasty, the patient's characteristics, particularly motivation, play a more important role.

  6. Predictors of sustainable work participation of young adults with developmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Holwerda, Anja; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Brouwer, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    For individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) work participation is a challenge, as shown by their low employment rates. The aim of this study was to investigate which factors predict work participation, finding work as well as maintaining employment, of young adults with ASD as well as ADD. We obtained data on 563 individuals with ASD and/or ADD, aged 15-27 years. The follow-up period ranged from 1.25 to 2.75 years. Being male (for A...

  7. Practice with persons with autism spectrum disorders: predictors of self-efficacy among social work students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinecola, Cassie M; Lemieux, Catherine M

    2015-01-01

    Diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have been on the rise, and the need for knowledgeable and competent professionals is dire. However, few social workers enter the field of ASDs. Rooted in social cognitive theory, this study examined the extent to which knowledge, interest, contact, and training predicted master's in social work students' self-efficacy in working with individuals with ASDs. Approximately 18% of the variance was explained (R(2) = .18, p social work practice and education are discussed.

  8. Potential predictors of psychological distress and well-being in medical students: a cross-sectional pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bore M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Miles Bore,1 Brian Kelly,2 Balakrishnan Nair2 1School of Psychology, 2School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Purpose: Research has consistently found that the proportion of medical students who experience high levels of psychological distress is significantly greater than that found in the general population. The aim of our research was to assess the levels of psychological distress more extensively than has been done before, and to determine likely predictors of distress and well-being. Subjects and methods: In 2013, students from an Australian undergraduate medical school (n=127 completed a questionnaire that recorded general demographics, hours per week spent studying, in paid work, volunteer work, and physical exercise; past and current physical and mental health, social support, substance use, measures of psychological distress (Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, depression, anxiety, stress, burnout; and personality traits. Results: Females were found to have higher levels of psychological distress than males. However, in regression analysis, the effect of sex was reduced to nonsignificance when other variables were included as predictors of psychological distress. The most consistent significant predictors of our 20 indicators of psychological distress were social support and the personality traits of emotional resilience and self-control. Conclusion: The findings suggest that emotional resilience skills training embedded into the medical school curriculum could reduce psychological distress among medical students. Keywords: medical student, well-being, psychological distress, personality

  9. Predictors of work-related well-being in sector education training authorities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Rothmann; AJH Pieterse

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job demands, job resources, sense of coherence and work-related well-being of employees at Sector Education Training Authorities (SETA...

  10. Workaholism vs. work engagement: the two different predictors of future well-being and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Schaufeli, Wilmar B; Kamiyama, Kimika; Kawakami, Norito

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the distinctiveness of two types of heavy work investment (i.e., workaholism and work engagement) by examining their 2-year longitudinal relationships with employee well-being and job performance. Based on a previous cross-sectional study by Shimazu and Schaufeli (Ind Health 47:495-502, 2009) and a shorter term longitudinal study by Shimazu et al. (Ind Health 50:316-21, 2012; measurement interval = 7 months), we predicted that workaholism predicts long-term future unwell-being (i.e., high ill-health and low life satisfaction) and poor job performance, whereas work engagement predicts future well-being (i.e., low ill-health and high life satisfaction) and superior job performance. A two-wave survey was conducted among employees from one Japanese company, and valid data from 1,196 employees was analyzed using structural equation modeling. T1-T2 changes in ill-health, life satisfaction, and job performance were measured as residual scores, which were included in the structural equation model. Workaholism and work engagement were weakly and positively related to each other. In addition, and as expected, workaholism was related to an increase in ill-health and to a decrease in life satisfaction. In contrast, and also as expected, work engagement was related to increases in both life satisfaction and job performance and to a decrease in ill-health. Although workaholism and work engagement are weakly positively related, they constitute two different concepts. More specifically, workaholism has negative consequences across an extended period of 2 years, whereas work engagement has positive consequences in terms of well-being and performance. Hence, workaholism should be prevented and work engagement should be stimulated.

  11. Potential predictors of functional outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Lin, Keh-chung; Kang, Lin-ju; Wu, Ching-yi; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Hsieh, Yu-wei

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. Our objective was to identify predictors for treatment outcomes after home-based constraint-induced therapy (CIT) in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD. Forty-three children (aged 4-12 yr) with CP were treated with individualized CIT at home for 4 wk. Potential predictors were age, sex, affected hand, and upper-extremity motor capacity measured by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale, 2nd edition (PDMS-2). Outcomes were the Pediatric Motor Activity Log (PMAL) Amount of Hand Use and Quality of Hand Use subscales and the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM). RESULTS. A higher PDMS-2 Visual-Motor Integration subscale score predicted a better WeeFIM score after home-based CIT (adjusted R² = .35). Younger age predicted better performance on the PMAL Amount of Hand Use and Quality of Hand Use subscales (adjusted R² = .06-.08) after home-based CIT. CONCLUSION. The potential predictors may allow occupational therapy practitioners to target those children who will benefit most after home-based constraint-induced therapy. Copyright © 2014 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Potential Predictors of Changes in Gross Motor Function during Various Tasks for Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-ling; Chen, Chung-yao; Chen, Hsieh-ching; Liu, Wen-yu; Shen, I-hsuan; Lin, Keh-chung

    2013-01-01

    Very few studies have investigated predictors of change in various gross motor outcomes in ambulatory children with cerebral palsy (CP). The aim of this study was to identify potential predictors for change in gross motor outcomes measured during various tasks in children with CP. A group of 45 children (age, 6-15 years) with CP and 7 potential…

  13. Psychological and Social Work Factors as Predictors of Mental Distress and Positive Affect: A Prospective, Multilevel Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Live Bakke Finne

    Full Text Available Occupational health research has mainly addressed determinants of negative health effects, typically employing individual-level self-report data. The present study investigated individual- and department-level (means of each work unit effects of psychological/social work factors on mental distress and positive affect. Employees were recruited from 63 Norwegian organizations, representing a wide variety of job types. A total of 4158 employees, in 918 departments, responded at baseline and at follow-up two years later. Multilevel linear regressions estimated individual- and department-level effects simultaneously, and accounted for clustering of data. Baseline exposures and average exposures over time ([T1+T2]/2 were tested. All work factors; decision control, role conflict, positive challenge, support from immediate superior, fair leadership, predictability during the next month, commitment to organization, rumors of change, human resource primacy, and social climate, were related to mental distress and positive affect at the individual and department level. However, analyses of baseline exposures adjusted for baseline outcome, demonstrated significant associations at the individual level only. Baseline "rumors of change" was related to mental distress only and baseline "predictability during the next month" was not a statistical significant predictor of either outcome when adjusted for outcome at baseline. Psychological and social work factors were generally related to mental distress and positive affect in a mirrored way. Impact of exposures seemed most pervasive at the individual level. However, department-level relations were also discovered. Supplementing individual-level measures with aggregated measures may increase understanding of working conditions influence on employees`health and well-being. Organizational improvements focusing on the work factors in the current study should be able to reduce distress and enhance positive affect

  14. Authentic leadership of preceptors: predictor of new graduate nurses' work engagement and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallonardo, Lisa M; Wong, Carol A; Iwasiw, Carroll L

    2010-11-01

    To examine the relationships between new graduate nurses' perceptions of preceptor authentic leadership, work engagement and job satisfaction. During a time when the retention of new graduate nurses is of the upmost importance, the reliance on preceptors to facilitate the transition of new graduate nurses is paramount. A predictive non-experimental survey design was used to examine the relationships between study variables. The final sample consisted of 170 randomly selected Registered Nurses (RNs) with worked in an acute care setting. Hierarchical multiple regression demonstrated that 20% of the variance in job satisfaction was explained by authentic leadership and work engagement. Furthermore, work engagement was found to partially mediate the relationship between authentic leadership of preceptors and engagement of new graduate nurses. New graduate nurses paired with preceptors who demonstrate high levels of authentic leadership feel more engaged and are more satisfied. Engagement is an important mechanism by which authentic leadership affects job satisfaction. Managers must be aware of the role preceptors' authentic leadership plays in promoting work engagement and job satisfaction of new nurses. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors as predictors of return to work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Labriola, Merete; Lund, Thomas; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine if individual and contextual levels of work environment factors predict return to work (RTW). METHODS: Baseline data from 52 workplaces was linked to a national absence register. Four hundred twenty-eight persons with more than 2 weeks...... of sickness absence during a 2-year period were identified. Follow up was 1 year to examine three RTW outcomes. Multilevel logistic and Poisson regression models were used. RESULTS: At the individual level, significant associations were found between one psychosocial and four physical factors and RTW within 4...... weeks. Two physical factors predicted RTW within 1 year. Two psychosocial and two physical factors significantly prolonged duration of sickness absence. No significant contextual level risk factors were found. CONCLUSION: At the individual level, both the psychosocial and physical work environment...

  16. Predictors of work-related well-being in sector education training authorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rothmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between job demands, job resources, sense of coherence and work-related well-being of employees at Sector Education Training Authorities (SETA. The sample consisted of 159 SETA employees in South Africa. The Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Survey, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Orientation to Life Questionnaire, and the Job Demands-Resources Scale. The results showed that overload predicted exhaustion. Cynicism was predicted by limited growth opportunities, a lack of organisational support, and a weak sense of coherence. Vigour and dedication were predicted by growth opportunities, organisational support and a strong sense of coherence.

  17. Working memory as a predictor of written arithmetical skills in children: the importance of central executive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulf

    2008-06-01

    The study was conducted in an attempt to further our understanding of how working memory contributes to written arithmetical skills in children. The aim was to pinpoint the contribution of different central executive functions and to examine the contribution of the two subcomponents of children's written arithmetical skills. A total of 141 third- and fourth-graders were administered arithmetical tasks and measures of working memory, fluid IQ and reading. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between working memory and written arithmetical skills. Three central executive measures (counting span, trail making and verbal fluency) and one phonological loop measure (Digit Span) were significant and predictors of arithmetical performance when the influence of reading, age and IQ was controlled for in the analysis. The present findings demonstrate that working memory, in general, and the central executive, in particular, contribute to children's arithmetical skills. It was hypothesized that monitoring and coordinating multiple processes, and accessing arithmetical knowledge from long-term memory, are important central executive functions during arithmetical performance. The contribution of the phonological loop and the central executive (concurrent processing and storage of numerical information) indicates that children aged 9-10 years primarily utilize verbal coding strategies during written arithmetical performance.

  18. A mediation model linking dispatcher leadership and work ownership with safety climate as predictors of truck driver safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohar, Dov; Huang, Yueng-hsiang; Lee, Jin; Robertson, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to test the effect of safety climate on safety behavior among lone employees whose work environment promotes individual rather than consensual or shared climate perceptions. The paper presents a mediation path model linking psychological (individual-level) safety climate antecedents and consequences as predictors of driving safety of long-haul truck drivers. Climate antecedents included dispatcher (distant) leadership and driver work ownership, two contextual attributes of lone work, whereas its proximal consequence included driving safety. Using a prospective design, safety outcomes, consisting of hard-braking frequency (i.e. traffic near-miss events) were collected six months after survey completion, using GPS-based truck deceleration data. Results supported the hypothesized model, indicating that distant leadership style and work ownership promote psychological safety climate perceptions, with subsequent prediction of hard-braking events mediated by driving safety. Theoretical and practical implications for studying safety climate among lone workers in general and professional drivers in particular are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Predictors of the work-related depressive symptoms among blue-collar male employees of an industrial unit in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Lotfizadeh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Possible associations between depressive symptoms and work-related parameters have frequently been discussed in the literature. The present study was aimed to evaluate the work-related depressive symptoms and their possible-related parameters among male employees of Esfahan Steel Company (ESCO as one of the most important industrial sites in Iran. Materials and Methods: With a cross-sectional design and a stratified random sampling method in 2010, a total of 400 male employees were enrolled from the operational parts of the ESCO. Results: Among 400 participated employees, 245 (61.3% were rotational duty employees and 358 (89.5% were reported making <$500. After applying the linear regression model, some variables including: economic difficulties (P = 0.022, odds ratio [OR] = 0.558, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.339–0.919, family-related problems (P = 0.003, OR = 0.303, 95% CI = 0.138–0.669, and work environment (P < 0.001, OR = 0.244, 95% CI = 0.140–0.426 were found to be significantly associated with higher depressive symptoms among the participants. Conclusion: The present study brought to light the predictors of occupational depressive symptoms among blue-collar employees of ESCO. More research is needed to find the causal relations between mental health and work-related parameters among Iranian employees.

  20. Predictors of Burnout in Professional and Paraprofessional Nurses Working in Hospitals and Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jan; And Others

    Burnout is a phenomenon in which the cumulative effects of a stressful work environment gradually overwhelm the defenses of staff members, causing them to psychologically withdraw. To understand the experience of professional and paraprofessional nurses suffering from burnout requires a close examination of the environments in which they function.…

  1. Job, Organizational, and Professional Context Antecedents as Predictors of Intent for Interrole Work Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary

    2000-01-01

    A 4-year study of 672 medical technologists identified interrole work transitions as intent to leave the organization, intent to leave the profession, and intended retirement age. Job satisfaction had a significant impact on intent to leave. Organizational context influenced intent to leave the organization and professional commitment influenced…

  2. From Passion to Emotion: Emotional Quotient as Predictor of Work Attitude Behaviour among Faculty Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relojo, Dennis; Pilao, Sonia Janice; Dela Rosa, Rona

    2015-01-01

    Positive thinking, in conjunction with a robust attitude, can affect one's well-being and coping strategies under stressful events. This study sought to identify the role of Emotional Quotient (EQ) to Work Attitude Behaviour (WAB) of selected faculty members from three higher educational institutions in the Philippines. Using a non-experimental…

  3. Gendered Divisions of Fertility Work: Socioeconomic Predictors of Female versus Male Sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, Andrea M.

    2013-01-01

    Domestic labor researchers have examined a multitude of duties disproportionately performed by women, yet the responsibility associated with navigating a couple's fertility--fertility work--has been overlooked. Using data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth ("N" = 1,415), the author examined how racial and socioeconomic…

  4. Investigating demographic, work-related and job satisfaction variables as predictors of motivation in Greek nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaki, Eleni; Kontodimopoulos, Nick; Niakas, Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    To investigate whether demographic variables and work-related factors predict work motivation in Greek nurses. Nurses' motivation is crucial for an effective health-care system. Herzberg's and Maslow's motivation theories constitute the framework of this study. The sample consisted of 200 nurses from every sector and registration level in a University Hospital in Greece. The response rate was 76%. A previously developed and validated questionnaire addressing four work-related motivators (job attributes, remuneration, co-workers and achievements) on a five-point Likert scale. Most participants were women, married, between 36 years and 45 years old and higher education graduates. The highest mean score was recorded for 'achievements' (mean 4.07, SD 0.72), which emerged as the most important motivator. Job satisfaction, work sector and age were statistically significantly related to motivational factors. Nurses placed emphasis on motivators not strictly relating to economic rewards, but which can be seen as intrinsic and could lead to self-actualization. The constantly changing health sector requires that human resources and job context be a priority for health administrators. By promoting nurses' satisfaction and efficacy, an improvement in service quality is expected. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The use of mapped geology as a predictor of radon potential in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robin J; Smethurst, Mark A; Ganerød, Guri V; Finne, Ingvild; Rudjord, Anne Liv

    2017-01-01

    Radon exposure is considered to cause several hundred fatalities from lung-cancer each year in Norway. A national map identifying areas which are likely to be exposed to elevated radon concentrations would be a useful tool for decision-making authorities, and would be particularly important in areas where only few indoor radon measurements exist. An earlier Norwegian study (Smethurst et al. 2008) produced radon hazard maps by examining the relationship between airborne gamma-ray spectrometry, bedrock and drift geology, and indoor radon. The study was limited to the Oslo region where substantial indoor radon and airborne equivalent uranium datasets were available, and did not attempt to test the statistical significance of relationships, or to quantify the confidence of its predictions. While it can be anticipated that airborne measurements may have useful predictive power for indoor radon, airborne measurement coverage in Norway is at present sparse; to provide national coverage of radon hazard estimates, a good understanding of the relationship between geology and indoor radon is therefore important. In this work we use a new enlarged (n = 34,563) form of the indoor radon dataset with national coverage, and we use it to examine the relationship between geology and indoor radon concentrations. We use this relationship to characterise geological classes by their radon potential, and we produce a national radon hazard map which includes confidence limits on the likelihood of areas having elevated radon concentrations, and which covers the whole of mainland Norway, even areas where little or no indoor radon data are available. We find that bedrock and drift geology classes can account for around 40% of the total observed variation in radon potential. We test geology-based predictions of RP (radon potential) against locally-derived estimates of RP, and produce classification matrices with kappa values in the range 0.37-0.56. Our classifier has high predictive value

  6. Working memory and literacy as predictors of performance on algebraic word problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kerry; Ng, Swee-Fong; Ng, Ee-Lynn; Lim, Zee-Ying

    2004-10-01

    Previous studies on individual differences in mathematical abilities have shown that working memory contributes to early arithmetic performance. In this study, we extended the investigation to algebraic word problem solving. A total of 151 10-year-olds were administered algebraic word problems and measures of working memory, intelligence quotient (IQ), and reading ability. Regression results were consistent with findings from the arithmetic literature showing that a literacy composite measure provided greater contribution than did executive function capacity. However, a series of path analyses showed that the overall contribution of executive function was comparable to that of literacy; the effect of executive function was mediated by that of literacy. Both the phonological loop and the visual spatial sketchpad failed to contribute directly; they contributed only indirectly by way of literacy and performance IQ, respectively.

  7. Predictors of work injury in underground mines - an application of a logistic regression model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.S. Paul [Indian School of Mines University, Dhanbad (India). Department of Mining Engineering

    2009-05-15

    Mine accidents and injuries are complex and generally characterized by several factors starting from personal to technical, and technical to social characteristics. In this study, an attempt has been made to identify the various factors responsible for work related injuries in mines and to estimate the risk of work injury to mine workers. The prediction of work injury in mines was done by a step-by-step multivariate logistic regression modeling with an application to case study mines in India. In total, 18 variables were considered in this study. Most of the variables are not directly quantifiable. Instruments were developed to quantify them through a questionnaire type survey. Underground mine workers were randomly selected for the survey. Responses from 300 participants were used for the analysis. Four variables, age, negative affectivity, job dissatisfaction, and physical hazards bear significant discriminating power for risk of injury to the workers, comparing between cases and controls in a multivariate situation while controlling all the personal and socio-technical variables. The analysis reveals that negatively affected workers are 2.54 times more prone to injuries than the less negatively affected workers and this factor is a more important risk factor for the case-study mines. Long term planning through identification of the negative individuals, proper counseling regarding the adverse effects of negative behaviors and special training is urgently required. Care should be taken for the aged and experienced workers in terms of their job responsibility and training requirements. Management should provide a friendly atmosphere during work to increase the confidence of the injury prone miners. 44 refs., 4 tabs.

  8. Are MSW Admissions Models Working? An analysis of MSW Admissions Models as Predictors of Student Success

    OpenAIRE

    Amy Vliek; Kieran Fogarty; Robert Wertkin

    2016-01-01

    Admissions models facilitate the selection of MSW candidates who are both academically prepared for graduate study and professionally suited to social work, characteristics often referred to as fit-to-the-profession. This study attempted to identify the relationship between the criteria used in the admissions model of a medium-sized MSW program and student success in the program. Specific criteria and the associated measurement tools within the model were evaluated in relation to student succ...

  9. Working memory as a predictor of negative symptoms and functional outcome in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Los Mozos, Vanesa; Echeburúa, Enrique; Mezo, Maria; Besga, Ariadna; Ruiz de Azúa, Sonia; González-Pinto, Asunción; Gutierrez, Miguel; Zorrilla, Iñaki; González-Pinto, Ana

    2013-03-30

    The relationship of neurocognitive course with clinical and functional outcomes in psychosis is not well known, especially in the long term. The aim of the study was to examine the clinical and neuropsychological course of first-episode psychosis patients at 5-year follow-up and analyze the relationship of cognitive performance with clinical and functional outcome. The 5-year follow-up was conducted with 26 first-episode psychosis patients. Psychotic symptoms were measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, manic and depressive symptoms by the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale respectively, and psychosocial functioning by the Functioning Assessment Short Test. The cognitive domains were assessed by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, the Trail Making Test, the Verbal Fluency Test, the Stroop Colour-Word Test and the Wechsler Memory Scale. Patients showed symptomatic improvement in the follow-up except in negative psychotic symptoms. There was also improvement in most cognitive domains except in working memory and processing speed in the follow-up. Working memory impairment was associated to negative psychotic symptoms and poor functional outcomes. Negative symptoms mediated the relationship between working memory and outcome. Therefore, negative symptoms should be a primary target of treatment to improve functional outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Working in direct contact with the public as a predictor of burnout in the banking sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, Isaac; Asensio, Elisa; Menéndez, Ignacio; Redondo, Sergio; Ledesma, José A

    2014-05-01

    This study investigated the presence of the burnout syndrome amongst employees of the banking sector. This topic is of particular interest owing to recent changes in working conditions and the controversial commercial strategies employed in this sector in recent years. A total of 1,341 professionals, 883 men and 458 women took part in the study. A Spanish version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey was used, via electronic mail. The results revealed that at least 55.78% of the sample showed a high risk of burnout in at least two of the dimensions. The workers in commercial branch offices dealing with the general public showed a greater risk of burnout than those working in central services. The risk of burnout was higher than in other professions considered to be at risk and appears to be more closely associated with work-related stress and the controversial commercial strategies employed in the sector in recent years than with the possibility of cuts in salary. Psychological intervention programs aimed at stress management would be a recommendable way of helping employees address problems of this kind.

  11. Psychosocial predictors of collaborative practice between nurses and physicians working in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Mancini, Tiziana; Bianconcini, Monica; Guidi, Cinzia; Prandi, Carmen; Silvano, Rosa; Sollami, Alfonso; Tafurelli, Chiara; Artioli, Giovanna

    2014-06-24

    Works from healthcare management and organizational psychology prove that psychosocial variables linked to professional identity are strongly associated with nurse-physician collaborative practice. However, literature pays little attention to the role of these variables. Moreover, evidence for the relation between collaborative practice on psychosocial variables for physicians is rather sparse. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship among self-efficacy, team commitment, professional commitment, and collaborative practice in both nurses and physicians. A cross-sectional survey was adopted and questionnaire was distributed to 269 nurses and 124 physicians working in different hospitals. The perception of collaborative practice enhanced the self-efficacy and team commitment of both professionals. For nurses, professional commitment and self-efficacy positively predicted a willingness to collaborate; for physicians, professional commitment hindered a willingness to collaborate, while self-efficacy had no effect. The study indicates that collaborative practice is an important contextual resource bolstering self-efficacy and team commitment in both professional groups. However, strong professional commitment hinders the willingness of physicians to collaborate with nurses in a way that recognizes the autonomy of nurses 

  12. Work status as a predictor of academic performance in the field of distance higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Welman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the academic success of 13 590 Technikon SA students and the importance of their "work status" (employed/unemployed in light of the co-operative education philosophy of technikons. The data was collected by means of the students’ registration records, and analysed using a CHAID-analysis. The results indicated that the variable "work status" features second last on the list of nine successful variables for predicting academic performance. Generally, it would appear that the employment practice for technikon students is not as important a requirement for academic success as the co-operative education philosophy would like it to be. Opsomming Hierdie artikel lewer verslag oor die akademiese sukses van 13 590 Technikon SA studente en die belangrikheid van hul “werkstatus” (werkend/werkloos in die lig van die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie van technikons. Die inligting wat deur middel van die studente se registrasierekords ingesamel is, is ontleed met ‘n CHAID-ontleding. Die resultate toon dat die veranderlike “werkstatus” tweede laaste op die lys van nege veranderlikes voorkom wat akademiese verrigting voorspel. Oor die algemeen blyk dit dat die indiensnemingpraktyk van technikonstudente nie so ‘n belangrike vereiste vir akademiese sukses is as wat die koöperatiewe onderwysfilosofie dit sou wou hê nie.

  13. Vertical and horizontal trust at work as predictors of retirement intentions: the Finnish Public Sector Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Muurinen

    Full Text Available This prospective cohort study aimed to examine the associations of trust towards the supervisor (vertical trust and trust towards co-workers (horizontal trust with retirement intentions. The participants were 14 840 women and men working in the municipal sector in 2000-12 (Finnish Public Sector Study. Trust (vertical trust towards the supervisor and horizontal trust towards co-workers and retirement intentions were assessed in repeated surveys. Multivariable multinomial logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between baseline trust and retirement intentions at 3.7 years of follow-up. Demographic characteristics, health, psychological distress, health risk behaviors, personality factors, and psychosocial factors were included as covariates. Of the participants, 67.0% trusted their supervisor and 54.9% trusted their co-workers. Employees who trusted their supervisor (odds ratio (OR 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.53-0.67 and employees who trusted their co-workers (odds ratio 0.62, 95% confidence interval 0.55-0.70 at baseline were less likely to have strong retirement intentions at follow-up compared to those who did not trust. These associations largely persisted after adjusting for all covariates and taking into account baseline retirement intentions. In conclusion, trust in the supervisor and co-workers predicted retirement intentions. These observational findings suggest that increasing trust in the workplace may contribute to lengthening working careers and preventing early retirement.

  14. Predictores de la duración de la incapacidad temporal por contingencias comunes en los trastornos de ansiedad Predictors of the duration of non-work-related sick leave due to anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Catalina-Romero

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar la duración de la incapacidad temporal por contingencias comunes (ITCC en los trastornos de ansiedad e identificar variables demográficas, laborales y clínicas que puedan contribuir a su predicción. Métodos: Estudio de una cohorte prospectiva de 1161 trabajadores con un episodio de ITCC por trastorno de ansiedad, pertenecientes a la población protegida de una mutua de accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales. Se evaluaron la duración de la ITCC y las principales variables demográficas, laborales y clínicas potencialmente relacionadas con ésta. Se realizó un seguimiento de todos los procesos hasta el alta. Se establecieron predictores de la duración de la ITCC mediante regresión de Cox. Resultados: La duración mediana de la ITCC en los trastornos de ansiedad fue de 83 días. Tras el análisis multivariado, tener más de 35 años, un menor nivel de estudios (primarios, secundarios o titulación media frente a titulación superior, la existencia de comorbilidad y las situaciones de desempleo que sobrevienen durante la baja, se asociaron de forma significativa con incrementos en la duración de la ITCC (p Objectives: To analyze the duration of non-work-related sick leave due to anxiety disorders and to identify demographic, occupational and clinical variables that may contribute to its prediction. Methods: We performed a prospective cohort study of 1,161 workers with an episode of non-work-related sick leave due to an anxiety disorder, belonging to the insured population of a mutual insurance company. We assessed the duration of non-work-related sick leave episodes and the main potentially related demographic, occupational and clinical variables. All non-work-related sick leave processes were followed-up until discharge. Cox regression analyses were conducted to establish the predictors of non-work-related sick leave duration. Results: The median duration of non-work-related sick leave due to anxiety

  15. Maltreated children's thoughts and emotions as behavioral predictors: evidence for social work action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschi, Tina; Morgen, Keith; Hatcher, Schnavia Smith; Rosato, Nancy Scotto; Violette, Nancy M

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this secondary data analysis was to explore the mediating influence of internalizing behavior on the link between child maltreatment and externalizing behavior (for example, rule-breaking behavior and aggressive behavior) among children. Using a longitudinal comparison group design and a sample of 300 youths (56 percent maltreated), the relationship among maltreatment and internalizing and externalizing behavior was explored. Structural equation modeling revealed a mediating effect in which initial internalizing symptoms had a longitudinal residual effect on externalizing behavior among maltreated youths. Practice and policy strategies should include early identification, comprehensive assessment, and treatment for child maltreatment that include emotional, psychological, and behavioral issues. A comprehensive social work response may serve to reduce the risk of adverse behavioral outcomes among youths that place them at risk of juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice involvement.

  16. Affective temperament, social support and stressors at work as the predictors of life and job satisfaction among doctors and psychologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaredić Biljana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Affective temperament, social support and work-related stresors belong to the group of life and job satisfaction indicators. The aim of this research was to examine predictive roles of the basic affective temperament traits, social support and work-related stressors in the feeling of job and life satisfaction among doctors and psychologists. Methods. The sample consisted of 203 individuals out of whom there were 28% male and 72% female doctors (61% and psychologists (39%, 25–65 years old (39.08 ± 9.29, from the two university towns in Serbia. The set of questionnaires included Serbian version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego – autoquestionnaire version (TEMPS-A, Satisfaction with Life scale, Job Satisfaction Survey, short Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, and Source of Stress at Work Scale (IRSa for estimating the frequency of stressors at work. Results. According to the existing norms our examinees are satisfied with their life, but considerably less satisfied with their work, specially with pay and benefits, while they are most satisfied with nature of work itself and social relations with co-workers and supervisors. Our results show that depressive and hyperthymic, and to some extent cyclothymic temperament traits of the affective temperament significantly predict 21% of life satisfaction variance. Situational factors, such as stressors at work and social support, are important in predicting job satisfaction (58% of variance with no significant contribution of temperament traits. The analysis did not point out any significant relation of sex, occupation, and age with life and job satisfaction. Conclusions. Affective temperaments can be regarded as predictors of life satisfaction, but in order to better predict satisfaction the aspects of wider social surrounding and sources of stressors at work must be taken in consideration. Future studies should consider other indicators of life

  17. Work stress and patient safety: observer-rated work stressors as predictors of characteristics of safety-related events reported by young nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, A; Semmer, N K; Grebner, S

    This study investigates the link between workplace stress and the 'non-singularity' of patient safety-related incidents in the hospital setting. Over a period of 2 working weeks 23 young nurses from 19 hospitals in Switzerland documented 314 daily stressful events using a self-observation method (pocket diaries); 62 events were related to patient safety. Familiarity of safety-related events and probability of recurrence, as indicators of non-singularity, were the dependent variables in multilevel regression analyses. Predictor variables were both situational (self-reported situational control, safety compliance) and chronic variables (job stressors such as time pressure, or concentration demands and job control). Chronic work characteristics were rated by trained observers. The most frequent safety-related stressful events included incomplete or incorrect documentation (40.3%), medication errors (near misses 21%), delays in delivery of patient care (9.7%), and violent patients (9.7%). Familiarity of events and probability of recurrence were significantly predicted by chronic job stressors and low job control in multilevel regression analyses. Job stressors and low job control were shown to be risk factors for patient safety. The results suggest that job redesign to enhance job control and decrease job stressors may be an important intervention to increase patient safety.

  18. Psychosocial work characteristics as predictors for burnout: findings from 3-year follow up of the PUMA Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borritz, Marianne; Bültmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work characteristics on burnout. METHODS: A total of 1772 participants in different human service sector organizations were eligible for the cross-sectional analyses (baseline) and 952 for the prospective analyses....... We measured 14 psychosocial work characteristics and three types of burnout. Linear regression models were used for analyzing associations between psychosocial work characteristics at baseline and burnout at baseline and at 3 years of follow up. RESULTS: Low possibilities for development, high...... meaning of work, low predictability, high quality of leadership, low role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted burnout at 3 years of follow up after the psychosocial work characteristics were adjusted for each other, potential confounders, and burnout level at baseline. CONCLUSION: Psychosocial work...

  19. Semi-Supervised Transductive Hot Spot Predictor Working on Multiple Assumptions

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jim Jing-Yan

    2014-05-23

    Protein-protein interactions are critically dependent on just a few residues (“hot spots”) at the interfaces. Hot spots make a dominant contribution to the binding free energy and if mutated they can disrupt the interaction. As mutagenesis studies require significant experimental efforts, there exists a need for accurate and reliable computational hot spot prediction methods. Compared to the supervised hot spot prediction algorithms, the semi-supervised prediction methods can take into consideration both the labeled and unlabeled residues in the dataset during the prediction procedure. The transductive support vector machine has been utilized for this task and demonstrated a better prediction performance. To the best of our knowledge, however, none of the transductive semi-supervised algorithms takes all the three semisupervised assumptions, i.e., smoothness, cluster and manifold assumptions, together into account during learning. In this paper, we propose a novel semi-supervised method for hot spot residue prediction, by considering all the three semisupervised assumptions using nonlinear models. Our algorithm, IterPropMCS, works in an iterative manner. In each iteration, the algorithm first propagates the labels of the labeled residues to the unlabeled ones, along the shortest path between them on a graph, assuming that they lie on a nonlinear manifold. Then it selects the most confident residues as the labeled ones for the next iteration, according to the cluster and smoothness criteria, which is implemented by a nonlinear density estimator. Experiments on a benchmark dataset, using protein structure-based features, demonstrate that our approach is effective in predicting hot spots and compares favorably to other available methods. The results also show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art transductive learning methods.

  20. Test Anxiety Among College Students With Specific Reading Disability (Dyslexia): Nonverbal Ability and Working Memory as Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jason M; Lindstrom, Will; Foels, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Test anxiety and its correlates were examined with college students with and without specific reading disability (RD; n = 50 in each group). Results indicated that college students with RD reported higher test anxiety than did those without RD, and the magnitude of these differences was in the medium range on two test anxiety scales. Relative to college students without RD, up to 5 times as many college students with RD reported clinically significant test anxiety. College students with RD reported significantly higher cognitively based test anxiety than physically based test anxiety. Reading skills, verbal ability, and processing speed were not correlated with test anxiety. General intelligence, nonverbal ability, and working memory were negatively correlated with test anxiety, and the magnitude of these correlations was medium to large. When these three cognitive constructs were considered together in multiple regression analyses, only working memory and nonverbal ability emerged as significant predictors and varied based on the test anxiety measure. Implications for assessment and intervention are discussed. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.

  1. Physical work load and psychological stress of daily activities as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia; Koskenvuo, Markku; Silventoinen, Karri; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2014-06-01

    Physical work loading and psychological stress commonly co-occur in working life, hence potentially having an interrelationship that may affect work incapacity. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate the effect of stability and change in physical work loading and stress on the risk of disability pension (DP) due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (MSD), while accounting for familial confounding in these associations. Data on 12,455 twins born before 1958 were surveyed of their physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities in 1975 and 1981. The follow-up data was collected from pension registers until 2004. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used. During the follow up, 893 participants were granted DP due to MSD. Stable high (hazard ratio, HR, 2.21), but also increased physical work loading (HR 2.05) and high psychological stress (HR 2.22) were associated with increased risk for DP, and had significant interaction (p=0.032). The associations were confirmed when accounting for several confounding factors. Stable high but also increased physical work loading and psychological stress of daily activities between two timepoints with 6 years apart confirms their predictive role for an increased risk of DP. Both physical work loading and psychological stress seem to be independent from various confounding factors hence suggesting direct effect on risk for DP providing potential for occupational health care to early identification of persons at risk. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  2. Fasting glucose and glucose tolerance as potential predictors of neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims Wright, Regina; Levy, Shellie-Anne T; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Manukyan, Zorayr; Whitfield, Keith E; Waldstein, Shari R

    2015-01-01

    Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related precursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among nondiabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among nondiabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed to confirm this unexpected pattern of

  3. Occupational stress perception and its potential impact on work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Nasterlack, Michael; Pluto, Rolf-Peter; Lang, Stefan; Oberlinner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To examine perceived stress across employees with different occupational status, to investigate the impact of stress on work ability and to derive conclusions regarding health promotion activities. A comprehensive survey combining questionnaire and medical examination was offered in one division in BASF Ludwigshafen. Among 867 voluntary participants, 653 returned complete questionnaires. The questions were directed at perception of safety at the workplace, self-rated health status, frequency of stress symptoms, unrealistic job demands, time pressure and maladjustment of work life balance. The outcome of interest was self-estimated health measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). Occupational stressors were perceived differently across occupational status groups. Frontline operators had more health concerns due to workplace conditions, while professional and managerial staff reported higher frequencies of perceived tension, time pressure, and maladjustment of work life balance. After adjustment for occupational status, demographic and lifestyle factors, perceived stress was associated with a modest to strong decline in WAI scores. While perceived occupational stress had an apparent impact on WAI, and WAI has been demonstrated to be predictive of early retirement, more intensive and employee group-specific stress management interventions are being implemented beyond traditional strategies of routine occupational medical surveillance.

  4. Foraging at wastewater treatment works increases the potential for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater treatment works (WWTWs) are known to provide profitable foraging areas for insectivorous bats in Europe and the New World because of their association with high abundance of pollution-tolerant midges (Diptera). However, bats that feed on these insects may also accumulate metal pollutants such as cadmium ...

  5. Evaluating the fisheries potential of solar salt works reservoirs at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artisanal fisheries are important livelihoods for coastal communities in many developing countries, where uncontrolled fishing can easily lead to depleted stocks in nearshore waters. Man-made reservoirs associated with solar salt works along the coast of Ungwana Bay provide alternative fishing grounds for local fishers ...

  6. A Multidisciplinary Work-Related Low Back Pain Predictor Questionnaire: Psychometric Evaluation of Iranian Patient-Care Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarallah, Shojaei; Sadat, Tavafian Sedigheh; Jamshidi, Ahmad Reza; Joan, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    Psychometric evaluation design. Psychometric evaluation of a multidisciplinary work-related low back pain predictor questionnaire (MWRLBPPQ) of Iranians patient-care workers based on the social cognitive theory. Healthcare is one of the professions in which work-related musculoskeletal disorders are prevalent. The chronic low back pain experienced by patient caregivers can negatively impact their professional performance, and patient handling in a hospital is the main cause of low back pain in this population. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran from July 2014 to November 2014. A MWRLBPPQ based on nine concepts of the social cognitive theory and existing literature regarding chronic low back pain was developed. Ten patient-care workers first completed the questionnaire as a pilot test, allowing the ambiguities of the instrument to be resolved. Exploratory factor analysis was used to confirm construct validity. This questionnaire was distributed among 452 patient-care workers in hospitals located in different geographically areas in Qom, Iran. Cronbach's Alpha was calculated to assess reliability. In all, 452 caregivers of patients with mean age of 37.71 (standard deviation=8.3) years participated in the study. An exploratory factor analysis loaded seven concepts of self-efficacy, knowledge, outcome perception, self-control, emotional coping, and self-efficacy in overcoming impediments and challenges in the environment. All concepts were jointly accounted for 50.08% of variance of behavior change. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient showed favorable internal consistency (alpha=0.83), and test-retest of the scale with 2-week intervals indicated an appropriate stability for the MWRLBPPQ. The MWRLBPPQ is a reliable and valid theory-based instrument that can be used to predict factors influencing work-related low back pain among workers who lift and transfer patients in hospitals.

  7. Predictors of burnout, work engagement and nurse reported job outcomes and quality of care: a mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bogaert, Peter; Peremans, Lieve; Van Heusden, Danny; Verspuy, Martijn; Kureckova, Veronika; Van de Cruys, Zoë; Franck, Erik

    2017-01-01

    High levels of work-related stress, burnout, job dissatisfaction, and poor health are common within the nursing profession. A comprehensive understanding of nurses' psychosocial work environment is necessary to respond to complex patients' needs. The aims of this study were threefold: (1) To retest and confirm two structural equation models exploring associations between practice environment and work characteristics as predictors of burnout (model 1) and engagement (model 2) as well as nurse-reported job outcome and quality of care; (2) To study staff nurses' and nurse managers' perceptions and experiences of staff nurses' workload; (3) To explain and interpret the two models by using the qualitative study findings. This mixed method study is based on an explanatory sequential study design. We first performed a cross-sectional survey design in two large acute care university hospitals. Secondly, we conducted individual semi-structured interviews with staff nurses and nurse managers assigned to medical or surgical units in one of the study hospitals. Study data was collected between September 2014 and June 2015. Finally, qualitative study results assisted in explaining and interpreting the findings of the two models. The two models with burnout and engagement as mediating outcome variables fitted sufficiently to the data. Nurse-reported job outcomes and quality of care explained variances between 52 and 62%. Nurse management at the unit level and workload had a direct impact on outcome variables with explained variances between 23 and 36% and between 12 and 17%, respectively. Personal accomplishment and depersonalization had an explained variance on job outcomes of 23% and vigor of 20%. Burnout and engagement had a less relevant direct impact on quality of care (≤5%). The qualitative study revealed various themes such as organisation of daily practice and work conditions; interdisciplinary collaboration, communication and teamwork; staff nurse personal

  8. Supervisor Support as a Predictor of Burnout and Therapeutic Self-Efficacy in Therapists Working in ABA Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Jennifer A.; Grey, Ian M.; Hastings, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about factors potentially affecting the performance of therapists delivering applied behavior analysis (ABA) interventions for young children with autism. Eighty-one therapists working in ABA schools participated in a questionnaire study focused on their reports of burnout and perceived therapeutic self-efficacy in their work…

  9. Potential cultural predictors of heavy episodic drinking in Hispanic college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Jennifer; Cooper, Theodore V; Naylor, Natasha; Hanson, Brenda S; Blow, Julie A

    2012-01-01

    Heavy alcohol use in college students is a serious health risk. It is unclear how cultural variables impact alcohol use in Hispanic college populations. Here, the relationships between gender, bicultural identity, familism, and adherence to traditional gender roles with heavy episodic drinking (HED) in a Hispanic college sample are assessed. Participants, 80 males and 80 females, were asked to complete a questionnaire packet, which assessed demographic information, as well as measures designed to rate drinking amount and frequency, bicultural integration, familism, and traditional gender role adherence. Average age of the sample was 19.9 years (SD = 3.05), in which the majority of participants were classified as either Freshmen or Sophomores (88.8%). Overall, 47.5% of participants reported engaging in HED, with 51% of men and 44% of women reporting HED. Univariate analyses along with logistic regression were utilized to assess possible differences and correlates of HED. Neither individual predictors nor the overall model were statistically significant. These findings suggest the need for continued assessment of HED in Hispanic college students using other culturally based constructs, as well as psychosocial factors that are found to predict heavy drinking in other ethnocultural college-aged students. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  10. Multiscale Entropy of Electroencephalogram as a Potential Predictor for the Prognosis of Neonatal Seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yu Lu

    Full Text Available Increasing animal studies supported the harmful effects of prolonged or frequent neonatal seizures in developing brain, including increased risk of later epilepsy. Various nonlinear analytic measures had been applied to investigate the change of brain complexity with age. This study focuses on clarifying the relationship between later epilepsy and the changes of electroencephalogram (EEG complexity in neonatal seizures.EEG signals from 19 channels of the whole brain from 32 neonates below 2 months old were acquired. The neonates were classified into 3 groups: 9 were normal controls, 9 were neonatal seizures without later epilepsy, and 14 were neonatal seizures with later epilepsy. Sample entropy (SamEn, multiscale entropy (MSE and complexity index (CI were analyzed.Although there was no significant change in SamEn, the CI values showed significantly decreased over Channels C3, C4, and Cz in patients with neonatal seizures and later epilepsy compared with control group. More multifocal epileptiform discharges in EEG, more abnormal neuroimaging findings, and higher incidence of future developmental delay were noted in the group with later epilepsy.Decreased MSE and CI values in patients with neonatal seizures and later epilepsy may reflect the mixed effects of acute insults, underlying brain immaturity, and prolonged seizures-related injuries. The analysis of MSE and CI can therefore provide a quantifiable and accurate way to decrypt the mystery of neonatal seizures, and could be a promising predictor.

  11. Differences in predictors of return to work among long-term sick-listed employees with different self-reported reasons for sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijs, J.J.J.M.; Koppes, L.L.J.; Taris, T.W.; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study aimed to gain insight in the predictors of full return to work (RTW) among employees on long-term sick leave due to three different self-reported reasons for sick leave: physical, mental or comorbid physical and mental problems. This knowledge can be used to develop

  12. Self- and other-oriented potential lifetime traumatic events as predictors of loneliness in the second half of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Shrira, Amit; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Ayalon, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between self- and other-oriented potential lifetime traumatic events (PLTE) and loneliness at the second half of life. The sample was comprised of 7446 respondents who completed the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) 2006 psychosocial questionnaire. PLTE were classified into self-oriented PLTE, defined as traumatic events that primarily inflict the self (e.g., being abused by parents) and other-oriented PLTE, defined as events that affect the self by primarily targeting others (e.g., death of one's child). We evaluated the role of self- and other-oriented PLTE as predictors of loneliness, as evaluated by the short R-UCLA. Analyses were stratified by age at which trauma happened categorized into four life periods (0-17, 18-30, 31-49, 50+). The results showed that PLTE is positively related to loneliness. Moreover, the number of other-oriented PLTE, and even more pronouncedly self-oriented PLTE, that happened up until adulthood were the strongest predictors of loneliness at the second half of life. The study suggests that self- and other-oriented PLTE reported to have occurred early in life are associated with perceived loneliness in the second half of life.

