WorldWideScience

Sample records for work experience influence

  1. INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND WORKING EXPERIENCE ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INFLUENCE OF AGE, GENDER AND WORKING EXPERIENCE ON LIBRARIANS' JOB SATISFACTION IN. UNIVERSITY ... of an individual psychological, social and physical well -being with regard to his work and job .... promotion, supervision and interpersonal relationship, working condition, salaries and benefits among ...

  2. Influence of age, gender and working experience on librarians' job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of personal characteristics of librarians on their job satisfactions in University Libraries in Nigeria. The personal characteristics consisted of age, gender and working experience. Survey research design was employed to investigate the influence of these variables on ...

  3. The influence of career orientations on subjective work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinde Coetzee

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: In an increasingly turbulent business context in which people are less dependent on organisational career arrangements and have greater agency in career decisions, organisations have come to pay increasing attention to retaining valuable talented managerial potential.Research purpose: The study empirically assessed the causal influence of individuals’ career orientations on their perceived life satisfaction, job or career satisfaction, sense of happiness and their perceptions of work as a valuable activity as aspects of their subjective work experiences.Motivation for study: From an organisational perspective, research on individuals’ inner definitions of career success and satisfaction is needed to guide current selection, placement, development, reward and retention practices.Research design, approach and method: A quantitative survey was conducted on a random sample of 2997 participants at predominantly managerial and supervisory level in the service industry. The measuring instruments consisted of an adapted five-factor career orientations model of the Career Orientations Inventory and a 4-item global subjective work experiences scale. Structural equation modelling (SEM was conducted to achieve the aim of the study.Main findings/results: Statistically significant causal relationships were observed between the career orientations and subjective work experiences variables.Practical implications: Individuals’ career orientations influence their general sense of life and job or career satisfaction, happiness and perceptions of work as a valuable activity. Organisations concerned with the retention of staff need to find a way of aligning individuals’ career needs and motives with the goals and aspirations of the organisation.Contribution/value-add: The research confirms the need for assessing the inner career orientations of employees as these provide valuable information regarding the motives and values driving individuals

  4. Past Experience Influences Object Representation in Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagar, B.M.; Dixon, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    The nature of object representation in working memory is vital to establishing the capacity of working memory, which in turn shapes the limits of visual cognition and awareness. Although current theories discuss whether representations in working memory are feature-based or object-based, no theory has considered the role of past experience.…

  5. Does the pediatricians' work setting or years of experience influence febrile seizure education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Rie; Okumura, A; Marui, E; Shimizu, T

    2010-06-01

    A febrile seizure is a benign condition. However, for parents, witnessing their child's FS can cause excessive anxiety. It is therefore important for pediatricians to provide appropriate information in order to reduce anxiety. In this study, we analyze whether work setting and years of experience influence the explanations given to caregivers. Questionnaires were mailed to members of the Japan Pediatric Society, Tokyo Chapter (n=1 870). The Mantel-Haenszel test was used for dichotomous variables. Differences for continuous variables were evaluated at 95% confidence intervals. A total of 482 pediatricians participated. There were no significant differences in responses to any questions according to work setting. Responders with less than 20 years of experience reported a higher prevalence of febrile seizures than those in the more experienced group. Compared to the experienced group, more responders with less than 20 years of experience stated that they would administer antiepileptic prophylaxis and advise parents not to use antipyretics, and indicated that they did not know the FS treatment guidelines. The findings suggest the importance of promoting a better understanding of FS among less-experienced pediatricians and encouraging adherence to the guidelines to maintain a consistent level of support for parents and caregivers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Influence of clinical experience on the radiographic determination of endodontic working length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alothmani, O S; Friedlander, L T; Monteith, B D; Chandler, N P

    2013-03-01

    To determine the influence of clinical experience on the accuracy and consistency of estimation of radiographic working length (WL) for the root canal treatment of single-rooted teeth. Forty conventional WL periapical radiographs that included variations in file length were selected. They were digitally scanned and arranged in PowerPoint presentations on CDs. These were distributed to three assessor groups; fourth-year undergraduates at two stages of training (Groups 1 and 2) and endodontic postgraduates (Group 3). Participants were asked to determine the adjustment needed in millimetres to position the file tip at the correct WL for each image. A gold standard file position was provided by three experienced endodontists. For inter-group comparison of scores, the Kruskal-Wallis, ANOVA and post hoc Bonferroni tests were used. Evaluation of intra-examiner consistency was with the Kappa test. To evaluate intra-group consistency, the Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare the frequency of weighted correct scorings. File adjustments of Group 3 were significantly more accurate than those of Group 1 (P = 0.006). The scores of Group 3 were also better than those of Group 2, although the difference was not significant. When the scores of the undergraduate groups were compared, the difference was not statistically significant. The consistency of the groups was not affected by a 2-week pause between assessments, and no definite pattern could be detected across any of the groups with the Kappa test. Clinical experience after graduation influenced the accuracy of estimating the adjustments needed for correct radiographic WL of single-rooted teeth. The most experienced group was significantly more accurate than the other groups. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  7. [The influence of workplace violence on work-related anxiety and depression experience among Korean employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Sook; Jung, Hye Sun; Kim, Su Hyun; Park, Hyunju

    2010-10-01

    Work-related anxiety and depression are frequent work-related mental health problems. In this study the relationship between workplace violence and work-related anxiety and/or depression among Korean employees was evaluated. Data were obtained from the Korean Working Condition Survey of 2006. Participants were 9,094 Korean workers aged 15-64 yr. Multiple logistic regression using SAS version 9.1 was used. The incidence of work-related anxiety, work-related depression and workplace violence were 4.5%, 3.5%, and 1.8% respectively. When personal and occupational risk factors were adjusted, workplace violence was significantly associated with work-related anxiety and depression (OR for anxiety: 4.07, CI: 2.62-6.34; OR for depression: 4.60, CI: 2.92-7.25). Work-related anxiety was significantly related to type of employment, working period at present workplace, work time, shift work, job demand, and social support from superiors. Factors influencing work-related depression were gender, education, alcohol consumption, company size, type of employment, working period at present workplace, work time, shift work, and job demand. To promote psychological health in workers there is a need to develop work-related anxiety and depression prevention programs and to decrease in workplace violence. In developing these programs, consideration should be given to personal factors, working conditions, and psychosocial working environments.

  8. Work Experience and Work Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Jon; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the interrelations of work experience and psychological involvement in work among male college graduates over a 10-year period. Both the occupational socialization and the occupational selection hypotheses are supported by the data analysis. (Author/JOW)

  9. A study investigating the experience of working for people with Parkinson's and the factors that influence workplace success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Rebecca L; Chaudhuri, K Ray; Andrews, Thomasin C; Martin, Anne; Gay, Stella; White, Claire M

    2017-05-10

    The experience of working for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is known to vary substantially and affects the length of time in employment after diagnosis. This study aims at exploring the experience of working for people with PD and to create a model detailing the factors that influence their workplace success. A qualitative grounded theoretical approach was used. Seventeen working people with PD were selected for individual interviews which were conducted sequentially. Data were analyzed in an iterative, inductive process of coding to identify common themes and to generate a model that explains the data. Two core themes that influence workplace success for people with PD were identified. 'Feeling in control of Parkinson's' describes the actions that they make to remain in control. 'Being able to control Parkinson's in the workplace' describes external factors that they believe influence their ability to work successfully. The theoretical model demonstrates how a variety of factors interplay to influence workplace success for people with PD. PD is often poorly understood but the ability to explore and devise strategies for oneself and the flexibility to work around a fluctuating daily pattern were regularly identified as strategies that facilitated success. Implications for Rehabilitation The experience of working for people with Parkinson's is variable and is influenced by how in control the person with Parkinson's feels and the strategies they use to manage challenges. There is a need for greater workplace education to enhance employers' understanding of Parkinson's to ensure better support for strategies or reasonable adjustments by employers. People with Parkinson's are able to devise strategies to overcome some of their own specific workplace challenges including through technology but often, they prefer not to use disability aids. Daily fluctuations in Parkinson's symptoms are an important factor influencing workplace success.

  10. The Consumer’s Experience of Design Influences How Markets Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kristensen, Tore

    2016-01-01

    both quality and price (willingness to pay) are issues and it can also be used as a follow-up after the round of pre-test. To satisfy individual users, real individuals should be considered in their heterogeneity. Relevant psychological and statistical methods and reasoning are useful in keeping......Most studies in marketing operate at a market level, which also becomes frequently the condition for design work. This means that the aggregate or weighted average consumer is the focus. Having already made this aggregation as the “top-down approach” indicates, it is not feasible to take...... the trace of the individual. In the bottom up approach we measure how much the influence of a treatment like that of facing a particular design influences each human being. Successively, one may see if other behavioural characteristics also unite for instance those who are heavily affected or those who...

  11. The Consumer’s Experience of Design Influences How Markets Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gabrielsen, Gorm; Kristensen, Tore

    2016-01-01

    both quality and price (willingness to pay) are issues and it can also be used as a follow-up after the round of pre-test. To satisfy individual users, real individuals should be considered in their heterogeneity. Relevant psychological and statistical methods and reasoning are useful in keeping...... the trace of the individual. In the bottom up approach we measure how much the influence of a treatment like that of facing a particular design influences each human being. Successively, one may see if other behavioural characteristics also unite for instance those who are heavily affected or those who...

  12. "We work on experiments"

    CERN Multimedia

    BBC

    1975-01-01

    Short BBC (?) report on CERN. Emphasis on international collaboration, with Soviets and Chinese highlighted. At end, interview with Danish physicist (our of sync) who talks about working on Sundays and how experiments have 25 people, therefore it is a long way to glory. ISR. Comments: Film scratched and dirty. Colour pink. Looses sync at the end. Video transfer ends before the end of the film.

  13. The Influence of Lived Experience with Addiction and Recovery on Practice-Related Decisions among Professionals Working in Addiction Agencies Serving Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotna, Gabriela; Dobbins, Maureen; Jack, Susan M.; Sword, Wendy; Niccols, Alison; Brooks, Sandy; Henderson, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Aims: The study objectives were to: (1) understand the value attributed to the lived experience of addiction and recovery among professionals working in addiction agencies serving women in Canada and (2) describe how lived experience influence practice-related decision-making. Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was conducted with a…

  14. NASA Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Athela F.

    2015-01-01

    I have had the opportunity to support the analytical laboratories in chemical analysis of unknown samples, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Polarizing Light Microscopy (PLM), Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEMEDS), and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XPD). I have assisted in characterizing fibers pulled from a spacecraft, a white fibrous residue discovered in a jet refueler truck, brown residue from a plant habitat slated for delivery to the ISS (International Space Station), corrosion on a pipe from a sprinkler, and air filtration material brought back from the ISS. I also conducted my own fiber study in order to practice techniques and further my understanding of background concepts. Furthermore, I had the opportunity to participate in diverse work assignments, where I was assigned to work with other branches of the engineering department for 1-2 days each. The first was in the Materials Science branch where I participated in the construction of the plant habitat intended for use in research aboard the ISS. The second was in the Testing Design branch where I assisted with tensile and hardness testing of over 40 samples. In addition, I have had the privilege to attend multiple tours of the NASA KSC campus, including to the Astronaut Crew Quarters, the VAB (the main area, the Columbia room, and the catwalk), the Visitor Center housing the shuttle Atlantis, the Saturn-V exhibit, the Prototype laboratory, SWAMP WORKS, the Shuttle Landing Facility, the Crawler, and the Booster Fabrication Facility (BFF). Lastly, much of my coursework prepared me for this experience, including numerous laboratory courses with topics diverse as chemistry, physics, and biology.

  15. Novel evidence in support of the bilingual advantage: influences of task demands and experience on cognitive control and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnamara, Brooke N; Conway, Andrew R A

    2014-04-01

    The bilingual advantage-enhanced cognitive control relative to monolinguals-possibly occurs due to experience engaging general cognitive mechanisms in order to manage two languages. Supporting this hypothesis is evidence that bimodal (signed language-spoken language) bilinguals do not demonstrate such an advantage, presumably because the distinct language modalities reduce conflict and control demands. We hypothesized that the mechanism responsible for the bilingual advantage is the interplay between (a) the magnitude of bilingual management demands and (b) the amount of experience managing those demands. We recruited adult bimodal bilinguals with high bilingual management demands and examined cognitive control and working memory capacity longitudinally. After gaining experience managing high bilingual management demands, participants outperformed themselves from 2 years earlier on cognitive abilities associated with managing the bilingual demands. These results suggest that cognitive control outcomes for bilinguals vary as a function of the mechanisms recruited during bilingual management and the amount of experience managing the bilingual demands.

  16. Increasing work-time influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Aust, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated how an intervention aiming at increasing eldercare workers' influence on their working hours affected the flexibility, variability, regularity and predictability of the working hours. We used baseline (n = 296) and follow-up (n = 274) questionnaire data......-operation with colleagues. In subgroup B and C, the participants ended up discussing the potential consequences of more work-time influence without actually implementing any changes. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Employee work-time influence may buffer the adverse effects of shift work. However, our intervention study suggested...... that while increasing the individual flexibility, increasing work-time influence may also result in decreased regularity of the working hours and less continuity in the care of clients and co-operation with colleagues....

  17. Optimal experience in work and leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csikszentmihalyi, M; LeFevre, J

    1989-05-01

    Followed 78 adult workers for 1 week with the experience sampling method. (This method randomly samples self-reports throughout the day.) The main question was whether the quality of experience was more influenced by whether a person was at work or at leisure or more influenced by whether a person was in flow (i.e., in a condition of high challenges and skills). Results showed that all the variables measuring the quality of experience, except for relaxation and motivation, are more affected by flow than by whether the respondent is working or in leisure. Moreover, the great majority of flow experiences are reported when working, not when in leisure. Regardless of the quality of experience, however, respondents are more motivated in leisure than in work. But individuals more motivated in flow than in apathy reported more positive experiences in work. Results suggest implications for improving the quality of everyday life.

  18. Youth Work Experience and Employability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; And Others

    This paper examines the effects of youth work experience on subsequent employability. The paper begins with a speculative consideration of the ways in which work experience might affect later employability. Three types of research literature are then reviewed: (1) economic studies of the relation between youth work and subsequent employment and…

  19. Work, Experience and Adult Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt.......A presentation and discussion of the theories of work, experience and adult education developed by the German philosopher and sociologist Oskar Negt....

  20. Influence of games mechanisms on user experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kracík, Radim

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the relationship between game mechanics and user experience. Identifies the basic gameplay mechanics and elements that have the most important influence on the quality of user experience. Research is realized on the example of a specific game using the concept of game design patterns. Part of the work deals with the introduction of this concept. Furthermore, the work deals with the general theories of games, models of classification and history of computer games. Part of t...

  1. Does feeling respected influence return to work? Cross-sectional study on sick-listed patients' experiences of encounters with social insurance office staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynöe, Niels; Wessel, Maja; Olsson, Daniel; Alexanderson, Kristina; Helgesson, Gert

    2013-03-23

    Previous research shows that how patients perceive encounters with healthcare staff may affect their health and self-estimated ability to return to work. The aim of the present study was to explore long-term sick-listed patients' encounters with social insurance office staff and the impact of these encounters on self-estimated ability to return to work. A random sample of long-term sick-listed patients (n = 10,042) received a questionnaire containing questions about their experiences of positive and negative encounters and item lists specifying such experiences. Respondents were also asked whether the encounters made them feel respected or wronged and how they estimated the effect of these encounters on their ability to return to work. Statistical analysis was conducted using 95% confidence intervals (CI) for proportions, and attributable risk (AR) with 95% CI. The response rate was 58%. Encounter items strongly associated with feeling respected were, among others: listened to me, believed me, and answered my questions. Encounter items strongly associated with feeling wronged were, among others: did not believe me, doubted my condition, and questioned my motivation to work. Positive encounters facilitated patients' self-estimated ability to return to work [26.9% (CI: 22.1-31.7)]. This effect was significantly increased if the patients also felt respected [49.3% (CI: 47.5-51.1)]. Negative encounters impeded self-estimated ability to return to work [29.1% (CI: 24.6-33.6)]; when also feeling wronged return to work was significantly further impeded [51.3% (CI: 47.1-55.5)]. Long-term sick-listed patients find that their self-reported ability to return to work is affected by positive and negative encounters with social insurance office staff. This effect is further enhanced by feeling respected or wronged, respectively.

  2. Does feeling respected influence return to work? Cross-sectional study on sick-listed patients’ experiences of encounters with social insurance office staff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research shows that how patients perceive encounters with healthcare staff may affect their health and self-estimated ability to return to work. The aim of the present study was to explore long-term sick-listed patients’ encounters with social insurance office staff and the impact of these encounters on self-estimated ability to return to work. Methods A random sample of long-term sick-listed patients (n = 10,042) received a questionnaire containing questions about their experiences of positive and negative encounters and item lists specifying such experiences. Respondents were also asked whether the encounters made them feel respected or wronged and how they estimated the effect of these encounters on their ability to return to work. Statistical analysis was conducted using 95% confidence intervals (CI) for proportions, and attributable risk (AR) with 95% CI. Results The response rate was 58%. Encounter items strongly associated with feeling respected were, among others: listened to me, believed me, and answered my questions. Encounter items strongly associated with feeling wronged were, among others: did not believe me, doubted my condition, and questioned my motivation to work. Positive encounters facilitated patients’ self-estimated ability to return to work [26.9% (CI: 22.1-31.7)]. This effect was significantly increased if the patients also felt respected [49.3% (CI: 47.5-51.1)]. Negative encounters impeded self-estimated ability to return to work [29.1% (CI: 24.6-33.6)]; when also feeling wronged return to work was significantly further impeded [51.3% (CI: 47.1-55.5)]. Conclusions Long-term sick-listed patients find that their self-reported ability to return to work is affected by positive and negative encounters with social insurance office staff. This effect is further enhanced by feeling respected or wronged, respectively. PMID:23522034

  3. CLOUD Experiment - How it works -

    CERN Multimedia

    Jasper Kirkby

    2016-01-01

    A brief tour of the CLOUD experiment at CERN, and its scientific aims. CLOUD uses a special cloud chamber to study the possible link between galactic cosmic rays and cloud formation. The results should contribute much to our fundamental understanding of aerosols and clouds, and their affect on climate.

  4. Family Transmission of Work Affectivity and Experiences to Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.; Wang, Chuang; Hartung, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Theory and research suggest that children develop orientations toward work appreciably influenced by their family members' own expressed work experiences and emotions. Cross-sectional data from 100 children (53 girls, 47 boys; mean age = 11.1 years) and structural equation modeling were used to assess measures of work affectivity and experiences…

  5. The longitudinal study of rat hippocampus influenced by stress: early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Fengkui; Li, Lei; Shi, Mei; Li, Zhenzi; Zhou, Jinghua; Chen, Li

    2013-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies indicate that early adverse experience is related to learning disabilities in adults, but the neurobiological mechanisms have not yet been identified. We used longitudinal animal experiments to test the hypothesis that early life stress enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats. The expression of Synaptophysin (SYN) and apoptosis (Apo) in hippocampal CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions were examined to evaluate the effects of environmental factors on the hippocampus. The working memory errors via radial 8-arm maze were studied to evaluate the long-term effect of early stress on rats' spatial learning ability. Our results indicated that chronic restraint stress in early life and forced cold water swimming stress in adulthood reduced SYN expression and increased Apo levels in rat hippocampus, but the hippocampal damage tended to recover when rats returned to a non-stress environment. In addition, when the rats were exposed to forced cold water swimming stress during adulthood, SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and Apo levels (CA3 region) in rat hippocampus showed statistical difference between early restraint stress group and non-early restraint stress group (rats exposed to stress in adulthood only). One month after the two groups of rats returned to non-stress environment, this difference of SYN expression (CA3 and DG regions) and working memory deficit between the two groups was still statistically significant. Our study findings suggested that early adverse experience enhances hippocampal vulnerability and working memory deficit in adult rats, and reduces structural plasticity of hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Organizational citizenship behavior and work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegans, Loyd; McCamey, Randy B; Hammond, Honor

    2012-01-01

    The authors compared the relationship of elements of the Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) and years of work experience of registered nurses in the state of Texas. Work experience research has shown a relationship between OCB and work experience through mediating roles of various work related characteristics does exist. Work experience is described as the overall length of time in an occupation or workforce. Civic virtue was the only element of organizational citizenship behavior to have a statistically significant correlation with years of work experience in this study. Other elements were found to have no statistically significant correlation with years of work experience. Further research should be undertaken to determine if correlations between these two constructs holds up when the population under study is further refined by job classification, such as management and staff, or industry segment.

  7. Hotel housekeeping work influences on hypertension management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Marie-Anne

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics of hotel housekeeping work increase the risk for hypertension development. Little is known about the influences of such work on hypertension management. For this qualitative study, 27 Haitian immigrant hotel housekeepers from Miami-Dade County, FL were interviewed. Interview transcripts were analyzed with the assistance of the Atlas.ti software for code and theme identification. Influences of hotel housekeeping work on hypertension management arose both at the individual and system levels. Factors at the individual level included co-worker dynamics and maintenance of transmigrant life. Factors at the system level included supervisory support, workload, work pace, and work hiring practices. No positive influences were reported for workload and hiring practices. Workplace interventions may be beneficial for effective hypertension management among hotel housekeepers. These work influences must be considered when determining effective methods for hypertension management among hotel housekeepers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Social Work Experience and Development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibin, Wang

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experience and limitations of government-run social work and the nonprofessional nature of social work, and suggests that the rapid development of social work and its professionalization are the inevitable results of the reform in the system. The author maintains that under market socialism, social work requires the…

  9. The Work Experience Programme in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The author describes the Irish Work Experience Programme designed to give youth work experience to increase their employability. Trainees were placed with a private sector employer for 26 weeks and paid a training allowance. Although many subsequently found permanent employment, the program reached few of the most disadvantaged among first-time…

  10. Work and Career Experiences of Men from Families without College Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, Marianne; Gibbons, Melinda M.; Davison, John; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.

    2012-01-01

    A dearth of research exists exploring the career and work development of adult men and the influence of family-of-origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the researchers used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of men whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family…

  11. Media Education in Kazakhstan: Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laila, Akhmetova

    2016-01-01

    In the Republic of Kazakhstan in 2012 started work on formation of literacy in the field of media education for journalists, educators, and youth. Studied publishing foreign scientists, work experience in different countries, manuals, seminars and workshops, publishes scientific works in the Kazakh and Russian languages, and considers issues of…

  12. Does Working from Home Work? Evidence from a Chinese Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas Bloom; James Liang; John Roberts; Zhichun Jenny Ying

    2013-01-01

    A rising share of employees now regularly engage in working from home (WFH), but there are concerns this can lead to "shirking from home". We report the results of a WFH experiment at Ctrip, a 16,000-employee, NASDAQ-listed Chinese travel agency. Call center employees who volunteered to WFH were randomly assigned either to work from home or in the office for nine months. Home working led to a 13% performance increase, of which 9% was from working more minutes per shift (fewer breaks and sick ...

  13. Influence at work and the desire for more influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markey, Raymond; Ravenswood, Katherine; Webber, Don J.

    2013-01-01

    What determines whether workers want more influence in their workplace? Much of the literature on employee voice assumes that employees desire a say in how they do their work, and that where they lack influence they are more likely to desire a greater say. This econometric study of 536 Danish...... and New Zealand employees in four industries indicates that workers’ desire for more influence was not dependent on how much influence they thought they already had. What mattered was age, length of service and specific organisational characteristics. Those who wanted more influence were not learning new...... things and did not feel that they received sufficient information about the workplace, and those who felt appreciated by management did not desire more influence. The results support human resource management literature that suggests the importance of integrated and mutually supportive ‘bundles...

  14. Work-life Experience and Learner Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    2013-01-01

    In order to examine how orientations toward learning activities are situated in and conditioned by specific work-life experiences it is crucial to develop a dialectic concept of learner identity. Based on a qualitative research-project (Kondrup 2012) this paper outlines how unskilled work forms a...

  15. Shift work influences multiple sclerosis risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, A K; Åkerstedt, T; Olsson, T; Alfredsson, L

    2015-08-01

    An association between working shift at a young age and subsequent risk for multiple sclerosis (MS) has been observed. To investigate whether this finding could be replicated, and to further explore the influence of age at first exposure to shift work. Using a Swedish population-based, case-control study (2337 cases and 4904 controls), the incidence of MS among subjects whom had worked shifts was compared with that of those whom had not, by calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression. The OR of developing MS was 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.8) among those whom started working shifts before age 20, whereas a less pronounced association was observed among those whom started working shifts at age 20 or later (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4). The effect of shift work was more pronounced among subjects whom had been exposed at a young age, regardless of the duration between the start of shift work and disease onset. Some aspects of adolescence seem to be of great importance, regarding the impact of shift work on MS risk. Circadian disruption and sleep deprivation may contribute towards explaining the association; however, the exact mechanisms behind our observations remain to be elucidated. © The Author(s), 2015.

  16. Illumination influences working memory: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Young; Min, Byoung-Kyong; Jung, Young-Chul; Pak, Hyensou; Jeong, Yeon-Hong; Kim, Eosu

    2013-09-05

    Illumination conditions appear to influence working efficacy in everyday life. In the present study, we obtained electroencephalogram (EEG) correlates of working-memory load, and investigated how these waveforms are modulated by illumination conditions. We hypothesized that illumination conditions may affect cognitive performance. We designed an EEG study to monitor and record participants' EEG during the Sternberg working memory task under four different illumination conditions. Illumination conditions were generated with a factorial design of two color-temperatures (3000 and 7100 K) by two illuminance levels (150 and 700 lx). During a working memory task, we observed that high illuminance led to significantly lower frontal EEG theta activity than did low illuminance. These differences persisted despite no significant difference in task performance between illumination conditions. We found that the latency of an early event-related potential component, such as N1, was significantly modulated by the illumination condition. The fact that the illumination condition affects brain activity but not behavioral performance suggests that the lighting conditions used in the present study did not influence the performance stage of behavioral processing. Nevertheless, our findings provide objective evidence that illumination conditions modulate brain activity. Further studies are necessary to refine the optimal lighting parameters for facilitating working memory. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Third-Year Pharmacy Students’ Work Experiences and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark V Siracuse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe pharmacy students’ work experience for pay; examine student attitudes towards work; examine student perceptions of how pharmacist preceptors feel about their jobs; and determine how pharmacy student work environment influences career aspirations and whether or not gender or academic pathway have any influences. Methods. An electronic survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD students at a Midwestern school of pharmacy over five consecutive years. Results. Four hundred eighty nine students (response rate = 61.0% completed the electronic survey instrument. Over 90% reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs began. Of these respondents, 67.4% reported working in a community pharmacy while 23.0% reported working in hospital inpatient pharmacy. Students working for independent pharmacies were most likely to feel that this type of practice site would offer an optimal work schedule and work environment for their career. Conclusions. Most students are working in community pharmacy practice. Having a fulfilling career and a desirable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with optimal career choice. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties.     Type: Original Research

  18. Openness to experience, work experience and patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hao-Yuan; Friesner, Daniel; Lee, I-Chen; Chu, Tsung-Lan; Chen, Hui-Ling; Wu, Wan-Er; Teng, Ching-I

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how the interaction between nurse openness and work experience is related to patient safety. No study has yet examined the interactions between these, and how openness and work experience jointly impact patient safety. This study adopts a cross-sectional design, using self-reported work experience, perceived time pressure and measures of patient safety, and was conducted in a major medical centre. The sample consisted of 421 full-time nurses from all available units in the centre. Proportionate random sampling was used. Patient safety was measured using the self-reported frequency of common adverse events. Openness was self-rated using items identified in the relevant literature. Nurse openness is positively related to the patient safety construct (B = 0.08, P = 0.03). Moreover, work experience reduces the relation between openness and patient safety (B = -0.12, P work experience and patient safety suggests a new means of improving patient care in a health system setting. Nurse managers may enhance patient safety by assessing nurse openness and assigning highly open nurses to duties that make maximum use of that trait. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Night nursing – staff's working experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campbell Ann-Mari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the duties and working conditions of registered, and enrolled nurses have previously been described from different perspectives, they have not been examined from the night nursing aspect. The aim of the study was to describe the night nursing staff's working experiences. Methods The design of the study is qualitative and descriptive. Interviews were conducted with 10 registered and 10 enrolled nurses working as night staff at a Swedish University Hospital. The interview guide was thematic and concerned the content of their tasks, as well as the working conditions that constitute night nursing. In addition, the interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results The night duties have to be performed under difficult conditions that include working silently in dimmed lighting, and making decisions when fatigue threatens. According to the night staff, its main goals are to provide the patients with rest and simultaneously ensure qualified care. Furthermore, the night nursing staff must prepare the ward for the daytime activities. Conclusion The most important point is the team work, which developed between the registered and enrolled nurses and how necessary this team work is when working at night. In order for nurses working at night to be fully appreciated, the communication between day and night staff in health care organizations needs to be developed. Furthermore, it is important to give the night staff opportunities to use its whole field of competence.

  20. Low skilled work, Work Life experiences and Learner identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondrup, Sissel

    on an educational optimism not necessarily shared by the target groups . I therefore wanted to examine how an unskilled work life conditions the experience of a need for and possibility to participate in different kind of formal, informal and non-formal learning activities related to the job, and how......In the paper I present some of the findings from my ongoing PhD project. The overall research question forming my dissertation is: What challenges the fulfilment of the Danish national strategy on ‘Lifelong Learning and Qualification for All’? In developing my research questions and design I have...... this constitutes a certain learner identity. By conducting narrative interviews with 23 employees in 6 different small and medium sized private manufacturing companies in Denmark, I have focused on peoples work life stories, how they entered the labour marked, what kind of jobs and tasks they have undertaken, how...

  1. Group work as an incentive for learning – students’ experiences of group work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eHammar Chiriac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Group work is used as a means for learning at all levels in educational systems. There is strong scientific support for the benefits of having students learning and working in groups. Nevertheless, studies about what occurs in groups during group work and which factors actually influence the students’ ability to learn is still lacking. Likewise, the question of why some group work is successful and other work results in the opposite is still unsolved. The aim of this article is to add to the current level of knowledge and understandings regarding the essence behind successful group work in higher education. This research is focused on the students’ experiences of group work and learning in groups, which is an almost non-existing aspect of research on group work prior to the beginning of the 21st century. A primary aim is to give university students a voice in the matter by elucidating the students’ positive and negative points of view and how the students assess learning when working in groups. Furthermore, the students’ explanations of why some group work ends up being a positive experience resulting in successful learning, while in other cases, the result is the reverse, are of interest. Data were collected through a study-specific questionnaire, with multiple choice and open-ended questions. The questionnaires were distributed to students in different study programs at two universities in Sweden. The present result is based on a reanalysis and qualitative analysis formed a key part of the study. The results indicate that most of the students’ experiences involved group work that facilitated learning, especially in the area of academic knowledge. Three important prerequisites (learning, study-social function and organization for group work that served as an effective pedagogy and as an incentive for learning were identified and discussed. All three abstractions facilitate or hamper students’ learning, as well as impact their

  2. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winding, Trine Nøhr; Labriola, Merete; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. AIMS...... at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life.......BACKGROUND: Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. AIMS......: To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. METHODS: We obtained information on subjects' school performance...

  3. Exploring the Impact of Work Experience on Part-Time Students' Academic Success in Malaysian Polytechnics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Norhayati; Freeman, Steven A.; Shelley, Mack C.

    2012-01-01

    The study explored the influence of work experience on adult part-time students' academic success as defined by their cumulative grade point average. The sample consisted of 614 part-time students from four polytechnic institutions in Malaysia. The study identified six factors to measure the perceived influence of work experiences--positive…

  4. Work Attitudes and Labor Market Experience: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrisani, Paul J.; And Others

    A study was done to examine the influence of several work attitudes on a number of facets of subsequent labor market experience, as well as the influence of labor market experience on the work attitudes. Based on interview data on about 20,000 respondents from the National Longitudinal Surveys representative national samples of men 14 to 24 and 45…

  5. How work setting and job experience affect professional nurses' values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Feito, Ana; Palmeiro-Longo, María Del Rosario; Hoyuelos, Salomé Basurto; García-Díaz, Vanesa

    2017-01-01

    The development of professional values in nursing is directly related to quality and ethical clinical practise and may also increase practitioner and patients' satisfaction. Some factors, such as work setting or work experience, can influence the importance granted to the professional values of nursing. To compare in primary care nurses and hospital care nurses the importance granted to professional values and to contrast this perception as a function of professional experience. Research design, participants and research context: Descriptive cross-sectional study. Participants were 380 nursing professionals from the public health system (primary care and hospital care). Three dimensions were analysed: ethics, professional expertise and professional mastery. Data were collected from January to June 2015. Ethical considerations: We obtained permission from the Ethics Committee and participants' informed consent. Hospital care professionals attached more importance to all the values analysed, regardless of their work experience. Ethical values, such as confidentiality and respect for the person, were considered to be very important in both systems. Values related to professional expertise obtained lower scores, especially in primary care. In general, professionals with more than 20 years' experience granted less importance to the values. The professional setting influenced the importance assigned to professional nursing values, and clear differences were observed between primary and hospital care. The domain of ethics was considered the most important. It is necessary to reflect on the significance attributed to professional values, especially in more expert nursing staff.

  6. Work reality perceived by individuals with impairments: a biopsychosocial experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Cecília Martins; Sampaio, Rosana Ferreira; Luz, Madel Therezinha; Mancini, Marisa Cotta

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with different impairments are working in the formal and/or informal market despite physical and attitudinal barriers. To date, few studies have addressed this situation from the perspective of the individuals. Apprehend factors that restrict work performance in the perspective of workers with impairments and identify the strategies employed and the difficulties faced. Individuals with impairment who exercised paid activities. Thirty semi-structured interviews and eleven observations of individuals in work activities. Limitations stemming from participants' disability and health status had an influence over their execution of tasks, but did not compromise work performance. Environmental factors that impacted as facilitators or barriers were: lack of preparation of colleagues, employers, education and rehabilitation systems; attitudes and coexistence; accessibility, implementation of land use policies, urban structures and transportation; products and technology; and distributive policies. Personal factors (upbringing, self-esteem, good mood, outgoingness, communicability, willpower, age and how the disability was acquired) also influenced participation at work. Important strategies included recognizing and sharing capabilities and needs, which minimized or eliminated difficulties at work. Workers with impairments developed effective strategies for dealing with adverse situations, which remained in the individual realm. Working with impairments is a complex experience that demands overcoming old paradigms.

  7. Return to work and cancer: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Georgina; Knott, Vikki; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that for many cancer survivors, returning to work has a range of benefits. However, considerable barriers have been identified as influencing the quality of return to work outcomes. This study explored the perspectives of Australian cancer survivors, managers and employee assistance program (EAP) professionals to gain an understanding of the return to work process and factors that affect the experience. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with cancer survivors (n = 15), managers (n = 12), and EAP professionals / psychologists (n = 4) from public and private sectors. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data to identify common and unique themes from the three participant groups. A range of drivers were identified including maintaining normality and regaining identity, which could act positively or negatively depending on survivors' coping ability and self awareness. Analysis revealed communication difficulties in the workplace that impact on emotional and practical support. Negotiating an employee's return is complex, influenced by the level of consultation with the employee and use of an ad hoc or structured process. Direct and indirect ways of supporting employees with cancer were identified, as was the need for colleague and manager support. This study supports previous research findings of the impact of cancer on work, and reveals managers' lack of knowledge on how to respond appropriately. The process of returning to work is complex, influenced by employees' and managers' attitudes, communication skills and coping abilities. Areas for workplace interventions to optimise support for the cancer survivor are described.

