WorldWideScience

Sample records for work hour limits

  1. Effects of the accreditation council for graduate medical education duty hour limits on sleep, work hours, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Christopher P; Fahrenkopf, Amy M; Lewin, Daniel; Sharek, Paul J; Barger, Laura K; Eisner, Melanie; Edwards, Sarah; Chiang, Vincent W; Wiedermann, Bernhard L; Sectish, Theodore C

    2008-08-01

    To mitigate the risks of fatigue-related medical errors, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education introduced work hour limits for resident physicians in 2003. Our goal was to determine whether work hours, sleep, and safety changed after implementation of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education standards. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents from 3 large pediatric training programs provided daily reports of work hours and sleep. In addition, they completed reports of near-miss and actual motor vehicle crashes, occupational exposures, self-reported medical errors, and ratings of educational experience. They were screened for depression and burnout. Concurrently, at 2 of the centers, data on medication errors were collected prospectively by using an established active surveillance method. A total of 220 residents provided 6007 daily reports of their work hours and sleep, and 16 158 medication orders were reviewed. Although scheduling changes were made in each program to accommodate the standards, 24- to 30-hour shifts remained common, and the frequency of residents' call remained largely unchanged. There was no change in residents' measured total work hours or sleep hours. There was no change in the overall rate of medication errors, and there was a borderline increase in the rate of resident physician ordering errors, from 1.06 to 1.38 errors per 100 patient-days. Rates of motor vehicle crashes, occupational exposures, depression, and self-reported medical errors and overall ratings of work and educational experiences did not change. The mean length of extended-duration (on-call) shifts decreased 2.7% to 28.5 hours, and rates of resident burnout decreased significantly (from 75.4% to 57.0%). Total hours of work and sleep did not change after implementation of the duty hour standards. Although fewer residents were burned out, rates of medication errors, resident depression, and resident injuries and educational

  2. The effect of limiting residents' work hours on their surgical training: a Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanchuk, Ken

    2004-05-01

    Restrictions in residents' work hours have been in place in Canada for roughly a decade, having been negotiated rather than imposed. The changes in residents' schedules that resulted are roughly equivalent to the limitation of 80 duty hours per week in the United States. When work-hours restrictions began, surgery faculty were worried that residents' experience would be compromised. But these fears have not materialized. Why? The author maintains there are many reasons. (1) Most surgical procedures are now faster, and lengthy inpatient care has diminished, all of which saves time. (2) Formerly difficult or risky procedures are now performed more frequently and safely, which increases residents' education about difficult conditions. (3) A variety of resources (e.g., skills-transfer courses, surgical simulators, etc.) are now available for residents to learn and evolve surgical techniques, and residents take advantage of these resources, being highly motivated to learn the best in the time available to them. (4) There have been positive changes in residents' education that have helped them become more efficient learners than before, with improved resources and skills for faster access to information. The author maintains that in his present surgery residency program, the residents still work extremely hard but are more protected from the unending demands for patient care. They have more time for orderly study and greater opportunities to develop skills other than technical ones. They are in a happier work setting, which the author strongly believes facilitates improved patient care.

  3. Working hours and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collewet, Marion; Sauermann, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the link between working hours and productivity using daily information on working hours and performance of a sample of call centre agents. We exploit variation in the number of hours worked by the same employee across days and weeks due to central scheduling, enabling us to

  4. Sleep deprivation in resident physicians, work hour limitations, and related outcomes: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansukhani, Meghna P; Kolla, Bhanu Prakash; Surani, Salim; Varon, Joseph; Ramar, Kannan

    2012-07-01

    Extended work hours, interrupted sleep, and shift work are integral parts of medical training among all specialties. The need for 24-hour patient care coverage and economic factors have resulted in prolonged work hours for resident physicians. This has traditionally been thought to enhance medical educational experience. These long and erratic work hours lead to acute and chronic sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality, resulting in numerous adverse consequences. Impairments may occur in several domains, including attention, cognition, motor skills, and mood. Resident performance, professionalism, safety, and well-being are affected by sleep deprivation, causing potentially adverse implications for patient care. Studies have shown adverse health consequences, motor vehicle accidents, increased alcohol and medication use, and serious medical errors to occur in association with both sleep deprivation and shift work. Resident work hour limitations have been mandated by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education in response to patient safety concerns. Studies evaluating the impact of these regulations on resident physicians have generated conflicting reports on patient outcomes, demonstrating only a modest increase in sleep duration for resident physicians, along with negative perceptions regarding their education. This literature review summarizes research on the effects of sleep deprivation and shift work, and examines current literature on the impact of recent work hour limitations on resident physicians and patient-related outcomes.

  5. Staggered Bargaining and Hours Worked

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Danthine; Stephane Auray

    2004-01-01

    A matching model with labor/leisure choice and staggered bargaining is used to explain (i)differences in GDP per hour and GDP per capita, (ii) differences in employment, (iii) differences in the proportion of part-time work across countries. The model predicts that the higher the level of rigidity in wages and hours the lower are GDP per capita, employment, part-time work and hours worked, but the higher is GDP per hours worked. In addition, it predicts that a country with a high level of rig...

  6. Bargaining frictions and hours worked

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane AURAY; Danthine, Samuel

    2005-01-01

    A matching model with labor/leisure choice and bargaining frictions is used to explain (i) differences in GDP per hour and GDP per capita, (ii) differences in employment, (iii) differences in the proportion of part-time work across countries. The model predicts that the higher the level of rigidity in wages and hours the lower are GDP per capita, employment, part-time work and hours worked, but the higher is GDP per hours worked. In addition, it predicts that a country with a high level of ri...

  7. Different views about work-hour limitations in medicine: a qualitative content analysis of surgeons', lawyers', and pilots' positive and negative arguments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P Businger

    Full Text Available Whereas work-hour regulations have been taken for granted since 1940 in other occupational settings, such as commercial aviation, they have been implemented only recently in medical professions, where they lead to a lively debate. The aim of the present study was to evaluate arguments in favour of and against work-hour limitations in medicine given by Swiss surgeons, lawyers, and pilots.An electronic questionnaire survey with four free-response items addressing the question of what arguments speak in favour of or against work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was sent to a random sample of board-certified surgeons, lawyers in labour law, and pilots from SWISS International Airlines Ltd.In all, 279/497 (56% of the respondents answered the survey: 67/117 surgeons, 92/226 lawyers, and 120/154 pilots. Support for work-hour limitations in general and in medicine was present and higher among lawyers and pilots than it was in surgeons (p<0.001. The latter agreed more with work-hour limitations in general than in medicine (p<0.001. The most often cited arguments in favour of work-hour limitations were "quality and patient safety," "health and fitness," and "leisure and work-family balance," whereas the lack of "flexibility" was the most important argument against. Surgeons expected more often that their "education" and the "quality of their work" would be threatened (p<0.001.Work-hour limitations should be supported in medicine also, but a way must be found to reduce problems resulting from discontinuity in patient care and to minimise the work in medicine, which has no education value.

  8. Extended working hours: Impacts on workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Mitchell; T. Gallagher

    2010-01-01

    Some logging business owners are trying to manage their equipment assets by increasing the scheduled machine hours. The intent is to maximize the total tons produced by a set of equipment. This practice is referred to as multi-shifting, double-shifting, or extended working hours. One area often overlooked is the impact that working non-traditional hours can have on...

  9. Long working hours and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkila, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T.; Madsen, Ida E. H.

    2016-01-01

    ; n lung cancer: 247; n breast cancer: 833; and n prostate cancer: 534). We found no clear evidence for an association between working hours and the overall cancer risk. Working hours were also unrelated the risk of incident colorectal, lung or prostate cancers. Working greater than or equal to55 h...... per week was associated with 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval 1.12–2.29) increase in female breast cancer risk independently of age, socioeconomic position, shift- and night-time work and lifestyle factors, but this observation may have been influenced by residual confounding from parity......Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk...

  10. Registrar working hours in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nicky

    In the past surgical registrars were expected to work unusual- ly long hours. This was thought to provide better patient care, and to result in better registrar training. Junior doctors in the USA worked between 95 and 136 hours per week.1. The paradigm changed in 1984 after the death of Libby Zion in a New York hospital ...

  11. Impact of working hours on work-life balance

    OpenAIRE

    Holly, Sarah; Mohnen, Alwine

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of working hours on employees' satisfaction, this article uses a large, representative set of panel data from German households (GSOEP). The results show that high working hours and overtime in general do not lead to decreased satisfaction. Rather, increasing working hours and overtime have positive effects on life and job satisfaction, whereas the desire to reduce working hours has a negative impact on satisfaction. In 2009, nearly 60% of employees wanted to reduce t...

  12. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1...

  13. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, su...

  14. Long working hours and alcohol use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies......, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies. REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were...... obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression. RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333,693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100,602 participants from nine...

  15. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, AH; Ishtiak-Ahmed, K

    2017-01-01

    –1971 and 1985–1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970–1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years......Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods: The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970......). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70–1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0...

  16. Working hours and Work-Life Balance Satisfaction in Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Georges, Nathalie; Méda, Dominique; Trancart, Danièle

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several years, many studies have highlighted the strategic nature of working hours, the way they are determined, their regularity and their predictability to judge the qualities of a job and how family life and work life are reconciled. Our results confirm those obtained by previous studies and clarify them, while also showing that both the working hours of the persons questioned and those of their spouse constitute a central variable. We will first review the results from the a...

  17. [Medical justification of the eight-hour shift work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro-García, Luis; Sánchez-Román, Raúl; Juárez-Pérez, Cuauhtémoc Arturo; Larios-Díaz, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    The 8-hour shift work is one of the main achievements of the organized workers. International solidarity with United States miners, who were massacred in Chicago in 1886, and the aftermath of World War I promoted the establishment of 8-hour shift work in many countries. In Mexico, the 1917 Social Rights Declaration adhered to this position under the idea that the excessive workload above the 8-hour limit had negative effects on the health of workers; nevertheless, this statement seems to be sustained only by testimonies, anecdotal opinions and/or by the logic and common sense that then prevailed. For this reason, a literature review was carried out in search for the evidence supporting this apparently immovable length of the shift work. The globalization of the economy and the tendency towards flexibility and deregulation of current contractual relationships, are the new challenges that the 8-hour shift work is facing.

  18. Globalization and working time: working hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges popular wisdom that economic globalization uniformly increases working time in industrialized countries. International investment and trade, they argue, have uneven effects for workplace bargaining over standard hours and over work-time flexibility, such as use of temporary

  19. No Correlation Between Work-Hours and Operative Volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Jane; Sillesen, Martin; Beier-Holgersen, Randi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 2003, United States residents have been limited to an 80-hour workweek. This has prompted concerns of reduced educational quality, especially inadequate operating exposure. In contrast, the Danish surgical specialty-training program mandates a cap on working hours of 37 per week....... We hypothesize that there is no direct correlation between work-hours and operative volume achieved during surgical residency. To test the hypothesis, we compare Danish and US operative volumes achieved during surgical residency training. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative study. PARTICIPANTS...... find no difference in overall surgical volumes between Danes and US residents during their surgical training. When time in training was accounted for, differences between weekly surgical volumes achieved were minor, indicating a lack of direct correlation between weekly work-hours and operative volumes...

  20. “Friday off”: Reducing Working Hours in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Rossiter

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the pros and cons for reducing working hours in Europe. To arrive to an informed judgment we review critically the theoretical and empirical literature, mostly from economics, concerning the relation between working hours on the one hand, and productivity, employment, quality of life, and the environment, on the other. We adopt a binary economics distinction between capital and labor productiveness, and are concerned with how working hours may be reduced without harming the earning capacity of workers. There are reasons to believe that reducing working hours may absorb some unemployment, especially in the short-run, even if less than what is advocated by proponents of the proposal. Further, there may well be strong benefits for the quality of peoples’ lives. Environmental benefits are likely but depend crucially on complementary policies or social conditions that will ensure that the time liberated will not be directed to resource-intensive or environmentally harmful consumption. It is questionable whether reduced working hours are sustainable in the long-term given resource limits and climate change. We conclude that while the results of reducing working hours are uncertain, this may be a risk worth taking, especially as an interim measure that may relieve unemployment while other necessary structural changes are instituted.

  1. The importance and challenges of measuring work hours

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Work hours are key components in estimating productivity growth and hourly wages as well as being a useful cyclical indicator in their own right, so measuring them correctly is important. The US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) collects data on work hours in several surveys and publishes three widely-used series that measure average weekly hours. The series tell different stories about average weekly hours and trends in those hours but qualitatively similar stories about the cyclical behavior...

  2. Long Working Hours in Korea: Based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsun Park

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Long working hours adversely affect worker safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation that limited the work week to 40 hours, in an effort to improve quality-of-life and increase business competitiveness. This regulation was implemented in stages, first for large businesses and then for small businesses, from 2004 to 2011. We previously reported that average weekly working hours decreased from 2006 to 2010, based on the Korean Working Conditions Survey. Methods: In the present study, we examine whether average weekly working hours continued to decrease in 2014 based on the 2014 Korean Working Conditions Survey. Results: The results show that average weekly working hours among all groups of workers decreased in 2014 relative to previous years; however, self-employed individuals and employers (who are not covered by the new legislation in the specific service sectors worked > 60 h/wk in 2014. Conclusion: The Korean government should prohibit employees from working excessive hours and should also attempt to achieve social and public consensus regarding work time reduction to improve the safety, health, and quality-of-life of all citizens, including those who are employers and self-employed. Keywords: employee, employer, Korea, self-employed, working hours

  3. Long working hours in Korea: results of the 2010 Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jungsun; Kwon, Oh Jun; Kim, Yangho

    2012-01-01

    Long working hours adversely affect workers' safety and health. In 2004, Korea passed legislation limiting the working week to 40 h, to improve quality-of-life and to increase business competitiveness. In the present study, we explored the characteristics of work in Korea and compared our data of the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS) with those of the first KWCS. We found that the average number of hours worked weekly has been reduced but the proportions of workers who work for more than 48 h per week has increased over the 4 yr between the two Korean surveys in all categories studied (male, female, employee, self-employed, and employer). We also found that self-employed and employers work much longer hours than do employees, who are protected by the Labor Standards Act. This was particularly true in the accommodation and food service sectors. In conclusion, Korean workers work longer than do workers of EU countries. The use of average figures masks differences in the numbers of working hours among those engaged in various types of employment, or in certain work sectors. Therefore, the Korean government should not simply monitor reductions in average weekly working hours, but should identify employees working for over 60 h weekly, and reduce their working time.

  4. Analysis of Office/Laboratory Staying Hour and Home Working Hour of Japanese Scientists and Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejiri, A.

    The second questionnaire for scientists and engineers was carried out in 2007, and status of Japanese scientists and engineers were analyzed and reported. A part of the data was reanalyzed from the viewpoint of work life balance. In particular, office/laboratory staying hour and home working hour were analyzed and dependences on various factors were investigated. It was found that these hours depend on gender, marital status, number of child, employment status and age. In addition, the total hours tend to be kept constant regardless of various factors.

  5. Hour-glass ceilings: Work-hour thresholds, gendered health inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Huong; Strazdins, Lyndall; Welsh, Jennifer

    2017-03-01

    Long workhours erode health, which the setting of maximum weekly hours aims to avert. This 48-h limit, and the evidence base to support it, has evolved from a workforce that was largely male, whose time in the labour force was enabled by women's domestic work and care giving. The gender composition of the workforce has now changed, and many women (as well as some men) combine care-giving with paid work, a change viewed as fundamental for gender equality. However, it raises questions on the suitability of the work time limit and the extent it is protective of health. We estimate workhour-mental health thresholds, testing if they vary for men and women due to gendered workloads and constraints on and off the job. Using six waves of data from a nationally representative sample of Australian adults (24-65 years), surveyed in the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia Survey (N = 3828 men; 4062 women), our study uses a longitudinal, simultaneous equation approach to address endogeneity. Averaging over the sample, we find an overall threshold of 39 h per week beyond which mental health declines. Separate curves then estimate thresholds for men and women, by high or low care and domestic time constraints, using stratified and pooled samples. We find gendered workhour-health limits (43.5 for men, 38 for women) which widen further once differences in resources on and off the job are considered. Only when time is 'unencumbered' and similar time constraints and contexts are assumed, do gender gaps narrow and thresholds approximate the 48-h limit. Our study reveals limits to contemporary workhour regulation which may be systematically disadvantaging women's health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. ACGME proposes dropping the 16 hour resident shift limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME is proposing that first-year residents would no longer be limited to 16-hour shifts during the 2017-2018 academic year under a controversial proposal released today (1. Instead, individual residency programs could assign first-year trainees to shifts as long as 28 hours, the current limit for all other residents. The 28-hour maximum includes 4 transitional hours that's designed in part to help residents improve continuity of care. The plan to revise training requirements does not change other rules designed to protect all residents from overwork. including the maximum80 hours per week. The ACGME capped the shifts of first-year residents at 16 hours in 2011 as a part of an ongoing effort to make trainee schedules more humane and avoid clinical errors caused by sleep deprivation. ACGME CEO Thomas Nasca, MD, told Medscape Medical News that the problem arises largely from first-year residents not being ...

  7. Relations of Work Identity, Family Identity, Situational Demands, and Sex with Employee Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhaus, Jeffrey H.; Peng, Ann C.; Allen, Tammy D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined relations of multiple indicators of work identity and family identity with the number of weekly hours worked by 193 married business professionals. We found that men generally worked long hours regardless of the situational demands to work long hours and the strength of their work and family identities. Women's work hours, on…

  8. Working hours and health behaviour among nurses at public hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana da Costa Fernandes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to analyse the differences between genders in the description in the professional, domestic and total work hours and assess its association with health-related behaviour among nurses. METHODS: this is a transversal study carried out in 18 different public hospitals in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro. The data collection procedure was based on questionnaires. All nurses working with assistance were considered eligible (n=2,279. RESULTS: men and women showed significant differences in relation to working hours. The female group showed longer domestic and total work hours when compared to the group of men. In contrast, the number of hours spent on professional work was higher among men. For the women, both the professional hours and total work hours were often associated with excessive consumption of fried food and also coffee, lack of physical exercise and also the greater occurrence of overweight and obesity. CONCLUSION: both the professional hours and the domestic work hours need to be taken into account in studies about health, self-care and also the care provided within the context of nursing workers, particularly among women. The results add weight to the need for actions for health promotion in this occupational group and the importance of assessing the impact of long working hours on the health of workers.

  9. Appropriate working hours for surgical training according to Australasian trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Gregory; Harper, Simon; Loveday, Benjamin; Adams, Brandon; Civil, Ian D; Peters, Matthew

    2012-04-01

    The demands of surgical training, learning and service delivery compete with the need to minimize fatigue and maintain an acceptable lifestyle. The optimal balance of working hours is uncertain. This study aimed to define the appropriate hours to meet these requirements according to trainees. All Australian and New Zealand surgical trainees were surveyed. Roster structures, weekly working hours and weekly 'sleep loss hours' (hours to be appropriate for 'technical' and 'non-technical' training needs compared with 55 h/week (interquartile range: 50-60) regarded as appropriate for study/research needs. Working ≥65 h/week, or accruing ≥5.5 weekly 'sleep loss hours', was associated with increased fatigue, reduced ability to study, more frequent dozing while driving and impaired concentration at work. Trainees who considered they had an appropriate work-life balance worked median 55 h/week. Approximately, 60 h/week proved an appropriate balance of working hours for surgical training, although study and lifestyle demands are better met at around 55 h/week. Sleep loss is an important determinant of fatigue and its impacts, and work hours should not be considered in isolation. © 2012 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  10. With long hours of work, might depression then lurk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varma, Anshu; Marott, Jacob Louis; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship.......The aim of this study was to examine depression as a potential negative health effect of long work hours, anticipating an exposure-response relationship....

  11. Impact of working hours on sleep and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, P; Fonseca, M; Pires, J F

    2017-07-01

    The number of hours people are required to work has a pervasive influence on both physical and mental health. Excessive working hours can also negatively affect sleep quality. The impact at work of mental health problems can have serious consequences for individuals' as well as for organizations' productivity. To evaluate differences in sleep quality and anxiety and depression symptoms between longer working hours group (LWHG) and regular working hours group (RWHG). To examine factors influencing weekly working hours, sleep quality and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants were divided into two groups, RWHG and LWHG, based on working hours, with a cut-off of 48 h per week. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) to assess anxiety and depression symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) to measure the quality and patterns of sleep. The response rate was 23%. Among the 429 study participants, those in the LWHG group (n = 256, 53%) had significantly more depressive and anxiety symptoms and worse sleep quality than those in RWHG (n = 223, 47%). Working time was significantly positively correlated with higher corporate position and HADS scores. Moreover, HADS scores were positively correlated with PSQI scores and negatively correlated with age. This study suggests that longer working hours are associated with poorer mental health status and increasing levels of anxiety and depression symptoms. There was a positive correlation between these symptoms and sleep disturbances.

  12. Emotional exhaustion may trigger cut in working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, L.

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in the Netherlands have been examining to what extent workers are modifying their hours to cope with high levels of work-related emotional exhaustion. Findings reveal that most full-time employees would prefer a cut in their hours, with those reporting emotional exhaustion wanting a

  13. Periodic self-rostering in shift work: correspondence between objective work hours, work hour preferences (personal fit), and work schedule satisfaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingre, M.; Äkerstedt, T.; Ekstedt, M.; Kecklund, L.G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The main objective of the present study was to investigate relative personal fit as the association between rated needs and preferences for work hours, on the one hand, and actual work hours, on the other hand, in three groups (hospital, call-center, and police) working with periodic

  14. Nurses' extended work hours: Patient, nurse and organizational outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaviktikul, W; Wichaikhum, O; Nantsupawat, A; Nantsupawat, R; Chontawan, R; Klunklin, A; Roongruangsri, S; Nantachaipan, P; Supamanee, T; Chitpakdee, B; Akkadechanunt, T; Sirakamon, S

    2015-09-01

    Nursing shortages have been associated with increased nurse workloads that may result in work errors, thus impacting patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. To examine for the first time in Thailand nurses' extended work hours (working more than 40 h per week) and its relationship to patient, nurse and organizational outcomes. Using multistage sampling, 1524 registered nurses working in 90 hospitals across Thailand completed demographic forms: the Nurses' Extended Work Hours Form; the Patient, Nurse, Organizational Outcomes Form; the Organizational Productivity Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Spearman's rank correlation and logistic regression. The average extended work hour of respondents was 18.82 h per week. About 80% worked two consecutive shifts. The extended work hours had a positive correlation with patient outcomes, such as patient identification errors, pressure ulcers, communication errors and patient complaints and with nurse outcomes of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between extended work hours and job satisfaction as a whole, intent to stay and organizational productivity. Nurses who had extended work hours of >16 h per week were significantly more likely to perceive all four adverse patient outcomes than participants working an extended ≤8 h per week. Patient outcomes were measured by respondents' self-reports. This may not always reflect the real occurrence of adverse events. Associations between extended work hours and outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization were found. The findings demonstrate that working two shifts (16 h) more than the regular work hours lead to negative outcomes for patients, nurses and the organization. Our findings add to increasing international evidence that nurses' poor working conditions result in negative outcomes for professionals, patients and health systems

  15. Working Hours, Promotion and the Gender Gap in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Owan, Hideo; Ogawa, Hiromasa

    This paper presents a novel model of promotion within the firm which sheds new light on the interplay between working hours and the odds of subsequent promotion. The model's key feature is the coexistence of two different sources of asymmetric information: (i) the worker's cost of long working ho...

  16. Telework: Timesaving or Timeconsuming? An Investigation into Actual Working Hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers' personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  17. Work patterns, sleeping hours and excess weight in commercial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, M K; Hege, A; Perko, M; Sönmez, S; Apostolopoulos, Y

    2015-12-01

    Work and sleep patterns for commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers often include long working hours, shift work and diminished sleep duration and quality, which have been linked to overweight, obesity and other problems. To explore possible connections between work, sleep and obesity among CMV drivers. Survey and anthropometric data were collected from male long-haul CMV drivers in central North Carolina, USA, over a period of 6 months. Drivers' body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure of total body obesity and sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) as a measure of central adiposity. Among the 260 study subjects, mean BMI was 33.1 (64% were obese or morbidly obese) and mean SAD was 32.3cm, classifying 89% of drivers as being at high or very high cardiometabolic risk. About 83% of drivers worked an irregular daily schedule, 64% worked irregular total daily hours, 32% worked irregular days of the week and 46% reported getting sleep during work nights. Significant predictors of BMI included the number of hours worked daily (P sleep quality included the extent of shift work (P sleep duration (P sleep configurations appear to affect the weight status of CMV drivers. Shift work and sleep duration are both associated with the weight status of CMV drivers, and both appear to function as indicators of their sleep quality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) - Special working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 4) entitled "Special working hours", approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208539.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) also entitled "Special working hours" of January 2013. This document contains modifications to reflect the new career structure and ensuring the provision consistent with practice that compensation or remuneration of special working hours performed remotely is possible only in case of emergency.   This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  19. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T.; Batty, G. David

    2017-01-01

    .003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I2=0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N= 2006, hazard ratio= 1.36, 95% CI= 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential...... confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Conclusion Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours....

  20. Information meeting on the new provisions for working hours

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    Monday 23 June 2008 at 14:00, Council Chamber (503/1-001) At the June 2008 Finance Committee and Council meetings, the Management will submit proposals to modify Chapter III, Section 1 of the Staff Rules and Regulations on Working Hours. These provisions will touch upon areas including compensation during the annual closure, periods of stand-by duty, plus compensation and eligibility for special working hours. A general information meeting, at which E. Chiaveri, Head of HR Department, will present the new policy, will be held on Monday 23 June at 14:00 in the Council Chamber. HR Department

  1. When policy meets physiology: the challenge of reducing resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockley, Steven W; Landrigan, Christopher P; Barger, Laura K; Czeisler, Charles A

    2006-08-01

    Considerable controversy exists regarding optimal work hours for physicians and surgeons in training. In a series of studies, we assessed the effect of extended work hours on resident sleep and health as well as patient safety. In a validated nationwide survey, we found that residents who had worked 24 hours or longer were 2.3 times more likely to have a motor vehicle crash following that shift than when they worked hours, and that the monthly risk of a crash increased by 16.2% after each extended duration shift. We also found in a randomized trial that interns working a traditional on-call schedule slept 5.8 hours less per week, had twice as many attentional failures on duty overnight, and made 36% more serious medical errors and nearly six times more serious diagnostic errors than when working on a schedule that limited continuous duty to 16 hours. While numerous opinions have been published opposing reductions in extended work hours due to concerns regarding continuity of patient care, reduced educational opportunities, and traditionally-defined professionalism, there are remarkably few objective data in support of continuing to schedule medical trainees to work shifts > 24 hours. An evidence-based approach is needed to minimize the well-documented risk that current work hour practices confer on resident health and patient safety while optimizing education and continuity of care.

  2. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Montagna, Catia

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure t...

  3. Work Hours, Social Value of Leisure and Globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2010-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker's marginal utility of leisure t...

  4. Work hours, social value of leisure and globalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Molana, Hassan; Montagna, Catia

    2012-01-01

    We examine how openness interacts with the coordination of consumption-leisure decisions in determining the equilibrium working hours and wage rate when there are leisure externalities (e.g., due to social interactions). The latter are modelled by allowing a worker’s marginal utility of leisure t...

  5. Work hours regulations for house staff in psychiatry: bad or good for residency training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasminsky, Sonya; Lomonaco, Allison; Auchincloss, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The movement to limit work hours for house staff has gained momentum in recent years. The authors set out to review the literature on work hours reform, particularly as it applies to psychiatric residency training, and to provide two different viewpoints on the controversy. The authors present the historical background of work hours reform in the United States and review recent literature about resident work hours limitations. Using a debate format, the authors discuss whether the new regulations are having a positive or negative impact on residency training in psychiatry. Drs. Lomonaco and Auchincloss argue that currently-existing work hours restrictions may have unintended consequences for the health of patients and an untoward impact on residents' professional development and academic medicine's overall structure. Dr. Rasminsky argues that work hours restrictions do not go far enough in protecting residents and patients from the harmful effects of fatigue, and that our definition of professionalism needs to be reexamined in light of emerging scientific literature. There should be some limitation on resident work hours, with exact numbers to be determined by growing scientific knowledge about the effects of prolonged wakefulness. More study is needed, particularly in the area of psychiatric residency training.

  6. Depressed mood in the working population: associations with work schedules and working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driesen, Karolien; Jansen, Nicole W H; Kant, Ijmert; Mohren, Danielle C L; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic G P M

    2010-07-01

    The impact of working time arrangements (WTA) on health has been studied extensively. Still, little is known about the interrelation between work schedules, working hours, and depressed mood. For work schedules, the underlying assumptions regarding depressed mood refer to a disturbance of social and biological rhythms, whereas for working hours, the assumptions relate to workload and work capacity. Conversely, depressed mood may urge an employee to adjust his/her work schedule and/or number of working hours/week (h/wk). The aim of this study was to assess the association between work schedule and working hours with depressed mood. Using baseline data from the Maastricht Cohort Study, depressed mood in day work was compared with depressed mood in different shiftwork schedules (n = 8843). Within day work, several categories of working h/wk were studied in association with depressed mood (n = 7217). The association between depressed mood and several aspects of overtime was assessed separately. Depressed mood was measured with a dichotomous item: "Did you feel down every day over the last two weeks?" Separate logistic regression analyses were conducted for men and women, with adjustments for potential confounders. The odds ratio (OR) for depressed mood was greater for men involved in shiftwork than for men only involved in day work (three-shift OR = 2.05 [95% confidence interval, CI 1.52-2.77]; five-shift OR = 1.34 [95% CI 1.00-1.80]; irregular-shift OR = 1.79 [95% CI 1.27-2.53]). In female employees, five-shift work was associated with a higher prevalence of depressed mood (OR = 5.96 [95% CI 2.83-12.56]). Regarding the number of working h/wk, men working working 36-40 h/wk (OR = 2.73 [95% CI 1.35-5.52]). After conducting trend analyses, a significant decreasing trend was found in men, whereas an increasing trend was found in women working a high number of hours. Furthermore, a dose-response relationship was present in men regarding the number of overtime h/wk. This

  7. Health and psychosocial effects of flexible working hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Janssen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine whether any impairments in health and social lives can be found under different kinds of flexible working hours, and whether such effects are related to specific characteristics of these working hours. METHODS: Two studies - a company based survey (N=660 and an internet survey (N=528 - have been conducted. The first one was a questionnaire study (paper and pencil on employees working under some 'typical' kinds of different flexible working time arrangements in different companies and different occupational fields (health care, manufacturing, retail, administration, call centres. The second study was an internet-based survey, using an adaptation of the questionnaire from the first study. RESULTS: The results of both studies consistently show that high variability of working hours is associated with increased impairments in health and well-being and this is especially true if this variability is company controlled. These effects are less pronounced if variability is self-controlled; however, autonomy does not compensate the effects of variability. CONCLUSIONS: Recommendations for an appropriate design of flexible working hours should be developed in order to minimize any impairing effects on health and psychosocial well-being; these recommendations should include - besides allowing for discretion in controlling one's (flexible working hours - that variability in flexible working hours should be kept low (or at least moderate, even if this variability is self-controlled.OBJETIVO: Investigar se ocorre prejuízo à saúde e à vida social com diferentes tipos de horas de trabalho flexíveis e se há relação entre estes efeitos e características específicas das horas de trabalho. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos, uma pesquisa em uma empresa (N=660 e outra pela Internet (N=528. O primeiro estudo consistiu de um questionário (papel e lápis aplicado a funcionários sujeitos a diferentes ajustes "típicos" de horas de

  8. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Bannai

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 nonshift workers and 824 shift workers. Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35–44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or selfreported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. Results: The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among nonshift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57–1.24; however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21–5.10 compared with those working 35–44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. Conclusions: The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.

  9. The Risk of Developing Diabetes in Association With Long Working Hours Differs by Shift Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, Akira; Yoshioka, Eiji; Saijo, Yasuaki; Sasaki, Sachiko; Kishi, Reiko; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-09-05

    The impact of long working hours on diabetes is controversial; however, shift work is known to increase the risk of diabetes. This study aimed to investigate the association between long working hours and diabetes among civil servants in Japan separately by shift work schedules. A prospective cohort study was conducted from April 2003 to March 2009. A total of 3195 men aged ≥35 years who underwent an annual health checkup at baseline were analyzed by shift work schedules (2371 non-shift workers and 824 shift workers). Self-reported working hours were categorized as 35-44 and ≥45 hours per week. The incidence of diabetes was confirmed by fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dL and/or self-reported medical diagnosis of diabetes at the annual checkup. A Cox proportional model was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing diabetes associated with long working hours. The median follow-up period of non-shift and shift workers was 5.0 and 4.9 years, respectively. During this period, 138 non-shift workers and 46 shift workers developed diabetes. A decreased HR was found among non-shift workers working ≥45 hours per week (HR 0.84; 95% CI, 0.57-1.24); however, shift workers working ≥45 hours per week had a significantly increased risk of diabetes (HR 2.43; 95% CI, 1.21-5.10) compared with those working 35-44 hours per week. An analysis restricted to non-clerical workers also showed similar results. The risk of diabetes associated with long working hours differed by shift work schedules.

  10. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries and the European Union.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dragstra, A.; Tijdens, K.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews how working hours are asked in 26 large-scale surveys in 6 countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  11. How many hours do you usually work? An analysis of the working hours questions in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries and the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Dragstra, A.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews how working hours are asked for in 26 large-scale surveys in six countries plus the European Union. Four dimensions of working time were investigated, notably number of working hours, timing of work, predictability and control over hours, and commuting time. Although almost all

  12. Globalization and working time: Work-place hours and flexibility in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgoon, B.; Raess, D.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how economic globalization affects work-place arrangements regulating working time in industrialized countries. Exposure to foreign direct investment and trade can have off-setting effects for work-place bargaining over standard hours and work-time flexibilization, and can be

  13. Long Working Hours and Work-related Cerebro-cardiovascular Disease in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHUNG, Yun Kyung; KWON, Young-jun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine a good discriminatory cutoff for long working hours as a surrogate of chronic overload at work, which is associated with the approval of workers’ compensation claims for work-related cerebro-cardiovascular disease (WR-CVD) in Korea. We evaluated weekly working hours for four weeks prior to the onset of disease for all manufacturing industry claimants (N=319) of WR-CVD in 2010. The discrimination of long working hours in predicting approval of worker’s compensation pertaining to WR-CVD was compared across cases. The cutoff was calculated with sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve with 95% CI using the receiver operating curve (ROC) method. The cutoff point was thus calculated to be 60.75 h (AUC=0.89, 95% CI [0.84–0.93]), showing a sensitivity value of 65% and specificity of 94%. This is the first study to report that long working hours could be a predictor with good discrimination and high specificity of approval of WR-CVD cases. In Korea, long working hours and widespread chronic overload at work are recognized as a social problem. Our study results suggest an appropriate cutoff for working hours as an indicator of chronic overload for the purpose of approving claims of WR-CVD. Furthermore, these results could contribute to improving the consistency of evaluation. PMID:23892901

  14. 50 CFR 20.105 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl, coots, and gallinules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl, coots, and gallinules. 20.105 Section 20.105 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.105 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for waterfowl...

  15. Folding Proteins at 500 ns/hour with Work Queue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahid, Badi'; Yu, Li; Rajan, Dinesh; Feng, Haoyun; Darve, Eric; Thain, Douglas; Izaguirre, Jesús A

    2012-10-01

    Molecular modeling is a field that traditionally has large computational costs. Until recently, most simulation techniques relied on long trajectories, which inherently have poor scalability. A new class of methods is proposed that requires only a large number of short calculations, and for which minimal communication between computer nodes is required. We considered one of the more accurate variants called Accelerated Weighted Ensemble Dynamics (AWE) and for which distributed computing can be made efficient. We implemented AWE using the Work Queue framework for task management and applied it to an all atom protein model (Fip35 WW domain). We can run with excellent scalability by simultaneously utilizing heterogeneous resources from multiple computing platforms such as clouds (Amazon EC2, Microsoft Azure), dedicated clusters, grids, on multiple architectures (CPU/GPU, 32/64bit), and in a dynamic environment in which processes are regularly added or removed from the pool. This has allowed us to achieve an aggregate sampling rate of over 500 ns/hour. As a comparison, a single process typically achieves 0.1 ns/hour.

  16. 50 CFR 20.102 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for Alaska. 20.102 Section 20.102 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.102 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for Alaska. This section provides for...

  17. 50 CFR 20.106 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. 20.106 Section 20.106 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.106 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for sandhill cranes. This...

  18. Hours of Work and Gender Identity : Does Part-time Work make the Family Happier?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Taking into account inter-dependence within the family, we investigate the relationship between part-time work and happiness.We use panel data from the new Household, Income and Labor Dynamics in Australia Survey.Our analysis indicates that part-time women are more satisfied with working hours than

  19. STRESSORS IN NURSING WITH DOUBLE OR MORE WORKING HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlinir Bezerra de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivo: investigar os principais agentes estressores nos trabalhadores de enfermagem com dupla ou mais jornada de trabalho; verificar os principais sinais e sintomas indicadores de estresse. Métodos: estudo descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa. Desenvolvido em um hospital público da região metropolitana de Fortaleza-CE. A amostra constitui-se de 30 profissionais, sendo 46,7% auxiliares de enfermagem, 33,3% enfermeiros e 20% técnicos. A coleta ocorreu de novembro a dezembro de 2008, por meio de questionário semi-estruturado. Resultados: 93,3% dos profissionais são do sexo feminino na faixa etária de 31-40 anos. O estudo revelou vários fatores levando ao estresse, com destaque para insatisfação salarial (83%, falta de lazer (73% e sobrecarga de trabalho (60%, potencialmente prejudiciais à qualidade da assistência. Conclusão: percebeu-se a escassez de tempo que os trabalhadores de enfermagem dedicam ao descanso, ao lazer, ao convívio em família e à sua qualificação profissional. Descritores: Saúde mental, Estresse Ocupacional, Enfermagem, Ambiente de trabalho.   Abstract Objective: To investigate the main stressors in nursing workers double or more working hours, check the main signs and symptoms indicative of stress. Methods: A descriptive study with quantitative approach. It was developed in a public hospital in the metropolitan region of Fortaleza. The sample consisted of 30 professionals, and 46.7% nursing auxiliaries, 33.3% nurses and 20% technical. The data was collected during November-December 2008, through semi-structured questionnaire. Results: 93.3% of professionals are women aged 31-40 years. The study revealed several factors leading to stress, especially wage dissatisfaction (83%, lack of leisure (73% and workload (60%, potentially damaging the quality of care. Conclusion: it was perceived scarcity of time that the nursing staff dedicated to rest, leisure, living with the family and their professional

  20. Workplace flexibility, work hours, and work-life conflict: finding an extra day or two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E Jeffrey; Erickson, Jenet Jacob; Holmes, Erin K; Ferris, Maria

    2010-06-01

    This study explores the influence of workplace flexibility on work-life conflict for a global sample of workers from four groups of countries. Data are from the 2007 International Business Machines Global Work and Life Issues Survey administered in 75 countries (N = 24,436). We specifically examine flexibility in where (work-at-home) and when (perceived schedule flexibility) workers engage in work-related tasks. Multivariate results indicate that work-at-home and perceived schedule flexibility are generally related to less work-life conflict. Break point analyses of sub-groups reveal that employees with workplace flexibility are able to work longer hours (often equivalent to one or two 8-hr days more per week) before reporting work-life conflict. The benefit of work-at-home is increased when combined with schedule flexibility. These findings were generally consistent across all four groups of countries, supporting the case that workplace flexibility is beneficial both to individuals (in the form of reduced work-life conflict) and to businesses (in the form of capacity for longer work hours). However, work-at-home appears less beneficial in countries with collectivist cultures. (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Cristina Marqueze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots. METHODS This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with 1,235 Brazilian airline pilots, who work national or international flights. Data collection has been performed online. We carried out a bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis, having as dependent variable unintentional sleep at work. The independent variables were related to biodemographic data, characteristics of the work, lifestyle, and aspects of sleep. RESULTS The prevalence of unintentional sleep while flying the airplane was 57.8%. The factors associated with unintentional sleep at work were: flying for more than 65 hours a month, frequent technical delays, greater need for recovery after work, work ability below optimal, insufficient sleep, and excessive sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS The occurrence of unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots is associated with factors related to the organization of the work and health.

  2. Exploring the relationship between compressed work hours satisfaction and absenteeism in front-line service work

    OpenAIRE

    Deery, Stephen; Walsh, Janet; Zatzick, Christopher D.; Hayes, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    There has been an upsurge of interest in compressed workweek schedules because of the opportunities they provide for enhanced organizational efficiency and more balanced work and life roles for employees. This study tested a moderated mediation model of the effects of compressed work hours satisfaction on absenteeism with the purpose of exploring both the mediation effects of emotional exhaustion and physical health and the moderating effects of sex on this relationship. It utilized data draw...

  3. Shift and night work and long working hours--a systematic review of safety implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Anthony Sverre; Sigstad Lie, Jenny-Anne

    2011-05-01

    In order to devise effective preventive strategies, it is important to study workplace stressors that might increase the risk of workplace accidents - both affecting workers themselves as well as causing harm to third-parties. The aim of this report is to provide a systematic, updated overview and scientific review of empirical research regarding accidents in relation to long work hours and shift work, primarily based on epidemiological studies. The search for articles was part of a large review study on the effects of work hours on various health outcomes, safety, and performance. The search strategy included 5 international scientific databases, and nearly 7000 articles were initially identified using our search string. Following the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 443 publications were found and evaluated using a pre-defined scoring system. Of these, 43 concerned safety and accidents but only 14 were considered to be of high quality (total score 2 or 3 on a scale from 0-3) and therefore used for this study. Both shift work and long working hours present a substantial and well-documented detrimental effect on safety - all the studies that are included in this review have one or more significant findings in this respect. The trends are quite coherent although the increases in accident rates are mostly from 50% to 100%. In epidemiological terms, this may be seen as rather small differences. The use of such data is therefore only of importance if the accident incidence is high or if accidents may have large effects. The findings are most relevant to safety-critical activities such as the transport and health sectors. Work periods >8 hours carry an increased risk of accidents that cumulates, so that the increased risk of accidents at around 12 hours is twice the risk at 8 hours. Shift work including nights carries a substantial increased risk of accidents, whereas "pure" night work may bring some protection against this effect due to

  4. 75 FR 40765 - Hours of Service; Limited Exemption for the Distribution of Anhydrous Ammonia in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service; Limited Exemption for the... its proposal to grant a 2-year, limited exemption from the Federal hours-of-service regulations for... takes place within a 100 air-mile radius of the retail or wholesale distribution point. This exemption...

  5. Vital working hour schemes: The dynamic balance between various interests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhof, G.A.; Jansen, B.; van Amelsvoort, L.G.P.M.

    2006-01-01

    "Balancing Interests", the theme of the 17th International Symposium on Shift Work and Working Time held in Hoofddorp, The Netherlands (September 2005), refers to the ambition to reach an optimal balance between the various aspects of shift work. Economic, ergonomic, physical, and psychosocial

  6. Games at work: the recreational use of computer games during working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, Leonard

    2009-08-01

    The present study investigated the recreational use of video and computer games in the workplace. In an online survey, 833 employed users of online casual games reported on their use of computer games during working hours. The data indicate that playing computer games in the workplace elicits substantial levels of recovery experience. Recovery experience associated with gameplay was the strongest predictor for the use of games in the workplace. Furthermore, individuals with higher levels of work-related fatigue reported stronger recovery experience during gameplay and showed a higher tendency to play games during working hours than did persons with lower levels of work strain. Additionally, the social situation at work was found to have a significant influence on the use of games. Persons receiving less social support from colleagues and supervisors played games at work more frequently than did individuals with higher levels of social support. Furthermore, job control was positively related to the use of games at work. In sum, the results of the present study illustrate that computer games have a significant recovery potential. Implications of these findings for research on personal computer use during work and for games research in general are discussed.

  7. Long working hours and cancer risk: a multi-cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heikkila, K.; Nyberg, S.T.; Madsen, I.E.; Vroome, E. de; Alfredsson, L.; Bjorner, J.B.; Borritz, M.; Burr, H.; Erbel, R.; Ferrie, J.E.; Fransson, E.; Geuskens, G.A.; Hooftman, W.E.; Houtman, I.L.; Jöckel, K.H.; Knutsson, A.; Koskenvuo, M.; Lunau, T.; Nielsen, M.L.; Nordin, M.; Oksanen, T.; Pejtersen, J.H.; Pentti, J.; Shipley, M.J.; Steptoe, A.; Suominen, S.B.; Theorell, T.; Vahtera, J.; Westerholm, P.J.M.; Westerlund, H.; Dragano, N.; Rugulies, R.; Kawachi, I.; Batty, G.D.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Virtanen, M.; Kivimäki, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Working longer than the maximum recommended hours is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship of excess working hours with incident cancer is unclear. Methods: This multi-cohort study examined the association between working hours and cancer risk

  8. 29 CFR 5.8 - Liquidated damages under the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Liquidated damages under the Contract Work Hours and Safety... APPLICABLE TO NONCONSTRUCTION CONTRACTS SUBJECT TO THE CONTRACT WORK HOURS AND SAFETY STANDARDS ACT) Davis... and Safety Standards Act. (a) The Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act requires that laborers...

  9. 48 CFR 52.222-4 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-Overtime Compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-4 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Overtime Compensation. As prescribed in 22.305, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards... Contractor that are subject to the Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. (d) Payrolls and basic...

  10. 48 CFR 22.403-3 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 22.403-3 Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act. The Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act (40 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.) requires that certain contracts (see... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract Work Hours and...

  11. An analysis of driving and working hour on commercial motor vehicle driver safety using naturalistic data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Blanco, Myra; Hanowski, Richard J; Olson, Rebecca L; Morgan, Justin F; Guo, Feng; Wu, Shih-Ching

    2013-09-01

    Current hours-of-service (HOS) regulations prescribe limits to commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers' operating hours. By using naturalistic-data-collection, researchers were able to assess activities performed in the 14-h workday and the relationship between safety-critical events (SCEs) and driving hours, work hours, and breaks. The data used in the analyses were collected in the Naturalistic Truck Driving Study and included 97 drivers and about 735,000 miles of continuous driving data. An assessment of the drivers' workday determined that, on average, drivers spent 66% of their shift driving, 23% in non-driving work, and 11% resting. Analyses evaluating the relationship between driving hours (i.e., driving only) and SCE risk found a time-on-task effect across hours, with no significant difference in safety outcomes between 11th driving hour and driving hours 8, 9 or 10. Analyses on work hours (i.e., driving in addition to non-driving work) found that risk of being involved in an SCE generally increased as work hours increased. This suggests that time-on-task effects may not be related to driving hours alone, but implies an interaction between driving hours and work hours: if a driver begins the day with several hours of non-driving work, followed by driving that goes deep into the 14-h workday, SCE risk was found to increase. Breaks from driving were found to be beneficial in reducing SCEs (during 1-h window after a break) and were effective in counteracting the negative effects of time-on-task. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies to accommodate resident work-hour restrictions: impact on surgical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiburg, Carter; James, Ted; Ashikaga, Takamura; Moalem, Jacob; Cherr, Greg

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of duty-hour restrictions has impacted surgical training. Several strategies were introduced by training programs in response to these restrictions. The purpose of this study was to assess the various strategies employed by residency programs to comply with work-hour restrictions with respect to the impact on the quality of surgical education. A national survey was developed and distributed to resident members of the Resident and Associate Society of the American College of Surgeons in all accredited residency programs across North America. Questions in the survey addressed 10 separate accommodation strategies used by training programs to adhere to resident work-hour restrictions. Resident respondents completed a 5-point Likert scale rating each strategy according to its impact on surgical education (detrimental, not very helpful, neutral, somewhat helpful, and very helpful). A total of 599 (9.7%) responses were received from 6186 members of the Resident Associate Society. The use of health information technology (IT), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants were most highly rated. Hiring clinical fellows, establishing nonteaching services, and shift-work scheduling were the three most poorly rated accommodations to work-hour restrictions with respect to resident education. Hospital IT and nonphysician care providers were rated by residents to optimize surgical education in the current work-hour limitation environment. We infer that strategies which lead to increased efficiency and redistribution of resident workload allow surgical trainees to spend more time on activities perceived to have higher educational value. Copyright © 2011 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Multinationals versus domestic firms: wages, working hours and industrial relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Tijdens, K.

    2011-01-01

    This Working Paper aims to present and discuss recent evidence on the effect of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on wages, working conditions and industrial relations. It presents a. an overview of the available literature on the effects of FDI on wages, particularly in developed countries; b. the

  14. The Effect of CHIP on Pediatricians Work Hours

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Enrollment in public health insurance coverage will expand significantly beginning in 2014. We have only a limited understanding of what happens when an influx of...

  15. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine's report, entitled "Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety", published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation's teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release, discussion of the

  16. Working overtime hours: Relations with fatigue, work motivation, and the quality of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods: We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch

  17. Working Overtime Hours: Relations with fatigue, work motivation, and the quality of work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, D.G.J.; Linden, D. van der; Smulders, P.G.W.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Veldhoven, M.J.P.M. van; Yperen, N.W. van

    2004-01-01

    Objectives - We sought to better understand the relationship between overtime and mental fatigue by taking into account work motivation and the quality of overtime work and studying theoretically derived subgroups. Methods - We conducted a survey-study among a representative sample of the Dutch

  18. Changes in outcomes for internal medicine inpatients after work-hour regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, Leora I; Kosiborod, Mikhail; Lin, Zhenqiu; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2007-07-17

    Limits on resident work hours are intended to reduce fatigue-related errors, but may raise risk by increasing transfers of responsibility for patients. To examine changes in outcomes for internal medicine patients after the implementation of work-hour regulations. Retrospective cohort study. Urban, academic medical center. 14,260 consecutive patients discharged from the teaching (housestaff) service and 6664 consecutive patients discharged from the nonteaching (hospitalist) service between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2004. Outcomes included intensive care unit utilization, length of stay, discharge disposition, 30-day readmission rate to the study institution, pharmacist interventions to prevent error, drug-drug interactions and in-hospital death. The teaching service had net improvements in 3 outcomes. Relative to changes experienced by the nonteaching service, the rate of intensive care unit utilization decreased by 2.1% (95% CI, -3.3% to -0.7%; P = 0.002), the rate of discharge to home or rehabilitation facility versus elsewhere improved by 5.3% (CI, 2.6% to 7.6%; P error were reduced by 1.92 interventions per 100 patient-days (CI, -2.74 to -1.03 interventions per 100 patient-days; P < 0.001). Teaching and nonteaching services had similar changes over time in length of stay, 30-day readmission rate, and adverse drug-drug interactions. In-hospital death was uncommon in both groups, and change over time was similar in the 2 groups. The study was a retrospective, nonrandomized design that assessed a limited number of outcomes. Teaching and nonteaching cohorts may not have been affected similarly by secular trends in patient care. After the implementation of work-hour regulations, 3 of 7 outcomes improved for patients in the teaching service relative to those in the nonteaching service. The authors found no evidence of adverse unintended consequences after the institution of work-hour regulations.

  19. 50 CFR 20.107 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... tundra swans. 20.107 Section 20.107 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE..., and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.107 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for tundra swans. This section provides for the annual hunting of tundra swans in designated portions of the 48 contiguous United...