  13. Potential early predictors for outcomes of experimental hemorrhagic shock induced by uncontrolled internal bleeding in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A Abassi

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled hemorrhage, resulting from traumatic injuries, continues to be the leading cause of death in civilian and military environments. Hemorrhagic deaths usually occur within the first 6 hours of admission to hospital; therefore, early prehospital identification of patients who are at risk for developing shock may improve survival. The aims of the current study were: 1. To establish and characterize a unique model of uncontrolled internal hemorrhage induced by massive renal injury (MRI, of different degrees (20-35% unilateral nephrectomy in rats, 2. To identify early biomarkers those best predict the outcome of severe internal hemorrhage. For this purpose, male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized and cannulas were inserted into the trachea and carotid artery. After abdominal laparotomy, the lower pole of the kidney was excised. During 120 minutes, hematocrit, pO2, pCO2, base excess, potassium, lactate and glucose were measured from blood samples, and mean arterial pressure (MAP was measured through arterial tracing. After 120 minutes, blood loss was determined. Statistical prediction models of mortality and amount of blood loss were performed. In this model, the lowest blood loss and mortality rate were observed in the group with 20% nephrectomy. Escalation of the extent of nephrectomy to 25% and 30% significantly increased blood loss and mortality rate. Two phases of hemodynamic and biochemical response to MRI were noticed: the primary phase, occurring during the first 15 minutes after injury, and the secondary phase, beginning 30 minutes after the induction of bleeding. A Significant correlation between early blood loss and mean arterial pressure (MAP decrements and survival were noted. Our data also indicate that prediction of outcome was attainable in the very early stages of blood loss, over the first 15 minutes after the injury, and that blood loss and MAP were the strongest predictors of mortality.

  14. Identifying potential predictors of pain–related disability in Turkish patients with chronic temporomandibular disorder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to examine whether patients’ psychosocial profiles influence the location of pain, and to identify the clinical and psychosocial predictors of high levels of pain-related disability in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients with chronic pain at least 6 months in duration. Methods The Research Diagnostic Criteria of TMD (RDC/TMD) data for Axis I and II were obtained for 104 consecutive patients seeking treatment. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, Mann–Whitney U-test, chi-square test, One-way ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, and binary multiple logistic regression tests. Patients were classified into two groups according to Graded Chronic Pain Scale scores: Grade III and IV were scored for patients with high levels of pain-related disability, whereas Grade I and II were scored for patients with low disability. Results Muscle and joint pain were found in 64.9% and 31.8% of the patients, respectively, and 27.3% of the patients suffered from both muscle and joint pain. Psychosocial disability was found in 26% of patients. There were no statistically significant differences among the diagnostic subgroups with regards to the demographic, behavioral, psychological, and psychosocial characteristics. Patients with high levels of pain-related disability had significantly higher depression, somatization, pain intensity and jaw disability scores than those with low levels of pain-related disability. Patients with high levels of pain-related disability were more likely to have higher pain intensity, to report higher somatization symptoms and functional impairment, and were less likely to have joint pain than those with low levels of pain related disability. Conclusion In conclusion, the Turkish version RDC/TMD, based on a dual axis system, may be used to screen chronic TMD patients at high-risk for pain-related disability who need comprehensive care treatment program. PMID:23565825

  15. Customer satisfaction and customer loyalty as predictors of future business potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis come from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of approximately 2000 private customers evaluated their prefe......This paper analyses the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis come from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of approximately 2000 private customers evaluated...

  16. Customer Satisfaction and Customer Loyalty as Predictors of Future Business Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær; Kristensen, Kai

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of app. 2000 private customers evaluated their preferred pro......This paper analyzes the relationship between customer satisfaction, customer loyalty and the future business potential of existing customers. The data for the analysis comes from the Danish Customer Satisfaction Index 2006. Here a total of app. 2000 private customers evaluated their...

  17. Predictors of work disability after start of anti-TNF therapy in a national cohort of Swedish patients with rheumatoid arthritis: does early anti-TNF therapy bring patients back to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olofsson, T; Petersson, I F; Eriksson, J K; Englund, M; Nilsson, J A; Geborek, P; Jacobsson, L T H; Askling, J; Neovius, M

    2017-07-01

    To examine predictors of work ability gain and loss after anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) start, respectively, in working-age patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with a special focus on disease duration. Patients with RA, aged 19-62 years, starting their first TNF inhibitor 2006-2009 with full work ability (0 sick leave/disability pension days during 3 months before bio-start; n=1048) or no work ability (90 days; n=753) were identified in the Swedish biologics register (Anti-Rheumatic Treatment In Sweden, ARTIS) and sick leave/disability pension days retrieved from the Social Insurance Agency. Outcome was defined as work ability gain ≥50% for patients without work ability at bio-start and work ability loss ≥50% for patients with full work ability, and survival analyses conducted. Baseline predictors including disease duration, age, sex, education level, employment, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Disease Activity Score 28 and relevant comorbidities were estimated using Cox regression. During 3 years after anti-TNF start, the probability of regaining work ability for totally work-disabled patients was 35% for those with disease duration start, disease duration did not predict work ability loss. Baseline disability pension was also a strong predictor of work ability gain after treatment start. A substantial proportion of work-disabled patients with RA who start anti-TNF therapy regain work ability. Those initiating treatment within 5 years of symptom onset have a more than doubled 3-year probability of regaining work ability compared with later treatment starts. This effect seems largely due to the impact of disease duration on disability pension status. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Relationship between Initial Telomere Length, Initial Telomerase Activity, Age, and Replicative Capacity of Nucleus Pulposus Chondrocytes in Human Intervertebral Discs: What Is a Predictor of Replicative Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Seok; Jeong, Seo-Won; Cho, Sung-Wook; Juhn, Joon-Pyo; Kim, Ki-Won

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that telomere length (TL), telomerase activity (TA), and age are related to the replicative potential of human nucleus pulposus chondrocytes (NPCs). However, it has not yet been established if any of these factors can serve as predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs. To establish predictors of the replicative potential of NPCs, we evaluated potential relationships between replicative capacity of NPCs, initial TL (telomere length at the first passage), initial TA (telomerase activity at the first passage), and age. Nucleus pulposus specimens were obtained from 14 patients of various ages undergoing discectomy. NPCs were serially cultivated until the end of their replicative lifespans. Relationships among cumulative population doubling level (PDL), initial TL, initial TA, and age were analyzed. Initial TA was negatively correlated with age (r = -0.674, P = 0.008). However, no correlation between initial TL and age was observed. Cumulative PDL was also negatively correlated with age (r = -0.585, P = 0.028). Although the cumulative PDL appeared to increase with initial TL or initial TA, this trend was not statistically significant. In conclusion, age is the sole predictor of the replicative potential of human NPCs, and replicative potential decreases with age. Initial TL and initial TA are not predictors of replicative potential, and can serve only as reference values.

  19. p27: a barometer of signaling deregulation and potential predictor of response to targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wander, Seth A; Zhao, Dekuang; Slingerland, Joyce M

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 by upstream mitogenic signaling pathways regulates its stability, localization, and biological function. In human cancers, loss of the antiproliferative action of p27 can arise through reduced protein levels and/or cytoplasmic mislocalization, leading to increased cell proliferation and/or cell migration, respectively. Reduced p27 expression levels and p27 mislocalization have potential prognostic and therapeutic implications in various types of human cancers. This review highlights mechanisms of functional deregulation of p27 by oncogenic signaling that provide an important molecular rationale for pathway targeting in cancer treatment. ©2010 AACR.

  20. Potentially inappropriate medication use in elderly patients: A study of prevalence and predictors in two teaching hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harugeri A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geriatrics is an emerging clinical specialty in India. Information about the appropriateness of prescription medication use among the elderly in India is limited. Aims: To determine the prevalence and predictors of potentially inappropriate medication (PIM use, and assess the relationship between PIM use and adverse drug reactions (ADRs in the hospitalized elderly. Settings: Medicine wards at two teaching hospitals. Design: Prospective observational study. Materials and Methods: Patients aged > 60 years admitted to medicine wards between January 2008 and June 2009 were included and reviewed for PIM use according to the Beers Criteria 2003 (BC. Severity of PIM use was classified as per BC as ′high′ or ′low′. ADRs observed in the study patients were also recorded. Statistical Analysis: Association between ADRs and PIM use was assessed using Chi Square test. Bivariate analysis and subsequently multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of PIM use. Results: PIM use was observed in 191 of 814 enrolled patients. At least one PIM at admission and during hospital stay was received by 2.4% (20 and 22.1% (180 patients respectively. High-severity PIM use showed a higher prevalence compared to low severity [26.8% (218 vs. 5.5% (45]. Amongst the patients who received polypharmacy (> 5 concurrent medications, 1.4% (5/362 and 22.1% (163/736 patients received PIMs at admission and during hospital stay respectively. Use of aspirin/clopidogrel/diclofenac in the presence of blood clotting disorder or anticoagulant therapy (8.3% was the most commonly encountered PIM use. Medications not listed in BC were associated with increased occurrence of ADRs compared to medications listed in BC (349 vs. 11 (χ2 =98.4, P<0.001. Increased number of concurrent medications′ use (≥9 during the stay in medicine wards was identified as an influential predictor of PIM use [Odds ratio: 1.9, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.34-2.69, P<0.001 in

  1. Visceral fat area is a strong predictor of leukocyte cell-derived chemotaxin 2, a potential biomarker of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisawa, Kumpei; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sun, Xiaomin; Ito, Tomoko; Kawakami, Ryoko; Sakamoto, Shizuo; Higuchi, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    after adjustment for LECT2. VFA was the strongest predictor of plasma LECT2 that is a potential biomarker linking visceral obesity to dyslipidemia.

  2. Optimism and pessimism as predictors of work disability with a diagnosis of depression: a prospective cohort study of onset and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronström, Kim; Karlsson, Hasse; Nabi, Hermann; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Sjösten, Noora; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2011-04-01

    Personality characteristics are assumed to affect to the vulnerability to depression and its outcomes. The aim of this study was to examine optimism and pessimism as predictors of depression-related work disability and subsequent return to work. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 38,214 public sector employees with no record of diagnosed depression. Optimism and pessimism were measured using the Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R). Records of long-term (>90 days) work disability with a diagnosis of depression and subsequent return to work until the end of 2005 were obtained from the national health registers. During the mean follow-up of 4.0 (SD=2.3) years, 287 employees encountered work disability with a diagnosis of depression. Of them, 164 (57%) returned to work during the follow-up. One unit increase in the optimism mean score (range 1-4) was associated with a 25% lower risk of work disability due to depression and a 37% higher probability of returning to work after a work disability period when adjusted for age and sex. In the fully-adjusted model hazard ratios per one unit increase in optimism were 0.79 (95% CI 0.66-0.96) for work disability and 1.30 (95% CI 1.01-1.66) for return to work. The pessimism mean score (range 1-4) was only associated with a lower probability of returning to work (fully-adjusted HR per one unit increase 0.66, 95% Cl 0.49-0.88). The level of optimism was a stronger predictor of work disability with a diagnosis of depression than the level of pessimism, while both optimism and pessimism predicted returning to work. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hepatocellular carcinoma displays distinct DNA methylation signatures with potential as clinical predictors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Hernandez-Vargas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is characterized by late detection and fast progression, and it is believed that epigenetic disruption may be the cause of its molecular and clinicopathological heterogeneity. A better understanding of the global deregulation of methylation states and how they correlate with disease progression will aid in the design of strategies for earlier detection and better therapeutic decisions. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We characterized the changes in promoter methylation in a series of 30 HCC tumors and their respective surrounding tissue and identified methylation signatures associated with major risk factors and clinical correlates. A wide panel of cancer-related gene promoters was analyzed using Illumina bead array technology, and CpG sites were then selected according to their ability to classify clinicopathological parameters. An independent series of HCC tumors and matched surrounding tissue was used for validation of the signatures. We were able to develop and validate a signature of methylation in HCC. This signature distinguished HCC from surrounding tissue and from other tumor types, and was independent of risk factors. However, aberrant methylation of an independent subset of promoters was associated with tumor progression and etiological risk factors (HBV or HCV infection and alcohol consumption. Interestingly, distinct methylation of an independent panel of gene promoters was strongly correlated with survival after cancer therapy. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that HCC tumors exhibit specific DNA methylation signatures associated with major risk factors and tumor progression stage, with potential clinical applications in diagnosis and prognosis.

  4. Potential Predictors of Injury Among Pre-Professional Ballet and Contemporary Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Rebecca K; Golightly, Yvonne M; Richardson, David B; Runfola, Cristin D; Waller, Anna E; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-06-15

    Injuries occur frequently among ballet and contemporary dancers. However, limited literature exists on injuries to pre-professional dancers in the USA. The goals of this study were to 1. provide a descriptive epidemiology of the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in an adolescent and young adult dance population and 2. identify parsimonious regression models that could be potentially used to predict injury incidence. The study was based at the University of North Carolina School of the Arts (UNCSA) from Fall 2009 to Spring 2015. An injury was defined as any event that caused a dancer to be seen at the UNCSA Student Health Services and caused the dancer to modify or curtail dance activity for at least 1 day. Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated using negative binomial generalized estimating equations. Models predicting injury rates were built using forward selection, stratified by sex. Among 480 dancers, 1,014 injuries were sustained. Most injuries were to the lower extremity and the result of overuse. There were differences in upper extremity, lower extremity, and traumatic injury rates by demographic subgroups. Among females, the most parsimonious predictive model for injury rates included a self-reported history of depression, age at time of injury, and number of injuries sustained at UNCSA prior to the semester of current injury. Among males, the most parsimonious model was a univariate model with family history of alcohol or drug problems. Strategies for traumatic injury prevention among dancers should be both sex- and style-specific. No differences were observed in overuse injury rates by sex or style, suggesting that generic overuse prevention strategies may not need to be guided by these factors. It is concluded that strategies can be implemented to reduce and mitigate the consequences of injuries if not the injuries themselves.

  5. Prescription of potentially inappropriate medications to elderly hemodialysis patients: prevalence and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Naoya; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Yamazaki, Shin; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Akizawa, Tadao; Akiba, Takashi; Saito, Akira; Kurokawa, Kiyoshi; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2015-03-01

    In elderly hemodialysis (HD) patients, the risk of medication-related problems is particularly high. Thus, certain medications should generally not be prescribed to those patients. The Beers criteria for potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs) have been publicized. Still, with regard to elderly HD patients, the prevalence and risk factors for prescription of PIMs are unknown. This was a cross-sectional study of data from the Japan Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study (2002-08). Patients were included if they were 65 years old or older and were currently receiving HD treatment at a hospital or clinic. We counted the number of patients who were prescribed at least one PIM, as defined by the modified Beers criteria. We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine which patient characteristics and facility characteristics were associated with prescription of PIMs. Data from 1367 elderly patients were analyzed. More than half of the patients (57%) had been prescribed a PIM. The three most frequently prescribed PIMs were H2 blockers (33%), antiplatelet agents (19%) and α-blockers (13%). PIM prescriptions were less likely at facilities that conducted multidisciplinary rounds {adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48-0.93]} and at teaching hospitals [AOR: 0.59 (95% CI, 0.39-0.90)]. PIM prescriptions are more likely if more than one physician has clearance to alter the HD regimen [AOR: 1.65 (95% CI, 1.12-2.44)]. PIMs were prescribed to many elderly HD patients in Japan. Nephrologists should become more aware of PIMs. Multidisciplinary rounds could benefit patients by reducing the prescription of PIMs. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  6. Cancer/Testis antigens as potential predictors of biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer following radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trock Bruce

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cancer/Testis Antigens (CTAs are an important group of proteins that are typically restricted to the testis in the normal adult but are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancers. As a result of their restricted expression patterns, the CTAs could serve as unique biomarkers for cancer diagnosis/prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify promising CTAs that are associated with prostate cancer (PCa recurrence following radical prostatectomy (RP. Methods The expression of 5 CTAs was measured by quantitative multiplex real-time PCR using prostate tissue samples obtained from 72 patients with apparently clinically localized PCa with a median of two years follow-up (range, 1 to 14 years. Results The expression of CTAs namely, CEP55, NUF2, PBK and TTK were significantly higher while PAGE4 was significantly lower in patients with recurrent disease. All CTAs with the exception of TTK were significantly correlated with the prostatectomy Gleason score, but none were correlated with age, stage, or preoperative PSA levels. In univariate proportional hazards models, CEP55 (HR = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.50-8.60, p = 0.004; NUF2 (HR = 2.28, 95% CI: 1.11-4.67, p = 0.024; and PAGE4 (HR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.21-0.93, p = 0.031 were significantly associated with the risk of PCa recurrence. However, the results were no longer significant after adjustment for prostatectomy Gleason score. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study to identify CTAs as biomarkers that can differentiate patients with recurrent and non-recurrent disease following RP and underscores its potential impact on PCa prognosis and treatment.

  7. Medical student selection criteria and socio-demographic factors as predictors of ultimately working rurally after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puddey, Ian B; Mercer, Annette; Playford, Denese E; Riley, Geoffrey J

    2015-04-14

    We have previously demonstrated that both coming from a rural background and spending a year-long clinical rotation in our Rural Clinical School (RCS) have independent and additive effects to increase the likelihood of medical students practicing rurally following graduation. The current study assesses the extent to which medical school selection criteria and/or the socio-demographic profile of medical students may further facilitate or hamper the selection of students ultimately destined for the rural medical workforce. The study comprised 729 students, admitted from secondary school since 1999 and having graduated by 2011, whose actual workplace location in 2014 was classified as either urban or rural using the Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency database. Selection factors on entry (score from a standardised interview, percentile scores for the 3 components of the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) and prior academic performance as assessed by the Australian Tertiary Admissions Rank) together with socio-demographic factors (age, gender, decile for the Index of Relative Socioeconomic Advantage and Disadvantage (IRSAD)), were examined in relation to ultimate rural destination of practice. In logistic regression, those practicing in a rural location in 2014 were more likely to have come from the lower 6 IRSAD deciles (OR 2.75, 95% CI 1.44, 5.23, P = 0.002), to be older (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.09, 3.18, p = 0.023) and to have a lower UMAT-3 (Non-verbal communication) score (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99, P = 0.005). After further controlling for either rural background or RCS participation, only age and UMAT-3 remained as independent predictors of current rural practice. In terms of the socio-demographic profiles of those selected for medical school entry from secondary school, only older age weakly augmented the selection of graduates likely to ultimately work in a rural destination. Among the selection factors, having achieved

  8. Anthropogenic marine litter composition in coastal areas may be a predictor of potentially invasive rafting fauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rech, Sabine; Borrell Pichs, Yaisel J; García-Vazquez, Eva

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic plastic pollution is a global problem. In the marine environment, one of its less studied effects is the transport of attached biota, which might lead to introductions of non-native species in new areas or aid in habitat expansions of invasive species. The goal of the present work was to assess if the material composition of beached anthropogenic litter is indicative of the rafting fauna in a coastal area and could thus be used as a simple and cost-efficient tool for risk assessment in the future. Beached anthropogenic litter and attached biota along the 200 km coastline of Asturias, central Bay of Biscay, Spain, were analysed. The macrobiotic community attached to fouled litter items was identified using genetic barcoding combined with visual taxonomic analysis, and compared between hard plastics, foams, other plastics and non-plastic items. On the other hand, the material composition of beached litter was analysed in a standardized area on each beach. From these two datasets, the expected frequency of several rafting taxa was calculated for the coastal area and compared to the actually observed frequencies. The results showed that plastics were the most abundant type of beached litter. Litter accumulation was likely driven by coastal sources (industry, ports) and river/sewage inputs and transported by near-shore currents. Rafting vectors were almost exclusively made up of plastics and could mainly be attributed to fishing activity and leisure/ household. We identified a variety of rafting biota, including species of goose barnacles, acorn barnacles, bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes and bryozoan, and hydrozoan colonies attached to stranded litter. Several of these species were non-native and invasive, such as the giant Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and the Australian barnacle (Austrominius modestus). The composition of attached fauna varied strongly between litter items of different materials. Plastics, except for foam, had a much more diverse

  9. 7 CFR Appendix A to Subpart E of... - Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Subpart E of Part 1724—Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects The source for this... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hazard Potential Classification for Civil Works Projects A Appendix A to Subpart E of Part 1724 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...

  10. Patients amputated by work accidents: characteristics and years accumulated of potential productive life lost

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho-Conchucos, Herminio Teófilo; Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitación.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the accumulated years of potential productive life lost in amputated patients by work accidents. Design: Descriptive, retrospective, cross-sectional study. Setting: Instituto Nacional de Rehabilitacion, Callao, Peru. Participants: Amputated patients by work accidents. Interventions: Review of 1 290 medical records of amputated patients attended from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2007, 108 due to work accidents. The accumulated years of potential productive life los...

  11. Group work in higher education: a mismanaged evil or a potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group work in higher education: a mismanaged evil or a potential good? ... The complexity of the phenomenon leaves the lecturer with no choice but to take great care in the use of group work. The fact that group work is not viewed as a mismanaged evil leaves the door open for further use of this mode of teaching, learning ...

  12. Work Engagement as a Predictor of Onset of Major Depressive Episode (MDE among Workers, Independent of Psychological Distress: A 3-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Imamura

    Full Text Available This study investigated work engagement as a baseline predictor of onset of major depressive episode (MDE.The study used a prospective cohort design, conforming to the STROBE checklist. Participants were recruited from the employee population of a private think tank company (N = 4,270, and 1,058 (24.8% of them completed a baseline survey, of whom 929 were included in this study. Work engagement and psychological distress at baseline were assessed as predictor variables. MDE was measured at baseline and at each of the follow-ups as the outcome, using the web-based, self-administered version of the Japanese WHO-CIDI 3.0 depression section based upon DSM-IV-TR/DSM-5 criteria. Cox discrete-time hazards analyses were conducted to estimate hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals CIs.Follow-up rates of participants (N = 929 were 78.4%, 67.2%, and 51.6% at 1-, 2-, and 3-year follow-ups, respectively. The association between work engagement at baseline and the onset of MDE was U-shaped. Compared with a group with low work engagement scores, groups with the middle and high scores showed significantly (HR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.64; p = 0.007 and marginally significantly (HR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.20 to 1.15, p = 0.099 lower risks of MDE, respectively, over the follow-ups, after adjusting for covariates. The pattern remained the same after additionally adjusting for psychological distress.The present study first demonstrated work engagement as an important predictor of the onset of MDE diagnosed according to an internationally standard diagnostic criteria of mental disorders.

  13. Cultural and Intellectual Openness Differentially Relate to Social Judgments of Potential Work Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Caitlin M; Parrigon, Scott E; Woo, Sang Eun; Saef, Rachel M; Tay, Louis

    2017-10-01

    This study investigates the differential functioning of cultural and intellectual openness (the two aspects of Openness to Experience) in relation to social cognitive processes by examining how they influence people's perceptions and interpretations of social information when deciding to initiate working relationships. Using a policy-capturing design, 681 adult participants were asked to rate their similarity to and preference to work with potential work partners characterized by varying nationalities and levels of work-related competence. Multilevel moderated mediation was conducted to simultaneously evaluate whether the indirect effects of potential work partners' characteristics (i.e., nationalities and levels of work-related competence) on work partner preference through perceived similarity were moderated by cultural and intellectual openness. Perceived similarity mediated the relationships between work partner nationality and work-related competence and participants' work partner preferences. Furthermore, the negative indirect effect of work partner nationality on work partner preference via perceived similarity was attenuated by cultural openness, and the positive indirect effect of work partner work-related competence on work partner preference via perceived similarity was strengthened by intellectual openness. Cultural and intellectual openness may have distinct functions that influence how people perceive, evaluate, and appreciate social information when making social judgments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Characterization of the Variability of Epstein-Barr Virus Genes in Nasopharyngeal Biopsies: Potential Predictors for Carcinoma Progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana V Banko

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is a significant factor in the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, especially in the undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT, World Health Organization type III, which is the dominant histopathological type in high-risk areas. The major EBV oncogene is latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1. LMP1 gene shows variability with different tumorigenic and immunogenic potentials. EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1 regulates progression of EBV-related tumors; however, the influence of EBNA1 sequence variability on tumor pathogenesis is controversial. The aims of this study were to characterize polymorphisms of EBV genes in non-endemic nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies and to investigate potential sequence patterns that correlate with the clinical presentation of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. In total, 116 tumor biopsies of undifferentiated carcinoma of nasopharyngeal type (UCNT, collected from 2008 to 2014, were evaluated in this study. The genes EBNA2, LMP1, and EBNA1 were amplified using nested-PCR. EBNA2 genotyping was performed by visualization of PCR products using gel electrophoresis. Investigation of LMP1 and EBNA1 included sequence, phylogenetic, and statistical analyses. The presence of EBV DNA was significantly distributed between TNM stages. LMP1 variability showed six variants, with the detection of the first China1 and North Carolina variants in European nasopharyngeal carcinoma biopsies. Newly discovered variants Srb1 and Srb2 were UCNT-specific LMP1 polymorphisms. The B95-8 and North Carolina variants are possible predictors for favorable TNM stages. In contrast, deletions in LMP1 are possible risk factors for the most disfavorable TNM stage, independent of EBNA2 or EBNA1 variability. A newly discovered EBNA1 subvariant, P-thr-sv-5, could be a potential diagnostic marker, as it represented a UCNT-specific EBNA1 subvariant. A particular combination of EBNA2, LMP1, and EBNA1 polymorphisms, type 1/Med

  15. Predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty: Findings from a faculty work-life and leadership survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Paul; White, David; Meaney, Christopher; Kwong, Jeffrey; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence

    2017-03-01

    To identify predictors of job satisfaction among academic family medicine faculty members. A comprehensive Web-based survey of all faculty members in an academic department of family medicine. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with job satisfaction. The Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario and its 15 affiliated community teaching hospitals and community-based teaching practices. All 1029 faculty members in the Department of Family and Community Medicine were invited to complete the survey. Faculty members' demographic and practice information; teaching, clinical, administration, and research activities; leadership roles; training needs and preferences; mentorship experiences; health status; stress levels; burnout levels; and job satisfaction. Faculty members' perceptions about supports provided, recognition, communication, retention, workload, teamwork, respect, resource distribution, remuneration, and infrastructure support. Faculty members' job satisfaction, which was the main outcome variable, was obtained from the question, "Overall, how satisfied are you with your job?" Of the 1029 faculty members, 687 (66.8%) responded to the survey. Bivariate analyses revealed 26 predictors as being statistically significantly associated with job satisfaction, including faculty members' ratings of their local department and main practice setting, their ratings of leadership and mentorship experiences, health status variables, and demographic variables. The multivariable analyses identified the following 5 predictors of job satisfaction: the Maslach Burnout Inventory subscales of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment; being born in Canada; the overall quality of mentorship that was received being rated as very good or excellent; and teamwork being rated as very good or excellent. The findings from this study show that job satisfaction among academic

  16. Preoperative Serum IL-12p40 Is a Potential Predictor of Kasai Portoenterostomy Outcome in Infants with Biliary Atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaimaa Samy Goda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The standard-of-care treatment for biliary atresia (BA is surgical restoration of bile flow by Kasai portoenterostomy. We aimed to study serum interleukin- (IL- 12p40, a natural antagonist for the proinflammatory IL-12p70, and its relation to surgical outcomes of BA. The study included 75 infants with neonatal cholestasis: BA group (n=25, non-BA cholestasis group (n=30, and neglected BA group (n=20, in addition to thirty healthy neonates serving as controls. IL-12p40 was measured by ELISA in all individuals and a second assessment was performed 3 months postoperatively in the BA group. The surgical outcomes were classified as successful (bilirubin ≤ 2 mg/dl or failed (bilirubin > 2 mg/dl. IL-12p40 was higher in BA compared to that in the non-BA and control groups (P values were 0.036 and <0.0001, resp. but comparable to that in the neglected BA group. Preoperative IL-12p40 levels in BA patients were significantly higher in successful Kasai compared with failed Kasai and a cutoff level of 547.47 pg/ml could predict the successful outcome with 87.5% sensitivity and 82.4% specificity. Three-month postoperative IL-12p40 tended to decrease in both the successful and failed groups. In conclusion, preoperative serum IL-12p40 is a potential predictor of Kasai outcome. Serial postoperative measurements may anticipate the failure of an initially successful operation, hence the need for liver transplantation.

  17. Identifying potential academic leaders: Predictors of willingness to undertake leadership roles in an academic department of family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Krueger, Paul; Meaney, Christopher; Antao, Viola; Kim, Florence; Kwong, Jeffrey C

    2016-02-01

    To identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles among academic family medicine faculty. Web-based survey. Bivariate and multivariable analyses (logistic regression) were used to identify variables associated with willingness to undertake leadership roles. Department of Family and Community Medicine at the University of Toronto in Ontario. A total of 687 faculty members. Variables related to respondents' willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Of all 1029 faculty members invited to participate in the survey, 687 (66.8%) members responded. Of the respondents, 596 (86.8%) indicated their level of willingness to take on various academic leadership roles. Multivariable analysis revealed that the predictors associated with willingness to take on leadership roles were as follows: pursuit of professional development opportunities (odds ratio [OR] 3.79, 95% CI 2.29 to 6.27); currently holding at least 1 leadership role (OR 5.37, 95% CI 3.38 to 8.53); a history of leadership training (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.78); the perception that mentorship is important for one's current role (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.60); and younger age (OR 0.97, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.99). Willingness to undertake new or additional leadership roles was associated with 2 variables related to leadership experiences, 2 variables related to perceptions of mentorship and professional development, and 1 demographic variable (younger age). Interventions that support opportunities in these areas might expand the pool and strengthen the academic leadership potential of faculty members.

  18. Work and efficiency of quantum Otto cycles in power-law trapping potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Poletti, Dario

    2014-07-01

    We study the performance of a quantum Otto cycle operating in trapping potentials of different shapes. We show that, while both the mean work output and the efficiency of two Otto cycles in different trapping potentials can be made equal, the work probability distribution will still be strongly affected by the difference in structure of the energy levels. To exemplify our results, we study the family of potentials of the form Vt(x)˜x2q. This family of potentials possesses a simple scaling property that allows for analytical insights into the efficiency and work output of the cycle. We perform a comparison of quantum Otto cycles in various physically relevant scenarios and find that in certain instances, the efficiency of the cycle is greater when using potentials with larger values of q, while in other cases, the efficiency is greater with harmonic traps.

  19. Work and efficiency of quantum Otto cycles in power-law trapping potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuanjian; Poletti, Dario

    2014-07-01

    We study the performance of a quantum Otto cycle operating in trapping potentials of different shapes. We show that, while both the mean work output and the efficiency of two Otto cycles in different trapping potentials can be made equal, the work probability distribution will still be strongly affected by the difference in structure of the energy levels. To exemplify our results, we study the family of potentials of the form V(t)(x) ∼ x(2q). This family of potentials possesses a simple scaling property that allows for analytical insights into the efficiency and work output of the cycle. We perform a comparison of quantum Otto cycles in various physically relevant scenarios and find that in certain instances, the efficiency of the cycle is greater when using potentials with larger values of q, while in other cases, the efficiency is greater with harmonic traps.

  20. Multi-site pain and working conditions as predictors of work ability in a 4-year follow-up among food industry employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, S; Virtanen, P; Leino-Arjas, P; Miranda, H; Siukola, A; Nygård, C-H

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the separate and joint effects of multi-site musculoskeletal pain and physical and psychosocial exposures at work on future work ability. A survey was conducted among employees of a Finnish food industry company in 2005 (n = 1201) and a follow-up survey in 2009 (n = 734). Information on self-assessed work ability (current work ability on a scale from 0 to 10; 7 = poor work ability), multi-site musculoskeletal pain (pain in at least two anatomical areas of four), leisure-time physical activity, body mass index and physical and psychosocial exposures was obtained by questionnaire. The separate and joint effects of multi-site pain and work exposures on work ability at follow-up, among subjects with good work ability at baseline, were assessed by logistic regression, and p-values for the interaction derived. Compared with subjects with neither multi-site pain nor adverse work exposure, multi-site pain at baseline increased the risk of poor work ability at follow-up, allowing for age, gender, occupational class, body mass index and leisure-time physical activity. The separate effects of the work exposures on work ability were somewhat smaller than those of multi-site pain. Multi-site pain had an interactive effect with work environment and awkward postures, such that no association of multi-site pain with poor work ability was seen when work environment was poor or awkward postures present. The decline in work ability connected with multi-site pain was not increased by exposure to adverse physical or psychosocial factors at work. © 2012 European Federation of International Association for the Study of Pain Chapters.

  1. Clinical and Laboratory Potential Predictors of Blood Culture Positivity in Under Five Children with Clinically Severe Pneumonia - Khartoum -Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Karimeldin Mohamed Ali; El-Samani, El-Fatih; Bilal, Jalal Ali; Eldouch, Widad; Ibrahim, Salah Ahmed

    2015-08-01

    Blood culture is necessary for appropriate management of clinically severe pneumonia in children under five years of age. However, in limited resource countries it might be unduly costly and waste of valuable time because of the high negative culture rate. This study aims to identify clinical and laboratory parameters that potentially predict a positive blood culture in cases of severe pneumonia. A hospital based study, enrolled 189 cases satisfying the WHO definition of severe pneumonia. Age, gender, clinical history, physical examination, temperature, complete blood count, C-reactive protein, blood culture and Chest X Ray for all the patients were recorded. Forty one patients had positive blood culture giving a prevalence of 21.7%. All variables were used in a dichotomous manner. White Blood Count (WBC) more than 20 000, very high C-reactive protein (C-RP ≥8mg/L) and Temperature more than 40(o)C, had a positive predictive value of 46.1%, 44.3% and 40.0% respectively for a positive culture as well as a Negative Predictive Value of 91.1%, 91.6% and 91.7% respectively. The WBC more than 20 000 and temperature above 40(o)C had a significant association with a positive blood culture. Their adjusted Odds Ratios were 3.9 (95% CI: 1.4-10.90) and 3.1 (95% CI: 1.2-8.4) respectively. This was not the case for C-RP (Odds Ratio=2.2, 95% CI: 0.7-2.2) or positive Chest X Ray (Odds Ratio=1.5, 95% CI: 0.6-3.6). Temperature of more than 40(o)C, Very high C-RP and WBC of more than 20 000 are good indicators of a potential positive blood culture. It is therefore recommended that further research be undertaken to refine these predictors as screening tools before resorting to blood culture. It is also recommended that antibiotic treatment may be initiated on the basis of the high temperature and WBC, while waiting for the culture results.

  2. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals: An application of the job demands-resources model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    2016-02-01

    Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work engagement, and the predictors of both, utilizing the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, within a sample of psychosocial oncologists. Psychosocial-oncologist (N = 417) clinicians, recruited through 10 international and national psychosocial-oncology societies, completed an online questionnaire. Measures included demographic and work characteristics, burnout (the MBI-HSS Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) subscales), the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and measures of job demands and resources. High EE and DP was reported by 20.2 and 6.6% of participants, respectively, while 95.3% reported average to high work engagement. Lower levels of job resources and higher levels of job demands predicted greater burnout, as predicted by the JD-R model, but the predicted interaction between these characteristics and burnout was not significant. Higher levels of job resources predicted higher levels of work engagement. Burnout was surprisingly low and work engagement high in this sample. Nonetheless, one in five psychosocial oncologists have high EE. Our results suggest that both the positive (resources) and negative (demands) aspects of this work environment have an on impact burnout and engagement, offering opportunities for intervention. Theories such as the JD-R model can be useful in guiding research in this area.

  3. Psychosocial work aspects, stress and musculoskeletal pain among musicians. A systematic review in search of correlates and predictors of playing-related pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacukowicz, Aleksandra

    2016-06-16

    Musicians face numerous psychosocial and physical demands at work resulting in high prevalence of musculoskeletal problems. Unlike physical risks, little is known about psychosocial work factors influencing such health problems in this particular group. The paper aimed to identify psychosocial work demands resulting in musculoskeletal problems among musicians. A systematic review was undertaken to find data linking psychosocial work demands or stress with musculoskeletal disorders among musicians. The exploration of databases resulted in nine research studies linking psychosocial aspects of work or stress with musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The analyzed studies linked psychosocial aspects with musculoskeletal problems in three ways - showing proportions of people indicating particular causes of pain, indicating correlations between these variables or performing regression analysis showing psychosocial predictors of musculoskeletal pain. Only a few studies have undertaken the issue of psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal problems among musicians. The results revealed that some psychosocial aspects of work, e.g. long hours at work, work content, high job demands, low control/influence, lack of social support, were related to musculoskeletal pain, however, the methods and results were inconsistent. The extant studies employed variety of definitions of psychosocial aspects that hindered the possibility for consistent conclusions. Basing on those conclusions, future directions were offered.

  4. Work environment factors, health, lifestyle and marital status as predictors of job change and early retirement in physically heavy occupations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, T.M.; Iversen, Lars; Poulsen, Kjeld B.

    2001-01-01

    Occupational health, work environment, retirement, uemployment, disability pension, epidemiology, follow-up, smoking, job mobility......Occupational health, work environment, retirement, uemployment, disability pension, epidemiology, follow-up, smoking, job mobility...

  5. Organizational work-family resources as predictors of job performance and attitudes: the process of work-family conflict and enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle-Dusseau, Heather N; Britt, Thomas W; Greene-Shortridge, Tiffany M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the current study was to test a model where organizational resources (aimed at managing work and family responsibilities) predict job attitudes and supervisor ratings of performance through the mechanisms of work-family conflict and work-family enrichment. Employees (n = 174) at a large metropolitan hospital were surveyed at two time periods regarding perceptions of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), family supportive organizational perceptions (FSOP), bidirectional work-family conflict, bidirectional work-family enrichment, and job attitudes. Supervisors were also asked to provide performance ratings at Time 2. Results revealed FSSB at Time 1 predicted job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to leave, as well as supervisor ratings of performance, at Time 2. In addition, both work-family enrichment and family-work enrichment were found to mediate relationships between FSSB and various organizational outcomes, while work-family conflict was not a significant mediator. Results support further testing of supervisor behaviors specific to family support, as well models that include bidirectional work-family enrichment as the mechanism by which work-family resources predict employee and organizational outcomes.

  6. Predictors of cross-clamp-induced intraoperative monitoring changes during carotid endarterectomy using both electroencephalography and somatosensory evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenick Sridharan, Natalie; Thirumala, Partha; Chaer, Rabih; Balzer, Jeffrey; Long, Becky; Crammond, Donald; Makaroun, Michel; Avgerinos, Efthymios

    2017-07-05

    The efficacy of selective shunting during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) using intraoperative monitoring (IOM) for detection of cerebral ischemia is well established. There is mounting evidence that monitoring of both electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) increases the sensitivity of cerebral ischemia detection. Predictors of cerebral ischemia requiring selective shunt placement using IOM of both EEG and SSEPs have not been previously identified. Consecutive patients who underwent CEA between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, were retrospectively analyzed. Primary end points were IOM changes at any time during the operation or IOM changes with carotid cross-clamping. Risk factors assessed included demographics; baseline comorbidities; severity of ipsilateral and contralateral disease; symptomatic status; and use of statin, antiplatelet, and beta-blocker medications. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used for analysis. During the 11-year study period, a total of 758 patients underwent 804 CEAs (mean age, 70.6 ± 9.5 years; 59.8% male; 39.2% symptomatic) using IOM of both SSEPs and EEG for selective shunting guidance. Postoperative stroke rate was 1.37%; 27.1% of patients had significant SSEP or EEG changes, and 49.1% of these were clamp induced (within 5 minutes of cross-clamping). Of these patients, 83.2% received a shunt (11.4% overall). The most common reason that a shunt was not placed after cross-clamp-induced changes was that the changes resolved with further blood pressure elevation (8 of 17 patients). Clamp-induced IOM changes were predictive of postoperative stroke (odds ratio [OR], 5.5; P = .005). Risk factors for clamp-induced IOM changes were contralateral carotid occlusion (OR, 2.5; P = .01), symptomatic stenosis (OR, 1.8; P = .006), and diabetes (OR, 1.6; P = .03), whereas there was a trend toward increased risk with female sex (OR, 1.5; P = .08). Risk factors for any IOM change (clamp

  7. Early Childhood Teachers' Psychological Well-Being: Exploring Potential Predictors of Depression, Stress, and Emotional Exhaustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K.; Grant, Ashley A.

    2018-01-01

    Research Findings: Early childhood teachers' psychological well-being influences the nurturing and learning classroom climate in early care and education as well as children's development. However, less is known about predictors of teachers' psychological well-being in preschool. The purpose of this study was to explore associations between…

  8. Psychosocial work environment predictors of short and long spells of registered sickness absence during a 2-year follow up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin L; Rugulies, Reiner; Christensen, Karl B

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of psychosocial work environment factors on short and long absence spells. METHODS: Questionnaire data on work environment exposures and registered absence data during 2-year follow up were analyzed with Poisson regression...... for 1919 employees from the private and public sector. RESULTS: Short spells (1-10 working days) were predicted by low supervisor support, low predictability, and low meaning at work among men and high skill discretion among women. Long spells (>10 days) were predicted by low decision authority, low...... supervisor support, and low predictability among men and high psychologic demands and low decision authority among women. The variables predictability and meaning at work were developed for this study. CONCLUSION: Specific psychosocial work environment factors have both common and different effects on short...

  9. Not Extent of Telecommuting, But Job Characteristics as Proximal Predictors of Work-Related Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Elst, Tinne; Verhoogen, Ronny; Sercu, Maarten; Van den Broeck, Anja; Baillien, Elfi; Godderis, Lode

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the curvilinear relationship between extent of telecommuting and work-related well-being (ie, burnout, work engagement, and cognitive stress complaints), as well as to test whether job characteristics act as explanatory mechanisms underlying this relationship. A sample of 878 employees from an international telecommunication company with a long history of telecommuting participated in a survey on psychosocial risk factors and well-being at work. Mediation path analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses. Social support from colleagues, participation in decision-making, task autonomy, and work-to-family conflict, but not extent of telecommuting, were directly related to work-related well-being. Extent of telecommuting was indirectly related to well-being via social support. Employers should invest in creating good work environments in general, among both telecommuters and nontelecommuters.

  10. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  11. Auditory Verbal Working Memory as a Predictor of Speech Perception in Modulated Maskers in Listeners with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Rebecca E.; Mattys, Sven L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Background noise can interfere with our ability to understand speech. Working memory capacity (WMC) has been shown to contribute to the perception of speech in modulated noise maskers. WMC has been assessed with a variety of auditory and visual tests, often pertaining to different components of working memory. This study assessed the…

  12. Working Memory and Dynamic Measures of Analogical Reasoning as Predictors of Children's Math and Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Claire E.; Bergwerff, Catharina E.; Heiser, Willem J.; Resing, Wilma C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Working memory and inductive reasoning ability each appear related to children's achievement in math and reading. Dynamic measures of reasoning, based on an assessment procedure including feedback, may provide additional predictive value. The aim of this study was to investigate whether working memory and dynamic measures of analogical…

  13. Overtime work as a predictor of major depressive episode: a 5-year follow-up of the Whitehall II study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Virtanen

    Full Text Available The association between overtime work and depression is still unclear. This study examined the association between overtime work and the onset of a major depressive episode (MDE.Prospective cohort study with a baseline examination of working hours, psychological morbidity (an indicator of baseline depression and depression risk factors in 1991-1993 and a follow-up of major depressive episode in 1997-1999 (mean follow-up 5.8 years among British civil servants (the Whitehall II study; 1626 men, 497 women, mean age 47 years at baseline. Onset of 12-month MDE was assessed by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI at follow-up. In prospective analysis of participants with no psychological morbidity at baseline, the odds ratio for a subsequent major depressive episode was 2.43 (95% confidence interval 1.11 to 5.30 times higher for those working 11+ hours a day compared to employees working 7-8 hours a day, when adjusted for socio-demographic factors at baseline. Further adjustment for chronic physical disease, smoking, alcohol use, job strain and work-related social support had little effect on this association (odds ratio 2.52; 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 5.65.Data from middle-aged civil servants suggest that working long hours of overtime may predispose to major depressive episodes.

  14. Predictors of Functional Improvement and Future Work Status After the Disability Benefit Claim: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelius, L.R.; van der Klink, J.J.L.; de Boer, M.R.; Groothoff, J.W.; Brouwer, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective In most industrialized countries, disability benefit rates have increased substantially in the past decade. Few beneficiaries return into employment once disability benefit is awarded. The present study aims to investigate which factors predict functional improvement and future work status

  15. Predictors and consequences of unemployment in construction and forest work during a 5-year follow-up

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Juha Liira; Päivi Leino-Arjas

    1999-01-01

    Objectives The study investigated whether indicators of health, work conditions, or life-style predict subsequent unemployment and also the unemployment consequences related to health or life-style...