  8. Work Experience Education: A Handbook for California Secondary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, Virginia Clapp; And Others

    Prepared by a statewide work experience advisory committee, this handbook is designed to supply administrators of work experience education programs with current, useful information needed to conduct effective work experience programs. Included in the handbook are: (1) a discussion of the nature, purpose, and history of work experience, (2)…

  9. Work Experience: relatos de uma experiência de vidaWork Experience: reports of a life experienceWork Experience: relatos de una experiencia de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCHA-PINTO, Sandra Regina da

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOA rede work experience surge como alternativa para que jovens estudantes desenvolvam determinadas habilidades/competências a fim de fazer face à competição do mercado de trabalho. Apoiado em pesquisa fenomenológica, este estudo desvela a experiência vivida por jovens estudantes no exterior. O processo de análise permitiu a formulação das seguintes proposições: a distante das referências primárias de apoio, o jovem brasileiro, em conjunto com outros brasileiros em um país estrangeiro, constrói uma rede de apoio e solidariedade; b a condição sócio-econômica determina a maneira pela qual a experiência no exterior é vivida; c a recompensa financeira não é relevante, desde que, em contexto de diversão, se desenvolva um vínculo temporário de emprego, não-relacionado com a formação superior; d viver a experiência do “chão da operação” contribui para a formação de uma liderança voltada para a dimensão humana na organização; e a oportunidade de viver em cultura diferente contribui para o desenvolvimento de competências interpessoais.ABSTRACTThe Work Experience network is a possible option for young students as it provides them with the opportunity of improving their abilities/competences in order to face competition in the job market. Based on phenomenological research, the present paper shows the experience of young students abroad. The analysis resulted in the following propositions: a away from his/her primary supporting references, a Brazilian youth builds up a supporting and solidarity network together with other Brazilians in a foreign country; b socio-economic factors determine the way such situation abroad will be experienced; c financial reward is not relevant as long as a temporary employment opportunity occurs within a context not linked to higher schooling and in a relaxed context; d the experience of standing on "operational ground" contributes to the development of leaders concerned with the

  10. The experience of demanding work environments in younger workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winding, T N; Labriola, M; Nohr, E A; Andersen, J H

    2015-06-01

    Investigating whether certain individual or background characteristics are associated with an increased risk of experiencing an excessively demanding work environment in younger workers may help to reduce future inequality in health and maximize their labour market participation. To describe the work environment of Danish 20- to 21-year olds and to investigate the influence of family socioeconomic background and individual characteristics at age 14-15 on later experience of physical and psychosocial work environments. We obtained information on subjects' school performance, vulnerability, health and parental socioeconomic status from registers and a questionnaire completed in 2004. A questionnaire concerning eight measures of subjects' psychosocial and physical work environment in 2010 was used to determine the outcomes of interest. The study population consisted of 679 younger workers aged 20-21. The psychosocial work environment was in general good but younger workers experienced more demanding physical work than the general working population. Overall, individual as well as family factors had a limited impact on their assessment of the work environment. Low self-esteem at age 14-15 was associated with experiencing high demands and lack of trust and fairness at work, whereas low parental socioeconomic status was associated with a demanding physical work environment. This study showed a social gradient in experiencing a demanding physical work environment at age 20-21. The psychosocial work environment experienced by younger workers was generally good, but vulnerable young people may need special attention to protect them from or prepare them for psychosocially demanding jobs later in life. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Emotional Influence at work: Take it EASI

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Cheshin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research on emotions in organizations has traditionally taken an intrapersonal approach, examining how an organization member’s emotions influence his or her own cognitions, attitudes, and behavior. We argue that a full understanding of the role of emotions in organizations requires a complementary focus on their interpersonal effects—that is, how one worker’s emotions influence the feelings, cognitions, attitudes, and behavior of others. We advance Emotions as Social Information (EASI) theor...

  12. Physical exercise and return to work: cancer survivors' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groeneveld, Iris F; de Boer, Angela G E M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2013-06-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore cancer survivors' experiences with (1) return to work (RtW) and work performance, (2) a physical exercise program after treatment, and (3) the perceived link between physical exercise and work. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with ten cancer survivors of working age who had been treated with chemotherapy and had afterwards completed a group-based supervised physical exercise program. The interviews were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. MaxQDA was used for coding and analysis. A second assessor was involved in coding two of the interviews. Eight participants returned to work. Most said that they had suffered cognitive deficits that impaired their work performance. According to half of the participants, the support in RtW from their occupational physician had been insufficient. Overall, the majority of participants enjoyed the exercise program. The main perceived effects were "improved fitness" and "renewed energy." Most participants thought that physical exercise had likely contributed to their ability to return to work, primarily by increasing energy levels. Some believed that physical exercise had enhanced their work performance by improving their ability to cope with demanding work. Some respondents found that a supportive work environment stimulated their continuation of physical exercise. Cancer survivors experienced a positive influence of physical exercise on RtW and work performance and a positive influence of RtW on physical exercise. By stimulating and facilitating physical exercise during and after RtW, the time to lasting RtW may be shortened, work performance may be optimized, and sustained participation in physical exercise may be achieved. Stimulating and facilitating physical exercise before and during the process of RtW may enhance fitness and energy levels and may lower fatigue and cognitive symptoms during work. An integrated rehabilitation strategy combining physical exercise and

  13. Moments in Collaboration: Experiments in Concept Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind; Stavrianakis, Anthony

    2018-01-01

    in collaborative concept work at Berkeley known as ‘the Labinar'. We address a lacuna in the literature on collaboration by providing a description of how collective conceptual work can be given form and sustained with specific practices. We argue for understanding concepts as not only discursive but also as non......, affect, concept work, omens....

  14. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de J. (Johannes); Teeuw, W.B. (Wouter)

    2011-01-01

    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect

  15. Learning on the Job: Understanding the Cooperative Education Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison I. Griffith

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning programs in Ontario provide on the job learning experiences for students. This paper analyzes three cases of student work placements described in extensive interviews with students, teachers and co-workers. Some students had enjoyed their work experience while others had not. When the student experiences were situated in the socially organized work processes of the work sites, the diverse experiences were found to have a common theme. When students are able to participate in and make sense of the work process, their work placement experience was seen to be useful for making future employment decisions. Where students were marginal to the work process, their lack of knowledge often translates into an unpleasant work experience and decisions about employment based on an experience of failure. This article suggests that our understanding of student learning on the job would be strengthened by a focus on the socially organized work process.

  16. The Lived Experience of Work and Career: Women Whose Parents Lack Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Melinda M.; Woodside, Marianne; Hannon, Christine; Sweeney, Jeffrey R.; Davison, John

    2011-01-01

    There is a dearth of research exploring the career and work development of adults and the influence of family of origin on that development. In this qualitative study, the authors used a phenomenological approach to examine the career and work experiences of women whose parents have no education beyond high school and the influences of family on…

  17. Work or Schooling? On The Return to Gaining in-School Work Experiences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabus, Sofie; Haelermans, Carla

    2017-01-01

    Wages are a composite measure of the return to education and the return to work experiences. Work experiences are often defined as workers who gain experiences on-the-job. However, work experiences can also be part of a study curriculum in vocational secondary education. We estimate the return to

  18. Emotional Influence at work: Take it EASI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kleef, G.A.; Homan, A.C.; Cheshin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Research on emotions in organizations has traditionally taken an intrapersonal approach, examining how an organization member’s emotions influence his or her own cognitions, attitudes, and behavior. We argue that a full understanding of the role of emotions in organizations requires a complementary

  19. Adolescent Work Experiences and Family Formation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; VanEseltine, Matthew; Woolnough, April; Silver, Eric; Burrington, Lori

    2012-01-01

    A long-standing critique of adolescent employment is that it engenders a precocious maturity of more adult-like roles and behaviors, including school disengagement, substance use, sexual activity, inadequate sleep and exercise, and work-related stress. Though negative effects of high-intensity work on adolescent adjustment have been found, little…

  20. Gender influencers on work values of black adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V G; Shields, L C

    1987-01-01

    Work values and key influencers of a sample of black male and female adolescents were examined. Results indicated that boys and girls valued both the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards of work; however, girls reported slighter stronger extrinsic values than did boys. In addition, the sexes reported differences in the importance of specific work values such as "making lots of money," and "doing important things." When naming a key influencer, respondents tended to cite a same-sex and race individual. Sex of one's key influencer was related to certain work values, with subjects reporting a male key influencer valuing "trying out one's own ideas" and "having a secure future" more than those reporting a female key influencer. The interaction of sex of subject and sex of key influencer was significant on one of the work value outcomes. Implications of these findings are considered.

  1. Registered Nurses' work experiences: personal accounts integrated with professional identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerberg, Ingegerd

    2004-05-01

    The work context is important for the development of Registered Nurses' skills and identity as professionals, but the work context and organization can also hinder their professional development. This paper reports a study whose purpose was to understand the meaning of Registered Nurses' narratives of their work experience 5 years after graduation. Data were collected in 2001 from interviews with 16 Registered Nurses 5 years after graduation and analysed using a phenomenological hermeneutic method, influenced by the philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Analyses of the narratives resulted in three themes: 'The meaning of caring and protection of patients', 'The meaning of work organization in nurses' work' and 'The implied meaning of using one's individual attributes in one's professional role'. Since the number of nurses participating in the study is small, it is important to re-contextualize the results when transferring them to other contexts. There is a complex interrelationship between the health care organization, individual attributes of nurses (including self-esteem) and patient care. Provision of adequate resources and support for nurses' professional and personal development is needed to ensure high quality patient care, and these are political issues.

  2. INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON WORK ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šemsudin Plojović

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available According to empirical and theoretic explorations human behavior, and work activity in roots are motivated from a different needs in a function to achieve personal interests and goals. For mechanism of need, which is a basic of human existence and behavior, there is a need to explore relations: needs, whishes, activity and goals. It is clear that relations are very complex, and it very hard to put its basics, main roles and character into a close model without relations and links between needs and interests of involved people. To analyze basics of work motivation, means that you have to take whole chain of individual and situational factors affecting on people like the motivational mechanism. In wide aspects of human needs and nature, From says that there is two orientations of motivation: non productive, and productive.

  3. Music Experience Influences Laparoscopic Skills Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel; Bingener, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Background: Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Methods: Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the ...

  4. Validation method training: nurses' experiences and ratings of work climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderlund, Mona; Norberg, Astrid; Hansebo, Görel

    2014-03-01

    Training nursing staff in communication skills can impact on the quality of care for residents with dementia and contributes to nurses' job satisfaction. Changing attitudes and practices takes time and energy and can affect the entire nursing staff, not just the nurses directly involved in a training programme. Therefore, it seems important to study nurses' experiences of a training programme and any influence of the programme on work climate among the entire nursing staff. To explore nurses' experiences of a 1-year validation method training programme conducted in a nursing home for residents with dementia and to describe ratings of work climate before and after the programme. A mixed-methods approach. Twelve nurses participated in the training and were interviewed afterwards. These individual interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed, then analysed using qualitative content analysis. The Creative Climate Questionnaire was administered before (n = 53) and after (n = 56) the programme to the entire nursing staff in the participating nursing home wards and analysed with descriptive statistics. Analysis of the interviews resulted in four categories: being under extra strain, sharing experiences, improving confidence in care situations and feeling uncertain about continuing the validation method. The results of the questionnaire on work climate showed higher mean values in the assessment after the programme had ended. The training strengthened the participating nurses in caring for residents with dementia, but posed an extra strain on them. These nurses also described an extra strain on the entire nursing staff that was not reflected in the results from the questionnaire. The work climate at the nursing home wards might have made it easier to conduct this extensive training programme. Training in the validation method could develop nurses' communication skills and improve their handling of complex care situations. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Work Family Conflict on Job ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Work Family Conflict on Job Satisfaction of Married Female Employees in Selected Public Organizations in Nigeria. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... The result also showed that work family conflict significantly influenced job satisfaction (P<.01).

  6. WORKING WITH THE POPULATION: a teaching experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Moresco Mezzomo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an analysis of didactic experience developed in the discipline of Geography, taught for two classes of 3rd year of Integrated on Informatic Technical course of the Technological Federal University of Paraná, Campo Mourão-PR. The experiment regarding the application of an activity, which aimed to bring the theme 'Brazilian Population' to the reality of the students through the study of population data from the middle region in which they reside. The results demonstrate that application of activity after contact with quantitative and qualitative analyzes, the students developed new insights into the subject population and the reality lived with transformation of critical and constructive position of geographical knowledge. RESUMO: O artigo apresenta uma análise sobre uma experiência didática desenvolvida na disciplina de Geografia, ministrada para duas turmas de 3° anos do curso Técnico Integrado em Informática da Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campo Mourão-PR. A experiência diz respeito à aplicação de uma atividade, que teve como objetivo aproximar o tema ‘População brasileira’ à realidade dos alunos, por meio do estudo de dados populacionais da mesorregião em que residem. Os resultados da aplicação da atividade demonstram que após o contato com dados quantitativos e análises qualitativas, os alunos desenvolveram novas percepções sobre o tema população e sobre a realidade vivida, com transformação do posicionamento crítico e construtivo do conhecimento geográfico.

  7. The influence of lapses of attention on working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; Robison, Matthew K

    2016-02-01

    In three experiments, the influence of lapses of attention on working memory (WM) capacity measures was examined. Participants performed various change detection tasks while also reporting whether they were focused on the current task or whether they were unfocused and mind-wandering. Participants reported that they were mind-wandering roughly 27% of the time, and when participants reported mind-wandering, their performance was worse compared to when they reported being on-task. Low WM capacity individuals reported more mind-wandering and lapses of attention than high WM capacity individuals, and mind-wandering and filtering abilities were shown to make independent contributions to capacity estimates. These results provide direct support for the notion that the ability to focus attention on-task and prevent lapses of attention is an important contributor to performance on measures of WM capacity.

  8. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the psychological career resources (as measured by the. Psychological Career Resources Inventory) and the subjective work experiences of a sample of working adults (as measured by a fouritem global work experiences scale). The research also aimed ...

  9. How do musical tonality and experience affect visual working memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Lu, Jing; Gong, Diankun; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-20

    The influence of music on the human brain has continued to attract increasing attention from neuroscientists and musicologists. Currently, tonal music is widely present in people's daily lives; however, atonal music has gradually become an important part of modern music. In this study, we conducted two experiments: the first one tested for differences in perception of distractibility between tonal music and atonal music. The second experiment tested how tonal music and atonal music affect visual working memory by comparing musicians and nonmusicians who were placed in contexts with background tonal music, atonal music, and silence. They were instructed to complete a delay matching memory task. The results show that musicians and nonmusicians have different evaluations of the distractibility of tonal music and atonal music, possibly indicating that long-term training may lead to a higher auditory perception threshold among musicians. For the working memory task, musicians reacted faster than nonmusicians in all background music cases, and musicians took more time to respond in the tonal background music condition than in the other conditions. Therefore, our results suggest that for a visual memory task, background tonal music may occupy more cognitive resources than atonal music or silence for musicians, leaving few resources left for the memory task. Moreover, the musicians outperformed the nonmusicians because of the higher sensitivity to background music, which also needs a further longitudinal study to be confirmed.

  10. Social influence bias: a randomized experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchnik, Lev; Aral, Sinan; Taylor, Sean J

    2013-08-09

    Our society is increasingly relying on the digitized, aggregated opinions of others to make decisions. We therefore designed and analyzed a large-scale randomized experiment on a social news aggregation Web site to investigate whether knowledge of such aggregates distorts decision-making. Prior ratings created significant bias in individual rating behavior, and positive and negative social influences created asymmetric herding effects. Whereas negative social influence inspired users to correct manipulated ratings, positive social influence increased the likelihood of positive ratings by 32% and created accumulating positive herding that increased final ratings by 25% on average. This positive herding was topic-dependent and affected by whether individuals were viewing the opinions of friends or enemies. A mixture of changing opinion and greater turnout under both manipulations together with a natural tendency to up-vote on the site combined to create the herding effects. Such findings will help interpret collective judgment accurately and avoid social influence bias in collective intelligence in the future.

  11. International research work experience of young females in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Serene H -J; Roelofs, Susan H; Alvarez-Elizondo, Martha B; Nieminen, Timo A

    2011-01-01

    International research work for young people is common in physics. However, work experience and career plan of female workers in physics are little studied. We explore them by interviewing three international female workers in physics.

  12. Sexual Harassment at Work: A European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artan Çela

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Unwelcome sexual advances, proposition or pressure for sexual activity, offensive flirtations, leering, whistling, making sexually suggestive gestures, sexual jokes, unwanted sexual looks, unwanted letters, telephone call, or materials of a sexual nature, unwanted physical contact, actual or attempting rape or sexual assault, this and more of this conduct if took place in the workplace would amount to a sexual harassment. The sexual harassment at work has become a serious issue of our time. It is an unjustified interference of integrity, dignity and well-being of workers, causing problems from headaches to depression, loss of confidence, panic attacks and perhaps suicide as the only way appearing to be the sole possible relief from the unremitting and frightening behavior. This article presents information concerning the sexual harassment at workplace, covering topics such as, the definitions for sexual harassment in both international and national context, a short history of sexual harassment, types of sexual harassment, effect of sexual harassment, measure to combat and prevent sexual harassment. It offers a short overview in sexual harassment legislation of some industrialized EU Member States and the legal remedies available against sexual harassment. The main purpose of this article is to provide a better understanding and prevention concerning the issue of sexual harassment in workplace.

  13. Music experience influences laparoscopic skills performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Tanner; Jung, Inkyung; Van Sickle, Kent; Schwesinger, Wayne; Michalek, Joel; Bingener, Juliane

    2008-01-01

    Music education affects the mathematical and visuo-spatial skills of school-age children. Visuo-spatial abilities have a significant effect on laparoscopic suturing performance. We hypothesize that prior music experience influences the performance of laparoscopic suturing tasks. Thirty novices observed a laparoscopic suturing task video. Each performed 3 timed suturing task trials. Demographics were recorded. A repeated measures linear mixed model was used to examine the effects of prior music experience on suturing task time. Twelve women and 18 men completed the tasks. When adjusted for video game experience, participants who currently played an instrument performed significantly faster than those who did not (P<0.001). The model showed a significant sex by instrument interaction. Men who had never played an instrument or were currently playing an instrument performed better than women in the same group (P=0.002 and P<0.001). There was no sex difference in the performance of participants who had played an instrument in the past (P=0.29). This study attempted to investigate the effect of music experience on the laparoscopic suturing abilities of surgical novices. The visuo-spatial abilities used in laparoscopic suturing may be enhanced in those involved in playing an instrument.

  14. Does Degree of Work Task Completion Influence Retrieval Performance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Bogers, Toine; Lykke, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    their perception of task completion. Also, with the exception of full text records and across all document types, both measured at rank 10, no statistically significant correlation is observed with respect to retrieval performance influenced by degrees of perceived work task completion or individual types......In this contribution we investigate the potential influence between assessors’ perceived completion of their work task at hand and their actual assessment of usefulness of the retrieved information. The results indicate that the number of useful documents found by assessors does not influence...

  15. Working memory for braille is shaped by experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Henri; Scherzer, Peter; Viau, Robert; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco

    2011-03-01

    Tactile working memory was found to be more developed in completely blind (congenital and acquired) than in semi-sighted subjects, indicating that experience plays a crucial role in shaping working memory. A model of working memory, adapted from the classical model proposed by Baddeley and Hitch1 and Baddeley2 is presented where the connection strengths of a highly cross-modal network are altered through experience.

  16. Influence of job satisfaction, need achievement and team work on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the findings of an investigation on how job satisfaction, need achievement and teamwork influence work performance of staff in academic libraries in South West, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was used with a total population of 343 librarians and library officers working in 12 libraries in ...

  17. Influences of working conditions on the performance of sign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influences of working conditions on the performance of sign language interpreters and teachers of deaf students in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... Section D of the Occupational Stress Questionnaire (OSQ) was administered to the study participants. The section contains 16 items designed to ascertain effects of specific poor working ...

  18. Physical exercise and return to work: cancer survivors' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore cancer survivors' experiences with (1) return to work (RtW) and work performance, (2) a physical exercise program after treatment, and (3) the perceived link between physical exercise and work. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with ten

  19. Masculinities, work, and retirement among older men who experience depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliffe, John L; Rasmussen, Brian; Bottorff, Joan L; Kelly, Mary T; Galdas, Paul M; Phinney, Alison; Ogrodniczuk, John S

    2013-12-01

    The high incidence of depression among older men has been linked to numerous factors. In this qualitative descriptive study of 30 older, Canadian-based men who experienced depression, we explored the connections between participants' depression, masculinities, work, and retirement. Our analyses revealed three thematic findings. The recursive relationship between depression and work was reflected in depression impeding and emerging from paid work, whereby men's careers and work achievements were negatively impacted by depression amid assertions that unfulfilling work could also invoke depression. Lost or unrealized empires highlighted the centrality of wealth accumulation and negative impact of many participants' unfulfilled paid work aspirations. Retirement as loss and the therapeutic value of work reflected how masculine ideals influenced men to continue working to avoid the losses they associated with retirement. The findings confirm the need to support men's work-related transitions by affirming a diversity of masculine identities beyond traditional workman/breadwinner roles.

  20. Teachers’ leadership and students’ experience of group work.

    OpenAIRE

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva; GRANSTRÖM, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Group work is used as a means of learning at all levels of most educational systems.  However, teachers often use group work without considering its “pros and cons.” Such a mode of non-reflected application may sometimes end up in positive experiences and learning, but the likelihood is that the outcome will be the opposite.   The aim of this qualitative study is to address students’ experiences of collaborative group work, that is, when working as a group. What features do students emphasise...

  1. Astronauts Sega and Krikalev work on metabolic experiment on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Ronald M. Sega (left) and Russian cosmonaut Sergei K. Krikalev work on a joint U.S./Russian metabolic experiment (DSO 202) on the Space Shuttle Discovery's middeck. Note the electrodes on Krikalev's face.

  2. Working in dissonance: experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Louise; Bertilsson, Monica; Holmgren, Kristina; Hensing, Gunnel

    2017-05-18

    Common mental disorders have a negative impact on work functioning, but less is known about the process when the functioning starts to destabilize. This study explores experiences of work instability in workers with common mental disorders. A grounded theory study using a theoretical sampling frame, individual in-depth interviews and a constant comparative analysis conducted by a multidisciplinary research team. The sample involved 27 workers with common mental disorders, currently working full or part time, or being on sick leave not more than 6 months. They were women and men of different ages, representing different occupations and illness severity. A general process of work instability was conceptualized by the core category Working in dissonance: captured in a bubble inside the work stream. The workers described that their ordinary fluency at work was disturbed. They distanced themselves from other people at and outside work, which helped them to regain their flow but simultaneously made them feel isolated. Four categories described sub-processes of the dissonance: Working out of rhythm, Working in discomfort, Working disconnected and Working in a no man's land. The experience of work instability in CMDs was conceptualized as "working in dissonance", suggesting a multifaceted dissonance at work, characterized by a sense of being caught up, as if in a bubble. Focusing on how the worker can re-enter their flow at work when experiencing dissonance is a new approach to explore in occupational and clinical settings.

  3. The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Martina Starc; Grega Repovš

    2016-01-01

    Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory. We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the dis...

  4. Can we be friends? - The influence of work environment on communication and work identity

    OpenAIRE

    Kristinsdóttir, Anna Bjorg

    2014-01-01

    For many people, the workplace is where they spend most of their everyday life. At work, people are subjected to certain written and unwritten rules and undergo a socialization that integrates them to the norms, values and other social patterns that exist within the workplace. This is a report from a qualitative study on how work environment, both physical and non-physical can influence communication and work related identity. It uses data from two sets of workers to identify workplace str...

  5. Military experience can influence Women's eating habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breland, Jessica Y; Donalson, Rosemary; Nevedal, Andrea; Dinh, Julie V; Maguen, Shira

    2017-11-01

    Disordered eating, ranging from occasional binge eating or restriction to behaviors associated with eating disorder diagnoses, is common among military personnel and veterans. However, there is little information on how military service affects eating habits. To describe possible pathways between military service and disordered eating among women veterans, a high risk group. Twenty women veterans who reported changing eating habits in response to stress participated in audio-recorded focus groups or dyadic interviews between April 2013 and October 2014. We used thematic analysis of transcripts to identify and understand women's self-reported eating habits before, during, and after military service. Participants reported entering the military with varied eating habits, but little disordered eating. Participants described several ways military environments affected eating habits, for example, by promoting fast, irregular, binge-like eating and disrupting the reward value of food. Participants believed military-related stressors, which were often related to gender, also affected eating habits. Such stressors included military sexual trauma and the need to meet military weight requirements in general and after giving birth. Participants also reported that poor eating habits continued after military service, often because they remained under stress. For some women, military service can result in socialization to poor eating habits, which when combined with exposure to stressors can lead to disordered eating. Additional research is needed, including work to understand possible benefits associated with providing support in relation to military weight requirements and the transition out of military service. Given the unique experiences of women in the military, future work could also focus on health services surrounding pregnancy-related weight change and the stress associated with being a woman in predominantly male military environments. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Dialect and Influences on the Academic Experiences of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Stephany Brett; Jaeger, Audrey J.

    2015-01-01

    The dialects that college students speak represent a type of diversity that can influence many elements of their experiences in college, including academic experiences. In this study, we examined the influence of speaking a stigmatized dialect on academic experiences for White and African American students (both male and female) from rural…

  7. The influence of interpersonal relationships on nurse managers' work engagement and proactive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S; Knafl, George

    2012-09-01

    This study tested the effects of interpersonal relationships on nurse managers' work engagement and proactive work behavior. An engaged workforce may help healthcare organizations improve performance. In healthcare, nurse managers are responsible for creating motivating work environments. They also need to be engaged, yet little is known about what influences nurse managers' performance. A self-administered electronic survey was used to collect data from 323 nurse managers working in acute care hospitals. Instruments included the Relational Coordination Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Proactive Work Behavior Scale. Interpersonal relationships with nurse administrators were most predictive of nurse managers' work engagement. Interpersonal relationships with physicians were most predictive of nurse managers' proactive work behavior. Organizational cultures that foster quality interpersonal relationships will support the job performance of nurse managers.

  8. Abuse of Working Children and Influencing Factors, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncu, Emine; Kurt, Ahmet Oner; Esenay, Figen Isik; Ozer, Fatma

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The study was planned as the research of the kind/kinds of abuse and the factors influencing the abuse that the children under 18 who are working full-time at a workplace and enrolled in a vocational training center subjected to. Method: Questionnaires were administered to 595 apprentices who were attending a vocational training center.…

  9. Influence of principals' leadership style and teachers' attitude to work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a serious concern about the spate of indiscipline among youths in recent times, especially those in secondary schools. This study sets out to assess how the leadership style of principals and teachers' attitude to works influence discipline among secondary schools students in Akamkpa Local Government Area ...

  10. Preservice teachers’ objectives and their experience of practical work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Nivalainen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers’ (n=32 views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The objectives most commonly referred to were related to the connections between theory and practice, motivation, understanding phenomena, learning how to observe, and learning how to report. In contrast, some objectives were recognized only rarely, which is an important issue for discussion as a future challenge. Preservice teachers’ positive experiences of practical work resulted from the successful implementation of practical work. According to our findings, practical work can in many cases be regarded as successful, especially when the participants understand the objectives of the teaching. In contrast, negative experiences reflected failures or difficulties in implementation. We conclude by suggesting that preservice teachers should be offered opportunities to reflect on their previous experiences and to see and experience in practice the advantages of practical work.

  11. Affective Beliefs Influence the Experience of Eating Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Eric C.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    People believe they experience the world objectively, but research continually demonstrates that beliefs influence perception. Emerging research indicates that beliefs influence the experience of eating. In three studies, we test whether beliefs about how animals are raised can influence the experience of eating meat. Samples of meat were paired with descriptions of animals raised on factory farms or raised on humane farms. Importantly, the meat samples in both conditions were identical. Howe...

  12. Factors Influencing Dating Experiences Among African American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Naomi M; Lee, Anna K; Witherspoon, Daphne D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined sociocultural factors that impact dating and sexual experiences of heterosexual African American undergraduate college students attending a historically Black institution in the Southeastern United States. Specifically, mate availability and relationship involvement were analyzed to document students' experiences, and how these influences may be associated with sexual decision making and behavior. Data from nine focus groups (N = 57) were aggregated and four subthemes were identified: competition among women, acceptability of mates, high prevalence of casual relationships, and lowered expectations for commitment. Power dynamics emerged as a contributing factor to the types of relationship involvement, sexual decision-making, and behavior among participants. The importance of prevention programs focusing on situational and cultural variables is highlighted. Additionally, implications for professionals working with emerging adults to consider the impact of the gender ratio imbalance, and perceived power distributions on perceptions of dating relationships, and sexual decision making and behavior are addressed.

  13. Palestinian nurses' lived experiences working in the occupied West Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, A A; Westlake, C

    2017-03-01

    Since the construction of the separation wall between Israel and the West Bank, Palestinians living in occupied West Bank have endured intense conflict, and severe restrictions on people's movement, trade and healthcare access, all of which resulted in spiralling poverty. These issues have created challenges for nurses that, to date, have not been explored. To explore the lived experience of Palestinian nurses working in the occupied West Bank. Qualitative phenomenological study using interviews with Palestinian nurses working in public hospitals in the West Bank. Seventeen nurses were interviewed. Despite ongoing experiences of trauma and humiliation, personal/professional role conflicts, political workplace bias and blurred role boundaries, these nurses persevered because of their commitment to caring and sense of moral duty to 'the people of this land'. Nurses in conflict areas are subject to layers of trauma. Palestinian nurses in the West Bank not only experience ongoing personal trauma, loss and humiliation of living in a conflict zone but they also experience additional professional trauma. The findings provide first-person reports of the unique challenges of nurses working in the occupied West Bank. Understanding the experiences of nurses working in occupied territories provides authentic information for local authorities and the global healthcare community. Practice improvements must be addressed and implemented. Local and global organizations that mobilize support, invest in human capital, and protect human rights in areas of conflict may benefit from understanding the experiences of nurses in this study. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  14. Experiences of work among people with disabilities who are HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Together these themes highlight the limited options available to persons with disabilities with HIV in Lusaka, not only secondary to the effects of HIV influencing their physical capacity to work, but also because of the attendant social stigma of being a person with a disability and HIV- positive. Keywords: qualitative, disability ...

  15. Conflict management style, supportive work environments and the experience of work stress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Mary L; Cadmus, Edna

    2016-03-01

    To examine the conflict management style that emergency department (ED) nurses use to resolve conflict and to determine whether their style of managing conflict and a supportive work environment affects their experience of work stress. Conflict is a common stressor that is encountered as nurses strive to achieve patient satisfaction goals while delivering quality care. How a nurse perceives support may impact work stress levels and how they deal with conflict. A correlational design examined the relationship between supportive work environment, and conflict management style and work stress in a sample of 222 ED nurses using the expanded nurse work stress scale; the survey of perceived organisational support; and the Rahim organisational conflict inventory-II. Twenty seven percent of nurses reported elevated levels of work stress. A supportive work environment and avoidant conflict management style were significant predictors of work stress. Findings suggest that ED nurses' perception of a supportive work environment and their approach to resolving conflict may be related to their experience of work stress. Providing opportunities for ED nurses in skills training in constructive conflict resolution may help to reduce work stress and to improve the quality of patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Latina/o Food Industry Employees' Work Experiences: Work Barriers, Facilitators, Motivators, Training Preferences, and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagui-Munoz, Marlen; Garriott, Patton O.; Flores, Lisa Y.; Cho, Seonghee; Groves, James

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored the work experiences, job satisfaction, and work behaviors of Latina/o restaurant workers. A total of 10 semistructured focus group (N = 75) interviews were conducted in the Midwest and Southwest. Data were analyzed using a combination of Consensual Qualitative Research (CQR; Hill et al., 2005; Hill, Thompson, &…

  17. The Dynamic between Work Values and Part-Time Work Experiences across the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfeli, Erik J.

    2008-01-01

    The work value system, its development, and its relationship with work experiences can be modeled as an adaptive control system [Ford, D. H., & Lerner, R. M. (1992). "Developmental systems theory: An integrative approach". Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications]. This study employed longitudinal data from 1000 participants (Youth Development Study;…

  18. Influence of support resistance on stability of cross workings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernyak, I.L.; Grishchenko, S.P.

    1988-09-01

    Presents the results of observations performed at two mines that show that when workings are driven across the goaf, the size of the zone of inelastic deformation is much greater than for workings driven in the rock mass, with 50-70% of all displacement occurring 20 m from the face. In the zone influenced by workings, the zone of inelastic deformation is greater in the roof of the cross workings, but the increase in the coefficient of expansion is less than that of workings in the rock mass. The zone of broken rock and coefficients of expansion for the rock depend on type of roof rock and its lamination. In coarse-laminated and easy breaking roof rock, most destruction is found in the zone of influence, but in fine-laminated rock and difficult breaking main roof rock, the mass is deformed when the old pillar is removed and displacements in the zone of influence are the result of deformation of the mass at a distance of more than 3.5-5 m from the pillar edge. The effectiveness of support resistance in the zone of influence depends on the composition of the rock: a change from 40 to 240 kPa reduces rock displacement by 6-7 times in fine-laminated rock, and by 2-3 times in coarse-laminated rock. The maximum value at which increasing support resistance is effective is in the 40-120 kPa range for fine-laminated rock and in the 180-240 kPa range for coarse-laminated rock.

  19. Work-Induced Stress and Its Influence on Organizational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2013-04-28

    Apr 28, 2013 ... When people experience work-related stress in industrialized countries, they are made to become more ... organization structure and internal behaviours (Daft, 1998). Organizational effectiveness has always ..... Relationship between leadership power bases and job stress of subordinates: example from ...

  20. Construction experiences from underground works at Forsmark. Compilation Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders [Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-02-15

    The main objective with this report, the Construction Experience Compilation Report (CECR), is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Forsmark, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the two cooling water tunnels of the Forsmark nuclear power units 1, 2 and 3, and from the underground excavations of the undersea repository for low and intermediate reactor waste, SFR. In addition, a brief account is given of the operational experience of the SFR on primarily rock support solutions. The authors of this report have separately participated throughout the entire construction periods of the Forsmark units and the SFR in the capacity of engineering geologists performing geotechnical mapping of the underground excavations and acted as advisors on tunnel support; Anders Carlsson participated in the construction works of the cooling water tunnels and the open cut excavations for Forsmark 1, 2 and 3 (geotechnical mapping) and the Forsmark 3 tunnel (advise on tunnel support). Rolf Christiansson participated in the underground works for the SFR (geotechnical mapping, principal investigator for various measurements and advise on tunnel support and grouting). The report is to a great extent based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. But it stands to reason that, during the course of the work with this report, unpublished notes, diaries, drawings, photos and personal recollections of the two authors have been utilised in order to obtain such a complete compilation of the construction experiences as possible.

  1. Clinician experiences assessing work disability related to mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewa, Carolyn S; Hees, Hiske; Trojanowski, Lucy; Schene, Aart H

    2015-01-01

    Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders. This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews. Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular. Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of "partial disability". In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability.