  20. Longitudinal examination of temporality in the association between chronic disease diagnosis and changes in work status and hours worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetha, Arif; Chen, Cynthia; Mustard, Cameron; Ibrahim, Selahadin; Bielecky, Amber; Beaton, Dorcas; Smith, Peter

    2017-03-01

    To examine the longitudinal relationship between incidence of diagnosed chronic disease and work status and hours worked. A dynamic cohort approach was taken to construct our study sample using the Canadian National Population Health Survey. Participant inclusion criteria included being employed and without a chronic health condition in the survey cycle prior to diagnosis, and participation in consecutive surveys following diagnosis. Each respondent was matched with up to 5 respondents without a diagnosed health condition. The direct and indirect associations between chronic disease and work status and hours worked following diagnosis were examined using probit and linear regression path models. Separate models were developed for arthritis, back problems, diabetes, hypertension and heart disease. We identified 799 observations with a diagnosis of arthritis, 858 with back pain, 178 with diabetes, 569 with hypertension and 163 with heart disease, which met our selection criteria. An examination of total effects at time 1 and time 2 showed that, excluding hypertension, chronic disease diagnosis was related to work loss. The time 2 effect of chronic disease diagnosis on work loss was mediated through time 1 work status. With the exception of heart disease, an incident case of chronic disease was not related to changes in work hours among observations with continuous work participation. Chronic disease can result in work loss following diagnosis. Research is required to understand how modifying occupational conditions may benefit employment immediately after diagnosis. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Working hours and cardiovascular disease in Korean workers: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Inchul; Rhie, Jeongbae; Kim, Inah; Ryu, Innshil; Jung, Pil Kyun; Park, Yoo Seok; Lim, Yong-Su; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul; Park, Shin-Goo; Im, Hyoung-June; Lee, Mi-Young; Won, Jong-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Long working hours can negatively impact a worker's health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between working hours and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and compare the degree of risk based on CVD subtypes in Korean workers. This study was a case-control study of the patients registered in the Occupational Cardiovascular Diseases Surveillance 2010. The cases included 348 patients diagnosed with a CVD (123 cerebral infarction, 69 intracerebral hemorrhage, 57 subarachnoid hemorrhage, 99 acute myocardial infarction). Controls were 769 participants with no history of CVDs matched for gender, age, type of occupation, and region. Participants' working hours in the previous week and the average working hours over the past three months were assessed to examine short-term and long-term effects. After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for CVDs in the short-term were 2.66 (95% Confidence interval (CI) :1.78-3.99) for working ≤40 hours, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22-2.81) for working 50.1-60 hours and 4.23 (95% CI: 2.81-6.39) for working >60 hours compared with the 40.1-50-hour working group. The ORs in the long-term were 2.90 (95% CI: 1.86-4.52) for working ≤40 hours, 1.73 (95% CI: 1.03-2.90) for working 48.1-52 hours and 3.46 (95% CI: 2.38-5.03) for working >52 hours compared with the 40.1-48-hour working group. Long working hours are related to an increased risk of CVDs, and the degree of risk differs based on CVD subtype. Short working hours are also related to an increased risk for CVDs. More prospective studies targeting specific disease risks are required.

  2. Work hours, sleep patterns and fatigue among merchant marine personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanquist, T F; Raby, M; Forsythe, A; Carvalhais, A B

    1997-12-01

    A field study of work and sleep patterns among commercial merchant marine personnel is reported. Data collected over a 10-30-d period from 141 subjects aboard eight ships included information concerning work-rest schedules, sleep timing, alertness on the job and critical fatigue. The data indicate that watchstanders on the 4-on, 8-off schedule show considerable disruption in their sleep. The average sleep duration for all mariners is 6.6 h; watchstanders obtain their sleep in fragmented periods that are frequently less than 5 h in duration. Analysis of critical fatigue shows an incidence of 1-24% across personnel and measures. Of particular concern are the watchstanders on the 04.00-08.00 schedule, who sleep less than 4 h per 24-h period 22% of the time. Potential countermeasures, including changes in scheduling and staffing are proposed.

  3. Work hours, weight status, and weight-related behaviors: a study of metro transit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannan Peter J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Associations between hours worked per week and Body Mass Index (BMI, food intake, physical activity, and perceptions of eating healthy at work were examined in a sample of transit workers. Methods Survey data were collected from 1086 transit workers. Participants reported hours worked per week, food choices, leisure-time physical activity and perceptions of the work environment with regard to healthy eating. Height and weight were measured for each participant. Multivariate linear and logistic regressions were conducted to examine associations between work hours and behavioral variables. Associations were examined in the full sample and stratified by gender. Results Transit workers working in the highest work hour categories had higher BMI and poorer dietary habits, with results differing by gender. Working 50 or more hours per week was associated with higher BMI among men but not women. Additionally, working 50 or more hours per week was significantly associated with higher frequency of accessing cold beverage, cold food, and snack vending machines among men. Working 40 or more hours per week was associated with higher frequency of accessing cold food vending machines among women. Reported frequency of fruit and vegetable intake was highest among women working 50 or more hours per week. Intake of sweets, sugar sweetened beverages, and fast food did not vary with work hours in men or women. Physical activity and perception of ease of eating healthy at work were not associated with work hours in men or women. Conclusions Long work hours were associated with more frequent use of garage vending machines and higher BMI in transit workers, with associations found primarily among men. Long work hours may increase dependence upon food availability at the worksite, which highlights the importance of availability of healthy food choices.

  4. Working hours, work-life conflict and health in precarious and "permanent" employment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bohle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The expansion of precarious employment in OECD countries has been widely associated with negative health and safety effects. Although many shiftworkers are precariously employed, shiftwork research has concentrated on full-time workers in continuing employment. This paper examines the impact of precarious employment on working hours, work-life conflict and health by comparing casual employees to full-time, "permanent" employees working in the same occupations and workplaces. METHODS: Thirty-nine convergent interviews were conducted in two five-star hotels. The participants included 26 full-time and 13 casual (temporary employees. They ranged in age from 19 to 61 years and included 17 females and 22 males. Working hours ranged from zero to 73 hours per week. RESULTS: Marked differences emerged between the reports of casual and full-time employees about working hours, work-life conflict and health. Casuals were more likely to work highly irregular hours over which they had little control. Their daily and weekly working hours ranged from very long to very short according to organisational requirements. Long working hours, combined with low predictability and control, produced greater disruption to family and social lives and poorer work-life balance for casuals. Uncoordinated hours across multiple jobs exacerbated these problems in some cases. Health-related issues reported to arise from work-life conflict included sleep disturbance, fatigue and disrupted exercise and dietary regimes. CONCLUSIONS:This study identified significant disadvantages of casual employment. In the same hotels, and doing largely the same jobs, casual employees had less desirable and predictable work schedules, greater work-life conflict and more associated health complaints than "permanent" workers.OBJETIVOS: O crescimento do número de empregos precários em países da OECD está largamente associado a efeitos negativos à saúde e segurança. Embora muitos

  5. Working hours and the onset of depressive disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imamura, Kotaro; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-12-01

    : This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether working beyond the standard working hours was associated with a greater risk of depressive disorder among workers included in published prospective studies. This manuscript was prepared according to the PRISMA guideline checklist. A database search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES using a relevant set of keywords. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) participants were adult workers; (2) exposure was defined as overtime work; (3) outcome were depressive disorders clinically diagnosed or assessed by a structured interview and (4) the study design was prospective or cohort. 7 studies were identified in the systematic review and meta-analysis. Overtime work was associated with a small, non-significant, elevated risk of depressive disorder (pooled relative risk=1.075; 95% CI 0.834 to 1.387; p=0.575) in a random effects model. The association tended to be greater for women. The risk of working 50 or more hours per week was slightly but not significantly increased (pooled relative risk=1.241; 95% CI 0.880 to 1.750; p=0.218). The effect of overtime work on depressive disorder remains inconclusive and may be small if not negligible. Sex differences and the effect of longer working hours on depressive disorder should be addressed in the future. Prospero CRD42015020003; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijp, Hylco H; Beckers, Debby G J; van de Voorde, Karina; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of NWW on both the organization of work (changes in control over time and place of work; working hours and work location; and other key job characteristics), and on employees' outcomes (work-nonwork balance; health and well-being; and job-related outcomes). We applied a quasi-experimental design within a large Dutch financial company (N = 2,912). We studied an intervention group (n = 2,391) and made comparisons with a reference group (n = 521). There were three study waves: (i) one/two months before, and (ii) 4 months and (iii) 10 months after implementation of NWW. Repeated measures analyses of covariance (involving 361 participants from the intervention group and 80 participants from the reference group) showed a large and significant shift from hours worked at the office to hours worked at home after implementation of NWW. Accordingly, commuting time was reduced. Employees remained working on week days and during day time. Psychosocial work-characteristics, work-nonwork balance, stress, fatigue, and job-related outcomes remained favourable and largely unaffected, but the health score in the intervention group decreased (medium effect). These findings suggest that the implementation of NWW does not necessarily lead to changes in psychosocial work characteristics, well-being or job-related outcomes.

  7. Physiological and psychological impacts of extended work hours in logging operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell; Tom Gallagher

    2007-01-01

    A study was initiated in 2006 to develop an understanding of the considerations of using extended work hours in the logging industry in the southeastern United States. Through semistructured interviews, it was obvious that loggers were individually creating ways of successfully implementing extended working hours without understanding the impacts that extended working...

  8. Increasing part-time working hours in the Netherlands. Identifying policy recommendations through Group Model Building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenbergh, I.L.; Fokkinga, B.L.A.

    2013-01-01

    With 73% of women and 19% of men working part-time,the Netherlands is known as the champion of part-time work. In order to increase especially the working hours of women with small part-time jobs (less than 20 hours per week) the Dutch government installed a thinktank of employers, employees

  9. Long working hours and pregnancy complications: women physicians survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masumi; Rahman, Mahbubur; Ishiguro, Aya; Nomura, Kyoko

    2014-07-23

    Previous studies have investigated the impact of occupational risk factors on health outcomes among physicians. However, few studies have investigated the effects on pregnancy outcomes among physicians. In this study, we examined the association between working hours during pregnancy and pregnancy complications among physicians. A cross-sectional study was based on a survey conducted in 2009-2011 of 1,684 alumnae (mean age, 44 ± 8 years) who had graduated from 13 private medical schools in Japan. Data on threatened abortion (TA), preterm birth (PTB), and the number of working hours during the first trimester of pregnancy were obtained via retrospective assessments. Of the 939 physicians with a first pregnancy, 15% experienced TA and 12% experienced PTB. Women who experienced TA (mean weekly working hours: 62 h vs. 50 h, P women who worked 40 hours or less per week, women who worked 71 hours or more per week had a three-fold higher risk of experiencing TA (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-6.0) even after adjusting for medical specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The risk of experiencing PTB was 2.5 times higher (95% CI:1.2-5.2) in women who worked 51-70 hours and 4.2 times higher (95% CI: 1.9-9.2) in women who worked 71 hours or more even after adjusting for specialty, maternal age, and current household income. The trend in the P statistic reflecting the effect of the quartile of hours worked per week (40 hours, 41-50 hours, 51-70 hours, ≥ 71 hours) on TA or PTB was 0.0001 in the multivariate logistic regression models. These results suggest that working long hours during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with TA and PTB.

  10. Quick returns and night work as predictors of sleep quality, fatigue, work-family balance and satisfaction with work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Anna; Tucker, Philip; Gustavsson, Petter; Rudman, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Quick returns (intervals of sleeps and fatigue on the subsequent shift. Recent evidence suggests that shift workers regard quick returns as being more problematic than night work. The current study explored quick returns and night work in terms of their impact on sleep, unwinding, recovery, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-family interference. Data from the 2006 cohort of Swedish nursing students within the national Longitudinal Analysis of Nursing Education (LANE) study were analysed (N = 1459). Respondents completed a questionnaire prior to graduation (response rate 69.2%) and 3 years after graduation (65.9%). The analyses examined associations between frequency of quick returns and night work and measures taken in year three, while adjusting for confounding factors (in year three and prior graduation). Frequency of quick returns was a significant predictor of poor sleep quality, short sleeps, unwinding, exhaustion, satisfaction with work hours and work-to-family interference, with higher frequency predicting more negative outcomes. Quick returns did not predict recovery after rest days. Frequency of night work did not predict any of the outcomes. In conclusion, quick returns were an important determinant of sleep, recovery and wellbeing, whereas night work did not show such an association.

  11. Work Hours of Immigrant Versus U.S.-Born Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2017-10-01

    This study was a secondary analysis of cross-sectional data extracted from the 2011-2012 California Health Interview Survey. Data from 8,931 full-time (i.e., 21 hours or more per week) women workers aged 18 to 85 years were analyzed to examine the nature and prevalence of immigrant female workers' work hours, overtime, and related factors in the United States compared to U.S.-born female workers. Results showed that foreign-born female workers did not work longer hours than U.S.-born female workers. Foreign-born female workers who reported poor health worked longer hours than did their U.S.-born counterparts. Foreign-born female workers who were self-employed or worked in family businesses tended to work longer hours than did those women who worked for private companies or nonprofit organizations.

  12. Gender Differences and Predictors of Work Hours in a Sample of Ontario Dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Julia C; Ahmad, Atyub; Shaw, Jodi L; Rashid, Faahim; Clancy, Alicia; David, Courtney; Figueiredo, Rafael; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    To determine the influence of gender on weekly work hours of Ontario dentists. In 2012, a 52-item survey was sent to a random sample of 3000 Ontario dentists (1500 men and 1500 women) to collect information on personal, professional and sociodemographic characteristics. The resulting data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and linear regression modeling. The 867 respondents included 463 men, 401 women and 3 people whose gender was unreported, yielding a response rate of 29%.Most dentists worked full-time, with men working, on average, 2 h/week longer than women. Younger dentists worked more than older dentists. Practice ownership increased weekly work hours, and men reported ownership more often than women. Canadian-trained women worked significantly fewer hours than those trained internationally. Women were more likely than men to work part time and take parental leave and more often reported being primary caregivers and solely responsible for household chores. Women with partner support for such tasks worked more hours than those who were solely responsible. Dentists with children ≤ 3 years of age worked fewer hours than those without children; however, after controlling for spousal responsibility for caregiver duties, this effect was eliminated. More women than men reported making concessions in their career to devote time to family. Gender, age, practice ownership, training location and degree of spousal support for household and caregiving responsibilities were predictors of weekly work hours. For women specifically, training location and household and caregiving responsibilities predicted weekly work hours.

  13. Working hours associated with unintentional sleep at work among airline pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueze, Elaine Cristina; Nicola, Ana Carolina B; Diniz, Dag Hammarskjoeld M D; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2017-06-26

    Tto identify factors associated with unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots. This is a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted with 1,235 Brazilian airline pilots, who work national or international flights. Data collection has been performed online. We carried out a bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis, having as dependent variable unintentional sleep at work. The independent variables were related to biodemographic data, characteristics of the work, lifestyle, and aspects of sleep. The prevalence of unintentional sleep while flying the airplane was 57.8%. The factors associated with unintentional sleep at work were: flying for more than 65 hours a month, frequent technical delays, greater need for recovery after work, work ability below optimal, insufficient sleep, and excessive sleepiness. The occurrence of unintentional sleep at work of airline pilots is associated with factors related to the organization of the work and health. Identificar fatores associados aos cochilos não intencionais durante as jornadas de trabalho de pilotos da aviação regular. Estudo epidemiológico transversal conduzido com 1.235 pilotos brasileiros de avião do transporte aéreo regular, que realizavam voos nacionais ou internacionais, sendo a coleta de dados realizada on-line. Foi realizada análise de regressão logística bivariada e múltipla, tendo como variável dependente o cochilo não intencional durante o horário de trabalho. As variáveis independentes foram relacionadas a dados biodemográficos, características do trabalho, estilo de vida e aspectos do sono. A prevalência do cochilo não intencional enquanto pilotava o avião foi de 57,8%. Os fatores associados ao cochilo não intencional foram: voar por mais de 65 horas por mês, atrasos técnicos frequentes, maior necessidade de recuperação após o trabalho, capacidade para o trabalho inferior à ótima, sono insuficiente e sonolência excessiva. A ocorrência do cochilo n

  14. Bullying Behavior, Parents' Work Hours and Early Adolescents' Perceptions of Time Spent with Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie-Mizell, C. Andre; Keil, Jacqueline M.; Laske, Mary Therese; Stewart, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationships among bullying behavior, mother's and father's work hours, and early adolescents' perceptions of whether they spend sufficient time with their parents. In cross-sectional models, we find maternal work hours are modestly associated with increases in bullying behavior. However, in more rigorous change…

  15. Impact of Long Farm Working Hours on Child Safety Practices in Agricultural Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlenga, Barbara; Pahwa, Punam; Hagel, Louise; Dosman, James; Pickett, William

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To characterize working hours of adult farm owner-operators and their spouses by season, and to examine associations between working hours and farm safety practices affecting children. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of cross-sectional survey data collected as part of an existing study of injury and its determinants.…

  16. Effects of a night-team system on resident sleep and work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Kao-Ping; Gordon, Mary Beth; Sectish, Theodore; Landrigan, Christopher P

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, Children's Hospital Boston implemented a night-team system on general pediatric wards to reduce extended work shifts. Residents worked 5 consecutive nights for 1 week and worked day shifts for the remainder of the rotation. Of note, resident staffing at night decreased under this system. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of this system on resident sleep and work hours. We conducted a prospective cohort study in which residents on the night-team system logged their sleep and work hours on work days. These data were compared with similar data collected in 2004, when there was a traditional call system. In 2004 and 2009, mean shift length was 15.22 ± 6.86 and 12.92 ± 5.70 hours, respectively (P = .161). Daily work hours were 10.49 ± 6.85 and 8.79 ± 6.42 hours, respectively (P = .08). Nightly sleep time decreased from 6.72 ± 2.60 to 4.77 ± 2.46 hours (P team system was unexpectedly associated with decreased sleep hours. As residency programs create work schedules that are compliant with the 2011 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education duty-hour standards, resident sleep should be monitored carefully.

  17. Remaking Surgical Socialization: Work Hour Restrictions, Rites of Passage, and Occupational Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joanna Veazey; Bosk, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine how a policy aimed at improving patient safety by limiting residents’ work hours brought with it an unintended and unexamined consequence: altered socialization due to modified rites of passage during residency that endangered the stereotypical “Surgical Personality” and created a potential rift between the occupational identities of surgical residents who train under duty hour regulations and those who trained before they were imposed. Through participant observation occurring between June 2008 and June 2010, in-depth interviews (n=13), and focus groups (n=2), we explore how surgical residents training in four U.S. hospitals think about the threats that the shift from unrestricted to restricted duty hours creates for their claims of competence and professionalism. We identify three types of resident responses: (1) neutralizing statements that deny any significant change to occupational identity has occurred; (2) embracing statements that express the belief that a changed and more balanced occupational identity is needed; and (3) apprehensive statements that expressed fear of an altered occupational identity and an anxiety about readiness for individual practice. PMID:22863331

  18. Physiological responses to four hours of low-level repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Jensen, Bente R

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study investigated physiological responses to 4 hours of standardized low-level repetitive work. It was hypothesized that accumulative effects not observed after 1 hour could be found after 4 hours of repetitive work. METHODS: Ten healthy women performed intermittent (5 seconds + 5...... the 4 hours. In accordance, the RPE recorded for the hand, forearm, and shoulder regions increased progressively. For the remaining physiological measures, no accumulative changes were found. Forearm muscle activity was higher during a mental reference task with lower exerted force than during...

  19. Impact of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education work-hour regulations on neurosurgical resident education and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Jay; Vates, G Edward; Pouratian, Nader; Sheehan, Jason P; Patrie, James; Grady, M Sean; Jane, John A

    2009-05-01

    Recently, the Institute of Medicine examined resident duty hours and their impact on patient safety. Experts have suggested that reducing resident work hours to 56 hours per week would further decrease medical errors. Although some reports have indicated that cutbacks in resident duty hours reduce errors and make resident life safer, few authors have specifically analyzed the effect of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty-hour limits on neurosurgical resident education and the perceived quality of training. The authors have evaluated multiple objective surrogate markers of resident performance and quality of training to determine the impact of the 80-hour workweek. The United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 data on neurosurgical applicants entering ACGME-accredited programs between 1998 and 2007 (before and after the implementation of the work-hour rules) were obtained from the Society of Neurological Surgeons. The American Board of Neurological Surgery (ABNS) written examination scores for this group of residents were also acquired. Resident registration for and presentations at the American Association of Neurological Surgeons (AANS) annual meetings between 2002 and 2007 were examined as a measure of resident academic productivity. As a case example, the authors analyzed the distribution of resident training hours in the University of Virginia (UVA) neurosurgical training program before and after the institution of the 80-hour workweek. Finally, program directors and chief residents in ACGME-accredited programs were surveyed regarding the effects of the 80-hour workweek on patient care, resident training, surgical experience, patient safety, and patient access to quality care. Respondents were also queried about their perceptions of a 56-hour workweek. Despite stable mean USMLE Step 1 scores for matched applicants to neurosurgery programs between 2000 and 2008, ABNS written examination scores for residents

  20. 50 CFR 20.104 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for rails, woodcock, and common (Wilson's) snipe. 20.104 Section 20.104 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES... HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.104 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours...

  1. 50 CFR 20.101 - Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. 20.101 Section 20.101 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND... Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.101 Seasons, limits and shooting hours for Puerto Rico...

  2. 50 CFR 20.103 - Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for... BIRD HUNTING Annual Seasons, Limits, and Shooting Hours Schedules § 20.103 Seasons, limits, and shooting hours for mourning and white-winged doves and wild pigeons. This section provides for the annual...

  3. When work calls-associations between being contacted outside of regular working hours for work-related matters and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm

    2013-11-01

    Boundaries between work and private life are diminishing, but little is known on how this influences worker health. Therefore, we examined the association between work-related contacts outside of regular working hours by e-mail or phone and self-reported health in a representative sample of European employees (n = 23 760). The risk of reporting ≥1 health problem(s) was increased in workers contacted sometimes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.27) or often (OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 1.12-1.34) as compared with never, controlling for several demographic and workplace characteristics. Further research is needed to quantify work and nonwork patterns and their health effects.

  4. Long working hours as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation: a multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Nyberg, Solja T; Batty, G David; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jokela, Markus; Alfredsson, Lars; Bjorner, Jakob B; Borritz, Marianne; Burr, Hermann; Dragano, Nico; Fransson, Eleonor I; Heikkilä, Katriina; Knutsson, Anders; Koskenvuo, Markku; Kumari, Meena; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Martin L; Nordin, Maria; Oksanen, Tuula; Pejtersen, Jan H; Pentti, Jaana; Rugulies, Reiner; Salo, Paula; Shipley, Martin J; Suominen, Sakari; Theorell, Töres; Vahtera, Jussi; Westerholm, Peter; Westerlund, Hugo; Steptoe, Andrew; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Hamer, Mark; Ferrie, Jane E; Virtanen, Marianna; Tabak, Adam G

    2017-09-07

    Studies suggest that people who work long hours are at increased risk of stroke, but the association of long working hours with atrial fibrillation, the most common cardiac arrhythmia and a risk factor for stroke, is unknown. We examined the risk of atrial fibrillation in individuals working long hours (≥55 per week) and those working standard 35-40 h/week. In this prospective multi-cohort study from the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations (IPD-Work) Consortium, the study population was 85 494 working men and women (mean age 43.4 years) with no recorded atrial fibrillation. Working hours were assessed at study baseline (1991-2004). Mean follow-up for incident atrial fibrillation was 10 years and cases were defined using data on electrocardiograms, hospital records, drug reimbursement registers, and death certificates. We identified 1061 new cases of atrial fibrillation (10-year cumulative incidence 12.4 per 1000). After adjustment for age, sex and socioeconomic status, individuals working long hours had a 1.4-fold increased risk of atrial fibrillation compared with those working standard hours (hazard ratio = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.13-1.80, P = 0.003). There was no significant heterogeneity between the cohort-specific effect estimates (I2 = 0%, P = 0.66) and the finding remained after excluding participants with coronary heart disease or stroke at baseline or during the follow-up (N = 2006, hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.05-1.76, P = 0.0180). Adjustment for potential confounding factors, such as obesity, risky alcohol use and high blood pressure, had little impact on this association. Individuals who worked long hours were more likely to develop atrial fibrillation than those working standard hours.

  5. Long-term follow-up on the educational impact of ACGME duty hour limits: a pre-post survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbons, Shimae C; Chen, Jie; Jagsi, Reshma; Weinstein, Debra

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the long-term impact of the 2003 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) duty hour limits on residents' perception of education. Eight years after the introduction of the ACGME duty hour limits, graduate medical education programs implemented a revised set of standards. Currently, limited data exist related to the long-term impact of the 2003 standards on resident education. A yearly survey from 2003 to 2009 was administered to orthopedic residents in a multi-institutional program, inquiring about several aspects of the resident's educational experience, work hours, amount of sleep, fatigue and its impact, and preparedness for practice. A total of 216 responses (69%) were obtained from surveyed orthopedic residents between 2003 and 2009. There was no significant change in the average reported hours of sleep (34.6 hours per week in 2003 vs 33.7 hours per week between 2004 and 2009) despite a decrease in the mean reported number of work hours (74.5 hours in 2003 vs 66.2 hours in 2009; P = 0.046). However, a decrease in perceived fatigue and its negative impact on patient safety and quality of care was noted. The perceived sufficiency of direct clinical experience, the number of hours spent performing major procedures, and the overall satisfaction with education also decreased. Finally, the residents' sense of clinical preparedness diminished after the work hour limits were in place. After the implementation of the 2003 duty hour limits, residents' perceptions of fatigue improved without any increase in the reported amount of sleep. In addition, decreased resident satisfaction with their education and a diminished sense of clinical preparedness were noted. Additional studies are needed to better understand the influence of work hours and fatigue on the outcomes of education, resident well-being, and patient care to guide the optimal design and delivery of graduate medical education.

  6. Poor safety climate, long work hours, and musculoskeletal discomfort among Latino horse farm workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer; Clouser, Jessica Miller; Gan, Wenqi; Flunker, John C; Westneat, Susan; Browning, Steven R

    2017-09-03

    This study investigated the prevalence of self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort (MSD) and work-related factors associated with elevated MSD among Latino thoroughbred farm workers. Participants (N = 225) were recruited using a community-based purposive sampling approach to participate in in-person interviews. Of these workers, 85% experienced MSD. MSD was divided into tertiles; the upper tertile was defined as elevated. Multivariable Poisson regression revealed associations between any elevated MSD and longer tenure on horse farms, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated neck/back MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and poor safety climate. Elevated upper extremity MSD was associated with age and poor safety climate. Elevated lower extremity MSD was associated with longer tenure, longer work hours, and being female. Musculoskeletal discomfort is common among these workers. Improving safety climate and minimizing long work hours is recommended.

  7. Work hours and sleep/wake behavior of Australian hospital doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Sally A; Thomas, Matthew J W; Dorrian, Jillian; Jay, Sarah M; Weissenfeld, Adrian; Dawson, Drew

    2010-07-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the work and sleep patterns of doctors working in Australian hospitals. Specifically, the aim was to examine the influence of work-related factors, such as hospital type, seniority, and specialty on work hours and their impact on sleep. A total of 635 work periods from 78 doctors were analyzed together with associated sleep history. Work and sleep diary information was validated against an objective measure of sleep/wake activity to provide the first comprehensive database linking work and sleep for individual hospital doctors in Australia. Doctors in large and small facilities had fewer days without work than those doctors working in medium-sized facilities. There were no significant differences in the total hours worked across these three categories of seniority; however, mid-career and senior doctors worked more overnight and weekend on-call periods than junior doctors. With respect to sleep, although higher work hours were related to less sleep, short sleeps (hospital doctors, total hours worked do impact sleep, but the pattern of work, together with other nonwork factors are also important mediators.

  8. Association between rotating night shift work and metabolic syndrome in Korean workers: differences between 8-hour and 12-hour rotating shift work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Il; Yim, Hyeon Woo

    2017-10-19

    This study aimed to analyze the association between the shift work schedule and metabolic syndrome (MetS). This is a retrospective longitudinal study based on the 2015 health checkup data of 2,090 workers evaluated for MetS in 2010 at a general hospital in Korea. The participants were divided according to their shift work schedule into daytime, three-shift (8-hour rotation), and two-shift (12-hour rotation) workers. The index that indicates the association between the shift work schedule and MetS is the odds ratio (OR) calculated using multivariate logistic regression. The analysis for the entire group of workers indicated that there was positive association between two-shift rotation and MetS (OR=1.58, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09, 2.29). In the analysis of rotating night-shift workers, the years of rotating night shifts, frequency of night-shift work, and sleep disturbance were added to the confounding variables, and two-shift work remained positively associated with MetS (OR=1.72, 95% CI: 1.10, 2.70). The risk of MetS differs based on the shift work schedules they engage in. Hence, structural changes to the shift work schedules are required to prevent MetS in night-shift workers.

  9. Assessment of stress and autonomic nervous activity in Japanese female ambulance paramedics working 24-hour shifts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ayako Suzuki; Koichi Yoshioka; Susumu Ito; Yuko Naito

    2016-01-01

      Objectives: We studied the physical and mental conditions of 8 healthy young female ambulance paramedics working 24-hour shifts during their menstrual cycle, including assessment of cardiac autonomic nervous...

  10. Maternal Work Hours and Adolescents' School Outcomes among Low-Income Families in Four Urban Counties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lisa A. Gennetian; Leonard M. Lopoo; Andrew S. London

    2008-01-01

    We examine how changes in maternal work hours affect adolescent children's school participation and performance outcomes using data from interviews in 1998 and 2001 with approximately 1,700 women who...

  11. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Alexander B; Shea, Sandra; Czeisler, Charles A; Landrigan, Christopher P; Leape, Lucian

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine. In late 2007, at the behest of the US Congress, the Institute of Medicine embarked on a year-long examination of the scientific evidence linking resident physician sleep deprivation with clinical performance deficits and medical errors. The Institute of Medicine’s report, entitled “Resident duty hours: Enhancing sleep, supervision and safety”, published in January 2009, recommended new limits on resident physician work hours and workload, increased supervision, a heightened focus on resident physician safety, training in structured handovers and quality improvement, more rigorous external oversight of work hours and other aspects of residency training, and the identification of expanded funding sources necessary to implement the recommended reforms successfully and protect the public and resident physicians themselves from preventable harm. Given that resident physicians comprise almost a quarter of all physicians who work in hospitals, and that taxpayers, through Medicare and Medicaid, fund graduate medical education, the public has a deep investment in physician training. Patients expect to receive safe, high-quality care in the nation’s teaching hospitals. Because it is their safety that is at issue, their voices should be central in policy decisions affecting patient safety. It is likewise important to integrate the perspectives of resident physicians, policy makers, and other constituencies in designing new policies. However, since its release

  12. Associations of work hours and actual availability of weekly rest days with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Ikeda, Maki; Kondo, Shuji; Murata, Atsushi; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of study was to determine the associations of work hours and actual availability of weekly rest days with the onset of lifestyle-related diseases such as obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and hyperglycemia. For this longitudinal study, we used data from checkups conducted in 1999 and 2006 for 30,194 men who worked for a local public institution in Japan. We calculated the cumulative incidence rates of onset of obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol over this 7-year period and performed a χ2 test to determine the association between the above diseases and work conditions (work hours and actual availability of weekly rest days) at the time of the baseline survey. We then performed multiple logistic regression analysis of the diseases that showed significant associations. The adjusted odds ratio for the onset of hypertriglyceridemia in subjects who worked ≥9 hours was high (1.11 [95% CI: 1.02-1.22], p=0.02) in comparison with those who worked work. These results show that work hours and actual availability of weekly rest days independently predict the onset of hypertriglyceridemia. Working only regular hours and taking advantage of weekly rest days can contribute to the prevention of hypertriglyceridemia.

  13. Relationship of Work Hours with Selected Health Behaviors and Academic Progress among a College Student Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kim; Danner, Fred; Staten, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 57% of college students work while attending school. Health risks related to working while in college have not been widely studied. Objective: The authors' purpose in this study was to determine associations between hours worked, binge drinking, sleep habits, and academic performance among a college student cohort. Participants and…

  14. Marriage markets as explanation for why heavier people work more hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoshana Grossbard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Is BMI related to hours of work through marriage market mechanisms? We empirically explore this issue using data from the NLSY79 and NLSY97 and a number of estimation strategies (including OLS, IV, and sibling FE. Our IV estimates (with same-sex sibling’s BMI as an instrument and a large set of controls including wage suggest that a one-unit increase in BMI leads to an almost 2% increase in White married women’s hours of work. However, BMI is not associated with hours of work of married men. We also find that a one-unit increase in BMI leads to a 1.4% increase in White single women’s hours of work, suggesting that single women may expect future in-marriage transfers that vary by body weight. We show that the positive association between BMI and hours of work of White single women increases with self-assessed probability of future marriage and varies with expected cumulative spousal income. Comparisons between the association between BMI and hours of work for White and Black married women suggest a possible racial gap in intra-marriage transfers from husbands to wives.

  15. Breastfeeding in the first hour of life and modern technology: prevalence and limiting factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Pillegi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence and limiting factors ofbreastfeeding in the first hour of life at the Maternity Center of HospitalIsraelita Albert Einstein, where the predominant model of childbirthcare is largely based on the use of modern technology. Methods: Aretrospective study with quantitative analysis in a middle and upperclass population of different cultural backgrounds. Data were obtainedfrom the delivery record book in a total of 12,350 births from January2004 to December 2007. Results: Of 12,350 births, 3,277 (26.9%were excluded because of contraindications to breastfeeding in thefirst hour of life such as: prematurity, respiratory distress, adverseeffects of anesthesia, obstetric conditions, congenital malformation,and others. Other 180 cases were excluded due to missing data.Of the remaining 8,893 cases, 2,279 (18.7% were not breastfedbecause of limiting factors that require improvement actions: highdelivery turnover, patient refusal, medical refusal, tiredness due toprolonged labor, loss of data recording. Cesarean delivery and the useof anesthesia did neither prevent breastfeeding in the first hour of lifenor skin-to-skin contact. The prevalence was 74.3%. Conclusions:The use of technology and the hospital practices interfere inbreastfeeding, but are not factors that prevent it. The identificationof the prevalence and limiting factors contributes to the evaluationof the care provided and elaboration of nursing interventions forcontinuous improvement of the care practice. Improvement actionsshould include prenatal care and delivery itself.

  16. What effects have resident work-hour changes had on education, quality of life, and safety? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua D; Staheli, Greg; LeClere, Lance; Andersone, Diana; McCormick, Frank

    2015-05-01

    More than 15 years ago, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) identified medical error as a problem worthy of greater attention; in the wake of the IOM report, numerous changes were made to regulations to limit residents' duty hours. However, the effect of resident work-hour changes remains controversial within the field of orthopaedics. We performed a systematic review to determine whether work-hour restrictions have measurably influenced quality-of-life measures, operative and technical skill development, resident surgical education, patient care outcomes (including mortality, morbidity, adverse events, sentinel events, complications), and surgeon and resident attitudes (such as perceived effect on learning and training experiences, personal benefit, direct clinical experience, clinical preparedness). We performed a systematic review of PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), and Google Scholar using PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Inclusion criteria were any English language peer-reviewed articles that analyzed the effect(s) of orthopaedic surgery resident work-hour restrictions on patient safety, resident education, resident/surgeon quality of life, resident technical operative skill development, and resident surgeon attitudes toward work-hour restrictions. Eleven studies met study inclusion criteria. One study was a prospective analysis, whereas 10 studies were of level IV evidence (review of surgical case logs) or survey results. Within our identified studies, there was some support for improved resident quality of life, improved resident sleep and less fatigue, a perceived negative impact on surgical operative and technical skill, and conflicting evidence on the topic of resident education, patient outcomes, and variable attitudes toward the work-hour changes. There is a paucity of high-level or clear evidence evaluating the effect of the changes to resident work

  17. Shift work, long working hours, and later risk of dementia: A long-term follow-up of the Copenhagen Male Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Ishtiak-Ahmed, Kazi; Gyntelberg, Finn; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Phung, Thien Kieu Thi; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Waldemar, Gunhild; Westendorp, Rudi Gj; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2017-11-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of shift work and long working hours in midlife on the risk of dementia in old age. Methods The present study comprised 4766 participants from the Copenhagen Male Study. We used information on shift work (collected in 1970-1971 and 1985-1986), long working hours defined as >45 hours per week (collected in 1970-1971), socioeconomic status, sleep, stress, and cardiovascular risk factors. Information about dementia diagnoses was obtained from registers. Participants were followed until 2014 (mean length of follow-up was 17.8 years). We employed Poisson regression for the survival analyses and estimated incidence rate ratios (IRR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We found no statistically significant association between shift work (IRR 0.86, 95% CI 0.70-1.05) or long working hours (IRR 0.97, 95% CI 0.79-1.19) and dementia. Adjustment for potential confounders and mediators did not change the estimates. Working shifts at both time points of exposure assessment was not associated with a higher incidence of dementia compared with non-shift workers at both time points (IRR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.42). The lowest incidence of dementia was observed among participants who reported shift work at one time point (only in 1985-1986: IRR 0.44, 95% CI 0.16-1.23 and only in 1970-1971: IRR 0.58, 95% CI 0.31-1.11). Conclusion We did not find positive evidence of an association between shift work or long working hours and the incidence of dementia, but the negative findings may reflect the crude assessment of shift work and long working hours, which is a major limitation of the present study.

  18. Sunlight Exposure, Work Hours, Caffeine Consumption, and Sleep Duration in the Naval Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattuck, Nita L; Matsangas, Panagiotis

    2017-06-01

    Sailors in the U.S. Navy are habitual shiftworkers, often experiencing circadian misalignment due to their irregular work/rest schedules. This study assessed the effect of sunlight exposure, work hours, and caffeinated beverage consumption on the daily sleep duration of crewmembers of a U.S. Navy ship during a 2-wk underway period. Working in an artificially lit area with no access to sunlight during work hours, U.S. Navy crew members (N = 91) used daily logs to report their daily activity, caffeinated beverage consumption, and exposure to sunlight while off-duty; sleep was assessed by wrist-worn actigraphy. Hours of sunlight exposure, work duration, and the amount of coffee/tea/soft drinks were statistically significant predictors of sleep duration. On average, crewmembers who reported more than one half-hour of sunlight each day slept on average ∼40 min (10%) less than their peers working the same shifts who received less than one half-hour of sunlight (on average 6.05 ± 0.90 h vs. 6.71 ± 0.91 h, respectively). Exposure to sunlight, work hours, and consumption of caffeinated beverages are important factors when planning watchstanding schedules at sea. Even though further research is needed, our results suggest that even brief exposure to sunlight may contribute to circadian misalignment that negatively affects sleep in the operational environment. Educating crewmembers about sleep hygiene, especially the important roles played by sunlight and caffeine, could potentially improve the sleep and fatigue levels of this population of maritime shiftworkers.Shattuck NL, Matsangas P. Sunlight exposure, work hours, caffeine consumption, and sleep duration in the naval environment. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(6):579-585.

  19. Working Hours Mismatch, Macroeconomic Changes, and Mental Well-being in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Moortel, Deborah; Thévenon, Olivier; De Witte, Hans; Vanroelen, Christophe

    2017-06-01

    This study explores the association between involuntarily working less or more than the standard workweek and poor mental well-being, and whether this relationship is dependent upon (changing) national-level unemployment and gross domestic product growth rates. Data from the European Social Survey Round 2 (2004-2005) and Round 5 (2010) were analyzed. The sample included 16,224 male and 16,184 female employees. Mental well-being was assessed by the World Health Organization Well-being Index. Three-level linear multilevel modeling was used to account for clustering of employees within research years and countries. Working involuntary long hours was positively associated with poor mental well-being for men. For women, working voluntary long, involuntary long, and involuntary short hours were positively associated with poor mental well-being. The mental well-being of women working voluntary and involuntary long hours was negatively influenced by deteriorating economic conditions. This study suggests women are more vulnerable to the effects of long working hours and working hours mismatch on mental well-being, especially during difficult economic periods.

  20. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours......), and low intensity intervention (meetings and discussions) and reference. Sleep quality was assessed by Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) at baseline and follow-up (12 months). To elucidate the process of the intervention interviews were conducted. Influence on one's own working hours increased only...... in the high intensity group (p sleep quality were observed. Thus, sleep quality was not improved by increasing work time influence in the present group of Danish elder care workers. This was partly due to program failure (failed intervention), but may also be due...

  1. The relation between maternal work hours and cognitive outcomes of young school-aged children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Künn-Nelen, A.C.; de Grip, A.; Fouarge, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the first that analyzes the relation between maternal work hours and the cognitive outcomes of young school-going children. When children attend school, the potential time working mothers miss out with their children, is smaller than when children do not yet attend school. At the same

  2. The effectiveness of a four-hour challenge course on leadership efficacy and work efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theresa Odello; Eddie Hill; Edwin Gomez

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the effects of participation in a 4-hour challenge course on leadership efficacy and work efficacy of college students. The findings of this research indicate that both leadership and work efficacy increased significantly after participation in a challenge course and that increased levels of the participants' self-efficacy remained 6 weeks...

  3. Gender and the Effect of Working Hours on Firm-Sponsored Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picchio, Matteo; van Ours, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Using employees’ longitudinal data, we study the effect of working hours on the propensity of firms to sponsor training of their employees. We show that, whereas male part-time workers are less likely to receive training than male full-timers, parttime working women are as likely to receive training

  4. Telework: timesaving or time-consuming? An investigation into actual working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, P.; Wetzels, C.; Tijdens, K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to clarify the relationship between telework and the actual time employees put into their jobs. One of the reported threats to teleworkers’ personal lives is that in order to finish their work, they not only use up saved commuting time, but also part of their non-working hours, even

  5. Maintaining outcomes in a surgical residency while complying with resident working hour regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, James M; Nawotniak, Ruth; Cummiskey, Donna; Berger, Roseanne; Posner, Alan; Seibel, Roger; Hoover, E

    2002-10-01

    Regulatory requirements for resident working hours were designed to improve patient care. Compliance challenges a training program to meet procedural and clinical requirements. This is a retrospective study of a 5-year experience in addressing the challenges and studying the impact of compliance on resident caseload and board performance. Our surgical program adopted strict start/stop working hours for clinical contact. Program leadership modified the program to establish procedural and performance criteria. Procedures were prioritized and assignments were changed to maximize clinical and procedural experience while reducing redundancy of experience. Procedural activity was monitored frequently. Compliance with working hour regulations was monitored and behavior modified where necessary. A web based computer program was developed to improve measurement of compliance and provide feedback. Outcome measures included both the number of procedures as reported by the ACGME and performance on the American Board of Surgery, Qualifying Examination. Working hour compliance is greater than 95%. First time pass rate on the Qualifying examination is 90% (45/50). There is no significant difference in the procedural activity. Complying with working hour regulations improves the quality of a resident's life and can be achieved while maintaining procedural experience and guaranteeing academic development.

  6. Working hours, coping skills, and psychological health in Japanese daytime workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Yasumasa; Sasaki, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Kenji; Mori, Ippei

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between coping skills, working hours, and psychological health among Japanese daytime workers. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed to a randomly selected sample of 2,000 workers who were members of a pre-recruited market research panel. A total of 1,821 participants responded (response rate=91.1%). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding working hours, coping skills, and psychological health (negative emotions, fatigue, and concentration/activity levels). Analyses of covariance were conducted to determine the relations of number of working hours, coping skills, and their interactions to psychological health with control for sex, age, drinking, job type, and employment type. Results revealed that working hours were significantly associated with fatigue and concentration/activity levels. High levels of instrumental support and positive reframing were significantly associated with low levels of negative emotions, fatigue, and concentration/activity levels. High levels of self-blame, denial, substance use, venting, self-distraction, religion, and behavioral disengagement were significantly associated with high levels of negative emotions, fatigue, and concentration/activity levels. This study suggests that improving coping skills such as using instrumental support or positive reframing may reduce the adverse health effects of long working hours.

  7. New Zealanders working non-standard hours also have greater exposure to other workplace hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Sarah M; Gander, Philippa H; Eng, Amanda; Cheng, Soo; Douwes, Jeroen; Ellison-Loschmann, Lis; McLean, Dave; Pearce, Neil; 'tMannetje, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to workplace hazards, such as dust, solvents, and fumes, has the potential to adversely affect the health of people. However, the effects of workplace hazards on health may differ when exposure occurs at different times in the circadian cycle, and among people who work longer hours or who do not obtain adequate sleep. The aim of the present study was to document exposures to workplace hazards across a national sample of New Zealanders, comparing people who work a standard 08:00 -17:00 h Monday-to-Friday working week (Std hours) and those who do not (N-Std hours). New Zealanders (n = 10 000) aged 20-64 yrs were randomly selected from the Electoral Roll to take part in a nationwide survey of workplace exposures. Telephone interviews were conducted between 2004 and 2006, using a six-part questionnaire addressing demographics, detailed information on the current or most recent job (including exposures to a range of workplace hazards), sleep, sleepiness, and health status. N-Std hours were categorised on the basis of: being required to start work prior to 07:00 h or finish work after 21:00 h and/or; having a regular on-call commitment (at least once per week) and/or; working rotating shifts and/or; working night shift(s) in the last month. The response rate was 37% (n = 3003), with 22.2% of participants (n = 656) categorised as working N-Std hours. Industry sectors with the highest numbers of participants working N-Std hours were manufacturing, health and community services, and agriculture, fishing, and forestry. Response rate was 37% (n = 3003) with 22.2% (n = 656) categorised as working N-Std hours. Participants working N-Std hours were more likely to be exposed to all identified hazards, including multiple hazards (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 2.01-3.0) compared to those working Std hours. Participants working N-Std hours were also more likely to report 'never/rarely' getting enough sleep (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.15-1.65), 'never/rarely' waking refreshed (OR = 1

  8. Employees' use of social media for private reasons during working hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to find out: Whether Icelandic organizations allowed open access to social media (SM), whether the respondents used SM for private reasons during working hours, which SM they used, how much time they devoted to such use, and what was the attitude of managers and the employees themselves towards such use. The respondents were asked to disclose whether they worked in the private or the public sector and the type of organization that they worked for. This was a two-dimensional study: A questionnaire sent to an internet panel and a telephone survey both based on a random sample selected from the National Registry in February 2013. A similar study has not been performed in Iceland before. Foreign studies of the same nature are not known, only related research. The main findings were that about half of the organizations allowed open access to SM, just below 50% of respondents took advantage of SM for personal use during working hours and the great majority used Facebook. Employees used a considerable part of their working hours for personal use of SM. The majority of respondents were of the opinion that managers objected to the use of SM during working hours and a larger majority believed that such use of themselves was unacceptable. The survey adds valuable information for a better understanding of the status of SM at places of work. The results could be of value to organizations that want to evaluate the pros and cons of SM for the organization.

  9. Accessibility Limits Recall from Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajsic, Jason; Swan, Garrett; Wilson, Daryl E.; Pratt, Jay

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate limitations of accessibility of information in visual working memory (VWM). Recently, cued-recall has been used to estimate the fidelity of information in VWM, where the feature of a cued object is reproduced from memory (Bays, Catalao, & Husain, 2009; Wilken & Ma, 2004; Zhang & Luck, 2008). Response…

  10. Long and atypical working hours and the impact on intimate family life social activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.

    An increasing number of families has to meet the challenges of working in a 24-7 society and at the same time striving to take part in everyday family life. Research is not conclusive with respect to what degree atypical working hours has an impact on, for example, work-family balance, instable...... participate in together with their children (e.g. enjoying breakfasts together). On the other hand other research shows that factors like both parents having atypical working hours and small children in the home suggests a negative impact on family life. In addition, not much research has scrutinized...... through our longitudinal survey study of everyday family and work-life. So in short, this paper will present and discuss an analysis of the relationship between work life and intimate family life social activities as they evolve over time and across households....

  11. Implementation of self-rostering (the PRIO-project) Effects on working hours, recovery and health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Nabe Nielsen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the consequences of self-rostering for working hours, recovery, and health, and (ii) elucidate the mechanisms through which recovery and health are affected. Methods Twenty eight workplaces were allocated to either an intervention or reference...... workplace reports of working hours (N=718) were obtained at baseline and 12 months later. The interaction term between intervention and time was tested in mixed models and multinomial logistic regression models. Results The odds ratio (OR) of having short [OR 4.8, 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) 1.......17, 95% CI -0.29– -0.04) and B (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.27– -0.07). There were no effects on recovery and health in intervention C, and overall, there were no detrimental effects on recovery or health. The benefits of the intervention were not related to changes in working hours and did not differ by gender...

  12. Part-time work and work hour preferences : An international comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wielers, Rudolf; Münderlein, Maria; Koster, Ferry

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this article is to explain cross-country differences in over- and under-employment. The focus is on the effects of the growth of part-time work. We argue and demonstrate that the spread and acceptance of part-time work results in a downward adaptation of descriptive norms regulating work

  13. Paediatric cardiology fellowship training: effect of work-hour regulations on scholarly activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronai, Christina; Lang, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In 2003, work-hour regulations were implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Much has been published regarding resident rest and quality of life as well as patient safety. There has been no examination on the effect of work-hour restrictions on academic productivity of fellows in training. Paediatric subspecialty fellows have a scholarly requirement mandated by the American Board of Pediatrics. We have examined the impact of work-hour restrictions on the scholarly productivity of paediatric cardiology fellows during their fellowship. We conducted a literature search for all paediatric cardiology fellows between 1998 and 2007 at a single academic institution as first or senior authors on papers published during their 3-year fellowship and 3 years after completion of their categorical fellowship (n=63, 30 fellows before 2003 and 33 fellows after 2003). The numbers of first- or senior-author fellow publications before and after 2003 were compared. We also collected data on final paediatric cardiology subspecialty career choice. There was no difference in the number of fellow first-author publications before and after 2003. Before work-hour restrictions, the mean number of publications per fellow was 2.1 (±2.2), and after work-hour restrictions it was 2.0 (±1.8), (p=0.89). By subspecialty career choice, fellows who select electrophysiology, preventative cardiology, and heart failure always published within the 6-year time period. Since the implementation of work-hour regulations, total number of fellow first-authored publications has not changed. The role of subspecialty choice may play a role in academic productivity of fellows in training.

  14. Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 2) - Compensation for hours of long-term shift work

    CERN Document Server

    Department Head Office - HR Department

    2016-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 2) entitled "Compensation for hours of long-term shift work",  approved by the Director-General following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting on 22 March 2016, will be available on 1st September 2016 via the following link: https://cds.cern.ch/record/2208538.   This revised circular cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 22B (Rev. 1) also entitled "Compensation for hours of long-term shift work" of March 2011. This document contains minor changes to reflect the new career structure. This circular will enter into force on 1st September 2016.

  15. Work Hours Offer in Colombia: an Approach to its Determinants, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Eduardo Rangel Jiménez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available When participating in the job market, an individual must determine the amount of work hours to offer, a situation illustrated by economic theory through the income and substitution effects. This paper reports the results of the econometric estimation of a three-stage model of the hours of individual work for Colombia, based on the 2012 Quality of Life Survey. In the first stage, a model of the probability of being employed is made; then, a Mincer Equation corrected by selection bias is estimated and, finally, an equation of work hours is estimated using the Tobit model, in terms of wages predicted to correct endogeneity. Results show that the substitution effect takes precedence over the income effect; that age (up to a threshold, being head of household, having children under five years of age, being married or living in a common-law marriage and, finally, having a written employment contract, have a positive effect on the number of hours offered; on the other hand, unearned income has a negative effect on the number of hours offered.

  16. Weekly hours of informal caregiving and paid work, and the risk of cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jesper; Dich, Nadya; Lange, Theis

    2017-01-01

    Background: Little is known on the association between weekly hours of informal caregiving and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to investigate the individual and joint effects of weekly hours of informal caregiving and paid work on the risk of CVD. Methods: Pooled analysis...... with 1396 informal caregivers in gainful employment, from the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health and the Whitehall II study. Informal caregiving was defined as care for an aged or disabled relative. The outcome was CVD during 10 years follow-up. Analyzes were adjusted for age, sex, children......, marital status and occupational grade. Results: There were 59 cases of CVD. Providing care >20 h weekly were associated with a higher risk of CVD compared to those providing care 1-8 h weekly (hazard ratio = 2.63, 95%CI: 1.20; 5.76), irrespectively of weekly work hours. In sensitivity analyzes, we found...

  17. Reducing Risks to Women Linked to Shift Work, Long Work Hours, and Related Workplace Sleep and Fatigue Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Claire C

    2015-10-01

    In the United States, an estimated 12% to 28% of working women are on shift work schedules, and 12% work more than 48 hours per week. Shift work and long work hours are associated with many health and safety risks, including obesity, injuries, and negative reproductive outcomes. Over time, the worker is at risk for developing a wide range of chronic diseases. These work schedules can also strain personal relationships, owing to fatigue and poor mood from sleep deprivation and reduced quality time to spend with family and friends. Worker errors from fatigue can lead to reduced quality of goods and services, negatively impacting the employer. In addition, mistakes by fatigued workers can have far-reaching negative effects on the community, ranging from medical care errors to motor vehicle crashes and industrial disasters that endanger others. To reduce the many risks that are linked to these demanding work hours, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducts research, develops guidance and authoritative recommendations, and translates and disseminates scientific information to protect workers, their families, employers, and the community. The key message to reduce these risks is making sleep a priority in the employer's systems for organizing work and in the worker's personal life. The NIOSH website has freely available online training programs with suggestions for workers and their managers to help them better cope with this workplace hazard.

  18. Association among Working Hours, Occupational Stress, and Presenteeism among Wage Workers: Results from the Second Korean Working Conditions Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Sung-Hwan; Leem, Jong-Han; Park, Shin-Goo; Heo, Yong-Seok; Lee, Bum-Joon; Moon, So-Hyun; Jung, Dal-Young; Kim, Hwan-Cheol

    2014-03-24

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the association between presenteeism and long working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress using representative national survey data on Korean workers. We analyzed data from the second Korean Working Conditions Survey (KWCS), which was conducted in 2010, in which a total of 6,220 wage workers were analyzed. The study population included the economically active population aged above 15 years, and living in the Republic of Korea. We used the chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression to test the statistical association between presenteeism and working hours, shiftwork, and occupational stress. Approximately 19% of the workers experienced presenteeism during the previous 12 months. Women had higher rates of presenteeism than men. We found a statistically significant dose-response relationship between working hours and presenteeism. Shift workers had a slightly higher rate of presenteeism than non-shift workers, but the difference was not statistically significant. Occupational stress, such as high job demand, lack of rewards, and inadequate social support, had a significant association with presenteeism. The present study suggests that long working hours and occupational stress are significantly related to presenteeism.