  16. Predictors of work-related stress among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huda M. Al-Makhaita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Work-related stress (WRS is an insidious and persistent part of everyday life related to the response of people to work environment. Nursing is a strenuous job and WRS is prevalent among nurses. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of WRS among nurses working in primary and secondary health care levels in Dammam, Eastern Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in 17 primary health care centers (PHCCs representing the primary level of health care and  Medical Tower Complex (MTC representing the secondary health care level in Dammam city. The total number of nurses included in the study was 637 nurses (144 in PHCCs and (493 MTC. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, which was developed based on the pertinent literature. It included two main parts: Sociodemographic and job characteristics of nurses and 31 WRS questions. Results: The overall prevalence of WRS among all studied nurses was 45.5%; 43.1% and 46.2% in primary and secondary levels, respectively. In the primary level, there was a statistical significant association between WRS and being married (85.5%, and having living three children and more (53.2%. Moreover, younger age group 20-<30 years (79.4%, Saudi nationality (86.8%, being married (74.6%, having nonbachelor degree (83.3%, work shifts (89.5%, and working in surgical department (46.5% were the significant associating factors with the occurrence of WRS among nurses in secondary levels. Young age was the only predicting factor for WRS in primary care level. While being female, Saudi, married, with work shifts, and working in surgical department were found to predict WRS in the secondary level. Recommendations: Appropriate strategy in health care organization to investigate stress in health care settings is recommended. Moreover, interventional programs to identify, and relieve sources and effects of stress should be developed.

  17. Retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions as predictors of prospectively assessed sickness absence and disability pension among older workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2018-01-01

    work environment, lifestyle, education, and prior LTSA. RESULTS: LTSA was predicted by high levels of cognitive demands (HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.56)), high levels of emotional demands (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07-1.48)), low levels of influence at work (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64)), and high levels of role...

  18. The Comparison of Effectiveness of Various Potential Predictors of Response to Treatment With SSRIs in Patients With Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Martin; Novak, Tomas; Brunovsky, Martin; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril

    2017-08-01

    The substantial non-response rate in depressive patients indicates a continuing need to identify predictors of treatment outcome. The aim of this 6-week, open-label study was (1) to compare the efficacy of a priori defined predictors: ≥20% reduction in MADRS score at week 1, ≥20% reduction in MADRS score at week 2 (RM ≥ 20% W2), decrease of cordance (RC), and increase of serum and plasma level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor at week 1; and (2) to assess whether their combination yields higher efficacy in the prediction of response to selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) than when used singly. Twenty-one patients (55%) achieved a response to SSRIs. The RM ≥20% W2 (areas under curve-AUC = 0.83) showed better predictive efficacy compared to all other predictors with the exception of RC. The identified combined model (RM ≥ 20% W2 + RC), which predicted response with an 84% accuracy (AUC = 0.92), may be a useful tool in the prediction of response to SSRIs.

  19. Predictors of job satisfaction among nurses working in Ethiopian public hospitals, 2014: institution-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semachew, Ayele; Belachew, Tefera; Tesfaye, Temamen; Adinew, Yohannes Mehretie

    2017-04-24

    Nurses play a pivotal role in determining the efficiency, effectiveness, and sustainability of health care systems. Nurses' job satisfaction plays an important role in the delivery of quality health care. There is paucity of studies addressing job satisfaction among nurses in the public hospital setting in Ethiopia. Thus, this study aimed to assess job satisfaction and factors influencing it among nurses in Jimma zone public hospitals, southwestern Ethiopia. An institution-based census was conducted among 316 nurses working in Jimma zone public hospitals from March to April, 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire based on a modified version of the McCloskey/Mueller Satisfaction Scale was used. Data were entered using Epi Info version 3.5.3 statistical software and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Mean satisfaction scores were compared by independent variables using an independent sample t test and ANOVA. Bivariate and multivariable linear regressions were done. A total of 316 nurses were included, yielding a response rate of 92.67%. The overall mean job satisfaction was (67.43 ± 13.85). One third (33.5%) of the study participants had a low level of job satisfaction. Mutual understandings at work and professional commitment showed significant and positive relationship with overall job satisfaction, while working at an inpatient unit and work load were negatively associated. One third of nurses had a low level of job satisfaction. Professional commitment, workload, working unit, and mutual understanding at work predicted the outcome variable.

  20. Towards quantitative electrostatic potential mapping of working semiconductor devices using off-axis electron holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdi, Sadegh, E-mail: sadegh.yazdi@cen.dtu.dk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Kasama, Takeshi; Beleggia, Marco; Samaie Yekta, Maryam [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); McComb, David W. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Twitchett-Harrison, Alison C. [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Center for Electron Nanoscopy, Technical University of Denmark, DK 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Grünberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    Pronounced improvements in the understanding of semiconductor device performance are expected if electrostatic potential distributions can be measured quantitatively and reliably under working conditions with sufficient sensitivity and spatial resolution. Here, we employ off-axis electron holography to characterize an electrically-biased Si p–n junction by measuring its electrostatic potential, electric field and charge density distributions under working conditions. A comparison between experimental electron holographic phase images and images obtained using three-dimensional electrostatic potential simulations highlights several remaining challenges to quantitative analysis. Our results illustrate how the determination of reliable potential distributions from phase images of electrically biased devices requires electrostatic fringing fields, surface charges, specimen preparation damage and the effects of limited spatial resolution to be taken into account.

  1. Dissociable Decoding of Spatial Attention and Working Memory from EEG Oscillations and Sustained Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Gi-Yeul; Luck, Steven J

    2017-11-22

    In human scalp EEG recordings, both sustained potentials and alpha-band oscillations are present during the delay period of working memory tasks and may therefore reflect the representation of information in working memory. However, these signals may instead reflect support mechanisms rather than the actual contents of memory. In particular, alpha-band oscillations have been tightly tied to spatial attention and may not reflect location-independent memory representations per se. To determine how sustained and oscillating EEG signals are related to attention and working memory, we attempted to decode which of 16 orientations was being held in working memory by human observers (both women and men). We found that sustained EEG activity could be used to decode the remembered orientation of a stimulus, even when the orientation of the stimulus varied independently of its location. Alpha-band oscillations also carried clear information about the location of the stimulus, but they provided little or no information about orientation independently of location. Thus, sustained potentials contain information about the object properties being maintained in working memory, consistent with previous evidence of a tight link between these potentials and working memory capacity. In contrast, alpha-band oscillations primarily carry location information, consistent with their link to spatial attention.Significance StatementWorking memory plays a key role in cognition, and working memory is impaired in several neurological and psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that human scalp EEG recordings contain signals that reflect the neural representation of information in working memory. However, to conclude that a neural signal actually represents the object being remembered, it is necessary to show that the signal contains fine-grained information about that object. Here, we show that sustained voltages in human EEG recordings contain fine-grained information about the

  2. Nurse Work Engagement Impacts Job Outcome and Nurse-Assessed Quality of Care: Model Testing with Nurse Practice Environment and Nurse Work Characteristics as Predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mathieu Van Bogaert

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Key words: burnout,job satisfaction, nurse retention, nurse practice environment,quality of care, acute health care,structural equation modelling. Aim:To explore the mechanisms through which nurse practice environment dimensions are associated with job outcomes and nurse-assessed quality of care. Mediating variables tested included nurse work characteristics of workload, social capital, decision latitude, as well as work engagement dimensions of vigor, dedication and absorption.Background: Understanding to support and guide the practice community in their daily effort to answer most accurate complex care demands along with a stable nurse workforce are challenging.Design: Cross-sectional survey.Method:Based on previous empirical findings,a structural equation model designed with valid measurement instruments was tested.The study population was registered acute care hospital nurses(N = 1201 in twoindependent hospitals and one hospital group with six hospitals in Belgium.Results: Nurse practice environment dimensions predicted job outcome variables and nurse ratings of quality of care.Analyses were consistent with features of nurses’ work characteristics including perceived workload,decision latitude,and social capital,as well as three dimension of work engagement playing mediating roles between nurse practice environment and outcomes.A revised model adjusted using various fit measures explained 60 % and 47 % of job outcomes and nurse - assessed quality of care,respectively.Conclusion: Study findings show that aspects of nurse work characteristics such as workload,decision latitude and social capital along with nurse work engagement(e.g.vigor, dedication and absorption play a role between how various stakeholders such as executives,nurse managers and physicians will organize care and how nurses perceive job outcomes and quality of care.

  3. Quality of work life as a predictor of nurses' intention to leave units, organisations and the profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Wen; Dai, Yu-Tzu; McCreary, Linda L

    2015-05-01

    To examine the relationships between quality of work life (QWL) and nurses' intention to leave their unit (ITLunit), organisation (ITLorg) and profession (ITLpro). The high turnover rate among nurses presents a major challenge to health care systems across the globe. QWL plays a significant role in nurses' turnover. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was conducted via purposive sampling of 1283 hospital nurses and administering the Chinese version of the Quality of Nursing Work Life scale (C-QNWL), a three-ITL-type scale questionnaire, and a demographic questionnaire for individual- and work-related variables. Descriptive data, correlations, and ordinal regression models were analyzed. QWL predicted ITLpro and ITLorg better than ITLunit. Three QWL dimensions (work arrangement and workload, nursing staffing and patient care, and work-home life balance) were significantly predictive of all three ITL measures. However, the dimension of teamwork and communication was only predictive for ITLunit, not for ITLorg and ITLpro. Different patterns of QWL dimensions are predictive of ITLunit, ITLorg, and ITLpro. The study provides important information to nurse administrators about the aspects of QWL that most commonly lead nurses to leave their units, organisations, and even the profession itself. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Elements of Working Memory as Predictors of Goal-Setting Skills in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyman, Anna; Taskinen, Taina; Gronroos, Matti; Haataja, Leena; Lahdetie, Jaana; Korhonen, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how goal-setting skills of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be predicted with elements of working memory. The study involved 30 children with an ADHD diagnosis and 30 healthy volunteers. The IQ of the participants was assessed, and ADHD symptoms were evaluated by parents. Each of…

  6. Emotional Intelligence as a Predictor of Student Success in First-Year Master of Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Dana Meredith

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence has been defined as "the ability to recognize the meanings of emotions and their relationships, and to reason and problem-solve on the basis of them" (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999, p. 267). Despite the relevance of emotional intelligence to social work education, limited research has focused on the assessment…

  7. Creativity as predictor of mathematical abilities in fourth graders in addition to number sense and working memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroesbergen, E.H.; Schoevers, E.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, it was investigated how domain-specific (number sense) and domain-general (working memory, creativity) factors explain the variance in mathematical abilities in primary school children. A total of 166 children aged 8 to 10 years old participated. Several tests to measure math ability,

  8. Differentiation between work and nonwork self-aspects as a predictor of presenteeism and engagement: cross-cultural differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garczynski, Amy M; Waldrop, Jessica S; Rupprecht, Elizabeth A; Grawitch, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Research on the work-life interface does not specifically account for how individuals cognitively conceptualize their work and nonwork lives in terms of the differentiation between work and nonwork self-aspects. In addition, no cross-cultural research examines self-concept differentiation in conjunction with employee outcomes of presenteeism and engagement, pointing to a need to study these relationships cross-culturally. Results of the current study revealed cultural differences in self-concept differentiation, engagement, mental presenteeism, and physical presenteeism. Indian participants reported lower levels of differentiation and higher levels of engagement, mental presenteeism, and physical presenteeism than American participants. Nationality interacted with self-concept differentiation to predict mental presenteeism, physical presenteeism, and engagement. Among Indian participants, self-concept differentiation did not impact scores on the other variables. However, among American participants, those lower in differentiation reported greater engagement, lower mental presenteeism, and lower physical presenteeism. These results have important implications for the study of the work-life interface, and they provide evidence that engagement and presenteeism may be culturally contingent.

  9. Learning potentials and pitfalls working with animation aesthetics as leisure-time pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringskou, Lea Thomsen; Ahm, Jacob Noer

    , as a central part of animations aesthetics, offers both potentials and pittfalls when it comes to the learning processes of the children and calls for pedagogical attention. Overall, the research project constructs knowledge about the pedagogy emerging when working with the learning processes of animation...

  10. Effort of Multilevel Modeling in Organizational Research : Citizenship Organizational Behavior and Work Performance on Task, with Spiritual Leadership Predictor, Work Spirituality Climate, and Open Organizational Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Widyarini, Nilam

    2008-01-01

    Considering the hierarchy style in real organization, some theorists have been interested in finding the best way to measuring variable in order to fit with the concept, and also analyzing hierarchy data syle such as data in individual, group, and organizational level. The aim of this writing is to make a start as pioneer in multilevel research in Indonesia, especially in citizenship organizational behavior. The script of this research is preparing the model of employee work performance (indi...

  11. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former USDA facility in Powhattan, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-02-02

    This Work Plan outlines the scope of work to be conducted to investigate the subsurface contaminant conditions at the property formerly leased by the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC) in Powhattan, Kansas (Figure 1.1). Data obtained during this event will be used to (1) evaluate potential contaminant source areas on the property; (2) determine the vertical and horizontal extent of potential contamination; and (3) provide recommendations for future action, with the ultimate goal of assigning this site No Further Action status. The planned investigation includes groundwater monitoring requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with Section V of the Intergovernmental Agreement between the KDHE and the Farm Service Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). The work is being performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy, Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) that has been approved by the KDHE. The Master Work Plan describes the general scope of all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas and provides guidance for these investigations. It should be consulted for the complete details of plans for work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Powhattan.

  12. The perceived importance and the presence of creative potential in the health professional's work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukersmith, Sue; Burgess-Limerick, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The value of creative employees to an organisation's growth and innovative development, productivity, quality and sustainability is well established. This study examined the perceived relationship between creativity and work environment factors of 361 practicing health professionals, and whether these factors were present (realised) in their work environment. Job design (challenges, team work, task rotation, autonomy) and leadership (coaching supervisor, time for thinking, creative goals, recognition and incentives for creative ideas and results) were perceived as the most important factors for stimulating creativity. There was room for improvement of these in the work environment. Many aspects of the physical work environment were less important. Public health sector employers and organisations should adopt sustainable strategies which target the important work environment factors to support employee creativity and so enhance service quality, productivity, performance and growth. Implications of the results for ergonomists and workplace managers are discussed with a participatory ergonomics approach recommended. Creative employees are important to an organisation's innovation, productivity and sustainability. The survey identified health professionals perceive a need to improve job design and leadership factors at work to enhance and support employee creativity. There are implications for organisations and ergonomists to investigate the creative potential of work environments.

  13. Job burnout and engagement among teachers – Worklife areas and personality traits as predictors of relationships with work

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Mojsa-Kaja; Krystyna Golonka; Tadeusz Marek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The main goal of the present study was to analyze the burnout syndrome due to selected personality traits (based on the Cloninger’s psychobiological personality model and positive and negative affectivity) and the degree of mismatch between teachers and their work environment (described in terms of the Model of Worklife Areas). The 2nd goal was to determine if the participants could be classified into different burnout profile groups (clusters) based on their burnout dimension (e...

  14. The Philosophical Works of Ludwik Fleck and Their Potential Meaning for Teaching and Learning Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marc; Heering, Peter; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel; Hofstein, Avi; Eilks, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses essential elements of the philosophical works of Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961) and their potential interpretation for the teaching and learning of science. In the early twentieth century, Fleck made substantial contributions to understanding the sociological character of the nature of science and explaining the embedding of science in society. His works have several parallels to the later and very popular work, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, by Thomas S. Kuhn, although Kuhn only indirectly referred to the influence of Fleck on his own theories. Starting from a short review of the life of Ludwik Fleck, his philosophical work and its connections to Kuhn, this paper elaborates upon and illustrates how his theories can be considered for science education in order to provide learners with a better understanding of the nature of scientific endeavor and the bi-directional science-to-society links.

  15. Job burnout and engagement among teachers - Worklife areas and personality traits as predictors of relationships with work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Golonka, Krystyna; Marek, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to analyze the burnout syndrome due to selected personality traits (based on the Cloninger's psychobiological personality model and positive and negative affectivity) and the degree of mismatch between teachers and their work environment (described in terms of the Model of Worklife Areas). The 2nd goal was to determine if the participants could be classified into different burnout profile groups (clusters) based on their burnout dimension (exhaustion, cynicism and efficacy) scores and whether those groups differed significantly with regard to their personality traits and levels of mismatch between them and the workplace. Individual and contextual factors responsible for burnout were analyzed in a group of 205 Polish teachers who completed a set of questionnaires: Maslach Burnout Inventory - General Scale, Areas of Worklife Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. The hierarchical regression analysis revealed that teachers' efficacy is determined only by personality factors, while exhaustion and cynicism are determined by both individual and organizational variables. The cluster analysis revealed 3 groups (burnout, engaged, ineffective) that varied in the level of all burnout dimensions. Teachers experiencing burnout perceived a higher level of mismatch between themselves and the work environment, compared to the engaged teachers demonstrating better alignment. The engaged teachers were lower on negative affectivity and higher on self-directedness as compared to the burnout group. The study provided insight into the role of individual factors in the development of teacher burnout and engagement. Negative affectivity could be considered as a predisposing risk factor and self-directedness as a protective factor for burnout. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Myosin phosphorylation potentiated steady state work output without altering contractile economy of mouse fast skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, William; Bunda, Jordan; Vandenboom, Rene

    2017-11-09

    Skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) increases (i.e. potentiates) mechanical work output of fast skeletal muscle. The influence of this event on contractile economy (i.e. energy cost/work performed) remains controversial, however. Our purpose was to quantify contractile economy of potentiated extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles from mouse skeletal muscles with (wildtype, WT) and without (skMLCK ablated, skMLCK-/-) the ability to phosphorylate the RLC. Contractile economy was calculated as the ratio of total work performed to high-energy phosphate consumption (HEPC) during a period of repeated isovelocity contractions that followed a potentiating stimulus (PS). Consistent with genotype, the PS increased RLC phosphorylation measured during before and after isovelocity contractions in WT but not skMLCK-/- muscles (i.e. 0.65 and 0.05 mol phos mol RLC, respectively). In addition, although the PS enhanced work during repeated isovelocity contractions in both genotypes the increase was significantly greater in WT than in skMLCK-/- muscles (1.51±0.03 vs. 1.10±0.05, respectively) (all data Peconomy calculated for WT muscles was similar to that calculated for skMLCK-/- muscles (i.e. 5.74±0.67 and 4.61±0.71 J•kg-1μmol∼P-1; respectively (Peconomy. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. Processes of task performance as measured by the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS): A predictor of work-related outcomes for adults with schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Julie; Pépin, Geneviève; Bourbonnais, Renée; Grignon, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether the processes of task performance as measured by the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) would discriminate between the employment levels of adults with schizophrenia. Twenty adults with schizophrenia who were engaged either in competitive employment, supported employment, prevocational training, or non-vocational activities, participated in this exploratory study. Each participant completed the AMPS, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Addiction Severity Index (ASI), and the Worker Role Interview (WRI) to gather data about their occupational performance, symptoms, drug / alcohol use, and psychosocial / environmental factors that might influence their work-related outcomes. Analysis revealed a moderate correlation between the level of employment and the global scores of the process skills scale in the AMPS. This should be seen as preliminary evidence that beyond the basic cognitive functions, processes of task performance may also be a predictor of work-related outcomes for this population. The results also highlighted the importance of considering personal causation and worker roles when assessing the work capacities of these clients. Finally, findings supported the four levels of employment used in this study, which appeared to form a continuum from non-vocational activities, prevocational training, supported employment, through to competitive employment.

  18. Prevalence and predictors of early cardiovascular events after kidney transplantation: evaluation of pre-transplant cardiovascular work-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delville, Marianne; Sabbah, Laurent; Girard, Delphine; Elie, Caroline; Manceau, Sandra; Piketty, Marie; Martinez, Frank; Méjean, Arnaud; Legendre, Christophe; Sberro-Soussan, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality after renal transplantation. The purpose of this study was to analyze cardiovascular risk factors at transplantation, occurrence of cardiovascular events in the first year after transplantation and evaluate pre-transplant work-up. In total, 244 renal transplant recipients older than 50 years were included. The results of pre-transplant work-up, including clinical evaluation, electrocardiogram, echocardiography, myocardial perfusion testing and coronary angiography were analyzed. Patients had multiple risk factors at inclusion on renal transplantation waiting list as high blood pressure (94.7%), dyslipidemia (81.1%), smoking (45.3%), diabetes (23.6%), past history of cardiovascular disease (21.3%) and obesity (12.7%). Following transplantation, 15.5% (n = 38) of patients experienced a cardiovascular event, including 2.8% (n = 7) acute coronary syndrome, 5.8% (n = 14) isolated increase in troponin level and 5.3% (n = 13) new onset atrial fibrillation. The pre-transplant parameters associated with a cardiovascular event were a past medical history of cardiovascular disease (HR = 2.06 [1.06-4.03], p = 0.03), echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy (HR = 2.04 [1.04-3.98], p = 0.037) and abnormal myocardial perfusion testing (HR = 2.25 [1.09 -5.96], p = 0.03). Pre-transplantation evaluation allowed the diagnosis of unknown coronary artery lesions in 8.9% of patients.

  19. Predictors and consequences of unemployment in construction and forest work during a 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liira, J; Leino-Arjas, P

    1999-02-01

    The study investigated whether indicators of health, work conditions, or life-style predict subsequent unemployment and also the unemployment consequences related to health or life-style. A questionnaire was administered to 781 male construction and 877 male forest workers (aged 20-49 years and working at the beginning of the study) in 1989 and 1994. Employment status during follow-up was ranked into the following 4 categories according to the employment status and unemployment time: continuously employed, re-employed, short-term (unemployed and long-term (> or =24 months) unemployed. The following base-line factors were associated with long-term unemployment during follow-up among the construction workers: age >40 years, poor subjective health, smoking, frequent heavy use of alcohol, low job satisfaction, marital status (single), and unemployment during the year preceding the initial survey. Among the forest workers, age >40 years, frequent stress symptoms, and preceding unemployment entered the model. In addition smoking predicted unemployment among the forest workers with no preceding unemployment. The proportion of regular smokers decreased among the long-term unemployed. Physical exercise was more frequent at the time of follow-up than it was initially, particularly among the unemployed. Stress symptoms increased among the construction workers, but musculoskeletal symptoms decreased significantly among the long-term unemployed. Among the forest workers stress symptoms decreased among the continuously employed and re-employed persons, but musculoskeletal symptoms decreased significantly for them all. Unemployment among construction workers is to some extent dependent on life-style, health, and job satisfaction in addition to age, marital status, and unemployment history. For forest workers, unemployment is less determined by individual factors. Changes in distress and musculoskeletal symptoms are dependent on employment, particularly among construction workers.

  20. Job burnout and engagement among teachers – Worklife areas and personality traits as predictors of relationships with work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Mojsa-Kaja

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The main goal of the present study was to analyze the burnout syndrome due to selected personality traits (based on the Cloninger’s psychobiological personality model and positive and negative affectivity and the degree of mismatch between teachers and their work environment (described in terms of the Model of Worklife Areas. The 2nd goal was to determine if the participants could be classified into different burnout profile groups (clusters based on their burnout dimension (exhaustion, cynicism and efficacy scores and whether those groups differed significantly with regard to their personality traits and levels of mismatch between them and the workplace. Material and methods Individual and contextual factors responsible for burnout were analyzed in a group of 205 Polish teachers who completed a set of questionnaires: Maslach Burnout Inventory – General Scale, Areas of Worklife Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Results The hierarchical regression analysis revealed that teachers’ efficacy is determined only by personality factors, while exhaustion and cynicism are determined by both individual and organizational variables. The cluster analysis revealed 3 groups (burnout, engaged, ineffective that varied in the level of all burnout dimensions. Teachers experiencing burnout perceived a higher level of mismatch between themselves and the work environment, compared to the engaged teachers demonstrating better alignment. The engaged teachers were lower on negative affectivity and higher on self-directedness as compared to the burnout group. Conclusions The study provided insight into the role of individual factors in the development of teacher burnout and engagement. Negative affectivity could be considered as a predisposing risk factor and self-directedness as a protective factor for burnout.

  1. Fasting Glucose and Glucose Tolerance as Potential Predictors of Neurocognitive Function among Non-diabetic Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Shellie-Anne T.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Rosenberger, William F.; Manukyan, Zorayr; Whitfield, Keith E.; Waldstein, Shari R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Significant evidence has demonstrated that Type 2 diabetes mellitus and related pre-cursors are associated with diminished neurocognitive function and risk of dementia among older adults. However, very little research has examined relations of glucose regulation to neurocognitive function among older adults free of these conditions. The primary aim of this investigation was to examine associations among fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and neurocognitive function among non-diabetic older adults. The secondary aim was to examine age, gender, and education as potential effect modifiers. Methods The study employed a cross-sectional, correlational study design. Participants were 172 older adults with a mean age of 64.43 years (SD = 13.09). The sample was 58% male and 87% White. Participants completed an oral glucose tolerance test as part of a larger study. Trained psychometricians administered neuropsychological tests that assessed performance in the domains of response inhibition, nonverbal memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, visuoconstructional abilities, visuospatial abilities, psychomotor speed and executive function, and motor speed and manual dexterity. Linear multiple regressions were run to test study aims. Results No significant main effects of fasting glucose and 2-hour glucose emerged for performance on any neurocognitive test; however, significant interactions were present. Higher fasting glucose was associated with poorer short-term verbal memory performance among men, but unexpectedly better response inhibition and long-term verbal memory performance for participants over age 70. Higher 2-hour glucose values were associated with reduced divided attention performance among participants with less than a high school education. Conclusions Mixed findings suggest that glucose levels may be both beneficial and deleterious to neurocognition among non-diabetic older adults. Additional studies with healthy older adults are needed

  2. Event-related potentials elicited during working memory are altered in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Zunini, Rocío A; Knoefel, Frank; Lord, Courtney; Dzuali, Fiatsogbe; Breau, Michael; Sweet, Lisa; Goubran, Rafik; Taler, Vanessa

    2016-11-01

    Persons with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) can experience deficits in working memory. In the present study, we investigated working memory in persons with MCI and cognitively healthy older adults using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants performed an n-back working memory task with baseline (0-back), low load (1-back), and high load (2-back) working memory conditions. MCI participants' performance was less accurate than that of healthy older adults in both the 1-back and 2-back conditions, and reaction times were longer in MCI than control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. ERP analyses revealed delayed P200 and N200 latencies and smaller P300 amplitudes in MCI relative to control participants in the 0-back, 1-back and 2-back conditions. Deterioration in working memory performance concomitant with marked electrophysiological alterations suggests that persons with MCI exhibit deficits in several cognitive processes that include early attention, stimulus discrimination and classification, and updating and manipulation of information held in working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Work-based identity and work engagement as potential antecedents of task performance and turnover intention: Unravelling a complex relationship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    F Chris Bothma; Gert Roodt

    2012-01-01

      Work-related identities, derived from different social foci through identity formation processes, have as behavioural guides a significant influence on employee behaviour, which, in turn has an impact on work outcomes...

  4. Measuring potential predictors of burnout and engagement among young veterinary professionals; construction of a customised questionnaire (the Vet-DRQ)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mastenbroek, N. J. J. M.; Demerouti, E.; van Beukelen, P.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.; Scherpbier, A. J. J. A.; Jaarsma, A. D. C.; Jaarsma, Debbie

    2014-01-01

    The Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R model) was used as the theoretical basis of a tailormade questionnaire to measure the psychosocial work environment and personal resources of recently graduated veterinary professionals. According to the JD-R model, two broad categories of work characteristics

  5. Medical school predictors of later perceived mastery of clinical work among Norwegian doctors: a cohort study with 10-year and 20-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfrage, Anna; Grotmol, Kjersti Støen; Lien, Lars; Moum, Torbjørn; Wiese, Ragna Veslemøy; Tyssen, Reidar

    2017-09-24

    Doctors' self-perceived mastery of clinical work might have an impact on their career and patient care, in addition to their own health and well-being. The aim of this study is to identify predictors at medical school of perceived mastery later in doctors' careers. A cohort of medical students (n=631) was surveyed in the final year of medical school in 1993/1994 (T1), and 10 (T2) and 20 (T3) years later. Nationwide healthcare institutions. Medical students from all universities in Norway. Perceived mastery of clinical work was measured at T2 and T3. The studied predictors measured at T1 included personality traits, medical school stress, perceived medical recording skills, identification with the role of doctor, hazardous drinking and drinking to cope, in addition to age and gender. Effects were studied using multiple linear regression models. Response rates: T1, 522/631 (83%); T2, 390/522 (75%); and T3, 303/522 (58%). Mean scores at T2 and T3 were 22.3 (SD=4.2) and 24.5 (3.0) (t=8.2, pmedical recording skills (β=0.13; p=0.02; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.24) and drinking to cope (β=-2.45; p=0.001; 95% CI -3.88 to -1.03). Adjusted association at T3 was perceived medical recording skills (β=0.11; p=0.015; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.21). Perceived medical recording skills and role identification were associated with higher perceived mastery. Medical schools should provide experiences, teaching and assessment to enhance students' physician role identification and confidence in their own skills. Drinking to cope was associated with lower perceived mastery, which indicates the importance of acquiring healthier coping strategies in medical school. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Work related psychosocial risks and musculoskeletal disorders: potential risk factors, causation and evaluation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeney, Colin; O'Sullivan, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    Musculo Skeletal Disorders (MSDs) are the focus of considerable attention and research in occupational health, which is in part due to high prevalence rates and associated costs. In the United States, the total cost associated with MSDs increased from $81 billion in 1986 to $215 billion in 2005 [3]. Epidemiological studies have repeatedly shown associations between work-related psychosocial factors and MSDs, and the role of psychosocial factors and stress in these disorders has received increased attention. Several reviews have reported associations between MSDs and work-related psychosocial factors such as high workload/demands, high perceived stress levels, low social support, low job control, low job satisfaction and monotonous work. Several theories have been proposed to explain the apparent relationship between stress and MSDs in the workplace from a biological perspective. These include the biopsychosocial model of job stress, the hyperventilation theory, the migraine theory, the muscle spindle theory and the Cinderella hypothesis. Within the literature, a vast array of questionnaires have been developed in an attempt to measure the psychosocial factors that occur within the workplace. This article presents a discussion of existing knowledge of the psychosocial risk factors potentially linked to MSDs and potential pathways to injury. A discussion of evaluation approaches used to estimate psychosocial risk exposures in workplaces is also presented.

  7. Effects of shift work and intermittent noise exposure on hearing: mechanisms and prophylactic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchgrevink, Hans M

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that intermittent noise exposure characteristically produces less hearing loss than equal energy/intensity continuous noise in animal models. Ongoing different shift work regimes open for direct studies on hearing effects of intermittent noise exposure in man without ethical concern. Amazingly, few such studies are reported. In one recent study in the present volume, noise-exposed employees working 12 hours a day for two consecutive days followed by two days off, the cycle then repeated, had significantly lower permanent hearing loss than employees working nine-hour shifts from 8 am to 5 pm Monday to Friday. This commentary refers to the few studies reported, gives a short overview of the mechanisms behind noise-induced hearing loss and the protective effect of intermittent exposure, and concludes that direct studies in man on the effects of different shift work regimes on occupational hearing loss under specified noise conditions represent a prophylactic potential that calls for increased research activity. Such studies might pave the way for direct use of more optimal intermittent noise exposure regimes in future design of the noise exposure workday/-week and make future hearing conservation programs more effective.

  8. Optimal protocol for maximum work extraction in a feedback process with a time-varying potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chulan

    2017-12-01

    The nonequilibrium nature of information thermodynamics is characterized by the inequality or non-negativity of the total entropy change of the system, memory, and reservoir. Mutual information change plays a crucial role in the inequality, in particular if work is extracted and the paradox of Maxwell's demon is raised. We consider the Brownian information engine where the protocol set of the harmonic potential is initially chosen by the measurement and varies in time. We confirm the inequality of the total entropy change by calculating, in detail, the entropic terms including the mutual information change. We rigorously find the optimal values of the time-dependent protocol for maximum extraction of work both for the finite-time and the quasi-static process.

  9. Problems and perspectives of development of state directing of work potential forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Екатерина Шило

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that the state is the main governing entity of formation of labor potential, and should provide the flexibility of public policy and its focus on innovative model of development in the current circumstances. The ways of improvement of state regulation of the process of formation of labor potential through the introduction of legal, administrative, economic and program-target levers of influence, aimed at coverage of the professional orientation of the system of total formal and informal education, the focus of the system of professional education in accordance to the needs of the economy and innovation development, the formation of the system of continuing education during working life was developed.

  10. RS-predictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, Jed; Bergeron, Charles; Rydberg, Patrik

    2011-01-01

    This article describes RegioSelectivity-Predictor (RS-Predictor), a new in silico method for generating predictive models of P450-mediated metabolism for drug-like compounds. Within this method, potential sites of metabolism (SOMs) are represented as "metabolophores": A concept that describes...... shown to reliably identify at least one observed site of metabolism in the top two rank-positions on 78% of the substrates. Comparisons between RS-Predictor and previously described regioselectivity prediction methods reveal new insights into how in silico metabolite prediction methods should...

  11. Potential of acute phase proteins as predictor of postpartum uterine infections during transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Manimaran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the various systemic reactions against infection or injury, the acute phase response is the cascade of reaction and mostly coordinated by cytokines-mediated acute phase proteins (APPs production. Since APPs are sensitive innate immune molecules, they are useful for early detection of inflammation in bovines and believed to be better discriminators than routine hematological parameters. Therefore, the possibility of using APPs as a diagnostic and prognostic marker of inflammation in major bovine health disorders including postpartum uterine infection has been explored by many workers. In this review, we discussed specifically importance of postpartum uterine infection, the role of energy balance in uterine infections and potential of APPs as a predictor of postpartum uterine infections during the transition period and its regulatory mechanism in dairy cattle.

  12. Working memory load reduces the late positive potential and this effect is attenuated with increasing anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Ferri, Jamie; Hajcak, Greg

    2011-09-01

    Emotion regulation decreases the processing of arousing stimuli, as indexed by the late positive potential (LPP), an electrocortical component that varies in amplitude with emotional arousal. Emotion regulation increases activity in the prefrontal areas associated with cognitive control, including the dosolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). The present study manipulated working memory load, known to activate the DLPFC, and recorded the LPP elicited by aversive and neutral IAPS pictures presented during the retention interval. The LPP was larger on low-load compared to high-load trials, and on trials with aversive compared to neutral pictures. These LPP data suggest that emotional content and working memory load have opposing effects on attention to distracting stimuli. State anxiety was associated with reduced modulation of the LPP by working memory load. Results are discussed in terms of competition for attention between emotion and cognition and suggest a relationship between DLPFC activation and the allocation of attentional resources to distracting visual stimuli-a relationship that may be disrupted with increasing anxiety.

  13. Establishing effective working relations with a potential user community - NASA Lewis Research Center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, P.

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has held a series of six major and unique technology utilization conferences which were major milestones in planned structured efforts to establish effective working relationships with specific technology user communities. These efforts were unique in that the activities undertaken prior to the conference were extensive, and effectively laid the groundwork for productive technology transfer following, and as a direct result of, the conferences. The effort leading to the conference was in each case tailored to the characteristics of the potential user community, however, the common factors comprise a basic framework applicable to similar endeavors. The process is essentially a planned sequence of steps that constitute a technical market survey and a marketing program for the development of beneficial applications of aerospace technology beyond the aerospace field.

  14. 37 CFR 201.22 - Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. 201.22 Section 201.22 Patents, Trademarks, and... Advance notices of potential infringement of works consisting of sounds, images, or both. (a) Definitions... after the first fixation of a work consisting of sounds, images, or both that is first fixed...

  15. A Spiking Working Memory Model Based on Hebbian Short-Term Potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebig, Florian; Lansner, Anders

    2017-01-04

    A dominant theory of working memory (WM), referred to as the persistent activity hypothesis, holds that recurrently connected neural networks, presumably located in the prefrontal cortex, encode and maintain WM memory items through sustained elevated activity. Reexamination of experimental data has shown that prefrontal cortex activity in single units during delay periods is much more variable than predicted by such a theory and associated computational models. Alternative models of WM maintenance based on synaptic plasticity, such as short-term nonassociative (non-Hebbian) synaptic facilitation, have been suggested but cannot account for encoding of novel associations. Here we test the hypothesis that a recently identified fast-expressing form of Hebbian synaptic plasticity (associative short-term potentiation) is a possible mechanism for WM encoding and maintenance. Our simulations using a spiking neural network model of cortex reproduce a range of cognitive memory effects in the classical multi-item WM task of encoding and immediate free recall of word lists. Memory reactivation in the model occurs in discrete oscillatory bursts rather than as sustained activity. We relate dynamic network activity as well as key synaptic characteristics to electrophysiological measurements. Our findings support the hypothesis that fast Hebbian short-term potentiation is a key WM mechanism. Working memory (WM) is a key component of cognition. Hypotheses about the neural mechanism behind WM are currently under revision. Reflecting recent findings of fast Hebbian synaptic plasticity in cortex, we test whether a cortical spiking neural network model with such a mechanism can learn a multi-item WM task (word list learning). We show that our model can reproduce human cognitive phenomena and achieve comparable memory performance in both free and cued recall while being simultaneously compatible with experimental data on structure, connectivity, and neurophysiology of the underlying

  16. QSARs for phenols and phenolates: oxidation potential as a predictor of reaction rate constants with photochemically produced oxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, William A; Oueis, Yan; O'Connor, Meghan; Rinaman, Johanna E; Taggart, Miranda G; McCarthy, Rachel E; Foster, Kimberley A; Latch, Douglas E

    2017-03-22

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) for prediction of the reaction rate constants of phenols and phenolates with three photochemically produced oxidants, singlet oxygen, carbonate radical, and triplet excited state sensitizers/organic matter, are developed. The predictive variable is the one-electron oxidation potential (E 1 ), which is calculated for each species using density functional theory. The reaction rate constants are obtained from the literature, and for singlet oxygen, are augmented with new experimental data. Calculated E 1 values have a mean unsigned error compared to literature values of 0.04-0.06 V. For singlet oxygen, a single linear QSAR that includes both phenols and phenolates is developed that predicts experimental rate constants, on average, to within a factor of three. Predictions for only 6 out of 87 compounds are off by more than a factor of 10. A more limited data set for carbonate radical reactions with phenols and phenolates also gives a single linear QSAR with prediction of rate constant being accurate to within a factor of three. The data for the reactions of phenols with triplet state sensitizers demonstrate that two sensitizers, 2-acetonaphthone and methylene blue, most closely predict the reactivity trend of triplet excited state organic matter with phenols. Using sensitizers with stronger reduction potentials could lead to overestimation of rate constants and thus underestimation of phenolic pollutant persistence.

  17. Material stiffness parameters as potential predictors of presence of left ventricle myocardial infarction: 3D echo-based computational modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Longling; Yao, Jing; Yang, Chun; Wu, Zheyang; Xu, Di; Tang, Dalin

    2016-04-05

    Ventricle material properties are difficult to obtain under in vivo conditions and are not readily available in the current literature. It is also desirable to have an initial determination if a patient had an infarction based on echo data before more expensive examinations are recommended. A noninvasive echo-based modeling approach and a predictive method were introduced to determine left ventricle material parameters and differentiate patients with recent myocardial infarction (MI) from those without. Echo data were obtained from 10 patients, 5 with MI (Infarct Group) and 5 without (Non-Infarcted Group). Echo-based patient-specific computational left ventricle (LV) models were constructed to quantify LV material properties. All patients were treated equally in the modeling process without using MI information. Systolic and diastolic material parameter values in the Mooney-Rivlin models were adjusted to match echo volume data. The equivalent Young's modulus (YM) values were obtained for each material stress-strain curve by linear fitting for easy comparison. Predictive logistic regression analysis was used to identify the best parameters for infract prediction. The LV end-systole material stiffness (ES-YMf) was the best single predictor among the 12 individual parameters with an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.9841. LV wall thickness (WT), material stiffness in fiber direction at end-systole (ES-YMf) and material stiffness variation (∆YMf) had positive correlations with LV ejection fraction with correlation coefficients r = 0.8125, 0.9495 and 0.9619, respectively. The best combination of parameters WT + ∆YMf was the best over-all predictor with an area under the ROC curve of 0.9951. Computational modeling and material stiffness parameters may be used as a potential tool to suggest if a patient had infarction based on echo data. Large-scale clinical studies are needed to validate these preliminary findings.

  18. Biopsychosocial correlates of work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Liesienė, Justina; Endriulaitienė, Auksė

    2008-01-01

    Background, purpose. Work motivation is a potential predictor of employee turnover, job satisfaction, commitment, job performance and psychological wellbeing. Researchers argue that motivated employees work more effectively. The purpose of the current study was to identify biological (gender, age and health), psychological (personality traits) and social (marital status, children, work sector and position) factors related to employees’ work motivation. It was also predicted that subjectively...

  19. Biopsychosocial correlates of work motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Gaubė, Justina; Endriulaitienė, Auksė

    2008-01-01

    Work motivation is a potential predictor of employee turnover, job satisfaction, commitment, job performance and psychological wellbeing. Researchers argue that motivated employees work more effectively. The purpose of the current study was to identify biological (gender, age and health), psychological (personality traits) and social (marital status, children, work sector and position) factors related to employees’ work motivation. It was also predicted that subjectively perceived job effecti...

  20. IQ and mental health are vital predictors of work drop out and early mortality. Multi-state analyses of Norwegian male conscripts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Stein Atle; Tveito, Torill H; Reme, Silje E; Eriksen, Hege R

    2017-01-01

    Disability benefits and sick leave benefits represents huge costs in western countries. The pathways and prognostic factors for receiving these benefits seen in recent years are complex and manifold. We postulate that mental health and IQ, both alone and concurrent, influence subsequent employment status, disability benefits and mortality. A cohort of 918 888 Norwegian men was followed for 16 years from the age of 20 to 55. Risk for health benefits, emigration, and mortality were studied. Indicators of mental health and IQ at military enrolment were used as potential risk factors. Multi-state models were used to analyze transitions between employment, sick leave, time limited benefits, disability benefits, emigration, and mortality. During follow up, there were a total of 3 908 397 transitions between employment and different health benefits, plus 12 607 deaths. Men with low IQ (below 85), without any mental health problems at military enrolment, had an increased probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 4.06, 95% CI: 3.88-4.26) compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. For men with both low IQ and mental health problems, there was an excessive probability of receiving disability benefits before the age of 35 (HRR = 14.37, 95% CI: 13.59-15.19), as well as an increased probability for time limited benefits and death before the age of 35 compared to men with average IQ (85 to 115) and no mental health problems. Low IQ and mental health problems are strong predictors of future disability benefits and early mortality for young men.

  1. A study of potential sources of linguistic ambiguity in written work instructions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzen, Laura E.

    2009-11-01

    This report describes the results of a small experimental study that investigated potential sources of ambiguity in written work instructions (WIs). The English language can be highly ambiguous because words with different meanings can share the same spelling. Previous studies in the nuclear weapons complex have shown that ambiguous WIs can lead to human error, which is a major cause for concern. To study possible sources of ambiguity in WIs, we determined which of the recommended action verbs in the DOE and BWXT writer's manuals have numerous meanings to their intended audience, making them potentially ambiguous. We used cognitive psychology techniques to conduct a survey in which technicians who use WIs in their jobs indicated the first meaning that came to mind for each of the words. Although the findings of this study are limited by the small number of respondents, we identified words that had many different meanings even within this limited sample. WI writers should pay particular attention to these words and to their most frequent meanings so that they can avoid ambiguity in their writing.

  2. Potentially traumatic events as predictors of disability pension: A 10-year follow-up study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassemo, Eva; Sandanger, Inger

    2017-08-01

    Are potentially traumatic events associated with subsequent disability pension? Traumatic exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may represent a disabling state with both personal and professional consequences for the affected individual. Despite this, there is a scarcity of research studying the effects of traumatic exposure on disability pension. This study examined the differences in risk for disability pension among unexposed, exposed to trauma and PTSD cases. An ambidirectional Norwegian cohort study, consisting of 1238 individuals aged 18-66 years who were at risk of disability pension, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, and linked with registry data on disability pension. Registry follow-up in the Norwegian Insurance Database lasted ten years following interview in 2000-01. The risk of disability pension after traumatic exposure, divided into accidental and premeditated, was assessed by Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. In 10 years, 9.5% of the cohort had been granted disability pension. Overall exposure to traumatic events did not alter the risk of disability pension. However, among women, exposure to premeditated traumas did increase the risk (HR 2.96 (95% CI 1.54-5.68)), and was an independent risk factor. Fulfilling criteria for PTSD caseness further increased the risk (HR 4.69 (95% CI 1.78-12.40)). There was no increased risk found between traumatic exposure and disability pension for men. Exposure to trauma, particularly premeditated trauma, seems to be an independent risk factor for disability pension in women.