  2. Clinician experiences assessing work disability related to mental disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn S Dewa

    Full Text Available Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental disorders is challenging. Although essential to the disability application process, few studies have looked at physician and other clinician experiences with the process. However, this type of information is critical to developing processes to support providers who participate in the assessments. This purpose of this paper is to explore the experiences of physicians and other clinicians assessing public long-term work disability related to mental disorders.This is an exploratory and descriptive study using qualitative methods. Clinician input was gathered through focus groups and individual in-depth interviews. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed to identify recurrent and significant themes that arose during the focus groups and individual interviews.Many of the experiences that the clinicians in this sample discussed related to the difficulty of trying to fill the roles of advocate and medical expert as well as the challenge of determining the impact of functional capacity and work ability. The findings also highlight the current gap in knowledge about the factors that affect successful functioning in general and at work in particular.Given the challenges created by the current state of knowledge, it may be useful to consider a category of "partial disability". In addition, the fact that work disability depends on the interaction between the experience of the mental disorder and specific job requirements and the fact that people applying for public long-term disability are not working, it might be helpful to offer a clear description and guidelines of the meaning of work ability.

  3. Influence of Unemployment on Mental Health of the Working Age Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batic-Mujanovic, Olivera; Poric, Samir; Pranjic, Nurka; Ramic, Enisa; Alibasic, Esad; Karic, Enisa

    2017-06-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina has one of the highest unemployment rates in the Balkan region (43.2%), so unemployment is one of the most serious public concerns in our country. To analyze the influence of unemployment on mental health of the working age population who attend primary care center. The study was carried out in the municipality of Bosanska Krupa, which has the highest unemployment rate in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (56%), and included 510 randomly selected working age patients (aged 23-65 years). We used the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) to evaluate mental health of the working age population. There were significantly more women than men (53.5% vs. 46.5%; p=0.02). The mean age of participants was 51.04±12.84 years. The experimental group included 318 (62.35%) unemployed working age participants: 160 (50.3%) had been unemployed for more than 5 years and had had no work experience, while 158 (49.7%) unemployed participants had had a previous work experience of more than five years. The control group included 192 (37.65%) employed working age participants. Unemployment had a significant influence on mental health of the working age population. The unemployed participants had a significantly poorer mental health compared to the employed (p=0.0003). A predictor of impaired mental health was a job loss. A significantly greater mental health impairment occured in the group of unemployed participants with previous work experience of more than five years compared to the unemployed participants who had had no work experience (p=0.001) and employed (p=0.000). Unemployment has a negative impact and leads to impaired mental health of the working age population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. A job loss has a predictive role. It indicates that social and health policies must be developed in order to improve well-being of the working age population.

  4. How visual working memory contents influence priming of visual attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Nancy B; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-04-12

    Recent evidence shows that when the contents of visual working memory overlap with targets and distractors in a pop-out search task, intertrial priming is inhibited (Kristjánsson, Sævarsson & Driver, Psychon Bull Rev 20(3):514-521, 2013, Experiment 2, Psychonomic Bulletin and Review). This may reflect an interesting interaction between implicit short-term memory-thought to underlie intertrial priming-and explicit visual working memory. Evidence from a non-pop-out search task suggests that it may specifically be holding distractors in visual working memory that disrupts intertrial priming (Cunningham & Egeth, Psychol Sci 27(4):476-485, 2016, Experiment 2, Psychological Science). We examined whether the inhibition of priming depends on whether feature values in visual working memory overlap with targets or distractors in the pop-out search, and we found that the inhibition of priming resulted from holding distractors in visual working memory. These results are consistent with separate mechanisms of target and distractor effects in intertrial priming, and support the notion that the impact of implicit short-term memory and explicit visual working memory can interact when each provides conflicting attentional signals.

  5. Literacy versus formal schooling: influence on working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmidis, Mary H; Zafiri, Maria; Politimou, Nina

    2011-11-01

    Previous work has demonstrated that illiterate individuals exhibit reduced performance on measures of working memory, relative to a literate cohort. Given the relationship of working memory to phonological processing, which is enhanced by literacy, we sought to examine working memory in illiterate individuals and whether differences can be attributed to artifacts of the test typically used. To the extent that differences actually exist, we also examined whether they can be attributed to the effects of literacy per se or whether they reflect the effects of formal schooling. To accomplish this, we explored the performance of four groups of participants (illiterate, functionally illiterate, self-educated literate, school-educated literate), on five tests of working memory. Illiterate groups performed more poorly than the literate groups on all measures except the "Spatial Span" forward condition and "Remembering a New Route." Our results suggest that differences in working memory performance among literate and illiterate individuals can be attributed to literacy per se. Formal schooling, however, appears to enhance working memory skills. Finally, we stress the need to use tools that are not influenced by literacy and schooling effects in the clinical assessment of illiterate individuals.

  6. Millennials and the World of Work: Experiences in Paid Work During Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staff, Jeremy; Schulenberg, John E

    2010-06-01

    PURPOSE: This article considers some important questions faced by youth as they enter and adapt to paid work. We focus on two key questions: (1) how many hours should teenagers work during the school year and (2) what available jobs are desirable? DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: To help answer these questions, we review studies that have examined the effects of early work experiences on academic achievement, positive youth development, and health-risk behaviors. We also draw upon nationally representative data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study to illustrate some new findings on youth employment. FINDINGS: Moderate work hours, especially in jobs of higher-quality, are associated with a broad range of positive developmental outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: These questions are not only important to teenagers and their parents, they also reflect key debates among scholars in sociology, developmental psychology, and economics regarding the potential short- and long-term consequences of early work experiences for social development and socioeconomic achievement. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Although work intensity is an important dimension of adolescent work experience, it is clearly not the only one and we argue that it may not even be the most important one. By focusing on types and qualities of jobs, more can be gained in terms of understanding for whom and under what conditions teenage work does provide benefits for and detriments to youth development.

  7. Series profiles the experiences of young researchers working with ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-02-25

    Series profiles the experiences of young researchers working with the CARIAA program. February 25, 2015. Image. collage of CARIAA young researchers. CARIAA. CARIAA YOUNG RESEARCHERS. For young researchers, the Collaborative Adaptation Research Initiative in Africa and Asia (CARIAA) is a natural ...

  8. Psychological career resources and subjective work experiences of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    success. Key words: career drivers; career harmonisers; career preferences; happiness; job/career satisfaction; life satisfaction; psychological career resources; subjective work experiences. Prof. M. Coetzee and Mr Z.C. Bergh are in the Department of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, University of South Africa.

  9. Skylab Experiments, Volume 7, Living and Working in Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Basic knowledge about Skylab experiments is presented in this book for the purpose of informing high school teachers about scientific research performed in orbit and enabling the teachers to broaden their scope of material selection. The seventh volume deals with the ability of the Skylab crew to live and work effectively in space. The content is…

  10. The experiences and challenges of midwives working for midwives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... midwife is in conflict with the primary caregiver. Minimal research was found on the inter-professional relationship between midwives within the context of private midwifery care. The goal of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of midwives working for private midwives in an obstetric unit, during labour, ...

  11. Analysis of Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined Student's Industrial Work Experience Scheme carried out in NIFFR visa-a-vise the challenge of skilled manpower development for fishery extension. Secondary data collected from NIFFR library and report of 2007 SIWES period was analysed descriptively. Out of 617 students from 36 schools that visited ...

  12. Affective Beliefs Influence the Experience of Eating Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric C; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2016-01-01

    People believe they experience the world objectively, but research continually demonstrates that beliefs influence perception. Emerging research indicates that beliefs influence the experience of eating. In three studies, we test whether beliefs about how animals are raised can influence the experience of eating meat. Samples of meat were paired with descriptions of animals raised on factory farms or raised on humane farms. Importantly, the meat samples in both conditions were identical. However, participants experienced the samples differently: meat paired with factory farm descriptions looked, smelled, and tasted less pleasant. Even basic properties of flavor were influenced: factory farmed samples tasted more salty and greasy. Finally, actual behavior was influenced: participants consumed less when samples were paired with factory farm descriptions. These findings demonstrate that the experience of eating is not determined solely by physical properties of stimuli-beliefs also shape experience.

  13. Quality of work life: experiences of Iranian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagharseyyedin, Seyyed Abolfazl; Vanaki, Zohreh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the experiences of Iranian nurses concerning their quality of work life. A purposive sample of nurses (n = 14) was recruited from two university hospitals. The data were collected through unstructured interviews and were analyzed by using qualitative content analysis. The results indicated that the participants discerned their quality of work life by assessing how favorable were their working conditions, the level of fulfilment of their personal needs, and the impact of their working conditions on their private life and their social life. Three main themes were identified: quality of work life, as experienced from a personal perspective; quality of work life, as experienced from a sociocultural perspective; and quality of work life, as experienced from an organizational-professional perspective. The results of the present study will help Iranian nurse administrators to adopt effective strategies in order to improve nurses' quality of work life. Future research can broaden the scope of the current results and offer a more comprehensive understanding of nurses' quality of work life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Experiments for obtaining field influence mass particles.

    CERN Document Server

    Yahalomi, E

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing time dilation experiments the existence of a universal field interacting with moving mass particles is obtained. It is found that mass particle changes its properties depend on its velocity relative to this universal scalar field and not on its velocity relative to the laboratory. High energy proton momentum, energy and mass were calculated obtaining new results. Experiments in high energy accelerators are suggested as additional proofs for the existence of this universal field. This universal field may explain some results of other high energy experiments.

  15. Construction experiences from underground works at Oskarshamn. Compilation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Anders (Vattenfall Power Consultant AB, Stockholm (SE)); Christiansson, Rolf (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (SE))

    2007-12-15

    The main objective with this report is to compile experiences from the underground works carried out at Oskarshamn, primarily construction experiences from the tunnelling of the cooling water tunnels of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units 1,2 and 3, from the underground excavations of Clab 1 and 2 (Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel), and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. In addition, an account is given of the operational experience of Clab 1 and 2 and of the Aespoe HRL on primarily scaling and rock support solutions. This report, as being a compilation report, is in its substance based on earlier published material as presented in the list of references. Approximately 8,000 m of tunnels including three major rock caverns with a total volume of about 550,000 m3 have been excavated. The excavation works of the various tunnels and rock caverns were carried out during the period of 1966-2000. In addition, minor excavation works were carried out at the Aespoe HRL in 2003. The depth location of the underground structures varies from near surface down to 450 m. As an overall conclusion it may be said that the rock mass conditions in the area are well suited for underground construction. This conclusion is supported by the experiences from the rock excavation works in the Simpevarp and Aespoe area. These works have shown that no major problems occurred during the excavation works; nor have any stability or other rock engineering problems of significance been identified after the commissioning of the Oskarshamn nuclear power units O1, O2 and O3, BFA, Clab 1 and 2, and Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory. The underground structures of these facilities were built according to plan, and since than been operated as planned. Thus, the quality of the rock mass within the construction area is such that it lends itself to excavation of large rock caverns with a minimum of rock support

  16. How Culture Influences Teacher Self-Reflective Problem Solving Behavior and Self-Efficacy: Experiences of White Female Teachers Working through Relationship with Black Students in a Mid-Western American City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolson, Bonnie Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Teachers make a difference. White female middle-class teachers represent 84 percent of Americas' teachers. How does culture influence the self-reflective problem-solving behaviors of urban teachers? Urban schools fail youth by opening the doors for a mass exodus. The problem solving behavior of urban teachers may contribute to the student exodus…

  17. Work experiences of ethnic minority nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Yael; Popper-Giveon, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of a diverse ethnic workforce in healthcare settings contribute to the provision of culturally competent care in multicultural contexts. Nevertheless, the work experiences of ethnic minority nurses, which impact the attractiveness of the occupation, job burnout and turnover intentions, are not well understood. The present exploratory research seeks to examine the work experiences of ethnic minority Arab nurses in Israeli public hospitals. Israel is an interesting case study as the number of Arab nurses operating in the Israeli workforce has risen significantly over recent decades; many of them work in mixed Jewish-Arab environments, which are affected by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In-depth interviews with 13 Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals. The interviewed Arab nurses mentioned various benefits associated with the nursing profession, as well as various difficulties they encounter during their daily work, which are specific to them as ethnic minority nurses. They describe nursing as an occupation that offers numerous employment opportunities, job security, professional development and promotion. They believe that their work as a nurse contributes to the health of the Arab family and community and enhances culturally competent healthcare in Israeli hospitals. However, Arab nurses also feel they are stereotyped; they face disapproving looks, refusal to be treated by them, and incidences of hostility toward them. The dual experience of both integration and rejection shapes their coping strategies. The findings can inform a more systematic study that could potentially examine both nurses' and patients' conceptions of multicultural care. Action should be taken to ensure optimal working conditions for Arab healthcare professionals. Institutional policies and actions are needed to cope with their unique difficulties, such as the appointment of a functionary responsible for minimizing and coping with stereotypical and hostile

  18. The influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal pain on work performance and work ability in Swedish health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindegård, A; Larsman, P; Hadzibajramovic, E; Ahlborg, G

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate the influence of perceived stress and musculoskeletal ache/pain, separately and in combination, at baseline, on self-rated work ability and work performance at two-year follow-up. Survey data were collected with a 2-year interval. Health care workers participating at both waves were included. Inclusion criteria were good self-reported work ability and unchanged self-rated work performance at baseline, resulting in 770 participants; 617 women and 153 men. Musculoskeletal pain was assessed using the question "How often do you experience pain in joints and muscles, including the neck and low back?", perceived stress with a modified version of a single item from the QPS-Nordic questionnaire, work performance by the question "Have your work performance changed during the preceding 12 months?" and work ability by a single item from the work ability index. Associations between baseline data and the two outcomes at follow-up were analysed by means of the log binomial model and expressed as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). A combination of frequent musculoskeletal pain and perceived stress constituted the highest risk for reporting decreased work performance (RR 1.7; CI 1.28-2.32) and reduced work ability (RR 1.7; CI 1.27-2.30) at follow-up. Separately, frequent pain, but not stress, was clearly associated with both outcomes. The results imply that proactive workplace interventions in order to maintain high work performance and good work ability should include measures to promote musculoskeletal well-being for the employees and measures, both individual and organizational, to minimize the risk of persistent stress reactions.

  19. The moderating effect of work-time influence on the effect of shift work: a prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep.......To investigate whether work-time influence moderated the effect of shift work on psychological well-being measured as vitality, mental health, somatic stress symptoms, and disturbed sleep....

  20. Influence of estradiol on functional brain organization for working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jane E; Swearingen, Joshua E; Corbly, Christine R; Curry, Thomas E; Kelly, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Working memory is a cognitive function that is affected by aging and disease. To better understand the neural substrates for working memory, the present study examined the influence of estradiol on working memory using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Pre-menopausal women were tested on a verbal n-back task during the early (EF) and late follicular (LF) phases of the menstrual cycle. Although brain activation patterns were similar across the two phases, the most striking pattern that emerged was that estradiol had different associations with the two hemispheres. Increased activation in left frontal circuitry in the LF phase was associated with increased estradiol levels and decrements in working memory performance. In contrast, increased activation in right hemisphere regions in the LF phase was associated with improved task performance. The present study showed that better performance in the LF than the EF phase was associated with a pattern of reduced recruitment of the left-hemisphere and increased recruitment of the right-hemisphere in the LF compared to EF phase. We speculate that estradiol interferes with left-hemisphere working-memory processing in the LF phase, but that recruitment of the right hemisphere can compensate for left-hemisphere interference. This may be related to the proposal that estradiol can reduce cerebral asymmetries by modulating transcallosal communication (Hausmann, 2005). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High School Journalism Experiences Influence Career Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Julie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Describes a study of how University of Florida communications students developed their expectations of a career in communications. Identifies scholastic journalism experience, high school career decisions, personal reading, and a desire to write as common reasons for pursuing communications careers. Suggests areas for further research. (SG)

  2. The global Filipino nurse: An integrative review of Filipino nurses' work experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montayre, Jed; Montayre, Jasmine; Holroyd, Eleanor

    2017-10-16

    To understand the work-related experiences of Philippine-trained nurses working globally. The Philippines is a major source country of foreign-trained nurses located globally. However, there is paucity of research on professional factors and career related issues affecting foreign-trained nurses' work experiences. An integrative review through a comprehensive search of literature was undertaken from November 2015 and was repeated in August 2016. Seven articles satisfied the selection criteria. Filipino nurses experienced differences in the practice of nursing in terms of work process, roles and autonomy. Moreover, they encountered challenges such as work-related discrimination and technical difficulties within the organisation. A clear understanding of Filipino nurses' work experiences and the challenges they have encountered suggests identification of important constructs influencing effective translation of nursing practice across cultures and health systems, which then form the basis for support strategies. It is critical to recognize foreign-trained nurses' experience of work-related differences and challenges as these foster favorable conditions for the management team to plan and continually evaluate policies around recruitment, retention and support offered to these nurses. Furthermore, findings suggest internationalization of nursing framework and standards integrating a transcultural paradigm among staff members within a work organisation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The experience of work in a call centre environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanet Hauptfleisch

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This qualitative research study explored the work experience in a call centre environment in an information technology call centre based in South Africa, which service foreign customers exclusively. Three data collection methods were used, namely narratives, in-depth interviews with call centre consultants, and observation. Following a grounded theory approach, four themes were elicited, namely the perceptions of team members, uncertainty created by a constantly changing environment, perceived distances due to management practices, and depersonalisation experienced while actually dealing with customers. In addition to this, the reported impact of these themes on work performance was explored and compared to existing research.

  4. Student nurses' experience working with mentally challenged individuals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse VAN Rensburg, E S; Poggenpoel, M; Myburgh, C P H

    2012-11-01

    South African student nurses experience emotional discomfort that might influence their adjustment and coping while working with mentally challenged individuals. Adjustment and coping might impact on their mental health and support needed while working in this challenging context. Student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals experience emotional discomfort that may result in work-related stress. The experiences of student nurses working with mentally challenged individuals were explored and described as it may influence their adjustment, coping and result in work-related stress, impacting on their mental health. The study used a qualitative, explorative, descriptive, contextual research design with a case study as strategy. Thirteen student nurses from a specific higher educational institution in Gauteng, South Africa, participated in the focus group interviews. The researcher utilized reflective journals, a reflective letter, naïve sketches, drawings and field notes to collect data. Data analysis was done according to Tesch's descriptive method of open coding and theme analysis. A central storyline emerged where student nurses described working with mentally challenged individuals as a process of personal transformation that was initiated by an engagement on a deeper emotional level with these individuals. The process of personal transformation started a journey towards the discovery of meaning for the self, as student nurses. Student nurses working in challenging environments during their training may experience emotional discomfort and need additional support in coping and adjustment within this context. The nurse educator plays an important role in providing this support to manage work-related stress as well as in creating learning opportunities for the student nurses working in challenging contexts. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  5. Neoliberalist influences on nursing hospital work process and organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Norma Valéria Dantas de Oliveira; Gonçalves, Francisco Gleidson de Azevedo; Pires, Ariane da Silva; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski Leal

    2017-01-01

    To describe and analyze the influence of the neoliberal economic and political model on the nursing hospital work process and organization. Qualitative descriptive research, having as its scenery a university hospital. The subjects were 34 nursing workers. The data collection took place from March to July 2013, through semi-structured interview. The data treatment technique used was content analysis, which brought up the following category: working conditions precariousness and its consequences to the hospital work process and organization in the neoliberal context. The consequences of neoliberalism on hospital work process and organization were highlighted, being observed physical structure, human resources and material inadequacies that harms the assistance quality. In addition to wage decrease that cause the need of second jobs and work overload. There is a significant influence of the neoliberal model on hospital work, resulting on working conditions precariousness. Descrever e analisar a influência do modelo econômico e político neoliberal na organização e no processo de trabalho hospitalar de enfermagem. Pesquisa qualitativa e descritiva, tendo como cenário um hospital universitário. Os participantes foram 34 trabalhadores de enfermagem. A coleta ocorreu de março a julho de 2013, por meio de entrevista semiestruturada. A técnica de tratamento dos dados foi a análise de conteúdo, que fez emergir a seguinte categoria: precarização das condições laborais e suas repercussões para organização e processo de trabalho hospitalar no contexto neoliberal. Evidenciaram-se repercussões do neoliberalismo na organização e no processo de trabalho hospitalar, verificando-se inadequações na estrutura física, nos recursos humanos e materiais, que afetavam a qualidade da assistência. Além de perdas salariais que levam à necessidade de outros empregos e sobrecarga de trabalho. Há forte influência do modelo neoliberal no trabalho hospitalar, resultando

  6. The influence of various distracting stimuli on spatial working memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Starc

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protecting information from distraction is essential for optimal performance of working memory. We examined how the presence of distracting stimuli influences spatial working memory and compared the effect of both task-similar and negatively emotionally salient distractors. We checked the effect of distractors on the accuracy of high-resolution representations, as well as the maintenance of spatial categories, and more precisely defined not only the existence but also the direction of the distracting influences (towards or away from the position of the distractor. Participants (n = 25, 8 men, 19–31 years old were asked to remember the exact position of a target scrambled image and recall it with a joystick after a delay. In some trials an additional distracting image (scrambled, neutral or negative was shown during the delay. We measured the spread of responses (standard deviation of angular error and shifts of the average response towards the prototype angles (45° or towards the position of distractors. Distracting stimuli did not affect the spread of responses and decreased the tendency of participants to move the responses towards the prototype angle. Different types of distractors did not differ in this effect. Contrary to expectations, the participants moved their responses away from the position of distractors; this effect was more pronounced for negative distractors. In addition to memorizing the exact position and maintaining attention on the position of the stimulus, participants are likely to strategically use information about spatial category membership (quadrants and information about the position of the distractor. The repulsive effect of the distractor likely results from inhibition of its position and indicates the need to supplement computational models of spatial working memory and to take into account different strategies of working memory use.

  7. Professional Learning between Past Experience and Future Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    This paper is about learning, qualification and possible professionalization in human service work. With human services we primarily refer to work related to health care, child care, social work, and education. I present empirical findings from different phases of training and workplace experience...... of Danish child care pedagogues. The investigation is part of a human resource centered research program studying the development of welfare institutions and systems in Denmark. Welfare institutions have been developing since World War II as an important aspect of and precondition for the socio......-economic development of Denmark from a predominantly rural, agricultural society to an entirely urban industrial and service producing society. This development has required a substantial new labor force in the first place. It has drawn on “spontaneous” qualifications, primarily by recruitment of female workers...

  8. Influence of mental disorders on working ability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. There is an increasing need for evaluation of working ability due to lower level of social protection of workers and growing number of patients with mental diseases in Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of mental diseases on the occurrence of disability of I and III categories in B&H during the period from January 1st 2005 to December 31st 2006. Methods. This study involved 1 792 examinees with the complete loss of working ability (I disability category (n = 921. Disability category III consisted of persons with limited working ability (n = 871. The instruments of research in this multricentric and retrospective study were the forms P-6 and D-2 for the years of service in B&H, and the form IN for persons with years of service abroad and personal features questionnaire (EPQ. Results. The study included 1 494 men (78.5% and 298 women (21.5%. Univariant analysis represented very high statistical significance (p = 0.001 concerning: age (χ2 = 65.428, years of service (χ2=28.438, drinking (χ2 = 33.234, smoking (χ2=70.880, father’s education (χ2 = 58.124, migrations (χ2 = 14.874, sick leave (χ2 = 29.190, medical treatment (χ2 = 95.073 and rehabilitation (χ2 = 29.453. Multivariant analysis represented the influence on disability category I by parameters such as: years of service, sick leave, psychoticism and depression (p = 0.001. Hospital treatment and fatigation had influence on disability in both groups. Mental diseases are the leading cause in disability category I in 14.98% and in disability category III in 9.3% persons. Leading diseases in both disability categories were depression and schizophrenia followed by alcoholism, anxiety, brain organ psychosyndrome (BOPS and other diseases. Conclusion. The following parameters have highest influence on the disability category: the years of service, sick leave, psychoticism, depression, and long-lasting disease, medical treatments

  9. Not choosing nursing: work experience and career choice of high academic achieving school leavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Gavin R; McNally, James G

    2010-01-01

    Work experience has been a feature of the secondary school curriculum in the United Kingdom for a number of years. Usually requested by the pupil, it aims to provide opportunities for school pupils to enhance their knowledge and understanding of an occupation. The main benefits are claimed to be that it can help pupils develop an insight into the skills and attitudes required for an occupation and an awareness of career opportunities. However the quality and choice of placements are considered to be of great importance in this process and in influencing career choice [Department for Education and Skills (DfES), 2002a. Work Experience: A Guide for Employers. Department for Education and Skills, London]. As university departments of nursing experience a decline in the number of school pupils entering student nurse education programmes, and with the competition for school leavers becoming even greater, it is important to consider whether school pupils have access to appropriate work placements in nursing and what influence their experience has on pursuing nursing as a career choice. This paper is based on interview data from 20 high academic achieving fifth and sixth year school pupils in Scotland, paradigmatic cases from a larger survey sample (n=1062), who had considered nursing as a possible career choice within their career preference cluster, but then later disregarded nursing and decided to pursue medicine or another health care profession. This was partly reported by Neilson and Lauder [Neilson, G.R., Lauder, W., 2008. What do high academic achieving school pupils really think about a career in nursing: analysis of the narrative from paradigmatic case interviews. Nurse Education Today 28(6), 680-690] which examined what high academic achieving school pupils really thought about a career in nursing. However, the data was particularly striking in revealing the poor quality of nursing work experience for the pupils, and also their proposal that there was a need

  10. Incidental experiences of affective coherence and incoherence influence persuasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntsinger, Jeffrey R

    2013-06-01

    When affective experiences are inconsistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience what is called affective incoherence; when affective experiences are consistent with activated evaluative concepts, people experience affective coherence. The present research asked whether incidental feelings of affective coherence and incoherence would regulate persuasion. Experiences of affective coherence and incoherence were predicted and found to influence the processing of persuasive messages when evoked prior to receipt of such messages (Experiments 1 and 3), and to influence the confidence with which thoughts generated by persuasive messages were held when evoked after presentation of such messages (Experiments 2 and 3). These results extend research on affective coherence and incoherence by showing that they exert a broader impact on cognitive activity than originally assumed.

  11. Does clerkship experience influence interest In internal medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:The career intention of undergraduate medical students may be influenced by the clerkship experience in the various specialties. AIM:This study was undertaken to assess the medical student's perception of the internal medicine clerkship and determine its influence in the choice of internal medicine as a ...

  12. Calypso music : identity and social influence : the Trinidadian experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Charles, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    Calypso, Identity and Social Influence, The Trinidadian Experience seeks to establish links between calypso music and the construction and maintenance of identities, and to locate the genre as a mechanism or as part of a mechanism that has exerted on-going social influence within Trinidadian

  13. Learning experiences for the transition to professional work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh N. Wood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A better educated workforce contributes to a more informed and tolerant society with higher economic output, and this is also associated with higher levels of personal health, interpersonal trust and civic and social engagement. Against this backdrop, the role of universities has expanded, as university learning has moved beyond providing an education to preparing students for leadership positions within society. This article examines the effectiveness of final-year learning experiences from the perception of recent graduates. The aim is to improve undergraduate curriculum to facilitate the transition to professional employment. An online quantitative and qualitative survey instrument was developed to investigate graduates’ perceptions of their different learning experiences and assessment types in their senior year. Four hundred and twelve alumni from five universities completed the survey. Our results indicate that graduates value case studies, group work and oral presentations, and that graduates rate lectures and guest lectures from practitioners as the least important in their transition to work. The results validate the use of graduate capability frameworks and mapping the development of the skills over the curriculum. These results are useful for curriculum designers to assist with designing programmes on the transition to professional work.

  14. [Participation to improve working conditions: evidence and experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana M; Boix, Pere; G Benavides, Fernando; Gadea, Rafael; Rodrigo, Fernando; Serra, Consol

    2016-11-01

    Participation of stakeholders is a key requirement for the success of public health programmes. Working and employment conditions are major determinants for people's health and wellbeing, and workplaces are ideal environments to implement programmes with a very direct level of participation. In Spain, the main regulatory framework for occupational health and safety, Law 31/1995, establishes the principles of "efficiency, coordination and participation" as a necessary basis for workers' health protection. This same Law establishes the role of the health and safety workers' representative, responsible for occupational risk prevention, and the occupational health and safety committee, a body with equal representation and the same objectives at the heart of the company. Among recent experiences of participation in occupational health, participatory ergonomics programmes have stood out. The aim of these programmes is to improve working conditions with a view to reducing musculoskeletal disorders, which is a very common and highly prevalent work-related injury in Spain. This study describes the characteristics and results of some experiences of participatory ergonomics carried out recently in Spain, from which relevant learning can be extrapolated about processes, facilitators and barriers in order to extend such programmes to other areas of occupational and public health. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Google Docs: an experience in collaborative work in the University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa DELGADO BENITO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The educational environment contains multiple reasons to make use of the new possibilities that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT as an educational resource offer. The educational experience presented here has been realized in the subject of New Technologies applied to Education, which forms part of the study plans for primary school teachers in the University of Burgos (UBU, and which has as its main goal to facilitate the acquisition of generic competences of ICT to work online. To reach this proposed goal, we have cultivated active learning of the students, from individual to collective learning. At first, they were given a text to work individually, to read and review. After that, groups were created to work on the document cooperatively, online, through the use of the office tool Google Docs. After sharing and editing the document, every group made a multimedia presentation in which all of their contributions are bundled. Finally, all of the presentations made by every one of the groups were made public. When the practical part of the course was done, the students answered a short questionnaire in which they were asked about their initial knowledge, and the level of dominion and didactic usefulness of the tool Google Docs. It is worth noting that 75% of the class did not know the application before the course and that, after using it, 92% say they would use it in the educational and professional future. This educational experience has been very satisfactory for students and professors alike.

  16. An empirical investigation on factors influencing on work stress: Evidence from banking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Davoudzadeh Moghaddam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available An individual with a career faced with various career challenges may experience work-related stress. Work related stress is a factor that threatens employees’ health. The most common negative consequences of stress are particularly the deterioration of performance and efficiency, decrease in productivity and quality of customer’s services, which results in health problems. Work-related stress is a global issue, and banks are no exception. This paper presents a survey to investigate the influencing factors on work stress in banking industry. The study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 200 randomly selected bank department managers in city of Tehran, Iran. Using principle component analysis, the study has detected five factors including organizational characteristics, external environment, work content, personal characteristics and top management.

  17. Examining leadership and its influence on work-family interferences among health care professionals: Multiple mechanisms at play?

    OpenAIRE

    Tummers, Lars; Bronkhorst, Babette

    2012-01-01

    textabstractLeadership scholars note that the relationship of employees with their supervisor is crucial for the work-family balance these employees experience. A good relationship with your supervisor can seriously improve your work-family balance. This is especially crucial is a healthcare setting, which is often characterized by long work days and night shifts. However, it seems unclear precisely how leadership influences various work-family dimensions. Using leader-member exchange (LMX) t...

  18. Examining the influence of working memory on updating mental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadao, Derick F; Anderson, Britt; Danckert, James

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately build and update mental representations of our environment depends on our ability to integrate information over a variety of time scales and detect changes in the regularity of events. As such, the cognitive mechanisms that support model building and updating are likely to interact with those involved in working memory (WM). To examine this, we performed three experiments that manipulated WM demands concurrently with the need to attend to regularities in other stimulus properties (i.e., location and shape). That is, participants completed a prediction task while simultaneously performing an n-back WM task with either no load or a moderate load. The distribution of target locations (Experiment 1) or shapes (Experiments 2 and 3) included some level of probabilistic regularity, which, unbeknown to participants, changed abruptly within each block. Moderate WM load hampered the ability to benefit from target regularities and to adapt to changes in those regularities (i.e., the prediction task). This was most pronounced when both prediction and WM requirements shared the same target feature. Our results show that representational updating depends on free WM resources in a domain-specific fashion.

  19. Engineering students' experiences from physics group work in learning labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strøm Mellingsæter, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Background: This paper presents a case study from a physics course at a Norwegian university college, investigating key aspects of a group-work project, so-called learning labs, from the participating students' perspective. Purpose: In order to develop these learning labs further, the students' perspective is important. Which aspects are essential for how the students experience the learning labs, and how do these aspects relate to the emergence of occurrences termed joint workspace, i.e. the maintenance of content-related dialogues within the group? Programme description: First year mechanical engineering students attended the learning labs as a compulsory part of the physics course. The student groups were instructed to solve physics problems using the interactive whiteboard and then submit their work as whiteboard files. Sample: One group of five male students was followed during their work in these learning labs through one term. Design and methods: Data were collected as video recordings and fieldwork observation. In this paper, a focus group interview with the students was the main source of analysis. The interpretations of the interview data were compared with the video material and the fieldwork observations. Results: The results show that the students' overall experience with the learning labs was positive. They did, however, point to internal aspects of conflicting common and personal goals, which led to a group-work dynamics that seemed to inhibit elaborate discussions and collaboration. The students also pointed to external aspects, such as a close temporal proximity between lectures and exercises, which also seemed to inhibit occurrences termed joint workspace. Conclusions: In order to increase the likelihood of a joint workspace throughout the term in the learning labs, careful considerations have to be made with regard to timing between lectures and exercises, but also with regard to raising the students' awareness about shared and personal goals.

  20. Cancer survivorship and return to work: UK occupational physician experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Ziv; Wynn, Philip; Whitaker, Stuart; Luker, Karen

    2009-09-01

    Survivorship following diagnosis of cancer is increasing in prevalence. However, cancer survivors continue to report difficulty re-entering the workplace after diagnosis and treatment. To survey UK occupational health physicians (OHPs) regarding their role in rehabilitation of employed survivors of cancer. Following a pilot study, a questionnaire exploring opinions of OHPs regarding supporting cancer survivors' return to work was posted to all members of the UK Society of Occupational Medicine, with a repeat posting 2 months later. Responses were analyzed for significant correlations with OHP age, sex, qualification level, size of businesses advised and years of experience. There were 797 respondents (response rate 51%). Responses suggested opportunities for developing the knowledge base in relation to prognosis and functional outcomes in patients with a cancer diagnosis; instituting information resources on cancer and work for OHPs and developing communications skills training. Most respondents felt managers treated referral to occupational health (OH) differently for employees with cancer compared with management referral for employees with other diagnoses, with 45% of respondents indicating referral may take place too late to be effective in securing a return to work. A significant lack of understanding of the information requirements of employers and the role of OH by treating doctors was identified. This survey raises several possible significant barriers to return to work by cancer survivors. Recommendations to ameliorate these are made.

  1. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E; DeLaney, Sheli C; Flynn, Michael A; Jacobson, C Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the grounded theory approach in which themes emerge from iterative readings of the transcripts by a group of investigators. This study identified themes related to excessive workload, familiar work/unfamiliar hazards, cultural tensions, lack of health care, pregnancy, sexual harassment, and family obligations/expectations. The responses of the Latina workers in this study clearly indicated that they live within a complex web of stressors, both as workers and as women. The increased economic opportunities that come with immigration to the United States are accompanied by many opportunities for exploitation, especially if they are undocumented. It is hoped that the findings of this study will raise awareness regarding these issues and spur further work in this area.