  19. Long Working Hours and Subsequent Use of Psychotropic Medicine: A Study Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental ill health is the most frequent cause of long-term sickness absence and disability retirement in Denmark. Some instances of mental ill health might be due to long working hours. A recent large cross-sectional study of a general working population in Norway found that not only “very much overtime”, but also “moderate overtime” (41-48 work hours/week) was significantly associated with increased levels of both anxiety and depression. These findings have not been sufficiently confirmed in longitudinal studies. Objective The objective of the study is to give a detailed plan for a research project aimed at investigating the possibility of a prospective association between weekly working hours and use of psychotropic medicine in the general working population of Denmark. Methods People from the general working population of Denmark have been surveyed, at various occasions in the time period 1995-2010, and interviewed about their work environment. The present study will link interview data from these surveys to national registers covering all inhabitants of Denmark. The participants will be followed for the first occurrence of redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medicine. Poisson regression will be used to analyze incidence rates as a function of weekly working hours (32-40; 41-48; > 48 hours/week). The analyses will be controlled for gender, age, sample, shift work, and socioeconomic status. According to our feasibility studies, the statistical power is sufficient and the exposure is stable enough to make the study worth the while. Results The publication of the present study protocol ends the design phase of the project. In the next phase, the questionnaire data will be forwarded to Statistics Denmark where they will be linked to data on deaths, migrations, socioeconomic status, and redeemed prescriptions for psychotropic medication. We expect the analysis to be completed by the end of 2014 and the results to be published mid 2015

  20. Flexible working hours, health, and well-being in Europe: some considerations from a SALTSA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa, Giovanni; Akerstedt, Torbjorn; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Baltieri, Federica; Carvalhais, José; Folkard, Simon; Frings-Dresen, Monique; Gadbois, Charles; Gartner, Johannes; Sukalo, Hiltraud Grzech; Härmä, Mikko; Kandolin, Irja; Sartori, Samantha; Silvério, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    The project brought together researchers from 9 EU-Countries and resulted in a number of actions, in particular the following: (a) There is an urgent need of defining the concept of flexible working hours, since it has been used in many different and even counterintuitive ways; the most obvious

  1. Mothers' and Fathers' Work Hours, Child Gender, and Behavior in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth; Strazdins, Lyndall; Jacoby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the association between typical parental work hours (including nonemployed parents) and children's behavior in two-parent heterosexual families. Child behavior was measured by the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) at ages 5, 8, and 10 in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study ("N" = 4,201 child-year…

  2. Long hours of work in the U.S.: associations with demographic and organizational characteristics, psychosocial working conditions, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosch, James W; Caruso, Claire C; Rosa, Roger R; Sauter, Steven L

    2006-11-01

    There are relatively few studies of large national databases that contain information on working hours and health. The current study involved an analysis of data from a quality of work life (QWL) module developed for the 2002 General Social Survey. This module collected work and health data from a representative sample of the U.S. population (N=1,744). Descriptive analyses were conducted for five groups based on total hours worked per week: part-time (1-34 hr/week), full-time (35-40 hr/week), lower overtime (41-48 hr/week), medium overtime (49-69 hr/week), and higher overtime (70+ hr/week). Multiple logistic regression examined the association between these five categories and several measures of health and well-being. Compared to full-time workers, the three groups of overtime workers were more likely to be male, white, and middle-aged, with higher levels of education and income. They were also more likely to be self-employed, salaried, work as independent contractors, have more than one job, and work split/irregular/on-call shifts. Although overtime work was characterized by higher levels of job stress and perceptions of overwork, it was also associated with increased levels of participation in decision making and opportunities to develop special abilities. Several significant associations emerged between hours of work and measures of health and well-being, particularly for respondents in the higher overtime group (70+ hr/week). Overtime workers differ from their part-time and full-time counterparts in several important areas. Some of these differences tended to increase with the number of overtime hours worked, suggesting a linear relationship. However, caution is warranted before generalizing the results of this study to specific occupations or workplaces.

  3. Physicians' attentional performance following a 24-hour observation period: do we need to regulate sleep prior to work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, P; Maximova, K; Jirsch, J D

    2017-08-01

    The tradition of physicians working while sleep deprived is increasingly criticised. Medical regulatory bodies have restricted resident physician duty-hours, not addressing the greater population of physicians. We aimed to assess factors such as sleep duration prior to a 24-hour observation period on physicians' attention. We studied 70 physicians (mean age 38 years old (SD 10.8 years)): 36 residents and 34 faculty from call rosters at the University of Alberta. Among 70 physicians, 52 (74%) performed overnight call; 18 did not perform overnight call and were recruited to control for the learning effect of repetitive neuropsychological testing. Attentional Network Test (ANT) measured physicians' attention at the beginning and end of the 24-hour observation period. Participants self-reported ideal sleep needs, sleep duration in the 24 hours prior to (ie, baseline) and during the 24-hour observation period (ie, follow-up). Median regression models examined effects on ANT parameters. Sleep deprivation at follow-up was associated with reduced attentional accuracy following the 24-hour observation period, but only for physicians more sleep deprived at baseline. Other components of attention were not associated with sleep deprivation after adjusting for repetitive testing. Age, years since medical school and caffeine use did not impact changes in ANT parameters. Our study suggests that baseline sleep before 24 hours of observation impacts the accuracy of physicians' attentional testing at 24 hours. Further study is required to determine if optimising physician sleep prior to overnight call shifts is a sustainable strategy to mitigate the effects of sleep deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The association between long working hours and the metabolic syndrome: evidences from the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2010 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae Uk; Jeon, Man Joong; Sakong, Joon

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the association between the working hours of Korean employees and the metabolic syndrome and the effects of long working hours on metabolic syndrome based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012). Based on the 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010-2012), 4,456 Korean employees without shift work, aged over 15, who work 30 hours or more per week were targeted in this study. The association between the general characteristics, including age, smoking, alcohol drinking, exercise, and the metabolic syndrome criteria defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and weekly working hours were analyzed. In addition, the association between weekly working hours and the metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender was analyzed through multiple logistic regression analyses and generalized linear mixed model after adjusting the general characteristics. In the results of stratified analysis by gender, in male subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In female subjects, in comparison with the 30-39 weekly working hours group, there were no significant adjusted odds ratios to the other working hours groups. In addition, no trend associations were observed among weekly working hour groups in both stratified genders. No significant differences in prevalence of metabolic syndrome of the subjects stratified by gender were found according to weekly increasing working hours. However, due to some limitations of this study, further prospective studies may be necessary for verification.

  5. Long working hours and metabolic syndrome among Japanese men: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobayashi Tomoko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The link between long working hours and health has been extensively studied for decades. Despite global concern regarding metabolic syndrome, however, no studies to date have solely evaluated the relationship between long working hours and that syndrome. We therefore examined the association between long working hours and metabolic syndrome in a cross-sectional study. Methods Between May and October 2009, we collected data from annual health checkups and questionnaires from employees at a manufacturing company in Shizuoka, Japan. Questionnaires were returned by 1,601 workers (response rate: 96.2%; 1,314 men, 287 women. After exclusions, including women because of a lack of overtime work, the analysis was performed for 933 men. We calculated odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs for metabolic syndrome. Further, we conducted a stratified analysis by age-group ( Results Metabolic syndrome was identified in 110 workers (11.8%. We observed a positive association between working hours and metabolic syndrome after adjusting for age, occupation, shift work, smoking status, frequency of alcohol consumption, and cohabiting status. Compared with subjects who worked 7–8 h/day, multivariate ORs for metabolic syndrome were 1.66 (95% CI, 0.91–3.01, 1.48 (95% CI, 0.75–2.90, and 2.32 (95% CI, 1.04–5.16 for those working 8–9 h/day, 9–10 h/day, and >10 h/day, respectively. Similar patterns were obtained when we excluded shift workers from the analysis. In age-stratified analysis, the corresponding ORs among workers aged ≥40 years were 2.02 (95% CI, 1.04–3.90, 1.21 (95% CI, 0.53–2.77, and 3.14 (95% CI, 1.24–7.95. In contrast, no clear association was found among workers aged Conclusions The present study suggests that 10 h/day may be a trigger level of working hours for increased risk of metabolic syndrome among Japanese male workers.

  6. The organization of working hours of selected employee categories in Czech businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbancová Hana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current dynamic working environment, the adaptation of working hours is an important instrument for supporting the work and performance of all groups of employees. It also serves as an instrument that encourages their identification with the company. The aim of this article is to identify and evaluate the utilization of individual methods of work organization among selected groups of employees in Czech companies across the gamut of the business sector. The analysed data comes from a quantitative questionnairebased survey (n=315. The results show that in the Czech companies, flexitime is most frequent among regular employees (51.7% and graduates up to 30 years old (24.1%. A reduced work schedule is most frequently used by mothers with children and senior citizens (41.3%, 27% and as part-time work among students (41%. The use of flexible working hours is an instrument of diversity management and builds the company brand through enlisting the cooperation of different groups of employees.

  7. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    OpenAIRE

    Blum AB; Shea S; Czeisler CA; Landrigan CP; Leape L

    2011-01-01

    Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of...

  8. Inpatient safety outcomes following the 2011 residency work-hour reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Lauren; Jarlenski, Marian; Wu, Albert W; Feldman, Leonard; Conigliaro, Joseph; Swann, Jenna; Desai, Sanjay V

    2014-06-01

    The impact of the 2011 residency work-hour reforms on patient safety is not known. To evaluate the association between implementation of the 2011 reforms and patient safety outcomes at a large academic medical center. Observational study using difference-in-differences estimation strategy to evaluate whether safety outcomes improved among patients discharged from resident and hospitalist (nonresident) services before (2008-2011) and after (2011-2012) residency work-hour changes. All adult patients discharged from general medicine services from July 2008 through June 2012. Outcomes evaluated included length of stay, 30-day readmission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, inpatient mortality, and presence of Maryland Hospital Acquired Conditions. Independent variables included time period (pre- vs postreform), resident versus hospitalist service, patient age at admission, race, gender, and case mix index. Patients discharged from the resident services in the postreform period had higher likelihood of an ICU stay (5.7% vs 4.5%, difference 1.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.5% to 2.2%), and lower likelihood of 30-day readmission (17.2% vs 20.1%, difference 2.8%; 95 % CI: 1.3 to 4.3%) than patients discharged from the resident services in the prereform period. Comparing pre- and postreform periods on the resident and hospitalist services, there were no significant differences in patient safety outcomes. In the first year after implementation of the 2011 work-hour reforms relative to prior years, we found no change in patient safety outcomes in patients treated by residents compared with patients treated by hospitalists. Further study of the long-term impact of residency work-hour reforms is indicated to ensure improvement in patient safety. © 2014 Society of Hospital Medicine.

  9. Implementation of self-rostering (the PRIO-project): effects on working hours, recovery, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Carneiro, Isabella Gomes; Skotte, Jørgen; Hansen, Sofie Mandrup; Lund, Henrik; Hvid, Helge; Hansen, Åse Marie

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to (i) investigate the consequences of self-rostering for working hours, recovery, and health, and (ii) elucidate the mechanisms through which recovery and health are affected. Twenty eight workplaces were allocated to either an intervention or reference group. Intervention A encompassed the possibility to specify preferences for starting time and length of shift down to 15 minutes intervals. Interventions B and C included the opportunity to choose between a number of predefined duties. Questionnaires (N=840) on recovery and health and objective workplace reports of working hours (N=718) were obtained at baseline and 12 months later. The interaction term between intervention and time was tested in mixed models and multinomial logistic regression models. The odds ratio (OR) of having short [OR 4.8, 95 % confidence interval (95% CI) 1.9-12.3] and long (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.9-8.0) shifts increased in intervention A. Somatic symptoms (β= -0.10, 95% CI -0.19- -0.02) and mental distress (β= -0.13, 95% CI -0.23- -0.03) decreased, and sleep (β= 1.7, 95% CI 0.04-0.30) improved in intervention B, and need for recovery was reduced in interventions A (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.29- -0.04) and B (β= -0.17, 95% CI -0.27- -0.07). There were no effects on recovery and health in intervention C, and overall, there were no detrimental effects on recovery or health. The benefits of the intervention were not related to changes in working hours and did not differ by gender, age, family type, degree of employment, or working hour arrangements. After implementation of self-rostering, employees changed shift length and timing but did not compromise most recommendations for acceptable shift work schedules. Positive consequences of self-rostering for recovery and health were observed, particularly in intervention B where worktime control increased but less extensively than intervention A. The effect could not be statistically explained by changes in actual working hours.

  10. 75 FR 13441 - Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver for the Distribution of Anhydrous Ammonia in Agricultural...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver for... Federal hours- of-service (HOS) regulations for the transportation of anhydrous ammonia from any... ultimate consumer, as long as the transportation takes place within a 100 air- mile radius of the retail or...

  11. Role of out of hours primary care service in limiting inappropriate access to emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posocco, Andrea; Scapinello, Maria Paola; De Ronch, Irene; Castrogiovanni, Francesco; Lollo, Gianluca; Sergi, Guglielmo; Tomaselli, Iginio; Tonon, Loris; Solmi, Marco; Pescador, Daniele; Battistuz, Elena; Traversa, Stefano; Zambianco, Vincenzo; Veronese, Nicola

    2017-05-25

    Out of hours (OOH) doctors can have an important gate-keeping role over the access to the emergency department (ED), but the outcome and the quality of their ED referrals have been poorly studied. We aimed to investigate the outcome of patients referred to ED from OOH service and the determinants of admission or short-stay dispositions. We collected retrospectively data about referrals to ED from a local OOH service in the north-east of Italy using the OOH paper register and the ED electronic database, over the period of 01/10/2012 to 31/03/2013. Out of 5217 patients accessing the OOH service, 408 referrals were included in our analysis. 45.3% (185) of the referrals were admitted to hospital or the short-stay unit, 26 patients (=6.4%) were discharged as non-urgent outgoing codes after no specialist consultation or test, suggesting inappropriate referrals, and, of the remaining 197 (=48%), only 10 did not undergo any investigation or consultation. Significant determinants of admission were: age ≥65 years (OR = 2.619; 95% CI 1.528-4.491, p service seems to play an effective gate-keeping role limiting ED access. Determinants of admission to hospital suggest some simple interventions that could improve the adequacy of ED referral from OOH service.

  12. From living wage to living hours – the Nordic version of the working poor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna

    2016-01-01

    , the article demonstrates how the increasing use of part-time and Sunday work since the crisis interacts with the increasing shares of young workers and migrant workers. The analysis focuses on retail and hotels/restaurants, which employ the majority of low-wage service workers in Denmark, Norway and Sweden.......The development of service economies in the Western world has led to a debate on the quality of new service jobs as many are low-wage jobs with poor working conditions and career opportunities. Although the incidence of low-wage service work is somewhat lower in the Nordic countries than elsewhere...... in low-wage service work in the private sector of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The concept of living hours is used to explain developments in low-wage service jobs that are not explained by the concept of a living wage. On the basis of cross-sectional data from the European Labour Force Survey...

  13. Assessment of stress and autonomic nervous activity in Japanese female ambulance paramedics working 24-hour shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayako; Yoshioka, Koichi; Ito, Susumu; Naito, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    We studied the physical and mental conditions of 8 healthy young female ambulance paramedics working 24-hour shifts during their menstrual cycle, including assessment of cardiac autonomic nervous system activity by heart rate variability power spectral analysis. The autonomic activity during the awake period of on- and off-duty days in the follicular, late luteal, and menstruation phases was measured. Questionnaires regarding fatigue and menstrual distress were administered and correlated with the autonomic profile. While degrees of fatigue significantly increased after work, the changes in autonomic activity during the awake period on on-duty days were not significantly different from those on off-duty days (LF/HF, p=0.123; HF/(HF+LF), p=0.153). As for the sleeping period, there were no significant differences. Although the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ) revealed the presence of mild menstrual discomfort in the late luteal and menstruation phases, no significant difference was observed in the autonomic profile of the three menstrual cycle phases. No significant correlation was observed between the degree of menstrual distress and autonomic profile, though there was a significant correlation in the late luteal phase between degree of menstrual distress and fatigue after work (pmenstrual discomfort and fatigue after work, their autonomic profile did not alter in the menstrual cycle. It is suggested that healthy young female ambulance paramedics may tolerate 24-hour shifts, though attention should be paid to subjective menstrual symptoms and fatigue.

  14. Optimization of work and rest hours for navigation officers on the ship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simkuva H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of the research as a whole is dedicated to studies of the work load of navigation officers and, consequently, is related to the current international research on the quality of working life. Issues of seafarers' working time are very topical because in recent years the load of navigation officers has significantly increased, either due to increase in shipping intensity, or in the context of the new international maritime law, for example, compliance with the requirements of the ISM CODE (International Management safety Code, THE ISPS (The International Ship and Port Facility Security Code. Irregularities are observed in practice of the seafarers' working hours and rest hours, and even the mismatch, as presented in the port of inspection materials. This article is intended to assess the 2nd and 3rd Officer's load compliance with the regulatory enactments for the work and rest regime to develop proposals to load optimization. Load analysis of Navigation officers is based on international maritime regulations that determine the work and rest regime on ships STCW (The International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, MLC (Maritime Labour Convention. In the article, concrete data is used from the research, which was conducted 18 months on the Handy type of tanker from July, 2012 till December, 2013 in the real time mode. In the article is also concrete data used from 340 survey respondents, which reflects the views of the navigation officers on violations of the work and rest regime on the ship and the fatigue issue.

  15. Mothers' Working Hours and Children's Obesity: Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Goeun; Kim, Hyoung-Ryoul

    2013-10-25

    The aim of this study is to find the association between mothers' working hours and obesity of their children according to children's age and gender. This study used data from the second and third year of KNHANES IV and the first year in KNHANES V (2008-2010). We calculate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using survey logistic regression to assess association of mother's working hours with overweight or obesity of her children. The model was adjusted with household income, mothers' education and obesity and mothers' job characteristics. 13-18 aged boys whose mothers worked under 40 hours per week were higher risk for obesity and overweight (including obesity) than 13-18 aged boys whose mothers worked 40-48 hours. 6-12 aged girls whose mothers worked 49-60 hours per week were more overweight (including obesity) than girls whose mothers worked 40-48 hours per week. 13-18 aged girls whose mothers worked over 60 hours were more overweight (including obesity) than the reference. This study showed that girls' obesity was associated with mothers' long working hours. Long working hours can influence health of workers' family.

  16. Work hours and incidence of hypertension among Spanish university graduates: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Beunza, Juan J; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Alonso, Alvaro; López, Celeste N; Velásquez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between work hours and incidence of hypertension in 8779 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates. The baseline questionnaire included information about the weekly number of hours the participants devoted to work and to home chores. The work hours were grouped into four categories: 39 or less, 40-49, 50-59, and at least 60 for men; 29 or less, 30-39, 40-49, and at least 50 for women. We added up the number of hours working and spent in home chores in what we called 'total activity hours' that was categorized in quartiles, specific by sex. A participant was classified as an incident case of hypertension if he/she was initially free of hypertension at baseline and reported a physician-made diagnosis of hypertension in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The associations between work hours or 'total activity hours' and incidence of hypertension were estimated by calculating the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval, using logistic regression models. The cumulative incidence of hypertension during 4.2 years median follow-up was 5.8%. No association was found between work hours or 'total activity hours' and incidence of hypertension in either sex. The results of our study do not support any association between work hours and incidence of hypertension. Further longitudinal studies in the general population should be conducted to test this relationship.

  17. Lean principles optimize on-time vascular surgery operating room starts and decrease resident work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Courtney J; Walsh, Daniel B; Horvath, Alexander J; Walsh, Teri R; Herrick, Daniel P; Prentiss, Steven J; Powell, Richard J

    2013-11-01

    Lean process improvement techniques are used in industry to improve efficiency and quality while controlling costs. These techniques are less commonly applied in health care. This study assessed the effectiveness of Lean principles on first case on-time operating room starts and quantified effects on resident work hours. Standard process improvement techniques (DMAIC methodology: define, measure, analyze, improve, control) were used to identify causes of delayed vascular surgery first case starts. Value stream maps and process flow diagrams were created. Process data were analyzed with Pareto and control charts. High-yield changes were identified and simulated in computer and live settings prior to implementation. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of on-time first case starts; secondary outcomes included hospital costs, resident rounding time, and work hours. Data were compared with existing benchmarks. Prior to implementation, 39% of first cases started on time. Process mapping identified late resident arrival in preoperative holding as a cause of delayed first case starts. Resident rounding process inefficiencies were identified and changed through the use of checklists, standardization, and elimination of nonvalue-added activity. Following implementation of process improvements, first case on-time starts improved to 71% at 6 weeks (P = .002). Improvement was sustained with an 86% on-time rate at 1 year (P < .001). Resident rounding time was reduced by 33% (from 70 to 47 minutes). At 9 weeks following implementation, these changes generated an opportunity cost potential of $12,582. Use of Lean principles allowed rapid identification and implementation of perioperative process changes that improved efficiency and resulted in significant cost savings. This improvement was sustained at 1 year. Downstream effects included improved resident efficiency with decreased work hours. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  18. Cost and workforce implications of subjecting all physicians to aviation industry work-hour restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Michael; Chatterjee, Abhishek; Weeks, William B

    2009-06-01

    Efforts to improve patient safety have attempted to incorporate aviation industry safety standards. We sought to evaluate the cost and workforce implications of applying aviation duty-hour restrictions to the entire practicing physician workforce. The work hours and personnel deficit for United States residents and practicing physicians that would be created by the adoption of aviation standards were calculated. Application of aviation standards to the resident workforce creates an estimated annual cost of $6.5 billion, requiring a 174% increase in the number of residents to meet the deficit. Its application to practicing physicians creates an additional annual cost of $80.4 billion, requiring a 71% increase in the physician workforce. Adding in the aviation industry's mandatory retirement age (65 years) increases annual costs by $10.5 billion. The cost per life-year saved would be $1,035,227. Application of aviation duty-hour restrictions to the United States health care system would be prohibitively costly. Alternate approaches for improving patient safety are warranted.

  19. Effects of naps at work on the sleepiness of 12-hour night shift nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Flávio Notarnicola da Silva; Fischer, Frida Marina; Rotenberg,Lúcia; SOARES, Nilson Silva; FONSECA, Mauro Breviglieri; SMOLENSKY, Michael Hale; Sackett-Lundeen, Linda; Haus, Erhard; Moreno, Claudia Roberta de Castro

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a nap at work on the sleepiness of 12-hour, night-shift (registered and assistant) nursing personnel.Methods: Twelve nurses filled out daily logs, the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KS), and wore wrist actigraphs for two periods of four continuous days.Results: Mean nap duration during the night shifts was 138.3 (SD+39.8) minutes. The mean sleepiness level assessed by the KS score was lower, 3.3 (SD±1.6), ...

  20. Job-related stress in academia : the role of relative deprivation, hours worked for different tasks, and childre

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    We examine the role of income relative deprivation, hours worked for different tasks, and children in the job-related stress experienced by academics. Males' job-related stress increases when their incomes are lower than that of their peers', but females are not susceptible to such income comparisons. Job-related stress decreases with hours spent on research provided the hours are not excessive, but hours spent in teaching and on administrative tasks always increase job-related stress. The pr...

  1. Effects of new ways of working on work hours and work location, health and job-related outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijp, Hylco H.; Beckers, Debby G. J.; van de Voorde, F.C.; Geurts, Sabine A. E.; Kompier, Michiel A. J.

    2016-01-01

    New ways of working (NWW) is a type of work organization that is characterized by temporal and spatial flexibility, often combined with extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT) and performance-based management. In a three-wave intervention study, we examined the effects of

  2. Implementing the 2009 Institute of Medicine recommendations on resident physician work hours, supervision, and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blum AB

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Alexander B Blum1, Sandra Shea2, Charles A Czeisler3,4, Christopher P Landrigan3-5, Lucian Leape61Department of Health and Evidence Policy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA; 2Committee of Interns and Residents, SEIU Healthcare Division, Service Employees International Union, New York, NY, USA; 3Harvard Work Hours, Health and Safety Group, Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Division of General Pediatrics, Department of Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 6Department of Health Policy and Management, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Long working hours and sleep deprivation have been a facet of physician training in the US since the advent of the modern residency system. However, the scientific evidence linking fatigue with deficits in human performance, accidents and errors in industries from aeronautics to medicine, nuclear power, and transportation has mounted over the last 40 years. This evidence has also spawned regulations to help ensure public safety across safety-sensitive industries, with the notable exception of medicine.

  3. Influence of minor children and contribution to household income on work hours of female dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, Raymond A; Jennings, Adrienne D; McQuistan, Michelle R; Marshall, Teresa A; Qian, Fang

    2013-01-01

    To study the association of having minor children and contribution to household income on weekly work hours of Iowa female dentists. A 28-question survey was mailed to all active Iowa dentists. This study represents female dentists who responded to the survey (n = 192; response rate = 63 percent). The dependent variable was whether dentists currently worked full- or part-time (≥ 32 versus 60 percent to household income (57.8 percent) were 3.0 times as likely to work full-time (P = 0.0129). The final regression model indicated that those who contributed >60 percent to household income (P = 0.0096) and had no leave of absence longer than 45 consecutive days within the prior 2 years (P = 0.0483) were more likely to work full-time compared with their counterparts. Iowa female dentists who provided more than 60 percent to household income and had not taken a leave of absence during the past 2 years were more likely to work full-time. The inclusion of leave of absence as a predictor variable negates any additional influence of the presence or absence of minor children in the regression model, indicating that these variables are highly correlated for this population. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  4. Hours of Paid Work in Duel Earner Couples: The U.S. in Cross-National Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry A. Jacobs; Gornick, Janet C.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we examine the hours of paid work of husbands and wives in ten industrialized countries, using data from the Luxembourg Income Study. We present results on the average hours of paid work put in jointly by couples, on the proportion working very long weekly hours, and on gender equality in working time within families. The United States ranks at or near the top on most indicators of working time for couples, because of 1) a high proportion of dual-earner couples; 2) long average ...

  5. The importance of individual preferences when evaluating the associations between working hours and indicators of health and well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kecklund, Göran; Ingre, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the effect of a given shift schedule may depend on individual factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a misfit between individual preferences and actual working hours affected the association between working hours and self-reported indicator...

  6. The importance of individual preferences when evaluating the associations between working hours and indicators of health and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Kecklund, Göran; Ingre, Michael; Skotte, Jørgen; Diderichsen, Finn; Garde, Anne Helene

    2010-10-01

    Previous studies indicate that the effect of a given shift schedule may depend on individual factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a misfit between individual preferences and actual working hours affected the association between working hours and self-reported indicators of health and well-being. The study population consisted of 173 female eldercare workers who mainly worked day or evening shifts. We combined self-reported questionnaire data on preferences with actual work schedules during a four-week period. The study showed that a misfit between preferences on one hand and "non-day work", "weekend work" or "only a few consecutive days off" on the other hand was associated with an increased dissatisfaction with working hours and/or an increase in the intention to leave the workplace due to one's working hours.

  7. Whether Regular Working Hours Can Minimize The Blood Bbiochemical Effects of Shift Working: Across-Sectional Study In Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koroush Soleimani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:Irregular Working hours, including night work and shift work,have been found to be associated with alteration in various levels of biochemical factors. And some studies have showed association between shift work and blood biochemical disturbances in blood. In this epidemiological study we investigated,whether regular schedule of working hours can minimize the associated biochemical effects.Methods: Atotal of 442 air traffic controllers between the ages of 21 and 59 years in this study filled out questionnaire, and triglyceride, total cholesterol, and HDL-C concentration and FBS were measured after 12- hours fasting. The correlation between shift work and the biochemical variables was measured. The SPSS software version 11.5 and STATAversion 8 were used for statistical analysis, the X2 and fisher's exact test used for comparing the qualitative variables and the parametric tests for quantitative variables with normal distribution. Odd's ratio (OR, and 95% confidence interval (95% CI were used for estimating the effect of shift work on lipid profile and high blood glucose levels. Logistic regression modeling was used for multivariable analysis and adjusting the effect of different variables.Results: sample size of this cross-sectional study was consisted of 305(69% shift workers and 137(31% day workers. The mean age of the shift workers was 40 ± 10 years old and the day workers 40 ± 9.The mean of variables in the present study for total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose in the shift workers were respectively: 195±37mg/dl, 116.8±34.8mg/dl, 48.2±15.1mg/dl, 154±80mg/dl, 92±20mg/dl and in the day workers were respectively: 200±40mg/dl, 125.3±38.6mg/dl, 48.8±23.3mg/dl,151± 77mg/dl, 90± 14mg/dl. Adjusted Odd's ratio for the effect of shift working on the biochemical blood factors did not change the results.Conclusion: This study showed that air traffic control workers with various shift did not

  8. Wanting more or wanting less? Mismatches between actual and preferred working hours in Spain, 2005-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Torre Fernández

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mismatches between the number of hours people actually work and the hours they would prefer to work are common, and they have important consequences for individual, family and organizational life. This study contributes to prior research examining how the quality of work is affected by the economic crisis. Using data from the Spanish Labor Force Survey from 2005 to 2014, it tests three possible competing predictions for trends in working hour mismatches during the economic downturn. The study reveals that the level of mismatches has increased significantly with the economic recession due to the growing number of people who would wish to work more hours than they actually do. Findings show that the increase in hour mismatches has been particularly striking among workers employed under fixed term contracts, part-time contracts, those in low-status occupations and women. The economic crisis has widened the gap between high- and low-status workers over the last decade.

  9. Exposure to bright light during evening class hours increases alertness among working college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Liliane; Lowden, Arne; Luz, Andréa Aparecida da; Turte, Samantha Lemos; Moreno, Claudia Roberta; Valente, Daniel; Nagai-Manelli, Roberta; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of exposure to bright light on sleepiness during evening hours among college students. Twenty-seven healthy college students, all males, with ages ranging from 21 to 24years, working during the day and studying in the evening, participated in this study. During the 3week study, the students wore actigraphs and recorded levels of sleepiness. In a crossover design, on the second and third weeks, the students were exposed to bright light (BL) at either 19:00 or 21:00h. Salivary melatonin samples were collected before and after BL exposure. ANOVA test for repeated measurements were performed. After BL exposure, sleepiness levels were reduced at 20:30 and 22:00h (F=2.2; ptime (F=4.84; p=0.04) and between day and time of BL exposure (F=4.24; p=0.05). The results showed effects of melatonin onset at 20:00 and 21:30h and sleepiness levels (F=7.67; p=0.02) and perception of sleepiness and intervention time (F=6.52; p=0.01). Controlled exposure to BL during evening hours increased alertness among college students. The effects of BL on sleepiness varied according to the time of melatonin onset. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Long working hours and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Jokela, Markus; Nyberg, Solja T

    2015-01-01

    random-effects meta-analysis to combine effect estimates from published and unpublished data. FINDINGS: We included 25 studies from 24 cohorts in Europe, the USA, and Australia. The meta-analysis of coronary heart disease comprised data for 603,838 men and women who were free from coronary heart disease......), in which 1722 events were recorded. In cumulative meta-analysis adjusted for age, sex, and socioeconomic status, compared with standard hours (35-40 h per week), working long hours (≥55 h per week) was associated with an increase in risk of incident coronary heart disease (relative risk [RR] 1·13, 95% CI 1......·02-1·26; p=0·02) and incident stroke (1·33, 1·11-1·61; p=0·002). The excess risk of stroke remained unchanged in analyses that addressed reverse causation, multivariable adjustments for other risk factors, and different methods of stroke ascertainment (range of RR estimates 1·30-1·42). We recorded a dose...

  11. Investigation of Psychophysiological and Subjective Effects of Long Working Hours – Do Age and Hearing Impairment Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verena Wagner-Hartl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Following current prognosis, demographic development raises expectations of an aging of the working population. Therefore, keeping employees healthy and strengthening their ability to work, becomes more and more important. When employees become older, dealing with age-related impairments of sensory functions, such as hearing impairment, is a central issue. Recent evidence suggests that negative effects that are associated with reduced hearing can have a strong impact at work. Especially under exhausting working situations such as working overtime hours, age and hearing impairment might influence employees’ well-being. Until now, neither the problem of aged workers and long working hours, nor the problem of hearing impairment and prolonged working time has been addressed explicitly. Therefore, a laboratory study was examined to answer the research question: Do age and hearing impairment have an impact on psychophysiological and subjective effects of long working hours. In total, 51 white-collar workers, aged between 24 and 63 years, participated in the laboratory study. The results show no significant effects for age and hearing impairment on the intensity of subjective consequences (perceived recovery and fatigue, subjective emotional well-being and physical symptoms of long working hours. However, the psychophysiological response (the saliva cortisol level to long working hours differs significantly between hearing impaired and normal hearing employees. Interestingly, the results suggest that from a psychophysiological point of view long working hours were more demanding for normal hearing employees.

  12. New Results on the Effect of Mothers’ Working Hours on Children’s Overweight Status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Jane

    During the last 30 years almost all developed countries have experienced an increase in the number of overweight children. Existing empirical research derives mainly from the U.S., Canada, Australia and the UK, and points at maternal employment as an explanation for the increasing trend in child...... in exploring possible bias due to omitted variable bias. In contrast to the existing literature this paper shows that an increase in mothers’ working hours has a reducing effect on child weight. Subgroup analyses on formal and informal daycare suggest that the quality of childcare determines the effect......, as results show that maternal employment has a reducing effect on children’s overweight status in formal daycare (kindergarten). For children in informal daycare (family daycare), maternal employment has no significant effect....

  13. Upper Extremity Injured Workers Stratified by Current Work Status: An Examination of Health Characteristics, Work Limitations and Work Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Pichora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper extremity injured workers are an under-studied population. A descriptive comparison of workers with shoulder, elbow and hand injuries reporting to a Canadian Workplace Safety and Insurance Board (WSIB clinic was undertaken. Objective: To determine if differences existed between injury groups stratified by current work status. Methods: All WSIB claimants reporting to our upper extremity clinic between 2003 and 2008 were approached to participate in this descriptive study. 314 working and 146 non-working WSIB claimants completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire (DASH; Short Form health survey (SF36; Worker’s Limitations Questionnaire and the Work Instability Scale. Various parametric and non-parametric analyses were used to assess significant differences between groups on demographic, work and health related variables. Results: Hand, followed by the shoulder and elbow were the most common site of injury. Most non-workers listed their current injury as the reason for being off work, and attempted to return to work once since their injury occurrence. Non-workers and a subset of workers at high risk for work loss showed significantly worse mental functioning. Workers identified physical demands as the most frequent injury-related on the job limitation. 60% of current workers were listed as low risk for work loss on the Work Instability Scale. Conclusions: Poorer mental functioning, being female and sustaining a shoulder injury were risk factors for work instability. Our cohort of injured non-workers were unable to return to work due to their current injury, reinforcing the need to advocate for modified duties, shorter hours and a work environment where stress and injury recurrence is reduced. Future studies examining pre-injury depression as a risk factor for prolonged work absences are warranted.

  14. The Identification of a Threshold of Long Work Hours for Predicting Elevated Risks of Adverse Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Sadie H; Pompeii, Lisa A; Gimeno Ruiz de Porras, David; Follis, Jack L; Roberts, Robert E

    2017-07-15

    Working long hours has been associated with adverse health outcomes. However, a definition of long work hours relative to adverse health risk has not been established. Repeated measures of work hours among approximately 2,000 participants from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1986-2011), conducted in the United States, were retrospectively analyzed to derive statistically optimized cutpoints of long work hours that best predicted three health outcomes. Work-hours cutpoints were assessed for model fit, calibration, and discrimination separately for the outcomes of poor self-reported general health, incident cardiovascular disease, and incident cancer. For each outcome, the work-hours threshold that best predicted increased risk was 52 hours per week or more for a minimum of 10 years. Workers exposed at this level had a higher risk of poor self-reported general health (relative risk (RR) = 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.53), cardiovascular disease (RR = 1.42; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.63), and cancer (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.22, 2.17) compared with those working 35-51 hours per week for the same duration. This study provides the first health risk-based definition of long work hours. Further examination of the predictive power of this cutpoint on other health outcomes and in other study populations is needed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Some effects of 8- vs 10-hour work schedules on the test performance/alertness of air traffic control specialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A 10-hour, 4-day rotating shift schedule worked by some Air Traffic Control Specialists (ATCSs) was compared to the more traditional 8-hour, 2-2-1 rapidly rotating schedule. Measures of performance and alertness were obtained from a group of 52 ATCSs...

  16. 29 CFR 553.230 - Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days-section 7(k).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-section 7(k). 553.230 Section 553.230 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... Compensation Rules § 553.230 Maximum hours standards for work periods of 7 to 28 days—section 7(k). (a) For... 28 consecutive days, no overtime compensation is required under section 7(k) until the number of...

  17. Column Generation for a Multitrip Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows, Driver Work Hours, and Heterogeneous Fleet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Povlovitsch Seixas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses a vehicle routing problem with time windows, accessibility restrictions on customers, and a fleet that is heterogeneous with regard to capacity and average speed. A vehicle can perform multiple routes per day, all starting and ending at a single depot, and it is assigned to a single driver whose total work hours are limited. A column generation algorithm is proposed. The column generation pricing subproblem requires a specific elementary shortest path problem with resource constraints algorithm to address the possibility for each vehicle performing multiple routes per day and to address the need to set the workday’s start time within the planning horizon. A constructive heuristic and a metaheuristic based on tabu search are also developed to find good solutions.

  18. Working Hours of Surgical Residence: Perspective of a Group of Surgeons in a Regional Hospital in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu-Fai Lo

    2007-01-01

    Conclusion: Most respondents opine that resident work hours should be regulated and welcome minor rescheduling of residents' workflow. The impacts on residents' training and patient care require further evaluation.

  19. It is worth 10 million working hours a year to have your toilet paper folded?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljung, Rickard; Ljung, Hedvig; Ljung, Harald

    2016-01-01

    From our experience the toilet paper is folded in the bathrooms in rooms in branded hotels. We aimed to study the total time yearly spent in the world on folding hotel toilet paper. Three investigators clocked 60 folding toilet paper events and calculated the mean time. The mean folding time was 5.73 s (interquartile range 4.50-6.56). Using the calculated extra time it takes to fold the toilet paper and the number of hotel nights spent we estimated the total time spent in the world each year to fold the toilet paper. For sensitivity analyses we used different assumptions on number of hotel beds, occupancy rate and folding time. Assuming an extra 10 s spent on folding toilet paper, approximately 10 million hours are globally spent on folding toilet paper every year. This corresponds to more than 5000 man-years of work. In a hotel with yearly full coverage of 200 beds skipping folding the toilet paper corresponds to around 200 h of time that could be spent elsewhere. To take away unnecessary duties from hotel room cleaners would increase their health and well-being and save time that could be better spent. Is it really defendable and appropriate that someone else has spent time on folding the toilet paper you are just about to use?

  20. From Minimum Wage to Standard Work Hour: HKSAR Labour Politics in Regime Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence K. K. Ho

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to highlight the significance of labour issues – namely, the minimum wage (MW and standard working hours (SWH – in shaping candidates’ electoral platforms in the 2012 chief executive (CE election of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR under the sovereignty of the People’s Republic of China (PRC. We first offer a brief review of labour politics regarding the MW case as a precursor to the SWH drafting and enactment process. We then provide an analytical delineation of some of the labour and socio-economic dimensions of the CE electoral contest by comparing the candidates’ campaign planks in relation to SWH. We then attempt to predict the likely course of the SWH debate under the leadership of Leung Chun-ying, who eventually won the CE election and assumed power on 1 July 2012. We conclude by examining Leung’s social engineering attempts to increase popular support amongst low- and middle-income (LMI households as part of his long-term strategy for the 2017 CE elections and his broader Beijing-entrusted political agenda.

  1. 24-hour society and working environment; 24 jikan shakai to rodo kankyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Jun' ichi [Kansai Electric Power Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    Naturally, a human being has a rhythm with a period of about one day for hormone distribution and body temperature. This rhythm is called circadian rhythm. An ecological watch controlling this rhythm exists in supraoptic nucleus of brain, and its inherent period is clarified to be about 25 hours. Light, temperature, sound, smell and the like are the elements to improve arousal degree of brain and adjust the interior watch. However, a strong light does not only have the direct effect on improving immediately arousal degree and performance but can also shift the interior watch. Specifically, the interior watch becomes slower when a human body is bathed in an intensive light in midnight, whereas it becomes faster when bathed in an intensive light at daybreak. Consequently, this phenomenon can be used to shift the sleepy peak of a person on night duty from the working time to daytime sleeping time zone. The technology using light to improve arousal degree is utilized in space shuttles, atomic power plants, petroleum refineries and the like in USA. (NEDO)

  2. Experiences of reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses at a surgical department: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyllensten, Kristina; Andersson, Gunnar; Muller, Helena

    2017-01-01

    There is a shortage of registered nurses in the European Union (EU), and job dissatisfaction and perceived high work-family conflict have been identified as causes of nursing staff turnover. Reducing work hours is an organisational intervention that could have a positive effect on nurses' and assistant nurses' job satisfaction, work-life balance, and willingness to stay in the job. An orthopaedic surgery department at a large hospital in Sweden introduced reduced work hours for nurses and assistant nurses in order to improve the working situation. The aim of the study was to investigate the experiences of reduced work hours and no lunch breaks among nurses and assistant nurses at an orthopaedic surgery department at a hospital in Sweden, with a particular focus on recovery and psychosocial working environment. A qualitative design was used in the study. Eleven nurses and assistant nurses working at the particular orthopaedic department took part in the study, and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The interviews were analysed by interpretative phenomenological analysis. Four main themes were developed in the analysis of the data: A more sustainable working situation, Improved work-life balance, Consequences of being part of a project, and Improved quality of care. Each theme consisted of subthemes. Overall, reduced work hours appeared to have many, mainly positive, effects for the participants in both work and home life.

  3. A systematic review of the sleep, sleepiness, and performance implications of limited wake shift work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Michelle A; Agostini, Alexandra; Lushington, Kurt; Dorrian, Jillian

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review was to identify which limited wake shift work schedules (LWSW) best promote sleep, alertness, and performance. LWSW are fixed work/rest cycles where the time-at-work does is ≤8 hours and there is >1 rest period per day, on average, for ≥2 consecutive days. These schedules are commonly used in safety-critical industries such as transport and maritime industries. Literature was sourced using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases. We identified 20 independent studies (plus a further 2 overlapping studies), including 5 laboratory and 17 field-based studies focused on maritime watch keepers, ship bridge officers, and long-haul train drivers. The measurement of outcome measures was varied, incorporating subjective and objective measures of sleep: sleep diaries (N=5), actigraphy (N=4), and polysomnography, (N=3); sleepiness: Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (N=5), visual analog scale (VAS) alertness (N=2) and author-derived measures (N=2); and performance: Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) (N=5), Reaction Time or Vigilance tasks (N=4), Vector and Letter Cancellation Test (N=1), and subjective performance (N=2). Of the three primary rosters examined (6 hours-on/6 hours-off, 8 hours-on/8 hours-off and 4 hours-on/8 hours-off), the 4 hours-on/8 hours-off roster was associated with better sleep and lower levels of sleepiness. Individuals working 4 hours-on/8 hours-off rosters averaged 1 hour more sleep per night than those working 6 hours-on/6 hours-off and 1.3 hours more sleep than those working 8 hours-on/8 hours-off (Pschedules were associated with better sleep and lower sleepines in the case of (i) shorter time-at-work, (ii) more frequent rest breaks, (iii) shifts that start and end at the same clock time every 24 hours, and (iv) work shifts commencing in the daytime (as opposed to night). The findings for performance remain incomplete due to the small number of studies containing a performance measure and the heterogeneity of

  4. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: an SMS-based time-use study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, D. van; Velden, L. van der; Bakker, D. de; Batenburg, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who

  5. Age-related differences in working hours among male and female GPs: An SMS-based time use study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassel, D. van; Velden, L.F.J. van der; Bakker, D.H.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In several countries, the number of hours worked by general practitioners (GPs) has decreased, raising concern about current and impending workforce shortages. This shorter working week has been ascribed both to the feminisation of the workforce and to a younger generation of GPs who

  6. Long Work Hours, Part-Time Work, and Trends in the Gender Gap in Pay, the Motherhood Wage Penalty, and the Fatherhood Wage Premium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim A. Weeden

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We assess how changes in the social organization and compensation of work hours over the last three decades are associated with changes in wage differentials among mothers, fathers, childless women, and childless men. We find that large differences between gender and parental status groups in long work hours (fifty or more per week, coupled with sharply rising hourly wages for long work hours, contributed to rising gender gaps in wages (especially among parents, motherhood wage penalties, and fatherhood wage premiums. Changes in the representation of these groups in part-time work, by contrast, is associated with a decline in the gender gap in wages among parents and in the motherhood wage penalty, but an increase in the fatherhood wage premium. These findings offer important clues into why gender and family wage differentials still persist.

  7. Scientific activity and working hours of physicians in university hospitals: results from the Innsbruck and Salzburg physician lifestyle assessment (TISPLA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Bernhard; Colvin, Hans Peter; Rieder, Josef

    2009-01-01

    Controllable lifestyle has become an important factor influencing career decision-making among physicians. In academic medicine, doctors are required to combine both patient care and research in their daily routine. Insufficient release of clinicians for research during contracted work hours may lead to increased weekly working hours in academic medical centers and deter medical graduates from academia. We tested for an association between numbers of scientific publications and an increased hourly workload among physicians. This was a cross-sectional online survey among all salaried physicians working in the university hospitals of Innsbruck and Salzburg, Austria. The main outcome measures were the self-reported total number of scientific papers published in peer-reviewed medical journals over the past two years and self-reported working hours. Of 590 returned surveys, 393 were fully completed and included in the study. The sample was stratified into three groups according to scientific output in the past two years: Group A, >/= 6 publications; Group B, 1-5 publications; Group C, no publications. Men were more likely than women to have a scientific publication: in Group A there was a male predominance of 75%, whereas in Group C only 48% were men (P = 0.0034). A total of 59% (n = 232) of all participants had not published a scientific article in the past two years (Group C) and worked a mean of 58.3 +/- 12 h/week. Physicians in Group B (n = 113) had published 2.4 +/- 1.4 papers and worked 62.8 +/- 12.9 h/week; those in Group A (n = 48) had published 11.5 +/- 6.6 papers and worked 73 +/- 13.1 h/week (P hours, reflecting the fact that research was mainly performed during overtime. Research activity among clinicians in academic medical centers is associated with significantly increased overtime hours. Measures need to be taken to allow medical graduates an academic career at reasonable impairment of personal lifestyle.

  8. A Revealing Window on the U.S. Economy in Depression and War: Hours Worked, 1929-1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Higgs

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of macroeconomic events in the 1930s and 1940s is complicated by the era’s institutional peculiarities, especially the massive work-relief programs during the Depression and the displacement of market-based pricing and resource allocation during the war. These difficulties can be avoided to some extent by examining hours worked, rather than such standard indicators as estimated real GDP and the rate of unemployment.From such an examination, we may conclude that (1 the depression had a flat trough in 1932, 1933, and 1934; (2 civilian government hours accounted for three-eighths of the increase in total hours worked between 1932 and 1936; (3 as late as 1939, private nonfarm hours were 16 percent below their 1929 level and 21 percent below the trend high-employment level for 1939; (4 the tremendous mismatch between the increase in private hours worked and the estimated increase in real GDP from 1940 to 1944 calls into serious question the accuracy of the estimated increase in real output; and (5 substitution of lower-productivity workers for the higher-productivity workers being drained into the armed forces from 1940 to 1944 only adds to doubts about the reality of the estimated increase in real output during that period.

  9. 49 CFR 214.319 - Working limits, generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... a roadway worker who is qualified in accordance with § 214.353 of this part shall establish or have control over working limits for the purpose of establishing on-track safety. (b) Only one roadway worker..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.319 Working limits...

  10. Schedule Control, Supervisor Support and Work Engagement: A Winning Combination for Workers in Hourly Jobs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanberg, Jennifer E.; McKechnie, Sharon P.; Ojha, Mamta U.; James, Jacquelyn B.

    2011-01-01

    The changing natures of both work and the lives of the U.S. workforce have created an array of challenges for organizations attempting to foster work engagement. To accommodate the work and family needs of an increasingly diverse workforce, many firms are offering flexible work solutions to employees. However, the distribution of these types of…

  11. The influence of hours worked prior to delivery on maternal and neonatal outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, Catherine E; Aiken, Abigail R; Scott, James G; Brockelsby, Jeremy C

    2016-11-01

    Long continuous periods of working contribute to fatigue, which is an established risk factor for adverse patient outcomes in many clinical specialties. The total number of hours worked by delivering clinicians before delivery therefore may be an important predictor of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. We aimed to examine how rates of adverse delivery outcomes vary with the number of hours worked by the delivering clinician before delivery during both day and night shifts. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 24,506 unscheduled deliveries at an obstetrics center in the United Kingdom from 2008-2013. We compared adverse outcomes between day shifts and night shifts using random-effects logistic regression to account for interoperator variability. Adverse outcomes were estimated blood loss of ≥1.5 L, arterial cord pH of ≤7.1, failed instrumental delivery, delayed neonatal respiration, severe perineal trauma, and any critical incident. Additive dynamic regression was used to examine the association between hours worked before delivery (up to 12 hours) and risk of adverse outcomes. Models were controlled for maternal age, maternal body mass index, parity, birthweight, gestation, obstetrician experience, and delivery type. We found no difference in the risk of any adverse outcome that was studied between day vs night shifts. Yet, risk of estimated blood loss of ≥1.5 L and arterial cord pH of ≤7.1 both varied by 30-40% within 12-hour shifts (P<.05). The highest risk of adverse outcomes occurred after 9-10 hours from the beginning of the shift for both day and night shifts. The risk of other adverse outcomes did not vary significantly by hours worked or by day vs night shift. Number of hours already worked before undertaking unscheduled deliveries significantly influences the risk of certain adverse outcomes. Our findings suggest that fatigue may play a role in increasing the risk of adverse delivery outcomes later in shifts and that obstetric work

  12. [Results of Training for Personnel Involved in Blood-Transfusion Testing Outside of Regular Work Hours at Saga University Hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Marie; Yamada, Naotomo; Higashitani, Takanori; Ohta, Shoichiro; Sueoka, Eisaburo

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing prior to blood transfusion outside of regular hours in many hospitals and clinics is frequently conducted by technicians without sufficient experience in such testing work. To obtain consistent test results regardless of the degree of laboratory experience with blood transfusion testing, the number of facilities introducing automated equipment for testing prior to blood transfusion is increasing. Our hospital's blood transfusion department introduced fully automated test equipment in October of 2010 for use when blood transfusions are conducted outside of regular hours. However, excessive dependence on automated testing can lead to an inability to do manual blood typing or cross-match testing when necessitated by breakdowns in the automated test equipment, in the case of abnormal specimen reactions, or other such case. In addition, even outside of normal working hours there are more than a few instances in which transfusion must take place based on urgent communications from clinical staff, with the need for prompt and flexible timing of blood transfusion test and delivery of blood products. To address this situation, in 2010 we began training after-hours laboratory personnel in blood transfusion testing to provide practice using test tubes manually and to achieve greater understanding of blood transfusion test work (especially in cases of critical blood loss). Results of the training and difficulties in its implementation for such after-hours laboratory personnel at our hospital are presented and discussed in this paper. [Original

  13. 48 CFR 852.222-70 - Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Safety Standards Act-nursing home care contract supplement. 852.222-70 Section 852.222-70 Federal...—nursing home care contract supplement. As prescribed in 822.305, for nursing home care requirements, insert the following clause: Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act—Nursing Home Care Contract...

  14. Cross-National Differences in the Association between Parental Work Hours and Time with Children in Europe: A Multilevel Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeters, Anne

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates cross-national differences in the association between parental work hours and parent-child interaction time and explains differences in this individual-level association on the basis of country characteristics. It extends prior research by testing the moderating effects of country characteristics through multilevel analyses…

  15. The employment and hours of work effects of the changing National Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, Richard; Riley, Rebecca; Wilkinson, David,

    2009-01-01

    This report is about the employment impacts of National Minimum Wage (NMW) rises in the period 2001-2006. This was a period where the NMW rose substantially in excess of average earnings. \\ud \\ud The report presents results based on analysis of individual Labour Force Survey (LFS) data and Annual Survey of Hours and Earnings (ASHE) data together with local area analysis.\\ud \\ud The focus of the analysis is threefold. First, it investigates changes in wages as a response to increases in the NM...