  3. Immunoexpression of tenascin as a predictor of the malignancy potential of oral leukoplakia associated with a tobacco habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mane, D R; Bhat, K; Kale, A D; Hallikerimath, S

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia is a morphological alteration of tissue that is an early indicator for malignancy. Tenascin (TN) is a large hexameric extracellular matrix (ECM) protein with anti-adhesive properties that fosters cell migration during development, wound healing and tissue remodeling; it is present in small amounts in adult tissues. Overexpression of TN in a pathological condition may be either a cause or a consequence of the disease. We evaluated the efficacy of TN for early prediction of tobacco-associated oral cancers. We studied retrospectively 95 cases of oral leukoplakia, including mild, moderate and severe cases, using immunohistochemistry for TN. We evaluated the intensity, area and pattern of TN expression. Greater intensity and area of TN expression was observed in mild and severe dysplasia than in moderate dysplasia. Most cases showed a reticular pattern of expression, especially in mild and moderate dysplasia; a fibrillar pattern was more evident in severe dysplasia. We also observed homogeneous expression pattern in some cases. TN is a marker for dysplastic changes in epithelium and its expression may be helpful for predicting the malignancy potential of tobacco-associated oral leukoplakia.

  4. Mercury accumulation in marine fish most favoured by Malaysian women, the predictors and the potential health risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanaraj, Pravina; Hashim, Zailina; Elias, Saliza Mohd; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2016-12-01

    We identified marine fish species most preferred by women at reproductive age in Selangor, Malaysia, mercury concentrations in the fish muscles, factors predicting mercury accumulation and the potential health risk. Nineteen most preferred marine fish species were purchased (n = 175) from selected fisherman's and wholesale market. Length, weight, habitat, feeding habit and trophic level were recognised. Edible muscles were filleted, dried at 80 °C, ground on an agate mortar and digested in Multiwave 3000 using HNO3 and H2O2. Total mercury was quantified using VP90 cold vapour system with N2 carrier gas. Certified reference material DORM-4 was used to validate the results. Fish species were classified as demersal (7) and pelagic (12) or predators (11), zoo benthos (6) and planktivorous (2). Length, weight and trophic level ranged from 10.5 to 75.0 cm, 0.01 to 2.50 kg and 2.5 to 4.5, respectively. Geometric mean of total mercury ranged from 0.21 to 0.50 mg/kg; maximum in golden snapper (0.90 mg/kg). Only 9 % of the samples exceeded the JECFA recommendation. Multiple linear regression found demersal, high trophic (≥4.0) and heavier fishes to accumulate more mercury in muscles (R (2) = 27.3 %), controlling for all other factors. About 47 % of the fish samples contributed to mercury intake above the provisional tolerable level (45 μg/day). While only a small portion exceeded the JECFA fish Hg guideline, the concentration reported may be alarming for heavy consumers. Attention should be given in risk management to avoid demersal and high trophic fish, predominantly heavier ones.

  5. Potential Predictors of Plasma Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Concentrations: Cross-Sectional Analysis in the EPIC-Germany Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina di Giuseppe

    Full Text Available Increased fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23, a bone-derived hormone involved in the regulation of phosphate and vitamin D metabolism, has been related to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD in chronic kidney disease patients and in the general population. However, what determines higher FGF23 levels is still unclear. Also, little is known about the influence of diet on FGF23. The aim of this study was therefore to identify demographic, clinical and dietary correlates of high FGF23 concentrations in the general population.We performed a cross-sectional analysis within a randomly selected subcohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Germany comprising 2134 middle-aged men and women. The Human FGF23 (C-Terminal ELISA kit was used to measure FGF23 in citrate plasma. Dietary data were obtained at baseline via validated food frequency questionnaires including up to 148 food items.Multivariable adjusted logistic regression showed that men had a 66% lower and smokers a 64% higher probability of having higher FGF23 (≥ 90 RU/mL levels compared, respectively, with women and nonsmokers. Each doubling in parathyroid hormone, creatinine, and C-reactive protein was related to higher FGF23. Among the dietary factors, each doubling in calcium and total energy intake was related, respectively, to a 1.75 and to a 4.41 fold increased probability of having higher FGF23. Finally, each doubling in the intake of iron was related to an 82% lower probability of having higher FGF23 levels. Results did not substantially change after exclusion of participants with lower kidney function.In middle-aged men and women traditional and non-traditional CVD risk factors were related to higher FGF23 concentrations. These findings may contribute to the understanding of the potential mechanisms linking increased FGF23 to increased CVD risk.

  6. Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demographic and dispositional characteristics as predictors of organisational citizenship behaviour. ... as important predictors of OCB. The study identified some future directions for personality research in industrial, work, and organizational psychology and concludes with some caveats and directions for future research.

  7. Talent predictors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lorenzo

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of talent predictors is the initial point for building diagnosis and encouragement procedures in this field. The meaning of word predictor is to anticipate the future, to divine. Early prediction of high performance is complex problem no resolute by the science yet. There are many discrepancies about what measure and how to do. The article analyze the art state in this problematic because the excellence is determined by the interaction between internal and environmental factors.

  8. SU-E-J-273: Skin Temperature Recovery Rate as a Potential Predictor for Radiation-Induced Skin Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswal, N C; Wu, Z; Chu, J [Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL (United States); Sun, J [Argonne National Laboratory, Lemont, IL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the potential of dynamic infrared imaging to evaluate early skin reactions during radiation therapy in cancer patients. Methods: Thermal images were captured by our home-built system consisting of two flash lamps and an infrared (IR) camera. The surface temperature of the skin was first raised by ∼ 6 °C from ∼1 ms short flashes; the camera then captured a series of IR images for 10 seconds. For each image series, a basal temperature was recorded for 0.5 seconds before flash was triggered. The temperature gradients (ε) were calculated between a reference point (immediately after the flash) and at a time point of 2sec, 4sec and 9sec after that. A 1.0 cm region of interest (ROI) on the skin was drawn; the mean and standard deviations of the ROIs were calculated. The standard ε values for normal human skins were evaluated by imaging 3 healthy subjects with different skin colors. All of them were imaged on 3 separate days for consistency checks. Results: The temperature gradient, which is the temperature recovery rate, depends on the thermal properties of underlying tissue, i.e. thermal conductivity. The average ε for three volunteers averaged over 3 measurements were 0.64±0.1, 0.72±0.2 and 0.80±0.3 at 2sec, 4sec and 9sec respectively. The standard deviations were within 1.5%–3.2%. One of the volunteers had a prior small skin burn on the left wrist and the ε values for the burned site were around 9% (at 4sec) and 13% (at 9sec) lower than that from the nearby normal skin. Conclusion: The temperature gradients from the healthy subjects were reproducible within 1.5%–3.2 % and that from a burned skin showed a significant difference (9%–13%) from the normal skin. We have an IRB approved protocol to image head and neck patients scheduled for radiation therapy.

  9. Employment creation through public works programmes and projects in South Africa: Experiences and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Thwala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this article is to look at the experiences, problems and the potential contribution of employment creation programmes in alleviating the unemployment problem in other African countries through the construction of public infrastructure through the use of labour-intensive methods. The article then describes the problems and experiences that have been encountered in South Africa in relation to employment creation through the construction of public infrastructure.Problem investigated: In South Africa the levels of unemployment and poverty are extremely high and unemployment is one of South Africa's most pressing problems. At the same time there is a lack of capacity and skills at institutional, community and individual levels. Labour-intensive programmes generate more direct and indirect local employment opportunities and income by using locally available inputs (materials, simple tools and local labour and thus creating a greater demand for local products and services than do high-technology programmes reliant on imported technology and equipment. Design/Methodology/Approach: Drawing on research on labour-intensive, public works programmes and projects, the paper is mainly a literature review. From a theoretical perspective supported by experience elsewhere in Africa, there are reasons for considering that properly formulated employment creation programmes based on the use of labour-intensive methods could be established to construct and maintain the required physical infrastructure, thus creating employment, skills and institutional capacities. The article closes with some recommendations for the future programmes success.Findings/Implications: The article attributes the failure of projects and programmes in South Africa to different factors which must be avoided in future in order for projects and programmes to be successful in South Africa. Investment in infrastructure has a huge potential to redress the high

  10. Local field potential correlates of auditory working memory in primate dorsal temporal pole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2016-06-01

    Dorsal temporal pole (dTP) is a cortical region at the rostral end of the superior temporal gyrus that forms part of the ventral auditory object processing pathway. Anatomical connections with frontal and medial temporal areas, as well as a recent single-unit recording study, suggest this area may be an important part of the network underlying auditory working memory (WM). To further elucidate the role of dTP in auditory WM, local field potentials (LFPs) were recorded from the left dTP region of two rhesus macaques during an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task. Sample and test sounds were separated by a 5-s retention interval, and a behavioral response was required only if the sounds were identical (match trials). Sensitivity of auditory evoked responses in dTP to behavioral significance and context was further tested by passively presenting the sounds used as auditory WM memoranda both before and after the DMS task. Average evoked potentials (AEPs) for all cue types and phases of the experiment comprised two small-amplitude early onset components (N20, P40), followed by two broad, large-amplitude components occupying the remainder of the stimulus period (N120, P300), after which a final set of components were observed following stimulus offset (N80OFF, P170OFF). During the DMS task, the peak amplitude and/or latency of several of these components depended on whether the sound was presented as the sample or test, and whether the test matched the sample. Significant differences were also observed among the DMS task and passive exposure conditions. Comparing memory-related effects in the LFP signal with those obtained in the spiking data raises the possibility some memory-related activity in dTP may be locally produced and actively generated. The results highlight the involvement of dTP in auditory stimulus identification and recognition and its sensitivity to the behavioral significance of sounds in different contexts. This article is part of a Special

  11. How consumers of mental health services come to understand their potential for work: doing and becoming revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewurtz, Rebecca; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2007-06-01

    Doing and becoming are fundamental constructs in occupational therapy. However, we have little understanding of how these concepts apply to the way that individuals develop ideas about their future in the realm of work. This paper examines the doing-becoming interaction and applies it to our understanding of work potential among consumers of community mental health services. Using a grounded theory approach, 10 consumers were interviewed about their experiences with paid and unpaid work. Data were analyzed inductively according to the constant comparative approach. The findings reveal that doing and becoming are essential to the process of how consumers develop ideas about their potential for work. Through doing work, consumers gain insight into their capacity for future work participation and become persons with possible work futures. An occupational perspective on career development challenges occupational therapists to create opportunities for doing and becoming among consumers.

  12. Working memory deficit in patients with restless legs syndrome: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Min; Choi, Jeong Woo; Lee, Chany; Lee, Byeong Uk; Koo, Yong Seo; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Jung, Ki-Young

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a working memory (WM) deficit in restless legs syndrome (RLS) patients, by studying the Sternberg WM task of event-related potential (ERP). Thirteen drug-naive RLS patients and 13 healthy age-matched controls with no sleep disturbances participated in the present study. P300 ERP was recorded during Sternberg WM task using digits as mnemonic items. P300 amplitudes and reaction times were compared between groups (RLS vs. control) considering brain regions (frontal, central, and parietal) and memory load sizes (two, three, and four) as within-subject factors. Clinical and sleep-related variables were correlated with P300 amplitude. The reaction time in RLS patients was significantly longer than controls over all memory load sizes. The P300 amplitude at parietal regions in RLS patients was significantly lower than in controls regardless of memory load sizes, which was significantly negatively correlated with duration of RLS history in RLS patients. Our study suggests that patients with severe RLS have WM deficits. Furthermore, negative correlation of P300 amplitudes with the duration of RLS illness suggests that cerebral cortical dysfunction in RLS patients results from repeated RLS symptom attacks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Potentialities of high yield and managerial techniques of annual-working bamboo groves of Phyllostachys pubescens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Studies over 20 years have demonstrated that bamboo groves that are worked annually have nearly twice the yield of those worked every other year. Such groves have a higher stand density and a high leaf area index. 5 references.

  14. Tapping the potential for reducing work-related road deaths and injuries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adminaite, D. Jost, G. Stipdonk, H. & Ward, H.

    2017-01-01

    Over 25,600 lives were lost on the road in the European Union in 2016, of those a large proportion were victims of work-related road (WRR) collisions. Even though the exact number is unknown, it is likely that up to 40% of all road deaths are work-related. Part I: Work-related road safety (WRRS)

  15. Exploring the potential high energy locations and intensities in confined work spaces of waveguide dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ricardo; Lewis, Winston G.

    2014-07-01

    Adequately identifying and managing hazards at the workplace can be a tedious task which extends into the realm of uncertainty, probability and prediction models in order to fully comprehend the nature of the hazard. As such, organizations cannot be blamed for knowledge gaps in the training of personnel they contract to ensure a safe and healthy work environment, especially where there are latent hazards. Electromagnetic wave propagation at frequencies in the SAR (specific absorption rate) region is a special concern to authorities involved in setting RF (radiofrequency) and microwave exposure guidelines. Despite that there is no conclusive evidence to suggest that non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation causes adverse health effects other than thermal, no effort should be lost to ensure that workers and the public at large are adequately protected from unnecessary exposure to radiation. Standards however set exposure limits for free space, plane wave propagation but fall short in compiling information on intensities of these waves after they undergo reflection and diffraction from wall surfaces. Waveguide technology has managed to constrain microwaves to remain within set boundaries, with fixed frequencies that force the waves to behave differently to if they were moving in free space. This technology has offered the ability to transport more energy for communication purposes other than transmission lines. The size of a waveguide may be to the order of a few centimetres and can guide RF of wavelengths of the order of centimetres also but what if spaces of larger dimensions are capable of being waveguides and can guide waves of larger wavelengths such as those that correspond to frequencies between 30MHz to 300MHz? Such RF waves belong to the SAR region of the spectrum where strict exposure limits are set for health and safety protection since a standing man acts as a dipole antenna for this radiation and can absorb maximum energy from propagating RF waves. This

  16. Behavioral determinants as predictors of return to work after long-term sickness absence: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Krol, Boudien; Reneman, Michiel F; Bültmann, Ute; Franche, Renée-Louise; van der Klink, Jac J L; Groothoff, Johan W

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study was to analyze the association between the three behavioral determinants of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model--attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy--and the time to return-to-work (RTW) in employees on long-term sick leave. The study was based on a sample of 926 employees on sickness absence (maximum duration of 12 weeks). The employees filled out a baseline questionnaire and were subsequently followed until the tenth month after listing sick. The TPB-determinants were measured at baseline. Work attitude was measured with a Dutch language version of the Work Involvement Scale. Subjective norm was measured with a self-structured scale reflecting a person's perception of social support and social pressure. Self-efficacy was measured with the three subscales of a standardised Dutch version of the general self-efficacy scale (ALCOS): willingness to expend effort in completing the behavior, persistence in the face of adversity, and willingness to initiate behavior. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify behavioral determinants of the time to RTW. Median time to RTW was 160 days. In the univariate analysis, all potential prognostic factors were significantly associated (P behavior as significant predictive factors. This prospective, longitudinal cohort-study showed that work attitude, social support and willingness to expend effort in completing the behavior are significantly associated with a shorter time to RTW in employees on long-term sickness absence. This provides suggestive evidence for the relevance of behavioral characteristics in the prediction of duration of sickness absence. It may be a promising approach to address the behavioral determinants in the development of interventions focusing on RTW in employees on long-term sick leave.

  17. Fermi Potential across Working Solid Oxide Cells with Zirconia or Ceria Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    Two kinds of electrochemical relevant potentials are important in order to describe several observed phenomena in operating electrochemical cells with solid electrolytes. This paper gives illustrative examples of how the profiles of the two potential types, the Galvani potential, φ, and the elect...... stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes. The nature of the two potential types and the importance of each of them for the cell operation are explained....

  18. The relationship between safety climate factors and workers behavior working in potentially dangerous situations in height among construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ostakhan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Falling from height is considered one of the most important risks in construction sites and many workers through non-compliance with safety tips lose their lives. This study was conducted in order to survey the relationship between safety climate factors and behavior of workers working in potentially dangerous situations in height among construction workers .   Methods For evaluation of safety climate factors a safety climate questionnaire and for behavior of workers in potentially dangerous situations behavioral questionnaire including potentially dangerous situations, work on ladders and scaffolding has been used. Factor analysis to analyze safety climate factors and Binary logistic regression using SPSS software for the influence of factors on behaviors in potentially dangerous situations are used.   Results Factors of safety attitudes of workers, the level of risk in construction site and working relationships derived from factor analysis are 57% of the total variance. Situations of working on scaffold without Guard rail and protect the edges, access to the scaffold by going up and down connections and the ladder not secure are usually seen in the most construction sites.   ConclusionResults indicate that workers have awareness of work in dangerous situations but perhaps management ignorance of safety issues and not doing engineering controls to eliminate potentially dangerous situations can be mentioned as the causes of accidents as may result safety issues to be ignored by construction workers working in dangerous situations.  

  19. Work of Breathing as a Predictor of Failure to Wean from Mechanical Ventilation in Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-15

    MECHANICAL VENTILATION IN PATIENTS WITH SEVERE CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jack DePriest CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Breathing as a Predictor of Failure to Wean From Mechanical Ventilation in MIPR No. Patients with Severe Chronic Obstructive 92MM2559 Pulmonary Disease...continues. Mechanical Ventilation ; Weaning; COPD; Lung; RAII Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified Unlimited V a 04/16/93 10:55 V� 619 2982 BQ

  20. Acceptance of background noise, working memory capacity, and auditory evoked potentials in subjects with normal hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brännström, K Jonas; Zunic, Edita; Borovac, Aida; Ibertsson, Tina

    2012-01-01

    The acceptable noise level (ANL) test is a method for quantifying the amount of background noise that subjects accept when listening to speech. Large variations in ANL have been seen between normal-hearing subjects and between studies of normal-hearing subjects, but few explanatory variables have been identified. To explore a possible relationship between a Swedish version of the ANL test, working memory capacity (WMC), and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). ANL, WMC, and AEP were tested in a counterbalanced order across subjects. Twenty-one normal-hearing subjects participated in the study (14 females and 7 males; aged 20-39 yr with an average of 25.7 yr). Reported data consists of age, pure-tone average (PTA), most comfortable level (MCL), background noise level (BNL), ANL (i.e., MCL - BNL), AEP latencies, AEP amplitudes, and WMC. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was calculated between the collected variables to investigate associations. A principal component analysis (PCA) with Varimax rotation was conducted on the collected variables to explore underlying factors and estimate interactions between the tested variables. Subjects were also pooled into two groups depending on their results on the WMC test, one group with a score lower than the average and one with a score higher than the average. Comparisons between these two groups were made using the Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A negative association was found between ANL and WMC but not between AEP and ANL or WMC. Furthermore, ANL is derived from MCL and BNL, and a significant positive association was found between BNL and WMC. However, no significant associations were seen between AEP latencies and amplitudes and the demographic variables, MCL, and BNL. The PCA identified two underlying factors: One that contained MCL, BNL, ANL, and WMC and another that contained latency for wave Na and amplitudes for waves V and Na-Pa. Using the variables in the first factor

  1. Predictors of stable return-to-work in non-acute, non-specific spinal pain: low total prior sick-listing, high self prediction and young age. A two-year prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strender Lars-Erik

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-specific spinal pain (NSP, comprising back and/or neck pain, is one of the leading disorders in long-term sick-listing. During 2000-2004, 125 Swedish primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, full-time sick-listed 6 weeks-2 years, were included in a randomized controlled trial to compare a cognitive-behavioural programme with traditional primary care. This prospective cohort study is a re-assessment of the data from the randomized trial with the 2 treatment groups considered as a single cohort. The aim was to investigate which baseline variables predict a stable return-to-work during a 2-year period after baseline: objective variables from function tests, socioeconomic, subjective and/or treatment variables. Stable return-to-work was a return-to-work lasting for at least 1 month from the start of follow-up. Methods Stable return-to-work was the outcome variable, the above-mentioned factors were the predictive variables in multiple-logistic regression models, one per follow-up at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after baseline. The factors from univariate analyzes with a p-value of at most .10 were included. The non-significant variables were excluded stepwise to yield models comprising only significant factors (p Results Three variables qualified, all of them represented in 3 follow-ups: Low total prior sick-listing (including all diagnoses was the strongest predictor in 2 follow-ups, 18 and 24 months, OR 4.8 [1.9-12.3] and 3.8 [1.6-8.7] respectively, High self prediction (the patients' own belief in return-to-work was the strongest at 12 months, OR 5.2 [1.5-17.5] and Young age (max 44 years the second strongest at 18 months, OR 3.5 [1.3-9.1]. Conclusions In primary-care patients with non-acute NSP, the strong predictors of stable return-to-work were 2 socioeconomic variables, Low total prior sick-listing and Young age, and 1 subjective variable, High self-prediction. Objective variables from function tests and treatment variables

  2. [High prevalence of job dissatisfaction among female physicians: work-family conflict as a potential stressor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Szilvia; Gyorffy, Zsuzsa; László, Krisztina

    2009-08-02

    Due to the family-centric nature of Hungarian society and to the high proportion of women in the medical profession, more female than male physicians may experience work-family conflict. The authors hypothesized that work-family conflict may reduce job satisfaction among female physicians. However, there is limited information about the prevalence of work-family conflict and job dissatisfaction as well as their associations among female physicians. To explore the prevalence of work-family conflict and its relations to job dissatisfaction among Hungarian physicians. Cross-sectional study with 219 female and 201 male physicians using self-report questionnaires. As hypothesized, female physicians reported significantly higher level of work-family conflict compared to male physicians (3.0 (SD 0.9) vs. 2.6 (SD 0.9); t (df): -3.8 (418); p work-family conflict often or extremely often [56% vs. 41%, respectively; chi 2 (df) = 9.3 (1); p job satisfaction [chi 2 (df) = 4.8 (1), p job dissatisfaction compared to men (6%) [chi 2 (df) = 4.7 (1), p work-family conflict predicts job dissatisfaction among female and all physicians (beta = -0.17, 95% CI -0.31 - -0.04 and beta = -0.14, 95% CI -0.22 - -0.04, respectively). These results show that the level and prevalence of work-family conflict experienced by female physicians in Hungary is significantly higher than that among male physicians. Furthermore, these findings suggest that work-family conflict as a stressor may contribute to the development of job dissatisfaction and hence may adversely impact the well-being of female and male physicians and consequently the quality of patient care.

  3. Workplace Bullying and Turnover Intention: Exploring Work Engagement as a Potential Mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Melinde; van Dyk, Jeannette

    2017-01-01

    Employees' turnover intentions may entail expensive consequences for companies. The study examined the mediating effect of work engagement in the relationship between workplace bullying and turnover intention. Using a cross-sectional sample of 373 employees, structural equation modeling and mediation analysis showed that perceptions of work- and person-related bullying were linked to low levels of vigor and dedication which in turn were associated with high turnover intention. Work engagement partially mediated the effect of high workplace bullying on high turnover intention. The results were interpreted from a social cognitive perspective and recommendations for practice were made.

  4. Selective Attention, Working Memory, and Executive Function as Potential Independent Sources of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Robinson, Benjamin; Leonard, Carly J; Hahn, Britta; Chen, Shuo; McMahon, Robert P; Luck, Steven J

    2017-11-11

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attention, working memory capacity, and executive function in 126 people with schizophrenia and 122 healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated deficits on all tasks with the exception of selective attention guided by strong bottom-up inputs. Although the measures of top-down control of selective attention, working memory, and executive function were all intercorrelated, several sources of evidence indicate that working memory and executive function are separate sources of variance. Specifically, both working memory and executive function independently contributed to the discrimination of group status and independently accounted for variance in overall general cognitive ability as assessed by the MATRICS battery. These two cognitive functions appear to be separable features of the cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Spectral Predictors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarria, L; Lindstrom, P; Rossignac, J

    2006-11-17

    Many scientific, imaging, and geospatial applications produce large high-precision scalar fields sampled on a regular grid. Lossless compression of such data is commonly done using predictive coding, in which weighted combinations of previously coded samples known to both encoder and decoder are used to predict subsequent nearby samples. In hierarchical, incremental, or selective transmission, the spatial pattern of the known neighbors is often irregular and varies from one sample to the next, which precludes prediction based on a single stencil and fixed set of weights. To handle such situations and make the best use of available neighboring samples, we propose a local spectral predictor that offers optimal prediction by tailoring the weights to each configuration of known nearby samples. These weights may be precomputed and stored in a small lookup table. We show that predictive coding using our spectral predictor improves compression for various sources of high-precision data.

  6. Contemporary assumptions on human nature and work and approach to human potential managing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujić Dobrila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A general problem of this research is to identify if there is a relationship between the assumption on human nature and work (Mcgregor, Argyris, Schein, Steers and Porter and a general organizational model preference, as well as a mechanism of human resource management? This research was carried out in 2005/2006. The sample consisted of 317 subjects (197 managers, 105 highly educated subordinates and 15 entrepreneurs in 7 big enterprises in a group of small business enterprises differentiating in terms of the entrepreneur’s structure and a type of activity. A general hypothesis "that assumptions on human nature and work are statistically significant in connection to the preference approach (models, of work motivation commitment", has been confirmed. A specific hypothesis have been also confirmed: ·The assumptions on a human as a rational economic being are statistically significant in correlation with only two mechanisms of traditional models, the mechanism of method work control and the working discipline mechanism. ·Statistically significant assumptions on a human as a social being are correlated with all mechanisms of engaging employees, which belong to the model of the human relations, except the mechanism introducing the adequate type of prizes for all employees independently of working results. ·The assumptions on a human as a creative being are statistically significant, positively correlating with preference of two mechanisms belonging to the human resource model by investing into education and training and making conditions for the application of knowledge and skills. The young with assumptions on a human as a creative being prefer much broader repertoire of mechanisms belonging to the human resources model from the remaining category of subjects in the pattern. The connection between the assumption on human nature and preference models of engaging appears especially in the sub-pattern of managers, in the category of young subjects

  7. Working memory in children with mild intellectual disabilities: abilities and training potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The two main objectives of this thesis are a) to unravel working memory (WM) strengths and weaknesses in children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID), and b) to investigate if WM can be trained effectively in these children. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the thesis and encompasses

  8. Challenges Posed by Some Misconceptions in Mathematical Physics: A Case Study of Work Done and Potential Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, Jake K.

    2011-01-01

    This study is focused on the concept and formalism of work done and potential energy on the very fundamental level. A detailed analysis of the incomplete presentations of the topics found a major misconception that precluded acknowledgement of existence of certain nonradial effects caused by classical radial/center-bound gravitational force fields…

  9. Exoskeletons for industrial application and their potential effects on physical work load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looze, M.P. de; Bosch, T.; Krause, F.; Stadler, K.S.; O'Sullivan, L.W.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this review was to provide an overview of assistive exoskeletons that have specifically been developed for industrial purposes and to assess the potential effect of these exoskeletons on reduction of physical loading on the body. The search resulted in 40 papers describing 26 different

  10. Influence of rotating shift work on visual reaction time and visual evoked potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R V, Hemamalini; N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan

    2014-10-01

    The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential. To compare the visual reaction time, visual evoked potential (VEP) in rotating night shift workers & day workers and also to correlate the changes in visual reaction time with visual evoked potential. Forty healthy male security guards & staff (25 - 35 y) who did rotating night shifts at least for six months & 40 d workers (25 - 35 y) who did not do night shift in last two years were involved in the study. Visual reaction time and the latency & amplitude of VEP were recorded. Kolmogorov- Smirnov test for normalcy showed the latencies & amplitude of VEP to be normally distributed. Student's unpaired t test showed significant difference (ptime and in the latencies of VEP between night shift & day workers. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of VEP. Night shift workers who are prone to circadian rhythm alteration will have prolonged visual reaction time & visual evoked potential abnormalities. Implementation of Bright Light Therapy would be beneficial to the night shift worker.

  11. Influence of Rotating Shift Work on Visual Reaction Time and Visual Evoked Potential

    OpenAIRE

    R.V., Hemamalini; N, Krishnamurthy; A, Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present day life style is changing the circadian rhythm of the body especially in rotating night shift workers. The impact of this prolongs their reaction time. Night shift also interferes with the circadian variation of pupil size which may affect the visual evoked potential.

  12. Fermi Potential across Working Solid Oxide Cells with Zirconia or Ceria Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Torben; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg

    2014-01-01

    observed for ceria based electrolytes, but also in case of solid oxide electrolyser cells (SOEC) with yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) big electronic leak currents have been observed for very high overvoltages on one or both electrodes. Furthermore, it is important to realize that the potential gradient...

  13. Predictors of Work-Family Role Conflict and Its Impact on Professional Women in Medicine, Engineering, and Information Technology in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzoigwe, Anthonia Ginika; Low, Wah Yun; Noor, Siti Nurani Mohd

    2016-10-01

    This study examines work-family role conflict and the factors predicting it, with a sample of 173 professional women in engineering and information technology (IT) firms, including 2 hospitals-1 public and 1 private. Our findings show no significant difference in the level of work-family role conflict encountered by women across medicine, engineering, and IT, whereas hours of work, family responsibilities, job demand, and work role overload were significantly correlated with work-family role conflict. Multiple linear regression analysis indicates that only work role overload, family responsibilities, and hours of work significantly predicted 45.9% of work-family role conflict. This implies that working women are burdened by work demands, which invariably affects the work-family role conflict they experience and leads to deterioration of their occupational health. It is suggested that employers should create a flexible work schedule and establish family-friendly policies in the workplace to promote a healthy work-life balance for women in science careers.

  14. Organization of school work in focus: the limits of antidemocratic inheritance and potential of participatory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.

  15. Antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) as potential diagnostic markers and risk predictors of venous thrombosis and obstetric complications in antiphospholipid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hui; Zheng, Hui; Yin, Yu-Feng; Hu, Qiong-Yi; Teng, Jia-Lin; Sun, Yue; Liu, Hong-Lei; Cheng, Xiao-Bing; Ye, Jun-Na; Su, Yu-Tong; Wu, Xin-Yao; Zhou, Jin-Feng; Norman, Gary L; Gong, Hui-Yun; Shi, Xin-Ming; Peng, Yi-Bing; Wang, Xue-Feng; Yang, Cheng-De

    2017-11-22

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and clinical associations of antiphosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT) with thrombosis and pregnancy loss in Chinese patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and seronegative APS (SNAPS). One hundred and eighty six Chinese patients with APS (67 primary, 119 secondary), 48 with SNAPS, 176 disease controls (79 systemic lupus erythematosus [SLE], 29 Sjogren's syndrome [SS], 30 ankylosing spondylitis [AS], 38 rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) and 90 healthy donors were examined. IgG and IgM aPS/PT, IgG/IgM/IgA anticardiolipin (aCL) and IgG/IgM/IgA anti-β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies were tested by ELISA. One hundred and sixty (86.0%) of APS patients were positive for at least one aPS/PT isotype. One hundred and thirty five (72.6%) were positive for IgG aPS/PT, 124/186 (66.7%) positive for IgM aPS/PT and 99 (53.2%) positive for both. Approximately half of the SNAPS patients were positive for IgG and/or IgM aPS/PT. Highly significant associations between IgG aPS/PT and venous thrombotic events (odds ratio [OR]=6.72) and IgG/IgM aPS/PT and pregnancy loss (OR=9.44) were found. Levels of IgM aPS/PT were significantly different in APS patients with thrombotic manifestations and those with fetal loss (p=0.014). The association between IgG/IgM aPS/PT and lupus anticoagulant (LAC) was highly significant (pLAC-positive specimens were positive for IgG and/or IgM aPS/PT, suggesting aPS/PT is an effective option when LAC testing is not available. Anti-PS/PT antibody assays demonstrated high diagnostic performance for Chinese patients with APS, detected some APS patients negative for criteria markers and may serve as potential risk predictors for venous thrombosis and obstetric complications.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE WORKING CONDITIONS WITH CONSIDERATION-HAZARD POTENTIAL HEALTH AND SAFETY OF EMPLOYEES IN TEXTILE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UROŠEVIĆ Snežana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety and health measures have a very important role in any kind of industry, especially in the textile, which emit a wide range of pollutants at all stages of processing fibers into textile materials. Most processes have a negative impact on the living and working environment. However, their health and their safety at work are exposed almost daily dangers, depending on the nature of work and the conditions under which the work takes place. Therefore, the modern organization requires to create a safe and harmless working conditions, in order to adequate protection of their health and their safety. This paper will analyze the work environment in three textile factories involved in the production and processing with consideration of end jobs where there are potential threats to the health and safety of employees. An effective and powerful system of managing the health and safety of employees at work can help to translate the uncontrolled hazards controlled risk and thus better protect the welfare of employees and companies. Key words: textile industry, working conditions, safety, health, employees

  17. [Biographical work in inpatient long-term care for people with dementia: potential of the DEMIAN nursing concept].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendonk, C; Stanek, S; Schönit, M; Kaspar, R; Bär, M; Kruse, A

    2011-02-01

    In nursing care for people with dementia, biographical work is a popular concept. In the literature and practice, many different viewpoints of the way biographical work can/should be promoted exist. In the DEMIAN concept, a nursing concept to promote emotional well-being for people with dementia, it is also of major significance. This article gives an overview of the importance of biographical work in caring for people with dementia. In particular, the role and arrangement of biographical work in the DEMIAN concept are described. Within the anamnesis of the DEMIAN concept, meaningful themes are identified in conversations with different participants (person with dementia, reference persons, and care workers) and through observations. From these findings, specific interventions, aimed at supporting emotional well-being of people with dementia, are derived and integrated into everyday nursing care to promote emotional well-being. The potential of the DEMIAN nursing concept are discussed and further possibilities are highlighted.

  18. Effects of Aging Stereotype Threat on Working Self-Concepts: An Event-Related Potentials Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults’ cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs for identifying colors of words under the aging ST compared to the neutral condition. More importantly, the negative self-concept elicited more positive late P300 amplitudes and enhanced theta band activities compared to the positive self-concept or neutral words under the aging ST condition, whereas no difference was found between these self-concepts and neutral words in the control condition. Furthermore, the aging ST induced smaller theta band synchronization and enhanced alpha band synchronization compared to the control condition. Moreover, we also observed valence differences in self-concepts where the negative self-concept words reduced early P150/N170 complex relative to neutral words. These findings suggest that priming ST could activate negative self-concepts as current working self-concept, and that this influence occurred during a late neural time course.

  19. Effects of Aging Stereotype Threat on Working Self-Concepts: An Event-Related Potentials Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baoshan; Lin, Yao; Gao, Qianyun; Zawisza, Magdalena; Kang, Qian; Chen, Xuhai

    2017-01-01

    Although the influence of stereotype threat (ST) on working self-concepts has been highlighted in recent years, its neural underpinnings are unclear. Notably, the aging ST, which largely influences older adults’ cognitive ability, mental and physical health, did not receive much attention. In order to investigate these issues, electroencephalogram (EEG) data were obtained from older adults during a modified Stroop task using neutral words, positive and negative self-concept words in aging ST vs. neutral control conditions. Results showed longer reaction times (RTs) for identifying colors of words under the aging ST compared to the neutral condition. More importantly, the negative self-concept elicited more positive late P300 amplitudes and enhanced theta band activities compared to the positive self-concept or neutral words under the aging ST condition, whereas no difference was found between these self-concepts and neutral words in the control condition. Furthermore, the aging ST induced smaller theta band synchronization and enhanced alpha band synchronization compared to the control condition. Moreover, we also observed valence differences in self-concepts where the negative self-concept words reduced early P150/N170 complex relative to neutral words. These findings suggest that priming ST could activate negative self-concepts as current working self-concept, and that this influence occurred during a late neural time course. PMID:28747885

  20. Improving Adherence to Web-Based and Mobile Technologies for People With Psychosis: Systematic Review of New Potential Predictors of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killikelly, Clare; He, Zhimin; Reeder, Clare; Wykes, Til

    2017-07-20

    Despite the boom in new technologically based interventions for people with psychosis, recent studies suggest medium to low rates of adherence to these types of interventions. The benefits will be limited if only a minority of service users adhere and engage; if specific predictors of adherence can be identified then technologies can be adapted to increase the service user benefits. The study aimed to present a systematic review of rates of adherence, dropout, and approaches to analyzing adherence to newly developed mobile and Web-based interventions for people with psychosis. Specific predictors of adherence were also explored. Using keywords (Internet or online or Web-based or website or mobile) AND (bipolar disorder or manic depression or manic depressive illness or manic-depressive psychosis or psychosis or schizophr* or psychotic), the following databases were searched: OVID including MedLine, EMBASE and PsychInfo, Pubmed and Web of Science. The objectives and inclusion criteria for suitable studies were defined following PICOS (population: people with psychosis; intervention: mobile or Internet-based technology; comparison group: no comparison group specified; outcomes: measures of adherence; study design: randomized controlled trials (RCT), feasibility studies, and observational studies) criteria. In addition to measurement and analysis of adherence, two theoretically proposed predictors of adherence were examined: (1) level of support from a clinician or researcher throughout the study, and (2) level of service user involvement in the app or intervention development. We provide a narrative synthesis of the findings and followed the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for reporting systematic reviews. Of the 20 studies that reported a measure of adherence and a rate of dropout, 5 of these conducted statistical analyses to determine predictors of dropout, 6 analyzed the effects of specific adherence

  1. Example of a Human Factors Engineering approach to a medication administration work system: potential impact on patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Pelayo, Sylvia; Bernonville, Stéphanie

    2010-04-01

    procedures that might be impaired by the implementation of the CPOE. In this context, a careful redesign of the work situation and of the entire work system is necessary to actually benefit from the installation of the product in terms of patient safety and human performances. In parallel, a usability assessment of the product to be implemented is mandatory to identify potentially dangerous usability flaws and to fix them before the installation. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of sickness certificates in detecting potential sick leave reduction by modifying working conditions: a clinical epidemiology study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnsen Roar

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical sickness certificates are generally the main source for information when scrutinizing the need for aimed intervention strategies to avoid or reduce the individual and community side effects of sick leave. This study explored the value of medical sickness certificates related to daily work in Norwegian National Insurance Offices to identify sick-listed persons, where modified working conditions might reduce the ongoing sick leave. Methods The potential for reducing the ongoing sick leave by modifying working conditions was individually assessed on routine sickness certificates in 999 consecutive sick leave episodes by four Norwegian National Insurance collaborators, two with and two without formal medical competence. The study took place in Northern Norway in 1997 and 1998. Agreement analysed with differences against mean, kappa, and proportional-agreement analysis within and between groups of assessors was used in the judgement. Agreements between the assessors and the self-assessment of sick-listed subjects were additionally analysed in 159 sick-leave episodes. Results Both sick-listed subjects and National Insurance collaborators anticipated a potential reduction in sick leave in 20–30% of cases, and in another 20% the potential was assessed as possible. The chance corrected agreements, however, were poor (k Conclusion Information in medical sickness certificates proved ineffective in detecting cases where modified working conditions may reduce sick leave, and focusing on medical certificates may prevent identification of needed interventions. Strategies on how to communicate directly with sick-listed subjects would enable social authorities to exploit more of the sick leave reduction potential by modifying the working conditions than strategies on improving medical information.

  3. How can an existential-phenomenological Bildung perspective throw light on the potentials and workings of Problem-Based Learning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, Casper

    2018-01-01

    What is the purpose of higher learning and the ideals of the university? What traits characterize the habitus of the profession that the students enter after completing their studies? Including such Bildung-perspectives (Gadamer) and profession-perspectives (Bourdieu) makes it possible to come...... to a deeper understanding of the workings and potentials of Problem-Based Learning, and of the demands that this educational philosophy place on the institution, supervisor and student. Through case studies it is demonstrated that project work contributes to psychology students’ embodiment of the habitus...

  4. Textiles as Tangible Working Materials in Participatory Design Processes: Potentials and Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimdal, Elisabeth Jacobsen; Rosenqvist, Tanja Schultz

    2010-01-01

    Participatory design (PD) methods are currently of little use in the textile industry, even though the need for multiple stakeholder involvement in the industry is growing. In this paper, we argue that PD represents a potential for innovation in the textile industry, due to PD’s collaborative...... processes. We believe that the application of PD to the textile industry will enrich the theoretical foundations of PD in general....... nature facilitating dialogue between different stakeholders and its ability to move stakeholder participation to the early stages of the design process. We have explored PD tools in a design process engaging architects and textile designers in designing textile products for Danish hospitals. From this we...

  5. Differences in predictors of permanent work disability between immigrants and natives: a cohort study of adults with sick leave due to common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlen, Laura; Helgesson, Magnus; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor

    2017-03-17

    Immigrants with common mental disorders (CMDs) are reported to have a higher risk of disability pension (DP) compared with native residents; however, the reasons for this are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate (1) differences in morbidity (3 measures) and socioeconomic status in native Swedes, 'Western' and 'non-Western' immigrants with CMDs and (2) interactions between morbidity and socioeconomic status and immigrant status regarding subsequent DP. The study was a prospective population-based cohort study using national register data. Crude and multivariate HRs with 95% CIs were calculated using the Cox regression (2007-2010). All individuals aged 18-59 with an incident sick-leave spell due to CMDs during 2006 were included in the study (N=66 097). The study population was divided into 3 groups based on country of birth: (1) Sweden, (2) immigrants from 'Western' countries (EU25, Norway, Iceland, North America and Oceania) and (3) immigrants from 'non-Western' countries (east Europe, Africa, Asia and South America). Particularly, immigrants born in non-Western countries had higher levels of morbidity and lower socioeconomic status than natives (p>0.001). No significant differences in the associations between specialised psychiatric and somatic care with regard to subsequent DP were found between immigrants and native Swedes. Being prescribed more than 1 type of psychiatric medication was associated with higher HRs for DP in immigrants from Western (HR 3.34; CI 2.3 to 4.9) and non-Western countries (3.6; 1.9 to 6.4) than in native Swedes (2.55; 2.3 to 2.8) (p interaction =0.003). Low education was a marginally stronger predictor for DP in non-Western immigrants than in native Swedes and Western immigrants (p interaction =0.03). Morbidity measured by medication, but not by specialised healthcare, was a stronger predictor for DP in immigrants than in native Swedes, warranting scrutiny of differences in care and treatment in immigrants and native

  6. Sick-leave track record and other potential predictors of a disability pension. A population based study of 8,218 men and women followed for 16 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosengren Annika

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of previous studies have investigated various predictors for being granted a disability pension. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of sick-leave track record as a predictor of being granted a disability pension in a large dataset based on subjects sampled from the general population and followed for a long time. Methods Data from five ongoing population-based Swedish studies was used, supplemented with data on all compensated sick leave periods, disability pensions granted, and vital status, obtained from official registers. The data set included 8,218 men and women followed for 16 years, generated 109,369 person years of observation and 97,160 sickness spells. Various measures of days of sick leave during follow up were used as independent variables and disability pension grant was used as outcome. Results There was a strong relationship between individual sickness spell duration and annual cumulative days of sick leave on the one hand and being granted a disability pension on the other, among both men and women, after adjustment for the effects of marital status, education, household size, smoking habits, geographical area and calendar time period, a proxy for position in the business cycle. The interval between sickness spells showed a corresponding inverse relationship. Of all the variables studied, the number of days of sick leave per year was the most powerful predictor of a disability pension. For both men and women 245 annual sick leave days were needed to reach a 50% probability of transition to disability. The independent variables, taken together, explained 96% of the variation in disability pension grantings. Conclusion The sick-leave track record was the most important predictor of the probability of being granted a disability pension in this study, even when the influences of other variables affecting the outcome were taken into account.

  7. An exploration of the prevalence and predictors of work-related well-being among psychosocial oncology professionals : An application of the job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnell, Adrienne; Rasmussen, Victoria; Butow, Phyllis; Juraskova, Ilona; Kirsten, Laura; Wiener, Lori; Patenaude, Andrea; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette; Grassi, Luigi

    Objective: Burnout is reportedly high among oncology healthcare workers. Psychosocial oncologists may be particularly vulnerable to burnout. However, their work engagement may also be high, counteracting stress in the workplace. This study aimed to document the prevalence of both burnout and work

  8. Numerical Predictions of Damage and Failure in Carbon Fiber Reinforced Laminates Using a Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan Jorge; Waas, Anthony M.