  2. Nurse managers' work stressors and coping experiences: unravelling the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udod, Sonia A; Care, W Dean

    2011-10-01

    This pilot study explored (a) front-line nurse managers' stressor experiences and (b) coping strategies used in order to respond to the myriad of challenges and demands of their role. The nurse managers who participated indicated that limited resources, ever-increasing challenges and work expectations contributed to the stressors they experience. Coping responses included support, cognitive, personal and social strategies, but findings indicated managers still lacked the ability to cope effectively. Managers faced considerable job stress and conflicting demands, often caught between focusing on staff relations and organizational productivity. Equipping managers with appropriate preparation and support may make the role of nurse manager more attractive and facilitate succession planning. These findings will assist senior nurse leaders in formulating directives for appropriate structures and processes in advancing a multidimensional approach to support managers. Resolving this issue is critical for creating reasonable and realistic work expectations for nurse managers and for supporting the pivotal role that managers play to achieve organizational outcomes while preserving their personal health and well-being.

  3. Teacher Professional Experience and Performance: Impact of the Work Environment and General Welfare in Malaysian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; Idris, Abdul Rahman; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the work environment and general welfare of the Malaysian secondary school teachers. Past studies have explicated that the experience of work environment and general welfare exerted a direct influence on the performance of the teachers, hence student outcome. In the factor analysis, the study identified six factors, namely…

  4. Working memory capacity may influence perceived effort during aided speech recognition in noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Lunner, Thomas; Behrens, Thomas; Thorén, Elisabet Sundewall; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2012-09-01

    Recently there has been interest in using subjective ratings as a measure of perceived effort during speech recognition in noise. Perceived effort may be an indicator of cognitive load. Thus, subjective effort ratings during speech recognition in noise may covary both with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and individual cognitive capacity. The present study investigated the relation between subjective ratings of the effort involved in listening to speech in noise, speech recognition performance, and individual working memory (WM) capacity in hearing impaired hearing aid users. In two experiments, participants with hearing loss rated perceived effort during aided speech perception in noise. Noise type and SNR were manipulated in both experiments, and in the second experiment hearing aid compression release settings were also manipulated. Speech recognition performance was measured along with WM capacity. There were 46 participants in all with bilateral mild to moderate sloping hearing loss. In Experiment 1 there were 16 native Danish speakers (eight women and eight men) with a mean age of 63.5 yr (SD = 12.1) and average pure tone (PT) threshold of 47. 6 dB (SD = 9.8). In Experiment 2 there were 30 native Swedish speakers (19 women and 11 men) with a mean age of 70 yr (SD = 7.8) and average PT threshold of 45.8 dB (SD = 6.6). A visual analog scale (VAS) was used for effort rating in both experiments. In Experiment 1, effort was rated at individually adapted SNRs while in Experiment 2 it was rated at fixed SNRs. Speech recognition in noise performance was measured using adaptive procedures in both experiments with Dantale II sentences in Experiment 1 and Hagerman sentences in Experiment 2. WM capacity was measured using a letter-monitoring task in Experiment 1 and the reading span task in Experiment 2. In both experiments, there was a strong and significant relation between rated effort and SNR that was independent of individual WM capacity, whereas the

  5. Influence of work-related characteristics and work ability on changing employer or leaving the profession among nursing staff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongen, Anne; Robroek, Suzan; van der Heijden, Beatrice; Schouteten, Roel L.J.; Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Aim To investigate how work-related characteristics and work ability influence nursing staff decisions to change employer or leave the profession. Background Previous cross-sectional studies have indicated that decreased work ability and unfavourable work-related characteristics are important

  6. The Influence of Preload on the Work of Angular Contact Ball Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczor Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimum values of preload can be achieved in well-tried constructions and then applied in similar structures. For new structures, it is recommended to calculate the preload force and to test the correctness of calculation by means of experiments. In practice it may be necessary to introduce corrections, because not all real work parameters can be precisely known. Credibility of calculations depends, first of all, on the consistence between the assumptions concerning temperature conditions during work and elastic deformations of cooperating elements – first of all of a holder – and the real work conditions. The aim of the study is to determine how preload influences the work of a system of angular ball bearings, in relation to durability of bearing, moment of friction and rigidity of the bearing.

  7. Casual dock work: profile of diseases and injuries and perception of influence on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezar-Vaz, Marta Regina; de Almeida, Marlise Capa Verde; Bonow, Clarice Alves; Rocha, Laurelize Pereira; Borges, Anelise Miritz; Piexak, Diéssica Roggia

    2014-02-19

    The present study aimed to identify the profile of diseases and injuries that affect casual dock workers and identify casual dock workers' perceptions of positive and negative work influences on their health. This study consisted of two phases. The first phase was a quantitative study composed of a retrospective analysis, conducted with 953 medical records. The second phase of the research is a non-random sample with 51 casual dock workers. Data analysis was performed with SPSS 19.0. The average age of the casual dock workers was 48.7. Concerning working time, the majority had more than 19.6 years of dock work experience. In the first phase, 527 pathologic diagnoses were identified. The diagnoses that affected the musculoskeletal system (15.8%, N = 152; p dock work perception and have motivated an introduction of preventive measures.

  8. The influence of student internship work experience on their self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the major reasons provided for advocating for student internship has been the promise that it improves students in terms of practical orientation while at the same time providing for the acquisition of professionalism required in a specific field of expertise. Scant research attention has been given on this matter in the ...

  9. Anticipatory alpha phase influences visual working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Chadick, James Z; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-15

    Alpha band (8-12 Hz) phase dynamics in the visual cortex are thought to reflect fluctuations in cortical excitability that influences perceptual processing. As such, visual stimuli are better detected when their onset is concurrent with specific phases of the alpha cycle. However, it is unclear whether alpha phase differentially influences cognitive performance at specific times relative to stimulus onset (i.e., is the influence of phase maximal before, at, or after stimulus onset?). To address this, participants performed a delayed-recognition, working memory (WM) task for visual motion direction during two separate visits. The first visit utilized functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging to identify neural regions associated with task performance. Replicating previous studies, fMRI data showed engagement of visual cortical area V5, as well as a prefrontal cortical region, the inferior frontal junction (IFJ). During the second visit, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied separately to both the right IFJ and right V5 (with the vertex as a control region) while electroencephalography (EEG) was simultaneously recorded. During each trial, a single pulse of TMS (spTMS) was applied at one of six time points (-200, -100, -50, 0, 80, 160 ms) relative to the encoded stimulus onset. Results demonstrated a relationship between the phase of the posterior alpha signal prior to stimulus encoding and subsequent response times to the memory probe two seconds later. Specifically, spTMS to V5, and not the IFJ or vertex, yielded faster response times, indicating improved WM performance, when delivered during the peak, compared to the trough, of the alpha cycle, but only when spTMS was applied 100 ms prior to stimulus onset. These faster responses to the probe correlated with decreased early event related potential (ERP) amplitudes (i.e., P1) to the probe stimuli. Moreover, participants that were least affected by spTMS exhibited greater functional connectivity

  10. Vocational situation and experiences from the work environment among individuals with neuromuscular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexell, E M; Langdell, I; Lexell, J

    2017-01-01

    Neuromuscular diseases (NMD) can affect the ability to be employed and to work, but there is limited knowledge of individuals' own perspectives of factors that are important for their vocational situation. To explore the vocational situation among people with NMD that are employed, and to describe their experiences of how their disability, personal and environmental factors influence their ability to continue to work. Nine participants with different NMD were included. A mixed-methods design was used, and data were collected by means of semi-structured and open-ended interviews, and ratings of aspects supporting or interfering with their work performance and the ability to continue to work. Data were analyzed with directed content analysis based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and with descriptive statistics. The participants' personal characteristics, support from others at work and at home, and a flexible work organization were perceived as important factors facilitating work continuation, whereas physically demanding work assignments and factors in the physical environment were perceived as barriers. Knowledge of how personal characteristics as well as support from the work organization, managers and family members can facilitate the ability to work is important for employers, staff within different parts of the health care system, and the social security system. Future research should focus on interventions that are best suited to enhance the vocational situation for individuals with NMD.

  11. An exploratory study of the interaction between work and personal life: Experiences of South African employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Koekemoer

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The interaction between work and personal life is an important field of research in the 21st century and of pressing concern for various individuals and organisations internationally and in South Africa.Research purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the interaction between work and personal life and the experiences thereof in the South African context.Motivation of the study: South African employees are faced with various circumstances which could influence the interaction between their work and personal life and which could constitute different/unique experiences regarding this interaction.Research design, approach and method: A non-probability purposive voluntary sample was used. Data collection was done by means of semi-structured in-depth interviews with 92 participants. Content analysis was used to analyse and interpret the research data.Main findings: Four main themes (i.e. the experience of work, experiences and domains in the personal life, interaction between work and personal life, consequences associated with the interaction were extracted from the data. Participants indicated stressful and supportive aspects in their work as well as additional personal dimensions in their personal life. Interaction between work and various personal dimensions were indicated, as well as consequences associated with different types of interaction.Practical and managerial implications: Individuals experienced interaction between their work and various other personal dimensions, where the forms of interaction were associated with certain consequences (i.e. spillover of emotions, energy depletion.Contribution/value-add: Compared to international findings, unique findings were obtained relating to individuals’ personal life and the consequences associated with the interaction.

  12. Age and health jointly moderate the influence of flexible work arrangements on work engagement: Evidence from two empirical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Cort W; Baltes, Boris B

    2017-01-01

    Research and theory support the notion that flexible work arrangements (i.e., job resources in the form of formal policies that allow employees the latitude to manage when, where, and how they work) can have a positive influence on various outcomes that are valued both by organizations and their constituents. In the present study, we integrate propositions from various theoretical perspectives to investigate how flexible work arrangements influence work engagement. Then, in 2 studies we test this association and model the influence of different conceptualizations of health and age as joint moderators of this relationship. Study 1 focuses on functional health and chronological age in an age-diverse sample, whereas study 2 focuses on health symptom severity and subjective age in a sample of older workers. In both studies, we demonstrate that the influence of flexible work arrangements on work engagement is contingent upon age and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Activities in Retirement: Individual Experience of Silver Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena Maxin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of demographic change is a longer average remaining lifetime after retirement. Many people, however, remain able and willing to continue work after reaching the statutory retirement age. Given the predicted shortage of skilled workers in the future, post-retirement activities have the potential to contribute to both organisations and society. This article elaborates the prerequisites for productivity in retirement age and the changed nature of retirement at present.It also quantifies the extent to which activities are continued at retirement age. Paid employment still occurs beyond the applicable retirement age, whereby with increasing age, self-employed persons and assistant family members make up the lion’s share of the statistics. An empirical study shows the concrete situation of active retirees and the prerequisites for post-retirement activities. At the explorative level, individual experiences of the transition into retirement, the reasons for and the framework of post-retirement activities, motivational factors in job design, and physical and intellectual demands before and after retirement are characterised. The qualitative data indicate that retirement entails changes towards more flexible structures in everyday life. Decisive reasons for taking up post-retirement activities are the desire to help, pass on knowledge or remain active; personal development and contact with others; and gaining appreciation and recognition. Flexible job design and freedom to make decisions constitute major elements in shaping post-retirement working activities. Offering autonomy, skill variety, and task significance is important for the design of post-retirement activities. The paper closes with identifying relevant research fields and the concrete need to take action at individual,  organisational, and societal levels. All in all, the transition from working life to retirement should be made flexible enough to do greater justice to the

  14. WORK EXPERIENCE INTERNSHIP THROUGH THE EYES OF TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY STUDENTS (ON THE MATERIALS OF SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandr Yu. Myagkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to study the problem of efficiency of work experience internship in a technical university and its role in the education of future professionals (problem has been investigated in the framework of the research project «Monitoring of social well-being and problems of professional adaptation of ISPEU students».Methods. While carrying out of sociological research, selection of respondents was occurred on the multistage combined (serially-nested model of sample among students I, III and V courses of six faculties of full-time course of ISPEU. The complex of questions (its answers show features of professional identity of the future experts on initial (I course, intermediate (III course and finishing (V course stages of their professional formation has been developed to find out the dynamics of process of professional adaptation of students from the first to the fifth year. The information was processed with application of program and analytical complex SPSS. The comparative analysis to a gender sign of degree of satisfaction/dissatisfaction has been undertaken by the work experience internship organization on the side of high school and the accepting enterprises.Results. The level of graduates’ satisfaction with the work experience internship is revealed that works on an estimation by students of quality of preparation in high school, the relation to a received speciality and success in the future profession. The data on a self-estimation of readiness of students to work experience internship is cited. Criteria of successful work experience internship are formulated.Scientific novelty. The given researches carried out by the authors, prove that work experience internship positively influences professional consciousness of students and promote formation of steady positive installations for professional job. However, work experience internship in its institutional forms is functional and appears to be the effective

  15. [Working conditions and mortality among men of working age in Russia (experience of Murmansk region)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izmerov, N F; Tikhonova, G I; Gorchakova, T Iu

    2013-01-01

    To study the mortality of the male population of working age in the industrial cities depending on the specifics of the town-forming enterprises. In three cities in the Murmansk region, where the town-forming enterprises of non-ferrous metallurgy (Monchegorsk, Kandalaksha) and the mining industry (Kirovsk) are located, the capital of the region (Murmansk), and in the country as a whole has been studied of mortality on average for 6-year period (2000-2005) age-standardized death rates (direct method). Comparative analysis of the causes and death rates in males of working age has shown that in all the studied cities of Murmansk region there were higher death rates in men of working age from diseases of the circulatory system (in 1,3-2,0 times) and diseases of the respiratory system (in 1,1-1,8 times) in comparison with Russia. In industrial cities, compared with Murmansk, higher death rates of male population of working age from causes which etiologically are connected with harmful factors of manufacture have been registered: from cardiovascular diseases--in 1,1-1,5 times and respiratory diseases--in 1,2-1,6 times. In cities where non-ferrous metallurgy enterprises are located, concerning to cancerogenic, death rates from malignant neoplasms have been raised in 1,2-1,4 times. This happens, in particular, in Monchegorsk where Open Joint-Stock Company "Severonickel Combine" enterprise is located. Mortality from lip, oral cavity and pharynx cancer raised in 1,8 times: the localization specific at influence of nickel.

  16. The influence of early life stress on the integration of emotion and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Sophie; Aust, Sabine; Fan, Yan; Bönke, Luisa; Harki, Zjala; Gärtner, Matti; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2018-02-26

    Early life stress (ELS) impacts emotional and cognitive competences. We aimed to investigate whether the effects of ELS on working memory (WM) performance depend on the valence of the stimuli. Between January and October 2015, we recruited (N=31) healthy subjects with (N=15) and without (N=16) ELS experiences. Participants performed a WM-task with emotional stimuli. Results show a trend towards decreased WM accuracy in subjects with ELS experiences (p=.06) with increased WM accuracy (p=.08) and an altered pattern of BOLD responses in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)/precuneus (p<.001) and the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) (p<.01) in response to negative stimuli. The small sample size and potential confounding factors should be considered when interpreting the results. Our data suggests that negative valence influences cognitive performance and brain activity in subjects with ELS experiences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Impact of work experience placements on school students' attitude towards mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Vanathi; Belgamwar, Ravindra B

    2014-08-01

    Aims and method Research shows that 16- to 19-year-olds express the greatest level of negative attitudes towards people with mental illness. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of work experience placements in influencing secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and career choices. The Adolescent Attitude Towards Mental Illness questionnaire measured and assessed the adolescents' attitude changes. Pre- and post-evaluation questionnaires assessed changes in their career choices. Results There was a statistically significant change in the adolescents' attitudes, especially regarding categorical thinking and perceptions that people with mental illness are violent and out of control. There was also a positive shift in their career choices towards options in the field of mental health. Clinical implications Work experience placements can have a positive impact on secondary-school students' attitudes towards mental illness and may improve the level of student recruitment into the field of psychiatry.

  18. Towards happiness: Experiences of work-role fit, meaningfulness and work engagement of industrial/organisational psychologists in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llewellyn E. van Zyl

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The work of industrial/organisational (I/O psychologists presents an interesting and relevant context for studying meaning and engagement as components of happiness.Research purpose: The aim of this study was to determine how I/O psychologists experience the meaning of their work and to investigate the relationships between their experiences of work-role fit, meaning of work, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement, utilising the happiness framework proposed by Seligman (2002.Motivation for the study: I/O psychologists spend more than 88% of their working day with people, and they are primary role models for happiness in the workplace. Information about their work engagement and experiences of meaning is therefore needed.Research design, approach and method: A survey design was used. A convenience sample (n = 106 was taken of I/O psychologists in South Africa. A biographical questionnaire, the Work-Role Fit Scale, the Work-Life Questionnaire, the Psychological Meaningfulness Scale, the Work Engagement Scale and a survey measuring the actual and desired time spent on six broad categories of work were administered.Main findings: Work-role fit predicted psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. The calling orientation to work predicted both psychological meaningfulness and work engagement. Work-role fit mediated the relationship between the meaning of work and psychological meaningfulness. Work-role fit partially mediated the relationship between a calling orientation to work and work engagement.Practical implications: A calling orientation to work should be fostered in I/O psychologists because it contributes to experiences of work-role fit, psychological meaningfulness and work engagement.Contribution/value-add: The results of this study contribute to scientific knowledge about work-role fit, engagement and meaning as components of happiness of I/O psychologists.

  19. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person’s mindset, which determines what top–down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art. PMID:25566111

  20. The predictive mind and the experience of visual art work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesner, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Among the main challenges of the predictive brain/mind concept is how to link prediction at the neural level to prediction at the cognitive-psychological level and finding conceptually robust and empirically verifiable ways to harness this theoretical framework toward explaining higher-order mental and cognitive phenomena, including the subjective experience of aesthetic and symbolic forms. Building on the tentative prediction error account of visual art, this article extends the application of the predictive coding framework to the visual arts. It does so by linking this theoretical discussion to a subjective, phenomenological account of how a work of art is experienced. In order to engage more deeply with a work of art, viewers must be able to tune or adapt their prediction mechanism to recognize art as a specific class of objects whose ontological nature defies predictability, and they must be able to sustain a productive flow of predictions from low-level sensory, recognitional to abstract semantic, conceptual, and affective inferences. The affective component of the process of predictive error optimization that occurs when a viewer enters into dialog with a painting is constituted both by activating the affective affordances within the image and by the affective consequences of prediction error minimization itself. The predictive coding framework also has implications for the problem of the culturality of vision. A person's mindset, which determines what top-down expectations and predictions are generated, is co-constituted by culture-relative skills and knowledge, which form hyperpriors that operate in the perception of art.

  1. Work-related factors influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann E; Patterson, Erin; Saari, Margaret; Thomson, Heather; Cranley, Lisa

    Health care is shifting out of hospitals into community settings. In Ontario, Canada, home care organizations continue to experience challenges recruiting and retaining nurses. However, factors influencing home care nurse retention that can be modified remain largely unexplored. Several groups of factors have been identified as influencing home care nurse intent to remain employed including job characteristics, work structures, relationships and communication, work environment, responses to work, and conditions of employment. The aim of this study was to test and refine a model that identifies which factors are related to home care nurse intentions to remain employed for the next 5 years with their current home care employer organization. A cross-sectional survey design was implemented to test and refine a hypothesized model of home care nurse intent to remain employed. Logistic regression was used to determine which factors influence home care nurse intent to remain employed. Home care nurse intent to remain employed for the next 5 years was associated with increasing age, higher nurse-evaluated quality of care, having greater variety of patients, experiencing greater meaningfulness of work, having greater income stability, having greater continuity of client care, experiencing more positive relationships with supervisors, experiencing higher work-life balance, and being more satisfied with salary and benefits. Home care organizations can promote home care nurse intent to remain employed by (a) ensuring nurses have adequate training and resources to provide quality client care, (b) improving employment conditions to increase income stability and satisfaction with pay and benefits, (c) ensuring manageable workloads to facilitate improved work-life balance, and (d) ensuring leaders are accessible and competent.

  2. Meaning in bone marrow transplant nurses' work: experiences before and after a "meaning-centered" intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Doris; Fillion, Lise; Duval, Stéphane; Brown, Jocelyn; Rodin, Gary; Howell, Doris

    2012-01-01

    When a clinical culture emphasizes cure, as in bone marrow transplantation (BMT) services, BMT nurses commonly experience enormous stress when patients are suffering or dying. In this context, it is unclear what meanings BMT nurses experience in their work and how they find meaning and sustain hope, given conflicting responsibilities to patients. This study aimed to explore BMT nurses' experiences of meaning and hope and the effects of a meaning-centered intervention (MCI) on these experiences using qualitative methodology. Fourteen BMT nurses engaged in a 5-session MCI, with 7 members each participating in 2 groups. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted at 1 month before and after the intervention. Interpretive phenomenology guided data analysis. The BMT nurses in the Princess Margaret Hospital experienced meaning in their involvement with their patients' suffering. The MCI seemed to inspire participants to engage more with patients and their suffering. Three subthemes reflected this influence: (a) greater awareness of boundaries between their personal and professional involvement, (b) enhanced empathy from an awareness of a shared mortality, and (c) elevated hope when nurses linked patients' suffering with meaning. This study confirms that patients' suffering constitutes nurses' search for meaning and hope in their work. The MCI offers a way in which to actively support nurses in this process. Nurses can learn to be more responsive to patients' suffering beyond limits of cure. A minimal intervention, such as the MCI, supports BMT nurses in finding positive personal meaning and purpose in their otherwise highly stressful work culture.

  3. Strangers in a strange land: work experiences of foreign nurses in Parma's territory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesperoni, Pietro; Masera, Giuliana

    2015-03-13

    The purpose of this research is to explore, investigate and describe experiences and points of view of foreign nurses working in the area of Parma. We focalize particularly on two areas of interest: negativities and positivities in experiences related to the process of integration into the new working environment. The literature search has revealed that the phenomenon of "nursing immigration" is numerically significant in Italy and more particularly in Emilia Romagna. From studies conducted in other countries (UK, USA, Canada, Australia and Iceland) there are two categories of factors which influence the process of integration of foreign nurses in the new working environment, facilitators and barriers. For this study we followed the phenomenological method . A total of twelve foreign nurses were interviewed in the months of October and November 2013 in the territory of Parma working in various professional fields (medicine, critical care and surgery). We did not impose any structure to interviews so that respondents were free to express their lived experiences spontaneously. All interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the method of Giorgi (1970). Results obtained from the analysis of interviews revealed seven themes, divided in positivities and negativities. Positivities are psycho-social support (Italian colleagues, fellow countrymen, patients), opportunities of cultural enrichment, positive work ethic. negativities are difficulty of language and communication, and inequalities racial prejudice, differences in care practices and inadequate opportunities for professional growth related to the Italian working environment. The study concludes by pointing out the importance of the role that foreign nurses can play in our health care system and how the results of this search can help all professionals in the health sector to have a greater understanding of their experiences. This knowledge can make a contribution to the development of new

  4. Influence of rheumatoid arthritis on work participation in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, E M; Smith, M; Roberts-Thomson, L; Esterman, A; Ahern, M

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of work disability in a cohort of Australians with rheumatoid arthritis. A cross-sectional study of a sample of 497 individuals aged 18-65 years with rheumatoid arthritis in Adelaide, South Australia, was carried out. Of those employed, 130 (51%) were in full-time employment (> or= 35 h per week) work and 124 (49%) were in part-time employment (average 20 h per week). Overall, the observed/expected numbers working were 254/316 (relative risk 0.8 (0.69-0.91)). Using a comparator adjusted by removing those on the disability support pension, the relative risk of the working was 0.74. The observed/expected numbers working part time in the study group were 124/89 (relative risk 1.4 (1.25-1.65)). Those who continued to work had lower Health Assessment Questionnaire scores, less morning stiffness, superior scores for patient assessed level of function, lower pain scores, lower joint counts, a lower C-reactive protein, better measures of 'patient global assessment' and higher levels of education compared with the group who had ceased work. Overall, of those working at the time of diagnosis, 20% had ceased work within 5 years and approximately 40% had ceased work by 20 years. Of those who ceased work, the mean duration from time of diagnosis to work cessation was 7 years with half the subjects who ceased work doing so within 4 years of diagnosis. Work disability associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Australia is very significant and costly. Work disability occurs relatively early in the disease and is associated with several identifiable variables, many of which may be amenable to intervention strategies.

  5. Newly qualified midwives working experiences and challenges in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Newly qualified midwives faced complex, ambiguous situations during the compulsory community service year. Personal and professional growth and development was achieved. A properly structured, mentored service experience is recommended. Keywords: Newly qualified registered nurse and midwife, experiences, ...

  6. Influences on the work engagement of secondary school teachers in rural Kwazulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunram Dehaloo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of job resources and job demands on the work engagement of secondary school teachers in the Illembe district of KwaZulu-Natal. A previously developed model for work engagement was used as conceptual framework. In the empirical investigation the authors used a mixed-method, explanatory research design. In the quantitative phase 100 teachers from five schools completed a self-constructed questionnaire which allowed for hypotheses testing. This was followed by 16 interviews with teachers from the same sample. The study revealed that the teachers exhibited low levels of work engagement. This was related to inadequate job resources and excessive job demands. The teachers were particularly displeased with their remuneration packages. However, teachers of different genders, cultures, levels of experience and educational qualifications differed in their perceptions. Through the interview data the authors gained a deeper understanding of how the above-mentioned impacted on work engagement. The study is significant for illuminating current factors that managers should consider to improve the work engagement of teachers. Keywords: Work engagement; job resources; job demands; motivation; job satisfaction; mixed-methods

  7. The influence of psychosocial factors at work and life style on health and work ability among professional workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, T I J; Alavinia, S M; Bredt, F J; Lindeboom, D; Elders, L A M; Burdorf, A

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the associations of psychosocial factors at work, life style, and stressful life events on health and work ability among white-collar workers. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among workers in commercial services (n = 1141). The main outcome variables were work ability, measured by the work ability index (WAI), and mental and physical health, measured by the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12). Individual characteristics, psychosocial factors at work, stressful life events, and lifestyle factors were determined by a questionnaire. Maximum oxygen uptake, weight, height, and biceps strength were measured during a physical examination. Work ability of white-collar workers in commercial services industry was strongly associated with psychosocial factors at work such as teamwork, stress handling, and self-development and, to a lesser extent, with stressful life events, lack of physical activity, and obesity. Determinants of mental health were very similar to those of work ability, whereas physical health was influenced primarily by life style factors. With respect to work ability, the influence of unhealthy life style seems more important for older workers, than for their younger colleagues. Among white-collar workers mental and physical health were of equal importance to work ability, but only mental health and work ability shared the same determinants. The strong associations between psychosocial factors at work and mental health and work ability suggest that in this study population health promotion should address working conditions rather than individual life style factors.

  8. [Influence of perlite sand on the skin in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracheva, E E; Iatsyna, I V; Lapina, N E; Ianin, V A; Antoshina, L I; Zhadan, I Iu; Krasavina, E K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work influence of perlite sand has been studied on a skin of Sprague-Dawley male rat (300-350 g). The biopsy of intact rat skin has been used as control. Contact of the perlite sand with animals' skin causes the reaction of an inflammation amplifying with increase of duration of the influence of substance. Therefore, despite an inert chemical compound, long contact with perlite sand in conditions of production can promote development of skin diseases. From the result of this investigation it is concluded that perlite sand causes irritating action on the skin and it is necessary to apply additional protective means to workers contacting to this substance.

  9. Preservice Teachers' Objectives and Their Experience of Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivalainen, V.; Asikainen, M. A.; Hirvonen, P. E.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores third-year preservice physics teachers' (n=32) views concerning the objectives of practical work at school and university. Content analysis of their essays about practical work revealed not only the objectives of the practical work undertaken but also how they had experienced teaching as school and university students. The…

  10. Chinese Undergraduate Students' Work Values: The Role of Parental Work Experience and Part-Time Work Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Francis Yue-lok; Tang, Catherine So-kum

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the association of perceived parental job insecurity and students' part-time work quality on work values among 341 Hong Kong Chinese undergraduate students. Correlation and regression results showed that work values were strongly related to students' part-time work satisfaction and work quality. In…

  11. The Relationship Between Work Experience and Job Performance: A Conceptual and Meta-Analytic Review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinones, Miguel

    2001-01-01

    .... To this end, we conducted a conceptual review of the work experience literature, developed a framework for measuring different facets of work experience, and conducted a meta-analysis to examine...

  12. Organisational and task factors influencing teachers’ professional development at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, A.T.; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Kreijns, K.

    2016-01-01

    - Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate organisational (cultural and relational) and task factors which potentially enhance teachers’ professional development at work (TPD at Work). The development of lifelong learning competencies and, consequently, the careers of teachers, has

  13. The influence of working memory capacity on experimental heat pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakae, Aya; Endo, Kaori; Adachi, Tomonori; Ikeda, Takashi; Hagihira, Satoshi; Mashimo, Takashi; Osaka, Mariko

    2013-10-01

    Pain processing and attention have a bidirectional interaction that depends upon one's relative ability to use limited-capacity resources. However, correlations between the size of limited-capacity resources and pain have not been evaluated. Working memory capacity, which is a cognitive resource, can be measured using the reading span task (RST). In this study, we hypothesized that an individual's potential working memory capacity and subjective pain intensity are related. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated 31 healthy participants' potential working memory capacity using the RST, and then applied continuous experimental heat stimulation using the listening span test (LST), which is a modified version of the RST. Subjective pain intensities were significantly lower during the challenging parts of the RST. The pain intensity under conditions where memorizing tasks were performed was compared with that under the control condition, and it showed a correlation with potential working memory capacity. These results indicate that working memory capacity reflects the ability to process information, including precise evaluations of changes in pain perception. In this work, we present data suggesting that changes in subjective pain intensity are related, depending upon individual potential working memory capacities. Individual working memory capacity may be a phenotype that reflects sensitivity to changes in pain perception. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Eco-Transactional Influences on Sociopolitical Youth Development Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Ira E.

    2017-01-01

    An emerging and growing body of research has clearly established the importance of youth building sociopolitical consciousness in order to be more democratically engaged citizens. An overwhelming amount of sociopolitical youth development work occurs outside of school. Much of the research on this work has focused on youth outcomes, and we know…

  15. Salesperson work engagement: how employee involvement climate, psychological capital, and engagement influence attitudinal and performance outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Medhurst, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    The overall focus of this thesis was to explore the concept of work engagement for sales professionals. More specifically, the research program sought to examine the motivational state of work engagement and then determine the degree to which organizational resources and personal resources influenced salesperson work engagement. Furthermore, the research aimed to determine the degree to which salesperson work engagement influenced salesperson performance, overall work attitude and intention t...

  16. Opinion Formation by Social Influence: From Experiments to Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacoma, Andrés; Zanette, Damián H

    2015-01-01

    Predicting different forms of collective behavior in human populations, as the outcome of individual attitudes and their mutual influence, is a question of major interest in social sciences. In particular, processes of opinion formation have been theoretically modeled on the basis of a formal similarity with the dynamics of certain physical systems, giving rise to an extensive collection of mathematical models amenable to numerical simulation or even to exact solution. Empirical ground for these models is however largely missing, which confine them to the level of mere metaphors of the real phenomena they aim at explaining. In this paper we present results of an experiment which quantifies the change in the opinions given by a subject on a set of specific matters under the influence of others. The setup is a variant of a recently proposed experiment, where the subject's confidence on his or her opinion was evaluated as well. In our realization, which records the quantitative answers of 85 subjects to 20 questions before and after an influence event, the focus is put on characterizing the change in answers and confidence induced by such influence. Similarities and differences with the previous version of the experiment are highlighted. We find that confidence changes are to a large extent independent of any other recorded quantity, while opinion changes are strongly modulated by the original confidence. On the other hand, opinion changes are not influenced by the initial difference with the reference opinion. The typical time scales on which opinion varies are moreover substantially longer than those of confidence change. Experimental results are then used to estimate parameters for a dynamical agent-based model of opinion formation in a large population. In the context of the model, we study the convergence to full consensus and the effect of opinion leaders on the collective distribution of opinions.

  17. Optimal experience in online shopping: the influence of flow

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Ultan; Acton, Thomas; Conboy, Kieran

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed This research investigates the influences of product presentation modes, decision behaviour and the consumer experience on Internet shopping. The growth of online shopping brings with it cognitive challenges for consumers attempting to assess large numbers of options in purchase decisions. Further, there is little guidance for vendors in terms of presenting large numbers of product. In this study, online shopping is viewed as an information processing, decision ta...

  18. The Relationship Between Digital Technology Experience, Daily Media Exposure and Working Memory Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhterem DİNDAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s youngsters interact with digital technologies to a great extent which leads scholars to question the influence of this exposure on human cognitive structure. Through resorting to digital nativity assumptions, it is presumed that cognitive architecture of the youth may change in accordance with digital technology use. In this regard, the current study investigated the relationship between digital technology experience, daily media exposure and working memory capacity of so-called digital native participants. A total of 572 undergraduate students responded to self-report measures, which addressed years of experience for 7 different digital devices and the daily time spent for 14 different digital activities. Participants’ working memory capacity was measured through the Computation Span and the Dot Matrix Test. While the former was used to measure the phonological loop capacity, the latter was used to address the visuo-spatial sketchpad capacity. Correlational analyses revealed that neither the phonological loop capacity nor the visuo-spatial sketchpad capacity was related to digital technology experience and daily media exposure. Thus, the transformative contribution of digital technology experience to human cognitive architecture could not be observed through the current measures

  19. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work : a longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; Heuvel, S.G. van den; Ybema, J.F.; Beek, A.J. van der; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45–64, of the longitudinal Study on

  20. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: A longitudinal study among older employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leijten, F.R.M.; van den Heuvel, S.G.; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, A.J.; Robroek, S.J.W.; Burdorf, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Methods Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on

  1. The Impact of Work-Integrated Learning Experiences on Attaining Graduate Attributes for Exercise and Sports Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Melinda; Pascoe, Deborah; Charity, Megan

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and Sports Science (E&SS) programs at Federation University Australia provide work-integrated learning (WIL) opportunities for students to develop, apply and consolidate theoretical knowledge in the workplace. This study aimed to determine the influence of WIL experiences on achieving common graduate attributes for E&SS students.…

  2. Exploring Managerial Mechanisms That Influence Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2014-01-01

    Increasing employees’ innovative work behaviour is a complex process of developing an internal climate supportive of idea generation and realization through use of financial, participative, and decentralization mechanisms. This article investigates the effectiveness of these managerial mechanisms...... in a public versus private context. In a survey in Scandinavia, 8,310 full-time employees were split into public and private employees and analysed with regression models for differences in effectiveness. From the results, two distinct perceptions emerged. Public employees perceive innovative work behaviour...... as extra-role behaviour to be compensated for. Private employees recognize innovative work behaviour as necessary behaviour for career advancement....

  3. Experiences in the workplace community and the influence of community experiences on ENP courses for nursing professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi-Ling

    2016-05-01

    A nursing community can be described as a discourse community or a Community of Practice (CoP). No matter what type, a nursing community exerts influences on its group members' worldviews, perspectives and beliefs. The purpose of this research is to explore what nurses' experiences of membership within the nursing community are and how such experiences influence nurses' views of English for nursing purposes (ENP) courses. A qualitative case study was conducted in a medical centre in Taiwan in which many foreign patients seek medical treatment and in which English is highly valued. Nine nurses who had at least three years working experience in relation to clinical practice participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews and shadowing observations were the two primary methods of data collection. Five themes emerged: (1) building of the nurse-patient relationship, (2) provision of patient-centred care, (3) negative caring experiences, (4) professional identity, and (5) perspectives on ENP courses. Nurses' connection with the community led for them to a focus in their working lives. This determined their perceptions of ENP courses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [Influence of work climate on the sick building syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnavita, N; Ferraro, P; Vincenti, F

    2007-01-01

    The potential risk factors for sick building syndrome (SBS) are not yet well elucidated. A questionnaire was administered concerning environmental conditions at the work place and complaints before and after the take-over of one company from another corporation. Workers had to move into new company, but were still working in old office building. Before the change, environmental objective and subjective conditions and workers' wellbeing were within normal range. The change did not involved air quality, however results of the questionnaire demonstrated an increased irritation of the mucous membranes and a reduction of well-being. The level and severity of symptoms appeared to be related to perceived indoor environment quality, and depression score. High stress related to work changes was found to be significantly associated with SBS symptoms. The psychosocial work environment can be an important predictor of SBS symptoms.