  16. Self-Reported Recovery from 2-Week 12-Hour Shift Work Schedules: A 14-Day Follow-Up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne L. Merkus

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: After 2-week 12-hour night and swing shifts, only the course for sleep quality differed from that of day work. Sleep quality was poorer for night and swing shift workers on the 1st day off and remained poorer for the 14-day follow-up. This showed that while working at night had no effect on feeling rested, tiredness, and energy levels, it had a relatively long-lasting effect on sleep quality.

  17. Working hours and incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components in a Mediterranean cohort: the SUN project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta, Adriano M; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Gea, Alfredo; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Enrique; Lopez-Iracheta, Roberto; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an important and priority public health problem globally. Long working hours have been proposed as a modifiable risk factor for MetS, despite sparse epidemiological evidence. Thus, the aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the associations between working hours and incidence of MetS and each of its components. We assessed 6845 participants of a Spanish dynamic prospective cohort of university graduates (the SUN project), initially free of any specific criteria of MetS, and followed-up for a median of 8.3 years. Weekly working hours were collected at baseline and grouped into four categories: >0-24, 25-39, 40-49 and ≥50 h. MetS was defined according to the updated harmonizing criteria. We estimated multivariable adjusted Relative Risks (RR) of MetS and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI), using Poisson regression models. The cumulative incidence of MetS was 6.0%. Working hours were not independently related to MetS (25-39 h/week = RR: 1.42, 95% CI 0.90-2.25; 40-49 h/week = RR: 1.45, 95% CI 0.91-2.30; ≥50 h/week = RR: 1.49, 95% CI 0.91-2.42, P for trend = 0.235) nor to any of its individual definition criteria. Our findings do not suggest that long working hours increase the risk of MetS development or each of its components. Further longitudinal studies in general population should be conducted to confirm these results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. The longitudinal relationship between control over working hours and depressive symptoms: Results from SLOSH, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Sophie C; Kecklund, Göran; Rajaleid, Kristiina; Leineweber, Constanze

    2017-06-01

    Psychosocial work factors can affect depressive moods, but research is inconclusive if flexibility to self-determine working hours (work-time control, WTC) is associated with depressive symptoms over time. We investigated if either sub-dimension of WTC, control over daily hours and control over time off, was related to depressive symptoms over time and examined causal, reversed-causal, and reciprocal pathways. The study was based on four waves of the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health which is a follow-up of representative samples of the Swedish working population. WTC was measured using a 5-item index. Depressive symptoms were assessed with a brief subscale of the Symptom Checklist. Latent growth curve models and cross-lagged panel models were tested. Best fit was found for a model with correlated intercepts (control over daily hours) and both correlated intercepts and slopes (control over time off) between WTC and depressive symptoms, with stronger associations for control over time off. Causal models estimating impacts from WTC to subsequent depressive symptoms were best fitting, with a standardised coefficient between -0.023 and -0.048. Results were mainly based on self-report data and mean age in the study sample was relatively high. Higher WTC was related to fewer depressive symptoms over time albeit small effects. Giving workers control over working hours - especially over taking breaks and vacation - may improve working conditions and buffer against developing depression, potentially by enabling workers to recover more easily and promoting work-life balance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. From Gods to goddesses : Horai management as an approach to coordinating working hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alis, D.; Karsten, L.; Leopold, J.

    Flexibility in working time arrangements may lead to heterogeneity of working-time patterns. Drawing on the societal perspective, we consider three interrelated spheres of: professional relations, organizational, and domestic space. Greek mythology assists us to contrast chrono management and Horai

  20. Predicting medical specialists' working (long) hours: Testing a contemporary career model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, B.R.; Eisinga, R.N.; Doorewaard, J.A.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    With the feminization (in numbers) of several professions, changing gender role prescriptions regarding parenthood and an increased attention for work-life balance, career theorists recently addressed the need for a more contemporary career model taking a work-home perspective. In this study, we

  1. Are shorter work hours good for the environment? A comparison of U.S. and European energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosnick, David; Weisbrot, Mark

    2007-01-01

    European employees work fewer hours per year, and use less energy per person, than their American counterparts. This article compares the European and U.S. models of labor productivity, supply, and energy consumption. It finds that if employees in the EU-15 worked as many hours as those in the United States, they would consume at least 15 percent more energy. This aspect of the debate over Europe's economic model reaches globally. Over the coming decades, developing countries will decide how to make use of their increasing productivity. If, by 2050, the world works as do Americans, total energy consumption could be 15 to 30 percent higher than it would be if following a more European model. Translated directly into higher carbon emissions, this could mean an additional 1 to 2 degrees Celsius in global warming.

  2. Are Tedious Working Hours and Their Wages are an Acknowledged Type of Child Abuse for Working Children a Study Conducted in Apprenticeship Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Büken

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Article 9 of the Universal Declaration Of The Rights Of Children regulates that children are not to be employed before having reached a certain age. Both in our country and the world, the method and principles of the employement of the underaged, the duration of their shifts and break intervals and the amounts they are to earn have been subject to legislation. The object of this study is to compare the real shift durations of working children and the amounts of money they recieve in return, with the regulation for it in the law. Material and Method: In the 2006-2007 school year, 580 (546 male, 34 female students of apprentice schools have been subject to a survey which questioned the duration of their working shifts and their wages. Findings: The average daily shift being 12 (11.089 ± 2,24 SD hours,  57.8% have been found to be working over 8 hours a day. No difference has been found between children of different age groups and sex, as regards the duration of their working shifts. No important difference has been found between children who are employed in different sectors, as regards their working hours. 3.6% of the participants have been found to work longer than 16 hours a day (median: 12.00,  range: 6-18, SD: 0.11. 3.6% of the participants have been found to earn less than the minimum wage provided by the law. Discussion and Conclusion: While the employement of children is already an issue by itself, it is great risk to make children work long shifts, which is why it should be viewed to be a branch of child exploitation. The wages that seem to be in accordance with the law are usually fairly inadequate, when the working hours are taken into consideration. It will be argued that in the inspection of workplaces where the employement of children is allowed, working hours of children should also be inspected, in order to prevent at least some harm from being done. Keywords: working children,economical abuse,long working hours,salary

  3. Improving fit to work assessments for rail safety workers by exploring work limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschman, J. S.; Hulshof, C. T. J.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Sluiter, J. K.

    2016-01-01

    We aim to provide evidence for improving fit to work assessments for rail safety workers and raised the question whether adding an assessment of work limitations is useful. Therefore, we assessed differences in the proportions of perceived work limitations and reported health complaints and whether

  4. Administrative circular n°23 (Rev. 3) – Special working hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 3) entitled “Special working hours”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to staff members and fellows. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 23 (Rev. 2) entitled “Special working hours” of December 2008. Paragraph 6 a) of Annex II of this circular was revised following the modification of Article III 1.04 of the Staff Regulations approved by Council on 14 December 2012. The modification serves to adapt the minimum rest time to the fact that, in case of rapidly alternating shifts, a maximum of seven consecutive shifts may be performed. Department Head Office HR Department

  5. Effects of 24-hour shift work with nighttime napping on circadian rhythm characteristics in ambulance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Y; Takano, T

    1993-12-01

    Forty-two ambulance personnel engaged in a 24-h shift system participated in a chronobiological field study to study the effects of 24-h shift work on circadian rhythm characteristics. Autorhythmometry of circadian rhythms of oral temperature, right and left grip strengths, and heart rate plus subjective assessment of drowsiness, fatigue, and attention was performed every approximately 4 h except during sleep for 7 days. Cosinor and power spectral analyses were applied to the longitudinal data of each individual. Changes in circadian period different from 24 h of oral temperature, grip strengths, and heart rate plus subjective drowsiness, fatigue, and attention were observed in ambulance personnel. The incidence of circadian periodicity different from 24 h in oral temperature and right and left grip strength was 28.6%, 35.7%, and 47.6%, respectively. The incidence was relatively lower than that of shift workers engaged in a discontinuous 8-h shift system we reported on previously. Working conditions allowing ambulance personnel to nap when not called for emergency (for > 4 h) might contribute to a stabilization of circadian rhythms. Furthermore, long nighttime ambulance service amounting to > 100 min was significantly associated with a high incidence of at least one prominent circadian period among oral temperature and right and left grip strength rhythms different from 24 h. In conclusion, 24-h shift work altered the characteristics of circadian rhythms of ambulance personnel; nighttime naps seemed to have a favorable effect on averting changes in circadian rhythms.

  6. Developments in working long and unsocial hours in a Danish prospective cohort study on family and work life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans H. K.; Westerling, Allan

    , medical professionals and food processing workers. Several of the studies included pointed at life style behavior, well-being, fatigue and dys-functional sleep patterns as mediating factors while none of the studies had looked at work-family life interaction. The panel study is based on a randomized...

  7. Worked to death? A census-based longitudinal study of the relationship between the numbers of hours spent working and mortality risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Dermot; Rosato, Michael

    2013-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the health effects of long working hours, but little empirical evidence to substantiate early case series suggesting an increased mortality risk. The aim of the current study is to quantify the mortality risk associated with long working hours and to see if this varies by employment relations and conditions of occupation. A census-based longitudinal study of 414 949 people aged 20-59/64 years, working at least 35 h/week, subdivided into four occupational classes (managerial/professional, intermediate, own account workers, workers in routine occupations) with linkage to deaths records over the following 8.7 years. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine all-cause and cause-specific mortality risk. Overall 9.4% of the cohort worked 55 or more h/week, but this proportion was greater in the senior management and professional occupations and in those who were self-employed. Analysis of 4447 male and 1143 female deaths showed that hours worked were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality only for men working for more than 55 or more h/week in routine/semi-routine occupations [adjusted hazard ratios (adjHR) 1.31: 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11, 1.55] compared with their peers working 35-40 h/week. Their equivalent risk of death from cardiovascular disease was (adjHR 1.49: 95% CI 1.10, 2.00). These findings substantiate and add to the earlier studies indicating the deleterious impact of long working hours but also suggest that the effects are moderated by employment relations or conditions of occupation. The policy implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. [Working hour preferences of female and male residents : Developments over 4 years of postgraduate medical training in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Stine; Krause-Solberg, Lea; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik

    2017-10-01

    This article addresses developments regarding working hours and working hour preferences of residents undergoing postgraduate training in Germany and analyses if, and for what reasons, full-time or part-time working models are preferred. The source of data is the KarMed study, which is based on yearly postal surveys carried out among graduates of the year 2008/2009 from seven medical faculties in Germany. The interviews took place during the entire postgraduate training period. Response rates were 48% in the first year, with subsequent rates of above 85%. For analysis, descriptive statistics and regression models were applied. There is a considerable discrepancy between the actual and the preferred working hours of residents undergoing postgraduate training. Postgraduate training is mostly linked to full-time contracts, usually with additional overtime, even though a considerable proportion of doctors prefer a part-time position. More female residents want to work part-time than male doctors. The same applies for the period after medical specialism: in particular, female doctors with children, female doctors trained in former Western Germany states, and those seeking an occupation in outpatient care request part-time contracts for their professional future. A similar trend has been increasingly observed over the years for male doctors. Despite the huge number of residents requesting part-time contracts - during postgraduate training and afterward - the reality is still far behind this model. It is apparent that measures should be taken for both genders. Those measures should facilitate the implementation of the favored working-time model.

  9. 24-hour pattern of work-related injury risk of French firemen: nocturnal peak time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, Marc; Berrez, Stéphane; Pelisse, Didier; Brousse, Eric; Forget, Coralie; Marlot, Michel; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain

    2011-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to assess clock-time patterning of work-related injuries (WRIs) of firemen (FM) of Saône et Loire-71 (France) during the 4-yr span of 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2007. FM of this service are legally required to log every WRI and seek its evaluation by the medical service, whether the WRI was the result of worksite duties or exercise/sport activities at the station. WRI was defined specifically as a (nonexercise, nonsport, and nonemotional/stress) work-associated trauma, verified both by log book and medical records. For the corresponding years, the 24-h pattern of emergency calls (Calls) plus road traffic (Traffic) on the main roads of the service area was also assessed. Relative risk (R) of WRI was calculated as the quantity of WRIs/h divided by the quantity of Call responses/h × 1000, which takes into account the number of at-risk FM/unit time, since each dispatched emergency vehicle is staffed with 4 FM. Comparably trained regular (RFM) and volunteer (VFM) FM experienced a total of 187 WRIs. The 24-h WRI curve patterns of RFM and VFM were correlated (r = 0.4, p difference (p > .05). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) validated comparable clock-time patterns in WRIs of RFM and VFM each year and each season (all p  .0006; Cosinor analysis, p work performance) of FM of the same service to urgent medical calls for out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. Highest R of WRI at 02:00 h corresponded closely to longest LT (raw data at ∼02:00 h and Cosinor derived Ø of 02.54 h ± 71 min [SD]), thereby supporting the hypothesis of a common mechanism underlying the two 24-h profiles. A third aim was to determine the relevance of a new concept in work safety, "chronoprevention," for future FM training programs.

  10. Neural Anatomy of Primary Visual Cortex Limits Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Johanna; Genç, Erhan; Kohler, Axel; Singer, Wolf; Pearson, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Despite the immense processing power of the human brain, working memory storage is severely limited, and the neuroanatomical basis of these limitations has remained elusive. Here, we show that the stable storage limits of visual working memory for over 9 s are bound by the precise gray matter volume of primary visual cortex (V1), defined by fMRI retinotopic mapping. Individuals with a bigger V1 tended to have greater visual working memory storage. This relationship was present independently for both surface size and thickness of V1 but absent in V2, V3 and for non-visual working memory measures. Additional whole-brain analyses confirmed the specificity of the relationship to V1. Our findings indicate that the size of primary visual cortex plays a critical role in limiting what we can hold in mind, acting like a gatekeeper in constraining the richness of working mental function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Ozone, Electrostatic Precipitators, and Particle Number Concentrations: Correlations Observed in a Real Office during Working Hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jianbang; Weschler, Charles J; Mo, Jinhan; Day, Drew; Zhang, Junfeng; Zhang, Yinping

    2016-09-20

    This study investigates the impacts of outdoor and indoor ozone concentrations, ESP operation and occupancy on particle number concentrations within a modern office in Changsha, China. The office's one-pass air handling system contains a mini-bag filter (MERV 12) followed by an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter. Over a five-week period the system was operated either without the ESP (Stage 1, first-third week) or with the ESP (Stage 2, fourth and fifth week). Ozone and particle number concentrations were measured on working days. During both stages, indoor ozone and particle number concentrations tracked the outdoor ozone concentration. When operating, the ESP produced approximately 29 mg h(-1) of ozone, increasing supply air ozone by 15 ppb and steady-state indoor ozone by about 3 ppb. Occupancy tended to decrease indoor ozone and increase particle levels. During occupancy, indoor particle levels were low (∼2600 particle/cm(3)) when the supply air ozone level was less than 18 ppb. Above this threshold, the supply air ozone concentration and indoor particle number concentration were linearly related, and ESP operation increased the average indoor particle level by about 22 000 particles/cm(3). The implications for worker exposure to both ozone and particles are discussed.

  12. Declarative and Procedural Working Memory: Common Principles, Common Capacity Limits?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klus Oberauer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Working memory is often described as a system for simultaneous storage and processing. Much research – and most measures of working-memory capacity – focus on the storage component only, that is, people's ability to recall or recognize items after short retention intervals. The mechanisms of processing information are studied in a separate research tradition, concerned with the selection and control of actions in simple choice situations, dual-task constellations, or task-switching setups. both research traditions investigate performance based on representations that are temporarily maintained in an active, highly accessible state, and constrained by capacity limits. In this article an integrated theoretical framework of declarative and procedural working memory is presented that relates the two domains of research to each other. Declarative working memory is proposed to hold representations available for processing (including recall and recognition, whereas procedural working memory holds representations that control processing (i. e., task sets, stimulus-response mappings, and executive control settings. The framework motivates two hypotheses: Declarative and procedural working memory have separate capacity limits, and they operate by analogous principles. The framework also suggests a new characterization of executive functions as the subset of processes governed by procedural working memory that has as its output a change in the conditions of operation of the working-memory system.

  13. Improving fit to work assessments for rail safety workers by exploring work limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschman, J S; Hulshof, C T J; Frings-Dresen, M H W; Sluiter, J K

    2016-07-01

    We aim to provide evidence for improving fit to work assessments for rail safety workers and raised the question whether adding an assessment of work limitations is useful. Therefore, we assessed differences in the proportions of perceived work limitations and reported health complaints and whether older age or having health complaints are risk factors for having work limitations. Job requirements for rail safety workers are 'vigilance and clear judgment', 'good communication abilities', 'sufficient eye sight' and 'task-required physical abilities'. We invited 1000 workers to fill in a questionnaire about perceived work limitations and health problems related to their job requirements. Proportions of the two were compared by using the McNemar test. Associations were analyzed by using univariate logistic regression. Among 484 rail safety workers, we found statistically significant differences between the proportions of reported health complaints (2-26 %) and work limitations (10-32 %). No significant associations were found between older age and work limitations, except for workers in the age group 40-50 years regarding physical abilities. This was not found for the age group over 50 years. For each age category, workers reporting health complaints related to 'vigilance and clear judgment' and 'sufficient physical abilities' had a statistically significant increased risk for reporting work limitations as well (ORs 2.4-17.9). Our results indicate that fit to work assessments should include both health complaints and work limitations. Our results do not substantiate the assumption that workers over 40 years of age are at increased risk for work limitations in general.

  14. Effects of long working hours and the night shift on severe sleepiness among workers with 12-hour shift systems for 5 to 7 consecutive days in the automobile factories of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Mia; Kong, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jaeyoung; Härmä, Mikko

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the effects of 12-hour shift work for five to seven consecutive days and overtime on the prevalence of severe sleepiness in the automobile industry in Korea. [Correction added after online publication 28 Nov: Opening sentence of the summary has been rephrased for better clarity.] A total of 288 randomly selected male workers from two automobile factories were selected and investigated using questionnaires and sleep-wake diaries in South Korea. The prevalence of severe sleepiness at work [i.e. Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) score of 7 or higher] was modeled using marginal logistic regression and included theoretical risk factors related to working hours and potential confounding factors related to socio-economic status, work demands, and health behaviors. Factors related to working hours increased the risk for severe sleepiness at the end of the shift in the following order: the night shift [odds ratio (OR): 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.6-6.0)], daily overtime (OR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.7-2.9), weekly overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.0-2.6), and night overtime (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 0.8-3.0). Long working hours and shift work had a significant interactive effect for severe sleepiness at work. Night shift workers who worked for 12 h or more a day were exposed to a risk of severe sleepiness that was 7.5 times greater than day shift workers who worked less than 11 h. Night shifts and long working hours were the main risk factors for severe sleepiness among automobile factory workers in Korea. Night shifts and long working hours have a high degree of interactive effects resulting in severe sleepiness at work, which highlight the need for immediate measures to address these characteristics among South Korean labor force patterns.

  15. Information Meeting- Working Hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Maurin

    1972-01-01

    Mons. Maurin préside la séance et fait part des résultats aux questionnaires pour définir une ligne de conduite de l'association- ramener et harmoniser les horaires- changer les contrats de 44 à 40 heures- des gens travaillent en partie encore 48 h

  16. [Work process of community health agents: possibilities and limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Marta Cocco; da Silva, Ethel Bastos; Jahn, Alice do Carmo; Resta, Darielli Gindri; Colom, Isabel Cristina dos Santos; de Carli, Rafaela

    2012-09-01

    The current study is aimed at getting to know and analyzing the work process of community health agents (CHA) from a municipality of the Northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul through a qualitative approach. The collection of data was carried out by means of a semi-structured interview applied to 23 CHAs. The Thematic Content Analysis was utilized for the data analysis. The results evidenced some possibilities, such as: communication with the participating families, establishing bonds, and recognition of/satisfaction towards the professional agent by the community; and among some of the limits were: difficulty to perform team work; difficulty to perform collective tasks in the community; low salary/work overload and lack of qualification. Evidence shows the need of reorganizing the work process of these professionals with higher investment in education and instrumentation by adopting a permanent educational policy.

  17. Spikes not slots: noise in neural populations limits working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Paul M

    2015-08-01

    This opinion article argues that noise (randomness) in neural activity is the limiting factor in visual working memory (WM), determining how accurately we can maintain stable internal representations of external stimuli. Sharing of a fixed amount of neural activity between items in memory explains why WM can be successfully described as a continuous resource. This contrasts with the popular conception of WM as comprising a limited number of memory slots, each holding a representation of one stimulus - I argue that this view is challenged by computational theory and the latest neurophysiological evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Company Policies on Working Hours and Night Work in Relation to Older Workers' Work Ability and Work Engagement: Results From a Dutch Longitudinal Study with 2 Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Laudry; Leijten, Fenna R M; Heuvel, Swenneke G; Ybema, Jan F; de Wind, Astrid; Burdorf, Alex; Geuskens, Goedele A

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To longitudinally investigate (1) whether lower work ability and work engagement predict the use of company policies on reduced working hours and exemption from evening/night work among older workers, and (2) whether using such policies subsequently contribute to higher work ability and work engagement. Methods In total 6922 employees (45-64 years) participating in the first three waves of the Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation were included. Participants yearly filled out an online questionnaires. Regression analyses were applied to study the influence of baseline work ability and work engagement on the incident use of policies during the first year of follow-up, and the incident use of these policies on work ability and work engagement during the second year of follow-up. Results Employees with a higher work ability were less likely to start using the policy 'reduced working hours' [OR 0.91 (95 % CI 0.83-0.98)]. Starting to use this policy was in turn related to lower work ability 1 year later [B -0.28 (95 % CI -0.47 to -0.08)]. Starting to use the policy 'exemption from evening/night work' was related to higher work engagement 1 year later [B 0.23 (95 % CI 0.07-0.39)]. Conclusions Low work ability precedes the use of some company policies aiming to support sustainable employability of older workers. Further research is needed to explore whether company policies result in a (longstanding) improvement, or reduced deterioration, of older workers' employability.

  19. Relationship between Long Working Hours and Suicidal Thoughts: Nationwide Data from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available Long working hours are a worldwide problem and may increase the risk of various health issues. However, the health effects of long working hours on suicidal thoughts have not been frequently studied. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between long working hours and suicidal thoughts in the rapidly developing country of Korea.Data from 12,076 participants (7,164 men, 4,912 women from the 4th and 5th Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were used for the current analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts. Combined effects of long working hours and lower socioeconomic status or sleep disturbance were also estimated.Compared to groups who worked less than 52 hours per week, odds ratios (95% confidence intervals for suicidal thoughts in groups who worked 60 hours or more per week were 1.36 (1.09-1.70 for males and 1.38 (1.11-1.72 for females, even after controlling for household income, marital status, history of hypertension or diabetes mellitus, health-related behaviors, and past two weeks' experience of injury, intoxication, or acute or chronic diseases, as well as type of work. The combined effects of long working hours with lower socioeconomic status, or with sleep disturbance, were also significantly higher compared to participants who worked less than 52 hours per week with higher socioeconomic status, or with 6-8 hours of nighttime sleep.In this study, long working hours were linked to suicidal thoughts for both genders. Additionally, the odds of those suicidal thoughts were higher for lower socioeconomic groups. To prevent adverse psychological health problems such as suicidal thoughts, a strategy regarding long working hours should be investigated.

  20. 24-hour care: Work and sleep conditions of migrant Filipino live-in caregivers in Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kevin; Nazareno, Jennifer; Malish, Sterling

    2016-12-01

    Live-in formal caregivers spend consecutive days in patients' homes, raising questions about their ability to secure adequate sleep while on duty. Few studies have examined sleeping conditions and outcomes for this growing workforce. We collected weeklong sleep logs and interview data from 32 Filipino caregivers in Los Angeles who provide live-in services at least 3 consecutive days per week. Respondents recorded a total average of 6.4 sleep hours during workdays divided over 2.4 sleep periods. Caregivers rated sleep quality as lower while at work; over 40% indicated excessive daytime sleepiness. Female caregivers reported worse sleep outcomes than their male counterparts. Some variations in sleep outcomes were found by employment arrangements. Live-in caregivers experience frequent sleep interruptions at all hours of the day and night to attend to patients' needs. The resulting impacts on sleep quality pose risks for both work-related injury and errors in patient care. Am. J. Ind. Med. 59:1120-1129, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Dynamic shifts of limited working memory resources in human vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Paul M; Husain, Masud

    2008-08-08

    Our ability to remember what we have seen is very limited. Most current views characterize this limit as a fixed number of items-only four objects-that can be held in visual working memory. We show that visual memory capacity is not fixed by the number of objects, but rather is a limited resource that is shared out dynamically between all items in the visual scene. This resource can be shifted flexibly between objects, with allocation biased by selective attention and toward targets of upcoming eye movements. The proportion of resources allocated to each item determines the precision with which it is remembered, a relation that we show is governed by a simple power law, allowing quantitative estimates of resource distribution in a scene.

  2. Associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Luenda E; Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M; Fujishiro, Kaori; Landsbergis, Paul; Diez Roux, Ana V; Macdonald, Leslie; Foy, Capri G; Andrew, Michael E; Stukovsky, Karen H; Baron, Sherry

    2012-10-01

    Long working hours may be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective was to investigate cross-sectional associations of work hours with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and ankle-brachial index (ABI). Participants were 1694 women and 1868 men from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. CIMT and ABI were measured using standard protocols. Information on work hours was obtained from questionnaires. Mean values of CIMT and ABI were examined across five categories of hours worked per week (≤20, 21-39, 40, 41-50 and >50) using analysis of variance/analysis of covariance. p Values for trend were obtained from linear regression models. Mean age of participants was 56.9±8.4 years; 52.4% were men. Distinct patterns of association between work hours and the subclinical CVD biomarkers were found for women and men, although this heterogeneity by gender was not statistically significant. Among women only, work hours were positively associated with common (but not internal) CIMT (p=0.073) after full risk factor adjustment. Compared with women working 40 h, those working >50 h were more likely to have an ABI work hours and ABI were inversely associated (p=0.046). There was some evidence that the association between work hours and ABI was modified by occupational category (interaction p=0.061). Among persons classified as management/professionals, longer work hours was associated with lower ABI (p=0.015). No significant associations were observed among other occupational groups. Working longer hours may be associated with subclinical CVD. These associations should be investigated using longitudinal studies.

  3. Working hours, sleep duration and the risk of acute coronary heart disease: a case-control study of middle-aged men in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yawen; Du, Chung-Li; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Chen, I-Shin; Chen, Ming-Fong; Su, Ta-Chen

    2014-02-15

    This study aimed to examine whether long working hours and short sleep duration were associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or severe coronary heart diseases (SCHD), independent of established psychosocial work-related factors. A case-control study was conducted. Cases were 322 men, aged cases on age, education and area of residence. Odds ratios of total CHD and confirmed AMI in relation to average weekly working hours and daily hours of sleep were calculated. Men with average working hours longer than 60 h/week were found to have significantly increased risks for total CHD (OR=2.2) as compared to those with weekly working hours in 40-48 h, and those with daily hours of sleep fewer than 6 h were found to have increased risks for CHD (OR=3.0) as compared to those with sleeping hours in 6-9 h. Restriction to confirmed AMI yielded a greater risk and these associations remained consistent with adjustment of smoking status, body mass index and psychosocial work factors including job demands, job control, workplace justice, job insecurity and shift work. The results support the hypothesis that long working hours and short sleep duration contribute independently to the risk of cardiovascular diseases in men. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A 360 degrees evaluation of a night-float system for general surgery: a response to mandated work-hours reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Michael J; Kim, Eugene; Widmann, Warren D; Hardy, Mark A

    2004-01-01

    New York State Code 405 and societal/political pressure have led the RRC and ACGME to mandate strict limitations on resident work hours. In an attempt to meet these limitations, we have switched from the previous Q3 call schedule to a specialized night float (NF) system, the continuity-care system (CCS). The purpose of this CCS is to maximize resident duty time spent on direct patient care, operative experience, and outpatient clinics, while reducing duty hours spent on performing routine tasks and call coverage. The implementation of the CCS is the fundamental step in the restructuring of our residency program. In addition to a change in the call system, we added physician assistants to aid in performing some service tasks. We performed a 360 degrees evaluation of this work in progress. In May 2002, the standard Q3 call system was abolished on the general surgery services at the New York Presbyterian Hospital, Columbia campus. Two dedicated teams were created to provide day and night coverage, a day continuity-care team (DCT) and a night continuity-care team (NCT). The DCTs, consisting of PGY1-5 residents, provide daily in-house coverage from 6 AM to 5 PM with no regular weekday night-call responsibilities. The DCT residents provide Friday night, Saturday, and daytime Sunday call coverage 3 to 4 days per month. The NCT, consisting of 5 PGY1-5 residents, provides nightly continuous care, 5 PM to 6 AM, Sunday through Thursday, with no other weekend call responsibilities. This system creates a schedule with less than 80 duty hours per week, on average, with one 24-hour period off a week, one complete weekend off per month, and no more than 24 hours of consecutive duty time. After 1 year of use, the system was evaluated by a 360 degrees method in which residents, residents' spouses, nurses, and faculty were surveyed using a Likert-type scale. Statistical significance was calculated using the Student t-test. Patient satisfaction was measured both by internal review of

  5. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students' Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother-Child Communication (FMCC) and Maternal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huan; Lv, Bo; Guo, Xiaolin; Liu, Chunhui; Qi, Bing; Hu, Weiping; Liu, Zhaomin; Luo, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children's cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children's affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC) and the moderating role of maternal education. Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4-6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM) was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children's affect and the moderating effect of maternal education. Results: (1) Non-college-educated mothers' work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2) non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3) the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children's positive affect; (4) the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children's negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5) there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children's affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6) the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children's negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers. Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children's affect through FMCC only for non

  6. The Relation between Maternal Work Hours and Primary School Students’ Affect in China: The Role of the Frequency of Mother–Child Communication (FMCC and Maternal Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Zhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although substantial evidence suggests that maternal work hours may have a negative effect on children’s cognitive development, the link between maternal work hours and children’s affect remains unclear. Some studies have observed that non-daytime maternal work hours are associated with more emotional problems among children. However, few studies have focused on the effects of maternal work hours on workdays and non-workdays. Therefore, this study separately investigated the relation between maternal work hours on workdays and on non-workdays and explored the mediating role of the frequency of mother-child communication (FMCC and the moderating role of maternal education.Method: Using cluster sampling, this study selected 879 students in grades 4–6 at two primary schools in the Hebei and Shandong provinces in China and their mothers as the study subjects. A multi-group structural equation model (SEM was used to test the relations between maternal work hours, FMCC and children’s affect and the moderating effect of maternal education.Results: (1 Non-college-educated mothers’ work hours on workdays negatively predicted FMCC, but there was no such effect for college-educated mothers; (2 non-workday work hours of all employed mothers negatively predicted FMCC; (3 the FMCC of all employed mothers positively predicted children’s positive affect; (4 the FMCC of college-educated mothers negatively predicted children’s negative affect although there was no such relation for non-college-educated mothers; (5 there was a significant mediating effect of FMCC on the relation between maternal work hours and children’s affect only for non-college-educated mothers; and (6 the workday work hours of non-college-educated mothers positively predicted children’s negative affect, but this correlation was negative for college-educated mothers.Conclusion: Maternal work hours have a marginally significant negative effect on children

  7. [24-hour work: the interaction of stress and changes in the sleep-wake cycle in the police force].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Disruption in police officers. In recent years there has been a widespread growth in services, available regardless of time or day organization (24/7 service) and a diffuse increase in their use, both in work and private lives, generally ignoring the importance of a regular sleep organization. Police officers - often need to work extended shifts and long hours under highly stressful conditions, which results in reduced levels of safety and operational effectiveness. In numerous studies, perceived stress has been found to correlate with both subjective and objective disturbances in sleep. Consequently, excessive daytime sleepiness is one of the most frequent health and safety hazards that police officers have to deal with. Sleep deprivation affects performance outcomes through a wide range of cognitive domains. Sleepiness and fatigue, caused by sleep loss, extended work and wakefulness, circadian misalignment and sleep disorders are major causes of workplace human errors, incidents, and accidents. Therefore, prevention of sleep loss, high levels of stress and fatigue is a key factor to consider when assessing emergency intervention. In order to combat fatigue and sleepiness, a 30-90 minutes nap before night shift could be a viable option.

  8. Buffering effects of job resources on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese white-collar workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Ayako; Inoue, Akiomi; Kawakami, Norito; Tsuno, Kanami; Tomioka, Kimiko; Nakanishi, Mayuko; Mafune, Kosuke; Hiro, Hisanori

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the buffering effects of job resources, utilizing the job demands-control (or demand-control-support) and effort-reward imbalance models (i.e., job control, workplace social support, and extrinsic reward), on the association of overtime work hours with psychological distress in Japanese employees. A total of 1,198 participants (valid response rate = 93.7 %) from five branches of a manufacturing company in Japan completed a self-administered questionnaire comprising the scales assessing job resources, psychological distress, and demographic characteristics. We obtained the information on working hours in the most recent month from the personnel records of the surveyed company. Multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In a series of analyses, interaction term of overtime work hours with each job resource was included in the model. Significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with job control was observed. Among the low job control group, the long overtime (80 h or more) subgroup had a significantly higher prevalence odds ratio of psychological distress compared to the short overtime (44 h or less) subgroup. No significant association of overtime work hours with psychological distress was found among the high job control group. On the other hand, there was no significant interaction effect of overtime work hours with workplace social support or extrinsic reward. The present findings suggest that high job control has an effect on reducing psychological distress in relation to overtime work hours in Japanese employees.

  9. Excessive working hours and health complaints among hospital physicians: a study based on a national sample of hospital physicians in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosta, Judith

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine correlations between excessively long working hours and subjectively experienced somatic health complaints among hospital physicians. Methods: Quantitative data were collected as part of the survey “Working life, Lifestyle and Health of Hospital Physicians in Germany 2006” using self-reporting questionnaires. The individually experienced health was assessed on the basis of Zerssen’s [1] list of somatic complaints. The indicator of excessively long working hours was defined as 10 or more working hours per working day and 6 or more on-call shifts a month among full-time employees. The net sample consisted of 3295 randomly selected physicians from 515 hospitals. Results: The response rate was 58% (n=1917. Physicians with excessively long working hours (19% had significantly higher sum score of health complaints (p=0.0001 and significantly increased mental and physical fatigue symptoms (feeling faint, languor, uneasiness, heavy legs, excessive need for sleep, trembling; p=0.0001 to 0.047, mood changes (irritability, brooding; p=0.008 to 0.014, gastrointestinal (nausea, loss of weight; p=0.0001 to 0.014 and heart disorders (lumpy sensation in the throat, chest pain; p=0.0001 to 0.042. When the sum score of health complaints was controlled for selected confounders, being female (B=-3.44, p=0.0001 and having excessively long working hours (B=2.76, p=0.0001 were significantly correlated with health complaints. In a separate gender analysis, being exposed to excessively long working hours remained a significant predictor for health complaints among both females (B=3.78, p=0.001 and males (B=2.28, p=0.004. Conclusions: Excessively long working hours are associated with an increased risk of health complaints. Reducing working hours may be the first step to improving physicians' health.

  10. Associations between social ecological factors and self-reported short physical activity breaks during work hours among desk-based employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennie, Jason A; Timperio, Anna F; Crawford, David A; Dunstan, David W; Salmon, Jo L

    2011-01-01

    To examine the associations between potential social ecological correlates and self-reported short physical activity breaks during work hours (defined as any interruption in sitting time during a typical work hour) among a sample of employees who commonly sit for working tasks. 801 employed adults aged 18-70 years from metropolitan Melbourne, Australia were surveyed in 2009 about their short physical activity breaks from sitting during work hours and potential social ecological correlates of this behaviour. Men reported significantly more short physical activity breaks per work hour than did women (2.5 vs. 2.3 breaks/h, p=0.02). A multivariable linear regression analysis adjusting for clustering and meeting the public health physical activity recommendations showed that the factors associated with frequency of short physical activity breaks per work hour were perceptions of lack of time for short physical activity breaks for men (-0.31 breaks/h, 95% confidence intervals [CI] -0.52, -0.09) and lack of information about taking short physical activity breaks for women (-0.20 breaks/h, CI -0.47, -0.05). These findings suggest that providing male employees with support for short physical activity breaks during work hours, and female employees with information on benefits of this behaviour may be useful for reducing workplace sedentary time. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A comparison of job descriptions for nurse practitioners working in out-of-hours primary care services: implications for workforce planning, patients and nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teare, Jean; Horne, Maria; Clements, Gill; Mohammed, Mohammed A

    2017-03-01

    To compare and contrast job descriptions for nursing roles in out-of-hours services to obtain a general understanding of what is required for a nurse working in this job. Out-of-hours services provide nursing services to patients either through telephone or face-to-face contact in care centres. Many of these services are newly created giving job opportunities to nurses working in this area. It is vital that nurses know what their role entails but also that patients and other professionals know how out-of-hours nurses function in terms of competence and clinical role. Content analysis of out-of-hours job descriptions. Content analysis of a convenience sample of 16 job descriptions of out-of-hours nurses from five out-of-hours care providers across England was undertaken. The findings were narratively synthesised, supported by tabulation. Key role descriptors were examined in terms of job titles, managerial skills, clinical skills, professional qualifications and previous experience. Content analysis of each out-of-hours job description revealed a lack of consensus in clinical competence and skills required related to job title although there were many similarities in skills across all the roles. This study highlights key differences and some similarities between roles and job titles in out-of-hours nursing but requires a larger study to inform workforce planning. Out-of-hours nursing is a developing area of practice which requires clarity to ensure patient safety and quality care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Long work hours and physical fitness: 30-year risk of ischaemic heart disease and all-cause mortality among middle-aged Caucasian men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis.......No previous long-term studies have examined if workers with low physical fitness have an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality due to long work hours. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis....

  13. Fatigue and related factors among hotel workers: the effects of emotional labor and non-standard working hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ju Jong; Moon, Hyun Jey; Lee, Kyung-Jae; Kim, Joo Ja

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed fatigue and its association with emotional labor and non-standard working hours among hotel workers. A structured self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 1,320 employees of five hotels located in Seoul. The questionnaire survey included questions concerning the participants' sociodemographics, health-related behaviors, job-related factors, emotional labor, and fatigue. Fatigue was assessed using the Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (MFS). Multiple logistic regression modeling was used to determine the associations between fatigue and emotional labor. Among male workers, there was a significant association between fatigue and both emotional disharmony (OR=5.52, 95% CI=2.35-12.97) and emotional effort (OR=3.48, 95% CI=1.54-7.86). These same associations were seen among the female workers (emotional disharmony: OR=6.91, 95% CI=2.93-16.33; emotional effort: OR=2.28, 95% CI=1.00-5.16). These results indicate that fatigue is associated with emotional labor and, especially, emotional disharmony among hotel workers. Therefore, emotional disharmony management would prove helpful for the prevention of fatigue.

  14. Para-aminobenzoic acid used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: Assessment of control limits for a specific HPLC method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jette; Ovesen, L.; Fagt, Sisse

    1997-01-01

    (20-59 y; n = 34) PABA was taken as recommended, whereas in the older age group (60-80 y; n = 22) the last PABA dosage was advanced three hours. Results: Protocol 1: HPLC gave significantly lower PABA recovery results compared to colorimetry, the difference between methods being 23.9 +/- 5.5 mg/24 h...... in a complete 24 h urine differs from the limit based on colorimetry. This study found a limit of 187 mg/24 h corresponding to the lower 95% confidence limit for a single subject....

  15. Relationship of airflow limitation severity with work productivity reduction and sick leave in a Japanese working population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onoue A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ayumi Onoue,1 Hisamitsu Omori,1 Takahiko Katoh,2 Kenichi Kubota,3 Yoshio Nonami,3 Yasuhiro Ogata,3 Hiromasa Inoue4 1Department of Biomedical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Public Health, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 3Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center, Kumamoto, 4Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to reveal the association between airflow limitation (AL severity and reduction with work productivity as well as use of sick leave among Japanese workers.Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,378 workers who underwent a lung function test during a health checkup at the Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Health Care Center. AL was defined as forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity of <0.7. Workers completed a questionnaire on productivity loss at work and sick leave. The quality and quantity of productivity loss at work were measured on a ten-point scale indicating how much work was actually performed on the previous workday. Participants were asked how many days in the past 12 months they were unable to work because of health problems. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess the associations between AL severity and the quality and quantity of productivity loss at work as well as use of sick leave.Results: Compared with workers without AL, workers with moderate-to-severe AL showed a significant productivity loss (quality: odds ratio [OR] =2.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.12–3.71, P=0.02 and quantity: OR =2.19, 95% CI: 1.20–4.00, P=0.011 and use of sick leave (OR =2.69, 95% CI: 1.33–5.44, P=0.006 after adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, sleep duration, work hours per day, and workplace smoking environment.Conclusion: AL severity was significantly associated with work productivity loss and use

  16. Improving education under work-hour restrictions: comparing learning and teaching preferences of faculty, residents, and students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Megan C; Kenkare, Sonya B; Saville, Benjamin R; Beidler, Stephanie K; Saba, Sam C; West, Alisha N; Hanemann, Michael S; van Aalst, John A

    2010-01-01

    Faced with work-hour restrictions, educators are mandated to improve the efficiency of resident and medical student education. Few studies have assessed learning styles in medicine; none have compared teaching and learning preferences. Validated tools exist to study these deficiencies. Kolb describes 4 learning styles: converging (practical), diverging (imaginative), assimilating (inductive), and accommodating (active). Grasha Teaching Styles are categorized into "clusters": 1 (teacher-centered, knowledge acquisition), 2 (teacher-centered, role modeling), 3 (student-centered, problem-solving), and 4 (student-centered, facilitative). Kolb's Learning Style Inventory (HayGroup, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) and Grasha-Riechmann's TSS were administered to surgical faculty (n = 61), residents (n = 96), and medical students (n = 183) at a tertiary academic medical center, after informed consent was obtained (IRB # 06-0612). Statistical analysis was performed using χ(2) and Fisher exact tests. Surgical residents preferred active learning (p = 0.053), whereas faculty preferred reflective learning (p teaching preferences, although both groups preferred student-centered, facilitative teaching, faculty preferred teacher-centered, role-modeling instruction (p = 0.02) more often. Residents had no dominant teaching style more often than surgical faculty (p = 0.01). Medical students preferred converging learning (42%) and cluster 4 teaching (35%). Statistical significance was unchanged when corrected for gender, resident training level, and subspecialization. Significant differences exist between faculty and residents in both learning and teaching preferences; this finding suggests inefficiency in resident education, as previous research suggests that learning styles parallel teaching styles. Absence of a predominant teaching style in residents suggests these individuals are learning to be teachers. The adaptation of faculty teaching methods to account for variations in resident

  17. EFFECTS OF LONG-TIME COMMUTING AND LONG-HOUR WORKING ON LIFESTYLE AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG SCHOOL TEACHERS IN TOKYO, JAPAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomoto, Marino; Hara, Akiko; Kikuchi, Kimiyo

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of long-time commuting and long-hour working on lifestyle including sleeping, physical exercise, breakfast, smoking, alcohol intake and mental health. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 146 school teachers in Tokyo. The binary associations of commuting time and working hours with lifestyle, mental stress measured by the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and stress coping measured by the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scores were examined. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analyses. Our results indicated that the mean commuting time and working hours per week of the respondents were 42.1 (SD 22.5) minutes and 50.4 (SD 8.6) hours, respectively. Longer commuting time was significantly associated with shorter working hours (p = 0.023), less physical exercise (p lifestyle for long-time com- muters or long-hour workers. Key words: stress; stress coping; general health questionnaire; sense of coherence

  18. [Relationship between Working Schedule and Sleeping Hours with Overweight and Obesity in Spanish Adult Population According to Data from the National Health Survey 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marqueta de Salas, María; Rodríguez Gómez, Lorena; Enjuto Martínez, Diego; Juárez Soto, José Juan; Martín-Ramiro, José Javier

    2017-03-01

    Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between the type of working schedule and the sleeping hours per day with obesity and overweight. Cross-sectional study of the National Health Survey in 2012. We conducted an analysis of multinomial logistic regression and estimated the rates of possible risk of obesity and overweight versus the normal weight in relation to the type of working schedule and sleeping hours. Obesity among those who worked at night was 17,50% and those who had irregular works was 17,92%. Overweight among those who performed part-time works was 40,81% and 39,17% in night works. The obesity and overweight among those who slept less than six hours a day were 24,42% and 40,99% respectively. Regression analysis logistic showed OR=1,83 (IC95% 1,15-1,75) in irregular works and OR= 1,83 (IC95% 1,59-2,11) in people who slept less than six hours. Whenever overweight and obesity are present, a positive association between irregular jobs and short patterns of rest has been found, but stadistical significance is lost when estimating the OR adjusting the confounding factors.

  19. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional ma...

  20. Self-Reported Recovery from 2-Week 12-Hour Shift Work Schedules: A 14-Day Follow-Up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkus, S.L.; Holte, K.A.; Huysmans, M.A.; van de Ven, P.M.; van Mechelen, W.; van der Beek, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recovery from fatigue is important in maintaining night workers' health. This study compared the course of self-reported recovery after 2-week 12-hour schedules consisting of either night shifts or swing shifts (i.e., 7 night shifts followed by 7 day shifts) to such schedules consisting

  1. Working memory limitations in children with severe language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daal, J.G.H.L. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van; Balkom, L.J.M. van

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, the relations of various aspects of working memory to various aspects of language problems in a clinical sample of 97 Dutch speaking 5-year-old children with severe language problems were studied. The working memory and language abilities of the children were examined using an

  2. Limited access: gender, occupational composition, and flexible work scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauber, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    The current study draws on national data to explore differences in access to flexible work scheduling by the gender composition of women's and men's occupations. Results show that those who work in integrated occupations are more likely to have access to flexible scheduling. Women and men do not take jobs with lower pay in return for greater access to flexibility. Instead, jobs with higher pay offer greater flexibility. Integrated occupations tend to offer the greatest access to flexible scheduling because of their structural locations. Part-time work is negatively associated with men's access to flexible scheduling but positively associated with women's access. Women have greater flexibility when they work for large establishments, whereas men have greater flexibility when they work for small establishments.

  3. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhan; Liu, Peiru

    2016-01-01

    Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters) over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  4. Worrying Thoughts Limit Working Memory Capacity in Math Anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    Full Text Available Sixty-one high-math-anxious persons and sixty-one low-math-anxious persons completed a modified working memory capacity task, designed to measure working memory capacity under a dysfunctional math-related context and working memory capacity under a valence-neutral context. Participants were required to perform simple tasks with emotionally benign material (i.e., lists of letters over short intervals while simultaneously reading and making judgments about sentences describing dysfunctional math-related thoughts or sentences describing emotionally-neutral facts about the world. Working memory capacity for letters under the dysfunctional math-related context, relative to working memory capacity performance under the valence-neutral context, was poorer overall in the high-math-anxious group compared with the low-math-anxious group. The findings show a particular difficulty employing working memory in math-related contexts in high-math-anxious participants. Theories that can provide reasonable interpretations for these findings and interventions that can reduce anxiety-induced worrying intrusive thoughts or improve working memory capacity for math anxiety are discussed.

  5. A survey-based cross-sectional study of doctors' expectations and experiences of non-technical skills for Out of Hours work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Shaw, Dominick; Sharples, Sarah; Jeune, Ivan Le; Blakey, John

    2015-02-16

    The skill set required for junior doctors to work efficiently and safely Out of Hours (OoH) in hospitals has not been established. This is despite the OoH period representing 75% of the year and it being the time of highest mortality. We set out to explore the expectations of medical students and experiences of junior doctors of the non-technical skills needed to work OoH. Survey-based cross-sectional study informed by focus groups. Online survey with participants from five large teaching hospitals across the UK. 300 Medical Students and Doctors Participants ranked the importance of non-technical skills, as identified by literature review and focus groups, needed for OoH care. The focus groups revealed a total of eight non-technical skills deemed to be important. In the survey 'Task Prioritisation' (mean rank 1.617) was consistently identified as the most important non-technical skill. Stage of training affected the ranking of skills, with significant differences for 'Communication with Senior Doctors', 'Dealing with Clinical Isolation', 'Task Prioritisation' and 'Communication with Patients'. Importantly, there was a significant discrepancy between the medical student expectations and experiences of doctors undertaking work. Our findings suggest that medical staff particularly value task prioritisation skills; however, these are not routinely taught in medical schools. The discrepancy between expectations of students and experience of doctors reinforces the idea that there is a gap in training. Doctors of different grades place different importance on specific non-technical skills with implications for postgraduate training. There is a pressing need for medical schools and deaneries to review non-technical training to include more than communication skills. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Possibilities and Limitations of Flexible Work Arrangements in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    reduced transportation costs, continuation of operations , while 90 percent of supervisors stated that overall productivity was increased or at least...related stressors, and non-task-related stressors as predictors of stress and job satisfaction among teleworkers. European Journal of Work and...ARRANGEMENTS IN THE MILITARY June 2016 By: Ioannis Kanlis Advisors: Ryan S. Sullivan Jesse M. Cunha Approved for public release

  7. The absence of conflict between paid-work hours and the provision of instrumental support to elderly parents among middle-aged women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E. van Putten (Anne); J.D. Vlasblom (Jan Dirk); P.A. Dykstra (Pearl); J.J. Schippers (Joop)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis study assesses the relationship between the number of work hours and the provision of instrumental support to parents among 779 middle-aged women and men in dual-worker couples in The Netherlands. Using data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study collected during 2002-04, we

  8. 45 CFR 261.31 - How many hours must a work-eligible individual participate for the family to count in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... does not have a traditional Food Stamp Program, to deem core hours, it must include the value of food... activities listed in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) The following nine activities count toward the first... public-sector employment; work experience; on-the-job training; job search and job readiness assistance...

  9. Increasing Teachers' Workloads in the Form of Quantitative Expansion in Extracurricular Activities: Aggregated Data Analysis of Past Working Hours Using a General Linear Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, teachers' increased workloads have become an issue for policy, and have been multiply pointed out, deriving as they do from peripheral duties such as paperwork, in academic research as well. However, these mentions have not been based on sufficiently solid proof. Here, this paper compares teacher working hours surveys extant from…

  10. Work environments of people with mobility impairments and limitations: Mobility Device User Work Survey (MWS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kerri A; Gottlieb, Meghan; Hollingsworth, Holly H; Gray, David B

    2014-01-01

    Few studies of employed people who use wheelchairs, canes, crutches or walkers have been reported in the literature. One reason for this paucity of research reports is that surveys are most often made of unemployed individuals with disabilities a defined broadly. Understanding the work site of successfully employed people who use mobility devices requires the development of as survey that can be used to examine the important features of worksite from employees who use mobility devices at their worksites. This article describes the development and psychometrics of a survey on currently employed people with lower limb impairments and mobility limitations who use mobility devices. The items in the Mobility Device User Work Survey (MWS) were based on interviews and survey items pilot tested on employed mobility device users. A sample of 183 employed people who use mobility devices including wheelchairs, canes, crutches or walkers was recruited using internet postings on disability-related organizations. The average age of the sample was 46.3, most were college educated, 72% used wheelchairs and the average number of years of employment was 24. The MWS was completed by 183 people who met the inclusion criteria. The survey was sent to these same people a second time and 132 of them returned the second survey. The MWS consists of 106 questions on demographic, work and worksite characteristics and 58 subjective evaluation items that were organized into five scales. The internal consistencies (Cronbach's alpha) of the five scales were moderate (0.72) to good (0.93). Stability values of the five scales were calculated using correlations between forms and ranged from 0.70 to 0.80. The evaluative scales were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis. The MWS provides a tool for studying the variables that influence employed people who use mobility devices. Future studies of unemployed people who use mobility devices may benefit from using the results of the MWS to plan

  11. Effects of working full-time and studying in the evening hours among young apprentices and trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Luz, Andréa Aparecida; da Silva, Miryam Cristina Mazieiro Vergueiro; Turte, Samantha Lemos; Lopes, Marildo de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2012-12-01

    This research aims to assess apprentices' and trainees' work conditions, psychosocial factors at work, as well as health symptoms after joining the labor force. Despite the fact that there are over 3.5 million young working students in Brazil,this increasing rate brings with it difficult working conditions such as work pressure, heavy workloads,and lack of safety training. This study was carried out in a nongovernmental organization (NGO) with 40 young members of a first job program in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. They filled out a comprehensive questionnaire focused on sociodemographic variables, working conditions,and health symptoms. Individual and collective semi-structured interviews were conducted. Empirical data analysis was performed using analysis of content. The majority of participants mentioned difficulties in dealing with the pressure and their share of responsibilities at work. Body pains, headaches, sleep deprivation during the workweek, and frequent colds were mentioned. Lack of appropriate task and safety training contributed to the occurrence of work injuries. Having a full-time job during the day coupled with evening high school attendance may jeopardize these people's health and future. This study can make a contribution to the revision and implementation of work training programs for adolescents. It can also help in the creation of more sensible policies regarding youth employment.