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, referred to as enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Consistent characteristic lengths are introduced into the formulation to govern the evolution of the failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs are derived. The theory is implemented into a commercial finite element code. The model is verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared against the experimental results.

  9. Thermodynamics at work - on the limits and potentials of biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The preferential use of high potential electron acceptors by microorganisms has lead to the classical concept of a redox sequence with a sequential use of O2 nitrate, Fe(III), sulfate, and finally CO2 as electron acceptors for respiration (Stumm & Morgan, 1996). Christian Blodau has rigourously applied this concept to constrain the thermodynamical limits at which specific aquatic systems operate. In sediments from acidic mining lakes his analysis revealed that sulfate reducers are not competitive as long as low-crystallinity ferric oxides are available for organic matter decomposition (Blodau et al, 1998). This analysis opened up the possibility to generalize the linkage between the iron and sulphur cycle in such systems and to constrain the biogeochemical limits for remediation (e. g. Peine et al, 2000). In a similar approach, Beer & Blodau (2007) were able to demonstrate that constraints on the removal of products from acetoclastic methanogenesis in deeper peat layers are inhibiting organic matter decomposition and provide a thermodynamic argument for peat accumulation. In this contribution I will review such ideas and further refine the limits and potentials of biogeochemical reactions in terms of redox-active metastable phases (RAMPS) that are typically mixed-valent carbon-, iron-, and sulfur-containing compounds and which allow for the occurrence of a number of enigmatic reactions, e. g. limited greenhouse gas emission (CH4) under dynamic redox conditions. It is proposed that redox equivalents are generated, stored and recycled during oxidation and reduction cycles thus suppressing methanogenesis (Blodau, 2002). Such RAMPS will preferentially occur at dynamic interfaces being exposed to frequent redox cycles. The concept of RAMPS will be illustrated along the interaction between ferric (hydr)oxides and dissolved sulphide. Recent studies using modern analytical tools revealed the formation of a number of amorphous products within a short time scale (days) both

  10. Register-based data of psychosocial working conditions and occupational groups as predictors of disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses: a prospective cohort study of 24,543 Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropponen, Annina; Samuelsson, Åsa; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2013-09-16

    Occupations and psychosocial working conditions have rarely been investigated as predictors of disability pension in population-based samples. This study investigated how occupational groups and psychosocial working conditions are associated with future disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses, accounting for familial factors in the associations. A sample of 24,543 same-sex Swedish twin individuals was followed from 1993 to 2008 using nationwide registries. Baseline data on occupations were categorized into eight sector-defined occupational groups. These were further used to reflect psychosocial working conditions by applying the job strain scores of a Job Exposure Matrix. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were estimated. During the 12-year (average) follow-up, 7% of the sample was granted disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. Workers in health care and social work; agriculture, forestry and fishing; transportation; production and mining; and the service and military work sectors were two to three times more likely to receive a disability pension than those in the administration and management sector. Each single unit decrease in job demands and each single unit increase in job control and social support significantly predicted disability pension. Individuals with high work strain or an active job had a lower hazard ratio of disability pension, whereas a passive job predicted a significantly higher hazard ratio. Accounting for familial confounding did not alter these results. Occupational groups and psychosocial working conditions seem to be independent of familial confounding, and hence represent risk factors for disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses. This means that preventive measures in these sector-defined occupational groups and specific psychosocial working conditions might prevent disability pension due to musculoskeletal diagnoses.

  11. High-potential Working Fluids for Next Generation Binary Cycle Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zia, Jalal [GE Global Research; Sevincer, Edip; Chen, Huijuan; Hardy, Ajilli; Wickersham, Paul; Kalra, Chiranjeev; Laursen, Anna Lis; Vandeputte, Thomas

    2013-06-29

    hours of exposure?only 3% of the initial charge degraded into by products. The main degradation products being an isomer and a dimer. 3. In a comparative experiment between R245fa and the new fluid under subcritical conditions, it was found that the new fluid operated at 1 bar lower than R245fa for the same power output, which was also predicted in the Aspen HSYSY model. As a drop-in replacement fluid for R245fa, this new fluid was found to be at least as good as R245fa in terms of performance and stability. Further optimization of the subcritical cycle may lead to a significant improvement in performance for the new fluid. 4. For supercritical conditions, the experiment found a good match between the measured and model predicted state point property data and duties from the energy balance. The largest percent differences occurred with densities and evaporator duty (see Figure 78). It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the state point model was experimentally validated with a realistic ORC system. 5. The team also undertook a preliminary turbo-expander design study for a supercritical ORC cycle with the new working fluid. Variants of radial and axial turbo expander geometries went through preliminary design and rough costing. It was found that at 15MWe or higher power rating, a multi-stage axial turbine is most suitable providing the best performance and cost. However, at lower power ratings in the 5MWe range, the expander technology to be chosen depends on the application of the power block. For EGS power blocks, it is most optimal to use multi-stage axial machines. In conclusion, the predictions of the LCOE model that showed a supercritical cycle based on the new fluid to be most advantageous for geothermal power production at a resource temperature of ~ 200C have been experimentally validated. It was found that the cycle based on the new fluid is lower in LCOE and higher in net power output (for the same boundary conditions). The project, therefore has found a

  12. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. Method: The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Results: Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations. PMID:25598618

  13. Physical and psychological work demands as potential risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among workers in weaving operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telaprolu, Neeraja; Anne, Sharada Devi

    2014-01-01

    The study was undertaken to examine the relationship between perceived physical and psychological work demands and self reported musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among workers involved in weaving operations. The Nordic Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire and Work Demands Scale, developed and standardized for the present investigation were the tools for data collection. Chi square test was used to assess univariate associations between work demands and reported MSDs. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed for each of the outcome MSD retaining the variables in the model to adjust for potential confounding. Women were significantly more affected than men in shoulders, wrists/hands, upper back, lower back, and ankle/feet. Perceived physical and psychological demands were significantly associated with MSDs of different body regions. Pulling, pushing, moving, lifting and lowering heavy objects, working while bent or twisted at the waist, and repetitive motions with hands/wrists were the main physical factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 2. Conflicting demands, work is not remunerative, and no sufficient time to get the job done were the main psychological factors retained in the regression models with odds ratios greater than 1.68. Gender was found to be a significant factor for shoulders, wrists/hands, lower back, and ankles/feet with odds ratios ranging from 1.71 to 2.14. MSDs occurrence was more probable in the mentioned regions among women as compared to men. Both physical and psychological work demands in the work environment were contributing factors for developing MSDs among workers involved in weaving operations.

  14. Final work plan : targeted groundwater sampling and monitoring well installation for potential site reclassification at Barnes, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2006-07-11

    This ''Work Plan'' outlines the scope of work for a targeted groundwater sampling investigation and monitoring well installation at Barnes, Kansas. This activity is being conducted at the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE), in accordance with the intergovernmental agreement between the KDHE and the Commodity Credit Corporation (CCC), an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Data resulting from the proposed work will be used to determine the hydraulic gradient near the former CCC/USDA facility, delineate the downgradient carbon tetrachloride plume, and determine additional monitoring requirements at Barnes. The overall goal is to establish criteria for monitoring leading to potential site reclassification. The proposed work will be performed on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by the University of Chicago for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The Farm Service Agency of the USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance with environmental site characterization and remediation at former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities. Argonne issued a ''Master Work Plan'' (Argonne 2002) to provide general guidance for all investigations at former CCC/USDA facilities in Kansas. The ''Master Work Plan'', approved by the KDHE, contains the materials common to investigations at all locations in Kansas. This document must be consulted for the complete details of plans for this work associated with the former CCC/USDA facility at Barnes.

  15. Behavioral Determinants as Predictors of Return to Work After Long-Term Sickness Absence : An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Sandra; Krol, Boudien; Reneman, Michiel F.; Bultmann, Ute; Franche, Renee-Louise; van der Klink, Jac J. L.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    Background The aim of this prospective, longitudinal cohort study was to analyze the association between the three behavioral determinants of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) model-attitude, subjective norm and self-efficacy-and the time to return-to-work (RTW) in employees on long-term sick

  16. Two-extremum electrostatic potential of metal-lattice plasma and the work function of an electron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surma S.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal-lattice plasma is treated as a neutral two-component two-phase system of 2D surface and 3D bulk. Free electron density and bulk chemical potential are used as intensive parameters of the system with the phase boundary position determined in the crystalline lattice. A semiempirical expression for the electron screened electrostatic potential is constructed using the lattice-plasma polarization concept. It comprises an image term and three repulsion/attraction terms of second and fourth orders. The novel curve has two extremes and agrees with certain theoretical forms of potential. A practical formula for the electron work function of metals and a simplified schema of electronic structure at the metal/vacuum interface are proposed. This yields 10.44 eV for the Fermi energy of free electron gas; -5.817 eV for the Fermi energy level; 4.509 eV for the average work function of bcc tungsten. Selected data are also given for fcc Cu and hcp Re. For harmonic frequencies ~ 10E16 per s of the self-excited metal-lattice plasma, energy gaps of 14.54 and 8.02 eV are found, which correspond to the bulk and surface plasmons, respectively. Further extension of this thermodynamics and metal-lattice theory based approach may contribute to a better understanding of theoretical models which are employed in chemical physics, catalysis and materials science of nanostructures.

  17. TRAF1/C5 but Not PTPRC Variants Are Potential Predictors of Rheumatoid Arthritis Response to Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Canhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of our work was to replicate, in a Southern European population, the association reported in Northern populations between PTPRC locus and response to anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF treatment in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. We also looked at associations between five RA risk alleles and treatment response. Methods. We evaluated associations between anti-TNF treatment responses assessed by DAS28 change and by EULAR response at six months in 383 Portuguese patients. Univariate and multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses were performed. In a second step to confirm our findings, we pooled our population with 265 Spanish patients. Results. No association was found between PTPRC rs10919563 allele and anti-TNF treatment response, neither in Portuguese modeling for several clinical variables nor in the overall population combining Portuguese and Spanish patients. The minor allele for RA susceptibility, rs3761847 SNP in TRAF1/C5 region, was associated with a poor response in linear and logistic univariate and multivariate regression analyses. No association was observed with the other allellic variants. Results were confirmed in the pooled analysis. Conclusion. This study did not replicate the association between PTPRC and the response to anti-TNF treatment in our Southern European population. We found that TRAF1/C5 risk RA variants potentially influence anti-TNF treatment response.

  18. Personal Accomplishment, Mentoring, and Creative Self-Efficacy as Predictors of Creative Work Involvement: The Moderating Role of Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Hyejin; Reio, Thomas G

    2017-02-17

    This research explores the relationships among personal accomplish- ment, mentoring, affect, creative self-efficacy, and creative involvement. With a sample of working adults (N = 242), structural equation modeling results revealed that the data fit the theoretical model well in that creative self-efficacy fully mediated the relationships between personal accomplishment and creative work involvement and between mentoring and creative work involvement. Hierarchical regression analyses demonstrated that positive affect moderated the relationship between personal accomplishment and creative self-efficacy but negative affect did not, signifying that positive affect may be a necessary situational factor to optimize the personal accomplishment-creative self-efficacy link. In contrast, negative but not positive affect moderated the link between mentoring experiences and creative self-efficacy, suggesting that mentoring experiences associated with negative affect situationally may have been likely to have a significant consequence in weakening creative self-efficacy. The findings expand upon self-efficacy and mentoring theories by highlighting the importance of employing theoretically relevant moderating and mediating variables in research investigating the etiology of possible variables associated with vital workplace outcomes.

  19. Exploring the potential of refugees and asylum seekers for social care work in England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin

    2011-09-01

    Literature highlights the potential for refugees to contribute to the labour force of receiving countries. Such a contribution may be welcomed in sectors, such as social care, where demand for labour is increasing and high vacancy rates exist. This article reports on empirical data examining the potential of refugee communities to work in social care in England. The analysis is based primarily on 20 interviews with refugees and asylum seekers and five representatives of refugee support groups, conducted in 2008-2009. The findings of this sub-study are set within results obtained from other interviews as part of a multi-methods study examining the contribution of migrants to the English care sector. In-depth interviews were analysed thematically, guided by a theoretical framework linking employment, migration and the nature of care work. The findings highlight a general willingness of refugee participants to join the care workforce. Individual and structural barriers to increased employability were identified, as well as possible strategies to overcome them. Although the findings and discussions presented are based on data collected in England and are specific to the care sector, most are more generalisable and may inform strategies aiming at maximising refugees' employability in other sectors and in other developed states. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. “TERPI” AS A QUANTITY OF THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIAL ENERGY SUPPLEMENTARY TO THE CONCEPT OF WORK AND HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHA Sahirul Alim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Isothermal reversible thermodynamic processes were studied, where there will not occur flow of heat (q in the system in accord with the second law of thermodynamic. It appear that the energy flow in the system cannot be explained adequately by considering the flow of P,V - work, usually indicated by w, in accordance with the first law, that is,  ΔU = q + w with q = 0.  Therefore, it is necessary to have another kind of work energy (potential which is not electrical to explain such as the experiment of Boyle that results in the formula PV = C for a close ideal gas system undergoing an isothermal and reversible process. In this paper, a new work potential which is called ";;terpi";; is introduced, and is abbreviated as  τ (tau and defined as: dτ ≡  - T dSrev = - dqrev.             Therefore, dt is also not an exact differential as dw and dq. For any isothermal reversible process, it can be written:   τ = -TΔSrev, and for redox reaction, such as an electrochemical cell, it is noteworthy to distinguish between τ system (τsyst and τ reaction (τr which combine together to become an electrical work flow, (wel done by the system on the surrounding, so that: ΔGr = τsyst + τr = v F E             Furthermore, the studies of phase transitions, which occur isothermally, were also considered, e.g. the evaporation of a liquid into vapour at a certain T.  The heat given to this process cannot freely flow isothermally, but first it must be  changed into terpy and then added to the enthalpy of the vapour following the equation:     τvap = -TΔSvap = -ΔHvap.   Keywords: thermodynamics, heat, work, isothermal, reversible

  1. Employee perception of breastfeeding-friendly support and benefits of breastfeeding as a predictor of intention to use breast-pumping breaks after returning to work among employed mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Su-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of large companies are complying with demands for a breastfeeding-friendly workplace by providing lactation rooms and breast-pumping breaks, the effectiveness for intention to use breast-pumping breaks to express breast milk among employed mothers is uncertain. To explore the impact of employees' perceived breastfeeding support from the workplace and the benefits of breastfeeding on a woman's intention to use breast-pumping breaks after returning to work, we conducted a survey at a female labor-intensive electronics manufacturer in Taiwan. A structured questionnaire survey was administered to 715 working mothers employed in an electronics manufacturing plant in Tainan Science Park in Southern Taiwan. Questionnaire content included female employee demographics, employment characteristics, and breastfeeding behavior after returning to work, as well as employees' perception of breastfeeding-friendly support and awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding when raising their most recently born child. Higher education (odds ratio [OR] 2.33), non-clean room worksite (OR 1.51), awareness of breast-pumping breaks (OR 4.70), encouragement by colleagues to use breast-pumping breaks (OR 1.76), and greater awareness of the benefits of breastfeeding (OR 1.08) were significant predictors of the use of breast-pumping breaks after returning to work, whereas the perception of inefficiency when using breast-pumping breaks reduced an employed mother's intention to use breast-pumping breaks (OR 0.55). This study finds an association between an appreciation of the benefits provided by the employer and the likelihood of increased usage of breastfeeding breaks. Workplaces and employers can help employed mothers to understand the benefits of breastfeeding, which may increase the intention of the mother to take breast-pumping breaks after returning to work.

  2. Socio-demographic Predictors of Dimensions of the AUDIT Score in A Population Sample of Working-age Men in Izhevsk, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Sarah; De Stavola, Bianca; Saburova, Lyudmila; Kiryanov, Nikolay; Vasiljev, Maxim; McCambridge, Jim; McKee, Martin; Polikina, Olga; Gil, Artyom; Leon, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the relationship between socio-demographic factors and alcohol drinking patterns identified through a formal analysis of the factor structure of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) score in a population sample of working-age men in Russia. Methods: In 2008–2009, a sample of 1005 men aged 25–59 years living in Izhevsk, Russia were interviewed and information collected about socio-demographic circumstances. Responses to the AUDIT questions were obtained through a self-completed questionnaire. Latent dimensions of the AUDIT score were determined using confirmatory factor analysis and expressed as standard deviation (SD) units. Structural equation modelling was used to estimate the strength of association of these dimensions with socio-demographic variables. Results: The AUDIT was found to have a two-factor structure: alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems. Both dimensions were higher in men who were unemployed seeking work compared with those in regular paid employment. For consumption, there was a difference of 0.59 SDs, (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.23, 0.88) and for alcohol-related problems one of 0.66 SD (95% CI: 0.31, 1.00). Alcohol-related problems were greater among less educated compared with more educated men (P-value for trend = 0.05), while consumption was not related to education. Similar results were found for associations with an amenity index based on car ownership and central heating. Neither dimension was associated with marital status. While we found evidence that the consumption component of AUDIT was underestimated, this did not appear to explain the associations of this dimension with socio-demographic factors. Conclusions: Education and amenity index, both measures of socio-economic position, were inversely associated with alcohol-related problems but not with consumption. This discordance suggests that self-reported questions on frequency and volume may be less sensitive markers of socio

  3. Predictors of Burnout Among Nurses in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Huan-Fang; Yen, Miaofen; Fetzer, Susan; Chien, Tsair Wei

    2015-08-01

    Nurse burnout is a crucial issue for health care professionals and impacts nurse turnover and nursing shortages. Individual and situational factors are related to nurse burnout with predictors of burnout differing among cultures and health care systems. The predictors of nurse burnout in Asia, particularly Taiwan, are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the predictors of burnout among a national sample of nurses in Taiwan. A secondary data analysis of a nationwide database investigated the predictors of burnout among 1,846 nurses in Taiwan. Hierarchical regression analysis determined the relationship between predictors and burnout. Predictors of Taiwanese nurse burnout were age, physical/psychological symptoms, job satisfaction, work engagement, and work environment. The most significant predictors were physical/psychological symptoms and work engagement. The variables explained 35, 39, and 18 % of the emotional exhaustion, personal accomplishment, and depersonalization variance for 54 % of the total variance of burnout. Individual characteristics and nurse self-awareness, especially work, engagement can impact Taiwanese nurses' burnout. Nurse burnout predictors provide administrators with information to develop strategies including education programs and support services to reduce nurse burnout.

  4. Neurocognitive predictors of mathematical processing in school-aged children with spina bifida and their typically developing peers: Attention, working memory, and fine motor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghubar, Kimberly P; Barnes, Marcia A; Dennis, Maureen; Cirino, Paul T; Taylor, Heather; Landry, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Math and attention are related in neurobiological and behavioral models of mathematical cognition. This study employed model-driven assessments of attention and math in children with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM), who have known math difficulties and specific attentional deficits, to more directly examine putative relations between attention and mathematical processing. The relation of other domain general abilities and math was also investigated. Participants were 9.5-year-old children with SBM (n = 44) and typically developing children (n = 50). Participants were administered experimental exact and approximate arithmetic tasks, and standardized measures of math fluency and calculation. Cognitive measures included the Attention Network Test (ANT), and standardized measures of fine motor skills, verbal working memory (WM), and visual-spatial WM. Children with SBM performed similarly to peers on exact arithmetic, but more poorly on approximate and standardized arithmetic measures. On the ANT, children with SBM differed from controls on orienting attention, but not on alerting and executive attention. Multiple mediation models showed that fine motor skills and verbal WM mediated the relation of group to approximate arithmetic; fine motor skills and visual-spatial WM mediated the relation of group to math fluency; and verbal and visual-spatial WM mediated the relation of group to math calculation. Attention was not a significant mediator of the effects of group for any aspect of math in this study. Results are discussed with reference to models of attention, WM, and mathematical cognition. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. The Gene expression Grade Index: a potential predictor of relapse for endocrine-treated breast cancer patients in the BIG 1–98 trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibe-Kains Benjamin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously shown that the Gene expression Grade Index (GGI was able to identify two subtypes of estrogen receptor (ER-positive tumors that were associated with statistically distinct clinical outcomes in both untreated and tamoxifen-treated patients. Here, we aim to investigate the ability of the GGI to predict relapses in postmenopausal women who were treated with tamoxifen (T or letrozole (L within the BIG 1–98 trial. Methods We generated gene expression profiles (Affymetrix and computed the GGI for a matched, case-control sample of patients enrolled in the BIG 1–98 trial from the two hospitals where frozen samples were available. All relapses (cases were identified from patients randomized to receive monotherapy or from the switching treatment arms for whom relapse occurred before the switch. Each case was randomly matched with four controls based upon nodal status and treatment (T or L. The prognostic value of GGI was assessed as a continuous predictor and divided at the median. Predictive accuracy of GGI was estimated using time-dependent area under the curve (AUC of the ROC curves. Results Frozen samples were analyzable for 48 patients (10 cases and 38 controls. Seven of the 10 cases had been assigned to receive L. Cases and controls were comparable with respect to menopausal and nodal status, local and chemotherapy, and HER2 positivity. Cases were slightly older than controls and had a larger proportion of large, poorly differentiated ER+/PgR- tumors. The GGI was significantly and linearly related to risk of relapse: each 10-unit increase in GGI resulted in an increase of approximately 11% in the hazard rate (p = 0.02. Within the subgroups of patients with node-positive disease or who were treated with L, the hazard of relapse was significantly greater for patients with GGI at or above the median. AUC reached a maximum of 78% at 27 months. Conclusion This analysis supports the GGI as a good predictor of

  6. Hardiness and sensation seeking as potential predictors of former prisoners of wars' posttraumatic stress symptoms trajectories over a 17-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerach, Gadi; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-08-15

    Little is known about trajectories of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among former prisoners of war (ex-POWs) and the predictors of those trajectories. This study aimed to assess long-term PTSS trajectories among ex-POWs and comparable veterans and the role of hardiness and sensation seeking in predicting PTSS trajectory. A sample of 189 Israeli ex-POWs and 160 comparable combatants participated in a 17 year longitudinal study with three waves of measurements following the 1973 Yom Kippur War (T1: 1991, T2: 2003, T3: 2008). Participants completed validated self-report measures. Latent growth mixture modeling (LGMM) identified four longitudinal PTSS trajectories. Among ex-POWs, the majority of participants were classified in trajectories with "low-increasing" or "medium-increasing" levels of PTSS. Among the comparable veterans, however, the majority of participants were classified in a trajectory with "low" levels of PTSS. Ex-POWs with high levels of hardiness were less likely to belong to the "high" or "medium-increasing" PTSS trajectories, compared to the low-fluctuating trajectory. The long-term course of PTSS is heterogeneous among both veterans and ex-POWs, with chronic and increasing symptom patterns being more prevalent amongst ex-POWs. Ex-POWs should be considered an at-risk population for exacerbated PTSS trajectories that is related to hardiness personality construct. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The relationship between work and home characteristics and work engagement in medical residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Hanne; van Hooff, Madelon L M; van der Heijden, Frank M M A; Prins, Jelle T; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; van Ravesteijn, Hiske; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-08-01

    Work engagement is important for medical residents and the healthcare organizations they work for. However, relatively little is known about the specific predictors of work engagement in medical residents. Therefore, we examined the associations of work and home characteristics, and work-home interference with work engagement in male and female residents. This study was conducted on a nationwide sample of medical residents. In 2005, all Dutch medical residents (n = 5245) received a self-report questionnaire. Path analysis was used to examine the associations between the potential predictors and work engagement. In total, 2115 (41.1%) residents completed the questionnaire. Job characteristics, home characteristics and work-home interference were associated with work engagement. Important positive contributing factors of work engagement were opportunities for job development, mental demands at work, positive work-home interference and positive home-work interference. Important negative contributing factors were emotional demands at work and negative home-work interference. The influence of these factors on work engagement was similar in male and female residents. Opportunities for job development and having challenging work are of high relevance in enhancing work engagement. Furthermore, interventions that teach how to deal skilfully with emotional demands at work and home-work interference are expected to be the most effective interventions to enhance work engagement in medical residents.

  8. Trauma-related appraisals and coping styles of injured adults with and without symptoms of PTSD and their relationship to work potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Lynda R; Harris, Lynne M; Cumming, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to document the self-reported trauma-related appraisals and coping strategies of injured workers with and without symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and to explore relationships between these cognitive variables and work potential. Sixty-nine (55% males) respondents previously admitted to a teaching hospital following accidental injury completed a self-report survey which included measures for PTSD, trauma-related appraisals, coping strategies and work potential approximately 8 months post-accident. Nineteen percent of the sample reported symptoms consistent with a PTSD diagnosis, and these participants reported more negative appraisals about the self and the world, greater use of avoidant coping and poorer work outcomes than those without clinically significant PTSD symptoms. After partialing out the influence of PTSD symptom severity, active cognitive coping was associated with increased work potential and negative appraisals of the world was associated with reduced work potential. Trauma-related appraisals and coping strategies are associated with work potential following accidental injury. Although the role of negative appraisals in the maintenance of PTSD is well documented, this study identified negative appraisals of the world as being associated with work potential after controlling for PTSD symptoms. Reducing negative appraisals of the world and increasing active coping may influence work potential, however, longitudinal studies that substantiate the direction of the associations are required.

  9. Developmental changes in visuo-spatial working memory in normally developing children: event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatchin, Ivan; Lagae, Lieven

    2013-10-01

    Working memory (WM) is very important for normal development. The fronto-parietal neuronal network supporting WM has already been well-studied. Less is known about the cortical activity changes during development of WM. We evaluated the maturation of visual WM network at the electrophysiological level in a group of normally developing children. Multichannel (n=31) event-related potentials (ERP) were measured during a visuo-spatial backmatching task in 69 childrens (6-16 years old). One-backmatching (BM1) and two-backmatching (BM2) tasks were performed. Age-related changes in behavioral parameters (commission and omission errors and reaction times) and ERP parameters (peak amplitudes and latencies) were analyzed between different ages. Clear improvement in performance from young childhood toward adolescence was seen at the behavioral level: decrease of errors and fastening of reaction times. At the electrophysiological level age-related changes were seen in peak latencies and especially in amplitudes. Different peaks have different dynamics in amplitudes and latencies: early peak amplitude decreased and latency shortened with age, which was not always seen in late peaks. This reflects developmental changes in intensity and speed of WM processing. Later peaks were more clearly seen over the right hemisphere in older children, illustrating hemispheric lateralization in visuo-spatial working memory. Our results indicate that not only at the behavioral but also at the electrophysiological level clear age-related dynamics in WM processing can be seen. Furthermore, with ERP we showed that different WM components follow different developmental trajectories. Our work demonstrates that age-related dynamics in intensity and speed of information processing during WM task is reflected in developmental changes in different ERP components. It also states that fronto-parietal visual WM network can be functional even before all its nodes are fully mature. Copyright © 2012 The

  10. Computational Implementation of a Thermodynamically Based Work Potential Model For Progressive Microdamage and Transverse Cracking in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Collier, Craig S.

    2012-01-01

    A continuum-level, dual internal state variable, thermodynamically based, work potential model, Schapery Theory, is used capture the effects of two matrix damage mechanisms in a fiber-reinforced laminated composite: microdamage and transverse cracking. Matrix microdamage accrues primarily in the form of shear microcracks between the fibers of the composite. Whereas, larger transverse matrix cracks typically span the thickness of a lamina and run parallel to the fibers. Schapery Theory uses the energy potential required to advance structural changes, associated with the damage mechanisms, to govern damage growth through a set of internal state variables. These state variables are used to quantify the stiffness degradation resulting from damage growth. The transverse and shear stiffness of the lamina are related to the internal state variables through a set of measurable damage functions. Additionally, the damage variables for a given strain state can be calculated from a set of evolution equations. These evolution equations and damage functions are implemented into the finite element method and used to govern the constitutive response of the material points in the model. Additionally, an axial failure criterion is included in the model. The response of a center-notched, buffer strip-stiffened panel subjected to uniaxial tension is investigated and results are compared to experiment.

  11. Bagging Weak Predictors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lukas, Manuel; Hillebrand, Eric

    Relations between economic variables can often not be exploited for forecasting, suggesting that predictors are weak in the sense that estimation uncertainty is larger than bias from ignoring the relation. In this paper, we propose a novel bagging predictor designed for such weak predictor...... variables. The predictor is based on a test for finitesample predictive ability. Our predictor shrinks the OLS estimate not to zero, but towards the null of the test which equates squared bias with estimation variance. We derive the asymptotic distribution and show that the predictor can substantially lower...

  12. Age Differences in Demographic Predictors of Retirement Investment Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Guyla D.; Chen, Yiwei

    2008-01-01

    Increased longevity coupled with inadequate savings makes retirement savings and investment research increasingly important. A policy-capturing method was used to examine the relative importance of 6 demographic predictors on the retirement investment decisions of 64 working adults. All predictors were significant predictors of the investment. In…

  13. Plasma growth hormones, P300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (TOVA) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in a clinical setting: evidence supported by structural equation modeling (SEM) parameter estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Eric R; Chen, Thomas J H; Prihoda, Thomas J; Sonntag, William; Meshkin, Brian; Downs, B William; Mengucci, Julie F; Blum, Seth H; Notaro, Alison; Arcuri, Vanessa; Varshavskiy, Michael; Blum, Kenneth

    2007-09-01

    A review of the literature in both animals and humans reveals that changes in sex hormone have often been associated with changes in behavioral and mental abilities. Previously published research from our laboratory, and others, provides strong evidence that P300 (latency) event-related potential (ERP), a marker of neuronal processing speed, is an accurate predictor of early memory impairment in both males and females across a wide age range. It is our hypothesis, given the vast literature on the subject, that coupling growth hormones (insulin-like growth factor-I, (IGF-I) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3)), P300 event-related potential and test of variables of attention (TOVA) are important neuroendocrinological predictors of early cognitive decline in a clinical setting. To support this hypothesis, we utilized structural equation modeling (SEM) parameter estimates to determine the relationship between aging and memory, as mediated by growth hormone (GH) levels (indirectly measured through the insulin-like growth factor system), P300 latency and TOVA, putative neurocognitive predictors tested in this study. An SEM was developed hypothesizing a causal directive path, leading from age to memory, mediated by IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, P300 latency (speed), and TOVA decrements. An increase in age was accompanied by a decrease in IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, an increase in P300 latency, a prolongation in TOVA response time, and a decrease in memory functioning. Moreover, independent of age, decreases in IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, were accompanied by increases in P300 latency, and were accompanied by increases in TOVA response time. Finally, increases in P300 latency were accompanied by decreased memory function, both directly and indirectly through mediation of TOVA response time. In summary, this is the first report utilizing SEM to reveal the finding that aging affects memory function negatively through mediation of decreased IGF-1 and IGF-BP3, and increased P300

  14. Encoding into Visual Working Memory: Event-Related Brain Potentials Reflect Automatic Processing of Seemingly Redundant Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Berti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Encoding and maintenance of information in visual working memory in an S1-S2 task with a 1500 ms retention phase were investigated by means of event-related brain potentials (ERPs. Participants were asked to decide whether two visual stimuli were physically identical (identity comparison (IC task or belonged to the same set or category of equivalent patterns (category comparison (CC task. The stimuli differ with regard to two features. (1 Each pattern can belong to a set of either four (ESS 4 or eight (ESS 8 equivalent patterns, mirroring differences in the complexity with regard to the representational structure of each pattern (i.e., equivalence set size (ESS. (2 The set of patterns differ with regard to the rated complexity. Memory performance obtained the effects of the task instructions (IC versus CC and the ESS (ESS 4 versus ESS 8 but not of the rated complexity. ERPs in the retention interval reveal that the stimulus-related factors (subjective complexity and ESS affect the encoding of the stimuli as mirrored by the pronounced P3b amplitude in ESS 8 compared to ESS 4 patterns. Importantly, these effects are independent of task instructions. The pattern of results suggests an automatic processing of the ESS in the encoding phase.

  15. Race perception and gaze direction differently impair visual working memory for faces: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessa, Paola; Dalmaso, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Humans are amazingly experts at processing and recognizing faces, however there are moderating factors of this ability. In the present study, we used the event-related potential technique to investigate the influence of both race and gaze direction on visual working memory (i.e., VWM) face representations. In a change detection task, we orthogonally manipulated race (own-race vs. other-race faces) and eye-gaze direction (direct gaze vs. averted gaze). Participants were required to encode identities of these faces. We quantified the amount of information encoded in VWM by monitoring the amplitude of the sustained posterior contralateral negativity (SPCN) time-locked to the faces. Notably, race and eye-gaze direction differently modulated SPCN amplitude such that other-race faces elicited reduced SPCN amplitudes compared with own-race faces only when displaying a direct gaze. On the other hand, faces displaying averted gaze, independently of their race, elicited increased SPCN amplitudes compared with faces displaying direct gaze. We interpret these findings as denoting that race and eye-gaze direction affect different face processing stages.

  16. Diagnostic and symptom-based predictors of emotional processing in generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder: An event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Annmarie; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2016-06-01

    The delineation of specific versus overlapping mechanisms in GAD and MDD could shed light on the integrity of these diagnostic categories. For example, negative emotion generation is one mechanism that may be especially relevant to both disorders. Emotional processing abnormalities were examined among 97 outpatients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or major depressive disorder (MDD) and 25 healthy adults, using the late positive potential (LPP), an event-related potential that is larger for emotional versus neutral stimuli. GAD and MDD were also assessed dimensionally across all participants. Both MDD diagnosis and dimensional depression scores were associated with reduced ΔLPP. When controlling for MDD diagnosis/dimension, both the diagnosis and dimension of GAD were associated with increased ΔLPP. Both MDD and GAD dimensions, but not diagnoses, were associated with increased ΔRT to targets that followed emotional pictures. Therefore, MDD and GAD have distinguishable and opposing features evident in neural measures of emotion processing.

  17. Predictors of tuberculosis treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orofino, Renata de Lima; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Americano do; Trajman, Anete; Schmaltz, Carolina Arana Stanis; Dalcolmo, Margareth; Rolla, Valéria Cavalcanti

    2012-01-01

    To analyze tuberculosis treatment outcomes and their predictors. This was a retrospective longitudinal cohort study involving tuberculosis patients treated between 2004 and 2006 at the Instituto de Pesquisa Evandro Chagas, in the city of Rio de Janeiro. We estimated adjusted risk ratios (ARRs) for the predictors of treatment outcomes. Among 311 patients evaluated, the rates of cure, treatment abandonment, treatment failure, and mortality were 72%, 19%, 2%, and 6%, respectively. Changes in the treatment regimen due to adverse events occurred in 8%. The factors found to reduce the probability of cure were alcoholism (ARR, 0.30), use of the streptomycin+ethambutol+ofloxacin (SEO) regimen (ARR, 0.32), HIV infection without the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART; ARR, 0.36), and use of the rifampin+isoniazid+pyrazinamide+ethambutol regimen (ARR, 0.58). Being younger and being alcoholic both increased the probability of abandonment (ARR, 3.84 and 1.76, respectively). It was impossible to determine the ARR for the remaining outcomes due to their low prevalence. However, using the relative risk (RR), we identified the following potential predictors of mortality: use of the SEO regimen (RR, 11.43); HIV infection without ART (RR, 9.64); disseminated tuberculosis (RR, 9.09); lack of bacteriological confirmation (RR, 4.00); diabetes mellitus (RR, 3.94); and homosexual/bisexual behavior (RR, 2.97). Low income was a potential predictor of treatment failure (RR, 11.70), whereas disseminated tuberculosis and HIV infection with ART were potential predictors of changes in the regimen due to adverse events (RR, 3.57 and 2.46, respectively). The SEO regimen should not be used for extended periods. The data confirm the importance of ART and suggest the need to use it early.

  18. [Activities and awareness of public health nurses working at local government facilities and health centers regarding potential nuclear accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamiya, Chiaki

    2011-05-01

    The purpose was to study public health service activities developed during non-emergency periods to respond to potential nuclear accidents and to contribute to an understanding of public health nurses' awareness of the possibility of such accidents. For the purpose of this study, we chose prefectural health centers located in a prefecture with a nuclear power plant and in two adjacent prefectures, along with all local administrative bodies (cities, towns, and villages) in these prefectures. For each one of 124 entities, we selected one public health nurse in charge of health crisis management from among the personnel to be targeted for a questionnaire survey conducted by mail. The survey period was from October to November 2009, and the questionnaire contained questions on the following: whether there had been any disasters over the past ten years; whether the respondent had received training in public health services regarding nuclear accidents; and public health service activities developed during non-emergency periods to respond to potential nuclear accidents (and the amount of work done in this regard). The response rate for our survey was 71.8%. Of the total of 124 entities chosen, 9 were aware of the possibility of radiation accidents and 12 had manuals on radiation accidents. Two local governments and five health centers had participated in accident drills, and at both of two local governments, public health nurses were expected to act as guides during resident evacuation in the event of a nuclear accident. Public health nurses were sent to participate in workshops on radiation at four facilities located in the prefecture with a nuclear power plant. Our analysis revealed a lack of knowledge (beta = -0.404, P public health nurses in the event of disaster. The results of our survey lead us to believe that apart from creation of manuals, provision of opportunities to gain knowledge of materials regarding past damage to the health of residents and how such

  19. Genetic Predictors of Drug Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-Garcia, Jose A; Oussalah, Abderrahim; Blanca, Miguel; Gueant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Waton, Julie; Barbaud, Annick; Gaeta, Francesco; Romano, Antonino; Gueant, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of genetic predisposing factors of drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs) is still scarce. The analysis of the genetic basis of these reactions may contribute to dissect the underlying mechanisms. We will outline current knowledge of the genetic predictors of most common DHRs, including reactions to betalactam antibiotics (BLs), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and biological agents. The predictors of DHRs to BLs are mostly linked to IgE-class switching, IgE pathway and atopy (IL4R, NOD2, LGALS3) in replicated candidate gene studies, and to antigen presentation (HLA-DRA) in the single replicated GWAS performed so far. The HLA-DRA variants are predictors of allergy to penicillins, but not to cephalosporins and they influence also the sensitization against prevalent allergens. The predictors of DHRs against NSAIDs are mostly linked to metabolism of eicosanoids (ALOX5, ALOX5AP, TBXAS1, PTGDR, CYSLTR1). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in histamine biosynthesis and antigen presentation, HLA, could also have a role in DHRs against NSAIDs. The intriguing association of DHRs to NSAIDs with atopy should deserve further attention. Predictors of DHRs against asparaginase and other biological agents relate to antigen presentation (HLA-DRB1 and HLA-A alleles, respectively). The potential relationship of genetic predictors of DHRs with pathomechanisms also involved in environmental exposure and atopy highlights the need to perform GWAS in contrasted populations, taking into account world-wide variations of allele frequencies and contrasted situations of environmental exposure. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. "Who am I supposed to let down?" The caring work and emotional labor of vocational teachers working with potential drop-out students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena

    Because of high drop-out rates among the students entering vocational education in Denmark retention of students has become pivotal to the Danish educational policy. Thus vocational educational training colleges have been asked to work on implementing different kinds of retention initiatives...... and amongst others most colleges have established extended basic courses aimed at students with personal, social and/or academic difficulties. A lot of those students are young people, whom, due to their experiences in primary and secondary school, see themselves and are seen by others as being demotivated...

  1. Organisational characteristics associated with shift work practices and potential opportunities for intervention: findings from a Canadian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amy L; Smit, Andrea N; Mistlberger, Ralph E; Landry, Glenn J; Koehoorn, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    Shift work is a common working arrangement with wide-ranging implications for worker health. Organisational determinants of shift work practices are not well characterised; such information could be used to guide evidence-based research and best practices to mitigate shift work's negative effects. This exploratory study aimed to describe and assess organisational-level determinants of shift work practices thought to affect health, across a range of industry sectors. Data on organisational characteristics, shift work scheduling, provision of shift work education materials/training to employees and night-time lighting policies in the workplace were collected during phone interviews with organisations across the Canadian province of British Columbia. Relationships between organisational characteristics and shift work practices were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. The study sample included 88 participating organisations, representing 30 700 shift workers. Long-duration shifts, provision of shift work education materials/training to employees and night-time lighting policies were reported by approximately one-third of participating organisations. Odds of long-duration shifts increased in larger workplaces and by industry. Odds of providing shift work education materials/training increased in larger workplaces, in organisations reporting concern for shift worker health and in organisations without seasonal changes in shift work. Odds of night-time lighting policies in the workplace increased in organisations reporting previous workplace accidents or incidents that occurred during non-daytime hours, site maintenance needs and client service or care needs. This study points to organisational determinants of shift work practices that could be useful for targeting research and workplace interventions. Results should be interpreted as preliminary in an emerging body of literature on shift work and health. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group

  2. "Who am I supposed to let down?": The caring work and emotional practices of vocational educational training teachers working with potential drop-out students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippke, Lena

    2012-01-01

    . Findings – The paper provides empirical insights into the emotional practices and the management of emotions related to prevention of dropout within an educational setting. It shows how emotional practices can provide both teachers and students with positive identities and make out a productive force...... initiatives and as a result, most colleges have established extended basic courses aimed at students with personal, social and/or academic difficulties. This paper aims to explore the emotional aspects of vocational educational teachers’ work and present a preliminary analysis of the notion of care...... as socially situated within the vocational educational system. Design/methodology/approach – This paper derives from a study based on fieldwork at a VET college offering extended basic courses. During the fieldwork nine weeks of participating observations and 13 interviews with teachers were conducted...

  3. Evaluation of levels of antibiotic resistance in groundwater-derived E. coli isolates in the Midwest of Ireland and elucidation of potential predictors of resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Jean; Hynds, Paul; Pot, Matthieu; Adley, Catherine C.; Ryan, Michael P.

    2017-06-01

    Antibiotic-resistant (pathogenic and non-pathogenic) organisms and genes are now acknowledged as significant emerging aquatic contaminants with potentially adverse human and ecological health impacts, and thus require monitoring. This study is the first to investigate levels of resistance among Irish groundwater (private wells) samples; Escherichia coli isolates were examined against a panel of commonly prescribed human and veterinary therapeutic antibiotics, followed by determination of the causative factors of resistance. Overall, 42 confirmed E. coli isolates were recovered from a groundwater-sampling cohort. Resistance to the human panel of antibiotics was moderate; nine (21.4%) E. coli isolates demonstrated resistance to one or more human antibiotics. Conversely, extremely high levels of resistance to veterinary antibiotics were found, with all isolates presenting resistance to one or more veterinary antibiotics. Particularly high levels of resistance (93%) were found with respect to the aminoglycoside class of antibiotics. Results of statistical analysis indicate a significant association between the presence of human (multiple) antibiotic resistance ( p = 0.002-0.011) and both septic tank density and the presence of vulnerable sub-populations (Ireland, particularly in rural areas; thus, results of this preliminary study offer a valuable insight into the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in the hydrogeological environment and establish a need for further research with a larger geological diversity.

  4. Raised trappin2/elafin protein in cervico-vaginal fluid is a potential predictor of cervical shortening and spontaneous preterm birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle S Abbott

    Full Text Available Early spontaneous preterm birth is associated with inflammation/infection and shortening of the cervix. We hypothesised that cervico-vaginal production of trappin2/elafin (peptidase inhibitor 3 and cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (cathelicidin, key components of the innate immune system, are altered in women who have a spontaneous preterm birth. The aim was to determine the relationship between cervico-vaginal fluid (CVF trappin2/elafin and cathelicidin protein concentrations with cervical length in woman at risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Trappin2/elafin and cathelicidin were measured using ELISA in longitudinal CVF samples (taken between 13 to 30 weeks' gestation from 74 asymptomatic high risk women (based on obstetric history recruited prospectively. Thirty six women developed a short cervix (200 ng/ml measured between 14+0-14+6 weeks' of pregnancy predicted women who subsequently developed a short cervix (n = 11, ROC area = 1.00, p = 0.008 within 8 weeks. Cathelicidin was not predictive of spontaneous delivery. Vitamin D status did not correlate with CVF antimicrobial peptide concentrations. Raised CVF trappin2/elafin has potential as an early pregnancy test for prediction of cervical shortening and spontaneous preterm birth. This justifies validation in a larger cohort.