  5. Working Memory Influences on Long-Term Memory and Comprehension

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Radvansky, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    .... This study looked at how comprehension and memory processing at the mental model level is related to traditional measures of working memory capacity, including the word span, reading span, operation...

  6. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.

  7. [THE INFLUENCE OF SHIFT WORK ON WORKER'S HEALTH STATUS (REVIEW)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernikova, E F

    2015-01-01

    The article provides an overview of domestic and foreign works on the impact of the replaceable labor on the efficiency, general state of health, the health and the dream of workers. Many hours shifts and overtime work were found to disturb likely familiar rhythms (sleep, wakefulness, performance), change the metabolic and hormonal metabolisms, reducing the recovery period between duties, contribute to more rapid development of fatigue. The consequence of circadian dyschrony may be the development of diseases of the cardiovascular system and cancer incidence. Studies have shown that sleep disorders are associated with metabolic changes, and particularly, obesity. In persons working in shifts, there are more often registered as individual features of the metabolic syndrome and the whole syndrome. It is noted that persons forming this group are at higher risk of developing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Thus, the problem of shift work is presented to be very important. Knowledge of ways and mechanisms that explain the impact of shift work on health is necessary to evaluate the professional risk. In the system of health measures the attention should be given to the rationalization of work and rest regimens, prevention of fatigue, struggle with sleep disorders and obesity.

  8. Influencing attitudes toward science through field experiences in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Deborah Mcintyre

    The purpose of this study was to determine how student attitudes toward science are influenced by field experiences in undergraduate biology courses. The study was conducted using two institutions of higher education including a 2-year lower-level and a 2-year upper-level institution. Data were collected through interviews with student participants, focus group discussions, students' journal entries, and field notes recorded by the researcher during the field activities. Photographs and video recordings were also used as documentation sources. Data were collected over a period of 34 weeks. Themes that emerged from the qualitative data included students' beliefs that field experiences (a) positively influence student motivation to learn, (b) increase student ability to learn the concepts being taught, and (c) provide opportunities for building relationships and for personal growth. The findings of the study reinforce the importance of offering field-study programs at the undergraduate level to allow undergraduate students the opportunity to experience science activities in a field setting. The research study was framed by the behavioral and developmental theories of attitude and experience including the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen, 1991) and the Theory of Experiential Learning (Kolb, 1984).

  9. Nurses' Burnout: The Influence of Leader Empowering Behaviors, Work Conditions, and Demographic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudallal, Rola H; Othman, Wafa'a M; Al Hassan, Nahid F

    2017-01-01

    Nurse burnout is a widespread phenomenon characterized by a reduction in nurses' energy that manifests in emotional exhaustion, lack of motivation, and feelings of frustration and may lead to reductions in work efficacy. This study was conducted to assess the level of burnout among Jordanian nurses and to investigate the influence of leader empowering behaviors (LEBs) on nurses' feelings of burnout in an endeavor to improve nursing work outcomes. A cross-sectional and correlational design was used. Leader Empowering Behaviors Scale and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) were employed to collect data from 407 registered nurses, recruited from 11 hospitals in Jordan. The Jordanian nurses exhibited high levels of burnout as demonstrated by their high scores for Emotional Exhaustion (EE) and Depersonalization (DP) and moderate scores for Personal Accomplishment (PA). Factors related to work conditions, nurses' demographic traits, and LEBs were significantly correlated with the burnout categories. A stepwise regression model-exposed 4 factors predicted EE: hospital type, nurses' work shift, providing autonomy, and fostering participation in decision making. Gender, fostering participation in decision making, and department type were responsible for 5.9% of the DP variance, whereas facilitating goal attainment and nursing experience accounted for 8.3% of the PA variance. This study highlights the importance of the role of nurse leaders in improving work conditions and empowering and motivating nurses to decrease nurses' feelings of burnout, reduce turnover rates, and improve the quality of nursing care.

  10. The Influence of Technology on Geographic Cognition and Tourism Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tussyadiah, Iis; Zach, Florian

    2011-01-01

    meaningful tourism experiences. This study found that people using different types of technologies for everyday routine perceive that these technologies help them with spatial inference to acquire geographic information; making sense of direction and orientation, and interacting with and within places....... Further, within the travel context, geographic technology was found to influence the dimensions of sensory, affective and social experience, as well as the cognitive and bodily experience. The type of technology used for travel was also found to be a significant predictor of the sensory, affective......Tourists today have access to retrieve voluminous geographic information about destinations while travelling as various context-aware geographic technologies have become increasingly ubiquitous. These technologies are suggested to aid tourists in the process of destination consumption to gain...

  11. Experience of Social Support among Working Mothers: A Concept Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, A. Young; Lee, Ki-Hak

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, categorize, and provide a model for the understanding of social support among Korean working mothers. The participants were interviewed and asked what kind of social support they received that allowed them to maintain work and family life. Using multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering analysis…

  12. Clinician experiences assessing work disability related to mental disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewa, C.S.; Hees, H.; Trojanowski, L.; Schene, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medical certification is one of the basic administrative mechanisms used by social policies aimed at income protection. The assessment of work disability is central to the income protection application. Yet, there is evidence suggesting that determining work disability related to mental

  13. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  14. Work environment influences adverse events in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Kurt; Pedersen, Anna Helene Meldgaard; Pape, Louise; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; Madsen, Marlene Dyrløv; Nielsen, Kent Jacob

    2014-05-01

    The psychosocial work environment has been recognised as a factor that contributes to the occurrence of errors and adverse events at hospitals. There has been a strong focus on stress factors at intensive care units and emergency departments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of adverse events and to examine the relationship between work-related stressors, safety culture and adverse events at an emergency department. A total of 98 nurses and 26 doctors working in an emergency department at a Danish regional hospital filled out a questionnaire on the occurrence and pattern of adverse events, psychosocial work environment factors, safety climate and learning culture. The participants had experienced 742 adverse events during the previous month. The most frequent event types were lack of documents, referrals not performed, blood tests not available and lack of documentation. Problems related to reporting and learning and insufficient follow-up and feedback after serious events were the most frequent complaints. A poor patient safety climate and increased cognitive demands were significantly correlated to adverse events. This study supports previous findings of severe underreporting to the mandatory national reporting system. The issue of reporting bias related to self-reported data should be born in mind. Among work environment issues, the patient safety climate and stress factors related to cognitive demands had the highest impact on the occurrence of adverse events. The project was funded by Trygfonden (grant no 7-10-0949). not relevant.

  15. The Influence of Acute Physical Activity on Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zach, Sima; Shalom, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The effect of three types of physical activity on two types of working memory were investigated. Participants were 20 adult males who trained twice a week in volleyball two hours per session. Procedures included two pre and post intervention tests of working memory: the Digit span and Visual Memory Span subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised. Interventions included tactical volleyball formation, body-weight resistance exercises, 15 minutes of running, and sub-maximal aerobic activity. Volleyball activity improved memory performance to a greater extent than the other two activities. Results indicate that immediately after acute exercise there is an increase in working memory function, more evident after physical activity in which cognitive functioning is inherent. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. System influences on work disability due to low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartys, Serena; Frederiksen, Pernille; Bendix, Tom

    2017-01-01

    Work disability due to low back pain is a significant global health concern. Current policy and practice aimed at tackling this problem is largely informed by the biopsychosocial model. Resultant interventions have demonstrated some small-scale success, but they have not created a widespread...... and disability benefits), healthcare and family systems (spouse/partner/close others) can act as obstacles to work participation for those with low back pain. Systematic searches of several scientific and grey literature sources were conducted, resulting in 1762 records. Following a systematic exclusion process...

  17. Putting Knowledge to Work: Collaborating, Influencing and Learning ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-02-15

    Feb 15, 2017 ... Putting Knowledge to Work explores how the brains of such organizations actually function to deliver outcomes and impacts. Upstream from end results themselves, the book examines how CSOs access, generate, apply, and grow their intelligence, knowledge, and know-how to protect children, improve ...

  18. Work-Induced Stress and Its Influence on Organizational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2013-04-28

    Apr 28, 2013 ... international labour organizations protocol which posit that employers of labour should initiate a stress management policy that will not only enhance the effectiveness and productivity of their organization but will boost their morale at work and make them healthier. Today, workplace stress is becoming a ...

  19. Africa-Specific Factors Influencing the Decision to Adopt Work ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... is the link with a foreign or international partner with a work-family culture. This factor is powerful if it is coupled with a personal impulse from the chief executive and management team, failing which complaints of valued employees may move management to action – a proposition to be tested in further quantitative studies.

  20. Super-leadership and work enjoyment: direct and moderated influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter F; Georgianna, Sibylle; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Roth, Anne C; Schreiber, Walter A; Sauerland, Martin; Muessigmann, Michael J; Jilg, Franziska

    2013-12-01

    Super-leadership is part of an approach called 'empowering leadership.' Within this approach, super-leadership is assumed to enable subordinates to lead themselves. The current study examined correlates of super-leadership. A questionnaire measuring two dimensions of super-leadership was used to analyze relationships between super-leadership and subordinates' work enjoyment, i.e., job satisfaction, subjective well-being, and emotional organizational commitment. In addition, moderating effects of the organizational context, i.e., organizational decentralization, on the relationships between super-leadership and work enjoyment were explored. 198 German employees from different occupations participated in the study. Latent moderator structural equation analysis revealed that the two factors of super-leadership, "coaching and communicative support" and "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility," had direct positive effects on subordinates' work enjoyment. Organizational decentralization moderated the effect of "coaching and communicative support" on work enjoyment but not the relations involving "facilitation of personal autonomy and responsibility." Conclusions for further research and practical applications were discussed.

  1. Work-Induced Stress and Its Influence on Organizational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined work induced stress and its relationship to Organizational Effectiveness and Productivity amongst Nigerian Employees. Employees of Nigerian Television Authority and Nigerian Immigration Services were sampled in this study to observe how workplace has interfered with their inputs and organizational ...

  2. Role ambiguity, role conflict and work overload and their influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For some educators who assume the dual role of teaching in the classroom and taking on a further role of sport facilitator within a school environment can become highly emotional. The potential for stress is high since they have to work with class sizes of 40 and more learners for long periods of time and at the same time ...

  3. Federal Workplace Laws: Are Business Work Experience Programs in Compliance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, Martha H.; Kurth, Linda A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews federal laws (Fair Labor Standard Act's child labor regulations, Occupational Safety and Health Act, Immigration Reform and Control Act) for their implications for cooperative education and school-to-work programs. (SK)

  4. Graduate Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field and the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Harriet; Knight, Carolyn; Khudododov, Khudodod

    2014-01-01

    For decades, group work scholars have described a discrepancy between student preparation for group work practice and opportunities to work with groups in the field practicum and professional practice. Educators in related disciplines such as counseling and psychology have expressed similar concerns. This article reports findings of a study of MSW…

  5. Sociocultural Behavior Influence Modelling & Assessment: Current Work and Research Frontiers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-01-01

    A common problem associated with the effort to better assess potential behaviors of various individuals within different countries is the shear difficulty in comprehending the dynamic nature of populations, particularly over time and considering feedback effects. This paper discusses a theory-based analytical capability designed to enable analysts to better assess the influence of events on individuals interacting within a country or region. These events can include changes in policy, man-made or natural disasters, migration, war, or other changes in environmental/economic conditions. In addition, this paper describes potential extensions of this type of research to enable more timely and accurate assessments.

  6. The influence of endometriosis-related symptoms on work life and work ability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Rikke

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the implications of endometriosis on women's work life. This study aimed at examining the relation between endometriosis-related symptoms and work ability in employed women with endometriosis. STUDY DESIGN: In a cohort study, 610 patients with diagnosed endometrio...... symptom onset to diagnosis was associated with low work ability. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate a severe impact of endometriosis on the work ability of employed women with endometriosis and add to the evidence that this disease represents a significant socio-economic burden....

  7. Study of influence of an experiment scale on cylinder test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar A. Trzciński

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work, influence of a scale of experiment on the results of cylindrical test used todetermine the acceleration capabilities of explosives was analyzed. Explosives used in ammunition(TNT, hexogen and explosives for civil purpose (ammonals were selected for testing. Copper tubeswith different diameters and wall thickness were used. Conclusions are drawn regarding the advisabilityof increasing or decreasing the scale of the cylinder test.[b]Keywords[/b]: explosives, acceleration ability, cylinder test

  8. Beyond the numbers: institutional influences on experiences with diversity on elite college campuses

    OpenAIRE

    Warikoo, Natasha Kumar; Deckman, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we bring together the burgeoning qualitative literature on the socializing influence of residential colleges; the predominantly survey-based literature on campus racial climate; and the literature on diversity work in organizations, to analyze how two elite universities’ approaches to diversity shape students’ experiences with and feelings about diversity. We employ 77 in-depth interviews with undergraduates at two elite universities, and find that while the universities appear ...

  9. Influence analysis on crossover design experiment in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yufen; Ke, Bo-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Crossover designs are commonly used in bioequivalence studies. However, the results can be affected by some outlying observations, which may lead to the wrong decision on bioequivalence. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of aberrant observations. Chow and Tse in 1990 discussed this issue by considering the methods based on the likelihood distance and estimates distance. Perturbation theory provides a useful tool for the sensitivity analysis on statistical models. Hence, in this paper, we develop the influence functions via the perturbation scheme proposed by Hampel as an alternative approach on the influence analysis for a crossover design experiment. Moreover, the comparisons between the proposed approach and the method proposed by Chow and Tse are investigated. Two real data examples are provided to illustrate the results of these approaches. Our proposed influence functions show excellent performance on the identification of outlier/influential observations and are suitable for use with small sample size crossover designs commonly used in bioequivalence studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Influence of psychosocial work environment on adherence to workplace exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L

    2011-02-01

    Physical exercise can reduce the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, but adherence to exercise is challenging for many employees. This study determines prognostic factors for adherence to workplace exercise. In Copenhagen, 132 office workers with neck/shoulder pain were randomized to 2 or 12 minutes of exercise five days a week. Low, medium, and high adherence was defined as performing less than 10, 10-30, or more than 30 exercise sessions during the subsequent 10 weeks. Odds ratios (OR) for adherence were modeled by logistic regression. Lower adherence to the 10-week exercise program was predicted by poorer psychosocial work environment and lower exercise self-efficacy. A longer exercise program was not associated with lower adherence. Concurrent strategies to improve psychosocial work environment and individual exercise beliefs should be considered when implementing exercise at the workplace.

  11. Physiological Influences upon the Work Performance of Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Modificzzionni della soglia del dorore cutaneo durante il ciclo menstruale . Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., 1968, 44, 235-236. Chambers, E.S., Johnson...SEX DIFFERENCES SLEEP LOSS MENSTRUAL CYCLE PERFORMANCE DECREMENTS WORK PERFORMANCE 20. A TRACT (Continue m reerse sai It neceewr and Idendiftr by...period (i.e., Menstrual vs Mid-Cycle) and whether or not the subjects were using contraceptive pills (i.e., Pill vs Normally Cycling). The performances

  12. Working memory influences processing speed and reading fluency in ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Lisa A; Ryan, Matthew; Martin, Rebecca B; Ewen, Joshua; Mostofsky, Stewart H; Denckla, Martha B; Mahone, E Mark

    2011-01-01

    Processing-speed deficits affect reading efficiency, even among individuals who recognize and decode words accurately. Children with ADHD who decode words accurately can still have inefficient reading fluency, leading to a bottleneck in other cognitive processes. This "slowing" in ADHD is associated with deficits in fundamental components of executive function underlying processing speed, including response selection. The purpose of the present study was to deconstruct processing speed in order to determine which components of executive control best explain the "processing" speed deficits related to reading fluency in ADHD. Participants (41 ADHD, 21 controls), ages 9-14 years, screened for language disorders, word reading deficits, and psychiatric disorders, were administered measures of copying speed, processing speed, reading fluency, working memory, reaction time, inhibition, and auditory attention span. Compared to controls, children with ADHD showed reduced oral and silent reading fluency and reduced processing speed-driven primarily by deficits on WISC-IV Coding. In contrast, groups did not differ on copying speed. After controlling for copying speed, sex, severity of ADHD-related symptomatology, and GAI, slowed "processing" speed (i.e., Coding) was significantly associated with verbal span and measures of working memory but not with measures of response control/inhibition, lexical retrieval speed, reaction time, or intrasubject variability. Further, "processing" speed (i.e., Coding, residualized for copying speed) and working memory were significant predictors of oral reading fluency. Abnormalities in working memory and response selection (which are frontally mediated and enter into the output side of processing speed) may play an important role in deficits in reading fluency in ADHD, potentially more than posteriorally mediated problems with orienting of attention or perceiving the stimulus.

  13. Factors Influencing Lunchtime Food Choices among Working Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.; Yi, Sarah L.; Zhang, Jian; Masse, Louise C.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in the usefulness of the workplace as a site for promotion of healthful food choices. The authors therefore analyzed data of U.S. adults (N = 1,918) who reported working outside the home and eating lunch. The majority (84.0%) of workers had a break room. About one half (54.0%) purchased lunch [greater than or equal] 2…

  14. The prevalence and experience of Australian naturopaths and Western herbalists working within community pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Michael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Naturopaths and Western herbal medicine (WHM practitioners were surveyed to identify their extent, experience and roles within the community pharmacy setting and to explore their attitudes to integration of complementary medicine (CM practitioners within the pharmacy setting. Method Practising naturopaths and WHM practitioners were invited to participate in an anonymous, self-administered, on-line survey. Participants were recruited using the mailing lists and websites of CM manufacturers and professional associations. Results 479 practitioners participated. 24% of respondents (n = 111 reported they had worked in community pharmacy, three-quarters for less than 5 years. Whilst in this role 74% conducted specialist CMs sales, 62% short customer consultations, 52% long consultations in a private room and 51% staff education. This was generally described as a positive learning experience and many appreciated the opportunity to utilise their specialist knowledge in the service of both customers and pharmacy staff. 14% (n = 15 did not enjoy the experience of working in pharmacy at all and suggested pharmacist attitude largely influenced whether the experience was positive or not. Few practitioners were satisfied with the remuneration received. 44% of the total sample provided comment on the issue of integration into pharmacy, with the main concern being the perceived incommensurate paradigms of practice between pharmacy and naturopathy. Of the total sample, 38% reported that they would consider working as a practitioner in retail pharmacy in future. Conclusions The level of integration of CM into pharmacy is extending beyond the mere stocking of supplements. Naturopaths and Western Herbalists are becoming utilised in pharmacies

  15. Methods for Influencing Social Policy: The Role of Social Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2016-12-01

    Research methods in community psychology have grown more diverse since the Swampscott conference, but rigorous social experiments maintain a place among the multiplicity of methods that can promote community psychology values. They are particularly influential in policy circles. Two examples of social experiments to end homelessness for different populations illustrate their role. Both studies show that offering extremely poor and disenfranchised people autonomy and the resources they seek works better than "helping" them to overcome deficits in ways designed by well-meaning service providers. Experiments are neither the first nor the last method community psychologists should employ, but are a critical part of the field's armamentarium for systems change. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  16. [Multidisciplinary consultation "Suffering at work": an experience in western Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besse, Christine; Berset, Denise Grolimund; Studer, Regina; Quarroz, Stéphane; Praz-Christinaz, Sophie-Maria; Rivier, Gaétan; Barlet-Ghaleb, Catherine; Danuser, Brigitta; Bonsack, Charles

    2016-02-03

    Mental health problems at work constitute a challenge in the clinical feld, as well in the professional, the economic and the public health perspective. The total costs they generate in Switzerland are equivalent to 3.2% of the Swiss gross domestic product and they very often lead to dismissal. The vast majority of people are treated by their primary care physician. The Institute for Work and Health features a specialized consultation on the topic of suffering at work, offering the primary care physicians a pluridisciplinary advice or support, in a collaborative care prospect. Its action, adapted to each situation's needs, goes from an advice to a referral to specialists that can strengthen the network on a long-term basis (mental health follow-up, supported employment program, legal or social advice).

  17. The influence of developmental, education, and mentorship experiences on career paths in cultural psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehnlein, James K

    2011-04-01

    Career paths in cultural psychiatry and other areas of medicine often are influenced by a combination of developmental, academic and training experiences. One of the satisfactions for the cultural psychiatrist is the opportunity to integrate lifelong interests that are not central to medical training, such as anthropology, philosophy, history or geography into one's daily work and career path, and this is not necessarily just applicable to clinical work or research. A background in social sciences can be very helpful in navigating the political and interpersonal challenges of working in an academic medical center or designing effective education programs across the career spectrum in medicine. This article traces the development of my career in academic cultural psychiatry and illustrates the way my clinical and academic interests were influenced both by early developmental and educational experiences and by positive career experiences as a clinician, teacher and researcher in the context of effective mentorship and professional peer relationships. The future of cultural psychiatry is exciting and its continued growth will be dependent on effective nurturance of young physicians who have a broad vision of the important place of cultural psychiatry and how it influences medicine, mental health, and society at large.

  18. Work-Family Conflict, Task Interruptions, and Influence at Work Predict Musculoskeletal Pain in Operating Room Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützi, Marina; Koch, Patricia; Baur, Heiner; Elfering, Achim

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints in Swiss operating room (OR) nurses, and to investigate how work-family conflict, work interruptions, and influence at work are related to lumbar and cervical back pain. Participants in this correlational questionnaire study included 116 OR nurses from eight different hospitals in Switzerland. We found that 66% of the OR staff suffered from musculoskeletal problems. The most prevalent musculoskeletal complaints were lumbar (52.7%) and cervical pain (38.4%). Furthermore, 20.5% reported pain in the mid spine region, 20.5% in the knees and legs, and 9.8% in the hands and feet. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that work-family conflict (p < 0.05) and interruptions (p < 0.05) significantly predicted lumbar and cervical pain in OR nurses, while influence at work (p < 0.05) only predicted lumbar pain. These results suggest that reducing the work-family conflict and interruptions at work, as well as offering opportunities to influence one's workplace, help to promote OR nurses' health.

  19. Exploring the Work Experiences of School Counselors of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollarhide, Colette T.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Baker, Caroline A.; Kassoy, Felice R.; Mayes, Renae D.; Baughman, Amber V.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research suggesting the importance of diverse professionals in education (Mattison & Aber, 2007), no studies have explored the professional experiences of school counselors of Color. In this exploratory grounded-theory qualitative study, researchers interviewed 19 school counselors of Color. Responses revealed both positive and…

  20. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  1. Therapists' Experience of Working with Suicidal Clients | Rossouw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When therapists discover that phenomena are not necessarily what they appear to be, they feel unsettled and confused about their responsibilities and what it means to live and die as a human being. The study reveals that therapists experience a profound legacy of guilt, doubt and fear when a client commits suicide.

  2. Can an ethical work climate influence payment discipline?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, T.; Mesko, M.

    2016-07-01

    Purpose: All European companies are faced with the lack of payment discipline, which often affects even their survival. One of the key reasons for the lack of payment discipline is poor business ethics, which is primarily introduced with the subject of ethical climate in the literature. For this reason, we wanted to determine whether a company’s ethical climate influences its payment discipline. Design/methodology/approach: In the research, we used Arnaud’s measurement instrument (2010) that helped us to identify six dimensions of ethical climate. The data about a company’s ethical climate were later compared with the data about its payment discipline, calculated using the Dun & Bradstreet rating agency methodology. We included in the sample 273 Slovenian companies, which represented 9.1% of all companies invited to take part in the survey (2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees). Findings: We established that (among the six dimensions of the ethical climate) the dimension “moral sensitivity – the lack of norms of empathetic concern” had statistically significant influence on the average delay of payment, and the more significant for the company the lack of norms of empathetic concern was, the longer the delay of the payment to suppliers would be. Our conclusion is that the appropriate forms of the incorporation of training and education on ethical subjects into business studies may increase the payment discipline of companies. Originality/value: The present study represents an important contribution to understanding the causes of payment defaults. The study also includes non-financial antecedents of payment discipline, which represents a new, important contribution of the research. (Author)

  3. Can an ethical work climate influence payment discipline?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Salamon

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: All European companies are faced with the lack of payment discipline, which often affects even their survival. One of the key reasons for the lack of payment discipline is poor business ethics, which is primarily introduced with the subject of ethical climate in the literature. For this reason, we wanted to determine whether a company's ethical climate influences its payment discipline.Design/methodology/approach: In the research, we used Arnaud's measurement instrument (2010 that helped us to identify six dimensions of ethical climate. The data about a company’s ethical climate were later compared with the data about its payment discipline, calculated using the Dun & Bradstreet rating agency methodology. We included in the sample 273 Slovenian companies, which represented 9.1% of all companies invited to take part in the survey (2978 Slovenian enterprises with 10 or more employees.Findings: We established that (among the six dimensions of the ethical climate the dimension “moral sensitivity – the lack of norms of empathetic concern” had statistically significant influence on the average delay of payment, and the more significant for the company the lack of norms of empathetic concern was, the longer the delay of the payment to suppliers would be. Our conclusion is that the appropriate forms of the incorporation of training and education on ethical subjects into business studies may increase the payment discipline of companies.Originality/value: The present study represents an important contribution to understanding the causes of payment defaults. The study also includes non-financial antecedents of payment discipline, which represents a new, important contribution of the research.

  4. The influences on and experiences of becoming nurse entrepreneurs: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anne; Averis, Andrea; Walsh, Ken

    2003-08-01

    There is little known about private practice nursing as an area of advanced practice. As more nurses take the option to develop private practice, the experiences of and influences on nurses currently in private practice might be a useful guide to the pitfalls and difficulties which might be encountered. In addition, an understanding of the experiences of and influences might assist nursing organizations and health services to provide support to nurses who play an integral part in health care delivery in the community. A research study was undertaken utilizing a two-round Delphi Technique to elicit and assess consensus on the reasons for nurses going into business and the experiences they encountered in becoming and being a nurse entrepreneur. The study instrument in round one comprised a questionnaire with statement headings inviting opinions on the influences and experiences of nurses in business. In the second round, levels of agreement were elicited from responders on collated opinions from round one, including statements formed from comments written in round one. The initial questionnaire also included closed questions to obtain a profile of nurses in private practice. Responders were 59 nurses in private practice in round one and 54 nurses in round two. The themes raised could be grouped under headings of influences, advantages/disadvantages, education/experience, skills/knowledge, characteristics and barriers. The level of agreement on the themes was reasonably high. Dissent occurred on issues of increased income, professional image and support structures. This Delphi study has identified key areas of consensus on the experiences of nurses in private practice who have extended their career into the business arena. It has also identified areas in which further work needs to be carried out to understand this work of nurse entrepreneurs.

  5. Cultural perspectives to sport psychology: Experiences of working ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (traditional medicine or a talisman) to enhance performance. Therefore, it is important for sport psychologists to have deep knowledge of cultural customs, language, and organizational cultures (power dynamics in the organization) when working with athletes in Botswana. Keywords: Botswana, culture, role expectations, ...

  6. British doctors' experiences of working in rural South Africa: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-06

    Nov 6, 2014 ... three things: (1) working at rural district hospitals that traditionally service large catchment populations, offering a variety of generalist services with limited health staff;. (2) frequent rotation between wards; and (3) the personal learning activities undertaken by the doctors. Each doctor recounted experiencing ...

  7. Parents' experiences of flexible work arrangements in changing European workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Lewis (Suzan); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractVarious leaves and other forms of flexible working arrangements have been implemented in workplaces to support employees with family commitments. Some are a response to public policy, others developed voluntarily. However, research examining the effectiveness of these policies in a

  8. Participation in Students' Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIWES has been part of the training requirement of Pharmacy students at the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Jos, for a long time now. At inception, it was done during vacations until about ten years ago when it was incorporated into the semester period. This work was done to find out the feelings and ...

  9. Early Work Experience: A Partial Antidote for Adolescent Egocentrism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Laurence D.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    It is suggested that working may contribute to the development of more advanced social understanding in adolescents by requiring them to shift back and forth between diverse roles, and interact frequently with strangers. Illustrative material from interviews with adolescents and parents is included. (Author/GK)

  10. Focusing on Doctoral Students' Experiences of Engagement in Thesis Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vekkaila, Jenna; Pyhältö, Kirsi; Lonka, Kirsti

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about what inspires students to be involved in their doctoral process and stay persistent when facing challenges. This study explored the nature of students' engagement in the doctoral work. Altogether, 21 behavioural sciences doctoral students from one top-level research community were interviewed. The interview data were…

  11. Creating Optimal Work Environments: Exploring Teacher Flow Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basom, Margaret R.; Frase, Larry

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a new perspective on the intricacies of the work life in schools that motivate and satisfy teachers. The authors review the literature related to the improvement of school environments and the concept of "flow" as defined by Mihalyi Csikszentmihalyi (1990). He describes flow as a "state in which people are…

  12. Knowledge And Experience Of Work-Related Hazards And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was a descriptive cross-sectional by design involving solid wastes Scavengers in Ilorin metropolis, North-central Nigeria. ... of preventing work hazards with 58.3% and 56.8% respectively while poor knowledge was recorded for nose guard, face mask and overall/apron with 43.2%, 39.3% and 9.3% respectively.

  13. The Vulnerable Worker? A Labor Law Challenge for WIL and Work Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The Fair Work Act (2009) in Australia deregulates "work" in work-integrated learning (WIL) by distinguishing "vocational placement" from "employee". Following concerns about the legal position of WIL and work experience, the Fair Work Ombudsman (FWO) published a fact sheet and commenced a joint research project into…

  14. Influence of computer work under time pressure on cardiac activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping; Hu, Sijung; Yu, Hongliu

    2015-03-01

    Computer users are often under stress when required to complete computer work within a required time. Work stress has repeatedly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. The present study examined the effects of time pressure workload during computer tasks on cardiac activity in 20 healthy subjects. Heart rate, time domain and frequency domain indices of heart rate variability (HRV) and Poincaré plot parameters were compared among five computer tasks and two rest periods. Faster heart rate and decreased standard deviation of R-R interval were noted in response to computer tasks under time pressure. The Poincaré plot parameters showed significant differences between different levels of time pressure workload during computer tasks, and between computer tasks and the rest periods. In contrast, no significant differences were identified for the frequency domain indices of HRV. The results suggest that the quantitative Poincaré plot analysis used in this study was able to reveal the intrinsic nonlinear nature of the autonomically regulated cardiac rhythm. Specifically, heightened vagal tone occurred during the relaxation computer tasks without time pressure. In contrast, the stressful computer tasks with added time pressure stimulated cardiac sympathetic activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Working at Congress : a Sandian's experience.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, Matthew

    2009-03-01

    During the 110th Congress (calendar years 2007 and 2008), Matthew Allen, a Sandian nuclear scientist, served as a Congressional Fellow on the Committee on Homeland Security in the House of Representatives. This report is an informative account of the role staffers play in assisting the members of Congress in their oversight and legislative duties. It is also a personal account of Matthew Allen's experience as a committee staffer in the House of Representatives.

  16. Social Work Students' Experiences with Group Work in the Field Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    The study reported on in this article assessed MSW and BSW students' opportunities to practice group work in their field practicum. More than one third of participants had no such opportunity during their yearlong internship, despite their program's requirement that group work opportunities be available. Among the students who did have experience…

  17. Experiences of Social Work Educators Working with Students with Psychiatric Disabilities or Emotional Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Social work educators have an ethical responsibility to graduate students who are academically, behaviorally, and professionally prepared to enter the social work profession. Although a student's suitability to the profession is not necessarily hindered because of the effects of a psychiatric disability or an emotional problem, sometimes it is.…

  18. Negative childhood experiences and adult love relationships: the role of internal working models of attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Gerard; Maughan, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    This study investigated links between internal working models of attachment and the quality of adult love relationships in a high risk sample of women (n = 34), all of whom reported negative parenting in childhood. Half of the sample was identified as having a history of satisfying adult love relationships, while the remainder had experienced ongoing adult relationship problems. Measures of internal working models of attachment were made using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). A strong association was found between attachment classifications and the quality of adult love relationships. In addition, women with satisfying love relationships demonstrated significantly higher coherence of mind ratings than those with poor relationship histories. Insecure working models of attachment were associated with problems in adult love relationships. Although secure/autonomous attachment status was linked to optimal adult relationship outcomes, some women with a history of satisfying love relationships had insecure working models of attachment. These results suggest that the ways that adults process early experiences may influence later psychosocial functioning.

  19. [Experience and perspectives of automatization of work in a polyclinic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, G P; Kiriliuk, V G; Ladnyĭ, A Ia; Lushchitsov, A N; Rafaliuk, I Ia; Shuster, L A

    1989-01-01

    On-stage development of subsystems, automating the work of a polyclinic, previously was oriented to the departments of Automated Systems of Management at industrial enterprises and computers of ES type, at present a number of subsystems has been developed and are being developed which are oriented to personal computers and mini-computers of SM type which are being installed directly at the polyclinics. All subsystems are consolidated on the basis of systems approach.

  20. Neurosurgical work during the Napoleonic wars: Baron Larrey's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Franck-Emmanuel; Reddy, Marion

    2013-12-01

    Considered as the most famous French military surgeon, Dominique-Jean Larrey (1766-1842), who joined all the campaigns of Napoleon, wrote his memoirs and several medical articles. This paper discusses how in the Napoleonic times, Larrey dealt with neurosurgical diseases or injuries. We reviewed four main publications of Larrey published between 1812 and 1838 and analyzed the type of neurosurgical cases presented and their treatment. These works include his practice of what we call now "neurosurgery" since most injuries described concern the skull or spine. He seemed to treat patients with humanity, integrity and perseverance. Larrey dealt with many aspects of neurosurgery, such as cranial or spinal trauma surgery, and also infectious diseases. He saw many head injuries inflicted not only by muskets or artillery, but also with spears and sabers. Unlike some others, Larrey advocated the use of trepanation in many situations as practiced, for instance, in the treatment of depressed fractures or in presence of subdural collections. On the other hand, this surgeon who saw thousands of amputees during his career did not mention the phantom limb phenomenon in his memoirs. Similarly, the issue of cerebral localizations is only mentioned in his last work, published in 1838. In his work, Larrey (and all his contemporaries) dealt essentially with "cranial" surgery, as in skull fractures where the brain could potentially have been injured by bone fragments. The time for brain surgery had not come yet. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Influence of Nurse Manager Leadership Style on Staff Nurse Work Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Nursing literature supports the importance of an engaged nursing workforce as a means to positively influence performance. Nurse manager leadership style plays a critical role in engaging staff nurses. These relationships have been minimally studied in nurse managers and staff nurses. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of nurse manager leadership style factors on staff nurse work engagement. Using a descriptive correlational research design, 441 staff nurses working in 3 acute care hospitals were surveyed. Survey instruments included the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the Multifactorial Leadership Questionnaire 5X short form. Transactional and transformational leadership styles in nurse managers positively influenced staff nurse work engagement. Passive-avoidant leadership style in nurse managers negatively influenced staff nurse work engagement. Nurse managers who provide support and communication through transformational and transactional leadership styles can have a positive impact on staff nurse work engagement and ultimately improve organizational outcomes.