  12. Rural primary care in Greece: working under limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonomidou, Eirini; Anastasiou, Foteini; Dervas, Dimitris; Patri, Fani; Karaklidis, Dionisis; Moustakas, Panagiotis; Andreadou, Niki; Mantzanas, Enagellos; Merkouris, Bodossakis

    2010-08-01

    Establishing sufficient primary health-care services in rural areas is of high interest in developing health systems. The objective of the present study was to describe the state of rural health services, in terms of personnel and equipment, in rural primary care settings in Greece. A questionnaire was sent to all Greek rural settings (RS) (practices) twice during 2007. The questionnaire included questions about the number of doctors in the practice, their specialty, presence of a nurse, population served and average distance from the regional Health Center and hospital. It also included questions about the average number of consultations per day, home visits, maintenance of medical records and medical equipment. Rural primary care settings in Greece. Doctors serving primary care needs during the second half of 2007. s) None. s) Data concerning staffing, function and available equipment of the RS have been collected. Five hundred eighty-two (40.9%) of the rural practitioners replied. Twenty-nine percent of the participants were general practitioners (GPs). Doctors reported average population of responsibility of 2263 citizens and a regular average of 26 consultations per day. A nurse was present in 174 RS (29.5%). Medical records of any form were kept in only 36% of the RS. GPs were more prone to maintain patients files compared with non-specialized doctors. Essential equipment proved to be limited in the majority of the RS. Rural practices in Greece report shortages of medical staff (GPs), nursing staff and equipment.

  13. 29 CFR 5.15 - Limitations, variations, tolerances, and exemptions under the Contract Work Hours and Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Sales of surplus power by the Tennessee Valley Authority to States, counties, municipalities, cooperative organization of citizens or farmers, corporations and other individuals pursuant to section 10 of... or defective who reside on the premises if, pursuant to an agreement or understanding arrived at...

  14. Working Memory Capacity Limits Motor Learning When Implementing Multiple Instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buszard, Tim; Farrow, Damian; Verswijveren, Simone J J M; Reid, Machar; Williams, Jacqueline; Polman, Remco; Ling, Fiona Chun Man; Masters, Rich S W

    2017-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM) when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24) and higher WM capacity (n = 24) groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

  15. Working Memory Capacity Limits Motor Learning When Implementing Multiple Instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Buszard

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that certain practice conditions can place large demands on working memory (WM when performing and learning a motor skill, the influence that WM capacity has on the acquisition of motor skills remains unsubstantiated. This study examined the role of WM capacity in a motor skill practice context that promoted WM involvement through the provision of explicit instructions. A cohort of 90 children aged 8 to 10 years were assessed on measures of WM capacity and attention. Children who scored in the lowest and highest thirds on the WM tasks were allocated to lower WM capacity (n = 24 and higher WM capacity (n = 24 groups, respectively. The remaining 42 participants did not participate in the motor task. The motor task required children to practice basketball shooting for 240 trials in blocks of 20 shots, with pre- and post-tests occurring before and after the intervention. A retention test was administered 1 week after the post-test. Prior to every practice block, children were provided with five explicit instructions that were specific to the technique of shooting a basketball. Results revealed that the higher WM capacity group displayed consistent improvements from pre- to post-test and through to the retention test, while the opposite effect occurred in the lower WM capacity group. This implies that the explicit instructions had a negative influence on learning by the lower WM capacity children. Results are discussed in relation to strategy selection for dealing with instructions and the role of attention control.

  16. Modafinil, d-amphetamine and placebo during 64 hours of sustained mental work. I. Effects on mood, fatigue, cognitive performance and body temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeau; Naitoh; Buguet; McCann; Baranski; Taylor; Thompson; MacK

    1995-12-01

    Modafinil is an alerting substance that is considered safer than amphetamine with fewer side effects. Although modafinil has been used successfully to treat narcolepsy, relatively little is known about its ability to ameliorate fatigue and declines in mental performance due to sleep deprivation (SD) in a normal population. Forty-one military subjects received either 300 mg of modafinil, 20 mg of d-amphetamine, or placebo on 3 separate occasions during 64 hours of continuous cognitive work and sleep loss. Three drug treatments were given: at 23.30 hours and 05.30 hours during the first and second SD nights, respectively, and once at 15.30 hours during the third day of continuous work. Subjective estimates of mood, fatigue and sleepiness, as well as objective measures of reaction time, logical reasoning and short-term memory clearly showed better performance with both modafinil and amphetamine relative to placebo. Both modafinil and amphetamine maintained or increased body temperature compared to the natural circadian cycle observed in the placebo group. Also, from subject debriefs at the end of the study, modafinil elicited fewer side-effects than amphetamine, although more than the placebo group. Modafinil appears to be a good alternative to amphetamine for counteracting the debilitating mood and cognitive effects of sleep loss during sustained operations.

  17. Nature contact and organizational support during office working hours: Benefits relating to stress reduction, subjective health complaints, and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnstad, Siv; Patil, Grete G; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Improving social support, and providing nature contact at work are potential health promoting workplace interventions. The objective was to investigate whether nature contact at work is associated with employee's health and participation, and to study whether the possible associations between nature contact and health can be explained by perceived organizational support. Data were collected through a web-based, cross-sectional survey of employees in seven public and private office workplaces in Norway (n = 707, 40% response rate). Multiple linear and logistic regression analysis were performed on 565 participants fulfilling inclusion criteria. A greater amount of indoor nature contact at work was significantly associated with less job stress (B = -0.18, CI = -0.318 to -0.042), fewer subjective health complaints (B = -0.278, CI = -0.445 to -0.112) and less sickness absence (B = -0.061, CI = -0.009 to -0.002). Perceived organizational support mediated the associations between indoor nature contact and job stress and sickness absence, and partly mediated the association with subjective health complaints. Outdoor nature contact showed no reliable association with the outcomes in this study. Extending nature contact in the physical work environment in offices, can add to the variety of possible health-promoting workplace interventions, primarily since it influences the social climate on the workplace.

  18. Measuring emergency physicians' work: factoring in clinical hours, patients seen, and relative value units into 1 metric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silich, Bert A; Yang, James J

    2012-05-01

    Measuring workplace performance is important to emergency department management. If an unreliable model is used, the results will be inaccurate. Use of inaccurate results to make decisions, such as how to distribute the incentive pay, will lead to rewarding the wrong people and will potentially demoralize top performers. This article demonstrates a statistical model to reliably measure the work accomplished, which can then be used as a performance measurement.

  19. Relationship between Working Hours and Power of Attention, Memory, Fatigue, Depression and Self-Efficacy One Year after Diagnosis of Clinically Isolated Syndrome and Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H.; Gilhuis, H. Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G.; Brands, Augustina M.

    2014-01-01

    The role of cognitive domain dysfunction with respect to vocational changes in persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (eRRMS) is insufficiently known. We investigated thirty-three patients - 14 CIS, 19 eRRMS -, mean (standard deviation [SD]) time since diagnosis 13.5 (4.8) months and mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1.3 (1.1). Patients were assessed on the CDR System, a set of automated tests of cognitive function, which yielded scores for Power of Attention (ms), Continuity of Attention (#), Working Memory (SI), Episodic Memory (#) and Speed of Memory (ms). Work-related items and the confounding variables fatigue, depression, disease impact and self-efficacy, were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Patients had poorer Power of Attention compared to normative data (1187 [161.5] vs. 1070 [98.6]; P<0.0001) and slower Speed of Memory (4043 [830.6]) vs. 2937 [586.1]; P<0.0001). Power of Attention (Pearson r = −0.42; P<0.04), Working Memory (r = 0.42; P<0.04) and depression r = −0.41; P<0.05) correlated with number of days worked per week. Fatigue (r = −0.56; P<0.005), self-efficacy (r = 0.56; P<0.005) and disease impact (r = −0.46; P<0.05) correlated with number of hours worked per week. Persons who wished to work less had poorer Power of Attention (1247 vs. 1116 ms; P<0.02), those who wished to change job had poorer Episodic Memory (1.35 vs. 1.57; p<0.03). People who reduced working hours within 12 months after diagnosis had higher fatigue and disease impact, and lower self-efficacy. The findings of this pilot study indicate that one year after the diagnosis of CIS and RRMS Power of Attention and Speed of Memory are reduced, that Power of Attention and Memory are associated with a capability of working less hours, and that fatigue, depression and disease impact may negatively, and self-efficacy positively affect working hours. PMID:24787714

  20. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.

  1. Sleep pattern and decision making in physicians from mobile emergency care service with 12-hour work schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Eleni de Araújo Sales; de Almondes, Katie Moraes

    2017-11-03

    Shift work schedules are biological standpoint worse because compel the body to anticipate periods of wakefulness and sleep and thus eventually cause a disruption of biological rhythms. To evaluate the sleep pattern and decision making in physicians working in mobile units of emergency attention undergoing Day Shift and Rotating Shift. The study included 26 physicians. The instruments utilized were a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Chronotype Identification Questionnaire of Horne-Ostberg, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and hypothetical scenarios of decision-making created according to the Policy-Capturing Technique. For inclusion and exclusion criteria, the participants answered the Chalder Fatigue Scale, the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Inventory of Stress Symptoms for adults of Lipp (ISSL). It was found good sleep quality for physicians on Day Shift schedule and bad sleep quality for physicians on Rotating Shift schedule. The IGT measure showed no impairment in decision-making, but the hypothetical scenarios revealed impairment decision-making during the Shift for both schedules. Good sleep quality was related to a better performance in decision-making. Good sleep quality seems to influence a better performance in decision-making.

  2. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L.; Ward, Nathan; Geyer, Alexandra; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer), many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and “Mind Frontiers,” a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf) tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control). After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool. PMID:26555341

  3. Working Memory, Reasoning, and Task Switching Training: Transfer Effects, Limitations, and Great Expectations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L Baniqued

    Full Text Available Although some studies have shown that cognitive training can produce improvements to untrained cognitive domains (far transfer, many others fail to show these effects, especially when it comes to improving fluid intelligence. The current study was designed to overcome several limitations of previous training studies by incorporating training expectancy assessments, an active control group, and "Mind Frontiers," a video game-based mobile program comprised of six adaptive, cognitively demanding training tasks that have been found to lead to increased scores in fluid intelligence (Gf tests. We hypothesize that such integrated training may lead to broad improvements in cognitive abilities by targeting aspects of working memory, executive function, reasoning, and problem solving. Ninety participants completed 20 hour-and-a-half long training sessions over four to five weeks, 45 of whom played Mind Frontiers and 45 of whom completed visual search and change detection tasks (active control. After training, the Mind Frontiers group improved in working memory n-back tests, a composite measure of perceptual speed, and a composite measure of reaction time in reasoning tests. No training-related improvements were found in reasoning accuracy or other working memory tests, nor in composite measures of episodic memory, selective attention, divided attention, and multi-tasking. Perceived self-improvement in the tested abilities did not differ between groups. A general expectancy difference in problem-solving was observed between groups, but this perceived benefit did not correlate with training-related improvement. In summary, although these findings provide modest evidence regarding the efficacy of an integrated cognitive training program, more research is needed to determine the utility of Mind Frontiers as a cognitive training tool.

  4. Cognitive Limitations at Work Among Employed Breast Cancer Survivors in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yingchun; Cheng, Andy S K; Feuerstein, Michael

    This study aimed to determine whether levels of distress (anxiety and depression) and cognitive symptoms at work are related to work productivity and quality of life (QOL) in Chinese breast cancer survivors (BCS), compared to a group of Chinese women without cancer but with different musculoskeletal pain related to work. This study used a cross-sectional study design. Working BCS were recruited in a tumor hospital's outpatient department, and women with no history of cancer (noncancer comparison [NCC] group) were recruited from a rehabilitation center. A total of 412 participants were included. Multiple regression analyses indicated that higher anxiety was associated with work limitations (B = .005, p = .014) and QOL (B = 2.417, p = .004) in the BCS group only. Cognitive limitations at work were associated with work limitations (B = .002, p = .001) and QOL (B = 1.022, p = .003) in the BCS group only. Depressive symptoms (B = .028, p = .017) were significantly associated with work limitations in the NCC group. Breast cancer survivors reported higher levels of cognitive limitations at work and anxiety, lower levels of work productivity, and QOL. When remaining at work is a viable option for the cancer survivor with cognitive limitations at work, the rehabilitation nurse should consider approaches to best accommodate the specific cognitive limitations and work tasks, as well as help the patient manage associated anxiety when present.

  5. Relationship between working hours and power of attention, memory, fatigue, depression and self-efficacy one year after diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Peter Joseph; Wesnes, Keith; van Geel, Björn; Pop, Paul; Sanders, Evert; Schrijver, Hans; Visser, Leo H; Gilhuis, H Jacobus; Sinnige, Ludovicus G; Brands, Augustina M

    2014-01-01

    The role of cognitive domain dysfunction with respect to vocational changes in persons with Clinically Isolated Syndrome (CIS) and early Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis (eRRMS) is insufficiently known. We investigated thirty-three patients--14 CIS, 19 eRRMS -, mean (standard deviation [SD]) time since diagnosis 13.5 (4.8) months and mean (SD) Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1.3 (1.1). Patients were assessed on the CDR System, a set of automated tests of cognitive function, which yielded scores for Power of Attention (ms), Continuity of Attention (#), Working Memory (SI), Episodic Memory (#) and Speed of Memory (ms). Work-related items and the confounding variables fatigue, depression, disease impact and self-efficacy, were assessed by self-report questionnaires. Patients had poorer Power of Attention compared to normative data (1187 [161.5] vs. 1070 [98.6]; PMemory (4043 [830.6]) vs. 2937 [586.1]; PAttention (Pearson r =  -0.42; PWorking Memory (r = 0.42; Pworked per week. Fatigue (r =  -0.56; Pworked per week. Persons who wished to work less had poorer Power of Attention (1247 vs. 1116 ms; PMemory (1.35 vs. 1.57; pworking hours within 12 months after diagnosis had higher fatigue and disease impact, and lower self-efficacy. The findings of this pilot study indicate that one year after the diagnosis of CIS and RRMS Power of Attention and Speed of Memory are reduced, that Power of Attention and Memory are associated with a capability of working less hours, and that fatigue, depression and disease impact may negatively, and self-efficacy positively affect working hours.

  6. Work limitations and their relationship to morbidity burden among academic health center employees with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvia, Martha L; Weiner, Jonathan P; Nolan, Marie T; Han, Hae-Ra; Brancati, Fred; White, Kathleen

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of work limitations and their relationship to morbidity burden among academic health center employees with diabetes. Employees with diabetes were surveyed via Internet and mail using the Work Limitations Questionnaire. Morbidity burden was measured using the Adjusted Clinical Groups methodology. Seventy-two percent of the employees with diabetes had a work limitation. Adjusted odds ratios for overall, physical, time, and output limitations were 1.81, 2.27, 2.13, and 2.14, respectively. Morbidity burden level is an indicator of work limitations in employees with diabetes and can be used to identify employees who may benefit from specialized services aimed at addressing their work limitations associated with diabetes. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Parental Limit Setting as a Moderator of Adolescent Paid Work and Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly A. Cheeseman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Highlighted within this paper is an examination of whether parental limit setting moderates the relationship between paid work and alcohol use during adolescence. The sample included 1,001 10th and 11th grade students from public high schools in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States surveyed in the spring of 2007. Results indicated that parental limit setting significantly moderated the relationships between paid work and frequency of alcohol use for girls and paid work and quantity of alcohol consumption for girls and boys. In general, adolescents who spent less time working and had more parental limits drank the least, whereas adolescents who spent more time working and had less parental limits drank the most. Findings from this study suggest that parental limit setting may protect working adolescents from substance use involvement.

  8. Insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder in nurses having less than 11 hours in-between shifts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fagerbakke Eldevik

    Full Text Available STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess if less than 11 hours off work between work shifts (quick returns was related to insomnia, sleepiness, fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder among nurses. METHODS: A questionnaire including established instruments measuring insomnia (Bergen Insomnia Scale, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fatigue (Fatigue Questionnaire, anxiety/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and shift work disorder was administered. Among the 1990 Norwegian nurses who participated in the study; 264 nurses had no quick returns, 724 had 1-30 quick returns and 892 had more than 30 quick returns during the past year. 110 nurses did not report the number of quick returns during the past year. The prevalence of insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue, anxiety, depression and shift work disorder was calculated within the three groups of nurses. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between quick returns and such complaints. RESULTS: We found a significant positive association between quick returns and insomnia, excessive sleepiness, excessive fatigue and shift work disorder. Anxiety and depression were not related to working quick returns. CONCLUSIONS: There is a health hazard associated with quick returns. Further research should aim to investigate if workplace strategies aimed at reducing the number of quick returns may reduce complaints among workers.

  9. Successful Aging in the Context of the Disablement Process: Working and Volunteering as Moderators on the Association Between Chronic Conditions and Subsequent Functional Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kail, Ben Lennox; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-03-01

    This study evaluated the successful aging model by assessing the impact of two forms of productive engagement-working and volunteering-as potential interventions in the process of disablement. The Health and Retirement Study was used to (a) estimate two-stage selection equations of (i) currently working part time and full time and (ii) currently volunteering less than 100 hours and volunteering 100 hours or more per year (net of chronic health problems) and (b) assess whether, net of selection, working, and volunteering moderate the association between chronic conditions and subsequent functional limitations. Chronic conditions were associated with elevated levels of subsequent functional limitations, whereas both working and volunteering were associated with lower levels of subsequent functional limitations. Moreover, workers and volunteers of less than 100 hours per year experienced a reduction in the association of chronic conditions on subsequent functional limitations. This research highlights the role of productive engagement as a key element in successful aging. Not only do work and volunteering have direct associations with health outcomes themselves, but they also act as potential interventions in the process of disablement by attenuating the way in which chronic conditions are translated into subsequent functional limitations. This suggests that (a) future research should apply successful aging models to health processes as well as health outcomes and (b) policy makers should support social institutions that foster late-life productive engagement.

  10. Living hours under pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilsøe, Anna; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Felbo-Kolding, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants – and their agreem......Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of part-time work on absolute wages. The empirical focus is wages and working hours in three selected sectors within private services in the Danish labour market – industrial cleaning, retail, hotels and restaurants...... in industrial cleaning includes a minimum floor of 15 weekly working hours – this is not the case in retail, hotels and restaurants. This creates a loophole in the latter two sectors that can be exploited by employers to gain wage flexibility through part-time work. Originality/value The living wage literature...

  11. 10 CFR 51.76 - Draft environmental impact statement-limited work authorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Draft environmental impact statement-limited work...-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Draft Environmental Impact Statements-Production and Utilization Facilities § 51.76 Draft environmental impact statement—limited work authorization. The NRC will prepare a...

  12. The Development of Early Numeracy Ability in Kindergartners with Limited Working Memory Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Sylke W. M.; Van Luit, Johannes E. H.

    2013-01-01

    Research has proven limited working memory skills to be a high risk factor for educational underachievement in mathematics across the primary school years. Less is known, however, about the performance of children with limited working memory skills in early numeracy tasks. The main purpose of the two studies reported in this article is to explore…

  13. Psychosocial factors at work and the development of mobility limitations among adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Darsø, Lilie; Manty, Minna

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Psychosocial factors in the working environment have been shown to be associated with mobility limitations, but this has not yet been confirmed in a Danish population. We aimed to examine how psychosocial factors at work are related to developing mobility limitations in Denmark. Methods......: This study is based on data from 2952 middle-aged men and women without mobility limitations in 2000. Results: We found increased risk of incident mobility limitations during 6-year follow up among men who often perceived high work pace (OR 5.45, 95% CI 1.21-24.52) vs. never, who only sometimes or...

  14. A Finite Element Procedure for Interference - Fit and Cold - Working Problems with Limited Yielding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation Australian Airlines, Library Qantas Airways Limited Ansett Airlines of Australia, Library...AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES Structures Report 425 A FINITE ELEMENT PROCEDURE FOR INTERFERENCE - FIT AND COLD - WORKING PROBLEMS WITH LIMITED ...changing loading. An 18 degree sector angle was dictated by a shape limitation for the innermost pin element whilst the division into generally four

  15. Work Environment Dialogue in a Swedish Municipality — Strengths and Limits of the Nordic Work Environment Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Frick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Nordic work environment model, health risks at work are mainly to be managed in cooperation with the employees and their representatives. The model is based on strong trade unions and is supported by the state through participatory rights and funding to produce and disseminate knowledge on risks and solutions. The model is evident in the large Swedish municipal sector with its strong unions and extensive social dialogue. However, municipal employees also face widespread risks, mainly from mental and physical overload. They led the costly wave of rising sickness absence from the late 1990s. Municipal (and other employers therefore attempt to reduce the absence. The rural municipality of Leksand started a project Hälsosam with the broad objectives to half the absence, implement a national agreement on better dialogue, make Leksand an attractive employer, and improve employee influence and work environment. The article’s objective is to use Hälsosam’s intervention project to explore the limits of what the Nordic work environment model can achieve against risks rooted in the employers’ prerogative of organizing, resourcing, and managing the operations that create the conditions at work. Hälsosam’s practice focused on sickness absence and the forms of the new national agreement. The absence was halved by reducing cases of long-term sickness. There was also workplace health promotion and the safety reps were supported through regular meetings. However, little was done to the extensive mental and physical overload revealed in a survey. Nor was the mandatory work environment management improved, as was ordered by the municipal council. This remained delegated to first-line managers who had a limited ability to handle work risks. This limited practice implemented Leksand’s political priority to reduce the absenteeism, while other objectives had less political support. The difficulties to improve the work environment and its management

  16. Sex Inequalities in Physical and Mental Functioning of British, Finnish, and Japanese Civil Servants: Role of Job Demand, Control and Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Michikazu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Chandola, Tarani; Cable, Noriko; Marmot, Michael; Martikainen, Pekka; Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero

    2011-01-01

    In general, women report more physical and mental symptoms than men. International comparisons of countries with different welfare state regimes may provide further understanding of the social determinants of sex inequalities in health. This study aims to evaluate (1) whether there are sex inequalities in health functioning as measured by the Short Form 36 (SF-36), and (2) whether work characteristics contribute to the sex inequalities in health among employees from Britain, Finland, and Japan, representing liberal, social democratic, and conservative welfare state regimes, respectively. The participants were 7340 (5122 men and 2218 women) British employees, 2297 (1638 men and 659 women) Japanese employees, and 8164 (1649 men and 6515 women) Finnish employees. All the participants were civil servants aged 40-60 years. We found that more women than men tended to have disadvantaged work characteristics (i.e. low employment grade, low job control, high job demands, and long work hours) but such sex differences were relatively smaller among employees from Finland, where more gender equal policies exist than Britain and Japan. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) of women for poor physical functioning was the largest for British women (OR=2.08), followed by for Japanese women (OR=1.72), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.51). The age-adjusted OR of women for poor mental functioning was the largest for Japanese women (OR=1.91), followed by for British women (OR=1.45), and then for Finnish women (OR=1.07). Thus, sex differences in physical and mental health was the smallest in the Finnish population. The larger the sex differences in work characteristics, the larger the sex differences in health and the reduction in the sex differences in health after adjustment for work characteristics. These results suggest that egalitarian and gender equal policies may contribute to smaller sex differences in health, through smaller differences in disadvantaged work characteristics between

  17. When visual and verbal memories compete: evidence of cross-domain limits in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Candice C; Cowan, Nelson

    2004-04-01

    Recently, investigators have suggested that visual working memory operates in a manner unaffected by the retention of verbal material. We question that conclusion on the basis of a simple dual-task experiment designed to rule out phonological memory and to identify a more central faculty as the source of a shared limitation. With a visual working memory task in which two arrays of color squares were to be compared, performance was unaffected by concurrent recitation of a two-digit list or a known seven-digit sequence. However, visual working memory performance decreased markedly when paired with a load of seven random digits. This was not a simple tradeoff, inasmuch as errors on the visual array and high digit load tasks tended to co-occur. Working memory for digits and visual information thus are both subject to at least one type of shared limit, not just domain-specific limitations. The nature of the shared limit is discussed.

  18. Burnout syndrome among psychiatric trainees in 22 countries: Risk increased by long working hours, lack of supervision, and psychiatry not being first career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, N; Podlesek, A; Volpe, U; Barrett, E; Ferrari, S; Rojnic Kuzman, M; Wuyts, P; Papp, S; Nawka, A; Vaida, A; Moscoso, A; Andlauer, O; Tateno, M; Lydall, G; Wong, V; Rujevic, J; Platz Clausen, N; Psaras, R; Delic, A; Losevich, M A; Flegar, S; Crépin, P; Shmunk, E; Kuvshinov, I; Loibl-Weiß, E; Beezhold, J

    2016-02-01

    Postgraduate medical trainees experience high rates of burnout, but evidence regarding psychiatric trainees is missing. We aim to determine burnout rates among psychiatric trainees, and identify individual, educational and work-related factors associated with severe burnout. In an online survey psychiatric trainees from 22 countries were asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) and provide information on individual, educational and work-related parameters. Linear mixed models were used to predict the MBI-GS scores, and a generalized linear mixed model to predict severe burnout. This is the largest study on burnout and training conditions among psychiatric trainees to date. Complete data were obtained from 1980 out of 7625 approached trainees (26%; range 17.8-65.6%). Participants were 31.9 (SD 5.3) years old with 2.8 (SD 1.9) years of training. Severe burnout was found in 726 (36.7%) trainees. The risk was higher for trainees who were younger (Pburnout, severe burnout remained associated with long working hours (Pburnout. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Comparison of Two Methods for Estimation of Work Limitation Scores from Health Status Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anatchkova, M; Fang, H; Kini, N

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare two methods for estimation of Work Limitations Questionnaire scores (WLQ, 8 items) from the Role Physical (RP, 4 items) and Role Emotional scales (RE, 3 items) of the SF-36 Health survey. These measures assess limitations in role performance attributed to health (emotional...

  20. Work Limits in Imperfect Sequential Systems with Heat and Fluid Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieniutycz, S.; Szwast, Z.

    2003-05-01

    This paper analyses physical limits of multistage production or consumption of mechanical energy (work) in sequential heat-mechanical operations characterized by finite rates. The benchmark system, where these limits are evaluated, is a cascade of imperfect stages through which a resource fluid flows with a finite rate. Each stage consists of a fluid at flow, an imperfect work generator or consumer and the environment. The problem investigated is that of limiting yield or consumption of work by the fluid that interacts sequentially with the environment in a finite time. A discrete, finite-rate model subsumes irreducible losses of work potential caused by thermal resistances. Dynamic limits on work are obtained which bound one-stage or multistage energy convertors with production or consumption of power. These limits are expressed in terms of classical exergy and a residual minimum of entropy generation. A discrete generalization of classical exergy is found for systems with finite number of imperfect stages and finite holdup times. For this generalized exergy a hysteretic property is valid, meaning a difference between the maximum work delivered from engine mode and the minimum work added to the corresponding heatpump mode of the system.

  1. Rush Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    5 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a cratered plain west of Schiaparelli Crater, Mars. The area captured in this image, and areas adjacent to it, are known for high dust devil traffic and the day this image was acquired in March 2006 was no exception. Near the top of the image, diagonally from the large impact crater cut by the left (west) edge of the image, there is a large dust devil traversing the plain and casting a shadow to the east. Also, near the bottom of the image, a smaller dust devil, is working its way across the plain. Location near: 5.9oS, 349.2oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  2. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews studies of administrator work activities which follow the work of Henry Mintzberg (1973), concentrating on these shortcomings of the method: (1) procedural difficulties in coding; (2) design limitations of classifying activities; (3) inadequate testing of Mintzberg's hypotheses; and (4) failure to explore antecedents…

  3. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jaymen L; Lal, Sara

    2016-01-29

    Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP) regulation. This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males) of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects' BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Poor sleep quality (PSQI) and fatigue severity (FSS) were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively). Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers' systolic blood pressure (SBP) was found to increase significantly across the shift (p shift SBP (r = -0.26, p = 0.001; r = -0.25, p = 0.001, respectively) and DBP (r = -0.26, p = 0.001; r = -0.26, p = 0.001, respectively) were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies must be implemented to manage the detrimental effects shift work may be having upon their cardiovascular and sleep health.

  4. Strategies used by breast cancer survivors to address work-related limitations during and after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Joanne C; Strom, Carla; Arcury, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this exploratory study was to delineate the broad range of adjustments women breast cancer survivors draw upon to minimize cancer-related limitations at the workplace. The study also analyzed whether survivors used strategies to address work-related limitations in isolation or in combination with other strategies, and whether they used formal or informal strategies. Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 women who were employed at the time of diagnosis of breast cancer and who continued to work during treatment or returned to work. Interviews were conducted 3 to 24 months after diagnosis. An iterative process was used to systematically analyze the data (the transcripts) using qualitative methods. Participants who worked during or after treatment adjusted their work schedule, performed fewer or other tasks, modified or changed their work environment, reduced non-work activities at the workplace, used cognitive prompts, and acted preemptively to make work tasks manageable after their return to work. Survivors used multiple adjustments and drew upon both formal and informal tactics to minimize or prevent cancer- or treatment-related effects from negatively affecting job performance. Knowledge about the broad range of both formal and informal strategies identified in this study may enable health care and social services providers, as well as cancer survivors and employers, to identify a wide range of specific strategies that may reduce the negative effects of work-related limitations in specific work settings. Insights gained from this analysis should inform future research on work and cancer survivorship. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A survey-based cross-sectional study of doctors’ expectations and experiences of non-technical skills for Out of Hours work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael; Shaw, Dominick; Sharples, Sarah; Jeune, Ivan Le; Blakey, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The skill set required for junior doctors to work efficiently and safely Out of Hours (OoH) in hospitals has not been established. This is despite the OoH period representing 75% of the year and it being the time of highest mortality. We set out to explore the expectations of medical students and experiences of junior doctors of the non-technical skills needed to work OoH. Design Survey-based cross-sectional study informed by focus groups. Setting Online survey with participants from five large teaching hospitals across the UK. Participants 300 Medical Students and Doctors Outcome measure Participants ranked the importance of non-technical skills, as identified by literature review and focus groups, needed for OoH care. Results The focus groups revealed a total of eight non-technical skills deemed to be important. In the survey ‘Task Prioritisation’ (mean rank 1.617) was consistently identified as the most important non-technical skill. Stage of training affected the ranking of skills, with significant differences for ‘Communication with Senior Doctors’, ‘Dealing with Clinical Isolation’, ‘Task Prioritisation’ and ‘Communication with Patients’. Importantly, there was a significant discrepancy between the medical student expectations and experiences of doctors undertaking work. Conclusions Our findings suggest that medical staff particularly value task prioritisation skills; however, these are not routinely taught in medical schools. The discrepancy between expectations of students and experience of doctors reinforces the idea that there is a gap in training. Doctors of different grades place different importance on specific non-technical skills with implications for postgraduate training. There is a pressing need for medical schools and deaneries to review non-technical training to include more than communication skills. PMID:25687899

  6. Administrative circulars No. 22A (rev. 1) – Award of additional periods of membership in the Pensions Fund for long-term shift work and No. 22B (rev. 1) – Compensation for long-term shift work hours

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Administrative Circulars No. 22A (Rev. 1) entitled "Award of additional periods of membership in the Pension Fund for long-term shift work" and No. 22B (Rev.1) entitled “Compensation for long-term shift work hours”, adopted following discussion in the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 21 September 2010 and entering into force on 1 March 2011, are available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department: http://cern.ch/hr-docs/admincirc/admincirc.asp They cancel and replace Administrative Circulars No. 22A and 22B entitled "Award of additional periods of membership in the Pension Fund to shift workers (Early Departure)” and “Duration and special compensation for shift work” of January 2000. This new version clarifies, in particular, the compensation of effective long-term shift work hours. Department Head Office  

  7. National survey of the association of depressive symptoms with the number of off duty and on-call, and sleep hours among physicians working in Japanese hospitals: a cross sectional study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wada, Koji; Yoshikawa, Toru; Goto, Takahisa; Hirai, Aizan; Matsushima, Eisuke; Nakashima, Yoshifumi; Akaho, Rie; Kido, Michiko; Hosaka, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    .... The aim of this study was to determine the associations of depressive symptoms with taking days of off duty, hours of sleep, and the number of days of on-call and overnight work among physicians...

  8. Work limitations, workplace concerns, and job satisfaction of persons with chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Andrew M H; Hung, Anchor; Lam, Ada Y L; Cheng, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the workplace experiences of people with chronic diseases, including their work limitations, emotional health, concerns about discrimination, and support from colleagues and employer. This study identifies the factors that contribute to work adjustment (job tenure and job satisfaction). A purposive sample of 136 persons aged 18 to 60 with chronic diseases who had been employed in the past 6 months completed a survey about their workplace experience. The questionnaire included several standardized instruments: the Perceived Health and Self-efficacy in Managing Chronic Disease Scale, Work Limitations Questionnaire, Overall Job Satisfaction Scale, and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21. The researchers also designed original items to measure concerns about discriminatory practices, workplace support, and self-stigma. Persons with chronic diseases were fairly satisfied with their jobs and had extended stays in those jobs. They reported a minor productivity loss and physical limitations. Most participants let co-workers, employers, and supervisors know they had chronic disease, but they were concerned about the support those people provide. Participants were more likely to be highly satisfied with their jobs if they had high self-efficacy in managing their disease, perceived more workplace support, and had less work limitations (especially output demands). Job tenure is associated age, education, and monthly income, but not clinical indicators. Persons with chronic disease who were able to maintain good work adjustment tended to be "fit" with few work limitations and little emotional distress. The key factors affecting work adjustment were efficacy in managing their disease, workplace support, and output demands.

  9. Attempting to be active: Self-efficacy and barrier limitation differentiate activity levels of working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierc, Madelaine; Locke, Sean; Jung, Mary; Brawley, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Working mothers are less physically active than working women without children and mothers who do not work. The purpose of this study was to examine concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and barriers to physical activity in a sample of working mothers. Women completed a mixed-methods survey which included measures of physical activity, concurrent self-regulatory efficacy, and barriers. Sufficiently active women experienced significantly greater concurrent self-regulatory efficacy and significantly less barrier limitation and frequency. No significant group differences were found for age, domestic duties performed, and children's extracurricular activities. Thematic analysis of barriers revealed six themes of common and unique factors, including limited time and family activities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Time to talk about work-hour impact on anesthesiologists: The effects of sleep deprivation on Profile of Mood States and cognitive tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Haleh; Bissonnette, Bruno; Tumin, Dmitry; Thung, Arlyne; Rice, Julie; Barry, N'Diris; Tobias, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    A physician's fatigue raises significant concerns regarding personal and patient safety. Effects of sleep deprivation on clinical performance and the quality of patient care are major considerations of today's health care environment. To evaluate the impact of partial sleep deprivation after a 17-h overnight call (3 pm-7 am) on the mood status and cognitive skills of anesthesiologists in an academic clinical hospital setting, as compared to these parameters during regular working hours. Taking circadian rhythm into account, the following measures were assessed in 21 pediatric anesthesiologists at two time points over the course of the study; (i) between 7 and 8 am on a regular non call day, and (ii) between 7 and 8 am after a 17-h in-house call (3 pm-7 am). Six mood states were assessed using the Profile of Mood States. A Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) score was obtained as the sum of all mood scores minus vigor. The total score provides a global estimate of affective state. Simple cognitive tests were similarly administered to assess cognitive skills. A two-tailed paired t-test was used to compare data between regular and post call days. A P sleep deprivation affects the total mood status of anesthesiologists and impacts their cognitive skills. These findings are particularly relevant in a context of increased work expectation, particularly on clinical performance in our modern medical system. Such observations suggest that there may be changes that impact the safety of our patients and the quality of health care that is provided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Blood Pressure, Sleep Quality and Fatigue in Shift Working Police Officers: Effects of a Twelve Hour Roster System on Cardiovascular and Sleep Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaymen L. Elliott

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Police officers have been reported to exhibit a high incidence of pathologies, which present prematurely in an otherwise healthy population. Shift work has also been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular and sleep disorders, attributable to its propensity for circadian rhythm dysfunction. However, contention exists as to whether shift work has a direct effect upon blood pressure (BP regulation. Methods: This cross-sectional study sought to determine changes in BP and associations with the overall sleep quality and fatigue in 206 general duties police officers (n = 140 males of the New South Wales Police Force in Australia. The subjects’ BP was assessed before and after their twelve hour shift, during which time they also completed the Lifestyle Appraisal Questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS. Results: Poor sleep quality (PSQI and fatigue severity (FSS were found to predominate in the sample (69% and 51% respectively. Although there was no change in BP for male participants, female officers’ systolic blood pressure (SBP was found to increase significantly across the shift (p < 0.001, but with no change found in females’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP. Finally, higher pre and post-shift SBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.25, p = 0.001, respectively and DBP (r = −0.26, p = 0.001; r = −0.26, p = 0.001, respectively were significantly correlated with lower FSS scores after accounting for age, waist-hip ratio and lifestyle risk factors. Conclusions: Based on these preliminary findings, there was a significant increase in SBP of female police officers after shift work, while BP and fatigue levels in all police officers were strongly related. Moreover, the predominating poor sleep quality and impact of fatigue in this sample remain a concern. Further research is required to ensure the physiological welfare of police officers, while strategies

  12. A Day in the Life of Millisecond Pulsar J1713+0747: Limits on Timing Precision Over 24 Hours and Implications for Gravitational Wave Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Timothy; Bailes, M.; Bassa, C.; Bhat, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Champion, D.; Chatterjee, S.; Cognard, I.; Cordes, J. M.; Crowter, K.; Demorest, P.; Finn, L. S.; Fonseca, E.; Hessels, J.; Hobbs, G.; Janssen, G.; Jones, G.; Jordan, C.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M.; Kramer, M.; Kraus, A.; Lam, M. T.; Lazarus, P.; Lazio, J.; Lee, K.; Levin, L.; Liu, K.; Lorimer, D.; Manchester, R. N.; McLaughlin, M.; Palliyaguru, N.; Perrodin, D.; Petroff, E.; Rajwade, K.; Rankin, J. M.; Ransom, S. M.; Rosenblum, J.; Roy, J.; Shannon, R.; Stappers, B.; Stinebring, D.; Stovall, K.; Teixeira, M.; van Leeuwen, J.; van Straten, W.; Verbiest, J.; Zhu, W.

    2014-01-01

    A 24-hour global observation of millisecond radio pulsar J1713+0747 was undertaken by the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA) collaboration as an effort to better quantify sources of noise in this object, which is regularly timed for the purpose of detecting gravitational waves (GWs). Given an 8-year timing RMS of 30ns, it is regarded as one of the best precision clocks in the PTA. However, sources of timing noise visible on timescales longer than the usual 20-30min biweekly observation may nonetheless be present. Data from the campaign were taken contiguously with the Parkes, Arecibo, Green Bank, GMRT, LOFAR, Effelsberg, WSRT, Lovell, and Nancay radio telescopes. The combined pulse times-of-arrival provide an estimate of the absolute noise floor, in other words, what unaccounted sources of timing noise impede an otherwise simple sqrt(N) improvement in timing precision, where N is the number of pulses in a single observing session. We present first results of specific phenomena probed on the unusual timescale of tens of hours, in particular interstellar scattering (ISS), and discuss the degree to which ISS affects precision timing. Finally, we examine single pulse information during selected portions of the observation and determine the degree to which the pulse jitter of J1713+0747 varies throughout the course of the day-long dataset.

  13. The workings and limits of subliminal advertising: The role of habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwijmeren, T.; Karremans, J.C.T.M.; Stroebe, W.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite years of controversy, recent research demonstrated that, if goal-relevant, subliminal advertising can be feasible. To further elucidate the workings and limits of subliminal advertising, the present study examined the role of habits. Participants chose between two brands, one of which was

  14. Brief self-report measure of work-related cognitive limitations in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottati, Alicia; Feuerstein, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop a brief, reliable self-report measure of work-related cognitive limitations in occupationally active breast cancer survivors. A pooled dataset of working breast cancer survivors (n = 228) completed a self-report measure of work-related cognitive limitations, the Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work-59 (CSC-W59). A cross-validation technique was employed such that the pooled participants were randomized into two separate groups in order to conduct exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the CSC-W59 with one group (n = 114) and confirm the results with the second group (n = 114). EFA of the CSC-W59 identified 21 items with a consistent factor loading of .4 or higher on three separate subscales (Working Memory, Executive Function, and Task Completion). These findings resulted in a 21-item, self-report measure referred to as the Cognitive Symptom Checklist-Work-21 (CSC-W21). The CSC-W21 demonstrated internal reliability (α = .88). Construct validity of the CSC-W21 is supported by significant positive correlations with cancer stage, job stress, and affective state. Brief, valid, internally reliable self-report measures such as the CSC-W21 may be used to quickly assess work-related cognitive problems for breast cancer survivors at work. A brief measure is available to help identify tasks that present problems for breast cancer survivors who are at work. This measure can be used to facilitate research to improve the understanding and mitigation of cognitive challenges in breast cancer survivors in the work setting.

  15. Interviews with employed people with mobility impairments and limitations: environmental supports impacting work acquisition and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsey C; Gottlieb, Meghan; Morgan, Kerri A; Gray, David B

    2014-01-01

    Less than 40% of people with disabilities work. Many studies have detailed the barriers to employment but few have examined the work experiences of those who are employed. A description of work conditions valued by a specific segment of employed people with disabilities is provided. Videotaped interviews of 33 successfully employed people with mobility impairments and limitations (PWMIL) were transcribed and analyzed to gather their perspectives on their work social and physical environments. Finding work was facilitated by family, friends and other social networks, vocational services, and prior education. Doing volunteer work, spending time at a paid and unpaid internship, and part-time work experiences were important aspects of job acquisition. Exterior and interior physical features were or had been made accessible. Expensive assistive technologies were paid for by the employee and their health insurance. Almost all personal assistance was provided by family, friends and co-workers. Work satisfaction included having a supportive employer, supportive co-workers, and flexible worksite policies. The interviews of employed PWMIL provide prospective employers and employees information on important social and physical work features that are needed to improve the possibilities for hiring people with disabilities and facilitating their successful careers.

  16. The impact of nurse working hours on patient safety culture: a cross-national survey including Japan, the United States and Chinese Taiwan using the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yinghui; Fujita, Shigeru; Seto, Kanako; Ito, Shinya; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Huang, Chiu-Chin; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2013-10-07

    A positive patient safety culture (PSC) is one of the most critical components to improve healthcare quality and safety. The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), developed by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, has been used to assess PSC in 31 countries. However, little is known about the impact of nurse working hours on PSC. We hypothesized that long nurse working hours would deteriorate PSC, and that the deterioration patterns would vary between countries. Moreover, the common trends observed in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan may be useful to improve PSC in other countries. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impact of long nurse working hours on PSC in Japan, the US, and Chinese Taiwan using HSOPS. The HSOPS questionnaire measures 12 sub-dimensions of PSC, with higher scores indicating a more positive PSC. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a generalized linear mixed model to evaluate the impact of working hours on PSC outcome measures (patient safety grade and number of events reported). Tukey's test and Cohen's d values were used to verify the relationships between nurse working hours and the 12 sub-dimensions of PSC. Nurses working ≥60 h/week in Japan and the US had a significantly lower OR for patient safety grade than those working teamwork within units' was significantly lower in the ≥60-h group than in the teamwork within units' in Japan, the US and Chinese Taiwan.

  17. Limitations of workers diagnosed with cancer evaluated with Work Role Functioning Questionnaire-Br.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, Cristiane H; Alexandre, Neusa Mc; Esteves, Sergio Cb; Gomes, Helena F; da Rocha, Elaine Cl; Baptista, Patricia Cp

    2017-01-01

    The main subject of the current study is to look into the limitations found in individuals diagnosed with cancer, considered a public health problem, especially in developing countries where the impact of this disease is expected to account for 80% of 20 million new cases estimated worldwide by 2025. For some patients undergoing treatment, continuing to be professionally active is challenging especially considering that work fosters a purpose in life, a sense of contribution, distraction, and self-esteem, which aids in physical, cognitive, emotional, and interpersonal recovery. Within this context, the aim is to describe the limitations found in individuals with cancer, who have maintained their work activities in private service during radiotherapy treatment, through a descriptive study and a quantitative approach. The final sample of 51 participants was defined by non-probability convenience sampling, based on information from all patients admitted in that period, with a research protocol approved by the Research Ethics Committee. The assessment using the Brazilian version of the Work Role Functioning Questionnaire showed higher average work functioning indexes for social demand, with an average score of 94.33 (11.47). In turn, the worst indexes were registered in physical demand. No significant differences were observed between groups of treatment protocols in terms of WRFQ-Br scores. The work functioning assessment of workers diagnosed with cancer in radiotherapy using the WRFQ-Br showed higher scores for social demands and lower for physical demands. The preserved social performance may be linked to individual work functioning within the family, at work and, consequently, within society, given that the study included patients who maintained their work activities during the proposed treatment period, highlighting the social role of work for patients with cancer.

  18. Working memory limitation as a source of confusion in the abstract THOG task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, T; Czech, T

    2001-11-01

    Limitations of working memory are proposed as a major determinant of problem difficulty in the THOG task. This task is a logical reasoning task which uses an exclusive disjunction and requires hypothetico-deductive reasoning. Four experiments with students of mathematics or psychology were used to test the hypotheses that, first, guiding participants' attention facilitates the task and, second, the use of paper and pencil as external problem representation reliefs working memory load. Focusing participants' attention upon a critical aspect of the task does not improve solution rates. Students of mathematics were better than students of psychology, but only if they were allowed to use paper and pencil or to work on the task repeatedly. These results partially support the working memory hypothesis. They point toward the importance of training and practice in relatively simple meta-cognitive skills in logical reasoning.

  19. Cost-effectiveness of 40-hour versus 100-hour vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemster, Timo T; van Velzen, Judith M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-07-28

    Although vocational rehabilitation is a widely advocated intervention for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, the optimal dosage of effective and cost-effective vocational rehabilitation remains unknown. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a non-inferiority trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 40-h multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation compared with 100-h multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain. A non-inferiority study design will be applied. The study population consists of workers who are on part-time or full-time sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Two multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation programs following the bio-psychosocial approach will be evaluated in this study: 40-h vocational rehabilitation and 100-h vocational rehabilitation, both delivered over a maximum of 15 weeks. The 100-h vocational rehabilitation comprises five modules: work participation coordination, graded activity, cognitive behavioral therapy, group education, and relaxation. The 40-h vocational rehabilitation comprises work participation coordination and a well-reasoned choice from the other four modules. Four rehabilitation centers will participate in this study, each delivering both interventions. Patients will be randomized into one of the interventions, stratified for the duration of sick leave (Cost outcomes are absenteeism, presenteeism, healthcare usage, and travelling costs. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the societal and employer perspectives. The results obtained from this study will be useful for vocational rehabilitation practice and will provide stakeholders with relevant insights into two versions of vocational rehabilitation. Dutch Trial Register identifier: NTR4362 (registered 17 March 2014).

  20. Pushing the limits. Chronotype- and time-of-day modulate working memory-dependent cerebral activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina eSchmidt#

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Morning type individuals experience more difficulties to maintain optimal attentional performance throughout a normal waking day than evening types. However, time-of-day modulations may differ across cognitive domains. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we investigated how chronotype and time of day interact with working memory at different levels of cognitive load/complexity in a N-back paradigm (N0-, N2- and N3-back levels. Extreme morning and evening type individuals underwent 2 fMRI sessions during N-back performance, one 1.5 h (morning and one 10.5 h (evening after wake-up time scheduled according to their habitual sleep-wake preference. At the behavioural level, increasing working memory load resulted in lower accuracy, while chronotype and time of day only exerted a marginal impact on performance. Analyses of neuroimaging data disclosed an interaction between chronotype, time of day and the modulation of cerebral activity by working memory load in the thalamus and in the middle frontal cortex. In the subjective evening hours, evening types exhibited higher thalamic activity than morning types at the highest working memory load condition only (N3-back. Conversely, morning type individuals exhibited higher activity than evening type participants in the middle frontal gyrus during the morning session in the N3-back condition. Our data emphasize inter-individual differences in time-of-day preferences and underlying cerebral activity, which should be taken into account when investigating vigilance state effects in task-related brain activity. These results support the hypothesis that higher task complexity leads to a chronotype-dependent increase in thalamic and frontal brain activity, permitting stabilization of working memory performance across the day.

  1. Pushing the Limits: Chronotype and Time of Day Modulate Working Memory-Dependent Cerebral Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christina; Collette, Fabienne; Reichert, Carolin F; Maire, Micheline; Vandewalle, Gilles; Peigneux, Philippe; Cajochen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Morning-type individuals experience more difficulties to maintain optimal attentional performance throughout a normal waking day than evening types. However, time-of-day modulations may differ across cognitive domains. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated how chronotype and time of day interact with working memory at different levels of cognitive load/complexity in a N-back paradigm (N0-, N2-, and N3-back levels). Extreme morning- and evening-type individuals underwent two fMRI sessions during N-back performance, one 1.5 h (morning) and one 10.5 h (evening) after wake-up time scheduled according to their habitual sleep-wake preference. At the behavioral level, increasing working memory load resulted in lower accuracy while chronotype and time of day only exerted a marginal impact on performance. Analyses of neuroimaging data disclosed an interaction between chronotype, time of day, and the modulation of cerebral activity by working memory load in the thalamus and in the middle frontal cortex. In the subjective evening hours, evening types exhibited higher thalamic activity than morning types at the highest working memory load condition only (N3-back). Conversely, morning-type individuals exhibited higher activity than evening-type participants in the middle frontal gyrus during the morning session in the N3-back condition. Our data emphasize interindividual differences in time-of-day preferences and underlying cerebral activity, which should be taken into account when investigating vigilance state effects in task-related brain activity. These results support the hypothesis that higher task complexity leads to a chronotype-dependent increase in thalamic and frontal brain activity, permitting stabilization of working memory performance across the day.

  2. Working with low back pain: workplace and individual psychosocial determinants of limited duty and lost time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, M; Berkowitz, S M; Haufler, A J; Lopez, M S; Huang, G D

    2001-12-01

    Few studies have identified the risk factors associated with lost time in employees working with occupational low back pain (OLBP) despite the presence of pain. Such data could assist in the development of evidenced-based secondary prevention programs. The present investigation was a case-control study (n = 421) of demographic, health behavior, ergonomic, workplace and individual psychosocial factors hypothesized to be associated with lost time in young, full-time employees (i.e., soldiers) with OLBP. Analyses of the burden of OLBP in terms of the number of days on limited duty and lost time status were also computed. Logistic regression analysis indicated that female gender, education beyond HS/GED, longer time working in military, higher levels of daily life worries, no support from others, higher levels of ergonomic exposure, stressful work, increased peer cohesion, and greater perceived effort at work placed a worker at a greater likelihood for OLBP-related lost work time. Lower levels of innovation, involvement, and supervisor support were also associated with lost time. Linear regression indicated that the number of days of lost time and limited duty was associated with lower levels of physical health and higher levels of symptom severity. The results support the potential utility of interventions targeting ergonomic, workplace and individual psychosocial risk factors in secondary prevention. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  3. Visuo-spatialWorking Memory as a Limited Resource of Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Hubert D.; Münzer, Stefan; Umla-Runge, Katja

    Working memory is considered a cognitive component that mainly serves two functions. It temporarily maintains information that was either perceived but is no longer present in the environment, or that was internally generated, and it supplies a work space for transforming and manipulating elements of perception and thinking. Both functions are relevant for a successful interaction with the environment and it is therefore not surprising that WM is a central topic of research in the field of general psychology. This interest is further increased by the fact that WM is seen as a limited resource that constrains cognitive performances.