  5. [High prevalence of work-family conflict among female physicians: lack of social support as a potential antecedent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adám, Szilvia

    2009-12-13

    According to stress theory, social support from work and non-work-related sources may influence the level of perceived work-family conflict. Despite the high prevalence of work-family conflict as a source of distress among female physicians, no information is available on the associations between work-family conflict and social support in a traditional, family-centric cultural setting, where female role expectations are demanding. The author hypothesized that high prevalence of work-family conflict could be attributed to the lack of social support among female physicians. To investigate the prevalence and psychosocial characteristics of social support and its relations to work-family conflict among female physicians. Quantitative and qualitative study using questionnaires ( n = 420) and in-depth interviews ( n = 123) among female and male physicians. Female physicians reported significantly higher mean level and prevalence of work-family conflict compared to men. The predominant form of work-family was work-to-family conflict among physicians; however, significantly more female physicians experienced family-to-work conflict and strain-based work-family conflict compared to men (39% vs. 18% and 68% vs. 20%, respectively). Significantly more male physicians experienced time-based work-family conflict compared to women. Content analyses of interview data revealed that provision of support to physicians manifested itself in parental support in career selection, spousal support with household duties, peer support with enabling access to professional role models-mentors, peer support to ensure gender equity, and organizational support with family-centric policies. Female physicians reported significantly less parental, spousal, and peer support compared to men. Female physicians lacking parental, peer, or organizational support experienced significantly higher level of work-family conflict compared to appropriate control. In regression analyses, high job demands, job

  6. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures – Paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Methods Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8–13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Results Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). Conclusions The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation. PMID:22720834

  7. Dental fluorosis in populations from Chiang Mai, Thailand with different fluoride exposures - paper 1: assessing fluorosis risk, predictors of fluorosis and the potential role of food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrady, Michael G; Ellwood, Roger P; Srisilapanan, Patcharawan; Korwanich, Narumanas; Worthington, Helen V; Pretty, Iain A

    2012-06-21

    To determine the severity of dental fluorosis in selected populations in Chiang Mai, Thailand with different exposures to fluoride and to explore possible risk indicators for dental fluorosis. Subjects were male and female lifetime residents aged 8-13 years. For each child the fluoride content of drinking and cooking water samples were assessed. Digital images were taken of the maxillary central incisors for later blind scoring for TF index (10% repeat scores). Interview data explored previous cooking and drinking water use, exposure to fluoride, infant feeding patterns and oral hygiene practices. Data from 560 subjects were available for analysis (298 M, 262 F). A weighted kappa of 0.80 was obtained for repeat photographic scores. The prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) for subjects consuming drinking and cooking water with a fluoride concentration of 0.9 ppm F the prevalence of fluorosis (TF 3+) rose to 37.3%. Drinking and cooking water at age 3, water used for infant formula and water used for preparing infant food all demonstrated an increase in fluorosis severity with increase in water fluoride level (p fluorosis was 0.53 for exposure to high fluoride drinking (≥0.9 ppm) and cooking water (≥1.6 ppm). The consumption of drinking water with fluoride content >0.9 ppm and use of cooking water with fluoride content >1.6 ppm were associated with an increased risk of aesthetically significant dental fluorosis. Fluoride levels in the current drinking and cooking water sources were strongly correlated with fluorosis severity. Further work is needed to explore fluorosis risk in relation to total fluoride intake from all sources including food preparation.

  8. Physical processes of magmatism and effects on the potential repository: Synthesis of technical work through Fiscal Year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, G.A.

    1996-09-01

    This chapter summarizes data collection and model calculations through FY 95 under Study Plan 8.3.1.8.1.2 Physical Processes of Magmatism and Effects on the Potential Repository. The focus of this study plan is to gather information that ultimately constrains the consequences of small-volume, basaltic magmatic activity at or near a potential repository. This is then combined with event probability estimates, described elsewhere in this synthesis report, to yield a magmatic risk assessment. Tere are two basic classes of effects of magmatisms that are considered here: (1) Eruptive effects, whereby rising magma intersects a potential repository, entrains radioactive waste, and erupts it onto the earth`s surface. (2) Subsurface effects, which includes a wide range of processes such as hydrothermal flow, alteration of mineral assemblages in the potential repository system, and alteration of hydrologic flow properties of the rocks surrounding a potential repository.

  9. Final work plan : investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Hanover, Kansas.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2008-11-19

    Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an interagency agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. Seven technical objectives have been proposed for the Hanover investigation. They are as follows: (1) Identify the sources and extent of soil contamination beneath the former CCC/USDA facility; (2) Characterize groundwater contamination beneath the former CCC/USDA facility; (3) Determine groundwater flow patterns; (4) Define the vertical and lateral extent of the groundwater plume outside the former CCC/USDA facility; (5) Evaluate the aquifer and monitor the groundwater system; (6) Identify any other potential sources of contamination that are not related to activities of the CCC/USDA; and (7) Determine whether there is a vapor intrusion problem at the site attributable to the former CCC/USDA facility. The technical objectives will be accomplished in a phased approached. Data collected during each phase will be evaluated to determine whether the subsequent phase is necessary. The KDHE project manager and the CCC/USDA will be contacted during each phase and kept apprised of the results. Whether implementation of each phase of work is necessary will be discussed and mutually agreed upon by the CCC/USDA and KDHE project managers.

  10. Fatigue Risk Management: The Impact of Anesthesiology Residents' Work Schedules on Job Performance and a Review of Potential Countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Lily R; Flynn-Evans, Erin; Ruskin, Keith J

    2017-10-17

    Long duty periods and overnight call shifts impair physicians' performance on measures of vigilance, psychomotor functioning, alertness, and mood. Anesthesiology residents typically work between 64 and 70 hours per week and are often required to work 24 hours or overnight shifts, sometimes taking call every third night. Mitigating the effects of sleep loss, circadian misalignment, and sleep inertia requires an understanding of the relationship among work schedules, fatigue, and job performance. This article reviews the current Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education guidelines for resident duty hours, examines how anesthesiologists' work schedules can affect job performance, and discusses the ramifications of overnight and prolonged duty hours on patient safety and resident well-being. We then propose countermeasures that have been implemented to mitigate the effects of fatigue and describe how training programs or practice groups who must work overnight can adapt these strategies for use in a hospital setting. Countermeasures include the use of scheduling interventions, strategic naps, microbreaks, caffeine use during overnight and extended shifts, and the use of bright lights in the clinical setting when possible or personal blue light devices when the room lights must be turned off. Although this review focuses primarily on anesthesiology residents in training, many of the mitigation strategies described here can be used effectively by physicians in practice.

  11. Work–Family Conflict and Health Among Working Parents: Potential Linkages for Family Studies and Social Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Smith, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paired article the authors review research on paid work, parenting, and health in order to isolate fundamental questions and issues that remain unaddressed. Next, consistent with the theme of this special issue, the authors introduce social neuroscience and highlight how this emerging multidisciplinary science offers substantial promise for advancing key unresolved issues in the paid work, parenting, and health literature. The article concludes with suggestions for promising areas of research wherein family scientists and social neuroscientists could build collaborative research to address gaps in the work–family literature. PMID:27840467

  12. Shift work and cancer risk: potential mechanistic roles of circadian disruption, light at night, and sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haus, Erhard L; Smolensky, Michael H

    2013-08-01

    Shift work that includes a nighttime rotation has become an unavoidable attribute of today's 24-h society. The related disruption of the human circadian time organization leads in the short-term to an array of jet-lag-like symptoms, and in the long-run it may contribute to weight gain/obesity, metabolic syndrome/type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies also suggest increased cancer risk, especially for breast cancer, in night and rotating female shift workers. If confirmed in more controlled and detailed studies, the carcinogenic effect of night and shift work will constitute additional serious medical, economic, and social problems for a substantial proportion of the working population. Here, we examine the possible multiple and interconnected cancer-promoting mechanisms as a consequence of shift work, i.e., repeated disruption of the circadian system, pineal hormone melatonin suppression by exposure to light at night, sleep-deprivation-caused impairment of the immune system, plus metabolic changes favoring obesity and generation of proinflammatory reactive oxygen species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring the Potential of Using Stories about Diverse Scientists and Reflective Activities to Enrich Primary Students' Images of Scientists and Scientific Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the potential of using stories about diverse scientists to broaden primary students' images of scientists and scientific work. Stories featuring scientists from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds (i.e., physical ability, gender, ethnicity) were presented to 11 grade one students over a 15-week…

  14. Using Videodiscs in Instruction: Realizing Their Potential through Instructional Design. IDD&E Working Paper No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Garfield, Joanne M.

    Arguing that the systematic application of knowledge about instruction to videodisc technology is essential if the full potential of this medium is to be realized, this paper begins by discussing the need for intelligent videodisc technology in our educational system. A brief review of the state of the art in intelligent videodisc systems, which…

  15. Quick Reference Guide: Working with Stakeholders to Identify Potential Improvement Strategies for Program Improvement (Including the SSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for IDEA Early Childhood Data Systems (DaSy), 2015

    2015-01-01

    This 2015 quick reference guide is designed to assist states in understanding what information needs to be available in order for stakeholders to assist in selecting potential improvement strategies that will increase capacity of Local Education Agencies (LEAs), Early Intervention Services (EIS) programs, and practitioners to improve results for…

  16. What Does Ipsilateral Delay Activity Reflect? Inferences from Slow Potentials in a Lateralized Visual Working Memory Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arend, Anna M.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2011-01-01

    In the lateralized change detection task, two item arrays are presented, one on each side of the display. Participants have to remember the items in the relevant hemifield and ignore the items in the irrelevant hemifield. A difference wave between contralateral and ipsilateral slow potentials with respect to the relevant items, the contralateral…

  17. Does visual working memory represent the predicted locations of future target objects? An event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubert, Anna; Eimer, Martin

    2015-11-11

    During the maintenance of task-relevant objects in visual working memory, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is elicited over the hemisphere opposite to the visual field where these objects are presented. The presence of this lateralised CDA component demonstrates the existence of position-dependent object representations in working memory. We employed a change detection task to investigate whether the represented object locations in visual working memory are shifted in preparation for the known location of upcoming comparison stimuli. On each trial, bilateral memory displays were followed after a delay period by bilateral test displays. Participants had to encode and maintain three visual objects on one side of the memory display, and to judge whether they were identical or different to three objects in the test display. Task-relevant memory and test stimuli were located in the same visual hemifield in the no-shift task, and on opposite sides in the horizontal shift task. CDA components of similar size were triggered contralateral to the memorized objects in both tasks. The absence of a polarity reversal of the CDA in the horizontal shift task demonstrated that there was no preparatory shift of memorized object location towards the side of the upcoming comparison stimuli. These results suggest that visual working memory represents the locations of visual objects during encoding, and that the matching of memorized and test objects at different locations is based on a comparison process that can bridge spatial translations between these objects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Prediction and Attention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical Predictors of Psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Caraveo Anduaga

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric disorders affect up to one third of patients with non-psychiatric diseases.1-5 Nevertheless, despite the high prevalence of psychopathology in general medical patients, only between 30-50% of all cases are detected.2,6-8 Some have suggested that the difficulty in the detection and diagnosis of mental disorders among patients who seek medical attention for other reasons, lies in the lack of screening questions that might alert the physician to the possibility of a psychiatric co-morbidity.9 Such questions would identify medical patients at high risk of psychiatric problems. Previous work on clinical predictors of psychopathology have identified the following: specific physical symptoms10-11; patient report of severity of illness11; recent stress12,13; low self-perception of health status13; and age less than 50.14 Two specific studies on the detection of psychopathology in the general medical population are worth highlighting. The first, by Jackson and his research team13 updating a 2001 study evaluating a prediction model with four parameters (recent stress, severity of physical symptoms, five or more specific symptoms, self-assessment of physical condition. They found that those patients who report recent stress, have five or more physical symptoms or a low self-perception of their health state are at a higher risk of having a psychiatric disorder. The second study, by Lowe et al. published in 2003,9 examines a series of factors that could serve as indicators of psychopathology in ambulatory medical (i.e. non-psychiatric patients. After evaluating several different models they found that the combination of four of factors (taken as a group had a high sensitivity (86%, specificity (100%, positive predictive value (100%, and negative predictive value (91%. This suggests that a physician could use the combination of these four indicators to evaluate for the presence of co morbid mental disorders. These factors are: self

  19. Predictors of monoterpene exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Katja; Jacobsen, Gitte; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger; Erlandsen, Mogens; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who work with pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, the most abundant of which are α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene. Monoterpenes are suspected to cause dermatitis and to harm the respiratory system. An understanding of the predictors of monoterpene exposure is therefore important in preventing these adverse effects. These predictors may include general characteristics of the work environment and specific work operations. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to monoterpenes and to identify possible predictors of monoterpene exposure in the pine furniture industry in Denmark. Passive measurements of the levels of selected monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene) were performed on 161 subjects from 17 pine furniture factories in Viborg County, Denmark; one sample was acquired from each worker. Additionally, wood dust samples were collected from 145 workers. Data on potential predictors of exposure were acquired over the course of the day on which the exposure measurements were recorded and could be assigned to one of four hierarchic ordered levels: worker, machine, department, and factory. In addition to univariate analyses, a mixed model was used to account for imbalances within the data and random variation with each of the hierarchically ordered levels. The geometric mean (GM) monoterpene content observed over the 161 measurements was 7.8 mg m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD): 2.4]; the GM wood dust level over 145 measurements was 0.58 mg m(-3) (GSD: 1.49). None of the measured samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit for terpenes in Denmark (25 ppm, 150 mg m(-3)). In the univariate analyses, half of the predictors tested were found to be significant; the multivariate model indicated that only three of the potential predictors were significant. These were the recirculation of air in rooms used for the processing of wood (a factory level predictor), the presence of a

  20. DIDACTIC POTENTIAL OF PUPILS UPBRINGING BY MEANS OF LITARATURE WORKS IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS OF WESTERN UKRAINIAN DIASPORA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Rybak

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Didactic potential of upbringing pupils in educational institutions of the Diaspora by means of artistic word has been analyzed. The attention is paid to the function of art – Ukrainian literature, which promotes the formation of fully developed personality, their preparation for the conscious and active labour activity, and therefore upbringing is closely connected with life. It is cleared out that when plunging into the system of the artistic world, the pupil learns from the life of the main positive characters how to live in the society and to be useful, because textbooks and manuals on the native literature, readers in the Diaspora provide the basis for children to learn the behaviour of consciousness, and the latter, as it is known, depends on the construction of the world in themselves, that is called the worldview. It is proved that the powerful moral-educational and artistic-aesthetic potential of Ukrainian literature is being implemented in the books of Western Ukrainian Diaspora with the aim of ethnic and cultural enrichment of pupils and above all the formation of national consciousness of Ukrainian children, active choice of their values of national spirituality. It is established that the didactic potential of the upbringing of pupils by means of artistic word allows instilling love to the native language, to Ukraine, and thus it slows down the process of assimilation. On the basis of the study of the scientific-pedagogical heritage of emigration teachers-philologists, the theoretical approaches and practice of schoolchildren education by means of the word have been analyzed, the significance of their experience for the modern educational practice has been substantiated. The system of education of schoolchildren by means of the word, which has been developed over the years, is actual for the development of pedagogical science and practice. The analysis of pedagogical practice, accumulated didactic potential of upbringing pupils in

  1. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B is a predictor of poor prognosis and a potential therapeutic target for lung adenocarcinoma expressing wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaura, Takumi; Ezaki, Junji; Okabe, Naoyuki; Takagi, Hironori; Ozaki, Yuki; Inoue, Takuya; Watanabe, Yuzuru; Fukuhara, Mitsuro; Muto, Satoshi; Matsumura, Yuki; Hasegawa, Takeo; Hoshino, Mika; Osugi, Jun; Shio, Yutaka; Waguri, Satoshi; Tamura, Hirosumi; Imai, Jun-Ichi; Ito, Emi; Yanagisawa, Yuka; Honma, Reiko; Watanabe, Shinya; Suzuki, Hiroyuki

    2018-02-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma (ADC) patients with tumors that harbor no targetable driver gene mutation, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) gene mutations, have unfavorable prognosis, and thus, novel therapeutic targets are required. Family with sequence similarity 83, member B ( FAM83B ) is a biomarker for squamous cell lung cancer. FAM83B has also recently been shown to serve an important role in the EGFR signaling pathway. In the present study, the molecular and clinical impact of FAM83B in lung ADC was investigated. Matched tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples were obtained from 216 patients who underwent complete lung resection for primary lung ADC and were examined for FAM83B expression using cDNA microarray analysis. The associations between FAM83B expression and clinicopathological parameters, including patient survival, were examined. FAM83B was highly expressed in tumors from males, smokers and in tumors with wild-type EGFR . Multivariate analyses further confirmed that wild-type EGFR tumors were significantly positively associated with FAM83B expression. In survival analysis, FAM83B expression was associated with poor outcomes in disease-free survival and overall survival, particularly when stratified against tumors with wild-type EGFR . Furthermore, FAM83B knockdown was performed to investigate its phenotypic effect on lung ADC cell lines. Gene silencing by FAM83B RNA interference induced growth suppression in the HLC-1 and H1975 lung ADC cell lines. FAM83B may be involved in lung ADC tumor proliferation and can be a predictor of poor survival. FAM83B is also a potential novel therapeutic target for ADC with wild-type EGFR .

  2. Memory plasticity in older adults: Cognitive predictors of training response and maintenance following learning of number-consonant mnemonic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Petra; Rönnlund, Michael; Derwinger-Hallberg, Anna; Stigsdotter Neely, Anna

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated the relationship between cognitive factors and gains in number recall following training in a number-consonant mnemonic in a sample of 112 older adults (M = 70.9 years). The cognitive factors examined included baseline episodic memory, working memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. In addition, predictors of maintenance of gains to a follow-up assessment, eight months later, were examined. Whereas working memory was a prominent predictor of baseline recall, the magnitude of gains in recall from pre- to post-test assessments were predicted by baseline episodic memory, processing speed, and verbal knowledge. Verbal knowledge was the only significant predictor of maintenance. Collectively, the results indicate the need to consider multiple factors to account for individual differences in memory plasticity. The potential contribution of additional factors to individual differences in memory plasticity is discussed.

  3. RS-WebPredictor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaretzki, J.; Bergeron, C.; Huang, T.-W.

    2013-01-01

    Regioselectivity-WebPredictor (RS-WebPredictor) is a server that predicts isozyme-specific cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated sites of metabolism (SOMs) on drug-like molecules. Predictions may be made for the promiscuous 2C9, 2D6 and 3A4 CYP isozymes, as well as CYPs 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C19 and 2E1...

  4. Doing Interdisciplinary Mixed Methods Health Care Research: Working the Boundaries, Tensions, and Synergistic Potential of Team-Based Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    2016-04-01

    Current trends in health care research point to a shift from disciplinary models to interdisciplinary team-based mixed methods inquiry designs. This keynote address discusses the problems and prospects of creating vibrant mixed methods health care interdisciplinary research teams that can harness their potential synergy that holds the promise of addressing complex health care issues. We examine the range of factors and issues these types of research teams need to consider to facilitate efficient interdisciplinary mixed methods team-based research. It is argued that concepts such as disciplinary comfort zones, a lack of attention to team dynamics, and low levels of reflexivity among interdisciplinary team members can inhibit the effectiveness of a research team. This keynote suggests a set of effective strategies to address the issues that emanate from the new field of research inquiry known as team science as well as lessons learned from tapping into research on organizational dynamics. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Event-related potential (ERP) measures reveal the timing of memory selection processes and proactive interference resolution in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yuji; Friedman, David

    2011-09-09

    Behavioral studies show that no-longer-relevant information, although presumably removed from working memory (WM), still engenders proactive interference (PI). However, the timing of selecting items within WM and resolving PI is relatively unknown. To assess this, we recorded ERPs during WM from 20 young adults. In all conditions, a 4-digit display was followed by a cue indicating which digits to remember. In the selection condition, 2 digits were cued. The reaction time difference between the intrusion probe, a match of a to-be-rejected digit, and the non-intrusion probe, which did not match any of the 4 digits, was reliable, indicating a robust effect of PI. In the neutral-2 (remember 2 digits) and -4 (remember all 4) conditions, participants maintained the digits following the cue. Relative to neutral-4, selection elicited larger positivity at parietal sites (approximately 260ms) and negativity at frontal sites (approximately 420ms). Relative to the non-intrusion probe ERP, that to the intrusion probe was more negative over frontal scalp (approximately 500ms). We conclude that initial selection occurs over parietal cortex and reflects top-down attention to task relevant items, whereas the subsequent negativity may reflect inhibition of no-longer-relevant items over frontal cortex. The probe-locked ERPs suggest that the frontal negativity (approximately 500ms) reflects the final resolution of PI. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Potential implications of Luria's work for the neuropsychology of epilepsy and epilepsy surgery: A perspective for re-examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrikelis, Panayiotis; Lucci, Giuliana; Siatouni, Anna; Verentzioti, Anastasia; Alexoudi, Athanasia; Gatzonis, Stylianos

    2017-07-01

    The pioneeristic work of Alexander Romanovic Luria into the field of human neuropsychology offered eminent contributions to clinical praxis by providing theory guided methods and instruments for the study of higher cortical functions. However, lots of this knowledge corpus either remains untranslated and thus inaccessible, or in some cases selectively overlooked by academic authorities and consequently not passed to the future generations of experts. Although Luria was not exclusively devoted to the study of epilepsy, his theories and clinical approaches actually penetrate the whole neuropathology spectrum. His holistic and systemic approach to the brain sounds nowadays more than opportune and consistent with the network approach of the modern neuroimaging era. As to epilepsy, the logic underlying the Lurian approach (cognitive functions organized into complex functional systems with intra- and/or inter-hemispheric distribution, as opposed to the modularistic view of the brain) seems consistent with our current knowledge in epileptology with respect to epileptic networks, as well as the modern construct of the functional deficit zone. These contributions seem to be highly promising for the neuropsychology of epilepsy and epilepsy surgery, since they provide clinicians with valuable methods and theories to assist them in the localization -and lateralization- of cognitive deficits. Consequently they are of great applicability in the context of the preoperative neuropsychological monitoring of patients candidates for epilepsy surgery, where neuropsychologist are called upon to provide surgeons with anatomical data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential application of thermography (IRT) in animal production and for animal welfare. A case report of working dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redaelli, Veronica; Ludwig, Nicola; Nanni Costa, Leonardo; Crosta, Lorenzo; Riva, Jacopo; Luzi, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe the thermography technique in animal production and in veterinary medicine applications. The thermographic technique lends itself to countless applications in biology, thanks to its characteristics of versatility, lack of invasiveness and high sensitivity. Probably the major limitation to most important aspects for its application in the animal lies in the ease of use and in its extreme sensitivity. This review provides an overview of the possible applications of the technique of thermo visual inspection, but it is clear that every phenomenon connected to temperature variations can be identified with this technique. Then the operator has to identify the best experimental context to obtain as much information as possible, concerning the physiopathological problems considered. Furthermore, we reported an experimental study about the thermography (IRT) as a noninvasive technique to assess the state of wellbeing in working dogs. The first results showed the relationship between superficial temperatures and scores obtained by the animal during the behavioral test. This result suggests an interesting application of infrared thermography (IRT) to measure the state of wellbeing of animals in a noninvasive way.

  8. Verbal Working Memory in Children With Cochlear Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittrouer, Susan; Caldwell-Tarr, Amanda; Low, Keri E; Lowenstein, Joanna H

    2017-11-09

    Verbal working memory in children with cochlear implants and children with normal hearing was examined. Ninety-three fourth graders (47 with normal hearing, 46 with cochlear implants) participated, all of whom were in a longitudinal study and had working memory assessed 2 years earlier. A dual-component model of working memory was adopted, and a serial recall task measured storage and processing. Potential predictor variables were phonological awareness, vocabulary knowledge, nonverbal IQ, and several treatment variables. Potential dependent functions were literacy, expressive language, and speech-in-noise recognition. Children with cochlear implants showed deficits in storage and processing, similar in size to those at second grade. Predictors of verbal working memory differed across groups: Phonological awareness explained the most variance in children with normal hearing; vocabulary explained the most variance in children with cochlear implants. Treatment variables explained little of the variance. Where potentially dependent functions were concerned, verbal working memory accounted for little variance once the variance explained by other predictors was removed. The verbal working memory deficits of children with cochlear implants arise due to signal degradation, which limits their abilities to acquire phonological awareness. That hinders their abilities to store items using a phonological code.

  9. Age is no barrier: predictors of academic success in older learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imlach, Abbie-Rose; Ward, David D.; Stuart, Kimberley E.; Summers, Mathew J.; Valenzuela, Michael J.; King, Anna E.; Saunders, Nichole L.; Summers, Jeffrey; Srikanth, Velandai K.; Robinson, Andrew; Vickers, James C.

    2017-11-01

    Although predictors of academic success have been identified in young adults, such predictors are unlikely to translate directly to an older student population, where such information is scarce. The current study aimed to examine cognitive, psychosocial, lifetime, and genetic predictors of university-level academic performance in older adults (50-79 years old). Participants were mostly female (71%) and had a greater than high school education level (M = 14.06 years, SD = 2.76), on average. Two multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. The first examined all potential predictors of grade point average (GPA) in the subset of participants who had volunteered samples for genetic analysis (N = 181). Significant predictors of GPA were then re-examined in a second multiple linear regression using the full sample (N = 329). Our data show that the cognitive domains of episodic memory and language processing, in conjunction with midlife engagement in cognitively stimulating activities, have a role in predicting academic performance as measured by GPA in the first year of study. In contrast, it was determined that age, IQ, gender, working memory, psychosocial factors, and common brain gene polymorphisms linked to brain function, plasticity and degeneration (APOE, BDNF, COMT, KIBRA, SERT) did not influence academic performance. These findings demonstrate that ageing does not impede academic achievement, and that discrete cognitive skills as well as lifetime engagement in cognitively stimulating activities can promote academic success in older adults.

  10. Identifying potential working mechanisms behind the positive effects of exercise therapy on pain and function in osteoarthritis; a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runhaar, J; Luijsterburg, P; Dekker, J; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A

    2015-07-01

    Although physical exercise is the commonly recommended for osteoarthritis (OA) patients, the working mechanism behind the positive effects of physical exercise on pain and function is a black box phenomenon. In the present study we aimed to identify possible mediators in the relation between physical exercise and improvements of pain and function in OA patients. A systematic search for all studies evaluating the effects of physical exercise in OA patients and select those that additionally reported the change in any physiological factor from pre-to post-exercise. In total, 94 studies evaluating 112 intervention groups were included. Most included studies evaluated subjects with solely knee OA (96 out of 112 groups). Based on the measured physiological factors within the included studies, 12 categories of possible mediators were formed. Muscle strength and ROM/flexibility were the most measured categories of possible mediators with 61 and 21 intervention groups measuring one or more physiological factors within these categories, respectively. 60% (31 out of 52) of the studies showed a significant increase in knee extensor muscle strength and 71% (22 out of 31) in knee flexor muscle strength over the intervention period. All 5 studies evaluating extension impairments and 10 out of 12 studies (83%) measuring proprioception found a significant change from pre-to post-intervention. An increase of upper leg strength, a decrease of extension impairments and improvement in proprioception were identified as possible mediators in the positive association between physical exercise and OA symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  12. Crowdsourcing Novel Childhood Predictors of Adult Obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevelander, K.E.; Kaipainen, K.; Swain, R.; Dohle, S.; Bongard, J.C.; Hines, P.D.H.; Wansink, B.

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study

  13. Temporal dynamics of attention during encoding vs. maintenance of working memory: complementary views from event-related potentials and alpha-band oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas E.; Walther, Lena; Wallis, George; Stokes, Mark G.; Nobre, Anna C.

    2015-01-01

    Working memory (WM) is strongly influenced by attention. In visual working-memory tasks, recall performance can be improved by an attention-guiding cue presented before encoding (precue) or during maintenance (retrocue). Although precues and retrocues recruit a similar fronto-parietal control network, the two are likely to exhibit some processing differences, since precues invite anticipation of upcoming information, while retrocues may guide prioritisation, protection, and selection of information already in mind. Here we explored the behavioral and electrophysiological differences between precueing and retrocueing in a new visual working-memory task designed to permit a direct comparison between cueing conditions. We found marked differences in event-related potential (ERP) profiles between the precue and retrocue conditions. In line with precues primarily generating an anticipatory shift of attention toward the location of an upcoming item, we found a robust lateralization in late cue-evoked potentials associated with target anticipation. Retrocues elicited a different pattern of ERPs that was compatible with an early selection mechanism, but not with stimulus anticipation. In contrast to the distinct ERP patterns, alpha band (8-14 Hz) lateralization was indistinguishable between cue types (reflecting, in both conditions, the location of the cued item). We speculate that whereas alpha-band lateralization after a precue is likely to enable anticipatory attention, lateralization after a retrocue may instead enable the controlled spatiotopic access to recently encoded visual information. PMID:25244118

  14. Satellite orbit predictor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Morton l.; Garrett, James, Major

    An analog aid to determine satellite coverage of Emergency Locator Transmitters Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacon (ELT/EPIRB) distress incidence is discussed. The satellite orbit predictor is a graphical aid for determining the relationship between the satellite orbit, antenna coverage of the spacecraft and coverage of the Local User Terminal. The predictor allows the user to quickly visualize if a selected position will probably be detected and is composed of a base map and a satellite track overlay for each satellite.A table of equator crossings for each satellite is included.

  15. The Labananalysis Potential: Creative Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanstein, Penelope

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the application of Rudolf Laban's theories of movement to the teaching of choreography and improvisation. The paper presents learning activities appropriate for early encounters in the development of artistic process skills. It is predicated on the theory that the choreographic process is a heuristic process…

  16. Predictors of transformational leadership of nurse managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Ilia M; Patterson, Barbara J; Krouse, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among education, leadership experience, emotional intelligence and transformational leadership of nurse managers. Nursing leadership research provides limited evidence of predictors of transformational leadership style in nurse managers. A predictive correlational design was used with a sample of nurse managers (n = 148) working in varied health care settings. Data were collected using the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory, the Multi-factor Leadership Questionnaire and a demographic questionnaire. Simple linear and multiple regression analyses were used to examine relationships. A statistically significant relationship was found between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership (r = 0.59, P leadership. Nurse managers should be well informed of the predictors of transformational leadership in order to pursue continuing education and development opportunities related to those predictors. The results of this study emphasise the need for emotional intelligence continuing education, leadership development and leader assessment programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Reducing the impact and mobilization for the implementation of the special working capacity to realize the potential of the special performance of qualified sprinters in athletics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinogradov V.Y.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of the different impact use for recovery and mobilization in modeling conditions of high qualified sprinters in track and field athletics for special working capacity potential realization are analyzed in the article. Presents the impacts to stimulate and recovery of athletes in pre-stimulation performance in terms and re-training performance of loads the maximum intensity. The experimental results provide a basis for predicting the mobilization effects presented complex of subsidiary means for other sports and sports disciplines in athletics.

  18. Executive functions as predictors of math learning disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toll, S.W.M.; van der Ven, S.H.G.; Kroesbergen, E.H.; van Luit, J.E.H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ

  19. Predictors of mental health in female teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reingard Seibt

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Teaching profession is characterised by an above-average rate of psychosomatic and mental health impairment due to work-related stress. The aim of the study was to identify predictors of mental health in female teachers. Material and Methods: A sample of 630 female teachers (average age 47±7 years participated in a screening diagnostic inventory. Mental health was surveyed with the General Health Questionnaire GHQ-12. The following parameters were measured: specific work conditions (teacher-specific occupational history, scales of the Effort-Reward-Imbalance (ERI Questionnaire as well as cardiovascular risk factors, physical complaints (BFB and personal factors such as inability to recover (FABA, sense of coherence (SOC and health behaviour. Results: First, mentally fit (MH+ and mentally impaired teachers (MH- were differentiated based on the GHQ-12 sum score (MH+: < 5; MH-: ≥ 5; 18% of the teachers showed evidence of mental impairment. There were no differences concerning work-related and cardiovascular risk factors as well as health behaviour between MH+ and MH-. Binary logistic regressions identified 4 predictors that showed a significant effect on mental health. The effort-reward-ratio proved to be the most relevant predictor, while physical complaints as well as inability to recover and sense of coherence were identified as advanced predictors (explanation of variance: 23%. Conclusion: Contrary to the expectations, classic work-related factors can hardly contribute to the explanation of mental health. Additionally, cardiovascular risk factors and health behaviour have no relevant influence. However, effort-reward-ratio, physical complaints and personal factors are of considerable influence on mental health in teachers. These relevant predictors should become a part of preventive arrangements for the conservation of teachers' health in the future.

  20. Switching Attention within Working Memory is Reflected in the P3a Component of the Human Event-Related Brain Potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBerti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The flexible access to information in working memory is crucial for adaptive behavior. It is assumed that this is realized by switching the focus of attention within working memory. Switching of attention is mirrored in the P3a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP and it has been argued that the processes reflected by the P3a are also relevant for selecting information within working memory. The aim of the present study was to further evaluate whether the P3a mirrors genuine switching of attention within working memory by applying an object switching task: Participants updated a memory list of four digits either by replacing one item with another digit or by processing the stored digit. ERPs were computed separately for two types of trials: (1 trials in which an object was repeated and (2 trials in which a switch to a new object was required in order to perform the task. Object switch trials showed increased response times compared with repetition trials in both task conditions. In addition, switching costs were increased in the processing compared with the replacement condition. Pronounced P3a’s were obtained in switching trials but there were no difference between the two updating tasks (replacement or processing. These results were qualified by the finding that the magnitude of the visual location shift also affects the ERPs in the P3a time window. Taken together, the present pattern of results suggest that the P3a reflects an initial process of selecting information in working memory but not the memory updating itself.

  1. Switching Attention Within Working Memory is Reflected in the P3a Component of the Human Event-Related Brain Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    The flexible access to information in working memory is crucial for adaptive behavior. It is assumed that this is realized by switching the focus of attention within working memory. Switching of attention is mirrored in the P3a component of the human event-related brain potential (ERP) and it has been argued that the processes reflected by the P3a are also relevant for selecting information within working memory. The aim of the present study was to further evaluate whether the P3a mirrors genuine switching of attention within working memory by applying an object switching task: Participants updated a memory list of four digits either by replacing one item with another digit or by processing the stored digit. ERPs were computed separately for two types of trials: (1) trials in which an object was repeated and (2) trials in which a switch to a new object was required in order to perform the task. Object-switch trials showed increased response times compared with repetition trials in both task conditions. In addition, switching costs were increased in the processing compared with the replacement condition. Pronounced P3a's were obtained in switching trials but there were no difference between the two updating tasks (replacement or processing). These results were qualified by the finding that the magnitude of the visual location shift also affects the ERPs in the P3a time window. Taken together, the present pattern of results suggest that the P3a reflects an initial process of selecting information in working memory but not the memory updating itself.

  2. Predictive factors of postpartum fatigue: a prospective cohort study among working women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Poppel, M.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate which prepartum determinants contribute to the development of postpartum (PP) fatigue among working women in the Netherlands. Methods A prospective cohort study in 15 Dutch companies was conducted to measure different potential predictors using

  3. Predictors of outcome after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: a multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Paul A; Subach, Brian R; Riew, K Daniel

    2009-01-15

    Retrospective cohort study. Perform a multivariate analysis to identify important predictors of poor outcome following anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Identifying prognostic factors is important to aid surgical decision-making and counseling of patients. Recent randomized control trials of disc arthroplasty devices have established a large cohort of patients treated with fusion and 2-year outcomes that allow analysis of prognostic factors. The patient cohort was the fusion control patients (n = 488) from 2 randomized controlled studies of disc replacements. Surgical indications were recalcitrant single-level subaxial radiculopathy or myelopathy. The surgery included anterior discectomy and fusion with allograft and plate. Patients were assessed by neck and arm pain, neck disability index (NDI), SF-36, neurologic examination, and return to work. Overall clinical success was defined based on meeting all 4 of these criteria: >15-point improvement in NDI; maintained or improved neurologic examination; no serious adverse event related to the procedure; and no revision of the plate or graft. Patient's outcomes were recorded, at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months, with 77% follow-up at 24 months.The outcome variables for this analysis were overall clinical success and >15-point improvement in NDI. We studied the relationship between each of the outcome variables and 26 potential important variables including demographics, medical conditions, socioeconomic factors, and disease state. Two statistical models were used to explore the association between outcome variables and baseline measures: multivariate logistical regression of the full model with every prognostic variable included and the model with the variables selected by the stepwise selection procedure. In the full-model logistic analysis for overall success, worker's compensation and weak narcotic use were negative predictors while higher preoperative NDI score and normal sensory function were positive predictors. For

  4. Assessing the test–retest reliability of career path appreciation as a measure of current and potential work decision-making capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf M. Oosthuizen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Assessing and developing managerial decision-making capability in a complex and volatile marketplace is imperative for most South African businesses.Purpose: The objective of this study was to assess the test–retest reliability of the career path appreciation (CPA procedure in assessing current and potential levels of work decision-making capability. The study also explored whether different gender and race groups differed significantly in terms of these levels at two CPA assessments.Motivation for the study: Limited recent test–retest research has been done regarding the reliability of the CPA technique as a tool for measuring the work decision-making capability of professional and managerial talent in the South African context. Scholars and practitioners in the field of industrial psychology could therefore benefit from follow-up research into the reliability of CPA.Research approach, design and method: The research followed an ex post facto correlational design using longitudinal data of a non-probability purposive sample (N = 527 within the Bioss SA database.Main findings: The results showed that the participants’ first CPA assessment scores correlated significantly and positively with their second CPA assessment scores. Gender and race groups differed significantly in their levels of current work decision-making capability at both assessments.Practical/managerial implications: The CPA procedure can be used with confidence as an assessment tool in the selection, mentoring and development of high-potential managerial and professional talent for diverse gender and race groups.Contribution/value-add: These findings contribute valuable information regarding the reliability of CPA and the differences between race and gender groups in the South African context.

  5. Deficits in Verbal Working Memory among College Students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Traits: An Event-related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seulki; Kim, Myung-Sun

    2016-02-29

    This study investigated verbal working memory in college students with traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using event-related potentials and the 2-back task. Based on scores on the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale and Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale, participants were assigned to the normal control (n=28) or ADHD-trait (n=29) group. The 2-back task, which was administered to evaluate working memory, consists of a congruent condition, under which the current stimulus is the same as the one presented two trials earlier, and an incongruent condition, under which the current stimulus is not the same as the one presented two trials earlier. The numbers 1, 2, 3, and 4 were used as stimuli. On the 2-back task, the ADHD-trait group committed significantly more errors in response to congruent stimuli and showed a smaller P300 amplitude than did the control group. These results indicate that college students with ADHD traits have deficits in verbal working memory, possibly due to difficulties in memory updating or attentional allocation.

  6. Geographical Variation and Social Work Students' Job Intentions in China: A Geographic Information Systems Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yean; Guo, Yingqi; Zeng, Shouchui

    2018-02-02

    Social work education in China is undergoing far-reaching development. However, an important issue, low professional commitment, has been identified. Why do social work graduates-especially master's level graduates-take jobs unrelated to social work? To answer this question, it is important to take into account that the professionalization of social work is happening unevenly across China as a result of uneven social and economic development. Models used in past research do not consider the possibility that the low intention for social work jobs and its potential predictors may vary across regions. To address this problem, Geographic Information Systems software is being adopted to explore the varying degrees of social work graduates' job intention, its predictors across China, and the association between job intention and predictors at both national and regional levels. Authors of this study found substantial geographic variation in predictors of social work graduates' job intention across regions. Their findings also suggest some heterogeneity in the association between job intention and specific correlates that would be masked in the traditional nationwide model. Policymakers aiming to improve the job intention of social work graduates should consider regional variation as part of their approach. © 2018 National Association of Social Workers.

  7. Predictors of weight maintenance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasman, W.J.; Saris, W.H.M.; Westerterp-Plantenga, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To obtain predictors of weight maintenance after a weight-loss intervention. Research Methods and Procedures: An overall analysis of data from two-long intervention studies [n = 67 women; age: 37.9±1.0 years; body weight (BW): 87.0±1.2 kg; body mass index: 32.1±0.5 kg·m-2; % body fat:

  8. Personality predictors of happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, F

    2001-06-01

    The Oxford Happiness Inventory and a battery of personality measures were completed by 171 subjects. The results showed predicted positive correlations for happiness with satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and sociability and negative correlations of happiness with embarrassability, loneliness, shyness, and social anxiety. Four predictors (satisfaction with life, shyness, loneliness, and sociability) accounted for 58% of the variance in happiness scores. These results support previous research as well as validate the Portuguese version of the happiness inventory.

  9. Do nurses who work in a fair organization sleep and perform better and why? Testing potential psychosocial mediators of organizational justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietapakka, Laura; Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Presseau, Justin; Eccles, Martin; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Kuokkanen, Liisa; Sinervo, Timo

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether organizational justice is associated with sleep quality and performance in a population-based sample of 1,729 Finnish registered nurses working full time. In addition, we tested psychological mechanisms mediating the potential association. The results of multivariate linear regression analyses showed higher organizational justice to be associated with fewer sleeping problems (β values range from -.20 to -.11) and higher self-reported performance (β values range from .05 to .35). Furthermore, psychological distress (related to the psychological stress model) and job involvement (related to the psychosocial resource model) mediated the association between organizational justice and sleep. Sleeping problems partly mediated the association between organizational justice and performance. Psychological distress explained 51% to 83% and job involvement explained 10% to 15% of the total effects of justice variables on sleeping problems. The findings provide support for the psychological stress model and offer practical implications for reducing nurses' sleeping problems.

  10. A Thermodynamically-Based Mesh Objective Work Potential Theory for Predicting Intralaminar Progressive Damage and Failure in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2012-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Damage is considered to be the effect of any structural changes in a material that manifest as pre-peak non-linearity in the stress versus strain response. Conversely, failure is taken to be the effect of the evolution of any mechanisms that results in post-peak strain softening. It is assumed that matrix microdamage is the dominant damage mechanism in continuous fiber-reinforced polymer matrix laminates, and its evolution is controlled with a single ISV. Three additional ISVs are introduced to account for failure due to mode I transverse cracking, mode II transverse cracking, and mode I axial failure. Typically, failure evolution (i.e., post-peak strain softening) results in pathologically mesh dependent solutions within a finite element method (FEM) setting. Therefore, consistent character element lengths are introduced into the formulation of the evolution of the three failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs is derived. The theory is implemented into commercial FEM software. Objectivity of total energy dissipated during the failure process, with regards to refinements in the FEM mesh, is demonstrated. The model is also verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared to the experiments.

  11. Numerical Implementation of a Multiple-ISV Thermodynamically-Based Work Potential Theory for Modeling Progressive Damage and Failure in Fiber-Reinforced Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Evan J.; Waas, Anthony M.

    2011-01-01

    A thermodynamically-based work potential theory for modeling progressive damage and failure in fiber-reinforced laminates is presented. The current, multiple-internal state variable (ISV) formulation, enhanced Schapery theory (EST), utilizes separate ISVs for modeling the effects of damage and failure. Damage is considered to be the effect of any structural changes in a material that manifest as pre-peak non-linearity in the stress versus strain response. Conversely, failure is taken to be the effect of the evolution of any mechanisms that results in post-peak strain softening. It is assumed that matrix microdamage is the dominant damage mechanism in continuous fiber-reinforced polymer matrix laminates, and its evolution is controlled with a single ISV. Three additional ISVs are introduced to account for failure due to mode I transverse cracking, mode II transverse cracking, and mode I axial failure. Typically, failure evolution (i.e., post-peak strain softening) results in pathologically mesh dependent solutions within a finite element method (FEM) setting. Therefore, consistent character element lengths are introduced into the formulation of the evolution of the three failure ISVs. Using the stationarity of the total work potential with respect to each ISV, a set of thermodynamically consistent evolution equations for the ISVs is derived. The theory is implemented into commercial FEM software. Objectivity of total energy dissipated during the failure process, with regards to refinements in the FEM mesh, is demonstrated. The model is also verified against experimental results from two laminated, T800/3900-2 panels containing a central notch and different fiber-orientation stacking sequences. Global load versus displacement, global load versus local strain gage data, and macroscopic failure paths obtained from the models are compared to the experiments.

  12. Impact of work pressure, work stress and work-family conflict on firefighter burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Todd D; DeJoy, David M; Dyal, Mari-Amanda Aimee; Huang, Gaojian

    2017-10-25

    Little research has explored burnout and its causes in the American fire service. Data were collected from career firefighters in the southeastern United States (n = 208) to explore these relationships. A hierarchical regression model was tested to examine predictors of burnout including sociodemographic characteristics (model 1), work pressure (model 2), work stress and work-family conflict (model 3) and interaction terms (model 4). The main findings suggest that perceived work stress and work-family conflict emerged as the significant predictors of burnout (both p burnout among firefighters.

  13. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job characteristics......This article investigates whether past absence behaviour is a predictor of present absence duration in a large Danish municipality with 17,499 individuals observed from 1996 to 2004. Past absence behaviour is measured in both absence days and absence spells. The article also investigates a number...... of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus confirms...