  2. Microfinance and loan officers’ work experiences: perspectives from Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Siwale, Juliana

    2016-01-01

    The article studies the challenges faced by microfinance institutions in Zambia, whose remit it is to provide financial services to the poor. It focuses on loan officers – the agents of delivery on the ground. With reference to loan officers’ experiences and words, the paper examines how gender and class shape and structure their day to day encounters. The study finds that different social spaces -‘the office’ and ‘the field’ – and wider context explains the gendered, culturally complex and m...

  3. Experiments on the Making(T32 work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    – a road, 32 – house number) – inferred and derived – a smallholding situated in the outskirts of the village, before, during and after demolition (2014). The landscape in a constant change represents deprivation of the built environment and of the cultural heritage, becoming the vessel (conductor......, the manipulated drawings, and models. These are assembled in one installation – a prototype. A prototype that explores through its making how it can contain the findings, the manipulated drawings, and models. The experiment seeks to challenge the perception of a place, a (re)construction that relates to its...

  4. Experiments on the Making(T32 work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    – house number) – inferred and derived – a smallholding situated in the outskirts of the village, before, during and after demolition (2014). The landscape in a constant change represents deprivation of the built environment and of the cultural heritage, becoming the vessel (conductor, facilitator......, and models. These are assembled in one installation – a prototype. A prototype that explores through its making how it can contain the findings, the manipulated drawings, and models. The experiment seeks to challenge the perception of a place, a (re)construction that relates to its origins, its providence...

  5. Race and welfare reform: the Wisconsin Works W-2 experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the impact of welfare reform on African- American and Caucasian welfare recipients in Milwaukee, Wisconsin to determine if there were differences in their experience with employers and private welfare agencies. The study found that despite having higher education levels and higher job training completion rates, African-American welfare recipients did not fare any better than Caucasians in terms of employment. African-American welfare recipients were more likely to be required to take pre-employment tests and Alcohol and Other Drug Abuses (AODA) than were Caucasians.

  6. The Influence of Randomly Allocated Group Membership when Developing Student Task Work and Team Work Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Giles Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores whether randomly assigning group membership enhances the student learning experience. The paper starts with a critical analysis of the approaches to student learning within higher education and how these approaches conflict with findings from applied psychology on group behaviour. The study adopts a serendipitous qualitative…

  7. Work experience at the Nota Bene Translation Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Kvashevich, Dzianis

    2017-01-01

    Dissertação de mestrado em Tradução e Comunicação Multilingue Obtaining the Master’s Degree in Translation and Multilingual Communication of the University of Minho (Braga, Portugal) requires doing a three-month internship as a part of the study programme. Particularly for this purpose I have worked as a translator-editor at the Nota Bene Translation Agency located in Minsk, Republic of Belarus. The Nota Bene Translation Agency (also known as Govorun prior to 2012) is a provider of turn...

  8. The influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work: a longitudinal study among older employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijten, Fenna R M; van den Heuvel, Swenne G; Ybema, Jan Fekke; van der Beek, Allard J; Robroek, Suzan J W; Burdorf, Alex

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of chronic health problems on work ability and productivity at work among older employees using different methodological approaches in the analysis of longitudinal studies. Data from employees, aged 45-64, of the longitudinal Study on Transitions in Employment, Ability and Motivation was used (N=8411). Using three annual online questionnaires, we assessed the presence of seven chronic health problems, work ability (scale 0-10), and productivity at work (scale 0-10). Three linear regression generalized estimating equations were used. The time-lag model analyzed the relation of health problems with work ability and productivity at work after one year; the autoregressive model adjusted for work ability and productivity in the preceding year; and the third model assessed the relation of incidence and recovery with changes in work ability and productivity at work within the same year. Workers with health problems had lower work ability at one-year follow-up than workers without these health problems, varying from a 2.0% reduction with diabetes mellitus to a 9.5% reduction with psychological health problems relative to the overall mean (time-lag). Work ability of persons with health problems decreased slightly more during one-year follow-up than that of persons without these health problems, ranging from 1.4% with circulatory to 5.9% with psychological health problems (autoregressive). Incidence related to larger decreases in work ability, from 0.6% with diabetes mellitus to 19.0% with psychological health problems, than recovery related to changes in work ability, from a 1.8% decrease with circulatory to an 8.5% increase with psychological health problems (incidence-recovery). Only workers with musculoskeletal and psychological health problems had lower productivity at work at one-year follow-up than workers without those health problems (1.2% and 5.6%, respectively, time-lag). All methodological approaches indicated that chronic

  9. Influences on parents' fever management: beliefs, experiences and information sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Edwards, Helen; Fraser, Jenny

    2007-12-01

    To identify parents' knowledge, beliefs, management and sources of information about fever management. Despite numerous studies exploring parents' management of childhood fever; negative beliefs about fever and overuse of antipyretics and health services for mild fevers and self-limiting viral illnesses continue to be reported. Qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and discussions. Fifteen metropolitan parents whose children were aged six months to five years, volunteered to participate in individual interviews or group discussions. Recruitment was through Playgroup Queensland's online newsletter and letters from two childcare centres to all parents. Verbatim and audio data were collected by an experienced moderator using a semi-structured interview guide. Two transcripts were independently analysed by two researchers; categories, sub-headings and codes were independently developed, crosschecked and found comparable. Remaining transcripts were analysed using developed categories and codes. Fever, determined through behavioural changes, was perceived as 'good', a warning that something was wrong. High fever, reported as 38.0-39.1 degrees C, was considered harmful; it must be prevented or reduced irrespective of concerns about antipyretics. Positive febrile experiences reduced concern about fever. Negative experiences such as febrile convulsions, media reports of harm, not receiving a definitive diagnosis, inaccessibility to regular doctors and receiving conflicting information about fever management increased the concerns. Parents seek information about fever from multiple sources such as doctors, books and other parents. Parents' experiences with and information sources about fever and fever management influenced their knowledge, beliefs and practices. Positive experiences reduce concerns, health service usage and sometimes antipyretic usage. Negative experiences increase concerns, monitoring and antipyretic and health service usage. Health

  10. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain but also maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents' job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child…

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF MARINE PORT SERVICE WORK DISTRIBUTION AT THE TERMINAL ON FREIGHT STATION WORK PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Muzykina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the urgency of rational distribution at the terminal of sorting work with the local cars on selecting them by the destinations of freight fronts of marine trade port is conditioned. The results of analysis of the basic operation indices of the terminal freight station and marshalling yard are presented.

  12. Influence of different modalities of cooperative work forms on adopting declarative and procedural knowledge in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miščević-Kadijević Gordana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of papers on cooperative learning so far have discussed the variables of affective domain, and research within the cognitive domain, especially when it comes to different forms of knowledge, has not been conducted very much. Within the cognitive-developmental approach, Piaget's genetic-epistemological theory and Vygotsky's socio-cultural theory have the biggest importance for understanding cooperative learning and the topic we deal with. The influence of the three models of cooperative work in the instruction of Basic Science and Social Studies on the adoption of declarative and procedural knowledge of students is experimentally tested in the paper. The basis for formation of the applied models is grouping students within small homogenous, i.e. heterogeneous groups. The sample of respondents consisted of 259 students from 11 classes of the fourth grade of primary school. The experiment with parallel groups was applied. The results indicated that in students from experimental group the adoption of declarative and procedural knowledge in final measurement was better than in students from the control group, as well as that in final measurement there were no statistically significant differences with respect to adoption of the studied knowledge among the three subgroups in which different cooperative work models were applied. The obtained findings indicated that cooperative instruction yields good results when its theoretical assumptions are carefully operationalised, along with exhibiting patience and gradualism in working with students previously prepared for cooperation with peers.

  13. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  14. Work, gender, and social networks: work experiences of fashion fair managers on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea González Medina

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article questions the classical paradigms of work society, which emphasized the industrial-worker-men. In contrast, it affirms the existence of a reorganization of the work world, reflected in many ways, such as non-industrial and labor regulation activities, as well as the introduction of information and communication technologies. The research focused on two fundamental aspects of said reorganization; the proliferation of activities in the informal sector and the use of information and communication technologies at work. In order to understand these lines of analysis, we selected the case of e-commerce carried out on the Facebook platform. Although this platform has been co-opted by big companies to advertise products, it is also possible to observe the emergence of an informal work market made up of women who use that technological tool to carry out business on Facebook through ‘fashion fairs’. The article argues that the work carried out in such fairs is permeated by gender stereotypes. Therefore, its objective is to understand the configuration of subjectivities on the basis of gender stereotypes in the current work environment. In order to achieve this, it proposed a qualitative methodology to analyze labor aspects, use of time, and interaction with technology. The understanding of the work included the following central themes: production of services, de-territorialization of work, and production of symbols, and each one of these was related to a gender stereotype: women in the informal sector; the articulation between domestic-extra- omestic/productive-reproductive work; and the feminization of the products market, respectively. The article seeks to make evident the processes involved in the production of services and the conditions of informality in which women are involved. The article is structured as follows: the first section conceptualizes the activity according to the categories of nontraditional work

  15. About the Communicative Competence Formation in School Education: Work Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. N. Bulygina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper looks at the problems of fostering the teenagers’ communicative competence in the light of the Federal State Educational Standards for Secondary Schools. The components of the above competence are emphasized along with the pedagogic conditions facilitating communication skills and abilities. The author summarizes the long-term pedagogic experience and recommends the procedure of step by step formation of communicative competence by way of interpreting the school subject knowledge. The complex of communicative tasks focused on mastering the communicative actions necessary for the teenagers’ successful socialization is demonstrated, as well as the author’s system of criterion level assessment of communicative competence acquisition, and recommendations for organizing the educational process and facilitating the competence development. 

  16. Primary Health Care That Works: The Costa Rican Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesec, Madeline; Ratcliffe, Hannah L; Karlage, Ami; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Gawande, Atul; Bitton, Asaf

    2017-03-01

    Long considered a paragon among low- and middle-income countries in its provision of primary health care, Costa Rica reformed its primary health care system in 1994 using a model that, despite its success, has been generally understudied: basic integrated health care teams. This case study provides a detailed description of Costa Rica's innovative implementation of four critical service delivery reforms and explains how those reforms supported the provision of the four essential functions of primary health care: first-contact access, coordination, continuity, and comprehensiveness. As countries around the world pursue high-quality universal health coverage to attain the Sustainable Development Goals, Costa Rica's experiences provide valuable lessons about both the types of primary health care reforms needed and potential mechanisms through which these reforms can be successfully implemented. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  17. Work, work environments and other factors influencing nurse faculty intention to remain employed: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourangeau, Ann; Saari, Margaret; Patterson, Erin; Ferron, Era Mae; Thomson, Heather; Widger, Kimberley; MacMillan, Kathleen

    2014-06-01

    Given the role nurse faculty have in educating nurses, little is known about what influences their intention to remain employed (ITR) in academic settings. Findings from a nurse faculty survey administered to test a conceptual model of factors hypothesized as influencing nurse faculty ITR are reported. A cross-sectional survey design was employed. We included colleges and universities in Ontario, Canada. The population of Ontario nurse faculty who reported being employed as nurse faculty with the College of Nurses of Ontario (Canada) was included. Of the 1328 nurse faculty who were surveyed, 650 participated. Participants completed a questionnaire with measures of work, work environment, job satisfaction, burnout and ITR. Regression analyses were conducted to test the model. Ten of 26 independent variables explained 25.4% of variance in nurse faculty ITR for five years. These variables included: proximity to retirement, quality of relationships with colleagues, being employed full time, having dependents, satisfaction with work-life balance, quality of education, satisfaction with job status, access to financial support for education from organization, access to required human resources and being unionized. Although not all influencing factors are modifiable, academic leadership should develop strategies that encourage nurse faculty ITR. Strategies that support collegial relationships among faculty, increase the number of full time positions, promote work-life balance, engage faculty in assessing and strengthening education quality, support faculty choice between full-time and part-time work, and ensure adequate human resources required to teach effectively will lead to heightened nurse faculty ITR. © 2013.

  18. Influence of proton bunch and plasma parameters on the AWAKE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Mariana; Vieira, Jorge; Muggli, Patric

    2017-10-01

    The Proton Driven Plasma Wakefield Acceleration Experiment (AWAKE) at CERN will test the concept underlying plasma wakefield acceleration using long proton beams that undergo the self-modulation instability. The effectiveness of the experiment hinges on the successful and predictable development of this instability, which fragments the initial proton bunch into smaller beamlets with lengths of the order of the plasma wavelength. Since the initial parameters of the experiment inevitably vary from event to event, this work will aim to understand the correlation between these variations and the resulting wakefield. Using both theoretical models and numerical particle-in-cell simulations, the influence of variations in initial bunch charge, bunch dimensions, bunch energy and plasma density profile on the excited accelerating gradients and on the final energies reached by the witness particles will be investigated. In addition, further options in the experiment setup will be explored with the aim of optimizing the results.

  19. The impact of work experience of small and medium-sized enterprises owners or managers on their competitive intelligence awareness and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Pellissier

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The objective of this research was to establish the influence of owners’ and managers' working experience of CI practice and awareness in the small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs environment. Method: This research was quantitative in nature and a questionnaire was used to collect data from SMEs owners and managers in The City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality. Results: This research indicates that SMEs in the study are aware of CI through education and training. Moreover, the study reveals that the working experience of owners and managers has a great influence on awareness and practice of CI and one should implement training programmes in this domain to assist with building competitive advantage. Conclusion: Small and medium-sized enterprises owners or managers’ years of working experience has a greater influence on awareness and practice of CI. Put differently, years of working experience is a great predictor of CI awareness and practice.

  20. Intensive care nurses' practice related to experience and shift worked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Rafael Celestino; Ferreira, Márcia de Assunção; Apostolidis, Thémis

    2016-06-01

    To analyse the social representations of nurses about intensive care practices comparing the variables 1) time since graduation and 2) shift worked. Qualitative field research using social representation theory. Individual interviews were conducted and lexical analysis was applied. Intensive Care Unit of a federal hospital with 21 clinical nurses. Day shift nurses are more pragmatic and operationally oriented because they deal directly with the general functioning of the unit. Less experienced nurses face difficulties dealing with intensive care contexts, but have a critical view of their practices, while more experienced nurses apply practical knowledge in their decision-making and actions. The relationship of proximity or distance from patients, mediated by technology, is related to the domains of knowledge that are required to manage technology and to the role technology plays in intensive care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieft, Renate Amm; de Brouwer, Brigitte B J M; Francke, Anneke L; Delnoij, Diana M J

    2014-06-13

    Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and they experience a conflict between these

  2. How nurses and their work environment affect patient experiences of the quality of care: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Healthcare organisations monitor patient experiences in order to evaluate and improve the quality of care. Because nurses spend a lot of time with patients, they have a major impact on patient experiences. To improve patient experiences of the quality of care, nurses need to know what factors within the nursing work environment are of influence. The main focus of this research was to comprehend the views of Dutch nurses on how their work and their work environment contribute to positive patient experiences. Methods A descriptive qualitative research design was used to collect data. Four focus groups were conducted, one each with 6 or 7 registered nurses in mental health care, hospital care, home care and nursing home care. A total of 26 nurses were recruited through purposeful sampling. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Results The nurses mentioned essential elements that they believe would improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care: clinically competent nurses, collaborative working relationships, autonomous nursing practice, adequate staffing, control over nursing practice, managerial support and patient-centred culture. They also mentioned several inhibiting factors, such as cost-effectiveness policy and transparency goals for external accountability. Nurses feel pressured to increase productivity and report a high administrative workload. They stated that these factors will not improve patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. Conclusions According to participants, a diverse range of elements affect patient experiences of the quality of nursing care. They believe that incorporating these elements into daily nursing practice would result in more positive patient experiences. However, nurses work in a healthcare context in which they have to reconcile cost-efficiency and accountability with their desire to provide nursing care that is based on patient needs and preferences, and

  3. The Moderating Effect of Network Centrality on the Relationship Between Work Experience Variables and Organizational Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    network can be personal or social ( Ibarra & Andrews, 1993). While formal networks show the official rules and workings of an organization...THE MODERATING EFFECT OF NETWORK CENTRALITY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORK EXPERIENCE VARIABLES...

  4. Return to work for severely injured survivors of the Christchurch earthquake: influences in the first 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunnerley, Joanne; Dunn, Jennifer; McPherson, Kathryn; Hooper, Gary; Woodfield, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This study looked at the influences on the return to work (RTW) in the first 2 years for people severely injured in the 22 February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach using semi-structured interviews to collect data from 14 people injured in the earthquake. Analysis elicited three themes that appeared to influence the process of RTW following the Christchurch earthquake. Living the earthquake experience, the individual's experiences of the earthquake and how their injury framed their expectations; rebuilding normality, the desire of the participants to return to life as it was; while dealing with the secondary effects of the earthquake includes the earthquake specific effects which were both barriers and facilitators to returning to work. The consequences of the earthquake impacted on experience, process and outcome of RTW for those injured in the Christchurch Earthquake. Work and RTW appeared key tools to enhance recovery after serious injury following the earthquake. The altered physical, social and economic environment must be considered when working on the return to work (RTW) of individuals with earthquake injuries. Providing tangible emotional and social support so injured earthquake survivors feel safe in their workplace may facilitate RTW. Engaging early with employers may assist the RTW of injured earthquake survivors.

  5. The Influence of Nature Stimulus in Enhancing the Birth Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburas, Rehab; Pati, Debajyoti; Casanova, Robert; Adams, Nicole Gilinsky

    2017-01-01

    The physical environment is one of the factors that affect women's experience of labor. The basics of the childbirth process have not changed since the beginning of human existence; however, the environment in which women today give birth has changed significantly. Incorporating design elements and strategies that calm and reduce negative emotions may create positive experiences for women in labor. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of one such strategy, namely, the presentation of images of nature, on the labor and delivery experience. The study findings showed that the experimental condition has a higher score on the Quality of Care From the Patient's Perspective (QPP) subscale. In addition, there was an increase in the QPP scores associated with the increase in Nature TV watching time, QPP mean of watching time (less than 1 hr) group, m = 4.5 and QPP mean of watching time (more than 3 hs), m = 4.8. The mean score for the heart rate was lower in the experimental condition, m = 84.60, than in the control one, m = 90.49. For Apgar, the mean score was higher for Group A, m = 8.65, and Group B, m = 8.92. These findings support the study hypothesis which states that the nature images would influence the labor experience positively. In addition, the findings emphasize the importance of incorporating nonpharmacological techniques in the labor and delivery room (LDR) units to sooth the pain. Adding nature imagery to the LDR environment can be one of these techniques.

  6. Leader-Member Exchange across two hierarchical levels of leadership: concurrent influences on work characteristics and employee psychological health

    OpenAIRE

    Karanika-Murray, Maria; Bartholomew, Kimberley J.; Williams, Glenn A.; Cox, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory suggests that the quality of the leader–employee relationship is linked to employee psychological health. Leaders who reside at different hierarchical levels have unique roles and spheres of influence and potentially affect employees' work experiences in different ways. Nevertheless, research on the impact of leadership on employee psychological health has largely viewed leaders as a homogeneous group. Expanding on LMX theory, we argue that (1) LMX sourced ...

  7. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Shi, Leiyu; Lu, Liming; Ling, Li

    2014-04-13

    Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China's economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants' social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers' work ability. Improving of migrant workers' physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability.

  8. Work ability of Chinese migrant workers: the influence of migration characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Migrant workers have become a vital labor supply to China’s economy. Their migration process and work conditions may influence their health and work ability. The work ability of migrant workers in China and the influence of the migration process on work ability have not been explored extensively in previous studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the association of migration characteristics and work-related factors with work ability among migrant workers in the Pearl River Delta. Methods In this cross-sectional survey, the study population consisted of 907 migrant workers from ten factories in the Pearl River Delta who were exposed to organic solvents during work. The primary dependent variable of the study was work ability, measured by the Work Ability Index (WAI). The independent variables were individual characteristics, migration characteristics, and work-related factors. Logistic regression models were used to determine the influence of different factors on work ability and three dimensions of WAI. Results The result shows that among migration characteristics, social support was significantly associated with all three dimensions of the work ability index. Permanent migration intention and longer length of migration were negatively associated with the mental resource dimension of WAI. WAI was also influenced by individual and work-related factors. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that expanding migrants’ social networks and social support systems in their work place or living community, (i.e. expanding the functions of labor unions) would be an effective way to improve migrant workers’ work ability. Improving of migrant workers’ physical and psychosocial related work environments would also increase their work ability. PMID:24725332

  9. Mind wandering and reading comprehension: examining the roles of working memory capacity, interest, motivation, and topic experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D

    2013-05-01

    Individual differences in mind wandering and reading comprehension were examined in the current study. In particular, individual differences in mind wandering, working memory capacity, interest in the current topic, motivation to do well on the task, and topic experience and their relations with reading comprehension were examined in the current study. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling it was found that variation in mind wandering while reading was influenced by working memory capacity, topic interest, and motivation. Furthermore, these same factors, along with topic experience, influenced individual differences in reading comprehension. Importantly, several factors had direct effects on reading comprehension (and mind wandering), while the relation between reading comprehension (and mind wandering) and other factors occurred via indirect effects. These results suggest that both domain-general and domain-specific factors contribute to mind wandering while reading and to reading comprehension.

  10. The influence of working memory on visual search for emotional facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriya, Jun; Koster, Ernst H W; De Raedt, Rudi

    2014-10-01

    In visual search tasks, an angry face surrounded by happy faces is more rapidly detected compared with a happy face surrounded by angry faces. This is called the anger superiority effect. The anger superiority effect has been mainly related to automatic attentional effects, but top-down mechanisms may also influence this effect. In a series of studies, we investigated the influence of holding emotional information in working memory (WM) on the anger superiority effect. In multiple experiments, participants were generally faster to find an angry target with happy distractors compared to a happy target with angry distractors. However, this anger superiority effect was diminished when holding angry information in WM, whereas the effect was still observed when holding happy information. These effects were not observed when participants did not remember emotional information other than the color of the emotional stimuli. The data indicate that enhanced processing of distractor facial expressions was observed when they matched the content of WM, facilitating target detection. However, when the contents of WM and distractor faces differed, the processing of distractor faces and detection of a target face were delayed. These results suggest that the anger superiority effect is modulated by top-down effects of WM and that interactions between contents of WM and perception of facial expressions determine the enhancement or reduction of the anger superiority effect.

  11. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua

    2014-12-18

    Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 2005 and 2009 (n = 12,341) were included in this study. Independent variables included work stress (job satisfaction, perceived safety, and perceived safety of possessions), self-reported perceptions towards academics and influence from parents and peers. Frequency of alcohol use and drunkenness were measured for lifetime, last 30 days and 12 months. The moderating effects of academic aspiration, parental, and peer influence were assessed on the relationship between work stress and alcohol use. Any work stress was positively associated with alcohol use over the past 12 months (odds ratio = 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.23). Stratified analysis found that peer influence significantly moderated the relationship between work stress and alcohol use over the lifetime and past 12 months. Among adolescents with work stress, odds ratios of alcohol use over the lifetime was 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.97) for those with low negative peer influence and 1.09 (95% CI 0.97-1.22) for those with high negative peer influence. Problematic drinking patterns were more apparent among high school students who experienced stress at work. Positive peer influence, however, may buffer the adverse effect of work stress on alcohol use.

  12. Work-related behaviour and experience pattern in nurses: impact on physical and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, M; Damkröger, A; Voltmer, E; Löwe, B; Driessen, M; Ward, M; Wingenfeld, K

    2011-06-01

    Nursing is associated with high levels of emotional strain and heavy workloads. Changing working conditions raise the importance of investigating job satisfaction, stress and burnout and its consequences for nurses. The aim of the study was to investigate whether work-related behaviour and experience patterns are associated with mental and physical health status in nurses. A sample of 356 nurses in four German hospitals were interviewed using questionnaires regarding work-related behaviour and experience patterns, work stress, depression, anxiety and physical symptoms ('Work-related Behaviour and Experience Pattern'--AVEM and ERI). The main result of this study is that unhealthy work-related behaviour and experience patterns (i.e. the excessive ambitious type and the resigned type) are associated with reduced mental and physical health. Preventive, as well as intervention, strategies are needed that focus both on the individual as well as on working conditions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.

  13. Continuing connections: the experiences of retired and senior working nurse mentors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Glenda; Mohan, Shantala; Jackson, Debra; Vickers, Margaret H; Wilkes, Lesley

    2010-12-01

    This paper reports the benefits and challenges of a mentoring programme through which retired and senior nurses continued to support and nurture nurses and midwives currently working in the health system. Nursing has an ageing workforce and faces significant loss of expertise because of retirements. Previously, mentoring programmes have been instituted in a range of nursing contexts and they have been a retention strategy for older nurses and midwives. Mentors and their mentees worked together towards mutually agreed on professional and personal goals. They were asked to meet or speak together a minimum of twice per month for at least six months. As part of a collective case study, 15 mentoring dyads were established. Participants and mentors took part in qualitative, semi-structured interviews about their perceptions and experiences of the mentoring programme. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed and analysed thematically. Mentors reported the mentoring experience to be rewarding experience that enabled them to re-connect with nursing-related activities and brought new challenges in retirement. They perceived the mentees were visibly helped by their support and influence. The mentors studied reinforced a positive self-concept as nurses and midwives in their mentees and assisted their development. Retired nurses and midwives in particular may have several characteristics that make them effective mentors. Potential benefits are demonstrated for nurses and midwives vulnerable to workplace adversity, especially those new to Australia who may have limited professional and social networks. For health organisations, mentoring programmes may be an innovative method of retention that engages both mid-career nurses and midwives and those recently retired. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. An investigation of multitasking information behavior and the influence of working memory and flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexopoulou, Peggy; Hepworth, Mark; Morris, Anne

    2015-02-01

    This study explored the multitasking information behaviour of Web users and how this is influenced by working memory, flow and Personal, Artefact and Task characteristics, as described in the PAT model. The research was exploratory using a pragmatic, mixed method approach. Thirty University students participated; 10 psychologists, 10 accountants and 10 mechanical engineers. The data collection tools used were: pre and post questionnaires, a working memory test, a flow state scale test, audio-visual data, web search logs, think aloud data, observation, and the critical decision method. All participants searched information on the Web for four topics: two for which they had prior knowledge and two more without prior knowledge. Perception of task complexity was found to be related to working memory. People with low working memory reported a significant increase in task complexity after they had completed information searching tasks for which they had no prior knowledge, this was not the case for tasks with prior knowledge. Regarding flow and task complexity, the results confirmed the suggestion of the PAT model (Finneran and Zhang, 2003), which proposed that a complex task can lead to anxiety and low flow levels as well as to perceived challenge and high flow levels. However, the results did not confirm the suggestion of the PAT model regarding the characteristics of web search systems and especially perceived vividness. All participants experienced high vividness. According to the PAT model, however, only people with high flow should experience high levels of vividness. Flow affected the degree of change of knowledge of the participants. People with high flow gained more knowledge for tasks without prior knowledge rather than people with low flow. Furthermore, accountants felt that tasks without prior knowledge were less complex at the end of the web seeking procedure than psychologists and mechanical engineers. Finally, the three disciplines appeared to differ

  15. Dynamics of psychological contracts with work engagement and turnover intention: the influence of organizational tenure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bal, P.M.; de Cooman, R.; Mol, S.T.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the interrelations of the psychological contract with work engagement and turnover intention, which has hitherto been a largely overlooked topic in psychological contract research. Although previous research has mainly focused on how psychological contracts influence job

  16. INFLUENCE OF SUBJECTIVE EXERCISE EXPERIENCE ON RECREATIONAL EXERCISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dražen Čular

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Effects of physical activity on psychological health and well-being have been intrigued topic for many researches (McAuley & Courneya, 1994. Also, the positive subjective experience lies in the basis of every successful recreational activity and training. However, the influence of different types of activities and their gender specifics regarding self-reported well-being have not yet been investigated. The aims of this study were: (1 to analyse gender differences before and after physical activity in “Subjective Exercise Experience Scale“(SEES in group of subjects involved in aesthetic and non-aesthetic recreational physical activities and (2 to determine differences between subjects involved in aesthetic and non-aesthetic recreational physical activities before and after the activity for female and male group separately. The SEES was used to assess psychological responses to exercise among female (N=32 and male (N=83 recreational athletes. The 12 items of SEES represented three-aspects of exercise experience: Positive Well-Being, Psychological Distress and Fatigue. The results showed significant gender differences only in non-aesthetic group before and after physical activity in Psychological Distress subscale. Female students (Mean=4.8 had lower values of Psychological Distress than Male students (Mean=6.9. Furthermore, female aesthetic group (Mean=24.4 had significantly higher values in Positive Well-Being subscale after physical activity than female nonaesthetic group (Mean=18.8, while male aesthetic group had significantly higher values in Positive Well-Being subscale before and after physical activity than male non-aesthetic group. It is possible to conclude that aesthetic activities have positive effect on both female and male sample. It is possible that music increased emotionally experienced activity and contributed to better physical well being especially among female recreational athletes.

  17. Homelessness and Work Experience: Two Years in Saint Paul. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Dennis R.

    A study explored the role of work experience in addressing problems of homeless people in Saint Paul (Minnesota) during the 1989-91 grant cycles of the McKinney Job Training for the Homeless Demonstration Program. The program included a number of elements: outreach, intake, assessment and enrollment, orientation, work experience, basic…

  18. Understanding Accounting as a Career: An Immersion Work Experience for Students Making Career Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Dianne; Murphy, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project which is designed to increase the participation of high school students in accounting work experience placements. The focus of the paper is on an Australian-based project which overcomes the identified barriers to offering high school accounting work experience placements with a resultant increase in the number and…

  19. Integration of Work Experience and Learning for International Students: From Harmony to Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Ly Thi; Soejatminah, Sri

    2017-01-01

    The integration of work experience and learning in tertiary education is a complex issue for different stakeholders, including students, institutions, and employers. The provision of course-related work experience for international students is far more challenging as it involves issues of visa status, different cultural expectations,…

  20. Work stress and alcohol consumption among adolescents: moderation by family and peer influences

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xianfang C; Keyes, Katherine M; Li, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive alcohol use in adolescence can be detrimental to health and academic performance. Few studies consider the moderating effects of parental and peer influence within the context of adolescent work outside of the school environment. This study aims to examine work stress among adolescents and the association with alcohol use and drunkenness, in the context of parental and peer influences. Methods Grade 12 students who participated in Monitoring the Future surveys between 200...

  1. How Home Health Caregivers’ Perceive the Influence of Professionalism on Their Experienced Work Engagement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noesgaard, Mette Strange

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how the perception of increasing professionalism of home health-care influences caregivers’ experienced work engagement. A qualitative study including 24 interviews, 85 hr of observations and the think-aloud technique was applied in three Danish caregiving organizations. Using...... a consensual qualitative research approach, analysis of the data suggests that increasing professionalism is experienced among caregivers and influences caregivers’ engagement in three distinct ways: through their identification with their work, psychological safety, and feelings of insecurity. This article...

  2. Work and Family in the Virtual Office: Perceived Influences of Mobile Telework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E. Jeffrey; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Explored influences of mobile telework on family life as reported by teleworkers in a large national corporation. Compared this group to office workers within the same company. Teleworkers reported greater work flexibility. Some described positive family influences, whereas others revealed family problems arising from blurred lines between work…

  3. Exploring the Influence of Nurse Work Environment and Patient Safety Culture on Attitudes Toward Incident Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Moon Sook; Kim, Kyoung Ja

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the influence of nurse work environments and patient safety culture on attitudes toward incident reporting. Patient safety culture had been known as a factor of incident reporting by nurses. Positive work environment could be an important influencing factor for the safety behavior of nurses. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The structured questionnaire was administered to 191 nurses working at a tertiary university hospital in South Korea. Nurses' perception of work environment and patient safety culture were positively correlated with attitudes toward incident reporting. A regression model with clinical career, work area and nurse work environment, and patient safety culture against attitudes toward incident reporting was statistically significant. The model explained approximately 50.7% of attitudes toward incident reporting. Improving nurses' attitudes toward incident reporting can be achieved with a broad approach that includes improvements in work environment and patient safety culture.

  4. Impact of previous pharmacy work experience on pharmacy school academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Ellena; Barnett, Mitchell J; T-L Tang, Terrill; Sasaki-Hill, Debra; Kuperberg, James R; Knapp, Katherine

    2010-04-12

    To determine whether students' previous pharmacy-related work experience was associated with their pharmacy school performance (academic and clinical). The following measures of student academic performance were examined: pharmacy grade point average (GPA), scores on cumulative high-stakes examinations, and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) grades. The quantity and type of pharmacy-related work experience each student performed prior to matriculation was solicited through a student survey instrument. Survey responses were correlated with academic measures, and demographic-based stratified analyses were conducted. No significant difference in academic or clinical performance between those students with prior pharmacy experience and those without was identified. Subanalyses by work setting, position type, and substantial pharmacy work experience did not reveal any association with student performance. A relationship was found, however, between age and work experience, ie, older students tended to have more work experience than younger students. Prior pharmacy work experience did not affect students' overall academic or clinical performance in pharmacy school. The lack of significant findings may have been due to the inherent practice limitations of nonpharmacist positions, changes in pharmacy education, and the limitations of survey responses.

  5. Working in partnership with vulnerable families: the experience of child and family health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Chris; Fowler, Cathrine; Hopwood, Nick; Lee, Alison; Dunston, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Family circumstances in infancy are persistent and powerful determinants of children's physical and mental health, influencing inequalities that trace from childhood through to adulthood. While the social factors that perpetuate patterns of inequality are more complex than can be addressed through single interventions, child and family health (CFH) services represent crucial sites where trajectories of inequality can be disrupted. In particular, approaches that foster opportunities for practitioner-parent engagement that challenge traditional hierarchical health care practice, such as the Family Partnership Model (FPM), are recommended as ways of addressing disadvantage. Little is known about how practitioners implement models of working in partnership with families and, consequently, there is a gap in understanding how best to develop and sustain these new CFH practices. This paper reports a research project that investigated the experiences of 25 health professionals working within a FPM framework with vulnerable families. Through discussion of four key themes - redefining expertise, changing practices, establishing new relationships with parents and the complexities of partnership practice - the paper offers first-hand accounts of reframing practices that recognise the needs, skills and expertise of parents and thus contribute to empowerment of families.

  6. Student perceptions of influences on their study experiences in a distance learning accounting course and implications for course design

    OpenAIRE

    Parkinson, Alan Timothy

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This thesis is located in the arena of a distance learning accounting course of a vocational nature delivered to working managers. It is concerned with identifying and exploring students' perceptions of influences upon their study experiences. The influences are drawn from elements of the course design, characteristics of the students, and their inter-action. Data is collected through semi-structured interviews from thirty eight past students. The data are explor...

  7. Problem-Based Learning in Social Work Education: Students' Experiences in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monrad, Merete; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) constitutes a promising way of integrating academia and social work practice because PBL fosters engagement with real-life problems and enhances important skills needed in social work practice. However, little attention has been given to social work students' experiences of PBL. In this article we address this gap by…

  8. The influence of organisational factors and work-family conflict on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the influence of organisational factors and work-family role conflict on organisation commitment among working parents. The participants in the study comprise 200 employees of banking, armed forces, educational, and health institutions with a mean age 37.52 years. About 57% are men while 43.5% ...