  4. Integrating Measurements and Models of Water Limitation on Soil and Ecosystem Respiration in Two New England Forests from Hourly to Decadal Timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihi, D.; Chen, M.; Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.; Richardson, A. D.; Keenan, T. F.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2016-12-01

    Soil respiration (SR), the sum of autotrophic (root, Ra) and heterotrophic (microbial, Rh) respiration, is an important component of the global carbon (C) budget and climate change feedbacks from terrestrial ecosystems. Interannual variation of precipitation (and soil moisture) mostly accounts for interannual anomalies in SR. Microbial water stress and limitation of substrate diffusion in dry soil and release from those limitations after a wet-up event also affect SR on short timescales. Variation of precipitation also drives seasonal and interannual patterns of net ecosystem exchange, belowground C allocation, and Ra. Therefore, integration of belowground and aboveground processes is imperative for better understanding of the biosphere-atmosphere C exchange. To that end, we have merged two relatively parsimonious models, a soil enzymatic kinetics model, DAMM (Dual Arrhenius and Michaelis-Menten) and an ecosystem flux model, FöBAAR (Forest Biomass, Assimilation, Allocation and Respiration). We used high-frequency, long-term soil flux data from automated soil chambers and landscape-scale fluxes from eddy covariance towers from the Harvard forest, MA and the Howland forest, ME to develop and validate the merged model and to quantify the uncertainties in a multiple constraints approach. Measurements from trenched and untrenched plots partitioned CO2 flux into Ra and Rh. Preliminary simulations indicated that performance of coupled DAMM- FöBAAR model was improved than FöBAAR-only, as indicated by lower cost functions (model-data mismatch) at the Harvard forest, but not in boreal transition Howland forest, where frequency of droughts is lower due to a shallower water table. Water limitation occurred at Howland, but only briefly and not in most years. Thus, greater confidence in model prediction resulting from inclusion of moisture limitation on substrate availability, an emergent property of DAMM, depends on site conditions, climate, and the temporal scale of

  5. PASSENGER CAR USAGE FOR COMMUTING TO WORK AS A FUNCTION OF LIMITED STAY AT CAR PARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Basarić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the experiences in European cities, following the implementation of different transport policy measures, has led to a conclusion that parking policy measures have the dominant effect on the choice of private car as a mode of transport. This effect is the greatest for the commutes to work, characterized by the longest duration of parking space occupancy. Given the aforementioned experiences in developed European cities, the main aim of the study presented here was the determination of a relationship between limiting the duration of parking space occupancy in the Novi Sad city centre and the transport participants’ decision whether or not to use passenger car to commute to work. Based on the established interdependence between these parameters, we developed a mathematical model for calculating a number of expected car (commuting journeys that terminate in the city centre as a function of limited duration of parking space occupancy.  

  6. Posttraumatic stress disorder is associated with limited executive resources in a working memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzel, Nikki; Justus, Timothy; Swick, Diane

    2014-06-01

    Patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can show declines in working memory. A dual-task design was used to determine whether these impairments are linked to executive control limitations. Participants performed a Sternberg memory task with either one or four letters. In the dual-task condition, the maintenance period was filled with an arrow flanker task. PTSD patients were less accurate on the working memory task than were controls, especially in the dual-task condition. In the single-task condition, both groups showed similar patterns of brain potentials from 300 to 500 ms when discriminating old and new probes. However, when taxed with an additional task, the event-related potentials (ERPs) of the PTSD group no longer differentiated old and new probes. In contrast, interference resolution processes in both the single- and dual-task conditions of the flanker task were intact. The lack of differentiation in the ERPs reflects impaired working memory performance under more difficult, dual-task conditions. Exacerbated difficulty in performing a working memory task with concurrent task demands suggests a specific limitation in executive control resources in PTSD.

  7. Limitations and consequences caused by work-related diseases in the worker’s lives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Caroline Rodrigues

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the impacts of work-related diseases in the worker’s lives, as well as analyze the contributions of studies to the nursing science, especially in the area of occupational health nursing. It is an integrative review with the following guiding question: What are the limitations and consequences caused by cumulative trauma disorders (CTD in the worker’s lives reported in the nursing scientific production during the last five years (2006 to 2010. The descriptors used were: Cumulative Trauma Disorders and Occupational Health. We selected 14 articles and these were grouped according to common purposes, main limitations and consequences of CTD, and relevant information to contributions of studies in the area of Occupational Health Nursing. We concluded that the scientific production on this subject brings few effective contributions, and that further studies are needed to subsidize care strategies aimed at promoting health and quality of life of these workers.

  8. Global Trends in Early Childhood Practice: Working within the Limitations of The Global Education Reform Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nitecki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to Global Education Review: Global Trends in Early Childhood Practice:  Working within the Limitations of  The Global Education Reform Movement. The Global Education Reform Movement, also known as GERM, is rooted in economic theory and neoliberal thinking. The trends associated with GERM – such as the standardization of teaching and learning, over-emphasis of core subjects of mathematics and literacy, test-based high-stakes accountability and testing, prescribed curriculum, privatization, parental choice, and increased control over students and teachers – have infiltrated the everyday practice of teachers and practitioners in the field and remain a deep cause for concern.

  9. Costs and work limitation of patients with ankylosing spondylitis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Liudan; Rai, Jayanti Chamling; Cao, Shuangyan; Lin, Zhiming; Hu, Zaiying; Gu, Jieruo

    2014-01-01

    To access the annual direct, indirect costs and work limitation of AS patients in Chinese population and explore the determinants of cost. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was performed in 257 patients with AS in China. The participants completed questionnaires about disease characteristics, quality of life and direct and indirect costs. Only the patients with paid-work completed the Work Limitation Questionnaire (WLQ), a 25-item questionnaire that accesses the impact of chronic health conditions on job performance and productivity. Functional impairment and disease activity were assessed using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Bath Akylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI). Quality of life was measured by the Short Form-36. Of the 257 patients who completed the questionnaires, the mean age was 28.5 (SD=0.5) with mean disease duration of 6.52 years (SD=0.44). The mean BASDAI and BASFI score was 3.28 and 1.3, respectively. Among the 257 patients, 21.8% are students, 64.2% have a paid job and 10.5% without a job because of AS. 165 participants finished the WLQ with a mean WLQ index of 0.19 which corresponds to a 17% decrease in productivity. The annual estimated costs of each patient was $2714.18 while the indirect cost accounted for 64.7%. The annual direct cost significantly correlated with disease activity. Our research is the first to provide information about the burden of AS and the work status of AS patients in mainland China, which may help to establish the treatment strategy and a policy of support.

  10. 40 CFR 63.2346 - What emission limitations, operating limits, and work practice standards must I meet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monitored quarterly using the method described in § 63.180(b). (B) An instrument reading of 500 parts per... the control techniques specified in paragraph (a)(4)(vi)(A) or (a)(4)(vi)(B) of this section. (A) The... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What emission limitations, operating...

  11. The impact of physically demanding work of basketball and volleyball players on the risk for patellar tendinopathy and on work limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Worp, H.; Zwerver, J.; Kuijer, P.P.F.M.; Frings-Dresen, M.H.W.; Van Den Akker-Scheek, I.

    Patellar tendinopathy is a common injury in jumping athletes. Little is known about work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. The aim of this study was to identify work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and to determine the relation

  12. National survey of the association of depressive symptoms with the number of off duty and on-call, and sleep hours among physicians working in Japanese hospitals: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Koji; Yoshikawa, Toru; Goto, Takahisa; Hirai, Aizan; Matsushima, Eisuke; Nakashima, Yoshifumi; Akaho, Rie; Kido, Michiko; Hosaka, Takashi

    2010-03-12

    Physicians' mental health may be adversely affected by the number of days of work and time spent on-call, and improved by sleep and days-off. The aim of this study was to determine the associations of depressive symptoms with taking days of off duty, hours of sleep, and the number of days of on-call and overnight work among physicians working in Japanese hospitals. A cross-sectional study as a national survey was conducted by mail. The study population was 10,000 randomly selected physicians working in hospitals who were also members of the Japan Medical Association (response rate 40.5%). Self-reported anonymous questionnaire was sent to assess the number of days off-duty, overnight work, and on-calls, and the average number of sleep hours on days not working overnight in the previous one month. Depressive state was determined by the Japanese version of the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology. Logistic regression analysis was used to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and the studied variables. Among the respondents, 8.3% of men and 10.5% of women were determined to be depressed. For both men and women, depressive state was associated with having no off-duty days and averaging less than 5 hours of sleep on days not doing overnight work. Depressive state was positively associated with being on-call more than 5 days per month for men, and more than 8 days per month for women, and was negatively associated with being off-duty more than 8 days per month for men. Some physicians need some support to maintain their mental health. Physicians who do not take enough days-off, who reduced sleep hours, and who have certain number of days on-calls may develop depressive symptoms.

  13. Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.

  14. Saúde mental no trabalho: contradições e limites Mental health at work: contradictions and limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda de Vasconcelos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ao longo do desenvolvimento do capitalismo, a concepção do que seja a saúde do trabalhador modificou-se, passando do patamar da 'preocupação com a sobrevivência do corpo' para a 'preocupação com a saúde mental do trabalhador'. A gestão da saúde foi sendo incorporada às novas formas de gestão dos empreendimentos capitalistas, mas a despeito disso, o sofrimento no trabalho continua, expresso em manifestações como estresse, fadiga crônica, burnout, DORT etc. Este artigo busca identificar e analisar, através de um estudo de caso, as contradições existentes acerca das estratégias organizacionais adotadas sobre Saúde Mental no Trabalho, tendo como referência a percepção dos trabalhadores. Os resultados mostraram que os programas de saúde são baseados em intervenções pontuais, paliativas e estão relacionados ao sistema de controle da organização atuando em cima dos efeitos da organização do trabalho, não se baseando numa real preocupação com a saúde do trabalhador.Along the capitalism development, the conceptions of worker's health has changed, passing from the "preoccupation with the surviving of the body" to the "preoccupation with the worker's mental health". Management of health has been incorporated to the new capitalist enterprising management forms, but in spite of that, the suffering of the worker goes on, expressed in physical manifestations like stress, and chronicle fatigue, burnout and DORT. This essay tries to identify and analyze, through a case study, the existing contradictions about the organizational strategies adopted on mental health at work/labor, having as a reference the workers' perception. The results show that health programs are based in ad hoc and palliative interventions related to the control system of the organization, acting on the effects of work organization, and not based on a real preoccupation with the worker's health.

  15. The impact of physically demanding work of basketball and volleyball players on the risk for patellar tendinopathy and on work limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, H; Zwerver, J; Kuijer, P P F M; Frings-Dresen, M H W; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2011-01-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is a common injury in jumping athletes. Little is known about work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. The aim of this study was to identify work-related etiological factors for patellar tendinopathy and to determine the relation between patellar tendinopathy and work limitations. Basketball and volleyball players between 18 and 35 years were invited to complete an online-questionnaire concerning knee complaints, etiological risk factors for patellar tendinopathy and related work limitations. A total of 1505 subjects were included in the analysis. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy were gender and heavy physically demanding work. The odds for having patellar tendinopathy were significantly higher for heavy physically demanding occupations compared to mentally demanding occupations. 30% of subjects with patellar tendinopathy with a physically demanding job reported to be impaired in their work and 17% reported to be less productive. Basketball and volleyball players with heavy physically demanding work seem to have an increased risk for developing patellar tendinopathy. This finding has important clinical relevance in the treatment of this injury. Working activities should be adjusted in order to reduce the total load on the patellar tendon and help prevention and recovery.

  16. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  17. Correlation of 2 hour, 4 hour, 8 hour and 12 hour urine protein with 24 hour urinary protein in preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita Rani Singhal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To find shortest and reliable time period of urine collection for determination of proteinuria.It is a prospective study carried out on 125 pregnant women with preeclampsia after 20 weeks of gestation having urine albumin >1 using dipstick test. Urine was collected in five different time intervals in colors labeled containers with the assistance of nursing staff; the total collection time was 24 hours. Total urine protein of two-hour, four-hour, eight-hour, 12-hour and 24-hour urine was measured and compared with 24-hour collection. Data was analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.There was significant correlation (p value < 0.01 in two, four, eight and 12-hour urine protein with 24-urine protein, with correlation coefficient of 0.97, 0.97, 0.96 and 0.97, respectively. When a cut off value of 25 mg, 50 mg. 100 mg, and 150 mg for urine protein were used for 2-hour, 4-hours, 8-hour and 12-hour urine collection, a sensitivity of 92.45%, 95.28%, 91.51%, and 96.23% and a specificity of 68.42%, 94.74%, 84.21% and 84.21% were obtained, respectively.Two-hour urine proteins can be used for assessment of proteinuria in preeclampsia instead of gold standard 24-hour urine collection for early diagnosis and better patient compliance.

  18. 29 CFR 1919.75 - Determination of crane or derrick safe working loads and limitations in absence of manufacturer's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of crane or derrick safe working loads and limitations in absence of manufacturer's data. 1919.75 Section 1919.75 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor... Certification of Shore-Based Material Handling Devices § 1919.75 Determination of crane or derrick safe working...

  19. Trauma morning report is the ideal environment to teach and evaluate resident communication and sign-outs in the 80 hour work week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, Mary E; Monaghan, Sean F; Gregg, Shea C; Stephen, Andrew H; Connolly, Michael D; Harrington, David T; Adams, Charles A; Cioffi, William G; Heffernan, Daithi S

    2017-09-01

    The 80h work week has raised concerns that complications may increase due to multiple sign-outs or poor communication. Trauma Surgery manages complex trauma and acute care surgical patients with rapidly changing physiology, clinical demands and a large volume of data that must be communicated to render safe, effective patient care. Trauma Morning Report format may offer the ideal situation to study and teach sign-outs and resident communication. Surgery Residents were assessed on a 1-5 scale for their ability to communicate to their fellow residents. This consisted of 10 critical points of the presentation, treatment and workup from the previous night's trauma admissions. Scores were grouped into three areas. Each area was scored out of 15. Area 1 consisted of Initial patient presentation. Area 2 consisted of events in the trauma bay. Area 3 assessed clarity of language and ability to communicate to their fellow residents. The residents were assessed for inclusion of pertinent positive and negative findings, as well as overall clarity of communication. In phase 1, residents were unaware of the evaluation process. Phase 2 followed a series of resident education session about effective communication, sign-out techniques and delineation of evaluation criteria. Phase 3 was a resident-blinded phase which evaluated the sustainability of the improvements in resident communication. 50 patient presentations in phase 1, 200 in phase 2, and 50 presentations in phase 3 were evaluated. Comparisons were made between the Phase 1 and Phase 2 evaluations. Area 1 (initial events) improved from 6.18 to 12.4 out of 15 (planguage) improved from 8.36 to 12.22 out of 15 (Pteaching and evaluation of sign-outs and reinforcing good communication skills in residents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Midlife work ability and mobility limitation in old age among non-disability and disability retirees - a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika E. von Bonsdorff

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the wellbeing and mobility limitation of older disability retirees. Personal and environmental factors, such as time spent in working life, may either exacerbate or mitigate the onset of mobility limitation in general population. We aimed to study perceived midlife work ability as a determinant of self-reported mobility limitation in old age among municipal employees who transitioned into non-disability and disability retirement. Methods 4329 participants of the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME had retired during January 1985 and July 2000. They had data on retirement, perceived work ability in 1985, and self-reported mobility limitation (non-disability retirement n = 2870, men 39 %; and diagnose-specific disability retirement n = 1459, men 48 %. Self-reported mobility was measured in 1985, 1992, 1997 and 2009. The latest score available was used to assess the number of mobility limitation. Work ability was measured by asking the respondents to evaluate their current work ability against their lifetime best in 1985. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs for work ability predicting mobility limitation in non-disability and diagnose-specific disability retirement groups were calculated using Poisson regression models. Results The prevalence of mobility limitation for those who transitioned into non-disability retirement (Incidence Rate, IR = 0.45, 95 % CI = 0.44–0.46 was lower compared to those who retired due to disability (IR = 0.65, CI = 0.63–0.66. A one-point increase in the work ability score decreased the risk for having one more mobility limitation among non-disability and all diagnose-specific retirement groups (musculoskeletal disease, cardiovascular disease, mental disorder, and other diseases. Conclusions Better midlife work ability may protect from old age mobility limitation among those who retire due to non

  1. Marital status and work-related health limitation: a longitudinal study of young adult and middle-aged Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Celia C; Cheng, Tyrone C; Simpson, Gaynell M

    2016-01-01

    The literature establishes clearly the health benefit of marriage. Much less clear from published data is whether work-related health (dis)advantages accruing to marital transitions persist over time or are limited to the short term. Informed by the marital resources and marital crisis perspectives, this study sought links between marital status measured via three approaches and work-related health limitation, exploring these relationships across genders. The study employed data from eight recent waves (1996-2010) of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. It applied generalized estimating equations to estimate the impacts, on work-related health limitation, of current marital status; of marital transition 2 years in the past; and of marital transition 8 years in the past. Our gender-specific results indicated that lower likelihood of work-related health limitation was associated with a married status, a stable married status, and an entry into marriage. Results are consistent overall with the marital resources perspective. The use of three different approaches to evaluate the relationship of marital status to work-related health limitation may explain the gender-specific results.

  2. A Common Capacity Limitation for Response and Item Selection in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Successful completion of any cognitive task requires selecting a particular action and the object the action is applied to. Oberauer (2009) suggested a working memory (WM) model comprising a declarative and a procedural part with analogous structures. One important assumption of this model is that both parts work independently of each other, and…

  3. Age Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity: Not Based on Encoding Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; AuBuchon, Angela M.; Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Ricker, Timothy J.; Saults, J. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Why does visual working memory performance increase with age in childhood? One recent study (Cowan et al., 2010b) ruled out the possibility that the basic cause is a tendency in young children to clutter working memory with less-relevant items (within a concurrent array, colored items presented in one of two shapes). The age differences in memory…

  4. Cracking the Credit Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitinen, Amy

    2012-01-01

    The basic currency of higher education--the credit hour--represents the root of many problems plaguing America's higher education system: the practice of measuring time rather than learning. "Cracking the Credit Hour" traces the history of this time-based unit, from the days of Andrew Carnegie to recent federal efforts to define a credit…

  5. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  6. When visual and verbal memories compete: Evidence of cross-domain limits in working memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Morey, Candice C; Cowan, Nelson

    2004-01-01

    .... With a visual working memory task in which two arrays of color squares were to be compared, performance was unaffected by concurrent recitation of a two-digit list or a known seven-digit sequence...

  7. Influence of limiting working memory resources on contextual facilitation in language processing

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Oliver William Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Language processing is a complex task requiring the integration of many different streams of information. Theorists have considered that working memory plays an important role in language processing and that a reduction in available working memory resources will reduce the efficacy of the system. In debate, however, is whether or not there exists a single pool of resources from which all language processes draw, or if the resource pool is functionally fractionated into modular ...

  8. Measured by the oxygen uptake in the field, the work of refuse collectors is particularly hard work: Are the limit values for physical endurance workload too low?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Alexandra M; Zhou, Linfei; Velasco Garrido, Marcial; Harth, Volker

    2016-02-01

    Collecting waste is regarded as a benchmark for "particularly heavy" work. This study aims to determine and compare the workload of refuse workers in the field. We examined heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake as parameters of workload during their daily work. Sixty-five refuse collectors from three task-specific groups (residual and organic waste collection, and street sweeping) of the municipal sanitation department in Hamburg, Germany, were included. Performance was determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX) under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the oxygen uptake (VO2) and HR under field conditions (1-h morning shift) were recorded with a portable spiroergometry system and a pulse belt. There was a substantial correlation of both absolute HR and VO2 during CPX [HR/VO2 R 0.89 (SD 0.07)] as well as during field measurement [R 0.78 (0.19)]. Compared to reference limits for heavy work, 44% of the total sample had shift values above 30% heart rate reserve (HRR); 34% of the individuals had mean HR during work (HRsh) values that were above the HR corresponding to 30% of individual maximum oxygen uptake (VO2,max). All individuals had a mean oxygen uptake (VO2,1h) above 30% of VO2,max. HR as well as the measurement of VO2 can be valuable tools for investigating physiological workload, not only under laboratory conditions but also under normal working conditions in the field. Both in terms of absolute and relative HR and oxygen consumption, employment as a refuse collector should be classified in the upper range of defined heavy work. The limit of heavy work at about 33% of the individual maximum load at continuous work should be reviewed.

  9. Hours Constraints Within and Between Jobs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euwals, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In the empirical literature on labour supply, several models are developed to incorporate constraints on working hours. These models do not address the question to which extent working hours are constrained within and between jobs. In this paper I investigate the effect of individual changes in

  10. Towards exposure limits for working postures and musculoskeletal symptoms - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, P.; Douwes, M.; Heuvel, S. van den; Bosch, T.

    2016-01-01

    Occupational postures are considered to be an important group of risk factors for musculoskeletal pain. However, the exposure-outcome association is not clear yet. Therefore, we aimed to determine the exposure-outcome association of working postures and musculoskeletal symptoms. Also, we aimed to

  11. Towards exposure limits for working postures and musculoskeletal symptoms – a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Pieter; Douwes, Marjolein; van den Heuvel, Swenneke; Bosch, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Occupational postures are considered to be an important group of risk factors for musculoskeletal pain. However, the exposure-outcome association is not clear yet. Therefore, we aimed to determine the exposure-outcome association of working postures and musculoskeletal symptoms. Also, we aimed to

  12. 24-hour urine protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine protein - 24 hour; Chronic kidney disease - urine protein; Kidney failure - urine protein ... Bladder tumor Heart failure High blood pressure during pregnancy ( preeclampsia ) Kidney disease caused by diabetes, high blood pressure, autoimmune disorders, ...

  13. Possibilities, misunderstandings and limits in the work of the teacher/researcher in science education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José P.M.de Almeida

    1996-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents fragments of the research “Individualized ‘Supletivo’: Possibilities, Misunderstandings, and Limits in Science Teaching”, which emphasized the student/teacher and student/instructional materials relationships, as well as the analysis of changes in the pedagogical practice, in the area of sciences, in an adult education course. The focus of this presentation is the trajectory of the teacher/researcher who proposed and conducted this research.

  14. Attention to multiple locations is limited by spatial working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Alex; Sapir, Ayelet; Burnett, Katherine; d'Avossa, Giovanni

    2014-08-21

    What limits the ability to attend several locations simultaneously? There are two possibilities: Either attention cannot be divided without incurring a cost, or spatial memory is limited and observers forget which locations to monitor. We compared motion discrimination when attention was directed to one or multiple locations by briefly presented central cues. The cues were matched for the amount of spatial information they provided. Several random dot kinematograms (RDKs) followed the spatial cues; one of them contained task-relevant, coherent motion. When four RDKs were presented, discrimination accuracy was identical when one and two locations were indicated by equally informative cues. However, when six RDKs were presented, discrimination accuracy was higher following one rather than multiple location cues. We examined whether memory of the cued locations was diminished under these conditions. Recall of the cued locations was tested when participants attended the cued locations and when they did not attend the cued locations. Recall was inaccurate only when the cued locations were attended. Finally, visually marking the cued locations, following one and multiple location cues, equalized discrimination performance, suggesting that participants could attend multiple locations when they did not have to remember which ones to attend. We conclude that endogenously dividing attention between multiple locations is limited by inaccurate recall of the attended locations and that attention poses separate demands on the same central processes used to remember spatial information, even when the locations attended and those held in memory are the same. © 2014 ARVO.

  15. Capacity Limitations in Working Memory: The Impact on Lexical and Morphological Learning by Children with Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weismer, Susan Ellis

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the role of capacity limitations in working memory for children with specific language impairment (SLI). Preliminary findings support the contention that capacity constraints play a role in language disorders and that variations in the presentation rate of linguistic models affect the ability of children with SLI to learn new…

  16. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Hhhhh of... - Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards for Wastewater Streams 4 Table 4 to Subpart HHHHH of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Part 63—Emission Limits and Work Practice Standards for Wastewater Streams As required in § 63.8020... your wastewater streams. For each . . . You must . . . 1. Wastewater tank used to store a Group 1...

  17. Organization of school work in focus: the limits of antidemocratic inheritance and potential of participatory processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Vieira Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Historically, democratic and participatory processes in the Brazilian society, and specifically in school, have been permeated by intermittences, weaknesses and resistances caused by multiple determinations. The text focuses on aspects concerningthe organization of education work through two lines of analysis: the first angle refers to the social constructs of structural and organic nature linked to relations of power andanti-democratic practices of the society in general. The second angle reference to a kindof ethnographic research, conducted within a public school in the Minas Gerais state. We seek to grasp the challenges on building practices and strategies in support of the participatory processes of the school community in the pedagogic project design and in the operation of the school board. We propose, with these analyses, to contribute withreflections on the status of teachers, as a subject, in the school organization throughconnections with work activities related to their everyday practice.

  18. Enabling the self-contained refrigerator to work beyond its limits by filtering the reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zi-chen; Huang, Xin-yun; Yu, Chang-shui

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we study the quantum self-contained refrigerator [Linden et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 130401 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.130401] in the strong internal coupling regime with engineered reservoirs. We find that if some modes of the three thermal reservoirs can be properly filtered out, the efficiency and the working domain of the refrigerator can be improved in contrast to the those in the weak internal coupling regime, which indicates one advantage of the strong internal coupling. In addition, we find that the background natural vacuum reservoir could cause the filtered refrigerator to stop working and the background natural thermal reservoir could greatly reduce the cooling efficiency.

  19. Phonological Working Memory limitations and Agrammatism: Is there a causal relationship between the two?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Varkanitsa

    2014-04-01

    These results are inconsistent with theories assuming a single WM capacity that deals with all types of linguistic information. Rather, this study provides evidence that syntactic parsing relies on different resources from what is typically measured in verbal WM tasks. The four patients with Broca’s aphasia that participated in this study presented with similar phonological WM limitations with only quantitative differences in some tasks, despite the fact that only two of them also had sentence comprehension difficulties. The results also suggest that the agrammatic patients suffer from a specific WM deficit, linked to processing syntactic dependencies, which is not tapped by phonological WM tests.

  20. Dynamic range of frontoparietal functional modulation is associated with working memory capacity limitations in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakun, Jonathan G; Johnson, Nathan F

    2017-11-01

    Older adults tend to over-activate regions throughout frontoparietal cortices and exhibit a reduced range of functional modulation during WM task performance compared to younger adults. While recent evidence suggests that reduced functional modulation is associated with poorer task performance, it remains unclear whether reduced range of modulation is indicative of general WM capacity-limitations. In the current study, we examined whether the range of functional modulation observed over multiple levels of WM task difficulty (N-Back) predicts in-scanner task performance and out-of-scanner psychometric estimates of WM capacity. Within our sample (60-77years of age), age was negatively associated with frontoparietal modulation range. Individuals with greater modulation range exhibited more accurate N-Back performance. In addition, despite a lack of significant relationships between N-Back and complex span task performance, range of frontoparietal modulation during the N-Back significantly predicted domain-general estimates of WM capacity. Consistent with previous cross-sectional findings, older individuals with less modulation range exhibited greater activation at the lowest level of task difficulty but less activation at the highest levels of task difficulty. Our results are largely consistent with existing theories of neurocognitive aging (e.g. CRUNCH) but focus attention on dynamic range of functional modulation asa novel marker of WM capacity-limitations in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Breathing of the Biosphere: How Physics sets the Limits, and Biology Does the Work (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldocchi, D. D.

    2009-12-01

    Trace gas concentrations in the atmosphere are a consequence of fluxes between vegetation and the atmosphere. Predicting the rates of these fluxes is extremely complicated because the biosphere is a complex adaptive system that consists of a multitude of physical and biological processes that vary across 14 orders of magnitude in time and space. One challenge in predicting trace gas fluxes is to know when to lump and when to split this information into coarser or finer levels of detail. Plants, for example, abhor a vacuum and tend to fill niches if there is ample water, sunlight and soil. So ultimately, the upper limit of water, carbon and energy fluxes is set by amount of energy intercepted at the Earth’s surface, which scales with the solar constant. In addition, physics limits the supply and demand of resources that sustain plants, so many ecological scaling rules emerge; this reduces the need to consider every species, plant and leaf individually when assessing net and gross exchanges of trace gases between vegetation and the atmosphere. This trend towards the role of simplicity begins to fail when one starts to evaluate fluxes associated with microbes, like methane and nitrous oxide; microbes live in heterogeneous environments and exploit numerous routes to extract energy from their environment. Case studies, pertaining to the title, will be discussed using eddy covariance flux measurements from our field sites (peatland pasture, savanna woodland, grassland, deciduous and boreal forests), the FLUXNET network and leaf, canopy and planetary boundary-layer scale biophysical models.

  2. WORKING AS VENDORS AS A PROFESSION CHOSEN BY PEOPLE WITH LIMITED CAPITALS IN TOURISM SECTOR IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ary Widiastini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was intended to present the matters pertaining to the attempts made by the vendors ‘pedagang acung’ to keep being independent in tourism sector in Bali. As working people with extremely limited capitals, the principle of giving priority to safety is applicable to them. They sell souvenirs with limited capitals obtained from various souvenir entrepreneurs coming from different parts of Bali. The risk of suffering from loss has never caused them to find any difficulty. This qualitative study was conducted in the paradigm of cultural studies. The data were presented and interpreted in the form of narrative texts which are thick descriptive in nature.   The result of the study showed that working as vendors was still a profession which contributed to the decrease in unemployment in an area. This is in line with the concept of poststructuralism that people are basically referred to as homo faber, namely, the working creature, meaning that working is highly important to man. This means that employment does not only give the opportunity to generate income but also importantly means that employment is a personal identity. As a consequence, if working is different from not working or being jobless, then such a choice does not only lead to an opposing binary but also to a hierarchical social division and a structured social gap between those who are employed and those who are not. They all positively contribute to themselves, environment, entrepreneurs, and the local government. 

  3. Thermodynamics at work - on the limits and potentials of biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The preferential use of high potential electron acceptors by microorganisms has lead to the classical concept of a redox sequence with a sequential use of O2 nitrate, Fe(III), sulfate, and finally CO2 as electron acceptors for respiration (Stumm & Morgan, 1996). Christian Blodau has rigourously applied this concept to constrain the thermodynamical limits at which specific aquatic systems operate. In sediments from acidic mining lakes his analysis revealed that sulfate reducers are not competitive as long as low-crystallinity ferric oxides are available for organic matter decomposition (Blodau et al, 1998). This analysis opened up the possibility to generalize the linkage between the iron and sulphur cycle in such systems and to constrain the biogeochemical limits for remediation (e. g. Peine et al, 2000). In a similar approach, Beer & Blodau (2007) were able to demonstrate that constraints on the removal of products from acetoclastic methanogenesis in deeper peat layers are inhibiting organic matter decomposition and provide a thermodynamic argument for peat accumulation. In this contribution I will review such ideas and further refine the limits and potentials of biogeochemical reactions in terms of redox-active metastable phases (RAMPS) that are typically mixed-valent carbon-, iron-, and sulfur-containing compounds and which allow for the occurrence of a number of enigmatic reactions, e. g. limited greenhouse gas emission (CH4) under dynamic redox conditions. It is proposed that redox equivalents are generated, stored and recycled during oxidation and reduction cycles thus suppressing methanogenesis (Blodau, 2002). Such RAMPS will preferentially occur at dynamic interfaces being exposed to frequent redox cycles. The concept of RAMPS will be illustrated along the interaction between ferric (hydr)oxides and dissolved sulphide. Recent studies using modern analytical tools revealed the formation of a number of amorphous products within a short time scale (days) both

  4. The Long-Term Health Implications of Marital Disruption: Divorce, Work Limits, and Social Security Disability Benefits Among Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Kenneth A; Tamborini, Christopher R; Reznik, Gayle L

    2015-10-01

    We provide new evidence on the long-term impact of divorce on work disability among U.S. men. Using data from the 2004 Survey of Income and Program Participation linked to U.S. Social Security Administration records, we assess the relationship between divorce and subsequent self-reports of work limitations and the receipt of federal disability benefits. The examination of self-reports and administrative records of medically qualified benefits provides dual confirmation of key relationships. We compare men who experienced a marital dissolution between 1975 and 1984 with continuously married men for 20 years following divorce using fixed-effects and propensity score matching models, and choose a sample to help control for selection into divorce. On average, we find that divorce is not associated with an increased probability of self-reported work limitations or receipt of disability benefits over the long run. However, among those who do not remarry, we do find that divorce increases men's long-term probability of both self-reported work limitations and federal disability benefit receipt. Lack of marital resources may drive this relationship. Alternative estimates that do not control for selection into divorce demonstrate that selection bias can substantially alter findings regarding the relationship between marital status changes and subsequent health.

  5. Beneficial and limiting factors for return to work following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, Judith A M; Jonkers, Freerk J; Kievit, Arthur J; Kuijer, P Paul F M; Hoozemans, Marco J M

    2017-02-01

    Evidence-based advice for return to work (RTW) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is not available. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine when patients achieve full RTW, and to explore the beneficial and limiting factors for fully RTW after ACL reconstruction. A retrospective cohort study was performed after ACL reconstruction among 185 patients in one hospital. Data from patient files and a questionnaire were used to explore whether patient-, injury-, surgery-, sports-, work- and rehabilitation-related factors are beneficial or limiting for fully RTW after ACL reconstruction, using a backward stepwise logistic regression analysis. Of the 125 (68%) patients that returned the questionnaire, 36 were not part of the working population. Of the remaining 89 patients, 82 patients (92%) had returned fully to work at follow-up. The median time to fully RTW was 78 days. In the final regression model, which explained 29% of the variance, a significant OR of 5.4 (90% CI 2.2-13.1) for RTW > 78 days was observed for patients performing heavy knee-demanding work compared to patients performing light knee-demanding work. In addition, a significant and positive OR (1.6, 90% CI 1.2-1.9) for the number of weeks walking with the aid of crutches for RTW > 78 days was observed in the final model. After ACL reconstruction, 92% of the patients fully return to work at a median time of 78 days. The significant predictors for fully RTW > 78 days are performing heavy knee-demanding work and a longer period of walking aided with crutches after ACL reconstruction.

  6. Limited capacity of working memory in unihemispheric random walks implies conceivable slow dispersal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Kun; Zhong, Suchuan

    2017-08-01

    Phenomenologically inspired by dolphins' unihemispheric sleep, we introduce a minimal model for random walks with physiological memory. The physiological memory consists of long-term memory which includes unconscious implicit memory and conscious explicit memory, and working memory which serves as a multi-component system for integrating, manipulating and managing short-term storage. The model assumes that the sleeping state allows retrievals of episodic objects merely from the episodic buffer where these memory objects are invoked corresponding to the ambient objects and are thus object-oriented, together with intermittent but increasing use of implicit memory in which decisions are unconsciously picked up from historical time series. The process of memory decay and forgetting is constructed in the episodic buffer. The walker's risk attitude, as a product of physiological heuristics according to the performance of objected-oriented decisions, is imposed on implicit memory. The analytical results of unihemispheric random walks with the mixture of object-oriented and time-oriented memory, as well as the long-time behavior which tends to the use of implicit memory, are provided, indicating the common sense that a conservative risk attitude is inclinable to slow movement.

  7. Hourly temporal distribution of wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Ilias; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2016-04-01

    The wind process is essential for hydrometeorology and additionally, is one of the basic renewable energy resources. Most stochastic forecast models are limited up to daily scales disregarding the hourly scale which is significant for renewable energy management. Here, we analyze hourly wind timeseries giving emphasis on the temporal distribution of wind within the day. We finally present a periodic model based on statistical as well as hydrometeorological reasoning that shows good agreement with data. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  8. From distributed resources to limited slots in multiple-item working memory: a spiking network model with normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ziqiang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Da-Hui

    2012-08-15

    Recent behavioral studies have given rise to two contrasting models for limited working memory capacity: a "discrete-slot" model in which memory items are stored in a limited number of slots, and a "shared-resource" model in which the neural representation of items is distributed across a limited pool of resources. To elucidate the underlying neural processes, we investigated a continuous network model for working memory of an analog feature. Our model network fundamentally operates with a shared resource mechanism, and stimuli in cue arrays are encoded by a distributed neural population. On the other hand, the network dynamics and performance are also consistent with the discrete-slot model, because multiple objects are maintained by distinct localized population persistent activity patterns (bump attractors). We identified two phenomena of recurrent circuit dynamics that give rise to limited working memory capacity. As the working memory load increases, a localized persistent activity bump may either fade out (so the memory of the corresponding item is lost) or merge with another nearby bump (hence the resolution of mnemonic representation for the merged items becomes blurred). We identified specific dependences of these two phenomena on the strength and tuning of recurrent synaptic excitation, as well as network normalization: the overall population activity is invariant to set size and delay duration; therefore, a constant neural resource is shared by and dynamically allocated to the memorized items. We demonstrate that the model reproduces salient observations predicted by both discrete-slot and shared-resource models, and propose testable predictions of the merging phenomenon.

  9. Toward the 24-Hour Knowledge Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Amar; Seshasai, Satwik

    2004-01-01

    The term 24-Hour Knowledge Factory connotes a globally distributed work environment in which members of the global team work on a project around the clock; each member of the team works the normal workday hours that pertain to his or her time zone. At the end of such a workday, a fellow team member located in a different time zone continues the same task. This creates the shift-style workforce that was originally conceived in the manufacturing sector. A globally distributed 24-hour call cente...

  10. Cost-efficient staffing under annualized hours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Hans, Elias W.; Veltman, Bart; Berrevoets, Leo M.; Berden, Hubert J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We study how flexibility in workforce capacity can be used to efficiently match capacity and demand. Flexibility in workforce capacity is introduced by the annualized hours regime. Annualized hours allow organizations to measure working time per year, instead of per month or per week. An additional

  11. 75 FR 285 - Hours of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... rule will remain in effect during the rulemaking proceedings. As described above, FMCSA is holding... flexibility would not increase safety risks or adversely impact driver health? 3. How many hours per day and... period long enough to provide restorative sleep regardless of the number of hours worked prior to the...

  12. Working within limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerda Jehoel-Gijsbers

    2010-01-01

    Original title: Beperkt aan het werk. For many years, the Netherlands was known as a country with high levels of sickness absenteeism and a large number of incapacity benefit claimants. At European level, this was sometimes referred to as 'the Dutch disease'. Many policy measures later,

  13. 7 positions in 2 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Ackerman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available 7 positions in 2 hours (2013 is a drawing that documents the process of making the short film Role Reversal Rehearsal. It became quickly apparent that the process of making the work was more dynamic and interesting than the finished piece itself. Relationships between the childcare arrangements of the participants and the collective working process brought about the necessity of collaboration for parent artists. Each participant gave their time, energy and creative insight towards filming a series of birthing positions with roles reversed. The male performer became the central figure in an attempt to prompt empathy, humour, and to embody the importance of the male role in childbirth. There were two hours to choreograph, rehearse, and film the sequence. The drawing by Ackerman encapsulates the 'rhizomatic' approach to producing creative work under the constraints of parenthood. The 'arborescent' structure of hierarchy encouraged in industrial filmmaking is subsumed in favour of a horizontal structure. This new structure allows for the creative input, and flow of collaboration between all people involved - including the 3 and 5 year olds, who contributed ideas for camera and soundtrack in situ.

  14. Eleventh Hour Security+

    CERN Document Server

    Dubrawsky, Ido

    2009-01-01

    This book will focus on just the essentials needed to pass the Security+ certification exam. It will be filled with critical information in a way that will be easy to remember and use for your quickly approaching exam. It will focus on the main objectives of the exam and include the following pedagogy for ease of use in those final hours. The book will include:. •Exam Objectives – Fast Track Review. •Key words/definitions. •Five Toughest questions and their answers. •Exam Warnings – What to pay attention to

  15. Eleventh Hour Linux+

    CERN Document Server

    Speake, Graham; Happel, Chris; Lillard, Terrence V

    2009-01-01

    The 11th Hour Linux+ Study Guide is keyed to the XK0-003 revision of the CompTIA Linux+exam. This book is streamlined to include only core certification information and is presented for ease of last-minute studying. Main objectives of the exam are covered with key concepts highlighted. ..: ..; Fast Facts quickly review fundamentals ..; Exam Warnings highlight particularly tough sections of the exam ..; Crunch Time sidebars point out key concepts to remember ..; Did You Know? sidebars cover sometimes forgotten details ..; Top Five Toughest Questions and answers help you to prepare .. The 11th H

  16. Les 2x12h : une solution au conflit de temporalités du travail posté ? The 12-hour shifts system: A way to settle conflicting temporalities in shift work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Barthe

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Les horaires de travail en 2x12h semblent faciliter l’articulation des temporalités mise à mal par le travail posté, articulation avec les dimensions temporelles du fonctionnement humain : les rythmicités biologiques, l’organisation de la vie socio-familiale et la fatigue notamment. Dans un contexte social et économique favorable à la diffusion des 2x12h, cet article propose une synthèse des effets de ces horaires de travail posté sur la santé, sur la vie personnelle des opérateurs concernés et sur le travail. Même si, comparés aux autres systèmes d’horaires, les 2x12h semblent avoir des conséquences moindres sur la santé et la vie personnelle, cette synthèse montre l’importance d’autres facteurs (caractéristiques des personnes, temps d’exposition aux horaires, propriétés du système d’horaires, par exemple sur ces effets et la nécessité d’intégrer l’analyse du contenu du travail et des exigences du travail dans l’analyse de ces effets. Avant de penser le 2x12h comme une solution au conflit de temporalités du travail posté, la réflexion d’aménagement des horaires de travail se doit d’intégrer une analyse systémique et détaillée du travail, prenant en compte le contenu du travail, les exigences des tâches et les stratégies d’accord des temporalités mises en place par les opérateurs concernés au niveau de leur activité de travail.Twelve-hour shifts appear to facilitate the flow of temporalities involved in shift work schedules and the different temporal dimensions of human functioning: particularly biological rhythms, private life, and fatigue. In a social and economic context that favors the increase of 12-h shifts, this paper sums up the effects of 12-h shifts on health, personal life, and work. 12-h shifts seem to have less impact on health and personal life, when compared with other shift-work systems. This synthesis shows the importance of other factors (characteristics of the

  17. Content Analysis of Work Limitation, Stanford Presenteeism, and Work Instability Questionnaires Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and Item Perspective Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanitha Arumugam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Presenteeism refers to reduced performance or productivity while at work due to health reasons. WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS are the commonly used self-report presenteeism questionnaires. These questionnaires have acceptable psychometric properties but have not been subject to structured content analysis that would define their conceptual basis. Objective. To describe the conceptual basis of the three questionnaires using ICF and IPF and then compare the distribution and content of codes to those on the vocational rehabilitation core set. Methods. Two researchers independently linked the items of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS to the ICF and IPF following the established linking rules. The percentage agreement on coding was calculated between the researchers. Results. WLQ-26 was linked to 62 ICF codes, SPS-6 was linked to 17 ICF codes, and RA-WIS was linked to 74 ICF codes. Most of these codes belonged to the activity and participation domains. All the concepts were classified by the IPF, and the most were rational appraisals within the social domain. Only 12% of codes of the core set for vocational rehabilitation were used in this study to code these questionnaires. Conclusion. The specific nature of work disability that was included in these three questionnaires was difficult to explain using ICF since many aspects of content were not confined. The core set for vocational rehabilitation covered very limited content of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS.

  18. Content Analysis of Work Limitation, Stanford Presenteeism, and Work Instability Questionnaires Using International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health and Item Perspective Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDermid, Joy C.; Grewal, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Background. Presenteeism refers to reduced performance or productivity while at work due to health reasons. WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS are the commonly used self-report presenteeism questionnaires. These questionnaires have acceptable psychometric properties but have not been subject to structured content analysis that would define their conceptual basis. Objective. To describe the conceptual basis of the three questionnaires using ICF and IPF and then compare the distribution and content of codes to those on the vocational rehabilitation core set. Methods. Two researchers independently linked the items of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS to the ICF and IPF following the established linking rules. The percentage agreement on coding was calculated between the researchers. Results. WLQ-26 was linked to 62 ICF codes, SPS-6 was linked to 17 ICF codes, and RA-WIS was linked to 74 ICF codes. Most of these codes belonged to the activity and participation domains. All the concepts were classified by the IPF, and the most were rational appraisals within the social domain. Only 12% of codes of the core set for vocational rehabilitation were used in this study to code these questionnaires. Conclusion. The specific nature of work disability that was included in these three questionnaires was difficult to explain using ICF since many aspects of content were not confined. The core set for vocational rehabilitation covered very limited content of the WLQ-26, SPS-6, and RA-WIS. PMID:24459587

  19. Hour-by-hour physical activity patterns of adults aged 45–65 years : A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, F M; van Kollenburg, G.H.; Kamphuis, C B M; Pierik, F H; Ettema, D F

    2018-01-01

    Background Limited information exists on hour-by-hour physical activity (PA) patterns among adults aged 45–65 years. Therefore, this study aimed to distinguish typical hour-by-hour PA patterns, and examined which individuals typically adopt certain PA patterns. Methods Accelerometers measured light

  20. Low work-function thermionic emission and orbital-motion-limited ion collection at bare-tether cathodic contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xin, E-mail: xin.chen@upm.es; Sanmartín, J. R., E-mail: juanr.sanmartin@upm.es [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingeniería Aeronáutica y del Espacio, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros, 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-05-15

    With a thin coating of low-work-function material, thermionic emission in the cathodic segment of bare tethers might be much greater than orbital-motion-limited (OML) ion collection current. The space charge of the emitted electrons decreases the electric field that accelerates them outwards, and could even reverse it for high enough emission, producing a potential hollow. In this work, at the conditions of high bias and relatively low emission that make the potential monotonic, an asymptotic analysis is carried out, extending the OML ion-collection analysis to investigate the probe response due to electrons emitted by the negatively biased cylindrical probe. At given emission, the space charge effect from emitted electrons increases with decreasing magnitude of negative probe bias. Although emitted electrons present negligible space charge far away from the probe, their effect cannot be neglected in the global analysis for the sheath structure and two thin layers in between sheath and the quasineutral region. The space-charge-limited condition is located. It is found that thermionic emission increases the range of probe radius for OML validity and is greatly more effective than ion collection for cathodic contact of tethers.

  1. Geneva 24 Hours Swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  2. Geneva 24 hours swim

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The 18th edition of the Geneva 24 hours swim competition will take place at the Vernets Swimming Pool on the 4th and 5th of October. More information and the results of previous years are given at: http://www.carouge-natation.com/24_heures/home_24_heures.htm Last year, CERN obtained first position in the inter-company category with a total of 152.3 kms swam by 45 participants. We are counting on your support to repeat this excellent performance this year. For those who would like to train, the Livron swimming pool in Meyrin is open as from Monday the 8th September. For further information please do not hesitate to contact us. Gino de Bilio and Catherine Delamare

  3. Fixed Costs and Hours Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William R.

    2011-01-01

    Hours constraints are typically identified by worker responses to questions asking whether they would prefer a job with more hours and more pay or fewer hours and less pay. Because jobs with different hours but the same rate of pay may be infeasible when there are fixed costs of employment or mandatory overtime premia, the constraint in those…

  4. Reconciliation of work and care among lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities: the role and limits of care capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Kröger, Teppo

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the concept of social capital is applied to an exploration of Guanxi (social networking to create good relationships) among working lone mothers of adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) in Taiwan. Using in-depth interviews, this study explores the role of social capital, here referred to as 'care capital', in making it possible for working lone mothers to combine their roles as family carers and workers. Eleven divorced or widowed mothers combining their paid work with long-term care responsibilities were recruited from a survey or through NGOs and were interviewed at their home between October 2008 and July 2010. An interpretative phenomenological approach was adopted for data analysis. The findings revealed that the mothers' care capital was extremely limited and was lost, gained and lost again during their life-cycles of long-term care-giving. Guanxi, especially in relation to their employers, proved to be the sole source of care capital for these mothers, making reconciliation between work and care responsibilities possible. In the absence of formal or informal support, religion and the mother-child relationship seemed also to become a kind of care capital for these lone mothers, helping them to get by with their life-long care responsibilities. For formal social and healthcare services, not just in Taiwan but in every country, it is important to develop support for lone mothers of adults with ID who have long-term care responsibilities and low levels of care capital and thus face care poverty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Physical functional limitations (PFL) have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement) cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%); the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%). Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women. PMID:22494385

  6. The course of physical functional limitations and occupational conditions in a middle-aged working population in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Stampa Matthieu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical functional limitations (PFL have mainly been studied in older populations. The aim of this study was to better understand the course of PFL and associations with occupational factors by gender in a middle-aged working population. Methods The data came from 16,950 workers in the ESTEV (Enquête Santé Travail et Vieillissement cohort in France. PFL were assessed using the physical abilities section of the Nottingham Health Profile. Occupational conditions were measured with a self-administered questionnaire covering physical and psychosocial factors in 1990 and 1995. Multivariate analyses were used to assess the associations. Results The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was the same by gender (6.3%; the rate of PFL recovery was higher in men (23.9% versus 20.9%. Age was an independent factor of PFL at age 47 years or older in both genders after adjusting for confounding factors. The PFL appearance rate in 1995 was higher with physical occupational exposure in 1990, such as awkward work with a dose relation in both genders, while the PFL recovery rate decreased significantly only for men. Exposure to psychosocial occupational conditions, such as having the means to produce quality work in 1990, was significantly associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 in both genders, and having high decision latitude in 1990 was associated with a decreased PFL appearance rate in 1995 only in men. Changes in exposure to occupational factors between 1990 and 1995 were associated with the PFL appearance and recovery rates in 1995 in both genders. Conclusions After five years, the course of PFL in this working population changed and was associated with physical and psychosocial occupational factors. Relationships were stronger for the PFL appearance rate in both genders and were weaker for recovery from PFL, mainly among women.

  7. Comparing self-report, clinical examination and functional testing in the assessment of work-related limitations in patients with chronic low back pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, S; Dijkstra, PU; Stewart, RE; Goeken, LNH; Groothoff, JW; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the work-related limitations assessed using self-report, clinical examination and functional testing in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Methods. Work-related limitations of 92 patients were assessed using self-report, clinical examination and functional testing. To

  8. Does Graded Return to Work Improve Disabled Workers’ Labour Market Attachment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgelund, Jan; Holm, Anders; McIntosh, James

    for the hours off work. When the worker’s health improves, working hours are increased until the sick-listed worker is able to work regular hours. Previous studies either concern specially designed pro-grams with a limited population of disabled workers or they do not take into account the unobserved...

  9. A novel method of calibrating a MEMS inertial reference unit on a turntable under limited working conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiazhen; Liang, Shufang; Yang, Yanqiang

    2017-10-01

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement devices tend to be widely used in inertial navigation systems and have quickly emerged on the market due to their characteristics of low cost, high reliability and small size. Calibration is the most effective way to remove the deterministic error of an inertial reference unit (IRU), which in this paper consists of three orthogonally mounted MEMS gyros. However, common testing methods in the lab cannot predict the corresponding errors precisely when the turntable’s working condition is restricted. In this paper, the turntable can only provide a relatively small rotation angle. Moreover, the errors must be compensated exactly because of the great effect caused by the high angular velocity of the craft. To deal with this question, a new method is proposed to evaluate the MEMS IRU’s performance. In the calibration procedure, a one-axis table that can rotate a limited angle in the form of a sine function is utilized to provide the MEMS IRU’s angular velocity. A new algorithm based on Fourier series is designed to calculate the misalignment and scale factor errors. The proposed method is tested in a set of experiments, and the calibration results are compared to a traditional calibration method performed under normal working conditions to verify their correctness. In addition, a verification test in the given rotation speed is implemented for further demonstration.

  10. Limitations to Degree of Involvement: A Reply to Parette, Hourcade, and Brimer and "Let Us Not Talk Falsely Now, for the Hour Is Getting Late." An Acknowledgement of Realpolitik.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainforth, Beverly; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This response to Parette et al. concerning the use of degree of involvement (DOI) in determining appropriate related services for individuals with cerebral palsy and other disabilities proposes a standard for using limited resources judiciously based on the principle of "only as special as necessary." (DB)

  11. Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) Publication is archived and available from the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). This publication contains hourly precipitation...

  12. US Naval Observatory Hourly Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly observations journal from the National Observatory in Washington DC. The observatory is the first station in the United States to produce hourly observations...

  13. The Effects of the 80-hour Workweek on Occupational Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drazin, Doniel; Al-Khouja, Lutfi; Colen, Chaim

    2016-04-03

    BACKGROUND : The most recent work-hour restrictions were implemented in July 2011 for training physicians. The impact of these regulations on workplace injuries is not yet fully understood. Our goal is to determine the effect of the work-hour limitation on the rates of needlestick and eyesplash injuries. METHODS : Approximately 1200 neurosurgery residents and fellows in the United States were emailed a survey, several times, Sept 2013-February 2014. There were 212 responses across postgraduate years 1-7 and fellowship regarding the rate of needlestick and eyesplash injuries experienced or witnessed before and after July 2011. RESULTS : Regarding witnessing a needlestick/eyesplash accident: 89.33% of respondents claimed witnessing an injury. Specifically regarding percutaneous injuries (PCIs): before July 2011, 21.77% claimed never witnessing; after July 2011, only 8.9% indicated never witnessing. Specifically regarding eyesplash injuries: comparing the injuries (40.94%) before July 2011 to those (51.94%) after July 2011, the survey indicated an increase in eyesplash injuries. CONCLUSION : The results of this survey document that neurosurgery residents/fellows observed (or personally sustained) an increased number of needlestick and eyesplash injuries after implementation of the July 2011 work-hour limitations. Although the last set of reduced-hour regulations have been in place for more than three years, there does not therefore seem to be a safety advantage associated with them regarding a reduction in PCI or eyesplash accidents. This may be due to other confounding factors, not yet affirmatively identified, which warrant additional investigation and identification, directed at preventing future injuries.