  14. Predictors of multidimensional outcome after spinal surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Mannion, A. F.; Elfering, A.; Staerkle, R.; Junge, A.; Grob, D.; Dvorak, J; Jacobshagen, N.; Semmer, N. K.; Boos, N.

    2006-01-01

    The variables identified as predictors of surgical outcome often differ depending on the specific outcome variable chosen to designate “success”. A short set of multidimensional core outcome measures was recently developed, in which each of the following domains was addressed with a single question and then combined in an index: pain, function, symptom-specific well-being, general well-being (quality of life), disability (work and social). The present study examined the factors that predicted...

  15. Recovery of Work-Related Stress: Complaint Reduction and Work-Resumption are Relatively Independent Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vente, Wieke; Kamphuis, Jan Henk; Blonk, Roland W B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2015-09-01

    The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the association between predictors and work-resumption. Seventy-one patients on sickness-leave because of work-related stress complaints were followed over a period of 13 months. Predictors comprised personal (demographics, coping, cognitions), work-related (job-characteristics, social support), and illness-related (complaint duration, absence duration) variables. Dependent variables were distress complaints, burnout complaints, and work-resumption. Complaints reduced considerably over time to borderline clinical levels and work-resumption increased to 68% at 13 months. Predictors of stronger reduction of distress complaints were male gender, less working hours, less decision authority, more co-worker support, and shorter absence duration. Predictors of stronger reduction of burnout complaints were male gender, lower age, high education, less avoidant coping, less decision authority, more job security, and more co-worker support. Predictors of work-resumption were lower age and stronger reduction of burnout complaints. No indication for a mediating role of burnout complaints between the predictor age and work-resumption was found. Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes. Symptom reduction is influenced by individual and work-related characteristics, which holds promise for a multidisciplinary treatment approach for work-related stress.

  16. Predictors and Therapy of Cardiomyopathy Caused by Frequent Ventricular Ectopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabbagh, Ghaith Sharaf; Bogun, Frank

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this review is to describe predictors and therapeutic principles for PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. PVC-induced cardiomyopathy is a treatable condition resulting in a reversible form of cardiomyopathy. PVC-induced cardiomyopathy has only recently been recognized as an entity that causes a reversible form of cardiomyopathy. The mechanism of development of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy has not yet been elucidated, although dyssynchrony appears to play a major role. Multiple factors have been described that are independently associated with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Predictors of PVC-induced cardiomyopathy include PVC prevalence, epicardial origin, male gender, longer symptom duration and asymptomatic status, presence of interpolated PVCs, lack of circadian variability, and a broader PVC-QRS width. In the presence of cardiomyopathy, work-up for structural heart disease and its etiology should be performed, followed by aggressive attempts at PVC reduction. There is evidence that ablation therapy is superior to medical therapy for frequent PVCs, but treatment decisions need to be individualized depending on the patients symptoms, PVC prevalence, PVC origin, patients comorbidities, and patient preference. The potential of sudden cardiac death associated with the presence of structural heart disease needs to be recognized, and appropriate risk stratification is mandatory.

  17. Predictors of male microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2012-01-01

    confounding and reverse causation. To address the issue of confounding, we conducted an analysis of predictors of male microchimerism in 272 female participants of the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. Buffy coat DNA was tested for Y chromosome presence as a marker of male microchimerism. First, we used...... logistic regression and thereafter random forest modeling to evaluate the ability of a range of reproductive, lifestyle, hospital or clinic visit history, and other variables to predict whether women tested positive for male microchimerism. We found some indication that current use of contraceptive pills...

  18. Final work plan : Phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Savannah, Missouri.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-10-12

    . This work will be performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and MoDNR, to address carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The investigative activities at Savannah will be conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an agreement with the DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The site characterization at Savannah will take place in phases. This approach is recommended by the CCC/USDA and Argonne, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage of the investigation can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. This site-specific Work Plan outlines the specific technical objectives and scope of work proposed for Phase I of the Savannah investigation. This Work Plan also includes the community relations plan to be followed throughout the CCC/USDA program at the Savannah site. Argonne is developing a Master Work Plan specific to operations in the state of Missouri. In the meantime, Argonne will issue a Provisional Master Work Plan (PMWP; Argonne 2007) that will be submitted to the MoDNR for review and approval. The agency has already reviewed and approved (with minor changes) the present Master Work Plan (Argonne 2002) under which Argonne currently operates in Kansas. The PMWP (Argonne 2007) will provide detailed information and guidance on the investigative technologies, analytical methodologies, quality assurance-quality control measures, and general health and safety policies to be employed by

  19. Timing of changes from a primitive reflex to a voluntary behavior in infancy as a potential predictor of socio-psychological and physical development during juvenile stages among common marmosets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genta Karino

    2015-07-01

    Consequently, we found that both subjects expressed climbing-up behavior in the initial early period, but only the female who developed typically later, switched to jumping-down behavior with pre-facing to ‘down’ direction. Meanwhile, the male who would have developmental delay later, clearly did not show the switching pattern. The results suggest that the switch timing from involuntary to voluntary movement may be a possible predictor of juvenile and adolescent physiological and psychological retardation. The results also suggest that the primate model allows more methods to be developed for early detection of developmental disabilities that could be utilized in humans to pave the way for interventions and possible psychological or psychiatric treatment.

  20. Final work plan : phase I investigation of potential contamination at the former CCC/USDA grain storage facility in Montgomery City, Missouri.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-16

    former grain storage facility, the CCC/USDA will conduct investigations to (1) characterize the source(s), extent, and factors controlling the possible subsurface distribution and movement of carbon tetrachloride at the Montgomery City site and (2) evaluate the health and environmental threats potentially represented by the contamination. This work will be performed in accord with the Intergovernmental Agreement established between the Farm Service Agency of the USDA and the MoDNR, to address carbon tetrachloride contamination potentially associated with a number of former CCC/USDA grain storage facilities in Missouri. The investigations at Montgomery City will be conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by the Environmental Science Division of Argonne National Laboratory. Argonne is a nonprofit, multidisciplinary research center operated by UChicago Argonne, LLC, for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The CCC/USDA has entered into an agreement with DOE, under which Argonne provides technical assistance to the CCC/USDA with environmental site characterization and remediation at its former grain storage facilities. The site characterization at Montgomery City will take place in phases. This approach is recommended by the CCC/USDA and Argonne, so that information obtained and interpretations developed during each incremental stage of the investigation can be used most effectively to guide subsequent phases of the program. This site-specific Work Plan outlines the specific technical objectives and scope of work proposed for Phase I of the Montgomery City investigation. This Work Plan also includes the community relations plan to be followed throughout the CCC/USDA program at the Montgomery City site. Argonne is developing a Master Work Plan specific to operations in the state of Missouri. In the meantime, Argonne has issued a Provisional Master Work Plan (PMWP; Argonne 2007) that has been reviewed and approved by the MoDNR for current use. The PMWP (Argonne 2007) provides

  1. Potentiation of motor sub-networks for motor control but not working memory: Interaction of dACC and SMA revealed by resting-state directed functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diwadkar, Vaibhav A; Asemi, Avisa; Burgess, Ashley; Chowdury, Asadur; Bressler, Steven L

    2017-01-01

    The dorsal Anterior Cingulate Cortex (dACC) and the Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) are known to interact during motor coordination behavior. We previously discovered that the directional influences underlying this interaction in a visuo-motor coordination task are asymmetric, with the dACC→SMA influence being significantly greater than that in the reverse direction. To assess the specificity of this effect, here we undertook an analysis of the interaction between dACC and SMA in two distinct contexts. In addition to the motor coordination task, we also assessed these effects during a (n-back) working memory task. We applied directed functional connectivity analysis to these two task paradigms, and also to the rest condition of each paradigm, in which rest blocks were interspersed with task blocks. We report here that the previously known asymmetric interaction between dACC and SMA, with dACC→SMA dominating, was significantly larger in the motor coordination task than the memory task. Moreover the asymmetry between dACC and SMA was reversed during the rest condition of the motor coordination task, but not of the working memory task. In sum, the dACC→SMA influence was significantly greater in the motor task than the memory task condition, and the SMA→dACC influence was significantly greater in the motor rest than the memory rest condition. We interpret these results as suggesting that the potentiation of motor sub-networks during the motor rest condition supports the motor control of SMA by dACC during the active motor task condition.

  2. Retrieval deficiency in brain activity of working memory in amnesic mild cognitive impairment patients: A brain event-related potentials study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binyin eLi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the early stage of Alzheimer disease (AD or mild cognitive impairment (MCI, working memory (WM deficiency is prominent and could be attributed to failure in encoding, maintenance or retrieval of information. However, evidence for a retention or retrieval deficit remains equivocal. It is also unclear what cognitive mechanism in working memory is impaired in MCI or early AD. We enrolled forty-six subjects from our Memory Clinics and community, with 24 amnesic MCI patients and 22 normal subjects. After neurological and cognitive assessments, they performed a classic delayed match to sample task with simultaneous event-related potential (ERP recorded. The ERPs in encoding and retrieval epoch during WM were analyzed separately. The latency and amplitude of every ERP component were compared between two groups, and then analyzed to explore their relationship with neuropsychological performance. Finally, the locations of maximal difference in cortex were calculated by standard low-resolution tomographic analysis. A total of five components were found: P1, N1, P2, N2 and P300. The amplitude of P2 and P300 was larger in normal subjects than in MCI patients only during retrieval, not encoding epoch, while the latency did not show statistical difference. The latency and amplitude of P1 and N1 were similar in two groups. P2 amplitude in the retrieval epoch positively correlated with memory test (auditory verbal learning test and visual spatial score of Chinese Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R, while P300 amplitude correlated with ACE-R. The activation difference in P2 time range was maximal at medial frontal gyrus. However, the difference in cortex activation during P300 time range did not show significance. The amplitude of P2 indicated deficiency in memory retrieval process, potentially due to dysfunction of central executive in WM model. Regarding the location of P2 during WM task, medial frontal plays important role in memory

  3. Work and health among immigrants and native Swedes 1990-2008: a register-based study on hospitalization for common potentially work-related disorders, disability pension and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Bo; Helgesson, Magnus; Lundberg, Ingvar; Nordquist, Tobias; Leijon, Ola; Lindberg, Per; Vingård, Eva

    2012-10-05

    There are many immigrants in the Swedish workforce, but knowledge of their general and work-related health is limited. The aim of this register-based study was to explore whether documented migrant residents in Sweden have a different health status regarding receipt of a disability pension, mortality and hospitalization for lung, heart, psychiatric, and musculoskeletal disorders compared with the native population, and if there were variations in relation to sex, geographical origin, position on the labor market, and time since first immigration. This study included migrants to Sweden since 1960 who were 28-47 years old in 1990, and included 243 860 individuals. The comparison group comprised a random sample of 859 653 native Swedes. These cohorts were followed from 1991 to 2008 in national registers. The immigrants were divided into four groups based on geographic origin. Hazard ratios for men and women from different geographic origins and with different employment status were analyzed separately for the six outcomes, with adjustment for age, education level, and income. The influence of length of residence in Sweden was analyzed separately. Nordic immigrants had increased risks for all investigated outcomes while most other groups had equal or lower risks for those outcomes than the Swedes. The lowest HRs were found in the EU 15+ group (from western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand). All groups, except Nordic immigrants, had lower risk of mortality, but all had higher risk of disability pension receipt compared with native Swedes. Unemployed non-Nordic men displayed equal or lower HRs for most outcomes, except disability pension receipt, compared with unemployed Swedish men. A longer time since first immigration improved the health status of men, while women showed opposite results. Employment status and length of residence are important factors for health. The contradictory results of low mortality and high disability pension risks need more

  4. Temporal dynamics of attention during encoding versus maintenance of working memory: complementary views from event-related potentials and alpha-band oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Nicholas E; Walther, Lena; Wallis, George; Stokes, Mark G; Nobre, Anna C

    2015-03-01

    Working memory (WM) is strongly influenced by attention. In visual WM tasks, recall performance can be improved by an attention-guiding cue presented before encoding (precue) or during maintenance (retrocue). Although precues and retrocues recruit a similar frontoparietal control network, the two are likely to exhibit some processing differences, because precues invite anticipation of upcoming information whereas retrocues may guide prioritization, protection, and selection of information already in mind. Here we explored the behavioral and electrophysiological differences between precueing and retrocueing in a new visual WM task designed to permit a direct comparison between cueing conditions. We found marked differences in ERP profiles between the precue and retrocue conditions. In line with precues primarily generating an anticipatory shift of attention toward the location of an upcoming item, we found a robust lateralization in late cue-evoked potentials associated with target anticipation. Retrocues elicited a different pattern of ERPs that was compatible with an early selection mechanism, but not with stimulus anticipation. In contrast to the distinct ERP patterns, alpha-band (8-14 Hz) lateralization was indistinguishable between cue types (reflecting, in both conditions, the location of the cued item). We speculate that, whereas alpha-band lateralization after a precue is likely to enable anticipatory attention, lateralization after a retrocue may instead enable the controlled spatiotopic access to recently encoded visual information.

  5. Transgenic Overexpression of the Type I Isoform of Neuregulin 1 Affects Working Memory and Hippocampal Oscillations but not Long-term Potentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Inga H.; Nissen, Wiebke; Law, Amanda J.; Lane, Tracy; Kanso, Riam; Schwab, Markus H.; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Lamsa, Karri P.; Paulsen, Ole; Bannerman, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Neuregulin 1 (NRG1) is a growth factor involved in neurodevelopment and plasticity. It is a schizophrenia candidate gene, and hippocampal expression of the NRG1 type I isoform is increased in the disorder. We have studied transgenic mice overexpressing NRG1 type I (NRG1tg-type I) and their wild-type littermates and measured hippocampal electrophysiological and behavioral phenotypes. Young NRG1tg-type I mice showed normal memory performance, but in older NRG1tg-type I mice, hippocampus-dependent spatial working memory was selectively impaired. Hippocampal slice preparations from NRG1tg-type I mice exhibited a reduced frequency of carbachol-induced gamma oscillations and an increased tendency to epileptiform activity. Long-term potentiation in NRG1tg-type I mice was normal. The results provide evidence that NRG1 type I impacts on hippocampal function and circuitry. The effects are likely mediated via inhibitory interneurons and may be relevant to the involvement of NRG1 in schizophrenia. However, the findings, in concert with those from other genetic and pharmacological manipulations of NRG1, emphasize the complex and pleiotropic nature of the gene, even with regard to a single isoform. PMID:21878485

  6. First-Grade Cognitive Predictors of Writing Disabilities in Grades 2 Through 4 Elementary School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Lara-Jeane; Green, Melissa; Sideris, John; Hooper, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was determining Grade 1 cognitive predictors of students at risk for writing disabilities in Grades 2 through 4. Applying cognitive measures selected to align with theoretical and empirical models of writing, tasks were administered to Grade 1 students assessing fine-motor, linguistic, and executive functions: 84 at risk (bottom quartile for age-base expectations) and 54 typically developing. A model with individual predictors was compared to a previously developed latent trait model to determine the relative predictive worth of each approach. Data analysis primarily involved stepwise logistic regression. Results revealed that the individual measures of orthographic choice, working memory, inhibitory control, visual memory recognition, and planning all were significant predictors of at risk status in Grades 2 through 4. The latent trait model also fared well but did not account for the same amount of variance as any of the individual measurement models for any of the grades. The findings lay the foundation for an empirically based approach to cognitive assessment in Grade 1 for identifying potential at-risk students in later elementary grades and suggest potential underlying neurocognitive abilities that could be employed with educational interventions for students with later-emerging writing disabilities.

  7. Meta-Analysis of Land Use / Land Cover Change Factors in the Conterminous US and Prediction of Potential Working Timberlands in the US South from FIA Inventory Plots and NLCD Cover Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeuck, James A.

    This dissertation consists of research projects related to forest land use / land cover (LULC): (1) factors predicting LULC change and (2) methodology to predict particular forest use, or "potential working timberland" (PWT), from current forms of land data. The first project resulted in a published paper, a meta-analysis of 64 econometric models from 47 studies predicting forest land use changes. The response variables, representing some form of forest land change, were organized into four groups: forest conversion to agriculture (F2A), forestland to development (F2D), forestland to non-forested (F2NF) and undeveloped (including forestland) to developed (U2D) land. Over 250 independent econometric variables were identified, from 21 F2A models, 21 F2D models, 12 F2NF models, and 10 U2D models. These variables were organized into a hierarchy of 119 independent variable groups, 15 categories, and 4 econometric drivers suitable for conducting simple vote count statistics. Vote counts were summarized at the independent variable group level and formed into ratios estimating the predictive success of each variable group. Two ratio estimates were developed based on (1) proportion of times independent variables successfully achieved statistical significance (p ≤0.10), and (2) proportion of times independent variables successfully met the original researchers'expectations. In F2D models, popular independent variables such as population, income, and urban proximity often achieved statistical significance. In F2A models, popular independent variables such as forest and agricultural rents and costs, governmental programs, and site quality often achieved statistical significance. In U2D models, successful independent variables included urban rents and costs, zoning issues concerning forestland loss, site quality, urban proximity, population, and income. F2NF models high success variables were found to be agricultural rents, site quality, population, and income. This meta

  8. Predict the Medicare Functional Classification Level (K-level) using the Amputee Mobility Predictor in people with unilateral transfemoral and transtibial amputation: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Michael P; Major, Matthew J; Kaluf, Brian; Balasanov, Yuri; Fatone, Stefania

    2017-05-01

    While Amputee Mobility Predictor scores differ between Medicare Functional Classification Levels (K-level), this does not demonstrate that the Amputee Mobility Predictor can accurately predict K-level. To determine how accurately K-level could be predicted using the Amputee Mobility Predictor in combination with patient characteristics for persons with transtibial and transfemoral amputation. Prediction. A cumulative odds ordinal logistic regression was built to determine the effect that the Amputee Mobility Predictor, in combination with patient characteristics, had on the odds of being assigned to a particular K-level in 198 people with transtibial or transfemoral amputation. For people assigned to the K2 or K3 level by their clinician, the Amputee Mobility Predictor predicted the clinician-assigned K-level more than 80% of the time. For people assigned to the K1 or K4 level by their clinician, the prediction of clinician-assigned K-level was less accurate. The odds of being in a higher K-level improved with younger age and transfemoral amputation. Ordinal logistic regression can be used to predict the odds of being assigned to a particular K-level using the Amputee Mobility Predictor and patient characteristics. This pilot study highlighted critical method design issues, such as potential predictor variables and sample size requirements for future prospective research. Clinical relevance This pilot study demonstrated that the odds of being assigned a particular K-level could be predicted using the Amputee Mobility Predictor score and patient characteristics. While the model seemed sufficiently accurate to predict clinician assignment to the K2 or K3 level, further work is needed in larger and more representative samples, particularly for people with low (K1) and high (K4) levels of mobility, to be confident in the model's predictive value prior to use in clinical practice.

  9. Work and health among immigrants and native Swedes 1990–2008: a register-based study on hospitalization for common potentially work-related disorders, disability pension and mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Bo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are many immigrants in the Swedish workforce, but knowledge of their general and work-related health is limited. The aim of this register-based study was to explore whether documented migrant residents in Sweden have a different health status regarding receipt of a disability pension, mortality and hospitalization for lung, heart, psychiatric, and musculoskeletal disorders compared with the native population, and if there were variations in relation to sex, geographical origin, position on the labor market, and time since first immigration. Methods This study included migrants to Sweden since 1960 who were 28–47 years old in 1990, and included 243 860 individuals. The comparison group comprised a random sample of 859 653 native Swedes. These cohorts were followed from 1991 to 2008 in national registers. The immigrants were divided into four groups based on geographic origin. Hazard ratios for men and women from different geographic origins and with different employment status were analyzed separately for the six outcomes, with adjustment for age, education level, and income. The influence of length of residence in Sweden was analyzed separately. Results Nordic immigrants had increased risks for all investigated outcomes while most other groups had equal or lower risks for those outcomes than the Swedes. The lowest HRs were found in the EU 15+ group (from western Europe, North America, Australia and New Zealand. All groups, except Nordic immigrants, had lower risk of mortality, but all had higher risk of disability pension receipt compared with native Swedes. Unemployed non-Nordic men displayed equal or lower HRs for most outcomes, except disability pension receipt, compared with unemployed Swedish men. A longer time since first immigration improved the health status of men, while women showed opposite results. Conclusions Employment status and length of residence are important factors for health. The contradictory

  10. Serum-elastin-peptides as a predictor of expansion of small abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Heickendorff, Lene; Henneberg, E W

    1997-01-01

    To optimise the indication and time for operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we analysed whether or not serum-elastin-peptides (SEP) could be a potential predictor for expansion.......To optimise the indication and time for operation for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), we analysed whether or not serum-elastin-peptides (SEP) could be a potential predictor for expansion....

  11. Lateralized delay period activity marks the focus of spatial attention in working memory: evidence from somatosensory event-related brain potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katus, Tobias; Eimer, Martin

    2015-04-29

    The short-term retention of sensory information in working memory (WM) is known to be associated with a sustained enhancement of neural activity. What remains controversial is whether this neural trace indicates the sustained storage of information or the allocation of attention. To evaluate the storage and attention accounts, we examined sustained tactile contralateral delay activity (tCDA component) of the event-related potential. The tCDA manifests over somatosensory cortex contralateral to task-relevant tactile information during stimulus retention. Two tactile sample sets (S1, S2) were presented sequentially, separated by 1.5 s. Each set comprised two stimuli, one per hand. Human participants memorized the location of one task-relevant stimulus per sample set and judged whether one of these locations was stimulated again at memory test. The two relevant pulses were unpredictably located on the same hand (stay trials) or on different hands (shift trials). Initially, tCDA components emerged contralateral to the relevant S1 pulse. Sequential loading of WM enhanced the tCDA after S2 was presented on stay trials. On shift trials, the tCDA's polarity reversed after S2 presentation, resulting in delay activity that was now contralateral to the task-relevant S2 pulse. The disappearance of a lateralized neural trace for the relevant S1 pulse did not impair memory accuracy for this stimulus on shift trials. These results contradict the storage account and suggest that delay period activity indicates the sustained engagement of an attention-based rehearsal mechanism. In conclusion, somatosensory delay period activity marks the current focus of attention in tactile WM. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356689-07$15.00/0.

  12. The modulation of auditory novelty processing by working memory load in school age children and adults: a combined behavioral and event-related potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widmann Andreas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the processing of task-irrelevant and unexpected novel sounds and its modulation by working-memory load in children aged 9-10 and in adults. Environmental sounds (novels were embedded amongst frequently presented standard sounds in an auditory-visual distraction paradigm. Each sound was followed by a visual target. In two conditions, participants evaluated the position of a visual stimulus (0-back, low load or compared the position of the current stimulus with the one two trials before (2-back, high load. Processing of novel sounds were measured with reaction times, hit rates and the auditory event-related brain potentials (ERPs Mismatch Negativity (MMN, P3a, Reorienting Negativity (RON and visual P3b. Results In both memory load conditions novels impaired task performance in adults whereas they improved performance in children. Auditory ERPs reflect age-related differences in the time-window of the MMN as children showed a positive ERP deflection to novels whereas adults lack an MMN. The attention switch towards the task irrelevant novel (reflected by P3a was comparable between the age groups. Adults showed more efficient reallocation of attention (reflected by RON under load condition than children. Finally, the P3b elicited by the visual target stimuli was reduced in both age groups when the preceding sound was a novel. Conclusion Our results give new insights in the development of novelty processing as they (1 reveal that task-irrelevant novel sounds can result in contrary effects on the performance in a visual primary task in children and adults, (2 show a positive ERP deflection to novels rather than an MMN in children, and (3 reveal effects of auditory novels on visual target processing.

  13. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Bevelander

    Full Text Available Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0 registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  14. Crowdsourcing novel childhood predictors of adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevelander, Kirsten E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Swain, Robert; Dohle, Simone; Bongard, Josh C; Hines, Paul D H; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Effective and simple screening tools are needed to detect behaviors that are established early in life and have a significant influence on weight gain later in life. Crowdsourcing could be a novel and potentially useful tool to assess childhood predictors of adult obesity. This exploratory study examined whether crowdsourcing could generate well-documented predictors in obesity research and, moreover, whether new directions for future research could be uncovered. Participants were recruited through social media to a question-generation website, on which they answered questions and were able to pose new questions that they thought could predict obesity. During the two weeks of data collection, 532 participants (62% female; age  =  26.5±6.7; BMI  =  29.0±7.0) registered on the website and suggested a total of 56 unique questions. Nineteen of these questions correlated with body mass index (BMI) and covered several themes identified by prior research, such as parenting styles and healthy lifestyle. More importantly, participants were able to identify potential determinants that were related to a lower BMI, but have not been the subject of extensive research, such as parents packing their children's lunch to school or talking to them about nutrition. The findings indicate that crowdsourcing can reproduce already existing hypotheses and also generate ideas that are less well documented. The crowdsourced predictors discovered in this study emphasize the importance of family interventions to fight obesity. The questions generated by participants also suggest new ways to express known predictors.

  15. The potential improvement of team-working skills in Biomedical and Natural Science students using a problem-based learning approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forough L. Nowrouzian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled. This development requires that students gain experience of team-work before they start their professional career. Students working in teams this may increase productivity, confidence, innovative capacity and improvement of interpersonal skills. Problem-based learning (PBL is an instructional approach focusing on real analytical problems as a means of training an analytical scientist. PBL may have a positive impact on team-work skills that are important for undergraduates and postgraduates to enable effective collaborative work. This survey of the current literature explores the development of the team-work skills in Biomedical Science students using PBL.

  16. Predictors of relationship power among drug-involved women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Aimee N C; Tross, Susan; Hu, Mei-chen; Pavlicova, Martina; Nunes, Edward V

    2012-08-01

    Gender-based relationship power is frequently linked to women's capacity to reduce sexual risk behaviors. This study offers an exploration of predictors of relationship power, as measured by the multidimensional and theoretically grounded sexual relationship power scale, among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Linear models were used to test nine predictors (age, race/ethnicity, education, time in treatment, economic dependence, substance use, sexual concurrency, partner abuse, and sex role orientation) of relationship power among 513 women participating in a multi-site HIV risk reduction intervention study. Significant predictors of relationship control included having a non-abusive male partner, only one male partner, and endorsing traditional masculine (or both masculine and feminine) sex role attributes. Predictors of decision-making dominance were interrelated, with substance use × partner abuse and age × sex role orientation interactions. Results contribute to the understanding of factors which may influence relationship power and to their potential role in HIV sexual risk reduction interventions.

  17. Exploring predictors and consequences of embitterment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidis, Evie; Cropley, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Research on the feeling of embitterment at work is still in its infancy. The present study investigated the predictors and consequences of the feeling of embitterment at work. It was hypothesised that organisational injustice as well as over-controlling supervision would predict embitterment at work and that embitterment would be associated with work-related rumination. Three hundred and thirty-seven employees completed an online survey. Regression analysis revealed that procedural injustice and over-controlling supervision were significant predictors of embitterment and that embitterment contributed significantly to the prediction of increased affective rumination and reduction in detachment. Mediation analysis indicated that embitterment at work was a significant mechanism through which organisational injustice and over-controlling supervision exerted their effect on affective rumination, which is indicative of insufficient recovery from work. Findings suggest that breaches in organisational justice can generate feelings of embitterment at work, which in turn can interfere with employees' ability to adequately recover from work. Practitioner Summary: The purpose of this study was to investigate predictors and consequences of embitterment in the workplace using an online questionnaire. Findings suggest that perceived unfairness, because of structural and organisational aspects, predicts feelings of embitterment and that feeling embittered at work can prevent employees from adequately recovering from work.

  18. The Critical Pedagogical Potential of Using Jacob A. Riis' Works about the Immigrant Poor in "Gilded Age" New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templer, Bill

    2017-01-01

    The article seeks to contribute to working-class and social justice pedagogy by developing concrete angles on teaching/exploring some of the (a) short fiction, (b) journalistic-photographic work and (c) sociography of poverty by the Danish-born US immigrant, muckraker (http://goo.gl/6WeGtM) and social reformer Jacob A. Riis (1849-1914,…

  19. Predictors of multidimensional outcome after spinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, A F; Elfering, A; Staerkle, R; Junge, A; Grob, D; Dvorak, J; Jacobshagen, N; Semmer, N K; Boos, N

    2007-06-01

    The variables identified as predictors of surgical outcome often differ depending on the specific outcome variable chosen to designate "success". A short set of multidimensional core outcome measures was recently developed, in which each of the following domains was addressed with a single question and then combined in an index: pain, function, symptom-specific well-being, general well-being (quality of life), disability (work and social). The present study examined the factors that predicted surgical outcome as measured using the multidimensional core measures. 163 spinal surgery patients (mixed indications) completed questionnaires before and 6 months after surgery enquiring about demographics, medical/clinical history, fear-avoidance beliefs (FABQ), depression (Zung self-rated depression), and the core measures domains. Multiple regression analyses were used to identify predictor variables for each core domain and for the multidimensional combined core-set index. The combination of baseline symptoms, medical variables (pain duration, previous spine operations, number of levels treated, operative procedure) and psychosocial factors (FABQ and Zung depression) explained 34% of the variance in the core measures index (P < 0.001). With regard to the individual domain items, the medical variables were better in predicting the items "pain" and "symptom-specific well-being" (R (2) = 6-7%) than in predicting "function", "general well-being" or "disability" (each R (2) < 4%). The inverse pattern was shown for the psychosocial predictors, which accounted for in each case approximately 20% variance in "function", "general well-being" and "disability" but only 12-14% variance in "pain" and "symptom-specific well-being". Further to previous studies establishing the sensitivity to change of the core-set, we have shown that a large proportion of the variance in its scores after surgery could be predicted by "well-known" medical and psychosocial predictor variables. This

  20. Emotional Demands at Work and the Risk of Clinical Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vammen, Marianne Agergaard; Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Kolstad, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study is a 2-year follow-up study of different dimensions of work-related emotional demands as a predictor for clinical depression. METHODS: In a two-wave study, 3224 (72%) public employees from 474 work-units participated twice by filling in questionnaires. Sixty-two cases of cli....... CONCLUSIONS: The personal perception of emotional demands was a risk factor for clinical depression but specific emotionally demanding work tasks were not.......OBJECTIVE: This study is a 2-year follow-up study of different dimensions of work-related emotional demands as a predictor for clinical depression. METHODS: In a two-wave study, 3224 (72%) public employees from 474 work-units participated twice by filling in questionnaires. Sixty-two cases...... of clinical depression were diagnosed. Emotional demands were examined as perceived and content-related emotional demands, individually reported and work-unit based. Support, meaningful work, and enrichment were considered as potential effect modifiers. RESULTS: Individually reported perceived emotional...

  1. Predictors for trismus in patients receiving radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Geer, S Joyce; Kamstra, Jolanda I; Roodenburg, Jan L N; van Leeuwen, Marianne; Reintsema, Harry; Langendijk, Johannes A; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2016-11-01

    Trismus, a restricted mouth opening in head and neck cancer patients may be caused by tumor infiltration in masticatory muscles, radiation-induced fibrosis or scarring after surgery. It may impede oral functioning severely. The aims of our study were to determine: (1) the incidence of trismus at various time points; and (2) the patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics that predict the development of trismus after radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients using a large database (n = 641). Maximal mouth opening was measured prior to and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 months after radiotherapy. Patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics were analyzed as potential predictors for trismus using a multivariable logistic regression analysis. At six months after radiotherapy, 28.1% of the patients without trismus prior to radiotherapy developed trismus for the first time. At subsequent time points the incidence declined. Over a total period of 48 months after radiotherapy, the incidence of trismus was 3.6 per 10 person years at risk. Patients who had tumors located in the oral cavity, oropharynx or nasopharynx, and the salivary glands or ear, and who had a longer overall treatment time of radiotherapy, were more likely to develop trismus in the first six months after radiotherapy. Maximal mouth opening was a predictor for developing trismus at all time points. Incidence of trismus is 3.6 per 10 person years at risk. Tumor localization and overall treatment time of radiotherapy are predictors for developing trismus the first six months after radiotherapy. Maximal mouth opening is a significant predictor for developing trismus at all time points. Regular measurements of maximal mouth opening are needed to predict trismus.

  2. Estimation of the electric power potential using wastewater sludge produced from the Percy Steward Wastewater Treatment Works (PS-WWTW) in Mogale City local municipality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mema, V

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy recovered from biogas in the form of methane can reduce the usage of electricity generated from fossil fuels thereby lessening greenhouse gas deposits into environment. Sewage sludge produced by Municipal Wastewater Treatment Works composes...

  3. Family and school environmental predictors of sleep bruxism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Debora; Manfredini, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    To identify potential predictors of self-reported sleep bruxism (SB) within children's family and school environments. A total of 65 primary school children (55.4% males, mean age 9.3 ± 1.9 years) were administered a 10-item questionnaire investigating the prevalence of self-reported SB as well as nine family and school-related potential bruxism predictors. Regression analyses were performed to assess the correlation between the potential predictors and SB. A positive answer to the self-reported SB item was endorsed by 18.8% of subjects, with no sex differences. Multiple variable regression analysis identified a final model showing that having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were the only two weak predictors of self-reported SB. The percentage of explained variance for SB by the final multiple regression model was 13.3% (Nagelkerke's R² = 0.133). While having a high specificity and a good negative predictive value, the model showed unacceptable sensitivity and positive predictive values. The resulting accuracy to predict the presence of self-reported SB was 73.8%. The present investigation suggested that, among family and school-related matters, having divorced parents and not falling asleep easily were two predictors, even if weak, of a child's self-report of SB.

  4. Characteristic Equation of the Modified Smith predictor to MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Herrera-Cuartas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The delay in control systems is a feature frequently in real systems due to the transport of objects or information, a series connection of multiple systems or own processing and sensors delay, among others. Recently there have been several studies to identify the external delay MIMO systems, these works are focused on identification and on-line control of MIMO systems and use a multimodel structure based on modified Smith predictor using different search method. It is clear that for the implementation of the algorithm, and to obtain the convergence and stability analysis, it is necessary to have closed-loop equations of modified Smith predictor. However, in these works is not presented the analytical procedure, not be the main object, displaying only the closed loop equations without the procedure for obtaining it. Therefore, to respond, in this paper, we present an analytical way to derive the closed-loop equations of a modified Smith predictor.  

  5. Personality Traits as Predictors of Work Efficiency Among Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made on assigning individual workers to critical or unique task based on their personality trait to ensure optimum performance of every worker in the oil companies. Also recommendation was made for the use of counselling psychologists in secondary schools and ...

  6. Leadership and Work pressure as predictors of Health and Safety ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The investigation of health and safety (H&S) climate has received a lot of research attention in the field of occupational health and safety (OHS). The importance of two H&S dimensions that contribute to the H&S climate were studied. The effect of leadership, top management commitment to health and safety (H&S) and ...

  7. Mobilizing Older Adults: Harnessing the Potential of Smart Home Technologies. Contribution of the IMIA Working Group on Smart Homes and Ambient Assisted Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiris, G; Thompson, H J

    2012-01-01

    This paper highlights the potential of smart home applications to not only assess mobility determinants for older adults in the home environment but also provide the opportunity for tailored interventions. We present a theoretical framework for assessing mobility parameters and utilizing this information to enable behavior change based on the Health Belief Model. We discuss examples that showcase the potential of smart home systems to not only measure but also improve mobility for community dwelling older adults. Mobility is a complex construct that cannot be addressed with a single monitoring approach or a single intervention. Instead, tailored interventions that address specific needs and behaviors of individuals and take into consideration preferences of older adults and potentially their social network are needed to effectively enforce positive behavior change. Smart home systems have the ability to capture details of one's daily living that could otherwise not be easily obtained; however, such data repositories alone are not sufficient to improve clinical outcomes if appropriate mechanisms for data mining and analysis, as well as tailored response systems are not in place. Unleashing the potential of smart home applications to measure and improve mobility has the potential of transforming elder care and providing potentially cost-effective tools to support independence for older adults. A technologically driven smart home application can maximize its clinical relevance by pursuing interactive features that can lead to behavior change.

  8. Predictors of attitudes towards non-technical skills in farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Amy; Poots, Jill

    2017-09-27

    Farming is a high risk sector with up to 170,000 worldwide fatalities reported per year; it is therefore vital to identify methods of mitigating the dangers of this industry. Research within high-risk industries, such as aviation, shipping, and agriculture, has identified the importance of non-technical skills (NTS) in maintaining effective, safe performance and reducing error and injury. However, there is a lack of research evaluating factors that may contribute to NTS attitudes and behaviors. As a first step to address this literature gap the current study evaluated a range of individual and environmental factors as potential predictors of attitudes towards NTS in agriculture. A sample of 170 farmers from within the United Kingdom and Ireland were surveyed using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire included measures of personality, stress, attitudes towards safety (safety climate, motivation, and risk), environmental stressors (workload, work-life imbalance) and non-technical skills (team and lone worker). Attitudes towards safety climate, compliance and motivation showed a significant association with both team-based and lone worker NTS. Conscientiousness correlated positively with the majority of the NTS elements. Multiple regression analysis indicated neuroticism and conscientiousness demonstrated capacity to predict NTS attitudes. Concerns about costs and equipment, attitudes towards safety climate and safety motivation were also found to be significant predictors of NTS attitudes. The results indicate the utility of individual characteristics, and environmental factors when predicting farming NTS attitudes. As a result these elements could be important when evaluating engagement with NTS, and developing NTS training initiatives in agriculture.

  9. Exploring the potential impact of rotavirus vaccination on work absenteeism among female administrative personnel of the City of Antwerp through a retrospective database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standaert, Baudouin; Van de Mieroop, Els; Nelen, Vera

    2015-06-30

    Rotavirus vaccination has been reimbursed in Belgium since November 2006 with a high uptake (>85%). Economic analyses of the vaccine have been reported, including estimates of indirect cost gain related to the reduction in work absenteeism. The objective of this study was to evaluate the latter parameter using real-life data. A simple model estimated the reduction in absent workdays per working mother with a firstborn baby after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. Next, data on work absences were retrospectively analysed (from 2003 to 2012) using a database of administrative employees (n=11,600 working women per year) in the City of Antwerp. Observed reductions in absenteeism after the introduction of the vaccine were compared with the results from the model. These reductions would most likely be observed during the epidemic periods of rotavirus (from January to the end of May) for short-duration absences of ≤ 5 days. We compared data from outside epidemic periods (from June to December), expecting no changes over time prevaccine and postvaccine introduction, as well as with a control group of women aged 30-35 years with no first child. Model estimates were 0.73 working days gained per working mother. In the database of the City of Antwerp, we identified a gain of 0.88 working days during the epidemic period, and an accumulated gain of 2.24 days over a 3-year follow-up period. In the control group, no decrease in absenteeism was measured. Giving vaccine access to working mothers resulted in an estimated accumulated net cost gain of €187 per mother. Reduction in absenteeism among working mothers was observed during periods of the epidemic after the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine in Belgium. This reduction is in line with estimates of indirect cost gains used in economic evaluations of the rotavirus vaccine. HO-12-12768. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. New predictors of sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Woon; Lee, Yu Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-01-01

    Sleep efficiency is a commonly and widely used measure to objectively evaluate sleep quality. Monitoring sleep efficiency can provide significant information about health conditions. As an attempt to facilitate less cumbersome monitoring of sleep efficiency, our study aimed to suggest new predictors of sleep efficiency that enable reliable and unconstrained estimation of sleep efficiency during awake resting period. We hypothesized that the autonomic nervous system activity observed before falling asleep might be associated with sleep efficiency. To assess autonomic activity, heart rate variability and breathing parameters were analyzed for 5 min. Using the extracted parameters as explanatory variables, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses and k-fold cross-validation tests were performed with 240 electrocardiographic and thoracic volume change signal recordings to develop the sleep efficiency prediction model. The developed model's sleep efficiency predictability was evaluated using 60 piezoelectric sensor signal recordings. The regression model, established using the ratio of the power of the low- and high-frequency bands of the heart rate variability signal and the average peak inspiratory flow value, provided an absolute error (mean ± SD) of 2.18% ± 1.61% and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94 (p efficiency predictive values and the reference values. Our study is the first to achieve reliable and unconstrained prediction of sleep efficiency without overnight recording. This method has the potential to be utilized for home-based, long-term monitoring of sleep efficiency and to support reasonable decision-making regarding the execution of sleep efficiency improvement strategies.

  11. Spatial and Numerical Predictors of Measurement Performance: The Moderating Effects of Community Income and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Beth M.; Dearing, Eric; Vasilyeva, Marina; Ganley, Colleen M.; Tine, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Spatial reasoning and numerical predictors of measurement performance were investigated in 4th graders from low-income and affluent communities. Predictors of 2 subtypes of measurement performance (spatial-conceptual and formula based) were assessed while controlling for verbal and spatial working memory. Consistent with prior findings, students…

  12. Predictors of burnout: results from a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rössler, Wulf; Hengartner, Michael P; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Angst, Jules

    2015-02-01

    The possible link between work strain and subsequent mental disorders has attracted public attention in many European countries. Burnout has become a favored concept within this context. Most burnout research has concentrated on various professional groups and less so on ordinary community samples. We analyzed the data collected from a 30-year community sample during seven measuring occasions, beginning in 1978. In the last assessment (2008), we included for the first time the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Making the diagnosis of a lifetime mental disorder a predictor for burnout required us to compile the cumulative prevalence rate over all seven occasions. We also evaluated various psycho-social predictors of burnout over the life cycle of our sample. Concurrent associations of the MBI with subscales from the SCL-90-R were also investigated. The relationship of burnout with several SCL-90-R subscales demonstrated that, in all dimensions, burnout is associated with significant psychopathology. Persons with a lifetime mood disorder, and especially those with a combination of mood and anxiety disorders, had a higher risk for subsequent burnout. Various partnership problems were another predictor for burnout. In conclusion, the role of mental disorder as an occupational illness remains controversial. Various forms of such disorders as well as some psycho-social predictors can predispose to burnout. By contrast, work-related predictors appear to be less important.

  13. Functional insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) hormone-receptor system in the testes and spermatozoa of domestic ruminants and its potential as a predictor of sire fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Ali M; Uchiyama, Kyoko; Sano, Hiroaki; Kinukawa, Masashi; Minato, Yoshiaki; Sasada, Hiroshi; Kohsaka, Tetsuya

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3) is essential for fetal testis descent, and has been implicated in the testicular and sperm functions in adult males; however, similar functions in domestic ruminants remain largely unknown. This study investigated the functional INSL3 hormone-receptor system in adult ruminant testes and spermatozoa, and explored its potential to diagnose the fertility of sires. Testes and spermatozoa were obtained from fertile bulls, rams and he-goats, whereas subfertile testes and spermatozoa were obtained only from bulls. As expected, INSL3 was visualized in Leydig cells, while we clearly demonstrated that the functional receptor, relaxin family peptide receptor 2 (RXFP2), enabling INSL3 to bind was identified in testicular germ cells and in the sperm equatorial segment of bulls, rams and he-goats. In comparison to fertile bulls, the percentage of INSL3- and RXFP2-expressing cells and their expression levels per cell were significantly reduced in the testes of subfertile bulls. In addition, the population of INSL3-binding spermatozoa was also significantly reduced in the semen of subfertile bulls. These results provide evidence for a functional INSL3 hormone-receptor system operating in ruminant testes and spermatozoa, and its potential to predict subfertility in sires. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  14. The Acceptability and Potential Utility of Cognitive Training to Improve Working Memory in Persons Living With HIV: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towe, Sheri L; Patel, Puja; Meade, Christina S

    HIV-associated neurocognitive impairments that impact daily function persist in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. Cognitive training, a promising low-cost intervention, has been shown to improve neurocognitive functioning in some clinical populations. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effects of computerized cognitive training to improve working memory in persons living with HIV infection (PLWH) and working memory impairment. In this randomized clinical trial, we assigned 21 adult PLWH to either an experimental cognitive training intervention or an attention-matched control training intervention. Participants completed 12 training sessions across 10 weeks with assessments at baseline and post-training. Session attendance was excellent and participants rated the program positively. Participants in the experimental arm demonstrated improved working memory function over time; participants in the control arm showed no change. Our results suggest that cognitive training may be a promising intervention for working memory impairment in PLWH and should be evaluated further. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Reprising the Home Language Survey: Summary of a National Working Session on Policies, Practices, and Tools for Identifying Potential English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquanti, Robert; Bailey, Alison L.