  9. Developmental Differences in the Influence of Distractors on Maintenance in Spatial Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Anne R.; Keiser, Brian A.; Beattie, Heidi L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether attention to a location plays a role in the maintenance of locations in spatial working memory in young children as it does in adults. This study was the first to investigate whether distractors presented during the delay of a spatial working-memory task influenced young children's memory responses. Across 2…

  10. Factors Influencing Service-Learning Utilization in Social Work: Results from an Online Survey of Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronley, Courtney; Madden, Elissa; Davis, Jaya; Preble, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The current study (N = 209) explored service-learning utilization in social work education by examining the influence of personal and institutional characteristics, perceived barriers, and beliefs about service-learning outcomes. Results of an online survey of social work educators showed that neither personal nor institutional characteristics…

  11. Influences of Creative Personality and Working Environment on the Research Productivity of Business School Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kihwan; Choi, Suk Bong

    2017-01-01

    Previous research on creative working environments has focused on business organizations. This study examined the influence of creative personality and creative working environment on the research productivity of business faculty. It was hypothesized that creative personality, family support, colleague support, research resources, and workload…

  12. Female leaders’ experiences of psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences in Swedish public human service organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil J. Landstad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Municipal workplaces have high levels of sickness absence, and deterioration of the psychosocial work environment has been most pronounced for women and employees in this sector of Swedish working life. This study explores how female leaders in one rural municipality in Sweden experience their psychosocial working conditions and its health consequences. Interviews were carried out with 20 female leaders. Data were analyzed with a content analysis method using major dimensions of work stress models. These were job demands, job control, job resources, social support, and its health consequences. The analysis shows that the leaders experience high and conflicting job demands, limited possibilities to influence their work situation, insufficient job resources and social support, and limited time for their own health promotion. However, the leaders experience possibilities to develop skills in their jobs and opportunities to participate in educational programs. The analyses confirm the need for improvements in the prerequisites for female leaders in public human service organizations. It is important to improve female leaders’ psychosocial working conditions by implementing a more narrow control range, increased personal and economical recourses, leadership support, and leader development programs.

  13. Notes on the influence of Carlos Nelson Coutinho on Social Work in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabile Caetano Cazela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports some results of a research study conducted for the master’s thesis in Social Work entitled Fundamental ethical principles of Social Work in Brazil: a study on the influence of Carlos Nelson Coutinho. It is based on bibliographic and field research, and it identifies and recognizes the influence of Coutinho on Social Work, as well as the intellectual contribution of Social Workers that are members of the Code of Ethics Revision Committee.

  14. Emotion in Online College Classrooms: Examining the Influence of Perceived Teacher Communication Behaviour on Students' Emotional Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Catherine F.; Young, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on teacher communication behaviour as an influential factor in students' educational experiences. This study examined students' perceptions of emotion (involving teachers' emotional support, students' emotional work and students' positive emotional valence toward class and teacher) as influenced by a variety of predicting…

  15. Influence on working hours among shift workers and effects on sleep quality - An intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Aust, Birgit

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present intervention study was to examine if increased influence on working hours among shift workers led to better sleep quality. 391 employees were categorized into groups based on the performed activities: High (self-rostering), moderate (education and/or policy for working hours......), and low intensity intervention (meetings and discussions) and reference. Sleep quality was assessed by Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire (KSQ) at baseline and follow-up (12 months). To elucidate the process of the intervention interviews were conducted. Influence on one's own working hours increased only...... in the high intensity group (p sleep quality were observed. Thus, sleep quality was not improved by increasing work time influence in the present group of Danish elder care workers. This was partly due to program failure (failed intervention), but may also be due...

  16. Job Resources, Physician Work Engagement, and Patient Care Experience in an Academic Medical Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepers, Renée A; Lases, Lenny S S; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M J M H

    2017-10-01

    Physician work engagement is associated with better work performance and fewer medical errors; however, whether work-engaged physicians perform better from the patient perspective is unknown. Although availability of job resources (autonomy, colleague support, participation in decision making, opportunities for learning) bolster work engagement, this relationship is understudied among physicians. This study investigated associations of physician work engagement with patient care experience and job resources in an academic setting. The authors collected patient care experience evaluations, using nine validated items from the Dutch Consumer Quality index in two academic hospitals (April 2014 to April 2015). Physicians reported job resources and work engagement using, respectively, the validated Questionnaire on Experience and Evaluation of Work and the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale. The authors conducted multivariate adjusted mixed linear model and linear regression analyses. Of the 9,802 eligible patients and 238 eligible physicians, respectively, 4,573 (47%) and 185 (78%) participated. Physician work engagement was not associated with patient care experience (B = 0.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.02 to 0.03; P = .669). However, learning opportunities (B = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.05 to 0.52; P = .019) and autonomy (B = 0.31; 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.51; P = .004) were positively associated with work engagement. Higher physician work engagement did not translate into better patient care experience. Patient experience may benefit from physicians who deliver stable quality under varying levels of work engagement. From the physicians' perspective, autonomy and learning opportunities could safeguard their work engagement.

  17. Work experience, job-fulfillment and burnout among VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania and Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linnea Perry

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human resource capacity is vital to the scale-up of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC services. VMMC providers are at risk of "burnout" from performing a single task repeatedly in a high volume work environment that produces long work hours and intense work effort. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Systematic Monitoring of the Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Scale-up (SYMMACS surveyed VMMC providers in Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe in 2011 (n = 357 and 2012 (n = 591. Providers self-reported on their training, work experience, levels of job-fulfillment and work fatigue/burnout. Data analysis included a descriptive analysis of VMMC provider characteristics, and both bivariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with provider work fatigue/burnout. In 2012, Kenyan providers had worked in VMMC for a median of 31 months compared to South Africa (10 months, Tanzania (15 months, and Zimbabwe (11 months. More than three-quarters (78 - 99% of providers in all countries in 2012 reported that VMMC is a personally fulfilling job. However, 67% of Kenyan providers reported starting to experience work fatigue/burnout compared to South Africa (33%, Zimbabwe (17%, and Tanzania (15%. Despite the high level of work fatigue/burnout in Kenya, none of the measured factors (i.e., gender, age, full-time versus part-time status, length of service, number of operations performed, or cadre were significantly associated with work fatigue/burnout in 2011. In 2012, logistic regression found increases in age (p<.05 and number of months working in VMMC (p<.01 were associated with an increased likelihood of experiencing work fatigue/burnout, while higher career total VMMCs decreased the likelihood of experiencing burnout. CONCLUSION: Given cross-country differences, further elucidation of cultural and other contextual factors that may influence provider burnout is required. Continuing to emphasize the contribution that providers make in

  18. The Influence of Organizational Climate on Work Productivity Library Staff at CISRAL Padjadjaran University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Nurma Hastuti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1 Pengaruh iklim organisasi terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (2 Pengaruh struktur terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (3 Pengaruh standar-standar terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran (4 Pengaruh tanggung jawab terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 25 orang tenaga perpustakaan CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan statistik deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 Iklim organisasi memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (2 Struktur memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (3 Standar memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, dan (4 Tanggung jawab memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Iklim organisasi pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran dikategorikan kondusif, namun sebaiknya perpustakaan dapat menciptakan iklim organisasi yang lebih kondusif dan nyaman agar produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan semakin meningkat.   Kata Kunci : Iklim Organisasi, Tenaga Perpustakaan, Produktivitas Kerja   Abstract: This study aims to find out (1 The influence of organizational climate on work productivity of librarian at Padjadjaran University, CISRAL (2 The Influences of structure on work productivity of librarian at CISRAL Padjadjaran University (3 The influence of standards on work productivity of librarian at CISRAL University of Padjadjaran (4 The influence of responsibility on work productivity librarian at CISRAL Padjadjaran University

  19. The Influence of EDM Parameters in Finishing Stage on Surface Quality of Hot Work Steel Using Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, S.; Atefi, R.; Solhjoei, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of different EDM parameters (pulse current, pulse voltage, pulse on-time , pulse off-time) in finishing stage on the surface quality (Ra) as a result of application copper electrode to a work piece( hot work steel DIN1.2344) has been investigated. Design of the experiment was chosen full factorial. Statistical analysis has been done and artificial neural network has been used to choose proper machining parameters and to reach certain surface roughness. Finally a hybrid model has been designed to reduce the artificial neural network errors. The experiment results indicated a good performance of proposed method in optimization of such a complex and non-linear problems.

  20. The style of group working and its influence on team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Luiz Montanari

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This case study aims to evaluate the influence of the style of group working in the teams’ performance in a midsize services company in Parana State. For this purpose an exploratory interview was originally performed. Then the questionnaires were applied: Working Group Style, proposed by Parker (1994 and Evaluation of a Success Team, proposed by Chang (1999. Besides the questionnaires, non-participant observations were made that intended to register items which interest the research objectives. Finally, the data analysis was carried out, making intersection with the interviews and the non-participant observations. The results identified some influences of the group working styles in the performance of teams. The different behaviors determined the degree of influence which help or not the performance of teams in this study. Two result matrices were found. The first with a relatively uniform distribution of styles, but presenting lower performance; the second showed a predominant contributor style and a higher performance of teams.

  1. The Influence of Job Position and Gender Issue on Work Stress at Prismadana Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Muntu, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays a lot of employees do not know how bigger and danger the work stress that they faced in their workplace. Work stress is the one of many things that can make serious problem for every employee. Work stress is the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when job requirements do not match the worker€™s capabilities, resources, and needs. Work stress also has different levels, both in terms of job position and gender. So, the objectives of this research are influence of job p...

  2. The student fieldwork experience: influencing factors and implications for learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Alan; Stokes, Alison

    2010-05-01

    attitudes were ameliorated as a result of the fieldwork. However, some aspects of the students' experience generated new negative responses, whilst extra-curricular social and cultural activities generated unexpectedly positive responses. In terms of outcomes the geological mapping training fieldwork enabled students to develop generic as well as subject-specific skills, e.g. teamwork, decision making, and autonomy, whilst engagement in social interactions both within and outside of the field environment enabled the development of valuable interpersonal skills. Both studies demonstrate the positive effect of residential field work on students' attitudes and feelings towards their subject but also towards fellow students and academic staff through the development of interpersonal skills. Such skills are seldom assessed as learning outcomes, but are an important part of students' development from novice to expert geoscientists, and a vital component of the wider competences required by employers and society. They are potentially best developed during residential fieldwork and help to make GEES students employable.

  3. The influence of work patterns on indicators of cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Megan; VanDenKerkhof, Elizabeth; Janssen, Ian; Tranmer, Joan

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the associations between work patterns and indicators of cardiometabolic risk in female hospital employees. Aspects of work environments potentially influence the health of employees; however, we have a poor understanding of how different hospital work patterns contribute to cardiovascular risk in female employees. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 466 female employees from 2 hospitals in Ontario. Data were collected through self-report, physical examination, and use of hospital administrative work data. In the adjusted analyses, full-time work status, extended shift length, and working 35 or more paid overtime hours per year were significantly associated with metabolic syndrome. Different work patterns increase cardiometabolic risk in female employees, suggesting a need to better monitor the health of the workforce and implement healthy workplace policy.

  4. Faculty Experiences of Merger and Organizational Change in a Social Work Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedoyin, A Christson; Miller, Monte; Jackson, Mary S; Dodor, Bernice; Hall, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Social work programs are experiencing unprecedented organizational changes due to budget cuts, dwindling resources, global, and technological challenges. However, there is limited information in the literature about the merger experiences of faculty in social work programs. On one hand undergoing merger and reorganization provides the opportunity to reorganize, reprioritize, re-assess, develop strategies, and explore previously untapped opportunities for social work programs. Conversely, merger experiences have caused frustration, intention to quit, confusion, and loss of professional identity for social work faculty. In this article the authors utilize a journaling method and sense-making approach of the merger experiences of some of the faculty members of a social work program in the United States. The authors suggest a framework to understand how the faculty confronted the challenges, overcame the pitfalls, and maximized the opportunities offered during the merger and organizational change process.

  5. Influence of job demands and job control on work-life balance among Taiwanese nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Lee-Peng; Chen, I-Chi; Ng, Hui-Fuang; Lin, Bo-Yen; Kuar, Lok-Sin

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the extent to which the job demands and job control of nurses were related to their work-life balance. The inability to achieve work-life balance is one of the major reasons for the declining retention rate among nurses. Job demands and job control are two major work domain factors that can have a significant influence on the work-life balance of nurses. The study measured the job demands, job control and work-life balance of 2040 nurses in eight private hospitals in Taiwan in 2013. Job demands and job control significantly predicted all the dimensions of work-life balance. Job demands increased the level of work-life imbalance among nurses. While job control showed positive effects on work/personal life enhancement, it was found to increase both work interference with personal life and personal life interference with work. Reducing the level of job demands (particularly for psychological demands) between family and career development and maintaining a proper level of job control are essential to the work-life balance of nurses. Flexible work practices and team-based management could be considered by nursing management to lessen job demand pressure and to facilitate job engagement and participation among nurses, thus promoting a better balance between work and personal life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. INFLUENCE OF ENTREPRENEURIAL EXPERIENCE, ALERTNESS, AND PRIOR KNOWLEDGE ON OPPORTUNITY RECOGNITION

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu Li; Pei Wang; Ya-Jun Liang

    2015-01-01

      The influence of Chinese university students' entrepreneurial experience, alertness, and prior knowledge on opportunity recognition was examined using the novice-experienced entrepreneurs contrast paradigm...

  7. All at sea: Insights into crew work experiences on a cruise liner | Bolt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research explores employee experiences of working on board a cruise ship. Cruise liners have been described as floating hotels; but increasingly they are more like floating resorts, embracing passenger and crew populations as big as small towns. In addition to the usual service sector experiences and emotional ...

  8. International Students' Experience of Studying and Working at a Northeastern Public University in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwadzo, Moses

    2014-01-01

    This study explores international students' experiences with studying and working at a North Eastern public university. Through phenomenological research approach that utilized face-to-face interview and photo-elicitation techniques, the personal experiences of twenty international students were captured. The findings of this study indicated that…

  9. Coffee Cups, Canoes, Airplanes and the Lived Experience: Reflections on the Works of Bertram (Chip) Bruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    A career spent in research, teaching, and engagement with community entails a lifetime of assemblage of meaning from people, resources, technologies and experience. In his work, Bertram (Chip) Bruce has long engaged with how we create such an assemblage of meaning from our formal and found learning, and from the "lived experience" of…

  10. School Counselors' Professional Experience and Practices Working with Students Who Self-Harm: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ellen Adams

    2013-01-01

    The professional experiences and practices of school counselors and the interventions they employ while working with adolescent students who self-harm is an underrepresented area within current research. This generic qualitative study provides a rich description and a deeper understanding of the professional experiences and practices of school…

  11. The Benefits and Challenges Hospitality Management Students Experience by Working in Conjunction with Completing Their Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoffstall, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous researchers have suggested that in order to be successful in the hospitality industry, students need to obtain work experience in addition to completing their degrees. Although the benefit of gaining such experience from the industry viewpoint has been well documented, few studies have assessed the benefits and challenges faced by…

  12. The impact of midlife educational, work, health and family experiences on men's early retirement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damman, M.; Henkens, C.J.I.M.; Kalmijn, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. In empirical studies on predictors of retirement, midlife experiences have often remained implicit or been neglected. This study aims to improve our understanding of retirement by examining the impact of midlife educational, work, health, and family experiences on early retirement

  13. "Values that vanish into thin air": nurses' experience of ethical values in their daily work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentzen, Gro; Harsvik, Anita; Brinchmann, Berit Støre

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how nurses experience ethical values as they are expressed in daily practice in a Norwegian hospital. A growing focus in Western healthcare on effectiveness, production, and retrenchment has an influence on professional nursing standards and nursing values. Lack of resources and subsequent ethically difficult prioritizations imply a strain on nurses. This study is qualitative. Data collection was carried out by conducting 4 focus group interviews. The data was analyzed using content analysis. The results are presented in two main themes: (1) values and reflection are important for the nurses; (2) time pressure and nursing frustrations in daily work. The results demonstrate that nurses believe the ethical values to be of crucial importance for the quality of nursing; however, the ethical values are often repressed in daily practice. This results in feeling of frustration, fatigue, and guilty conscience for the nurses. There is a need for changes in the system which could contribute to the development of a caring culture that would take care of both patients and nurses. In an endeavour to reach this goal, one could apply caritative leadership theory, which is grounded on the caritas motive, human love, and mercy.

  14. Do indicators influence communication in SEA? — Experience from the Chinese practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jingjing, E-mail: jingjing@plan.aau.dk; Kørnøv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk; Christensen, Per, E-mail: pc@plan.aau.dk

    2013-11-15

    Indicators have become one of the primary tools for Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) in the Chinese context, but what does this use of indicators mean for communication within the SEA processes? This article explores how the selection and use of indicators influence the communication between different stakeholders involved in SEA. The article provides a conceptual communication model covering directions and level of communication. Using this model on empirical findings from interviews with two specific SEA cases and from general experience collected through an online survey, the results suggest that indicators are used mainly in internal communication although a change of approach, with more external communication and stakeholder engagement, is taking place as a consequence of working with indicators in the SEA. However, the external communication mainly involves the experts and other relevant sectors (planning, energy, land use, forestry, etc.), the involvement of the public and NGOs is still not well implemented in Chinese SEA practice, and the direction of communication is mainly one-way channel of providing information rather than a two-way channel of dialogue and participation. Highlights: • Exploring indicators' influence on the communication in SEA with Chinese experience. • Providing a conceptual model covering directions and level of communication in SEA. • Empirical findings from two specific SEA cases and collected general experience. • The external communication mainly involves the experts and other sectors. • More one-way information provision than two-way dialogue and participation.

  15. Swimming Against the Current: A Qualitative Review of the Work Experiences and Adaptations made by Employees with Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purc-Stephenson, R J; Dostie, Jessica; Smith, Hailey J

    2018-01-30

    To describe the experiences and strategies of employees with arthritis (EwA) to maintain employment and to use this information to build a conceptual model. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies that examined the work experiences of EwA. Published studies on arthritis and employment were searched from electronic databases (1980-2017) and bibliographical reviews of relevant studies. We used meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings. We reviewed 17 studies reporting on the experiences of 873 employees. We identified 11 main themes that highlight common issues experienced by EwA, and grouped these into four higher-order categories: nature of the disease (emotional issues, cognitive struggles, physical symptoms), intrapersonal issues (personal meaning of work, preserving a work identity), interpersonal issues (managing disclosure, gaining co-worker support, organizational culture issues), and work-sustainability strategies (making personal adjustments, using social support, using workplace accommodations). Using these themes, we developed the Job Sustainability Model to illustrate how disease, personal, and work-related factors interact to influence what type of coping behaviors are used and when. Initially, EwA rely on making personal adjustments, using social support, and medical intervention. However, when these coping behaviors fail to be effective, they draw upon workplace accommodations and resources. Arthritis disrupts an employee's work life by impairing his or her capacity to be a productive worker. Our results highlight how EwA make strategic adaptations to maintain a productive work life for as long as possible. The findings of this study have implications for work-related interventions aimed at preserving employment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Working with people who have killed: the experience and attitudes of forensic mental health clinicians working with forensic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Derith M; Happell, Brenda; Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    Forensic mental health (FMH) clinicians sometimes feel unsupported and unprepared for their work. This article explores their experiences of working in a FMH setting in Australia. The research examined the clinical context of clinicians working with forensic patients (FP), particularly those individuals who have killed while experiencing a mental illness. A qualitative, exploratory design was selected. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with hospital and community-based forensic clinicians from all professional groups: psychiatric medicine, social work, psychology, mental health nursing, occupational therapy, and psychiatric service officers. The main themes identified were orientation and adjustment to FMH, training in FMH, vicarious traumatization, clinical debriefing and clinical supervision, and therapeutic relationships. Participants described being frustrated and unsupported in making the transition to working with FP and felt conflicted by the emotional response that was generated when developing therapeutic relationships. Recommendations include the development of programmes that might assist clinicians and address gaps in service delivery, such as clinical governance, targeted orientation programmes, and clinical supervision. © 2014 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  17. First Years in Job: A Three-Wave Analysis of Work Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Semmer, Norbert K.; Tschan, Franziska; Kalin, Wolfgang; Bucher, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 423 Swiss job entrants reported major change in general, as well as positive and negative work experiences one, two, and four years after finishing vocational training. Qualitative data analysis showed change in responsibility, increase in decision latitude, acquisition of new status (professional work status, full team member status),…

  18. Social Work Students' Experiences and Training Needs after the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colarossi, Lisa; Berlin, Scott; Harold, Rena D.; Heyman, Janna

    2007-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11/01 created a major life disruption for citizens near and far from New York. This study describes field work experiences of social work students in two different geographic locations inside and outside of New York in the six months after 9/11 in terms of their: (1) reports of client problems, (2) receipt of special…

  19. Working with Clients Who Engage in Self-Harming Behaviour: Experiences of a Group of Counsellors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Claudine

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of a group of counsellors regarding working with clients who engage in self-harming behaviour, in order to gain an understanding of what it is like to work with this client group. A series of six individual, semi-structured qualitative interviews were carried out, which were then transcribed and analysed…

  20. Virtual Experiments or Worked Examples? How to Learn the Control of Variable Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates the role of virtual experiments and worked examples in the learning of the control of variable strategy (CVS). Sixty-nine seventh-grade students participated in this study over a span of 6 weeks and were engaged in worked example learning and/or virtual experimentation to study the knowledge and procedures associated…

  1. Work Experiences, Occupational Commitment, and Intent to Enter the Sport Management Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, George B.; Sagas, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Building from Mever, Allen, & Smith's (1993) work in organizational psychology, the purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among work experiences, affective occupational commitment, and intent to enter the sport management profession among college seniors completing their internship requirements. Results indicate that intent to…

  2. Factors influencing the levels of work engagement in physicians from Poland, Serbia and Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczyński, Krzysztof Maria; Swamad, Mohammed Abdul; Subotic, Vanja; Wizner, Dominika; Mazgaj, Elżbieta; Wajda, Weronika

    2015-09-01

    Lowered work engagement and burnout are a growing problem in recent years, especially among physicians. Cynicism, lack of energy and decreased efficacy may lead to the occurrence of severe depression. These phenomena influence almost every aspect of affected person's life, both professional and extraprofessional, and decrease its quality. The aim of our study was to evaluate the influence of family life and other factors on levels of work engagement and risk of depression. Our study was conducted on a group of 417 physicians from Poland, Serbia and Bulgaria using a paper questionnaire. The collected data was subjected to statistical analyses using Statsoft Statistica v. 10.0 software. There was no significant correlation between work engagement and sex or age. The highest score on work engagement was in Serbia (m=4.41; Mann-Whitney's U test with p<0.05). The highest score of BDI was in Bulgaria (m=14.73; Mann-Whitney's U test with p<0.05). There was no significant correlation exceeding r=0.5 between UWES and SWING scales. WHI+/WHI- ratio correlates significantly with a BDI scale (Spearman's r=-0.49; p<0.05). Family life of physicians seem to have minor or even no influence on their work engagement and risk of burnout. The negative influence of work on family life may increase the risk of depression, and that effect is not susceptible to either positive or negative interactions of family life with work. The country with the lowest expenditure on a healthcare have also the lowest levels of work engagement.

  3. Emotion management as struggle in dirty work: the experiences of exotic dancers

    OpenAIRE

    Grandy, Gina; Mavin, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    We further the research to date on ambiguity, ambivalence and contradiction in organisation studies by integrating the dirty work and emotion management literatures. Our intent is to better understand the complex cognitive processes underpinning everyday experiences of those working in what has been perceived to be a high-breadth high-depth stigmatised occupation, that is, exotic dancing. Dancers’ stories reveal they are acutely aware of social and moral taint associated with the work and in ...

  4. Male sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina: sociodemographic characteristics and sex work experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariño Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the sociodemographic characteristics and work experiences of 31 male sex workers (MSWs in the city of Córdoba, Argentina. METHODS: Information on each of the MSWs was collected using a questionnaire that covered his personal characteristics and his work background, self-assessed general health status, and use of health and social services. Scales were included in order to assess attitudes towards condom use, knowledge about safe sex, perceptions about the risk of getting HIV, individual self-efficacy, and locus of control. The questionnaire also asked each respondent to rank his level of agreement with interactive strategies for gaining client compliance with safe sex practices. RESULTS: In terms of their self-identity, out of the 30 MSWs who answered the question, 10 of them (33.3% self-identified as heterosexual and 9 (30% as bisexual. Alcohol and drug consumption and unsafe sexual practices were relatively low among the MSWs. Of the 31 MSWs responding, 21 of them (67.7% reported that they had been tested for HIV, but only 13 of them (41.9% said they had been vaccinated for either hepatitis A or hepatitis B. A variety of differences were found between the study's 17 street sex workers (sex workers who offer their services in public places such as streets and parks and the 14 independent sex workers (sex workers who are self-employed, advertise and manage their own business, and have an exclusive location for their commercial sex work. The street MSWs were younger and had less formal education. Independent MSWs were economically more settled, had been working longer in the sex industry, and were more comfortable about having sex with men. Independent MSWs were also more likely to report a gay sexual orientation and less likely to report using alcohol, marijuana, or other substances. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between street MSWs and independent MSWs are important since they could influence the negotiating of safer sex

  5. The Influence of Leadership Styles on Employee's Performance Through Work Motivation (an Organizational Study at Four Hotels in Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Handoyo, Laura Natalia

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to understand how strong the influence of transformational and transactional leadership style on work motivation, understand how strong the influence of transformational and transactional leadership style on employees' performance, understand how strong the influence of work motivation on employees' performance, and understand how strong the indirect influence of transformational leadership styles on employees' performance through work motivation. The kind of research that use...

  6. Therapists’ Experiences in Their Work With Sex Offenders and People With Pedophilia: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardeberg Bach, Maria; Demuth, Carolin

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a review of the literature that pertains to the experiences of therapists who work with child sex offenders and/or people with pedophilia. We draw together results from studies that attempted to identify how therapists experience such work and how they were impacted by it....... Usually, such studies are embedded within one of the following theoretical frameworks: “secondary traumatic stress”, “vicarious traumatization” and “burnout”. As such, most literature to date on the topic has sought to determine to what extent, and why, work-related stress responses may occur among...

  7. Work experiences, professional development and career prospects of New Zealand dental house surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jenny J; Antoun, Joseph S

    2010-12-01

    New dental graduates compete for house surgeon positions every year, despite little being known about the work experience gained from such posts. The main objectives of this study were to identify the nature of house surgeons' work experiences, their continued professional development (CPD) opportunities and the impact of hospital experience on their future career pathways. A questionnaire was mailed to all 31 New Zealand dental house surgeons (response rate 100%). The majority of house surgeons (77.4%) found hospital work enjoyable, with nearly all (93.5%) perceiving themselves as better clinicians from their experience. Oral surgery, restorative dentistry, special needs dentistry and removable prosthodontics were the most commonly practised areas. The average weekly number of working hours was 42.3 hours for a normal week and 61.8 hours for an on-call week. Stress levels during on-call work were significantly higher than during day-to-day hospital work (p common form of CPD available at hospitals (74.2%), followed by hands-on clinical training (61.3%). More than half of the house surgeons (58.1%) planned to pursue a specialist career, with nearly 13% wishing to return to a New Zealand hospital in the future. A dental house surgeon position remains an attractive choice and offers an enjoyable experience for young graduates. Hospitals provide ample CPD opportunities and appear to play an influential role in a house surgeon's career pathway.

  8. Today's work experience: Precursors of both how I feel and how Ithink about my job?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Elfering

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Antecedents of affective versus cognitive components of daily job satisfaction were compared. According to the affective events theory, the affective component should relate more strongly to state affect and affective work experiences than the cognitive component. In multilevel regression analyses of 280 daily reports from 40 participants, within-person variation was lower in the cognitive component (24% than in the affective component (54%. Beyond state affect and trait affectivity, positive valence of work experiences had an incremental value only in the prediction of the affective component. The affective component is more reactive to daily work experiences than the cognitive component. Whenever the link between work and daily job satisfaction is reviewed, the components of job satisfaction measures should be considered as a moderator.

  9. Women's experiences of working as a Clinical Teaching Associate teaching sensitive examinations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbank, Christine; Reid, Katharine; Minzenmay, Krista

    2015-01-01

    Increasingly, professional patient programs are used for training medical students to perform pelvic examinations, yet we know little of the experiences of women who teach medical students these sensitive examination skills. To describe the experiences of women working as Clinical Teaching Associates (CTAs) teaching medical students the technical and communication skills required to perform pelvic examinations. Twelve women employed as CTAs participated in semi-structured interviews. Individual interviews were used to identify major themes in women's experiences of teaching sensitive examinations to medical students. CTAs identified unique difficulties in their work including negative attitudes from others towards their role and the unpleasantness of the examination, although other challenges (such as teamwork issues or providing negative feedback to colleagues) were characteristic of many work situations. Effective communication was identified as central to the CTA role and the women described growth in their communication skills and assertiveness that they applied to other aspects of their work and personal lives. CTAs were motivated to join the program and remained in the program because of an interest in women's health and a desire for meaningful work, which they believed improved the examination and communication skills of future doctors. Positive interactions with work colleagues were a valued part of the role and a primary motivator to remain in the program. Highlighting the experiences of women working as CTAs validates the significant teaching role these women perform and, from a pragmatic perspective, may increase understanding of the best way to attract and retain women to these important teaching roles.

  10. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  11. Parental influence on work and family plans of adolescents of different ethnic backgrounds in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, H.A.G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examined the work and family plans of adolescents from five different ethnic origins. The way in which parents influence these plans was studied by using a representative sample of secondary school pupils (N = 52,000) in The Netherlands. Results showed that substantial proportions of

  12. Assessing factors influencing return back to work after cholecystectomy : a qualitative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, F.; Vries, I.J.M. de; Gooszen, H.G.; Laarhoven, C.J.H.M. van

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy causes considerable financial burden on society with a major part caused by sick-leave. There are wide variations in duration of sick-leave. The aim of our study was to identify all aspects that influence the moment of return to work by using focus groups and to compare

  13. Assessing factors influencing return back to work after cholecystectomy : a qualitative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keus, Frederik; de Vries, Jolanda; Gooszen, Hein G.; van Laarhoven, Cornelis J. H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cholecystectomy causes considerable financial burden on society with a major part caused by sick-leave. There are wide variations in duration of sick-leave. The aim of our study was to identify all aspects that influence the moment of return to work by using focus groups and to compare

  14. The Incidence and Influencing Factors of College Student Term-Time Working in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fei

    2017-01-01

    As the labor market pressure for college graduates keeps rising in the past decade, working while attending college becomes increasingly popular among undergraduate students in China. With a nationally representative dataset of 6,977 students from 49 institutions, this study examines the incidence and influencing factors on undergraduate student…

  15. Influence of Career Anchors, Work Values and Personality Traits toward Employability Orientation among Malaysian University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Hamid, Jamaliah Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Work environment is facing numerous challenges and this entails organizations to better understand the phenomenon of employability orientation. Thus, the primary aim of this study is to determine the level of employability orientation among university students and its influencing factors. This is a quantitative study whereby a total of 711…

  16. Influence of Duration and Pattern of Work on Knowledge of Aids ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of Duration and Pattern of Work on Knowledge of Aids/Stds and Practice of Safer Sex Methods among Commercial Sex Workers and Control Group as ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical and Counselling Psychology ... A total of 100 commercial sex workers, randomly selected from Ibadan participated in the study.

  17. Interaction of Induced Anxiety and Verbal Working Memory: Influence of Trait Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nilam; Stoodley, Catherine; Pine, Daniel S.; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of trait anxiety on working memory (WM) in safety and threat. Interactions between experimentally induced anxiety and WM performance (on different cognitive loads) have been reported in healthy, nonanxious subjects. Differences in trait anxiety may moderate these interactions. Accordingly, these interactions may…

  18. Assessing Undergraduate Student-Teacher Relationship Factors Using Working Alliance and Interpersonal Influence Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clute, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of working alliance theory (Bordin, 1979; Castonguay, Constantino, & Grosse Holtforth, 2006) and interpersonal influence theory (Strong, 1968) as ways to articulate an empirically informed model of student-teacher relationships in order to extend the current body of knowledge on effective…

  19. The Influence of Ownership and Type of University on Work Environment in South West Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arogundade, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the influence of ownership and type of university on work environment in South West Nigerian universities. The study population consists of all academic staff of the ten public and nine private universities in South West Nigeria. In all, 500 respondents selected from eight universities constituted the sample of the study. The…

  20. The Influence of Levels of Processing on Recall from Working Memory and Delayed Recall Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loaiza, Vanessa M.; McCabe, David P.; Youngblood, Jessie L.; Rose, Nathan S.; Myerson, Joel

    2011-01-01

    Recent research in working memory has highlighted the similarities involved in retrieval from complex span tasks and episodic memory tasks, suggesting that these tasks are influenced by similar memory processes. In the present article, the authors manipulated the level of processing engaged when studying to-be-remembered words during a reading…

  1. Social influence on sustainable consumption : Evidence from a behavioural experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salazar, H.; Oerlemans, L.A.G.; van Stroe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Although social influence on consumers’ behaviour has been recognized and documented, the vast majority of empirical consumer studies about sustainable products considers mainly, if not only, individual characteristics (socio-demographic attributes, individual environmental attitudes, etc.), to

  2. Parents' work-family experiences and children's problem behaviors: The mediating role of the parent-child relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Joana M; Matias, Marisa; Ferreira, Tiago; Lopez, Frederick G; Matos, Paula Mena

    2016-06-01

    Studies on the impact of work-family dynamics on both parenting and children's outcomes are scarce. The present study addressed this gap by exploring how parents' negative (conflicting) and positive (enriching) experiencing of work and family roles related to children's internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors through its association with the quality of parent-child relationships. A sample of 317 dual-earner couples with preschool children was used to conduct a dyadic analysis of both within- and cross-dyad influences of parents' work-family experiences on child problem behaviors. Our results indicated that the way parents balance work and family is associated with their parent-child relationships, which in turn is differentially linked with their children's behaviors. We found that mothers' work-family conflict (WFC) contributed to children's externalization difficulties through its detrimental associations with their own and with their partners' parent-child relationship quality. By contrast, mothers' work-family enrichment (WFE) was negatively linked to children's externalization difficulties through its positive link with the mother-child relationship. Fathers' experience of WFC was associated with both children's internalization and externalization difficulties through its negative association with their own father-child relationship quality. In addition, fathers' experience of WFE also linked to children's externalization difficulties, but only indirectly, via its positive association with the quality of their relationship with the child. Further implications of these findings for advancing understanding of the impact of work-family dynamics on intrafamily relationships, as well as for individual and organizational interventions, are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Perceived competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust in work relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleszkiewicz Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies confirmed the positive effect of trust on human relations and performance in organizations. As a social judgment, trust should be related to perceived competence and warmth as two basic dimensions of person perception. Surprisingly, to date no attempts have been made to examine the influence of attributed competence and warmth on social judgments in interpersonal relations at work. To this end, we examine the influence of perceived competence and warmth on trust, liking and respect in upward and downward work relations. A study involving 190 middle-stage managers revealed that the two fundamental dimensions of social cognition (competence and warmth influence respect, liking and trust. Competence had a stronger effect on respect than warmth; the opposite was true for liking. Trust was conditioned by both competence and warmth to an equal, high extent. At the same time, warmth expressed by supervisors led to higher results in liking, respect and trust in them than warmth expressed by subordinates.