  14. Accounting for stimulus-specific variation in precision reveals a discrete capacity limit in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratte, Michael S; Park, Young Eun; Rademaker, Rosanne L; Tong, Frank

    2017-01-01

    If we view a visual scene that contains many objects, then momentarily close our eyes, some details persist while others seem to fade. Discrete models of visual working memory (VWM) assume that only a few items can be actively maintained in memory, beyond which pure guessing will emerge. Alternatively, continuous resource models assume that all items in a visual scene can be stored with some precision. Distinguishing between these competing models is challenging, however, as resource models that allow for stochastically variable precision (across items and trials) can produce error distributions that resemble random guessing behavior. Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that a major source of variability in VWM performance arises from systematic variation in precision across the stimuli themselves; such stimulus-specific variability can be incorporated into both discrete-capacity and variable-precision resource models. Participants viewed multiple oriented gratings, and then reported the orientation of a cued grating from memory. When modeling the overall distribution of VWM errors, we found that the variable-precision resource model outperformed the discrete model. However, VWM errors revealed a pronounced "oblique effect," with larger errors for oblique than cardinal orientations. After this source of variability was incorporated into both models, we found that the discrete model provided a better account of VWM errors. Our results demonstrate that variable precision across the stimulus space can lead to an unwarranted advantage for resource models that assume stochastically variable precision. When these deterministic sources are adequately modeled, human working memory performance reveals evidence of a discrete capacity limit. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Limitation of sludge biotic index application for control of a wastewater treatment plant working with shock organic and ammonium loadings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzewicki, Adam; Kulikowska, Dorota

    2011-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between activated sludge microfauna, the sludge biotic index (SBI) and the effluent quality of a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) working with shock organic and ammonium loadings caused by periodic wastewater delivery from septic tanks. Irrespective of high/low effluent quality in terms of COD, BOD5, ammonium and suspended solids, high SBI values (8-10), which correspond to the first quality class of sludge, were observed. High SBI values were connected with abundant taxonomic composition and the domination of crawling ciliates with shelled amoebae and attached ciliates. High SBI values, even at a low effluent quality, limit the usefulness of the index for monitoring the status of an activated sludge system and the effluent quality in municipal WWTP-treated wastewater from septic tanks. It was shown that a more sensitive indicator of effluent quality was a change in the abundance of attached ciliates with a narrow peristome (Vorticella infusionum and Opercularia coarctata), small flagellates and crawling ciliates (Acineria uncinata) feeding on flagellates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychiatry out-of-hours: a focus group study of GPs' experiences in Norwegian casualty clinics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlsen Benedicte

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For Norwegian general practitioners (GPs, acute treatment of mental illness and substance abuse are among the most commonly experienced emergency situations in out-of-hours primary healthcare. The largest share of acute referrals to emergency psychiatric wards occurs out-of-hours, and out-of-hours services are responsible for a disproportionately high share of compulsory referrals. Concerns exist regarding the quality of mental healthcare provided in the out-of-hours setting. The aim of this study was to explore which challenges GPs experience when providing emergency care out-of-hours to patients presenting problems related to mental illness or substance abuse. Methods We conducted a qualitative study based on two individual interviews and six focus groups with purposively sampled GPs (totally 45 participants. The interviews were analysed successively in an editing style, using a thematic approach based on methodological descriptions by Charmaz and Malterud. Results Safety and uncertainty were the dominating themes in the discussions. The threat to personal safety due to unpredictable patient behaviour was a central concern, and present security precautions in the out-of-hours services were questioned. The GPs expressed high levels of uncertainty in their work with patients presenting problems related to mental illness or substance abuse. The complexity of the problems presented, shortage of time, limited access to reliable information and limited range of interventions available during out-of-hours contributed to this uncertainty. Perceived access to second opinion seemed to have a major impact on subjectively experienced work stress. Conclusions The GPs experienced out-of-hours psychiatry as a field with high levels of uncertainty and limited support to help them meet the experienced challenges. This might influence the quality of care provided. If the current organisation of emergency mental healthcare is to be kept, we

  17. From distributed resources to limited slots in multiple-item working memory: a spiking network model with normalization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Ziqiang; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Wang, Da-Hui

    2012-01-01

    ...: a "discrete-slot" model in which memory items are stored in a limited number of slots, and a "shared-resource" model in which the neural representation of items is distributed across a limited pool of resources...

  18. 40 CFR 63.1453 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations, work practice standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... collecting, reducing, and recording the monitoring data for each of the operating limit parameters according... multiplied by 100. (2) Maintain records of the times the bag leak detection system alarm sounded, and for... matter emission limits. For each affected source subject to a particulate matter emission limit § 63.1444...

  19. The nursing work in care of hospitalized elderly: limits and particularities / O trabalho de enfermagem no cuidado ao idoso hospitalizado: limites e particularidades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zanin Sanguino

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar o cuidado de enfermagem ao idoso em diversos cenários de um hospital geral, com ênfase no preparo profissional, limites e particularidades das práticas assistenciais. Método: Pesquisa exploratória de natureza descritiva, com abordagem qualitativa, realizada em um hospital universitário público, por entrevista aberta, com 15 profissionais de enfermagem que executavam cuidados a pacientes idosos. Resultado: Identificou-se que o cuidado de enfermagem ao idoso hospitalizado enfrenta limites e dificuldades de distintas origens; que o cuidado de enfermagem ao idoso hospitalizado requer atenção peculiar imposta pelas características do envelhecimento; e que o cuidado de enfermagem ao idoso hospitalizado é facilitado pela prática colaborativa. Conclusão: Foram apontadas distintas dificuldades no cuidado de enfermagem a idosos hospitalizados, assim como a necessidade de uma assistência direcionada a especificidades do indivíduo idoso e o quanto a colaboração interprofissional permite um cuidado mais individualizado e efetivo para essa população.

  20. Examination of arthritis-related work place activity limitations and intermittent disability over four-and-a-half years and its relationship to job modifications and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan; Tang, Kenneth; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2011-07-01

    To examine the type, degree, and episodic nature of arthritis-related work place activity limitations and the consistency of the relationship of activity limitations to job modifications and work place outcomes. Using an interviewer-administered structured questionnaire, individuals with osteoarthritis (OA) or inflammatory arthritis (IA) were interviewed at 4 time points, 18 months apart. At baseline, all participants (n = 490; 381 women, 109 men) were employed. Respondents were recruited using community advertising and from rheumatology and rehabilitation clinics. The Workplace Activity Limitations Scale (WALS) assessed arthritis-related disability with job tasks. Job modifications/accommodations (e.g., scheduling changes), work place outcomes (e.g., absenteeism), demographics, illness, and work context were also measured. Repeated cross-sectional logistic regressions examined levels of WALS disability with job modifications and outcomes at each time point. Similar levels of activity limitations were found comparing OA and IA with fewer difficulties with global aspects of work (e.g., scheduling) than with specific tasks (e.g., working with hands). Three-quarters of the participants had episodic or intermittent WALS difficulty over time. Medium and high levels of work place activity limitations were significantly associated with job modifications, and high WALS difficulty was consistently related to negative work outcomes. Many individuals with arthritis report some difficulty with work place activities. However, these difficulties are often intermittent and may not result in changes to work productivity until they are consistently high. This is important for designing work place interventions and for employers, insurers, and the government to understand to avoid viewing individuals with arthritis as a permanent drain on work place and health resources. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Creativity and Working Memory Capacity in Sports: Working Memory Capacity Is not a Limiting Factor in Creative Decision Making amongst Skilled Performers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip eFurley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between domain-general working memory capacity and domain-specific creativity amongst experienced soccer players. We administered the automated operation span task in combination with a domain-specific soccer creativity task to a group of 61 experienced soccer players to address the question whether an athlete’s domain-specific creativity is restricted by their domain-general cognitive abilities (i.e. working memory capacity. Given that previous studies have either found a positive correlation, a negative correlation, or no correlation between working memory capacity and creativity, we analyzed the data in an exploratory manner by following recent recommendations to report effect-size estimations and their precision in form of 95% confidence intervals. The pattern of results provided evidence that domain-general working memory capacity is not associated with creativity in a soccer-specific creativity task. This pattern of results suggests that future research and theorizing on the role of working memory in everyday creative performance needs to distinguish between different types of creative performance while also taking the role of domain-specific experience into account.

  2. Creativity and working memory capacity in sports: working memory capacity is not a limiting factor in creative decision making amongst skilled performers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to investigate the relationship between domain-general working memory capacity and domain-specific creativity amongst experienced soccer players. We administered the automated operation span task in combination with a domain-specific soccer creativity task to a group of 61 experienced soccer players to address the question whether an athlete's domain-specific creativity is restricted by their domain-general cognitive abilities (i.e., working memory capacity). Given that previous studies have either found a positive correlation, a negative correlation, or no correlation between working memory capacity and creativity, we analyzed the data in an exploratory manner by following recent recommendations to report effect-size estimations and their precision in form of 95% confidence intervals. The pattern of results provided evidence that domain-general working memory capacity is not associated with creativity in a soccer-specific creativity task. This pattern of results suggests that future research and theorizing on the role of working memory in everyday creative performance needs to distinguish between different types of creative performance while also taking the role of domain-specific experience into account.

  3. 40 CFR 63.7530 - How do I demonstrate initial compliance with the emission limits and work practice standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) If you choose to comply with the alternative TSM emission limit instead of the particulate matter emission limit, you must establish the maximum TSM fuel input level (TSMinput) during the initial... has the highest content of TSM. (ii) During the performance testing for TSM, you must determine the...

  4. Working ability in relation to disease severity, everyday occupations and well-being in women with limited systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, G; Scheja, A; Eklund, M

    2008-11-01

    To investigate how women with SSc and varying degrees of working ability differed regarding disease severity, everyday occupations and well-being. Working ability was operationalized according to the degree of sick leave. Forty-four women of working age with lcSSc were assessed regarding sociodemographic characteristics, disease severity including organ manifestation, perceived physical symptoms, hand function, and satisfaction with everyday occupations, self-rated health and well-being. The subjects formed three groups with regard to reduction in working capacity. Twenty-one women (48%) had no sick leave, 15 women (34%) were on partial sick leave and eight women (18%) were temporarily on full-time sick leave or had a full disability pension. There were no statistically significant differences concerning sociodemographics between the groups. Women without sick leave had less physically demanding jobs (P = 0.026), and the hypothesis that working ability reflects lower disease severity was confirmed regarding dexterity grip force and perceived fatigue and breathlessness (P < 0.05). Greater working ability was associated with better capacity to perform activities of daily life (P < 0.01), greater satisfaction with occupations (P < 0.01), better well-being (P < 0.001) and better health (P < 0.001). Fifty per cent of the women were restricted in their working ability; the lower the working ability, the lower their perceived well-being. This emphasizes the need for further research into the factors that promote working ability and the development of suitable methods to improve working ability.

  5. Differences in demographic composition and in work, social, and functional limitations among the populations with unipolar depression and bipolar disorder: results from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shippee, Nathan D; Shah, Nilay D; Williams, Mark D; Moriarty, James P; Frye, Mark A; Ziegenfuss, Jeanette Y

    2011-10-13

    Existing literature on mood disorders suggests that the demographic distribution of bipolar disorder may differ from that of unipolar depression, and also that bipolar disorder may be especially disruptive to personal functioning. Yet, few studies have directly compared the populations with unipolar depressive and bipolar disorders, whether in terms of demographic characteristics or personal limitations. Furthermore, studies have generally examined work-related costs, without fully investigating the extensive personal limitations associated with diagnoses of specific mood disorders. The purpose of the present study is to compare, at a national level, the demographic characteristics, work productivity, and personal limitations among individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder versus those diagnosed with unipolar depressive disorders and no mood disorder. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 2004-2006, a nationally representative survey of the civilian, non-institutionalized U.S. population, was used to identify individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder and unipolar depressive disorders based on ICD-9 classifications. Outcomes of interest were indirect costs, including work productivity and personal limitations. Compared to those with depression and no mood disorder, higher proportions of the population with bipolar disorder were poor, living alone, and not married. Also, the bipolar disorder population had higher rates of unemployment and social, cognitive, work, and household limitations than the depressed population. In multivariate models, patients with bipolar disorder or depression were more likely to be unemployed, miss work, and have social, cognitive, physical, and household limitations than those with no mood disorder. Notably, findings indicated particularly high costs for bipolar disorder, even beyond depression, with especially large differences in odds ratios for non-employment (4.6 for bipolar disorder versus 1.9 for depression, with differences

  6. Longer Opening Hours for the Library

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    The scientific information service. The CERN library is open 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. So how, you might be wondering, can they improve on that? The answer is in the detail. Although you can already use the library whenever you want, items can only be checked out when the front desk is staffed. A decision taken last week by the Scientific Information Policy Board now means that there will someone at the desk through out CERN's official working hours, with an extra 90 minutes at the end of the day so that people can check out material on their way home. In other words, the library will be open from 8:30 to 19:00, Monday to Friday. The library continues, of course, to be open 24 hours a day, all year round, and services provided via the digital library remain at your disposal day and night: http://library.cern.ch

  7. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 1 Hour

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Ozone - 1hour (Legacy...

  8. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Snellings

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits, were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061 ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698 ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831 ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262 ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884 ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459 ppm for the combined sexes.

  9. 40 CFR 63.7540 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limits and work practice standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... would either result in lower emissions of TSM, HCl, and mercury, than the applicable emission limit for... TSM, chlorine, and mercury than the maximum values calculated during the last performance tests (if... the procedures in § 63.7530(c). (5) If you demonstrate compliance with an applicable TSM emission...

  10. Anchoring Vignettes in the Health and Retirement Study: How Do Medical Professionals and Disability Recipients Characterize the Severity of Work Limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiland, Frank; Yin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies report systematic differences in how individuals categorize the severity of identical health and work limitation vignettes. We investigate how health professionals and disability recipients characterize the severity of work limitations and whether their reporting patterns are robust to demographic, education, and health characteristics. We use the results to illustrate the potential impact of reporting heterogeneity on the distribution of work disability estimated from self-reported categorical health and disability data. Method Nationally representative data on anchoring disability vignettes from the 2004 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) are used to investigate how respondents with an occupation background in health and Social Security disability beneficiaries categorize work limitation vignettes. Using pain, cardiovascular health, and depression vignettes, we estimate generalized ordered probit models (N = 2,660 individuals or 39,681 person-vignette observations) that allow the severity thresholds to vary by respondent characteristics. Results We find that health professionals (excluding nurses) and disability recipients tend to classify identical work limitations as more severe compared to non-health professional non-disabled respondents. For disability recipients, the differences are most pronounced and particularly visible in the tails of the work limitations distribution. For health professionals, we observe smaller differences, affecting primarily the classification of mildly and moderately severe work limitations. The patterns for health professionals (excluding nurses) are robust to demographics, education, and health conditions. The greater likelihood of viewing the vignette person as more severely work limited observed among disability recipients is mostly explained by the fact that these respondents also tend to be in poorer health which itself predicts a more inclusive scale. Conclusions Knowledge of reporting scales from health

  11. The role of attentional priority and saliency in determining capacity limits in enumeration and visual working memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Melcher

    Full Text Available Many common tasks require us to individuate in parallel two or more objects out of a complex scene. Although the mechanisms underlying our abilities to count the number of items, remember the visual properties of objects and to make saccadic eye movements towards targets have been studied separately, each of these tasks require selection of individual objects and shows a capacity limit. Here we show that a common factor--salience--determines the capacity limit in the various tasks. We manipulated bottom-up salience (visual contrast and top-down salience (task relevance in enumeration and visual memory tasks. As one item became increasingly salient, the subitizing range was reduced and memory performance for all other less-salient items was decreased. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that our abilities to enumerate and remember small groups of stimuli are grounded in an attentional priority or salience map which represents the location of important items.

  12. Restricted duty hours for surgeons and impact on residents quality of life, education, and patient care: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfeifer Roman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Work-hour limitations have been implemented by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME in July 2003 in order to minimize fatigue related medical adverse events. The effects of this regulation are still under intense debate. In this literature review, data of effects of limited work-hours on the quality of life, surgical education, and patient care was summarized, focusing on surgical subspecialities. Methods Studies that assessed the effects of the work-hour regulation published following the implementation of ACGME guidelines (2003 were searched using PubMed database. The following search modules were selected: work-hours, 80-hour work week, quality of life, work satisfaction, surgical education, residency training, patient care, continuity of care. Publications were included if they were completed in the United States and covered the subject of our review. Manuscrips were analysed to identify authors, year of publication, type of study, number of participants, and the main outcomes. Review Findings Twenty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies demonstrate that the residents quality of life has improved. The effects on surgical education are still unclear due to inconsistency in studies. Furthermore, according to several objective studies there were no changes in mortality and morbidity following the implementation. Conclusion Further studies are necessary addressing the effects of surgical education and studying the objective methods to assess the technical skill and procedural competence of surgeons. In addition, patient surveys analysing their satisfaction and concerns can contribute to recent discussion, as well.

  13. Constructing gridded hourly temperature data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    Air temperature is the main climatological element, with major impact on the earth-atmosphere energy balance. The characteristics of the surface air temperature in locations without meteorological measurements are obtained using spatio-temporal interpolation techniques. Gridded surface meteorological data are essential for evaluating the performance of regional climate models (RCMs), for applying Statistical Downscaling (SD) methods and as input data for hydrological models. In this study we proposed a methodolgy for interpolating hourly surface temperatures. Three gridding methods are compared. A two-step multivariate gridding approach was used. First we interpolated the hourly normal maps, considered as multiannual average (1961-2010), of air temperature for each hour (4 meteorological terms) of a standard year (366 days). In this step, the Residual Kriging method was used with potential predictors derived from DEM and Landcover Corinne. For interpolating the residuals of the regression model we tested 3 gridding methods: Multiquadratic (MQ), Ordinary Kriging (OK) and 3D Kriging (using time as a third dimension). In the second step, we calculated the anomalies of each hour, day, year for the period 1961-2010. The anomalies were interpolated using the same methods applied for gridding regression residuals. The final hourly surface air temperature maps were obtained by summing the maps from first step with the anomlies map. The main data used in this work were the hourly air temperatures of the 4 observation terms (01, 07, 13, 19), measured between 1961-2010 at the weather stations of the Romanian Meteorological Administration. The predictors were derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) DEM and from CORINE Land Cover 2000 product. The gridding was performed in a Romanian National Grid (Stereo 70), at 1 km2 spatial resolution, using R language. The study has been financed by the research project Changes in climate extremes and associated impact in

  14. Hourly associations between heat and ambulance calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yuming

    2017-01-01

    The response speed of ambulance calls is very crucial to rescue patients suffering immediately life threatening conditions. The serious health outcomes might be caused by exposing to extreme heat only several hours before. However, limited evidence is available on this topic. This study aims to examine the hourly association between heat and ambulance calls, to improve the ambulance services and to better protect health. Hourly data on ambulance calls for non-accidental causes, temperature and air pollutants (PM10, NO2, and O3) were collected from Brisbane, Australia, during 2001 and 2007. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to examine the associations between hourly ambulance calls and temperature during warm season (Nov, Dec, Jan, Feb, and Mar), while adjusting for potential confounders. Stratified analyses were performed for sex and age groups. Ambulance calls peaked at 10am for all groups, except those aged 27 °C) increase the demands of ambulance. This information is helpful to increase the efficiency of ambulance service then save lives, for example, preparing more ambulance before appearance of extremely hot temperature in combination with weather forecast. Also, people should better arrange their time for outdoor activities to avoid exposing to extreme hot temperatures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Excel VBA 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Urtis, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Master VBA automation quickly and easily to get more out of Excel Excel VBA 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is the quick-start guide to getting more out of Excel, using Visual Basic for Applications. This unique book/video package has been updated with fifteen new advanced video lessons, providing a total of eleven hours of video training and 45 total lessons to teach you the basics and beyond. This self-paced tutorial explains Excel VBA from the ground up, demonstrating with each advancing lesson how you can increase your productivity. Clear, concise, step-by-step instructions are combined wit

  16. Interns shall not sleep: the duty hours boomerang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after 150 words. On March 10, 2017, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME announced revisions to its common program requirements related to duty hours (1. Effective on July 1, 2017, the most important change will be an increase in the maximum consecutive hours that an intern may work. Interns will now be able to continuously perform patient care work up to a maximum of 24 hours with an additional 4 hours for managing care transitions. This reverses the controversial reduction to 16 hours that occurred in 2011 (2. The regulation of house staff duty hours formally began in the late 1980s. It was precipitated largely because of the publicity resulting from the 1984 death of Libby Zion in a New York teaching hospital that was attributed partly to poor decisions made by fatigued and overworked house staff (3. Consequently, the state of New York in 1989 passed laws restricting the …

  17. Work-related stress in midlife is associated with higher number of mobility limitation in older age-results from the FLAME study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, Jenni; Hinrichs, Timo; Törmäkangas, Timo; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Klockars, Matti; Seitsamo, Jorma; Ilmarinen, Juhani; Rantanen, Taina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether work-related stress symptoms in midlife are associated with a number of mobility limitations during three decades from midlife to late life. Data for the study come from the Finnish Longitudinal Study of Municipal Employees (FLAME). The study includes a total of 5429 public sector employees aged 44-58 years at baseline who had information available on work-related stress symptoms in 1981 and 1985 and mobility limitation score during the subsequent 28-year follow-up. Four midlife work-related stress profiles were identified: negative reactions to work and depressiveness, perceived decrease in cognition, sleep disturbances, and somatic symptoms. People with a high number of stress symptoms in 1981 and 1985 were categorized as having constant stress. The number of self-reported mobility limitations was computed based on an eight-item list of mobility tasks presented to the participants in 1992, 1997, and 2009. Data were analyzed using joint Poisson regression models. The study showed that depending on the stress profile, persons suffering from constant stress in midlife had a higher risk of 30-70 % for having one more mobility limitation during the following 28 years compared to persons without stress after adjusting for mortality, several lifestyle factors, and chronic conditions. A less pronounced risk increase (20-40 %) was observed for persons with occasional symptoms. The study suggests that effective interventions aiming to reduce work-related stress should focus on both primary and secondary prevention.

  18. P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein: two dominant transporters working together in limiting the brain penetration of topotecan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Nienke A; Zhao, Jin; Kroon, Emily; Buckle, Tessa; Beijnen, Jos H; van Tellingen, Olaf

    2007-11-01

    The brain is a pharmacologic sanctuary site, due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Whereas the effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the BBB is well established, the role of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) that is also expressed at the BBB is not. We have studied the effect of BCRP by administering topotecan to wild-type (WT), single Mdr1a/b(-/-) and Bcrp1(-/-), and compound Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) knockout mice. Drug levels in plasma and tissues were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The area under the plasma and tissue concentration-time curve (AUC) of topotecan in brains of Mdr1a/b(-/-) and Bcrp1(-/-) mice was only 1.5-fold higher compared with WT mice, but in Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, where both transporters are absent, the AUC increased by 12-fold. The AUC in plasma was approximately 0.75-, 2.4-, and 3.7-fold higher in Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1(-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice, respectively, resulting in 2.0-fold (P brain-to-plasma AUC ratios. Results using Mrp4(-/-) mice showed that this transporter had no effect on the brain penetration of topotecan. The P-gp/BCRP inhibitor elacridar fully inhibited P-gp-mediated transport of topotecan, whereas inhibition of Bcrp1-mediated transport by elacridar was minimal. Our results using Mdr1a/b(-/-)Bcrp1(-/-) mice clearly show the effect of Bcrp1 at the BBB and also show how two drug transporters act in concert to limit the brain penetration of topotecan. We expect that this finding will also apply to other drugs that are substrates of both P-gp and BCRP. Consequently, to improve the brain penetration of such compounds for targeting intracranial malignancies in patients, it will be essential to use potent inhibitors of both drug transporters.

  19. OPENING HOURS FOR CARDS OFFICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    Due to the extra workload generated by the global renewal of French cards and in order to preserve the level of service offered by the cards office, please note that this office will in future be open every morning from 8.30 a.m. to 12.30 p.m. until further notice. The service can be contacted by telephone during the same hours. Thank you for your understanding.

  20. Resident job satisfaction: will 80 hours make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Kirsten J; Alvero, Ruben; Teal, Stephanie B

    2004-11-01

    This study was undertaken to assess job satisfaction and quality of life among obstetrics and gynecology residents before the 80-hour work week. We administered a job satisfaction survey to residents before July 1, 2003, assessing satisfaction with residency training, indicators of current quality of life, and predictions for the effect of reduced work hours. Residents were satisfied with training, with important outliers, including leisure time, ability to pursue educational reading, and surgical experience. We created job satisfaction facets that were generally reliable constructs and valid predictors for overall residency satisfaction. Residents predict more free time and a healthier lifestyle under the new requirements, but do not anticipate using additional time to study or teach. Job satisfaction facets for residents are proposed here and may be refined through further study. Lower scores for surgical experience are of concern in light of decreasing work hours. Educators must monitor self-directed learning efforts under new work hours.

  1. Effects of the 2011 duty hour restrictions on resident education and learning from patient admissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Katherine A; Jerardi, Karen E; Sucharew, Heidi J; Yau, Connie; Unaka, Ndidi; Simmons, Jeffrey M

    2014-07-01

    In July 2011, new duty hour limits for resident physicians were instituted to address concerns about the effects of sleep deprivation on patient care and trainee experience. We sought to evaluate potential educational impacts of these duty hour changes with regard to learning and frequency of attending interactions during patient admissions. Forty-nine residents on general pediatric teams participated in a prospective observational cohort study. Intervention residents (n = 23) worked a shift-based schedule compliant with new requirements. Control residents (n = 26) were on call every fourth night and compliant with 2003 work hour limits. Faculty members were present 16 hours daily. Resident surveys assessed learning from admissions (frequency of attending interaction and perceived learning during admissions). Data were analyzed with generalized linear mixed models to account for multiple responses from each resident. Intervention interns and seniors were less likely to present admissions to faculty during morning rounds, but there were no differences between intervention and control groups in percentage of admissions discussed with faculty at any time. Perceived learning from admissions was not different between the 2 groups. Faculty-resident interaction decreased during morning rounds; however, overall attending contact did not, suggesting inpatient teaching approaches must adapt to meet learners' needs throughout the workday. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Gate A: changes to opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Due to maintenance work, the opening hours of Gate A (near Reception) will be modified between Monday, 13 and Friday, 17 April 2015.   During this period, the gate will be open to vehicles between 7 a.m. and 9.30 a.m., then between 4.30 p.m. and 7 p.m. It will be completely closed to traffic between 9.30 a.m. and 4.30 p.m. Pedestrians and cyclists may continue to use the gate. We apologise for any inconvenience and thank you for your understanding.

  3. Temporary new opening hours for Gate C

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    Please note the new temporary opening hours for the gate C as from 22 September 2010 until 29 October 2010 (working days): Morning: between 7:00 a.m. and 9:00 a.m. Lunch: between 12:00 and 2:00 p.m. Evening: between 5:00 pm and 7:00 p.m. Traffic flow will be permitted in both directions during this period. Please minimize your speed accordingly and respect all road signs. GS-SEM Group General Infrastructure Services Department

  4. Java programming 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Fain, Yakov

    2015-01-01

    Quick and painless Java programming with expert multimedia instruction Java Programming 24-Hour Trainer, 2nd Edition is your complete beginner's guide to the Java programming language, with easy-to-follow lessons and supplemental exercises that help you get up and running quickly. Step-by-step instruction walks you through the basics of object-oriented programming, syntax, interfaces, and more, before building upon your skills to develop games, web apps, networks, and automations. This second edition has been updated to align with Java SE 8 and Java EE 7, and includes new information on GUI b

  5. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Lowery, Joseph W

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive written and interactive instruction for learning HTML5 HTML is the core technology for building websites. Today, with HTML5 opening the Internet to new levels of rich content and dynamic interactivity, developers are looking for information to learn and utilize HTML5. HTML5 24-Hour Trainer provides that information, giving new and aspiring web developers the knowledge they need to achieve early success when building websites. Covers the most basic aspects of a web page, including a brief introduction to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) Provides lessons that are backed up by prof

  6. Child Care during Nonstandard Work Hours: Research to Policy Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In November 2014, the Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) Act of 2014 was signed into law, reauthorizing the Child Care and Development Fund (CCDF)--the federal child care subsidy program--for the first time since 1996. In December 2015, the U.S. Office of Child Care issued a Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, which updated CCDF regulations…

  7. Availability of Alcoholic Beverages During the Brazilian Navy Working Hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Espindola Halpern

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents and discusses one of the five main categories that emerged from the narratives of patients treated in a military outpatient clinic of the Brazilian Navy: the availability of drinks on board. A dense ethnography was conducted at this clinic from 2005 to 2009, and, in 2010, a participant observation was carried out in two treatment groups, during 24 sessions. Sampling, data collection, analysis, and interpretation occurred in an interactive way, rather than in a stepwise sequence. Data interpretation was possible by using the Peircean abduction reasoning of the peculiar categories that emerged in the participants’ discourse. A templum-synthesis was built according to the Boudon diagram to analyze and discuss the information. In conclusion, the institution seems to contribute to the production of the alcoholic habitus, unaware that alcohol availability may influence the emergence of alcoholism, leading to harmful impacts on the health of its contingent.

  8. Surgical resident learning styles have changed with work hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quillin, Ralph C; Cortez, Alexander R; Pritts, Timothy A; Hanseman, Dennis J; Edwards, Michael J; Davis, Bradley R

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education instituted the 80-h workweek for residency programs in 2003. This presented a unique challenge for surgery residents who must acquire a medical and technical knowledge base during training. Therefore, learning should be delivered in an environment congruent with an individual's learning style. In this study, we evaluated the learning styles of general surgery residents to determine how learning styles changed after the implementation to the 80-h workweek. Kolb learning style inventory was taken by general surgery residents at the University of Cincinnati's Department of Surgery, and results from 1999-2012 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared, logistic regression and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Significance was defined as a P value of learning styles after the institution of the 80-h workweek to converging (43.9%) and accommodating (40.4%, P learning. This change paralleled the transition to a more team-based approach to patient care with the implementation of the 80-h workweek. These findings are important for surgical educators to consider in the development of surgical resident curriculum. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Individual Differences in Reactions to Irregular Work Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-01

    facultes d’ adaptation aux rythmes irreguliers activite-repos/Le point sur l’utilisation des medicaments pour la gestion des periodes veille -sommeil...199,32373-85. Press , Oxford, 1981:149-154.Ergonomics 1989,32:373-385. Fr6berg, J. E. Karlsson, C. G. and Levi, L.Dahlgren, K. Long-term adjustment of Shift...for the Nineties. Leuven University Press , Leuven, Okuma, (Eds). Kyoto Symposia (EEG 1991:59-75. Supl no. 36). Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1982:709-714. Dumont

  10. Les effets conjoints du travail et des horaires alternants sur la santé des agents de surveillance des établissements pénitentiaires The effects of work content and working hours on the health of prison guards Los efectos combinados del trabajo y de los horarios alternantes sobre la salud de los guardianes de cárceles en los establecimientos penitenciarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Pavageau

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Les préoccupations en santé publique révèlent le peu Notre étude vise à comparer les effets sur la santé de trois formes d’organisation temporelle (horaires traditionnels, factions de 6 heures et de 12 heures au sein d’établissements pénitentiaires français, et plus particulièrement auprès des personnels de surveillance. Des moyens d’investigation complémentaires (questionnaire, observations du travail, traitement statistique ont été mis en œuvre pour tenter de faire la part entre le poids des horaires et le poids du travail sur l’état de santé des agents. Si les personnels en factions de 12 heures présentent des résultats meilleurs que les personnels en 6 heures, c’est en particulier dû à des avantages dans la vie extra-professionnelle, bien que des signes certains de fatigue ne permettent pas de conclure significativement en faveur de telles modalités. Au-delà de l’alternance des horaires, le contenu du travail pèse de manière importante sur la santé des agents.The aim of our study is to compare the effects of three different forms of time organization (traditional 9 to 5 schedule, 6-hour shifts, and 12-hour shifts inside French prisons, and particularly on prison guard staff. Complementary means of investigation (questionnaire, work observations, statistical treatment were used to attempt to evaluate the difference between the effect of working hours and of the actual work on the guards’ health. Staff who worked 12-hour shifts had more positive results than staff who worked 6-hour shifts. This was mainly due to the advantages in their private lives. At the same time, some signs of fatigue prevent us from conclusively favouring this type of working rhythm. Beyond the alternation of schedules, the actual work content also has an important impact on the workers’ health.Nuestro estudio pretende comparar los efectos sobre la salud de tres formas de organización temporal (horarios tradicionales, turnos de

  11. Internal medicine trainees' views of training adequacy and duty hours restrictions in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Judy A; Weissman, Arlene; McKinney, Sean; Silber, Jeffrey H; Volpp, Kevin G

    2012-07-01

    To gauge internal medicine (IM) trainees' perceptions regarding aspects of their inpatient rotations, including supervision, educational opportunities, the perceived effect of duty hours regulations on quality of patient care, the causes of medical errors, and sleep. The authors analyzed the results of questionnaires administered to trainees following the October 2009 in-training examinations (ITE). Of the 21,768 IM trainees in postgraduate years 1 through 3 who took the IM-ITE, 18,272 (83.9%) responded. The majority of these trainees (87.7%) reported that supervision was adequate, and nearly half (46.3%) reported insufficient or minimal time to participate in learning activities. Two-thirds or more thought that specific work regulations such as limited shift length and more time off after nights and extended shifts would at least "occasionally," if not "usually" or "always," improve patient care. IM trainees at least "occasionally" attributed errors to workload (68.8% of respondents), fatigue (66.9%), inexperience or lack of knowledge (61.0%), incomplete handoffs (60.2%), and insufficient ancillary staff (53.5%). IM trainees' sleep hours were limited during extended and overnight shifts. IM trainees agree that limited educational opportunities are the weakest part of the average inpatient rotation. Few have complaints about the adequacy of supervision. These trainees' optimism regarding the positive influence of potential work hours restrictions on patient care and their views of likely causes of medical errors suggest the need for innovative patient care schedules and education curricula.

  12. 29 CFR 778.420 - Combined hourly rates and piece rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combined hourly rates and piece rates. 778.420 Section 778... Performed in Overtime Hours (secs. 7(g) (1) and (2)) § 778.420 Combined hourly rates and piece rates. Where an employee works at a combination of hourly and piece rates, the payment of a rate not less than one...

  13. The Occurrence of Core Muscle Fatigue During High-Intensity Running Exercise and its Limitation to Performance: The Role of Respiratory Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tomas K.; Wu, Shing; Nie, Jinlei; Baker, Julien S.; Lin, Hua

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of core muscle fatigue during high-intensity running exercise and its limitation to exercise performance. A secondary aim was to investigate whether respiratory muscle work performed during intense running periods, would contribute to core muscle fatigue. Nine male recreational runners were recruited for two reasons; (1) to perform a continuous treadmill run at 85% VO2max with and without core muscle fatigue in the CR_F and CR trials, respectively; and (2) to mimic the treadmill run-induced respiratory response recorded in the CR trial while subjects were free of whole-body exercise (Mimic trial). The changes in global core muscle function with fatigue in this study were evaluated by performing a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT), and the associated influence on running performance was examined by comparing the time to exhaustion during the treadmill run between the CR and CR_F trials. Subsequent to the treadmill run in the CR trial, SEPT (255.7 ± 85.3 vs 177.3 ± 80.6 s) was reduced from baseline in all runners. The reduction correlated (r = 0.67) with the concomitant decline in inspiratory muscle function revealed by maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax: 151.3 ± 18.2 vs 133.3 ± 17.2 cmH2O, p fatigued core muscle workout in the CR_F trial, the running capacity was impaired significantly (10.7 ± 4.5 vs 6.5 ± 2.0 min, p fatigue in runners. The core muscle fatigue, which may be partly attributed to the corresponding respiratory work, may limit their running endurance. Inspiratory muscle function appears to be essential for core stabilization during the intense running. Key points A high-intensity maximum run may induce core muscle fatigue in runners. The core muscle fatigue, which may be partly attributed to the corresponding respiratory work, may limit their running endurance. In support of previous notion, inspiratory muscles may share the work of core stabilization during intense exercise, while

  14. Health status, activity limitations, work-related restrictions and level of disability among Canadians with mood and/or anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukine, L; O'Donnell, S; Goldner, E M; McRae, L; Allen, H

    2016-12-01

    This study provides the first overview of the perceived general and mental health, activity limitations, work-related restrictions and level of disability, as well as factors associated with disability severity, among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, using a population-based household sample. We used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada- Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. The sample consists of Canadians aged 18 years and older with self-reported mood and/or anxiety disorders from the 10 provinces (n = 3361; response rate 68.9%). We conducted descriptive and multinomial multivariate logistic regression analyses. Among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, over one-quarter reported "fair/poor" general (25.3%) and mental (26.1%) health; more than one-third (36.4%) reported one or more activity limitations; half (50.3%) stated a job modification was required to continue working; and more than one-third (36.5%) had severe disability. Those with concurrent mood and anxiety disorders reported poorer outcomes: 56.4% had one or more activity limitations; 65.8% required a job modification and 49.6% were severely disabled. Upon adjusting for individual characteristics, those with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were older, who had a household income in the lowest or lower-middle adequacy quintile or who had concurrent disorders were more likely to have severe disability. Findings from this study affirm that mood and/or anxiety disorders, especially concurrent disorders, are associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. Results support the role of public health policy and programs aimed at improving the lives of people living with these disorders, in particular those with concurrent disorders.

  15. Health status, activity limitations, work-related restrictions and level of disability among Canadians with mood and/or anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loukine

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study provides the first overview of the perceived general and mental health, activity limitations, work-related restrictions and level of disability, as well as factors associated with disability severity, among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, using a population-based household sample. Methods: We used data from the 2014 Survey on Living with Chronic Diseases in Canada–Mood and Anxiety Disorders Component. The sample consists of Canadians aged 18 years and older with self-reported mood and/or anxiety disorders from the 10 provinces (n = 3361; response rate 68.9%. We conducted descriptive and multinomial multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results: Among Canadian adults with mood and/or anxiety disorders, over one-quarter reported “fair/poor” general (25.3% and mental (26.1% health; more than one-third (36.4% reported one or more activity limitations; half (50.3% stated a job modification was required to continue working; and more than one-third (36.5% had severe disability. Those with concurrent mood and anxiety disorders reported poorer outcomes: 56.4% had one or more activity limitations; 65.8% required a job modification and 49.6% were severely disabled. Upon adjusting for individual characteristics, those with mood and/or anxiety disorders who were older, who had a household income in the lowest or lower-middle adequacy quintile or who had concurrent disorders were more likely to have severe disability. Conclusion: Findings from this study affirm that mood and/or anxiety disorders, especially concurrent disorders, are associated with negative physical and mental health outcomes. Results support the role of public health policy and programs aimed at improving the lives of people living with these disorders, in particular those with concurrent disorders.

  16. Limites do trabalho multiprofissional: estudo de caso dos centros de referência para DST/Aids Limitations of multiprofessional work: a case study of STD/AIDS reference centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neide Emy Kurokawa e Silva

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Compreender as possibilidades e os limites da articulação dos processos de trabalho desenvolvidos por agentes com diferentes formações para otimizar a integração e melhorar a qualidade da assistência aos pacientes com HIV/Aids. MÉTODOS: Estudo qualitativo sobre o trabalho multiprofissional em cinco centros de referência para DST/Aids do Município de São Paulo. Foram realizadas entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 26 profissionais de diferentes formações, enfocando suas relações no modo de organização da assistência prestada nesses serviços. RESULTADOS: Houve diferenças significativas do alcance da integração multiprofissional e das possibilidades de enriquecimento da assistência prestada, de acordo com as circunstâncias em que o trabalho interdisciplinar é posto em ação. CONCLUSÕES: Quando a equipe consegue trabalhar com demandas antevistas, isto é, com a formulação, por um conjunto de profissionais, de projetos assistenciais, antecipando demandas a partir de situações concretas da prática, criam-se condições favoráveis a um trabalho mais efetivamente integrado da equipe multiprofissional. Essa integração favorece intervenções que permitem um diálogo mais rico entre a aplicação do tratamento medicamentoso e outras dimensões relevantes do cuidado referentes às vivências sociais, psicológicas e emocionais dos pacientes.OBJECTIVE: To understand the possibilities and limitations of developing coordinated work among professionals of different background in order to promote work collaboration and improve the quality of care of HIV/AIDS patients. METHODS: A qualitative study on multiprofessional work was carried out in five STD/AIDS reference centers in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Semi-structured interviews were applied to 26 professionals from different background, focusing on how they position their practices in a multiprofessional setting. RESULTS: Significant differences were observed as to

  17. Online retailing: open all hours?

    OpenAIRE

    Ellis-Chadwick, Fiona

    2008-01-01

    Globally, online retailing has become increasingly important to retailers and consumers. In the UK, the online shopping spend has increased from 0.07% to 7% of the annual retail sales and the consumers' appetite for buying online continues to grow as the internet becomes increasingly accessible, convenient and secure. However, does the internet provide a truly comprehensive shopping experience or are there limitations? A visit to eBay can enable bargain hunters to find almost any product, but...

  18. Optimal staffing under an annualized hours regime using Cross-Entropy optimization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert; Boucherie, Richardus J.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    This paper discusses staffing under annualized hours. Staffing is the selection of the most cost-efficient workforce to cover workforce demand. Annualized hours measure working time per year instead of per week, relaxing the restriction for employees to work the same number of hours every week. To

  19. GPs' experiences with out-of-hours GP cooperatives: a survey study from the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, Marleen; Keizer, Ellen; Huibers, Linda; Giesen, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Out-of-hours primary care has been provided by general practitioner (GP) cooperatives since the year 2000 in the Netherlands. Early studies in countries with similar organizational structures showed positive GP experiences. However, nowadays it is said that GPs experience a high workload at the cooperative and that they outsource a considerable part of their shifts. To examine positive and negative experiences of GPs providing out-of-hours primary care, and the frequency and reasons for outsourcing shifts. A cross-sectional observational survey among 688 GPs connected to six GP cooperatives in the Netherlands, using a web-based questionnaire. The response was 55% (n = 378). The main reasons for working in GP cooperatives were to retain registration as GP (79%) and remain experienced in acute care (74%). GPs considered the peak hours (81%) and the high number of patients (73%) as the most negative aspects. Most GPs chose to provide the out-of-hours shifts themselves: 85% outsourced maximally 25% of their shifts. The percentage of outsourced shifts increased with age. Main reasons for outsourcing were the desire to have more private time (76%); the high workload in daytime practice (71%); and less the workload during out-of-hours (46%). GPs are motivated to work in out-of-hours GP cooperatives, and they outsource few shifts. GPs consider the peak load and the large number of (non-urgent) help requests as the most negative aspects. To motivate and involve GPs for 7 × 24-h primary care, it is important to set limits on their workload.

  20. 75 FR 82170 - Hours of Service of Drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... highway safety, FMCSA anticipates an additional benefit from reducing allowable daily and weekly work... hours spent sleeping, and truck drivers working high-intensity schedules get significantly less than the... some extent, mortality among these drivers. These benefits should be counted as outcomes of reductions...

  1. Managing a 24-hour lifestyle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, N. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    This presentation on sleep deprivation highlighted the important factors that can increase the chances for human error because of lack of alertness. Effects that irregular work schedules have on the performance and alertness of employees were also discussed. Sleep deprivation and driver fatigue were listed as the major causes of single vehicle accidents. Alertness enhancing techniques, driving alertness management and other methods by which driver safety can be improved were presented. 22 diapositives.

  2. CERN restaurants: opening hours during summer

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In the summer, the three CERN restaurants remain open during their usual hours. On Monday 1st August and Thursday 8 September, the Restaurant 1 will be open from 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m.   The satellites will be open as follows: Building 6: normal hours Building 13: normal hours Building 30: normal hours Building 40: closing at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 pm Building 54: normal hours in July, closed in August Building 864: normal hours Building 865: normal hours Building 774: normal hours

  3. When more is less: An examination of the relationship between hours in telework and role overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duxbury, Linda; Halinski, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Proponents of telework arrangements assert that those who telework have more control over their work and family domains than their counterparts who are not permitted to work from home. Using Karasek's theory we hypothesized that the relationship between demands (hours in work per week; hours in childcare per week) and strain (work role overload; family role overload) would be moderated by the number of hours the employee spent per week teleworking (control). To determine how the number of telework hours relates to work role overload and family role overload, we follow the test for moderation and mediation using hierarchical multiple regression analysis as outlined by Frazier et al. [50] We used survey data collected from 1,806 male and female professional employees who spent at least one hour per week working from home during regular hours (i.e. teleworking). As hypothesized, the number of hours in telework per week negatively moderated the relation between work demands (total hours in paid employment per week) and work strain (work role overload). Contrary to our hypothesis, the number of hours in telework per week only partially mediated the relation between family demands (hours a week in childcare) and family role overload (strain). The findings from this study support the idea that the control offered by telework is domain specific (helps employees meet demands at work but not at home).

  4. 50 CFR 20.23 - Shooting hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shooting hours. 20.23 Section 20.23... PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Taking § 20.23 Shooting hours. No person shall take migratory game birds except during the hours open to shooting as prescribed in subpart K of this part and subpart...

  5. 75 FR 9376 - Hours of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal... held in January 2010) to solicit comments and information on potential hours-of-service (HOS... the hours- of-service rules, contact Mr. Tom Yager, Chief, Driver and Carrier Operations ] Division...

  6. The Occurrence of Core Muscle Fatigue During High-Intensity Running Exercise and its Limitation to Performance: The Role of Respiratory Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas K. Tong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of core muscle fatigue during high-intensity running exercise and its limitation to exercise performance. A secondary aim was to investigate whether respiratory muscle work performed during intense running periods, would contribute to core muscle fatigue. Nine male recreational runners were recruited for two reasons; (1 to perform a continuous treadmill run at 85% VO2max with and without core muscle fatigue in the CR_F and CR trials, respectively; and (2 to mimic the treadmill run-induced respiratory response recorded in the CR trial while subjects were free of whole-body exercise (Mimic trial. The changes in global core muscle function with fatigue in this study were evaluated by performing a sport-specific endurance plank test (SEPT, and the associated influence on running performance was examined by comparing the time to exhaustion during the treadmill run between the CR and CR_F trials. Subsequent to the treadmill run in the CR trial, SEPT (255.7 ± 85.3 vs 177.3 ± 80.6 s was reduced from baseline in all runners. The reduction correlated (r = 0.67 with the concomitant decline in inspiratory muscle function revealed by maximal inspiratory mouth pressure (PImax: 151.3 ± 18.2 vs 133.3 ± 17.2 cmH2O, p < 0.05. In the Mimic trial, similar results in SEPT (212.3 ± 90.2 s, PImax (129.0 ± 26.7 cmH2O, and correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.05 were observed following voluntary hyperpneic activity. With the preceded fatigued core muscle workout in the CR_F trial, the running capacity was impaired significantly (10.7 ± 4.5 vs 6.5 ± 2.0 min, p < 0.05. The impairment was correlated (r=0.72 to the SEPT reduction resulting from the workout. The results suggest that a high-intensity maximum run may induce core muscle fatigue in runners. The core muscle fatigue, which may be partly attributed to the corresponding respiratory work, may limit their running endurance. Inspiratory muscle function appears to be essential for

  7. Out-of-hours palliative care: what are the educational needs and preferences of general practitioners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Claire; Koffman, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Offering genuine choice to patients over place of care and death requires the provision of high-quality palliative care 24/7. This study examines the confidence of out-of-hours general practitioners (GPs) in symptom control and end of life prescribing, and identifies their educational needs and preferences in order to inform recommendations for future education. A self-completion postal survey was designed and sent to 1005 GPs working for an independent provider of out-of-hours services across England. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. 203 (20.3%) GPs completed the survey questionnaire; 13.3% (n=27) worked exclusively out-of-hours. Confidence in assessing palliative care emergencies (42.8%, n=87: 'not so confident' or 'not at all confident'), managing symptoms in non-cancer patients (39.4%, n=80) and prescribing a new syringe driver (39.0%, n=79) was lowest. Lower confidence was associated with infrequent exposure to palliative patients (ppalliative care (ppalliative care competences is severely lacking. Educational strategies to address this concern must be targeted at GPs preferences for content and mode of delivery. Regular e-learning is favoured, but should be blended with other approaches that promote engagement including out-of-hours themed workshops and case discussion. Specialist palliative care services should engage with out-of-hours providers to support education. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Effect of a Protected Sleep Period on Hours Slept During Extended Overnight In-hospital Duty Hours Among Medical Interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G.; Shea, Judy A.; Small, Dylan S.; Basner, Mathias; Zhu, Jingsan; Norton, Laurie; Ecker, Adrian; Novak, Cristina; Bellini, Lisa M.; Dine, C. Jessica; Mollicone, Daniel J.; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Context A 2009 Institute of Medicine report recommended protected sleep periods for medicine trainees on extended overnight shifts, a position reinforced by new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements. Objective To evaluate the feasibility and consequences of protected sleep periods during extended duty. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial conducted at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center medical service and Oncology Unit of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (2009–2010). Of the 106 interns and senior medical students who consented, 3 were not scheduled on any study rotations. Among the others, 44 worked at the VA center, 16 at the university hospital, and 43 at both. Intervention Twelve 4-week blocks were randomly assigned to either a standard intern schedule (extended duty overnight shifts of up to 30 hours; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site), or a protected sleep period (protected time from 12:30 AM to 5:30 AM with handover of work cell phone; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site). Participants were asked to wear wrist actigraphs and complete sleep diaries. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcome was hours slept during the protected period on extended duty overnight shifts. Secondary outcome measures included hours slept during a 24-hour period (noon to noon) by day of call cycle and Karolinska sleepiness scale. Results For 98.3% of on-call nights, cell phones were signed out as designed. At the VA center, participants with protected sleep had a mean 2.86 hours (95% CI, 2.57–3.10 hours) of sleep vs 1.98 hours (95% CI, 1.68–2.28 hours) among those who did not have protected hours of sleep (P sleep had a mean 3.04 hours (95% CI, 2.77–3.45 hours) of sleep vs 2.04 hours (95% CI, 1.79–2.24) among those who did not have protected sleep (P sleep were significantly less likely to have call nights with no sleep: 5.8% (95% CI, 3.0%–8.5%) vs 18.6% (95% CI, 13

  9. Elderly toileting: is two hourly too often?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jilek, R

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two hourly toileting regimes for the management of urinary incontinence in elderly nursing home residents. A comparison of two hourly regimes with four hourly toileting was undertaken over two eight-week periods to establish the most effective form of continence promotion. No significant difference in the levels of incontinence was noted and the severity of incontinence did not significantly differ between regimes. The author concludes that two hourly regimes are a waste of nurses' time and cause unnecessary discomfort to patients.

  10. Changing the hours of shiftwork: a comparison of 8- and 12-hour shift rosters in a group of computer operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A M; Gower, C G; Clarke, B C

    1994-02-01

    Twelve-hour shifts are currently regarded by many workers as one solution to the disruptive effects of shiftwork on health, well-being and lifestyle. Twelve-hour shifts offer larger and more frequent blocks of leisure time than do 8-h shifts. Nevertheless, concern must be addressed about the possible effects of working these additional hours on work quality and productivity and whether they are worked at significant extra cost to the worker. In a study of 75 computer operators, the effect of changing from a predominantly 8 h per shift irregular roster to a 12 h per shift regular roster was investigated. Operators completed a questionnaire covering demographic and health details including the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ), and details about general job satisfaction including the Work Environment Scale (WES). They also completed a 14-day diary of sleeping and eating patterns and mood state at the beginning and end of each shift for the same period. The questionnaires and diaries were completed first under the 8-h shift roster, then again 12 months later after the 12-h shift roster had been worked for 7 months. Work quality, productivity, staff turnover and sickness and other absence data were also collected under the two shift systems. The results showed that changing to the 12-h shift roster produced improvements in health, particularly in psychological health and in reduced feelings of tiredness throughout the work period. The change in working hours was at no cost to feelings of job satisfaction or the worker's perceptions of any particular aspects of the work environment, or to measures of productivity.

  11. Protocolo de actuación preventiva para riesgo debido a alteraciones del ritmo circadiano en médicos de urgencias que trabajan en turnos de 24 horas Preventive action protocol for risk due to circadian rhythm disturbances in emergency physicians working in 24 hours shifts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreto Fillat de Acosta

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La autora analiza la situación patológica de los médicos de urgencias con turnos de 24 horas que alteran el ritmo circadiano, el estudio describe las condiciones de trabajo que afectan el ritmo biológico sueño-vigilia y las tareas intelectuales y de habilidades mecánicas desempeñadas por este personal, los daños a prevenir (accidentes in itinere, accidentes por manipulación de material biológico, enfermedades somáticas y psíquicas y el riesgo para los pacientes. Se propone un protocolo de actuación preventiva que abarca la mayor parte del trabajo, cuándo actuar, revisión de recursos, actuaciones a realizar en una unidad de salud laboral y sistema de comunicación al resto del hospital, Servicio de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales y Sistema Nacional de Salud.The author analyzes the pathological situation concerning to emergency physicians with 24-hour shifts which disturb their circadian rhythms, the study describes the working conditions that affect the biological sleep-wake rhythm and intellectual tasks and mechanical skills performed by these staff, damage to be prevented (commuting accidents, accidents caused by handling of biological material, somatic and psychic diseases and the risk to patients. After that, it's developed a proposal of preventive action protocol covering most of the work and finally when to act, available resources and actions to be taken in an occupational health unit, in addition to the communication system to the rest of the hospital, Occupational and Hazard Preventive Service and the National Health System.