    2014-01-01

    This document is the first in a series of working papers that elaborate on a framework of four key stages in moving toward a common definition of English learner (EL), as described in the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) publication, "Toward a "Common Definition of English Learner": A Brief Defining Policy and…

  16. Characterizing exposure and potential impacts of contaminants on seabirds nesting at South San Diego Bay Unit of the San Diego National Wildlife Refuge (Salt Works, San Diego Bay)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 2005, a two-year USFWS study (1261-1N74) was initiated to characterize contaminant exposure by seabirds that nest in colonies at the South Bay Salt Works, within...

  17. The Potential Improvement of Team-Working Skills in Biomedical and Natural Science Students Using a Problem-Based Learning Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzian, Forough L.; Farewell, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of most organisations today, and it is clearly important in Science and other disciplines. In Science, research teams increase in size while the number of single-authored papers and patents decline. Team-work in laboratory sciences permits projects that are too big or complex for one individual to be tackled.…

  18. Predictors of Gender Inequalities in the Rank of Full Professor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijstra, Thamar; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Rafnsdóttir, Gudbjörg Linda

    2015-01-01

    This article examines whether age, work-related, and family-related predictors explain differences in the academic advancement of women and men in Iceland. Survey data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. The findings put that women climb the academic career ladder at a slower pace than men. This finding puts one of the widely known…

  19. Predictors of Stress in Nigerian Executives | Adeoye | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight major predictor variables of workload, role, career prospects, organizational structure and climate, interpersonal relations, environment, home and private life were tested using simple regression analysis. Also, public and private sector executives were compared on the basis of age and working experience. All results ...

  20. Executive Functions as Predictors of Math Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2011-01-01

    In the past years, an increasing number of studies have investigated executive functions as predictors of individual differences in mathematical abilities. The present longitudinal study was designed to investigate whether the executive functions shifting, inhibition, and working memory differ between low achieving and typically achieving children…

  1. Predictors of Vitamin D Deficiency in Predialysis Patients with Stage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-05

    Dec 5, 2017 ... study, hospitalized predialysis patients who were diagnosed of Stage 3–5 CKD and had taken measurement of ... function with eGFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m2 are independent predictors of Vitamin D deficiency in ... tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the author is credited and the new ...

  2. Age-related changes in working memory and the ability to ignore distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNab, Fiona; Zeidman, Peter; Rutledge, Robb B; Smittenaar, Peter; Brown, Harriet R; Adams, Rick A; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-05-19

    A weakened ability to effectively resist distraction is a potential basis for reduced working memory capacity (WMC) associated with healthy aging. Exploiting data from 29,631 users of a smartphone game, we show that, as age increases, working memory (WM) performance is compromised more by distractors presented during WM maintenance than distractors presented during encoding. However, with increasing age, the ability to exclude distraction at encoding is a better predictor of WMC in the absence of distraction. A significantly greater contribution of distractor filtering at encoding represents a potential compensation for reduced WMC in older age.

  3. Games at work: the recreational use of computer games during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Leonard

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigated the recreational use of video and computer games in the workplace. In an online survey, 833 employed users of online casual games reported on their use of computer games during working hours. The data indicate that playing computer games in the workplace elicits substantial levels of recovery experience. Recovery experience associated with gameplay was the strongest predictor for the use of games in the workplace. Furthermore, individuals with higher levels of work-related fatigue reported stronger recovery experience during gameplay and showed a higher tendency to play games during working hours than did persons with lower levels of work strain. Additionally, the social situation at work was found to have a significant influence on the use of games. Persons receiving less social support from colleagues and supervisors played games at work more frequently than did individuals with higher levels of social support. Furthermore, job control was positively related to the use of games at work. In sum, the results of the present study illustrate that computer games have a significant recovery potential. Implications of these findings for research on personal computer use during work and for games research in general are discussed.

  4. Effect of a Predictor Instrument on Learning to Land a Simulated Jet Trainer. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell L.; And Others

    The study investigates the potential utility of a predictor instrument in the training of manual control operators in aircraft simulators. Various predictor display design configurations were presented to subjects during training trials on an aircraft approach to landing task. Subsequently, subjects were tested on trials devoid of the predictor…

  5. Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Predictors of mortality in HIV-1 exposed uninfected post-neonatal infants at the Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. ... Objectives: To identify potential predictors of mortality, to determine mortality rate and to identify prevalent causes of death in a cohort of HIV-l exposed uninfected infants. ... East African Medical Journal Vol.

  6. Inter-individual differences in sleep response to shift work in novice police officers - A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers-van der Holst, Heidi M; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Drosopoulos, Spyridon; Kerkhof, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study on novice police officers was to investigate inter-individual differences in sleep response to shift work, and to identify potential baseline predictors thereof. A total of 42 subjects were assessed at baseline, prior to commencing shift work. They were re-assessed during three follow-up sessions within the first 2 years of shift work exposure after approximately 4, 12, and 20 months of rotating shift work. Wrist actigraphy and sleep logs were used to investigate nocturnal sleep at baseline and daytime sleep after night shifts during the follow-up sessions. Actigraphically estimated total sleep time and subjective sleep quality were analyzed as outcome variables, using mixed-effects analysis of variance. Systematic inter-individual differences were observed in the overall response of these outcome variables to shift work. In this sample, flexibility of sleeping habits and gender were found to be predictors of daytime total sleep time in the first 2 years of shift work exposure. Flexibility of sleeping habits and subjective quality of nighttime sleep prior to shift work were found to be predictors of subjective quality of daytime sleep. These results suggest that it may be possible to detect and even predict sleep deficiencies in response to shift work early on, which could be a basis for the development of individualized interventions to improve shift work tolerance.

  7. The Potential Ability of Plaster to Cause Breast Cancer as Indicated by CA15-3 and CEA Antigens in Women Working in Gypsum Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Hussein S. AL-Janabi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Plaster is an important form of gypsum that mainly used in building construction. Breast cancer was investigated among women exposure to the dust of such material. The levels of CA15-3 and carcinoembryonic antigens (CEA as indicators for breast cancer were measured in the serum of 120 women working in a plaster factory. All of involved women showed a normal level of CEA, while 12.5% of them had moderately elevated levels of CA15-3. In conclusion; plaster dust has no significant effect to cause breast cancer in working women. Moderately high levels of CA15-3 in some of exposed women may relate to liver diseases. Key words: Breast Cancer, Plaster, CA15-3, CEA

  8. LGBQ-Specific Elderly Housing as a "Sparkling Sanctuary": Boundary Work on LGBQ Identity and Community in Relationship to Potential LGBQ-Specific Elderly Housing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Lena; Kottorp, Anders; Johansson, Karin

    2017-09-08

    This study explored how boundaries in relationship to community and identity were created and negotiated among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and queer (LGBQ) people within the framework of picturing LGBQ-specific elderly housing as a housing alternative in older age, by applying focus group methodology. "An island as a sparkling sanctuary" was identified as a metaphor for how symbolic resources defining the LGBQ community can be manifested in LGBQ-specific qualities of elderly housing. The boundary work underlying this manifestation included elaborations on the dilemma between exclusiveness and normality. The findings illustrate further how symbolic resources and collective identities were developed through dialectic interplay between internal and external definitions. Further, the findings show how boundary work generated shared feelings of similarity and group membership. The associated symbolic and social resources not only served to deal with difficult situations but also to manifest LGBQ identity and sense of community as a "gold medal."

  9. Prevalence and predictors of irritable bowel syndrome among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a frequent, costly, and potentially disabling gastrointestinal disorder. Medical education is among the most challenging and the most stressful education, and this may predispose to high rates of IBS. Objective: To determine the prevalence and predictors of IBS among medical ...

  10. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel : A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed

  11. Predictors of Adult Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagne, Marie-Helene; Tourigny, Marc; Joly, Jacques; Pouliot-Lapointe, Joelle

    2007-01-01

    This study identifies predictors of favorable attitudes toward spanking. Analyses were performed with survey data collected from a representative sample of 1,000 adults from Quebec, Canada. According to this survey, a majority of respondents endorsed spanking, despite their recognition of potential harm associated with corporal punishment (CP) of…

  12. Pre-morbid predictors of psychological adjustment to cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, AV; Sanderman, R; Steptoe, A; Wardle, J; Miedema, [No Value; Ormel, J; Miedema, I.

    This study examined the potential role of social support, neuroticism, and self-efficacy as predictors of the short-term and long-term adaptation to the diagnosis of cancer. Psychological adjustment was defined in terms of psychological distress. It is argued that these factors may provide insights

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Dynamic MR Imaging of Uterine Fibroids as a Potential Predictor of Patient Eligibility for MR Guided Focused Ultrasound (MRgFUS Treatment for Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Yoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound surgery (MRgFUS is a non-invasive treatment approach for symptomatic uterine fibroids. One imaging characteristic considered in selecting patients who may benefit from MRgFUS of their uterine fibroids is the signal intensity of the fibroid compared with surrounding myometrium on T2-weighted MR images. Previous reports suggest that hyper-intense fibroids are less amenable to MRgFUS compared with iso- or hypo-intense fibroids. In this case study, we utilized contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging to further characterize the vascularity of a hyper-intense fibroid. Based on the results of dynamic T1-weighted contrast-enhanced images, we assumed that the hyper-intense appearance resulted from high fluid content rather than high vascularity and predicted that the fibroid would respond to MRgFUS. The patient underwent the MRgFUS without complication and reported significant decrease in fibroid symptoms at 3 and 12 months post-treatment. This case suggests that pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging used in conjunction with T2-weighted imaging may improve the criteria for selecting uterine fibroids amenable to treatment with MRgFUS, potentially leading to improved patient outcomes.

  14. [Influence of work climate on the sick building syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Ferraro, P; Vincenti, F

    2007-01-01

    The potential risk factors for sick building syndrome (SBS) are not yet well elucidated. A questionnaire was administered concerning environmental conditions at the work place and complaints before and after the take-over of one company from another corporation. Workers had to move into new company, but were still working in old office building. Before the change, environmental objective and subjective conditions and workers' wellbeing were within normal range. The change did not involved air quality, however results of the questionnaire demonstrated an increased irritation of the mucous membranes and a reduction of well-being. The level and severity of symptoms appeared to be related to perceived indoor environment quality, and depression score. High stress related to work changes was found to be significantly associated with SBS symptoms. The psychosocial work environment can be an important predictor of SBS symptoms.

  15. The probability of potentially useful work days during the year in LondrinaProbabilidade de dias potencialmente úteis de trabalho durante o ano em Londrina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Trindade Ataíde

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The probabilities associated with the number of days suitable for working outdoors and for working with machinery in the field were estimated for the municipality of Londrina, state of Parana, Brazil. Days with less than 10 mm of precipitation were considered suitable for outdoor operations. The number of days per month and the number of ten-day periods satisfying this condition were modeled with a negative binomial distribution, and the probabilities were estimated at different levels. The days suitable for working with machinery in the field were specified as those days for which the values of water storage in the soil were at or below 90% of the available water capacity in the upper 30 cm of the soil and for which the precipitation was less than 5 mm. A first-order Markov chain was used to estimate the conditional probabilities of favorable days for working with machinery in the field. The results indicated that the best time to work outdoors in Londrina extends from April through September, with the most favorable period occurring between late July and early September. The highest probabilities of favorable days for working in the field occur during April and from June through August. The probabilities of two consecutive days favorable for working with machinery in the field are highest between June and August. These probabilities allow the determination of the needs for the performance of tasks involving mechanized equipment. Foram estimadas as probabilidades de dias úteis de trabalho em locais descobertos e a trafegabilidade de maquinários no campo, para o município de Londrina-PR. Dias com precipitação igual ou superior a 10 mm foram considerados inadequados para operações a céu descoberto. O número de dias mensais e decendiais que satisfazem essa condição foram ajustados à distribuição binomial negativa e foram estimadas as probabilidades em diferentes níveis. Os dias favoráveis ao trabalho com máquinas no campo foram

  16. Genomic predictors of combat stress vulnerability and resilience in U.S. Marines: A genome-wide association study across multiple ancestries implicates PRTFDC1 as a potential PTSD gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nievergelt, Caroline M; Maihofer, Adam X; Mustapic, Maja; Yurgil, Kate A; Schork, Nicholas J; Miller, Mark W; Logue, Mark W; Geyer, Mark A; Risbrough, Victoria B; O'Connor, Daniel T; Baker, Dewleen G

    2015-01-01

    .47, SE=0.06, p=2.04×10(-9)), with a similar effect across ancestry groups. Association of PRTFDC1 with PTSD in an independent military cohort showed some evidence for replication. Loci with suggestive evidence of association (n=25 genes, pPTSD genes from the literature found nominally significant SNPs for the majority of these genes, but associations did not remain significant after correction for multiple comparison. A cross-disorder analysis of polygenic risk scores from GWASs of BPD, MDD, and SCZ found that PTSD diagnosis was associated with risk sores of BPD, but not with MDD or SCZ. This first multi-ethnic/racial GWAS of PTSD highlights the potential to increase power through meta-analyses across ancestry groups. We found evidence for PRTFDC1 as a potential novel PTSD gene, a finding that awaits further replication. Our findings indicate that the genetic architecture of PTSD may be determined by many SNPs with small effects, and overlap with other neuropsychiatric disorders, consistent with current findings from large GWAS of other psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Longitudinal predictors of reading and math trajectories through middle school for African American versus Caucasian students across two samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Stephen R; Roberts, Joanne; Sideris, John; Burchinal, Margaret; Zeisel, Susan

    2010-09-01

    This study's primary purpose was to examine the relative contribution of social-behavioral predictors to reading and math skills. The study expands on Duncan et al.'s (2007) work by using longitudinal methodology from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) and the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) databases, and by focusing on potential differences in patterns of early predictors of later reading and math trajectories for African American versus Caucasian students. Predictor measures were selected at kindergarten, and the outcomes included standardized reading and math scores obtained from Grades 1, 3, 5, and 9 for the SECCYD sample, and Grades 3, 5, and 8 for the ECLS-K sample. Consistent with Duncan et al.'s findings, results reflect the relative contributions of early reading and math skills to later functioning in these respective academic domains for both samples, and there are indications for the importance of early expressive language skills to both reading and math in the SECCYD sample. Findings related to the power of social-behavioral predictors, however, are not consistent across samples. Although the SECCYD sample evidenced no such predictors, several interactions in the ECLS-K sample suggested the moderating effects of early ratings of aggressive behaviors and internalizing behaviors on later reading and math for African American students. The moderating effects of early teacher ratings of attention and internalizing behaviors for African American students as compared with Caucasian students in later math growth also were noted. The importance of early social-behavioral functions as related to later academic skills remains an important area of inquiry.

  18. A prospective study of predictors of depression symptoms in police

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhen; Inslicht, Sabra S.; Metzler, Thomas J.; Henn-Haase, Clare; McCaslin, Shannon E.; Tong, Huiqi; Neylan, Thomas C.; Marmar, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Police work is one of the most stressful occupations. Previous research has indicated that work stress and trauma exposure may place individuals at heightened risk for the development of depression symptomatology. This prospective longitudinal study was designed to examine predictors of depression symptoms in police service.119 healthy police recruits from an ongoing prospective study were examined. Participants completed baseline measures of depression symptoms, childhood trauma exposure, ne...

  19. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G

    2005-02-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

  20. Technological Capability's Predictor Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Maciel Reichert

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify the factors that influence in configuration of the technological capability of companies in sectors with medium-low technological intensity. To achieve the goal proposed in this article a survey was carried out. Based on the framework developed by Lall (1992 which classifies firms in basic, intermediate and advanced level of technological capability; it was found that the predominant technological capability is intermediate, with 83.7% of respondent companies (plastics companies in Brazil. It is believed that the main contribution of this study is the finding that the dependent variable named “Technological Capability” can be explained at a rate of 65% by six variables: development of new processes; selection of the best equipment supplier; sales of internally developed new technology to third parties; design and manufacture of equipment; study of the work methods and perform inventory control; and improvement of product quality.

  1. Constellation of HCN channels and cAMP regulating proteins in dendritic spines of the primate prefrontal cortex: potential substrate for working memory deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paspalas, Constantinos D; Wang, Min; Arnsten, Amy F T

    2013-07-01

    Schizophrenia associates with impaired prefrontal cortical (PFC) function and alterations in cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathways. These include genetic insults to disrupted-in-schizophrenia (DISC1) and phosphodiesterases (PDE4s) regulating cAMP hydrolysis, and increased dopamine D1 receptor (D1R) expression that elevates cAMP. We used immunoelectron microscopy to localize DISC1, PDE4A, PDE4B, and D1R in monkey PFC and to view spatial interactions with hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that gate network inputs when opened by cAMP. Physiological interactions between PDE4s and HCN channels were tested in recordings of PFC neurons in monkeys performing a spatial working memory task. The study reveals a constellation of cAMP-related proteins (DISC1, PDE4A, and D1R) and HCN channels next to excitatory synapses and the spine neck in thin spines of superficial PFC, where working memory microcircuits interconnect and spine loss is most evident in schizophrenia. In contrast, channels in dendrites were distant from synapses and cAMP-related proteins, and were associated with endosomal trafficking. The data suggest that a cAMP signalplex is selectively positioned in the spines to gate PFC pyramidal cell microcircuits. Single-unit recordings confirmed physiological interactions between cAMP and HCN channels, consistent with gating actions. These data may explain why PFC networks are especially vulnerable to genetic insults that dysregulate cAMP signaling.

  2. The relationship between work and home characteristics and work engagement in medical residents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, H.; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Heijden, F.M.M.A. van der; Prins, J.T.; Lagro-Janssen, A.; Ravesteijn, H.J. van; Speckens, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Work engagement is important for medical residents and the healthcare organizations they work for. However, relatively little is known about the specific predictors of work engagement in medical residents. Therefore, we examined the associations of work and home characteristics, and

  3. Effect of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health of hospital nurses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Khamisa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of studies to date have focused on the effects of work stress in the nursing environment, with the effect of personal stress in nursing being less explored. This study sought to determine whether personal stress is a more significant predictor of burnout, job satisfaction and general health than work stress. Of the 1200 nurses randomly selected to participate in the study, 895 agreed to complete six questionnaires over 3 weeks. Data was analysed using hierarchical multiple linear regression. Findings revealed that personal stress is a better predictor of burnout and general health than job satisfaction, which is better predicted by work stress. The findings of this study could inform potential solutions to reduce the impact of personal and work stress on burnout, job satisfaction and general health. Coping strategies and staffing strategies need to be evaluated within developing contexts such as South Africa to as certain their effectiveness.

  4. Predictors of Smokeless Tobacco Abstinence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Jon O.; Glover, Elbert D.; Shinozaki, Eri; Schroeder, Darrell R.; Dale, Lowell C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate predictors of tobacco abstinence among smokeless tobacco (ST) users. Methods: Logistic regression analyses assessed characteristics associated with tobacco abstinence among ST users receiving bupropion SR. Results: Older age was associated with increased tobacco abstinence in both placebo and bupropion SR groups at end…

  5. Predictors of posttreatment drinking outcomes in patients with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Gerardo; Saiz, Pilar A; García-Portilla, Paz; De Cos, Francisco J; Dapía, Sonia; Alvarez, Sandra; Nogueiras, Luis; Bobes, Julio

    2015-01-01

    This cohort study examined how predictors of alcohol dependence treatment outcomes work together over time by comparing pretreatment and posttreatment predictors. A sample of 274 alcohol-dependent patients was recruited and assessed at baseline, 6 months after treatment initiation (end of the active intervention phase), and 18 months after treatment initiation (end of the 12-month research follow-up phase). At each assessment point, the participants completed a battery of standardized tests [European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI), Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS), Alcohol Timeline Followback (TLFB), Fagerström, and International Personality Disorder Examination (IPDE)] that measured symptom severity and consequences; biological markers of alcohol consumption were also tested at each assessment point. A sequential strategy with univariate and multivariate analyses was used to identify how pretreatment and posttreatment predictors influence outcomes up to 1 year after treatment. Pretreatment variables had less predictive power than posttreatment ones. OCDS scores and biological markers of alcohol consumption were the most significant variables for the prediction of posttreatment outcomes. Prior pharmacotherapy treatment and relapse prevention interventions were also associated with posttreatment outcomes. The findings highlight the positive impact of pharmacotherapy during the first 6 months after treatment initiation and of relapse prevention during the first year after treatment and how posttreatment predictors are more important than pretreatment predictors.

  6. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline—Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrica Hörberg

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical–philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical–philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care.

  7. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline—Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical–philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical–philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care. PMID:26319100

  8. Caring potentials in the shadows of power, correction, and discipline - Forensic psychiatric care in the light of the work of Michel Foucault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörberg, Ulrica; Dahlberg, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on contemporary forensic psychiatric care through a philosophical examination of the empirical results from two lifeworld phenomenological studies from the perspective of patients and carers, by using the French philosopher Michel Foucault's historical-philosophical work. Both empirical studies were conducted in a forensic psychiatric setting. The essential results of the two empirical studies were reexamined in a phenomenological meaning analysis to form a new general structure in accordance with the methodological principles of Reflective Lifeworld Research. This general structure shows how the caring on the forensic psychiatric wards appears to be contradictory, in that it is characterized by an unreflective (non-)caring attitude and contributes to an inconsistent and insecure existence. The caring appears to have a corrective approach and thus lacks a clear caring structure, a basic caring approach that patients in forensic psychiatric services have a great need of. To gain a greater understanding of forensic psychiatric caring, the new empirical results were further examined in the light of Foucault's historical-philosophical work. The philosophical examination is presented in terms of the three meaning constituents: Caring as correction and discipline, The existence of power, and Structures and culture in care. The philosophical examination illustrates new meaning nuances of the corrective and disciplinary nature of forensic psychiatric care, its power, and how this is materialized in caring, and what this does to the patients. The examination reveals embedded difficulties in forensic psychiatric care and highlights a need to revisit the aim of such care.

  9. Prevalence and predictors of musculoskeletal pain among Danish fishermen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Østergaard, Helle; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis

    2016-01-01

    at sea, age, BMI and education were used as predictors for the overall musculoskeletal pain score (multiple linear regression) and for each single pain site (multinomial logistic regression). RESULTS: The prevalence of pain was high for all musculoskeletal locations. Overall, more than 80......% of the responding Danish fishermen reported low back pain, which in 37% lasted for a minimum of 30 days during the past year. In the multiple linear regression analysis, middle workload was associated with a 32% (95% CI: 19-46%) and high workload with 60% (95% CI: 46-73%) increased musculoskeletal pain score...... compared to low work load. Multinomial logistic regression models showed that workload was the only predictor for all pain sites, in particular regarding upper and lower limb pain. CONCLUSION: Although changes were implemented to improve the fishermen's work environment, the work continues to be physically...

  10. Predictors of Collateral Learning Transfer in Continuing Vocational Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja-Christina Hinrichs

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of demographic change and skill shortages continuing vocational training is of great significance in Germany. However, the training effectiveness is mostly assessed only at the end of a training program or several months after the training. Since in continuing vocational training the two contexts learning field (training and performance field (work context act simultaneously, the presented study investigated whether there are already situations in the work context which allow the application of newly acquired knowledge in parallel with the training. The main focus lies in the identification of predictors of learning transfer that takes place alongside the training participation and in the investigation of their causal relationships. Using structural equation modelling five latent variables were identified which have a significant effect on learning transfer parallel to the training – the so called collateral learning transfer. These five predictors explain together 62% of the variance of collateral learning transfer (gathered as performance improvement at work.

  11. Measures for Predictors of Innovation Adoption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chor, Ka Ho Brian; Wisdom, Jennifer P.; Olin, Su-Chin Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Horwitz, Sarah M.

    2014-01-01

    Building on a narrative synthesis of adoption theories by Wisdom et al. (2013), this review identifies 118 measures associated with the 27 adoption predictors in the synthesis. The distribution of measures is uneven across the predictors and predictors vary in modifiability. Multiple dimensions and definitions of predictors further complicate measurement efforts. For state policymakers and researchers, more effective and integrated measurement can advance the adoption of complex innovations such as evidence-based practices. PMID:24740175

  12. The association between beliefs about low back pain and work presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, Anne F; Horisberger, Bruno; Eisenring, Claudia; Tamcan, Oezguer; Elfering, Achim; Müller, Urs

    2009-11-01

    To examine the influence of beliefs about low back pain (LBP) on reduced productivity at work ("presenteeism") caused by LBP. Two thousand five hundred seven individuals completed the Back Beliefs Questionnaire, the Fear Avoidance Beliefs questionnaire (FABQ), and questions about LBP-related work-absence, reduced work-productivity, pain, comorbidity, and demographics. Six hundred seventy (25%) individuals were of working age, employed and reported current LBP. Univariate models showed beliefs were more "negative" in individuals with work-absence and reduced productivity (P = 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, controlling for confounders, "FABQwork" was a unique predictor of both absenteeism and presenteeism (each, P = 0.0001), though with small effect sizes. Negative beliefs about LBP are associated with both work absence and reduced work-productivity. Further investigations should examine their potential as a target for educational interventions when considering initiatives to reduce the socioeconomic costs of LBP.

  13. Potential effects of particulate matter from combustion during services on human health and on works of art in medieval churches in Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loupa, Glykeria, E-mail: gloupa@env.duth.g [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, P.O. Box 447, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Karageorgos, Evangelos, E-mail: vkarageo@env.duth.g [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, P.O. Box 447, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Rapsomanikis, Spyridon, E-mail: rapso@env.duth.g [Laboratory of Atmospheric Pollution and Pollution Control Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, P.O. Box 447, Xanthi 67100 (Greece)

    2010-09-15

    Indoor and outdoor particulate matter (PM{sub 0.3-10}) number concentrations were established in two medieval churches in Cyprus. In both churches incense was burnt occasionally during Mass. The highest indoor PM{sub 0.5-1} concentrations compared with outdoors (10.7 times higher) were observed in the church that burning of candles indoors was allowed. Peak indoor black carbon concentration was 6.8 {mu}g m{sup -3} in the instances that incense was burning and 13.4 {mu}g m{sup -3} in the instances that the candles were burning (outdoor levels ranged between 0.6 and 1.3 {mu}g m{sup -3}). From the water soluble inorganic components determined in PM{sub 10}, calcium prevailed in all samples indoors or outdoors, whilst high potassium concentration indoors were a clear marker of combustion. Indoor sources of PM were clearly identified and their emission strengths were estimated via modeling of the results. Indoor estimated PM{sub 0.3-10} mass concentrations exceeded air quality standards for human health protection and for the preservation of works of art. - Particulate matter in medieval churches of Cyprus.

  14. Predictors of multidisciplinary treatment outcome in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Waaksma, Berend R.; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica; Stewart, Roy E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aimed to identify predictors of rehabilitation outcome for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP) and psychological problems. Methods: A retrospective cohort study including 230 adult patients with CMP admitted for multidisciplinary pain rehabilitation. Potential

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of Physical Inactivity in a Slum in Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Alves, Lucas Victor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of physical inactivity and examine the role of potential predictors in a very low-income adult population in a slum located in Recife city, northeast of Brazil...

  16. Hypoglycemia in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: predictors and role of metabolic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2008-01-01

    In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated occurrence of mild and severe hypoglycemia and analyzed the influence of strict metabolic control, nausea, vomiting, and other potential predictors of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia....

  17. Surgeons' work engagement: influencing factors and relations to job and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Vitzthum, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Work engagement has become a topic of great interest in recent years. However, clinicians' work engagement has rarely been studied and relatively little is known about its predictors and consequences. Therefore the objective of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to test a model of possible institutional and personal predictors and significant relations to job and life satisfaction. 123 clinicians specializing in Surgery Medicine participated in the study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism, were administered. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. The whole sample of surgeons rated work engagement with a high mean of M = 4.38; SD = .91. Job satisfaction and perceived quality of life have been rated with moderate scores. The results show that job resources have a greater impact on surgeons' work engagement than their job demands. Significant correlations between surgeons' work engagement, their job satisfaction and quality of life were found. Moreover, work engagement mediated the relation between institutional factors and surgeons' job satisfaction. Our research suggests that strengthening surgeons' work engagement will contribute to a more sustainable workplace, in terms of both individual and hospital performance. Therefore, increasing work engagement among surgeons should be of concern for supervisors and hospital managers. Future research should focus on further predictors that may have an influence on health professionals' work engagement. Another field for future research is to study potential effects of interventions on work engagement. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Virtual transportation as a solution to urban transportation problems: a critical analysis of the potential of telecommuting as a work trip reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buczynski, J.A.

    1997-10-01

    Recent advancements in technology have made virtual transportation a potential solution to the urban transportation crisis. Virtual transportation (also called telecommuting or teleworking) was defined as `a philosophy of allowing an employee to perform required tasks full-time or part-time from his or her choice of location by using information technology`. Virtual transportation would help ease peak travel demands during rush hours. The exhaust gases from automobiles with internal combustion engines emit pollutants such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, volatile organic compounds and nitrous oxides into the atmosphere, thus virtual transportation could contribute significantly to the improvement of air quality. Telecommuting also offers other advantages, for example, geographic constraints of time and space are removed and employees are able to locate anywhere with telecommunications networks. It was suggested that road pricing could be used to generate revenue to build networks of telecommunication centres. Road pricing could be an incentive for commuters to substitute physical travel with virtual travel. 23 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. A worked example of "best fit" framework synthesis: a systematic review of views concerning the taking of some potential chemopreventive agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Christopher; Booth, Andrew; Cooper, Katy

    2011-03-16

    A variety of different approaches to the synthesis of qualitative data are advocated in the literature. The aim of this paper is to describe the application of a pragmatic method of qualitative evidence synthesis and the lessons learned from adopting this "best fit" framework synthesis approach. An evaluation of framework synthesis as an approach to the qualitative systematic review of evidence exploring the views of adults to the taking of potential agents within the context of the primary prevention of colorectal cancer. Twenty papers from North America, Australia, the UK and Europe met the criteria for inclusion. Fourteen themes were identified a priori from a related, existing conceptual model identified in the literature, which were then used to code the extracted data. Further analysis resulted in the generation of a more sophisticated model with additional themes. The synthesis required a combination of secondary framework and thematic analysis approaches and was conducted within a health technology assessment timeframe. The novel and pragmatic "best fit" approach to framework synthesis developed and described here was found to be fit for purpose. Future research should seek to test further this approach to qualitative data synthesis.

  20. Hypoglycemia in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes: predictors and role of metabolic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene Ringholm; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Thorsteinsson, Birger

    2008-01-01

    In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated occurrence of mild and severe hypoglycemia and analyzed the influence of strict metabolic control, nausea, vomiting, and other potential predictors of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia.......In pregnancy with type 1 diabetes, we evaluated occurrence of mild and severe hypoglycemia and analyzed the influence of strict metabolic control, nausea, vomiting, and other potential predictors of occurrence of severe hypoglycemia....

  1. Early predictors of high school mathematics achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Robert S; Duncan, Greg J; Davis-Kean, Pamela E; Duckworth, Kathryn; Claessens, Amy; Engel, Mimi; Susperreguy, Maria Ines; Chen, Meichu

    2012-07-01

    Identifying the types of mathematics content knowledge that are most predictive of students' long-term learning is essential for improving both theories of mathematical development and mathematics education. To identify these types of knowledge, we examined long-term predictors of high school students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement. Analyses of large, nationally representative, longitudinal data sets from the United States and the United Kingdom revealed that elementary school students' knowledge of fractions and of division uniquely predicts those students' knowledge of algebra and overall mathematics achievement in high school, 5 or 6 years later, even after statistically controlling for other types of mathematical knowledge, general intellectual ability, working memory, and family income and education. Implications of these findings for understanding and improving mathematics learning are discussed.

  2. Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the 4 commonest cause of death in Nigeria. It affects the most economically productive age group. Many patients in stage 5 CKD are treated with haemodialysis which involves the movement of electrolytes and osmotic molecules from one body compartment to another, resulting ...

  3. Frequency, Levels and Predictors of Potential Drug-Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    pediatrics specialty. It has been pointed out that hospitalized pediatrics patients are at higher risk to drug-induced problems because of many factors such as wide-ranging of patient ages and body-weights, limited physiologic reserve, calculation errors in medications dosing, and incapability to properly communicate with.

  4. Frequency, Levels and Predictors of Potential Drug-Drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major or moderate interactions included rifampin + pyrazinamide (14 cases), phenobarbital + diazepam (14), dexamethasone + rifampin (8), amikacin + furosemide (7), furosemide + captopril (7), dexamethasone + phenobarbital (6), phenobarbital + divalproex sodium (6), isoniazid + rifampin (5) amikacin + ibuprofen (5), ...

  5. Predictors of radiation oncology resident research productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutovich, Jordan M; Den, Robert B; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Dicker, Adam P; Lawrence, Yaacov R

    2013-03-01

    Academic research is an essential part of residency training, yet resident productivity in research seems to be highly variable. The aim of this study was to determine the factors, both individual and institutional, that contribute to research output among radiation oncology residents. Newly practicing radiation oncologists and current senior residents were identified and invited via e-mail to complete a web-based survey. The survey addressed demographic factors, previous academic accomplishments, and residency program structure. The end point, research productivity, was defined as the number of first-author papers produced or research grants awarded on the basis of work initiated during residency. Ninety-seven of the 232 senior residents and recently graduated radiation oncologists surveyed responded (a 42% response rate). The median number of publications produced on the basis of work during residency was 3 (range, 0-7). Twenty-one respondents indicated that they had received 1 or more grants. Forty-four respondents completed research, while 53 completed ≥6 months of research. Univariate analysis revealed that a scientific college major and the amount of designated research time were positively correlated (P research at an international meeting before residency, participation in the Holman Research Pathway, female gender, publications before residency, and the amount of designated research time were positively correlated (P research grant. On multivariate regression analysis, the amount of designated research time was the sole determinant of first-author papers (P research grants awarded (P research time during residency training is the sole independent predictor of research productivity as measured by publications. Participation in the Holman Pathway is the sole detected item shown to be an independent predictor of achieving a peer-reviewed grant. Residency program structure has a major impact on the productivity of residents. Copyright © 2013 American

  6. PPO: predictor for prokaryotic operons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Yeh; Tsai, Jui-Hung; Yang, Cheng-Hong

    2010-12-15

    We present an operon predictor for prokaryotic operons (PPO), which can predict operons in the entire prokaryotic genome. The prediction algorithm used in PPO allows the user to select binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO), a genetic algorithm (GA) or some other methods introduced in the literature to predict operons. The operon predictor on our web server and the provided database are easy to access and use. The main features offered are: (i) selection of the prediction algorithm; (ii) adjustable parameter settings of the prediction algorithm; (iii) graphic visualization of results; (iv) integrated database queries; (v) listing of experimentally verified operons; and (vi) related tools. PPO is freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/PPO/.

  7. Processing speed and visuospatial executive function predict visual working memory ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Louise A; Brockmole, James R; Gow, Alan J; Deary, Ian J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: Visual working memory (VWM) has been shown to be particularly age sensitive. Determining which measures share variance with this cognitive ability in older adults may help to elucidate the key factors underlying the effects of aging. Predictors of VWM (measured by a modified Visual Patterns Test) were investigated in a subsample (N = 44, mean age = 73) of older adults from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936; Deary et al., 2007 , BMC Geriatrics, 7, 28). Childhood intelligence (Moray House Test) and contemporaneous measures of processing speed (four-choice reaction time), executive function (verbal fluency; block design), and spatial working memory (backward spatial span), were assessed as potential predictors. All contemporaneous measures except verbal fluency were significantly associated with VWM, and processing speed had the largest effect size (r = -.53, p material are also important.

  8. TAGE-SC-L Branch Predictors Again

    OpenAIRE

    Seznec, André

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Outline In this study, we explore the performance limits of these TAGE-SC-L predictors for respectively 8Kbytes and 64Kbytes of storage budget. For a 8KB storage budget, our submitted predictor used most of its storage budget on the TAGE predictor, features a very small loop predictor LP and a neural statistical cor-rector exploiting global history path and very limited local history. The submitted 8Kbytes predictor achieves 4.991 MPKI on the CBP-5 train traces. With a...

  9. Predictors of children's and adolescents' risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Chandler, C C; Elkin, T David

    2005-01-01

    To test cognitive-developmental, social-cognitive, motivational, and cognitive hypotheses about the psychological mechanisms underlying children's risk perception. Youth (N = 1315) ranging from 9 to 17 years of age completed measures assessing adolescent egocentrism, personal experience with four negative health events, how much they worried about the health events, and their perceived skill for event-related activities. The measures were completed twice, 12 months apart. Lacking personal experience with and worrying less about health threats were significant predictors of more optimistically biased risk perception a year later. The lack of experience with and not worrying about serious health consequences may desensitize children to potential health risks. Clinical applications for health education programs are discussed.

  10. Joint Bayesian variable and graph selection for regression models with network-structured predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C. B.; Stingo, F. C.; Vannucci, M.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we develop a Bayesian approach to perform selection of predictors that are linked within a network. We achieve this by combining a sparse regression model relating the predictors to a response variable with a graphical model describing conditional dependencies among the predictors. The proposed method is well-suited for genomic applications since it allows the identification of pathways of functionally related genes or proteins which impact an outcome of interest. In contrast to previous approaches for network-guided variable selection, we infer the network among predictors using a Gaussian graphical model and do not assume that network information is available a priori. We demonstrate that our method outperforms existing methods in identifying network-structured predictors in simulation settings, and illustrate our proposed model with an application to inference of proteins relevant to glioblastoma survival. PMID:26514925

  11. Recovery of work-related stress: Complaint reduction and work-resumption are relatively independent processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vente, W.; Kamphuis, J.H.; Blonk, R.W.B.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The process of recovery from work-related stress, consisting of complaint reduction and work-resumption, is not yet fully understood. The aim of this study was to investigate predictors of complaint reduction and work-resumption, as well as testing complaint reduction as a mediator in the

  12. Psychosocial factors predictive of occupational low back disability: towards development of a return-to-work model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, I Z; Crook, J; Meloche, G R; Berkowitz, J; Milner, R; Zuberbier, O A; Meloche, W

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the identification and testing of potential psychosocial factors contributing to an integrated multivariate predictive model of occupational low back disability. Psychosocial predictors originate from five traditions of psychosocial research: psychopathological, cognitive, diathesis-stress, human adaptation and organizational psychology. The psychosocial variables chosen for this study reflect a full range of research findings. They were investigated using 253 subacute and chronic pain injured workers. Three outcome measures were utilized: return-to-work status, duration of disability and disability costs. The key psychosocial predictors identified were expectations of recovery and perception of health change. Also implicated, but to a lesser degree, were occupational stability, skill discretion at work, co-worker support, and the response of the workers' compensation system and employer to the disability. All psychosocial models were better at predicting who will return than who will not return to work.

  13. Mobility Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Bossen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    We posit the concept of Mobility Work to describe efforts of moving about people and things as part of accomplishing tasks. Mobility work can be seen as a spatial parallel to the concept of articulation work proposed by the sociologist Anselm Strauss. Articulation work describes efforts...... of coordination necessary in cooperative work, but focuses, we argue, mainly on the temporal aspects of cooperative work. As a supplement, the concept of mobility work focuses on the spatial aspects of cooperative work. Whereas actors seek to diminish the amount of articulation work needed in collaboration...... by constructing Standard Operation Procedures (SOPs), actors minimise mobility work by constructing Standard Operation Configurations (SOCs). We apply the concept of mobility work to the ethnography of hospital work, and argue that mobility arises because of the need to get access to people, places, knowledge and...

  14. Working Memory Intervention: A Reading Comprehension Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Tracy L.; Malaia, Evguenia

    2013-01-01

    For any complex mental task, people rely on working memory. Working memory capacity (WMC) is one predictor of success in learning. Historically, attempts to improve verbal WM through training have not been effective. This study provided elementary students with WM consolidation efficiency training to answer the question, Can reading comprehension…

  15. Euro area Inflation as a Predictor of National Inflation Rates

    OpenAIRE

    Cavallo, Antonella; Ribba, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The stability of inflation differentials is an important condition for the smooth working of a currency area, such as the European Economic and Monetary Union. In the presence of stability, changes in national inflation rates, while holding Euro-area inflation fixed contemporaneously, should be only transitory. If this is the case, the rate of inflation of the whole area can also be interpreted as a predictor, at least in the long run, of the different national inflation rates. However, in th...

  16. Parenting Style Dimensions As Predictors of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    David Álvarez-García; Trinidad García; Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo,; Alejandra Dobarro; Ángela Antúnez

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial behavior is strongly associated with academic failure in adolescence. There is a solid body of evidence that points to parenting style as one of its main predictors. The objective of this work is to elaborate a reduced, valid, and reliable version of the questionnaire by Oliva et al. (2007) to evaluate the dimensions of parenting style and to analyze its psychometric properties in a sample of Spanish adolescents. To that end, the designed questionnaire was applied to 1974 adolescen...

  17. Examining educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting as predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas J; Redner, Ryan; Skelly, Joan M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-10-01

    We investigated three potential predictors (educational attainment, prepregnancy smoking rate, and delay discounting [DD]) of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers. These predictors were examined alone and in combination with other potential predictors using study-intake assessments from controlled clinical trials examining the efficacy of financial incentives for smoking cessation and relapse prevention. Data from 349 pregnant women (231 continuing smokers and 118 spontaneous quitters) recruited from the greater Burlington, VT, area contributed to this secondary analysis, including psychiatric/sociodemographic characteristics, smoking characteristics, and performance on a computerized DD task. Educational attainment, smoking rate, and DD values were each significant predictors of spontaneous quitting in univariate analyses. A model examining those three predictors together retained educational attainment as a main effect and revealed a significant interaction of DD and smoking rate (i.e., DD was a significant predictor at lower but not higher smoking rates). A final model considering all potential predictors, included education, the interaction of DD and smoking rate, and five additional predictors (i.e., stress ratings, the belief that smoking during pregnancy will "greatly harm my baby," age of smoking initiation, marital status, and prior quit attempts during pregnancy). The study presented here contributes new knowledge on predictors of spontaneous quitting among pregnant smokers with substantive practical implications for reducing smoking during pregnancy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Predictors of Physician Assistant Faculty Intent to Leave Academia: A Rasch Regression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltyukova, Svetlana; Graham, Karen

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate whether a previously developed and validated measure of intention to stay in academia for physician assistant (PA) faculty could also be used to inform PA faculty intent to leave academia and return to full-time clinical practice. A secondary analysis of the national survey data of PA faculty (n = 427) was conducted using a Rasch regression model. The 19 items from the previously validated Supportive Environment Scale were examined as potential predictors of the dichotomous outcome of intent to leave academia. In this analysis, PA faculty who were somewhat or very likely to leave academia were compared with those who were not at all likely to leave academia. Five items from the Supportive Environment Scale emerged as a linear meaningful measure that predicted intent to leave. These predictors included the following: recognition by administration, support for scholarly work, a fair promotion process, a sense of institutional community, and support of the PA program by administration. Rasch prediction maps were produced that allowed for powerful visualization of prediction and identification of areas for intervention. The intent of PA faculty to leave academia and return to clinical practice can be meaningfully predicted by 5 items. Importantly, these items are in the purview of institutional administrators and can be used to target PA faculty retention efforts.

  19. Predictors of hepatitis B vaccination status in healthcare workers in Belgrade, Serbia, December 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisic-Tepavcevic, Darija; Kanazir, Milena; Gazibara, Tatjana; Maric, Gorica; Makismovic, Natasa; Loncarevic, Goranka; Pekmezovic, Tatjana

    2017-04-20

    Despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine since 1982, overall coverage of hepatitis B vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) has not reached a satisfactory level in many countries worldwide. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination, and to assess the predictors of hepatitis B vaccination status among HCWs in Serbia. Of 380 randomly selected HCWs, 352 (92.6%) were included in the study. The prevalence of hepatitis B vaccination acceptance was 66.2%. The exploratory factor analyses using the vaccination-refusal scale showed that items clustered under 'threat of disease' explained the highest proportion (30.4%) of variance among those declining vaccination. The factor analyses model of the potential reasons for receiving the hepatitis B vaccine showed that 'social influence' had the highest contribution (47.5%) in explaining variance among those vaccinated. In the multivariate adjusted model the following variables were independent predictors of hepatitis B vaccination status: occupation, duration of work experience, exposure to blood in the previous year, and total hepatitis B-related knowledge score. Our results highlight the need for well-planned national policies, possibly including mandatory hepatitis B immunisation, in the Serbian healthcare environment. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  20. Fantasies about Work as Limitless Potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    of fantasies to increase worker commitment. In contrast, empirical data from fieldwork in two creative industries are used to show how employees also ensnare and discipline their managers based on the same fantasmatic dynamics. The article argues that both managers and employees avoid concrete definitions...