  12. 17 CFR 201.104 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 201.104 Section 201.104 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE Rules of Practice General Rules § 201.104 Business hours. The Headquarters office of the Commission, at...

  13. 20 CFR 801.304 - Business hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Business hours. 801.304 Section 801.304 Employees' Benefits BENEFITS REVIEW BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND OPERATION OF THE BOARD Action by the Board § 801.304 Business hours. The office of the Clerk of the Board at Washington, DC...

  14. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  15. Ergonomic Microscope: Need of the Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaske, Shubhangi Ashok; Ahmad, Malik Ajaz; Yuwanati, Monal B.; Prabhu, Shweta; Pardhe, Nilesh

    2015-01-01

    Background Prolonged use of conventional microscope develops musculo-skeletal injuries like chronic pain syndrome, including shoulder, neck, back aches & fatigue. Since the problems go unnoticed, the injuries can lead to some serious permanent damages. This further leads to a compromise in the health and welfare of the person and the institute. Hence, an understanding about the ergonomics is the need of the hour in this postmodern era. Inspite of few studies and surveys about ergonomics, there is still a steep rise in the musculoskeletal disorders. Aim of the Study The aim of our study was to gauge the general awareness of pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists towards ergonomics in their profession. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey based study was de­signed, which included a questionnaire. The questionnaire included multiple choice questions with four alternatives. Professionals (pathologists, microbiologists and oral pathologists) were included in the survey. Teaching faculty (Professors, Associate Professors and Lecturers) and Post graduate students formed the study group. Results and Observations The response to the questionnaire was 100%. Less than 50% of oral pathologists were aware of the importance of ergonomics in their profession. The most common site affected was neck and back. One of the drastic observations was that, Oral Pathologists suffered from a combination of problems affecting neck, back, eyes, headache, shoulders, arms and wrists. Conclusion Increase in our understanding regarding ergonomic­ally designed microscopes can increase our efficiency and in turn improve our general well-being. With improvements in ergonomics, professionals would be able to modify and optimize their working conditions. Certain guidelines need to be followed by the profes­sionals to reduce chances of musculoskeletal disorders. PMID:26155565

  16. Modeling Hourly Resident Productivity in the Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua W; Henning, Daniel J; Strouse, Connie S; Chiu, David T; Nathanson, Larry A; Sanchez, Leon D

    2017-08-01

    Resident productivity, defined as new patients per hour, carries important implications for emergency department operations. In high-volume academic centers, essential staffing decisions can be made on the assumption that residents see patients at a static rate. However, it is unclear whether this model mirrors reality; previous studies have not rigorously examined whether productivity changes over time. We examine residents' productivity across shifts to determine whether it remained consistent. This was a retrospective cohort study conducted in an urban academic hospital with a 3-year emergency medicine training program in which residents acquire patients ad libitum throughout their shift. Time stamps of all patient encounters were automatically logged. A linear mixed model was constructed to predict productivity per shift hour. A total of 14,364 8- and 9-hour shifts were worked by 75 residents between July 1, 2010, and June 20, 2015. This comprised 6,127 (42.7%) postgraduate year (PGY) 1 shifts, 7,236 (50.4%) PGY-2 shifts, and 998 (6.9%) PGY-3 nonsupervisory shifts (Table 1). Overall, residents treated a mean of 10.1 patients per shift (SD 3.2), with most patients at Emergency Severity Index level 3 or more acute (93.8%). In the initial hour, residents treated a mean of 2.14 patients (SD 1.2), and every subsequent hour was associated with a significant decrease, with the largest in the second, third, and final hours. Emergency medicine resident productivity during a single shift follows a reliable pattern that decreases significantly hourly, a pattern preserved across PGY years and types of shifts. This suggests that resident productivity is a dynamic process, which should be considered in staffing decisions and studied further. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of microbial load in immersion chilling water and poultry carcasses after 8, 16 and 24 working hours Comparação da carga microbiana em águas de pré-resfriamento e carcaças de frangos, após jornadas de trabalho de 8, 16 e 24 horas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cavani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Poultry processing facilities are known for using a great amount of water, which is mainly used on carcasses chilling stage. In Brazil, meat regulations state that each chiller tank must be emptied, cleaned and sanitized every 8 working hours. The aim of the current study was to assess the microbial load of chiller water used in poultry immersion chilling system after 8, 16 and 24 working hours in order to evaluate the reduction of water changes and chiller sanitization. Conventional physicochemical and microbiological assays were done in water supply samples (n=69 to suppress interferences caused by freshwater addition; pre chilled (n=345 post chilled carcasses (n=345 and chiller water samples of the last stage (n=69. The results showed no significant differences on microbial load samples between the three shifts suggesting that the proposed reduction may be secure and reduces the volume of wastewater that would impact the environment, besides improving the rational use of processing time.As atividades dos estabelecimentos de abate de frangos são conhecidas por utilizarem grandes volumes de água durante seus processos, principalmente no processo de resfriamento das carcaças de frangos. Parte desse volume utilizado se faz necessário, em cumprimento à legislação que determina que cada tanque do sistema de pré-resfriadores contínuos por imersão deve ser completamente esvaziado, limpo e desinfetado no final de cada período de trabalho (oito horas. O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a carga microbiana das águas do sistema de resfriamento e das carcaças de frango ao final de oito, dezesseis e vinte e quatro horas de trabalho do abatedouro, para possível redução do número de vezes do completo esvaziamento dos tanques do sistema de resfriamento. Foram avaliadas, por meio de métodos convencionais microbiológicos e físico-químicos, amostras da água de abastecimento (n=69, visando a evitar possível interferência nas contagens das

  18. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Hourly Precipitation Data (HPD) is digital data set DSI-3240, archived at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The primary source of data for this file is...

  19. Ozone Nonattainment Areas - 8 Hour (1997 Standard)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone over 8 hours and...

  20. U.S. Hourly Precipitation Data Publication

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This publication contains hourly precipitation amounts obtained from recording rain gages located at National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and...

  1. CHALLENGES OF HUMANIZATION IN UPA 24HOURS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S. D. Leite; S. F. S. Moraes; C. B. Venazzi; N. T. Costa

    2017-01-01

    Humanization referenced by the national policy of humanization (HNP) it is what is expected in customer service together with the risk classification front to emergency services and emergency UPA 24 hours...

  2. SO2 8 Hour Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Sulfur dioxide 8 hour...

  3. Limited near and far transfer effects of jungle memory working memory training on learning mathematics in children with attentional and mathematical difficulties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelwan, Michel; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM) affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT) in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64) with both

  4. Limit setting and projective identification in work with a provocative child and his parents: a revisiting of Winnicott's "Hate in the Countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Charles A

    2007-01-01

    Dealing with children who have disruptive behavior disorders can evoke feelings of frustration and anger in their therapists. D.W. Winnicott discussed the complexities in the treatment of enraging patients in his article "Hate in the Countertransference" (1949). In the following paper, I will depict the relationship between limit setting, projective identification dynamics, and enraging behavior in the treatment of a provocative latency-aged boy. I will argue that poor limit setting caused by powerful projective identification dynamics were central to the pathology of the boy and his family. These dynamics partially repeated in the boy's treatment--an outcome of which Winnicott had warned. The repetition contributed to the boy becoming physically out of control in my office and led to a disruption in his treatment. The establishment of solid limits by addressing projective identification forces was necessary for the improvement in the disruptive behavior of the child.

  5. Limited near and far transfer effects of Jungle Memory working memory training on learning mathematics in children with attentional and mathematical difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Nelwan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate whether Jungle Memory working memory training (JM affects performance on working memory tasks, performance in mathematics and gains made on a mathematics training (MT in school aged children between 9-12 years old (N = 64 with both difficulties in mathematics, as well as in attention and working memory. Children were randomly assigned to three groups and were trained in two periods: (1 JM first, followed by MT, (2 MT first, followed by JM, and (3 a control group that received MT only. Bayesian analyses showed possible short term effects of JM on near transfer measures of verbal working memory, but none on visual working memory. Furthermore, support was found for the hypothesis that children that received JM first, performed better after MT than children who did not follow JM first or did not train with JM at all. However, these effects could be explained at least partly by frequency of training effects, possibly due to motivational issues, and training-specific factors. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether the effects found on math improvement were actually mediated by gains in working memory. It is argued that JM might not train the components of working memory involved in mathematics sufficiently. Another possible explanation can be found in the training’s lack of adaptivity, therefore failing to provide the children with tailored instruction and feedback. Finally, it was hypothesized that, since effect sizes are generally small, training effects are bound to a critical period in development.

  6. Impact of Bilingual Education Programs on Limited English Proficient Students and Their Peers: Regression Discontinuity Evidence from Texas. NBER Working Paper No. 18197

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Aimee; Daysal, N. Meltem; Imberman, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Texas requires a school district to offer bilingual education when its enrollment of limited English proficient (LEP) students in a particular elementary grade and language is twenty or higher. Using school panel data, we find a significant increase in the probability that a district offers bilingual education above this 20-student cutoff. Using…

  7. Setting up the Brazilian Evaluation Network: a challenging work with no boundaries Estabelecendo a Rede Brasileira de Avaliação: um trabalho desafiador sem limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cristina Dannemann

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation may be a relevant tool for the practice of democracy. In order for it to occur, quality and proper utilization of its results must be assured (PATTON, 1997. Therefore, the consolidation of democratic principles in a society and the promotion of effective social interactions (FETTERMAN; WANDERSMAN, 2005 will benefit enormously from a greater and better use of evaluation in all possible formats. The Brazilian Evaluation Network was created approximately three years ago in a country with a recent history of democratic practice. Within a theoretical framework networks do not have boundaries or limits for debate. However, cultural and historical aspects create limits for the discussions and boundaries among its participants. This paper intends to shed light into some of these limits and boundaries, reflecting over how they are being overcome.Uma avaliação pode ser um importante instrumento para o exercício da democracia. Para que isso ocorra é preciso assegurar a qualidade da avaliação, bem como a utilização apropriada dos seus resultados (PATTON,1997. Desta forma, a construção de uma sociedade democrática, que busca a melhoria permanente dos seus processos sociais (FETTERMAN; WANDERSMAN, 2005, depende do aprimoramento contínuo da sua prática de avaliação, em suas variadas manifestações. No Brasil, há aproximadamente 3 anos, foi criada a Rede Brasileira de Avaliação. Uma rede que, em sua concepção teórica, não possui limites ou fronteiras de discussão. Contudo, existem aspectos culturais e históricos (envolvendo valores, que criam limites para as referidas discussões e estabelecem fronteiras entre as diferentes instâncias. Este trabalho apresenta alguns destes limites e fronteiras, refletindo sobre a forma como aqueles que encomendam e que conduzem avaliações vêm contornando os limites e ultrapassando fronteiras.

  8. Emergency medicine resident clinical hours: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R; Vohra, Taher T; Luber, Samuel D

    2015-04-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) residency programs have significant scheduling flexibility. As a result, there is potentially significant variation in scheduling practices. Few studies have previously sought to describe this variation. It is unknown how this affects training time in the emergency department. The purpose of this study was to describe the current variation in clinical training practices through clinical hour, shift length, and rotation survey data. A 21-item questionnaire was distributed to all allopathic EM training programs utilizing an online survey during the 2011-2012 academic year. Questions included demographic data, number of EM rotations per year, shifts, average hours, shift length, and scheduling practices. A total of 122 responses were received and 82 programs were analyzed (51.6% of 159 allopathic programs). EM residents work, on average, 45.50 h per week. Postgraduate year 1-3 programs utilizing 28-day schedules averaged two additional EM rotations and 338.2 more clinical EM hours compared with calendar-month rotations. The residents of 4-year programs work approximately 1300 additional hours during residency, with an average of 1279.26 h and 7.9 clinical EM rotations in the fourth year. Clinical hour ranges of 2670-5112 and 4248-6113 were observed for 3-year and 4-year programs, respectively. There are different scheduling modalities used to create resident schedules. This flexibility results in a large amount of diversity in scheduling practices, with certain patterns allowing for significantly more clinical time. This may result in a vastly different training experience for EM residents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Hourly wind speed analysis in Sicily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bivona, S.; Leone, C. [Palermo Univ., Dip di Fisica e Technologie Relative, Palermo (Italy); Burlon, R. [Palermo Univ., Dip. di Ingegnaria Nucleare, Palermo (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The hourly average wind speed data recorded by CNMCA (Centro Nazionale di Meteorologia e Climatologia Aeronautica) have been used to study the statistical properties of the wind speed at nine locations on Sicily. By grouping the observations month by month, we show that the hourly average wind speed, with calms omitted, is represented by a Weibull function. The suitability of the distribution is judged by the discrepancies between the observed and calculated values of the monthly average wind speed and of the standard deviation. (Author)

  10. Automatization of physicians' phone-in hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turunen, J; Loula, P; Soininen, H

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a computer-based system that is designed to reduce the number of patient calls in physicians' phone-in hours. Simultaneously it will offer a parallel alternative channel for the patients to listen to their laboratory results. The system requirements were reliability, security and the low costs. The results showed after a two-month test period that the tailored system proved extremely successful. The average time that the physician saved by using this system was over 4 minutes and doctors can leave the messages to the server also outside the phone-in hours.

  11. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer, if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident. It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service 73186, without awaiting its summons. Medical Service

  12. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2001-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer, if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident. It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service 73186, without awaiting its summons.

  13. Neighborhood walkability, income, and hour-by-hour physical activity patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidsson, Daniel; Eriksson, Ulf; Lönn, Sara Larsson; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate both the mean daily physical activity and the hour-by-hour physical activity patterns across the day using accelerometry and how they are associated with neighborhood walkability and individual income. Moderate physical activity (MPA) was assessed by accelerometry in 2252 adults in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. Neighborhood walkability (residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix) was objectively assessed within 1000m network buffers around the participants' residence and individual income was self-reported. Living in a high walkability neighborhood was associated with more mean daily MPA compared with living in a low walkability neighborhood on weekdays and weekend days. Hour-by-hour analyses showed that this association appeared mainly in the afternoon/early evening during weekdays, whereas it appeared across the middle of the day during weekend days. Individual income was associated with mean daily MPA on weekend days. On weekdays, the hour-by-hour analyses showed that high income was associated with more MPA around noon and in late afternoon/early evening, whereas low income was associated with more MPA at the hours before noon and in the early afternoon. During the weekend, high income was more consistently associated with higher MPA. Hour-by-hour accelerometry physical activity patterns provides a more comprehensive picture of the associations between neighborhood walkability and individual income and physical activity and the variability of these associations across the day.

  14. Installation Service - Changes in opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    For organizational matters, please note that, as from 15 March 2010, the Installation Service will have wen opening hours. The new schedule will be from 14:00 to 17:00 (Monday to Friday). Contact persons are: Martine Briant, Karine Robert and Claudia Bruggmann. The office address remains 73-3-014. Installation Service

  15. 75 FR 2467 - Hours of Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 RIN 2126-AB26 Hours of Service AGENCY: Federal...-service (HOS) regulations. Specifically, the Agency wants to know what factors, issues, and data it should... allow us to arrange for such services. There is no guarantee that interpreter services requested on...

  16. Estimator's electrical man-hour manual

    CERN Document Server

    Page, John S

    1999-01-01

    This manual's latest edition continues to be the best source available for making accurate, reliable man-hour estimates for electrical installation. This new edition is revised and expanded to include installation of electrical instrumentation, which is used in monitoring various process systems.

  17. The 24-Hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzo, Benjamin J.; Wendt, Theodore J.

    2015-01-01

    Across the mathematics curriculum there is a renewed emphasis on applications of mathematics and on mathematical modeling. Providing students with modeling experiences beyond the ordinary classroom setting remains a challenge, however. In this article, we describe the 24-hour Mathematical Modeling Challenge, an extracurricular event that exposes…

  18. The Effects of Permanent Technology Shocks on Labour Productivity and Hours in the RBC Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lindé, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    Recent work on the effects of permanent technology shocks argue that the basic RBC model cannot account for a negative correlation between hours worked and labour productivity. In this Paper, I show that this conjecture is not necessarily correct. In the basic RBC model, I find that hours worked fall and labour productivity rises after a positive permanent technology shock once one allows for the possibility that the process for the permanent technology shock is persistent in growth rates. A ...

  19. The concepts of peace and cultural violence: contributions and limits of Johan Galtung´s work for the analysis of violent conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Tavares Paes Lopes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I aim to analyze the contributions and limits of the concepts of peace and violence proposed by Johan Galtung for the study of violent conflicts. In doing so, I try to emphasize not only their advantages and disadvantages, but also reformulate them in a way that they don´t loose their original meanings. More specifically, I argue that instead of using the concepts of cultural violence and cultural peace, we should use the expressions “meaning in the service of violence” and “meaning in the service of peace”.

  20. Barriers to effective, safe communication and workflow between nurses and non-consultant hospital doctors during out-of-hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Anne-Marie; Byrne, Gobnait; Quirke, Mary Brigid; Lynch, Aine; Ennis, Shauna; Bhangu, Jaspreet; Prendergast, Meabh

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the nature and type of communication and workflow arrangements between nurses and doctors out-of-hours (OOH). Effective communication and workflow arrangements between nurses and doctors are essential to minimize risk in hospital settings, particularly in the out-of-hour's period. Timely patient flow is a priority for all healthcare organizations and the quality of communication and workflow arrangements influences patient safety. Qualitative descriptive design and data collection methods included focus groups and individual interviews. A 500 bed tertiary referral acute hospital in Ireland. Junior and senior Non-Consultant Hospital Doctors, staff nurses and nurse managers. Both nurses and doctors acknowledged the importance of good interdisciplinary communication and collaborative working, in sustaining effective workflow and enabling a supportive working environment and patient safety. Indeed, issues of safety and missed care OOH were found to be primarily due to difficulties of communication and workflow. Medical workflow OOH is often dependent on cues and communication to/from nursing. However, communication systems and, in particular the bleep system, considered central to the process of communication between doctors and nurses OOH, can contribute to workflow challenges and increased staff stress. It was reported as commonplace for routine work, that should be completed during normal hours, to fall into OOH when resources were most limited, further compounding risk to patient safety. Enhancement of communication strategies between nurses and doctors has the potential to remove barriers to effective decision-making and patient flow.

  1. Illegitimate Tasks Reach Into Afterwork Hours: A Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Lischetzke, Tanja

    2017-02-16

    This study examines illegitimate tasks as a specific type of job stressors. Illegitimate tasks comprise unreasonable and unnecessary tasks and refer to inappropriate task assignments that go beyond an employee's role requirements. Building on the stressor-detachment model, we hypothesized that illegitimate tasks experienced during the day predict high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, which in turn should predict poor psychological detachment from work during evening hours, resulting in sustained high levels of negative affect and low self-esteem at bedtime. Over the course of 1 workweek, 137 employees completed daily surveys at the end of the workday and at bedtime (total of 567 days). Multilevel path modeling revealed a distinct pattern of findings at the day and the person level. At the day level, unnecessary tasks predicted high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, with low self-esteem predicting poor psychological detachment from work during afterwork hours. Poor psychological detachment predicted a further increase in negative affect and a decrease in self-esteem over evening hours. At the between-person level, unreasonable tasks were related to high negative affect and low self-esteem at the end of the workday, with negative affect being related to poor psychological detachment from work. Overall, the findings demonstrate that illegitimate tasks are associated with unfavorable states at the end of the workday and are indirectly related to poor psychological detachment from work, undermining recovery from the stressful events experienced at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Student midwives' duty hours: risks, standards, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Rachel; Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira; Landis, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has emerged describing the risks of extended-duty shifts and sleep deprivation. Worldwide, midwifery organizations have not adopted standards for practitioner or student duty shifts. This project reviews the literature related to extended-duty shifts in an effort to develop evidence-based recommendations for student nurse-midwives/student midwives (SNMs/SMs). A comprehensive literature search was conducted through electronic databases, major journals, and reference lists published in English since January 2001. Primary research studies evaluating sleep deprivation and shift duration were included. Studies that did not include the target population (shift workers) and those that formed conclusions related to extended-duty shifts greater than 30 hours were excluded. In addition, an extensive worldwide review of duty-hour recommendations from more than 300 health care organizations was conducted. A total of 40 studies met the inclusion criteria. Extended-duty shifts (those greater than 12 hours) increased the risk for cognitive and physical functional errors, safety concerns, and decreased quality of life from sleep deprivation. Cognitive function errors included attention lapses, visual tracking errors, decreased mentation and immediate recall, and decreased learning capacity. Physical errors included decreased motor skills and slowed reaction times in clinical simulations. These deficits led to an increased risk of motor vehicle accidents, needle sticks, and performance equivalent to unsafe blood alcohol concentrations. An overall decrease in quality of life and job satisfaction was linked to extended-duty shifts. Seven organizations for medical residents or advanced practice nurses have developed policy statements on duty shifts, with extended-duty shift limitations between 12 and 24 hours. The risks associated with extended-duty shifts may inhibit the development of SNMs/SMs into competent practitioners and place patients at risk. It

  3. Search for the limit. Analysis of the hourly natural gas consumption of fruit-vegetable- and rose businesses, measured in a cold period; Op zoek naar de grens. Een analyse van het gasverbruik per uur op vrucht-groente- en rozenbedrijven gemeten in koude periode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravensbergen, P.; Benninga, J.; Vernooy, C.J.M.

    2002-11-01

    Based on the title analysis the hourly consumption of natural gas can be modelled and estimated for the title greenhouse businesses. The most important factors that determine the maximum consumption are the difference between ambient and indoor temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. [Dutch] In dit onderzoek zijn de belangrijkste invloeden op het gasverbruik op uurbasis op bedrijfsniveau gekwantificeerd in de koudste periode van het jaar. Hierdoor wordt het mogelijk om het gasverbruik per uur bij extreme koude te schatten. Dit is nodig omdat in de geliberaliseerde markt de maximale hoeveelheid gas per uur voor een belangrijk deel de kosten voor het aardgas bepaalt. Belangrijkste factoren die het maximumgasverbruik per uur bepalen zijn het verschil in buiten- en binnentemperatuur (delta T), de windsnelheid en instraling. De spreiding tussen de bedrijven is groot, ondermeer als gevolg van verschillen in bedrijfskenmerken. Door het gebruik van energieschermen wordt het gasverbruik per uur met gemiddeld 37% verlaagd. In vergelijking met de vruchtgroentebedrijven hebben de rozenbedrijven met assimilatiebelichting en eigen w/k-installatie een gemiddeld 24% hoger gasverbruik per uur. Overdag verlaagt de instraling het gasverbruik. Voor bedrijven met een scherminstallatie, die 's nachts wel schermen en overdag niet, valt bij extreme koude het maximumgasverbruik per uur overdag. Er is een model ontworpen om het gasverbruik per uur te schatten. Deze schatting kan voor de ondernemer als basis dienen voor de berekening hoe te kunnen anticiperen op de vernieuwde tariefstructuur.

  4. Beyond capacity limitations II: effects of lexical processes on word recall in verbal working memory tasks in children with and without specific language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainela-Arnold, Elina; Evans, Julia L; Coady, Jeffry

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the impact of lexical processes on target word recall in sentence span tasks in children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Participants were 42 children (ages 8;2-12;3 [years;months]): 21 with SLI and 21 typically developing peers matched on age and nonverbal IQ. Children completed a sentence span task in which target words to be recalled varied in word frequency and neighborhood density. Two measures of lexical processes were examined: the number of nontarget competitor words activated during a gating task (lexical cohort competition) and word definitions. Neighborhood density had no effect on word recall for either group. However, both groups recalled significantly more high- than low-frequency words. Lexical cohort competition and specificity of semantic representations accounted for unique variance in the number of target word recalled in the SLI and chronological age-matched (CA) groups combined. Performance on verbal working memory span tasks for both SLI and CA children is influenced by word frequency, lexical cohorts, and semantic representations. Future studies need to examine the extent to which verbal working memory capacity is a cognitive construct independent of extant language knowledge representations.

  5. Childhood fever: a qualitative study on parents' expectations and experiences during general practice out-of-hours care consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bont, Eefje G P M; Loonen, Nicole; Hendrix, Dagmar A S; Lepot, Julie M M; Dinant, Geert-Jan; Cals, Jochen W L

    2015-10-07

    Fever in children is common and mostly caused by benign self-limiting infections. Yet consultation rates in primary care are high, especially during GP out-of-hours care. Therefore, we aimed to explore experiences of parents when having visited GP out-of-hours services with their febrile child. We performed a qualitative study using 20 semi-structured interviews among parents from different backgrounds presenting to GP out-of-hours care with a febrile child parental motivations, expectations and experiences when visiting the GP out-of-hours centre with a febrile child. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using constant comparison technique. We identified four main categories emerging from the data; (1) cautiously seeking care, (2) discrepancy between rationality and emotion, (3) expecting reassurance from a professional and (4) a need for consistent, reliable information. Not one symptom, but a combination of fever with other symptoms, made parents anxious and drove care seeking. Although parents carefully considered when to seek care, they experienced increased anxiety with increases in their child's temperature. Because parents work during the day and fever typically rises during the early evening, the decision to seek care was often made during out-of-hours care. When parents consulted a GP they did not have any set expectations other than seeking reassurance, however a proper physical examination diminished their anxiety. Parents did not demand antibiotics, but trusted on the expertise of the GP to assess necessity. Parents requested consistent, reliable information on fever and self-management strategies. Parents were inexperienced in self-management strategies and had a subsequent desire for reassurance; this played a pivotal role in out-of-hours help seeking for childhood fever. These factors provide clues to optimise information exchange between GPs and parents, by providing written, tailored, consistent information on self

  6. Estimation of clear sky hourly global solar radiation in Iraq

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jumaily, Kais J.; Al-Zuhairi, Munya F.; Mahdi, Zahraa S. [Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College of Science, Al-Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2012-07-01

    The availability of hourly solar radiation data is very important for applications utilizing solar energy and for climate and environmental aspects. The aim of this work is to use a simple model for estimating hourly global solar radiation under clear sky condition in Iraq. Calculations were compared with measurements obtained from local station in Baghdad city and from Meteosat satellite data for different locations in Iraq. The statistical test methods of the mean bias error (MBE), root mean square error (RMSE) and t-test were used to evaluate the performance of the model. Results indicated that a fairly good agreement exists between calculated and measured values for all locations in Iraq. Since the model is independent of any meteorological variable, it would be of a practical use for rural areas where no meteorological data are available.

  7. 76 FR 16199 - Hours of Service of Railroad Employees; Substantive Regulations for Train Employees Providing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... model has been used by other entities, including the military and the airline industry. FAST was used to... consistently working on a less- than-24-hour cycle. Fatigue risk in an industry that operates 24 hours a day... initiate an on-duty period. However, the HSL for the railroad industry have never, up to the present day...

  8. CERN takes part in Earth Hour

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Vernède

    2011-01-01

    From 8.30 to 9.30 p.m. on Saturday, 26 March 2011, the Globe of Science and Innovation will be plunged into darkness to mark CERN's participation in Earth Hour. A growing number of countries and cities across the planet are involved in this global initiative against climate change, which was launched by the WWF in 2007.   The lights on the Globe were switched off for the 2009 Earth Hour event. Along with individuals, companies and tourist attractions in thousands of towns and cities all over the world participating in the fourth annual Earth Hour event, CERN will turn off the lights of the Globe for 60 minutes at 8.30 p.m. on Saturday 26 March. CERN's participation in the initiative is one of several examples of its commitment to respect the environment and keep its ecological footprint to the minimum. A recent example under the green transport heading was the replacement of part of CERN's petrol vehicle fleet with cars running on natural gas with a view to reducing air pollution. Other examples...

  9. Practice and Reflection on Library Open 24 Hours a Day

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiyun

    2009-01-01

    Effective management is to minimize the cost or waste in a limited period of time, and obtain the best result which we expected. The waste of time is the losses of value. To pay attention, analysis and research the readers time cost, so that readers with minimal time to get the most satisfaction. It is one of the most basic and ultimate services goals of library. The article systematically inspected the forms of library open 24 hours a day, focuses on the practice of Huaihai Institute of Tech...

  10. Rush hour commuting in the Netherlands: Gender-specific household activities and personal attitudes towards responsibility sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.M.; Nijland, E.W.L.; Dijst, M.

    2016-01-01

    Apart from work-hour commitments, rush hour commuting is dependent on household activities and responsibilities. It can also be gender specific when gender differences in performing household activities prevail. To that end, this study investigates gender differences in rush hour commuting in

  11. Rush hour commuting in the Netherlands : Gender-specific household activities and personal attitudes towards responsibility sharing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oakil, A.T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315556870; Nijland, E.W.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/363558578

    2016-01-01

    Apart from work-hour commitments, rush hour commuting is dependent on household activities and responsibilities. It can also be gender specific when gender differences in performing household activities prevail. To that end, this study investigates gender differences in rush hour commuting in

  12. Out-of-hours maxillofacial trauma surgery: a risk factor for complications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, A; Hyam, D; Hapangama, N

    2013-02-01

    Recent literature from general and orthopaedic surgery as well as anaesthetic viewpoints has identified that operations performed outside normal work hours pose potential risks for both patients and healthcare workers. This is in contrast to the increasing pressure for 24h surgical availability for the public and the desire to reduce waiting times for patients. Further, there is evidence of the effects of fatigue on reducing performance. The authors aim to compare outcomes of maxillofacial trauma surgery performed in and out of normal work hours. Retrospective analysis was carried out on all maxillofacial trauma surgery under general anaesthesia at a tertiary referral hospital over a 14-month period. Outcomes of patient mortality, injury severity, patient demographics and operation duration were analysed with reference to two groups: in-hours (0800-1700 Monday to Friday) and out-of-hours (1700-0800 Monday to Friday as well as all operations performed Saturday and Sunday). 134 patients/procedures met the inclusion criteria, 53 out-of-hours and 81 in-hours. A statistically significant (p=0.05) higher complication rate (13%) was found in the out-of-hours cases compared to the in-hours cases (4%). The potential implications for this result on the need for increased availability of dedicated in-hours maxillofacial trauma operating lists at major hospitals are discussed. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  13. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando N. Facio Jr.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia.

  14. Electoral (Amendment) (Hours of Polling) Bill 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham; Hunt, Brian; Doyle, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Private Members' Bill (legislation) introduced in Dáil Éireann (House of Deputies), Houses of the Oireachtas (Parliament of Ireland). An Act to set voting hours for Dáil Elections, Dáil Bye-Elections, Presidential Elections, European Parliament Elections, Local Government Elections and Referenda...... as being 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. and for that purpose to amend the Electoral Act 1992, Presidential Elections Act 1993, Referendum Act 1994, European Parliament Elections Act 1997, the Local Government Act 2001 and to provide for related matters....

  15. WordPress 24-hour trainer

    CERN Document Server

    Plumley, George

    2015-01-01

    Create and expand feature-rich sites with no programming experience Ready to build, maintain, and expand your web site with WordPress but have no prior programming experience? WordPress 24-Hour Trainer, 3rd Edition is your book-and-video learning solution that walks you step-by-step through all the important features you will need to know. Lessons range from focused, practical everyday tasks to more advanced, creative features. Learn from an industry professional how to enter content, create pages, manage menus, utilize plug-ins, connect to social media, create membership and e-commerce site

  16. Strategies for 96-hour critical infrastructure compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storbakken, Steven H; Kendall, Shannon; Lackey, Connie

    2009-01-01

    Organizations that stand the best chance at survival following a disaster do so because they can depend on the sharing of resources and mutual ideologies, the authors claim, pointing out that when it comes to strategizing for 96-hour critical infrastructure compliance, it is important to keep at the forefront not only the idea of collaborative planning from within the organization--involving security and safety, clinical, facilities and administrative staffs--but also includes collaborative planning with the local and regional businesses surrounding the organization.

  17. Eight- and twelve-hour shifts in Austrian rail traffic controllers: a psychophysiological comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. WOLFGANG KALLUS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared a 12-hour and an 8-hour shift system in 18 Austrian rail traffic controllers. To gain objective indicators for arousal and fatigue induced by the whole workrest sequence, we recorded heart rate during the last night shift, in addition to subjective measures that included physical symptoms. A higher increase of monotony, fatigue and saturation emerged during the 8-hour compared to the 12-hour regime, together with a heart rate decrease during the last 8-hour night shift. In line with other researchers, we conclude that flexible working conditions in specific occupational groups may compensate for disadvantages of prolonged working periods, giving way to advantages of longer shifts such as longer pauses and extra days off for social and other personal activities.

  18. Riding Third: Social Work in Ambulance Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Hilary; Rasmussen, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This research explored the possible role of social work alongside emergency ambulance services. An ethnographic study included semistructured interviews and direct observations collected over 300 hours while riding in ambulances in an urban setting. The data suggest that social work could play a role by providing needed psychosocial care during…

  19. Make a movie in 48 hours

    CERN Multimedia

    Brokk Toggerson

    2011-01-01

    This year, the 48-hour film project (48hfp) returns to Geneva after a one-year hiatus. Organized by Neal Hartman and the CERN film-making club, Open Your Eyes Films, the 48hfp challenges teams of film-makers to write, shoot, soundtrack and edit a 4 to 7 minute film in 48 hours from 4 to 6 November.   At the start of the festival, contestants picked their film genre from a hat. The films will be screened on 8 and 9 November, with the awards presentation on the 9th. The winner will receive a trip to the US to compete in the international version of the competition. “There are so many short films being made now," says Hartman, “I think, however, that the 48hfp allows a critical creative mass to form. The result is that these 20 teams make 20 better films than if each participant were making their own." Each team draws a genre from a hat and is given a character, a prop and a line of dialogue that must appear in their film. The genres run the gamut from &am...

  20. Off-Hour Surgery Among Orthopedic Subspecialties at an Urban, Quaternary-Care, Level 1 Trauma Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lans, Amanda; Janssen, Stein J; Ring, David

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine and quantify which subspecialties of orthopedic surgeons are operating off hours in an urban, quaternary-care, level 1 trauma center. We used our clinical registry to identify 43,211 orthopedic surgeries performed between January 2008 and December 2011. Our outcome measures were the number and proportion of off-hour surgeries performed as well as the number and proportion of off-hours per subspecialty. The denominators were the total number of surgeries and the total number of surgical hours worked per subspecialty. Subspecialties-based on the primary surgeon who performed the surgery-were arthroplasty, foot and ankle, hand, pediatrics, shoulder, spine, sports, orthopedic trauma, and orthopedic oncology. A total of 2,431 (5.6%) surgeries were off-hours; the overall ratio of off-hour to on-hour surgeries was 1 to 17. There was a difference in the proportion of off-hour surgeries performed among orthopedic subspecialties: trauma (ratio, 1:5) and pediatric specialists (ratio, 1:5) had the lowest ratio, and shoulder (ratio, 1:152) and sports (ratio, 1:98) specialists the highest. The total number of surgical hours among all specialties was 59,026; of these hours, 3,833 (6.5%) were off-hour. The ratio of off-hour to on-hour surgical hours was 1 to 14. There was a difference in proportion of hours worked off-hour among orthopedic subspecialties; the ratios were greatest for trauma (1:5) and hand (1:5) specialists and the least for shoulder (1:157) and sports (1:92) specialists. Seven percent of hand surgery cases were off-hour, and 16% of the total surgical hours worked by hand surgeons were off-hour. In an urban, academic, level 1 trauma and microvascular replantation regional referral hospital, there is a large difference in off-hour surgical volume and duration among orthopedic subspecialties: trauma, pediatric, and hand surgeons performed more off-hour work than their colleagues, with hand and pediatric surgeons the most likely to be working at

  1. A coupled weather generator - rainfall-runoff approach on hourly time steps for flood risk analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Benjamin; Schneeberger, Klaus; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Vorogushyn, Sergiy; Huttenlau, Matthias; Merz, Bruno; Stötter, Johann

    2017-04-01

    The evaluation of potential monetary damage of flooding is an essential part of flood risk management. One possibility to estimate the monetary risk is to analyze long time series of observed flood events and their corresponding damages. In reality, however, only few flood events are documented. This limitation can be overcome by the generation of a set of synthetic, physically and spatial plausible flood events and subsequently the estimation of the resulting monetary damages. In the present work, a set of synthetic flood events is generated by a continuous rainfall-runoff simulation in combination with a coupled weather generator and temporal disaggregation procedure for the study area of Vorarlberg (Austria). Most flood risk studies focus on daily time steps, however, the mesoscale alpine study area is characterized by short concentration times, leading to large differences between daily mean and daily maximum discharge. Accordingly, an hourly time step is needed for the simulations. The hourly metrological input for the rainfall-runoff model is generated in a two-step approach. A synthetic daily dataset is generated by a multivariate and multisite weather generator and subsequently disaggregated to hourly time steps with a k-Nearest-Neighbor model. Following the event generation procedure, the negative consequences of flooding are analyzed. The corresponding flood damage for each synthetic event is estimated by combining the synthetic discharge at representative points of the river network with a loss probability relation for each community in the study area. The loss probability relation is based on exposure and susceptibility analyses on a single object basis (residential buildings) for certain return periods. For these impact analyses official inundation maps of the study area are used. Finally, by analyzing the total event time series of damages, the expected annual damage or losses associated with a certain probability of occurrence can be estimated for

  2. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service Tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  3. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: • if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer • if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  4. RESUMING WORK

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    In application of the Staff Rules and Regulations, every member of the CERN personnel is required to undergo a medical examination on resuming work after sick leave: - if the medical absence has been for 21 calendar days or longer - if absent more than 48 hours due to professional accident It is incumbent upon the member of the personnel himself/herself to contact the Medical Service tel. 73186, without awaiting its summons. The purpose of this exam is not to check on the absenteeism, but to support the professional reinsertion. Medical Service

  5. General practitioners' satisfaction with and attitudes to out-of-hours services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesseling Geertjan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, Dutch general practitioner (GP out-of-hours service has been reorganised into large-scale GP cooperatives. Until now little is known about GPs' experiences with working at these cooperatives for out-of-hours care. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into GPs' satisfaction with working at GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care in separated and integrated cooperatives. Methods A GP cooperative separate from the hospital Accident and Emergency (A&E department, and a GP cooperative integrated within the A&E department of another hospital. Both cooperatives are situated in adjacent geographic regions in the South of the Netherlands. One hundred GPs were interviewed by telephone; fifty GPs working at the separated GP cooperative and fifty GPs from the integrated GP cooperative. Opinions on different aspects of GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care were measured, and regression analysis was performed to investigate if these could be related to GP satisfaction with out-of-hours care organisation. Results GPs from the separated model were more satisfied with the organisation of out-of-hours care than GPs from the integrated model (70 vs. 60 on a scale score from 0 to 100; P = 0.020. Satisfaction about out-of-hours care organisation was related to opinions on workload, guarantee of gatekeeper function, and attitude towards out-of-hours care as being an essential part of general practice. Cooperation with medical specialists was much more appreciated at the integrated model (77 vs. 48; P Conclusion GPs in this study appear to be generally satisfied with the organisation of GP cooperatives for out-of-hours care. Furthermore, GPs working at the separated cooperative seem to be more satisfied compared to GPs working at the integrated cooperative.

  6. Official CERN holidays | Restaurant opening hours

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Please note that the CERN Restaurants will have the following opening hours during the upcoming holidays: Restaurant #1 will be open from 7 a.m. to 11 p.m. on Wednesday 1 May, Thursday 9 May (Ascension Thursday) and Monday 20 May (Pentecost) - on Friday 10 May the restaurant will be open at the usual times. Restaurant #2 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, but will be open on Friday 10 May at the usual times (brasserie will be closed). Restaurant #3 will be closed over the 3 official CERN holidays, as well as Friday 10 May.

  7. PLANNING OF TRAINING AIRCRAFT FLIGHT HOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visnja Vojvodić Rosenzweig

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the training aircraft causes downtime of operations and thereby reduces the operational availability, which is crucial for flight planning in a training organisation. Manual daily planning within the fleet delivers suboptimal results and often causes discontinued flight of several aircraft that have to be maintained at the same time. Optimal maintenance schedule of training aircraft can be obtained by a sliding scale method. This paper presents a mathematical model of the sliding scale formulated by a mixed integer linear problem. Allocation of flight hours is optimised by using AMPL programming language, assuring that a sufficient number of aircraft are always available for training. The model can be used by a flight dispatch department in a training organisation as a basis for optimised planning and reduction of maintenance downtime.

  8. 29 CFR 825.601 - Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... intermittent leave. 825.601 Section 825.601 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR... to Employees of Schools § 825.601 Special rules for school employees, limitations on intermittent... working at the end of the school year. (1) If an eligible instructional employee needs intermittent leave...

  9. Access to diagnostic tests during GP out-of-hours care: A cross-sectional study of all GP out-of-hours services in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schols, Angel M R; Stevens, Femke; Zeijen, Camiel G I P; Dinant, Geert-Jan; van Vugt, Christel; Cals, Jochen W L

    2016-09-01

    In general practice, excluding serious conditions is one of the cornerstones of the consultation. Diagnostic tests are widely used to assist the decision-making process in these cases. Little is known about general practitioners' (GPs) access to diagnostic tests at GP out-of-hours services. To determine GPs' access to diagnostic tests-imaging, function tests, laboratory tests, and point-of-care tests (POCT)-during GP out-of-hours care and to assess whether access to diagnostic facilities differs between services located adjacent to or separate from an accident and emergency (A&E) department. Cross-sectional survey of all 117 GP out-of-hours services in the Netherlands in 2014. One-hundred-seventeen GP out-of-hours services participated in the survey; response rate 100%. Access to diagnostic tests during GP out-of-hours care varied across services, although generally there was limited access. Electrocardiography was available in 26% (30/117) of all services, conventional radiography in 19% (22/117), laboratory tests between 37% (43/117) and 65% (76/117). All services had glucose POCT and urine dipstick tests available while none utilized troponin POCT. We observed no relevant differences in access to diagnostic tests between services adjacent to or separate from an A&E department. GPs in the Netherlands had limited and varying access to diagnostic tests during GP out-of-hours care in 2014. Out-of-hours services adjacent to A&E departments do not offer wider access to diagnostic tests. Further research on the accessibility of diagnostic tests in other European countries with similar and different GP out-of-hours care systems could shed further light on the effects of accessibility to diagnostic tests. [Box: see text].

  10. Effect of a protected sleep period on hours slept during extended overnight in-hospital duty hours among medical interns: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpp, Kevin G; Shea, Judy A; Small, Dylan S; Basner, Mathias; Zhu, Jingsan; Norton, Laurie; Ecker, Adrian; Novak, Cristina; Bellini, Lisa M; Dine, C Jessica; Mollicone, Daniel J; Dinges, David F

    2012-12-05

    A 2009 Institute of Medicine report recommended protected sleep periods for medicine trainees on extended overnight shifts, a position reinforced by new Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requirements. To evaluate the feasibility and consequences of protected sleep periods during extended duty. Randomized controlled trial conducted at the Philadelphia VA Medical Center medical service and Oncology Unit of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (2009-2010). Of the 106 interns and senior medical students who consented, 3 were not scheduled on any study rotations. Among the others, 44 worked at the VA center, 16 at the university hospital, and 43 at both. Twelve 4-week blocks were randomly assigned to either a standard intern schedule (extended duty overnight shifts of up to 30 hours; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site), or a protected sleep period (protected time from 12:30 AM to 5:30 AM with handover of work cell phone; equivalent to 1200 overnight intern shifts at each site). Participants were asked to wear wrist actigraphs and complete sleep diaries. Primary outcome was hours slept during the protected period on extended duty overnight shifts. Secondary outcome measures included hours slept during a 24-hour period (noon to noon) by day of call cycle and Karolinska sleepiness scale. For 98.3% of on-call nights, cell phones were signed out as designed. At the VA center, participants with protected sleep had a mean 2.86 hours (95% CI, 2.57-3.10 hours) of sleep vs 1.98 hours (95% CI, 1.68-2.28 hours) among those who did not have protected hours of sleep (P sleep had a mean 3.04 hours (95% CI, 2.77-3.45 hours) of sleep vs 2.04 hours (95% CI, 1.79-2.24) among those who did not have protected sleep (P sleep were significantly less likely to have call nights with no sleep: 5.8% (95% CI, 3.0%-8.5%) vs 18.6% (95% CI, 13.9%-23.2%) at the VA center (P sleep period while on call resulted in an increase in overnight sleep duration

  11. Hourly weather forecasts for gas turbine power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An hourly short-term weather forecast can optimize processes in Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT plants by helping to reduce imbalance charges on the national power grid. Consequently, a reliable meteorological prediction for a given power plant is crucial for obtaining competitive prices for the electric market, better planning and stock management, sales and supplies of energy sources. The paper discusses the short-term hourly temperature forecasts, at lead time day+1 and day+2, over a period of thirteen months in 2012 and 2013 for six Italian CCGT power plants of 390 MW each (260 MW from the gas turbine and 130 MW from the steam turbine. These CCGT plants are placed in three different Italian climate areas: the Po Valley, the Adriatic coast, and the North Tyrrhenian coast. The meteorological model applied in this study is the eni-Kassandra Meteo Forecast (e‑kmf™, a multi-model approach system to provide probabilistic forecasts with a Kalman filter used to improve accuracy of local temperature predictions. Performance skill scores, computed by the output data of the meteorological model, are compared with local observations, and used to evaluate forecast reliability. In the study, the approach has shown good overall scores encompassing more than 50,000 hourly temperature values. Some differences from one site to another, due to local meteorological phenomena, can affect the short-term forecast performance, with consequent impacts on gas-to-power production and related negative imbalances. For operational application of the methodology in CCGT power plant, the benefits and limits have been successfully identified.

  12. The Impact of Hospital Visiting Hour Policies on Pediatric and Adult Patients and their Visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa; Medves, Jennifer; Harrison, Margaret B; Tranmer, Joan; Waytuck, Brett

    2009-01-01

    acute care hospital wards. Finally, delivery rooms were excluded because this review does not evaluate the impact of the outcomes of presence during "delivery" (or other "procedures").Types of interventions Studies were considered for inclusion in this review if they evaluated the effect or impact of visiting policies. This included interventions targeted at limiting or expanding patient visiting. We anticipated a paucity of experimental studies regarding this review question, thus included observational studies where the impact of visiting policy on patients and/or visitors was a focus, but testing intervention(s) may not have been the primary aim. We did not consider observational studies that focused only on the presence of visitors during specific procedures, resuscitation, or childbirth. The reason is that this limited aspect of the presence of a significant other was not considered "visiting" per se, and would be best examined in another systematic review.Types of outcome measures For this review, outcome measures related to both patients and visitors as a result of visiting hour policies were considered, including but not limited to: patient and/or visitor satisfaction; attitudes; beliefs; perceptions; mood; or patient physiological outcomes. These also included health care provider beliefs, perceptions, and attitudes about the impact of visiting policies on patients and/or visitors. Studies were excluded if they examined the trend of current visiting hour policies (with no evaluation of their impact), or if they focused on visitor presence only during emergency procedures, resuscitation, or childbirth.Types of studies Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-experimental studies were included. However, given the expected scarcity of these designs relevant to our review question, other quantitative research designs were considered, such as non-randomized controlled trials, before-and-after studies, and descriptive/observational studies. Using a defined search

  13. Predicting Hourly Traflc Noise from Traflc Flow Rate Model: Underlying Concepts for the DYNAMAP Project

    OpenAIRE

    Smiraglia M.; Benocci R.; Zambon G.; Roman H.E.

    2016-01-01

    The DYNAMAP project aims at obtaining a dynamic noise map of a large residential area such as the City of Milan (Italy), by recording traffic noise from a limited number of noise sensors. To this end,we perform a statistical analysis of road stretches and group them into different clusters showing a similar measured hourly traffic noise behavior. In the sameway,we group simulated hourly traffic flow rates and compare their compositions with those of the traffic noise g...

  14. Analysis of 24-hour versus 48-hour traffic counts for HPMS sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has requested a waiver from the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) to : allow IDOT to implement a 24-hour traffic-count program on the non-state HPMS routes, as opposed to the current Highway : Perf...

  15. Medical education and the ACGME duty hour requirements: assessing the effect of a day float system on educational activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roey, Steve

    2006-01-01

    In July 2003, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) instituted new resident work hour mandates, which are being shown to improve resident well-being and patient safety. However, there are limited data on the impact these new mandates may have on educational activities. To assess the impact on educational activities of a day float system created to meet ACGME work hour mandates. The inpatient ward coverage was changed by adding a day float team responsible for new patient admissions in the morning, with the on-call teams starting later and being responsible for new patient admissions thereafter. I surveyed the residents to assess the impact of this new system on educational activities-resident autonomy, attending teaching, conference attendance, resident teaching, self-directed learning, and ability to complete patient care responsibilities. There was no adverse effect of the day float system on educational activities. House staff reported increased autonomy, enhanced teaching from attending physicians, and improved ability to complete patient care responsibilities. Additionally, house staff demonstrated improved compliance with the ACGME mandates. The implementation of a novel day float system for the inpatient medicine ward service improved compliance with ACGME work duty requirements and did not adversely impact educational activities of the residency training program.

  16. Analysis on the Hour-lines of Yangcheon-cheok

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyuk Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the hour-lines of six extant Yangcheon-cheoks in Korea. To find whether Yangcheon-cheok was used in the whole area of Korea, we calculated the length of shadows of Yangcheon-cheok on the Korean Peninsula, Nanjing and Beijing as well as Hanyang (Seoul, according to 24 solar terms. Comparing the length of shadows with hour-lines of those relics, we could find that Yangcheon-cheok was suitable for use at limited times (from 9:00 to 15:00 during the year. Also, this sundial is more appropriate for use at low latitudes than high ones. Among existing relics, that of Seoul Museum of History made with porcelain was much more suitable to use at Hanyang and its higher latitude. Lee’s collection was also suitable to use at Nanjing. It is certain that Yangcheon-cheok was a portable sundial which could be used from nine to fifteen of clock all the year around except for the winter season.

  17. Twenty-four hour intraocular pressure measurements and home tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Gibbons, Frances; Berlin, Michael S; Töteberg-Harms, Marc

    2018-03-01

    IOP is the only treatable risk factor contributing to glaucoma and most management and treatment of glaucoma is based on IOP. However, current IOP measurements are limited to office hours and control of glaucoma in many patients would benefit from the ability to monitor IOP diurnally so as not to miss abnormal pressures, which occur outside of office hours Consequently, to improve patient care, the ability to enable accurate and minimally disruptive diurnal IOP monitoring would improve caring for these patients. The studies we selected for this review can be divided into three categories: self-/home-tonometry, continuous invasive intraocular pressure measurements, and continuous noninvasive ocular measurements. The desire to obtain better insight in our patients' true diurnal IOP has led to the development of home-tonometers, in addition to extraocular and intraocular continuous pressure measurement devices. All of the devices have respective advantages and disadvantages, but none to date completely fulfills the goal of providing a true diurnal IOP profile.Video abstracthttp://links.lww.com/COOP/A27.

  18. UTILITY OF THE METHOD T.H.M. (MACHINE - HOUR - RATE PRODUCTION CENTURY PROCESS AUTOMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Otilia, ȚENOVICI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The method T.H.M. (machine - hour - rate gives greater accuracy in the factories or departments, where production is largely by machinery. In the specialty literature, the notion of price - the time - the car is defined as "œa rate calculated by dividing the budgeted or estimated overhead or labour and overhead cost attributable to a machine or group of similar machines by the appropriate number of machine hours. The hours may be the number of hours for which the machine or group is expected to be operated, the number of hours which would relate to normal working for the factory, or full capacity". In a highly mechanised cost centre, majority of the overhead expenses are incurred on account of using the machine, such as, depreciation, power, repairs and maintenance, insurance, etc. This method is currently offering the most equitable basis for absorption of overheads in machine intensive cost centres.

  19. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  20. Deregulating Overtime Hours Restrictions on Women and its Effects on Female Employment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides novel evidence on the effect of deregulating overtime hours restrictions on women by using the 1985 Amendments to the Labour Standards Act (LSA) in Japan as a natural experiment. The original LSA of 1947 prohibited women from working overtime exceeding two hours a day; six hours...... a week; and 150 hours a year. The 1985 Amendments exempted a variety of occupations and industries from such an overtime restriction on women. Applying a difference-in-difference model to census data, we find causal evidence pointing to the positive effect of this particular piece of labour market......, we use quantile regressions and find that for jobs with more rapidly growing proportion of female employment, the effect of the exemption from the overtime work restriction on women is larger....