  4. The Impact of Knowledge of Suicide Prevention and Work Experience among Clinical Staff on Attitudes towards Working with Suicidal Patients and Suicide Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Inga-Lill; Di Lucca, Maria Anna; Hadlaczky, Gergö

    2016-02-04

    Suicide-preventive training has shown to influence attitudes. This study aimed at investigating what impact other factors than knowledge might have on attitudes towards work with suicidal patients and suicide prevention. In 2007, 500 health-care staff working in a psychiatric clinic in Stockholm received a questionnaire with items concerning work with suicidal patients to which 358 (71.6%) responded. A set of attitude items were tested using structural equation modelling (LISREL). Three models were found to be satisfactory valid and reliable: Job clarity, Job confidence and Attitudes towards prevention. These were then used in regression analyses as dependent variables with predictors such as experience of work with suicidal patients, perceived sufficient training, age and gender. Perceived sufficient training was consistently the most important predictor for all three attitude concepts (p prevention). Age was another significant predictor for Job clarity (p suicide for Job confidence (p suicide preventive education is likely to improve attitudes towards the prevention of suicide, clarity and confidence regarding their role in the care for suicidal patients. These improvements may contribute to the prevention of suicide in health care settings.

  5. Study of the influence on emotional work contract nurses on Job Burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Song Changping; Fan Weiwei; Zhao Chenxu; Gao Ling

    2017-01-01

    Discuss the influences of contract nurse’ emotion work on job burnout and provide theoretical basis for reducing the job burnout of perception level which caused by emotion work of contract nurse. Methods: The data which comes from the questionnaire survey about the Chinese edition of Maslach job burnout scale for 298 contract nurse is used statistical analysis by SPSS11.5 software. Results: The current contract nurse is more inclined to “surface acting” on working and the nurses have a lower...

  6. Influence of the Working Gas Properties on the Anode Wire Modulation Effect of MWPC

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaohu

    2015-01-01

    For MWPC used for X-ray position detection, simulation study of the anode wire modulation effect of the detector was carried out with Garfield program. Different gas mixtures were used as the working gas in the simulation, so as to obtain the influence of the X-ray cross section and electron diffusion coefficient of the working gases on the anode wire modulation effect of MWPC which has a anode wire spacing of 2mm. Results show that, though working gas with higher X-ray cross section implies ...

  7. Interactive effect of leaders' influence tactics and ethical leadership on work effort and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacmar, K Michele; Carlson, Dawn S; Harris, Kenneth J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the interactive influence of a) leaders' exemplification and supplication efforts and b) followers' perceptions of the leaders' ethicality on followers' work efforts and helping behaviors. We surveyed 58 leaders and 175 followers who worked for a governmental agency in the United States. Results indicated that the expected positive (negative) relationship between leaders' usage of exemplification and work effort was evident when ethical leadership was high (low). The expected positive relationship between leaders' engagement in supplication and helping behaviors was not present when ethical leadership was high, but the predicted negative relationship was found between supplication and helping when perceptions of leaders' ethicality were low.

  8. The impact of social and family-related factors on women's stress experience in household and family work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Stefanie; Geyer, Siegfried

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the contribution of social and family-related factors to women's experience of an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) in household and family work. Using a population-based sample of German mothers (n = 3,129), we performed stepwise logistic regression analysis in order to determine the relative impact of social and family-related factors on ERI. All factors investigated showed a significant association with at least one ERI component. Considering all predictors simultaneously in the multivariate analysis resulted in a decrease in significance of socioeconomic status in explaining the effort-reward ratio while the impact on low reward partly remained significant. In addition, age of youngest child, number of children, lower levels of perceived social support, domestic work inequity and negative work-to-family spillover, irrespective of being half- or full-time employed, revealed to be important in predicting ERI. The experience of ERI in domestic work is influenced by the social and family environment. Particularly among socially disadvantaged mothers, lack of social recognition for household and family work proved to be a relevant source of psychosocial stress.

  9. Neonatal Intensive Care and Child Psychiatry Inpatient Care: Do Different Working Conditions Influence Stress Levels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evalotte Mörelius

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU (n=33 and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP (n=14 using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person. Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  10. Neonatal intensive care and child psychiatry inpatient care: do different working conditions influence stress levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mörelius, Evalotte; Gustafsson, Per A; Ekberg, Kerstin; Nelson, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Nurses often experience work-related stress. High stress can negatively affect job satisfaction and lead to emotional exhaustion with risk of burnout. Aim. To analyse possible differences in biological stress markers, psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being between nurses working in two different departments. Methods. Stress was evaluated in nurses working in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (n = 33) and nurses working in a child and adolescent psychiatry inpatient ward (CAP) (n = 14) using salivary cortisol and HbA1c. Salivary cortisol was measured three times a day on two consecutive days during two one-week periods, seven weeks apart (= 12 samples/person). Psychosocial working conditions, health, and well-being were measured once. Results. NICU nurses had better social support and more self-determination. CAP nurses had a lower salivary cortisol quotient, poorer general health, and higher client-related burnout scores. Conclusion. When comparing these nurses with existing norm data for Sweden, as a group their scores reflect less work-related stress than Swedes overall. However, the comparison between NICU and CAP nurses indicates a less healthy work situation for CAP nurses. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Healthcare managers need to acknowledge the less healthy work situation CAP nurses experience in order to provide optimal support and promote good health.

  11. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. The ERP research about the influence of the music of Chopin on working memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C. A.; Wei, Hong-tao; Yue, Li-juan

    2011-10-01

    This study is to examine the effect of the music of Chopin on working memory and the electrical activity of the brain in different conditions by using event-related potentials (ERPs), adopting n-back experimental paradigm and to study the neuromechanism. Thirty adults performed behavioral experiments with three conditions of music and two levels of n-back task. Fourteen normal adults performed ERP experiments with the same program as the behavioral experiment and the EEG were recorded. Chopin music improved people's working memory and pilot music improved most effectively.P3 peak amplitude decreased as working memory load increased. Especially in high load task, P3 peak amplitude decreased gradually in pilot music, background music and free music condition.

  13. The Influence of Natural User Experience on Information Laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Švedaitė

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the main cause of user experience on development methods and laws, including Fitt’s Law, Hick-Hyman Law, Accot’s Law, Gestalt Law, proximity, similarity, closure, continuity, figure and ground, simplicity, symmetry and experience.Article in Lithuanian

  14. The influence of past experience on wilderness choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan E. Watson; Joseph W. Roggenbuck; Daniel R. Williams

    1991-01-01

    A study of Southern Appalachian backcountry hikers tested the hypothesis that recreationists with high experience levels would have greater differentiation of site attribute values when making recreation choices than would individuals with low experience. Contrary to cognitive development theory, a simulated laboratory choice study found that more experienced subjects...

  15. Experiences that influence a student's choice on majoring in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbin, Donya Rae

    Currently the production of college graduates with science and engineering degrees is insufficient to fill the increasing number of jobs requiring these skills. This study focuses on physics majors with an in-depth examination of student transitions from high school to college. Many different areas of influence could affect a student's decision to major in physics. The first phase of this study addresses all of the potential areas of influence identified from the literature. The goal was to identify common influences that might be used to increase students' interest in majoring in physics. Subjects (N=35) from the first phase were recruited from physics majors at diverse Michigan colleges and universities. The second phase of this study explored, in more depth, important areas of influence identified in the first phase of the study. Subjects (N=94) from the second phase were recruited from diverse colleges and universities in Indiana, Illinois, and Ohio. The interviews were also conducted via email. Approximately half of the students in the study decided to major in physics while still in high school. Their reasons relate to many of the areas of influence. For example, high school physics teachers were cited as a strong influence in many students' decisions to major in physics. Influential physics teachers were described as being helpful, encouraging and interesting. The teachers also need to be their students' number one cheerleader and not their number one critic. Some areas of influence were found to be different for males vs. females. A high percentage of all physics majors had influential adults with careers in physical or biological science fields. This percentage was even larger for female physics majors. Female students also showed a greater initial interest in astronomy than the male students. Thus, high school and college physics teachers should seek to expose students to science-related careers and adults with these careers. Astronomy is also an

  16. Genotoxicity Testing on the International Space Station: Preparatory Work on the Experiment TRIPLE-LUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojicic, N.; Walrafen, D.; Rabbow, E.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rettberg, P.; Weisshaar, M. P.; Horneck, G.

    Harmful environmental factors - namely ionizing radiation - will continue to influence future manned space missions. The Radiation Biology Unit at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) develops cellular monitoring systems, which include bacterial and mammalian cell systems capable of recognizing DNA damage as a consequence of the presence of genotoxic conditions. Such a bioassay is the SWITCH test, which is part of the German space experiment ``Gene, immune and cellular responses to single and combined space flight conditions'' (TRIPLE-LUX) which has been selected by NASA to be performed on the International Space Station. It will supply basic information on the genotoxic response to radiation applied in microgravity. The biological end-point under investigation will depend on the bacterial SOS response brought about by genetically modified bacteria that are transformed with the pSWITCH plasmid (constructed from the plasmids pPLS-1 and pGFPuv). This luminescent/fluorescent bioassay for rapid toxicity (genotoxicity and cytotoxicity) testing, the SWITCH test (SWITCH: {S}almonella {W}eighting of {I}nduced {T}oxicity {C}yto/GenoTox for Human {H}ealth), makes use of two sensing and reporting systems for the two biological endpoints under investigation: the SOS-Lux test and the LAC-Fluoro test. The SWICH plasmid carries the promoterless lux operon of Photobacterium leiognathi as reporter element under the control of the DNA-damage dependent SOS promoter of ColD as sensor element (for genotoxicity testing) and the sequences for a hybrid protein consisting of ß-galactosidase and GFPuv of Aequorea victoria as reporter element under the control of the (in Salmonella constitutively active) LAC promoter of Escherichia coli as sensor element (for cytotoxicity testing). The system has worked properly for terrestrial applications during the first experiments. Experiments using X-rays and UV radiation of various qualities (from UVC to UVA) have given insights into cellular mechanisms

  17. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full......-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups’ high fidelity of room layout and affordance...... of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models’ high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity...

  18. Influences on the use of observational methods by practitioners when identifying risk factors in physical work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego-Mas, Jose-Antonio; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Garzon-Leal, Diana-Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Most observational methods for musculoskeletal disorder risk assessment have been developed by researchers to be applied in specific situations, and practitioners could find difficulties in their use in real-work conditions. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors which have an influence on how useful the observational techniques are perceived to be by practitioners and to what extent these factors influence their perception. A survey was conducted on practitioners regarding the problems normally encountered when implementing these methods, as well as the perceived overall utility of these techniques. The results show that practitioners place particular importance on the support the methods provide in making decisions regarding changes in work systems and how applicable they are to different types of jobs. The results of this study can serve as guide to researchers for the development of new assessment techniques that are more useful and applicable in real-work situations.

  19. Nurses' experiences of working in organizations undergoing restructuring: A metasynthesis of qualitative research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Anne Sofie Bøtcher; Sørensen, Dorthe

    2017-01-01

    Health care organizations worldwide undergo continual reconfiguration and structural changes in order to optimize the use of resources, reduce costs, and improve the quality of treatment. The objective of this study was to synthesize qualitative studies of how nurses experience working in organizations undergoing structural changes. The review is designed as a metasynthesis and follows the guidelines put forth by Sandelowski and Barroso for synthesizing qualitative research. From January to April 2015, literature searches were conducted in the CINAHL, PubMed, ProQuest, and Web of Science databases for the period from 1994 to 2014. A total of 762 articles were found and screened, 12 of which were included in the review after being appraised using a specially designed reading guide. The inclusion criteria were qualitative studies in English, German, Norwegian, Swedish, or Danish on nurses' experiences with being employed in organizations undergoing structural changes. The data were then analyzed in a metasummary and metasynthesis. Four overall categories that illustrate how nurses experience working in organizations undergoing structural changes were identified: nursing management, emotional responses, nursing work, and colleagues. Generally, nurses seemed to describe their experiences working in organizations undergoing structural changes in a negative way, as all of the included articles reported that nurses experience an increased workload due to restructuring. However, some of the articles reported that nurses also experience a certain joy associated with the nursing work despite the negative consequences of the structural changes. The findings can be seen as a paradox because former research has shown that an increased workload reduces the pleasure in working. Further research on this topic is needed to ensure a better working environment for nurses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculating Program for Decommissioning Work Productivity based on Decommissioning Activity Experience Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chan-Ho; Park, Seung-Kook; Park, Hee-Seong; Moon, Jei-kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    KAERI is performing research to calculate a coefficient for decommissioning work unit productivity to calculate the estimated time decommissioning work and estimated cost based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2. KAERI used to calculate the decommissioning cost and manage decommissioning activity experience data through systems such as the decommissioning information management system (DECOMMIS), Decommissioning Facility Characterization DB System (DEFACS), decommissioning work-unit productivity calculation system (DEWOCS). In particular, KAERI used to based data for calculating the decommissioning cost with the form of a code work breakdown structure (WBS) based on decommissioning activity experience data for KRR-2.. Defined WBS code used to each system for calculate decommissioning cost. In this paper, we developed a program that can calculate the decommissioning cost using the decommissioning experience of KRR-2, UCP, and other countries through the mapping of a similar target facility between NPP and KRR-2. This paper is organized as follows. Chapter 2 discusses the decommissioning work productivity calculation method, and the mapping method of the decommissioning target facility will be described in the calculating program for decommissioning work productivity. At KAERI, research on various decommissioning methodologies of domestic NPPs will be conducted in the near future. In particular, It is difficult to determine the cost of decommissioning because such as NPP facility have the number of variables, such as the material of the target facility decommissioning, size, radiographic conditions exist.

  1. An evaluation of factors influencing perceptual experiences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N Mofolo

    (87.2%) indicated that they believe internship prepared them well for community service and 65.0% were positive about the .... not being in an academic/research environment, job security, workload and working hours.11–13. Another problem experienced worldwide and locally is the lack ..... Working conditions were the.

  2. Working Together Online to Enhance Learner Autonomy: Analysis of Learners' Perceptions of Their Online Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneau, Jerome; Develotte, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This study concerns the development of autonomy in adult learners working on an online learning platform as part of a professional master's degree programme in "French as a Foreign Language". Our goal was to identify the influence of reflective and collaborative dimensions on the construction of autonomy for online learners in this programme. The…

  3. Boxing and dancing: Dutch trade union and works council experiences revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, M.; Sprenger, W.

    2005-01-01

    This paper contains a quantitative analysis of approaches and results of 67 projects of Dutch company union groups and Works Councils to influence technological and organisational change, in three generations between 1975 and 1996. The effectiveness of problem-solving activities jointly undertaken

  4. Dissecting the journey: nursing student experiences with collaboration during the group work process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Lissa L; Roberge, Ginette D

    2012-11-01

    Since the outset of nursing care, group work processes have evolved into essential components of a nurse's role and responsibilities within the health care system. To reflect this trend, group work is often utilized as a medium to promote professional socialization in undergraduate nursing curricula. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the ways undergraduate nursing students experience collaboration during group work activities. Braun and Clarke's (2006) theoretical thematic analysis combined with Pollio et al.'s (2006) interpretive framework was utilized to capture the students' lived experiences regarding group work. The participants of this study consisted of 96 undergraduate students enrolled in a nursing program in Canada. Written descriptions of their perceptions of their group work practices were analyzed to determine the extent to which these adhere to the collaborative practice essential elements (Jones and Way, 2006). Analysis of the results revealed an unexpected element of collaboration that of the psychosocial element in group work. The results from this study expose advantages and disadvantages of group work processes during group work in nursing education. This type of insight is valuable for educators to prepare nursing students for the complex demands of working with interdisciplinary teams. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. The Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS): a useful tool in workplace health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Petra; Andersson, H Ingemar; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    To present validity data for the Work Experience Measurement Scale (WEMS), an instrument measuring multifaceted work experience from a salutogenic health resource perspective as a contrast to the more common pathogenic risk perspective, by exploring WEMS relationship to established measurements that are positively related to health and work. A salutogenic perspective focuses on finding conditions and resources in life, for example at work, that can enhance the individual's health and strength, instead of those causing illness and weakness. This study was carried out in 2009 at a Swedish hospital with a web-based survey (WEMS) to 770 employees. Different occupational groups at the hospital participated. Additional questionnaires used at the same time were the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES-9), the Salutogenic Health Indicator Scale (SHIS), the General Self-Efficacy scale (GSE), and three questions about self-rated health, general well-being, and quality of life. Cronbach's Alpha of WEMS sub-indices were in the interval of 0.85-0.96. Convergent validity and discriminant validity of WEMS and its sub-indices were shown to be satisfying by correlations. In addition, WEMS demonstrated the ability to discriminate between groups. WEMS sub-indices discriminated even better between groups than the total index. The WEMS proved to be a workplace health promotion questionnaire that was able to measure experiences of work from a salutogenic perspective. The WEMS has a potential of being a useful tool in workplace health promotion to enhance positive human capabilities and resources to improve work performance.

  6. [The trauma of miscarriage--factors influencing the experience of anxiety after early pregnancy loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berth, Hendrik; Puschmann, Anne-Katrin; Dinkel, Andreas; Balck, Friedrich

    2009-08-01

    The experience of miscarriage results in tremendous emotional disturbance for many affected women. Depression, anxiety, (pathological) grief, and posttraumatic stress symptoms are commonly experienced reactions. Several factors influence the level of emotional distress, like age, previous experience of miscarriage, or social support. In this work, we investigated the level of emotional distress after miscarriage using a novel methodological approach. Through the world wide web, N = 500 texts of women who reported freely on their miscarriage were accessed and analyzed using the Dresden Anxiety Dictionary, a German computerized version of the Gottschalk-Gleser speech analysis. The women were 28 years old on average. The texts were written, on average, about 28 days after the miscarriage. Women's pregnancy had lasted between 2 and 40 weeks (M = 12). The scores pertaining to death anxiety and mutilation anxiety were higher than the norm. More than 20 % of the women reported an increased level of anxiety. Variables that influenced the level of anxiety were age, time since miscarriage, duration of pregnancy, previous miscarriage, and social support. The results underscore the need for treatment, at least for sub-groups of affected women who have a higher risk for a complicated course of coping with miscarriage.

  7. Organization of the STAR Experiment Software Framework at JINR. Results and Experience from the First Two Years of Work

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipkin, D A

    2004-01-01

    The organization of STAR experiment software framework at JINR is described. The approach being based on the distributed file system ASF was implemented at the NEOSTAR minicluster at LPP, JINR. An operation principle of the cluster as well as its work description and samples of the performed analysis are also given. The results of the NEOSTAR minicluster performance have demonstrated broad facilities of the distributed computing concept to be employed in experimental data analysis and high-energy physics modeling.

  8. Psychosocial factors and their influence on the experience of pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln M. Tracy

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Over the past 20 years, our understanding of social factors on pain experience has increased. Edwards et al observed that the presence of a friend resulted in an increased pain threshold and tolerance to experimentally induced pain (cold pressor test and pressure algometry. Having a male friend present had the most prominent effect on male participants' reporting of pain. However, the effects of psychosocial traits known to effect pain experience (eg, catastrophising were not considered.

  9. The influence of traffic noise on children's work efficiency while using a computer at school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samo Fošnarič

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the consequences of new technical innovations is also noise. It represents a considerable problem especially in form of traffic noise in urban areas. It damages intellectual work in educational institutions and has a substantial effect on personality development, among other things. Taking all this facts into consideration we started a research presented in this paper. We wanted to establish what the influence of traffic noise is on the efficiency of pupils working with computer which has become an extremely popular learning tool. We prepared different tasks that require increased attentiveness and tasks that require a certain activity of pupil's memory. When investigating the influence of traffic noise we used the Signal Detection Theory and methods for testing short-term memory. The results of the research, conducted in artificial working conditions show that mental work within the frame of intellectual activities and memorizing during these activities is in a negative interdependence with noisy environment. This means that pupils can succumb to the pressures of the working environment when using a computer. Unfortunately, this can consequently negatively effect their health and work efficiency.

  10. Fuel cell technology for classroom instruction. Basic principles, experiments, work sheets. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Cornelia; Hoeller, Stefan; Kueter, Uwe

    2009-07-01

    This book provides a clear introduction and overview to fuel cell technology and its associated subject areas. Examples of experiments using solar cells, electrolysis and fuel cells convey the knowledge for forthcoming tests in an understandable manner. The preparation of classroom experiments is made considerably easier for the teacher thanks to the experiment work sheets. These contain the necessary information concerning the material, set-up and execution of the experiment, and questions for evaluation purposes. Online-Shop The training documents and student work sheets combine the basic knowledge, questions and answers, and are ideal for copying. A comprehensive glossary at the end of the book explains all the important technical terms. (orig.)

  11. THE CREATIVE INFLUENCE OF PABLO PICASSO ON THE WORKS OF LATVIAN ARTISTS

    OpenAIRE

    Apele, Diāna

    2017-01-01

    Pablo Picasso is one of the Western modern culture creators of the first part of the 20th century. Picasso has influenced numerous artists directly or indirectly – both the followers of Western school and artists here, in Latvia. The main topic of this research is Pablo Picasso's influence on Latvian artists, specifically – Visvaldis Ziediņš, Rūdolfs Pinnis and Aleksandrs Dembo. Picasso stands out for exceptionally virtuosic style – it was characteristic of him to begin each new work as an in...

  12. The Relationship between Innovation Influence and Customer Loyalty: An Empirical Study of an Experience Economy Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Taylor A.

    2014-01-01

    2014 dissertation for MSc in International Business Management. Selected by academic staff as a good example of a masters level dissertation. Good customer experience is a driver to increased customer satisfaction,\\ud leading to customer loyalty. This is prominent in the context of experience\\ud economy industries, an industry where the main purchase is an experience.\\ud Previous conflicting theory depicts innovation as a positive influencer and\\ud non-influencer of customer satisfaction. To ...

  13. Getting what you want: How fit between desired and received leader sensitivity influences emotion and counterproductive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Elizabeth A; Kueny, Clair Reynolds; Shoss, Mindy K; Metzger, Andrew J

    2016-10-01

    We challenge the intuitive belief that greater leader sensitivity is always associated with desirable outcomes for employees and organizations. Specifically, we argue that followers' idiosyncratic desires for, and perceptions of, leader sensitivity behaviors play a key role in how followers react to their leader's sensitivity. Moreover, these resulting affective experiences are likely to have important consequences for organizations, specifically as they relate to employee counterproductive work behavior (CWB). Drawing from supplies-values (S-V) fit theory and the stressor-emotion model of CWB, the current study focuses on the affective and behavioral consequences of fit between subordinates' ideal leader sensitivity behavior preferences and subordinates' perceptions of their actual leader's sensitivity behaviors. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that congruence between ideal and actual leader sensitivity influences employee negative affect and, consequently, engagement in counterproductive work behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Breastfeeding mothers returning to work: experiences of women at one university in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Carole; Monk, Hilary; Hall, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Working women need to juggle work, child care and family to continue to breastfeed. This qualitative study's aim was to explore women's experiences of returning to work following the birth of their baby. Focus groups were held with women within one multi-campus university, who had commenced breastfeeding at birth and had returned to work or study within 12 months. In addition, educators working with babies in childcare centres on two of the campuses were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed used Rogoff's (2003) three planes of analysis, the individual, the interpersonal and the cultural-institutional. Three themes, proximity, flexibility, and communication, were identified relating to the factors impacting on women and their choices to breastfeed or wean on returning to work. From a socio-cultural perspective these themes can be understood as situated within the interrelated contexts of workplace, child care and family. Limitations of the study include the small number of participants and recruitment from one university.

  15. Qualification, knowledge and experience of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain A; Ibrahim MIM

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacies are managed by a variety of dispensers in terms of qualification, knowledge and experience in Pakistan. Objective The study aimed to document the state of knowledge, experience and qualification of dispensers working at community pharmacies in Pakistan. Methods A comparative cross sectional study was conducted at a randomly selected sample of 371 pharmacies in the three cities of Pakistan. A structured questionnaire for data collection was developed and finalized by focused group d...

  16. Preferences for working in rural clinics among trainee health professionals in Uganda: a discrete choice experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rockers Peter C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health facilities require teams of health workers with complementary skills and responsibilities to efficiently provide quality care. In low-income countries, failure to attract and retain health workers in rural areas reduces population access to health services and undermines facility performance, resulting in poor health outcomes. It is important that governments consider health worker preferences in crafting policies to address attraction and retention in underserved areas. Methods We investigated preferences for job characteristics among final year medical, nursing, pharmacy, and laboratory students at select universities in Uganda. Participants were administered a cadre-specific discrete choice experiment that elicited preferences for attributes of potential job postings they were likely to pursue after graduation. Job attributes included salary, facility quality, housing, length of commitment, manager support, training tuition, and dual practice opportunities. Mixed logit models were used to estimate stated preferences for these attributes. Results Data were collected from 246 medical students, 132 nursing students, 50 pharmacy students and 57 laboratory students. For all student-groups, choice of job posting was strongly influenced by salary, facility quality and manager support, relative to other attributes. For medical and laboratory students, tuition support for future training was also important, while pharmacy students valued opportunities for dual practice. Conclusions In Uganda, financial and non-financial incentives may be effective in attracting health workers to underserved areas. Our findings contribute to mounting evidence that salary is not the only important factor health workers consider when deciding where to work. Better quality facilities and supportive managers were important to all students. Similarities in preferences for these factors suggest that team-based, facility-level strategies for

  17. The influence of workplace culture on nurses' learning experiences: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kate; White, Sarahlouise; Stephenson, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    A healthy workplace culture enables nurses to experience valuable learning in the workplace. Learning in the workplace enables the provision of evidence-based and continuously improving safe patient care, which is central to achieving good patient outcomes. Therefore, nurses need to learn within a workplace that supports the implementation of evidence-based, professional practice and enables the best patient outcomes; the influence of workplace culture may play a role in this. The purpose of this review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available qualitative evidence to understand both the nurses' learning experiences within the workplace and the factors within the workplace culture that influence those learning experiences. Registered and enrolled nurses regulated by a nursing and midwifery board and/or recognized health practitioner regulation agency (or their international equivalent). This review considered studies that described two phenomena of interest: the nurses' learning experience, either within an acute healthcare workplace or a workplace-related learning environment and the influence of workplace culture on the nurses' learning experience (within the workplace or workplace-related learning environment). This review considered studies that included nurses working in an acute healthcare organization within a Western culture. This review considered studies that focused on qualitative evidence and included the following research designs: phenomenological, grounded theory and critical theory. Published and unpublished studies in English from 1980 to 2013 were identified using a three-step search strategy, searching various databases, and included hand searching of the reference lists within articles selected for appraisal. For studies meeting the inclusion criteria, methodological quality was assessed using a standardized checklist from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI). Qualitative data

  18. Ups and downs of the expatriate experience? Understanding work adjustment trajectories and career outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wanberg, Connie R; Harrison, David A; Diehn, Erica W

    2016-04-01

    We examine changes in work adjustment among 179 expatriates from 3 multinational organizations from predeparture through the first 9 months of a new international assignment. Our 10-wave results challenge classic U-shaped theories of expatriate adjustment (e.g., Torbiorn, 1982). Consistent with uncertainty reduction theory, our results instead suggest that expatriates typically experience a gradual increase in work adjustment over time. Two resources that expatriates bring to their assignments (previous culture-specific work experience and core self-evaluations) moderate the trajectory of work adjustment. Trajectory of adjustment predicts Month 9 career instrumentality and turnover intention, as well as career advancement (job promotion) 1.5 years further. Implications for theory, as well as for changes in expatriate management practices, are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Working together: critical care nurses experiences of temporary staffing within Swedish health care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg Jansson, Anna; Engström, Åsa

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to describe critical care nurses (CCN's) experiences of working with or as temporary agency staff. This explorative qualitative study is based on interviews with five agency CCNs and five regular CCNs, a total of ten interviews, focusing on the interviewees' experiences of daily work and temporary agency staffing. The interviews were analysed manually and thematically following an inductive approach. Four themes that illustrate both similarities and differences between regular and temporary agency CCNs emerged: "working close to patients versus being responsible for everything", "teamwork versus independence", "both groups needed" and "opportunities and challenges". The study findings illustrate the complexity of the working situation for agency and regular staff in terms of the organisation and management of the temporary agency nurses and the opportunities and challenges faced by both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age-Differences in Work Motivation and Job Satisfaction. The Influence of Age on the Relationships between Work Characteristics and Workers' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Nicolle P. G.; de Jong, Ad H. J.; Janssen, Sara M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of age on the relationship between work characteristics and workers' work motivation and job satisfaction. In total, 1036 workers of a Dutch division of a multinational organization participated. Data were collected by a digital questionnaire. Two interaction terms in the regression on work motivation were…

  1. Work stress and cancer researchers: an exploration of the challenges, experiences and training needs of UK cancer researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, F; Hicks, B; Yarker, J

    2014-07-01

    Work stress is a significant issue for many UK healthcare professionals, in particular those working in the field of oncology. However, there have been very few attempts to explore the challenges, experiences or training needs of researchers working in cancer research. In doing so, we will be better positioned to support and develop these researchers. Eighteen UK oncology researchers from a variety of backgrounds took part in a semi-structured interview. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The analysis identified two overarching themes: logistical research issues (workload, accessing/recruiting participants, finances) and sensitive research issues (emotional demands, professional boundaries, sensitivity around recruitment). One cross-cutting theme, supportive strategies (support and training, coping mechanisms), was seen to influence both logistical and sensitive research issues. While further research is needed to fully understand the causes and impact of work stress on cancer researchers, three specific issues were highlighted: emotional demands are relevant to quantitative and mixed methods researchers as well as those engaged in qualitative research; the researchers' background (experience; clinical/non-clinical) was influential and an exploration of effective coping strategies is required; and there is a clear need for adequate support systems and training to be available, particularly for early career researchers. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Deciding to work during the Ebola outbreak: The voices and experiences of nurses and midwives in Liberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhuvwukorotu S. Kollie

    Full Text Available In this study we explored the experiences of nurses and midwives, including the process involved in deciding whether or not to render care to patients during the Ebola outbreak in Liberia, West Africa. Data were collected from 30 registered nurses and registered midwives through face-to-face, semi-structured, tape-recorded interviews. We combined both Corbin and Strauss (2015 and Charmaz (2014 grounded theory methods of data collection and analysis. The result is a description of the experiences and a conceptual model that describes the social process involved in the work decisions made by the study participants. The core category identified in the data is “living in fear and terror.” The work decisions of nurses and midwives were primarily influenced by family responsibilities and demands. The findings of this study could be applied to education, research, and working policies when planning for future disease outbreaks in Liberia and other regions in the world. Keywords: Grounded theory, Health care, Work environment, Midwifery, Nursing

  3. The influence of ethical leadership on trust and work engagement: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos S. Engelbrecht

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Work engagement is increasingly becoming an important outcome for organisational success. A trusting and ethical relationship between leaders and followers is likely to positively contribute to the work engagement of employees.Research purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between ethical leadership and trust in the leader and the effect these constructs have on the work engagement of employees.Motivation for the study: The study on the role of ethical leadership practices on employee engagement was motivated by the need to create an engaged workforce and a trusting work environment.Research approach, design and method: Data was collected using an electronic web-based questionnaire comprising three scales, namely the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES,Leader Trust Scale (LTS and the Leadership of Ethics Scale (LES. In total, 204 completed questionnaires were returned. Data was analysed by means of item and confirmatory factor analysis conducted via structural equation modelling (SEM.Main findings: High levels of reliability were found for all the measurement scales used. The results from the structural equation modelling (SEM indicated positive relationships between trust in the leader and work engagement, between ethical leadership and work engagement and between ethical leadership and trust in the leader.Practical/managerial implications: The findings emphasise the role played by ethical leadership behaviour of managers in promoting work engagement through the creation of employee relationships anchored on trust. Future studies should develop the theoretical model further by identifying other variables that influence work engagement.Contribution/value-add: Organisations today still face the challenge of developing an effective strategy for achieving work engagement. The ethical leadership style of managers is likely to create an ethical and trusting work climate conducive to the work engagement of

  4. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions.1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged <30 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership, employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues with commuter walking.Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49% were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers.A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within

  5. The impact of midlife educational, work, health, and family experiences on men's early retirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damman, Marleen; Henkens, Kène; Kalmijn, Matthijs

    2011-09-01

    In empirical studies on predictors of retirement, midlife experiences have often remained implicit or been neglected. This study aims to improve our understanding of retirement by examining the impact of midlife educational, work, health, and family experiences on early retirement intentions and behavior. We distinguish theoretically and empirically between financial and nonfinancial preretirement factors through which midlife experiences could affect retirement. Using panel data of 1,229 Dutch male older workers, we estimated linear regression models to explain retirement intentions and logistic regression models to explain retirement behavior. Midlife experiences in all studied life spheres are related to retirement intentions. Educational investments, job changes, late transitions into parenthood, and late divorces are associated with weaker intentions to retire early. Midlife health problems are related to stronger early retirement intentions. For midlife work and family experiences, the relationships are (partly) mediated by the preretirement financial opportunity structure. In the educational, work, and health spheres, the preretirement nonfinancial situation has a mediating effect. Only some of the predictors of retirement intentions also predicted retirement behavior. Given the destandardization of life courses, information on distal life experiences might become even more important toward understanding retirement in the future.

  6. The role of affective experience in work motivation: Test of a conceptual model

    OpenAIRE

    SEO, MYEONG-GU; Bartunek, Jean M.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to contribute to understanding of the crucial role of emotion in work motivation by testing a conceptual model developed by Seo, Barrett, and Bartunek (2004) that predicted the impacts of core affect on three behavioral outcomes of work motivation, generative-defensive orientation, effort, and persistence. We tested the model using an Internet-based investment simulation combined with an experience sampling procedure. Consistent with the predictions of the model,...

  7. Third-year pharmacy students' work experience and attitudes and perceptions of the pharmacy profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracuse, Mark V; Schondelmeyer, Stephen W; Hadsall, Ronald S; Schommer, Jon C

    2008-06-15

    To describe PharmD students' work experiences and activities; examine their attitudes towards their work; examine perceptions of preceptor pharmacists they worked with; and determine important issues associated with career preference. A written survey was administered to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students at 8 colleges and schools of pharmacy in the Midwest. Five hundred thirty-three students (response rate = 70.4%) completed the survey instrument. Nearly 100% of PharmD students reported working in a pharmacy by the time their advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) began. Seventy-eight percent reported working in a community pharmacy, and 67% had worked in a chain community pharmacy. For all practice settings, students reported spending 69% of their time on activities such as compounding, dispensing, and distribution of drug products. Most students are working in community pharmacy (mainly chain) positions where their primary function is traditional drug product dispensing and distribution. Having a controllable work schedule was the variable most strongly associated with career choice for all students.

  8. Influence of heating experiments on parameters of Schumann resonances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agranat Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently the significant increase in intensity of researches in the field of the fissile impact on geophysical processes in various environments is noted. Special attention is paid to a research of impact on an ionosphere of a potent short-wave radio emission of heating stands. Today experiments on change of an ionosphere are made generally at stands HAARP, EISCAT in Tromse (Norway. Within the Russian campaign (Tomsk EISCAT/heating (AARI_HFOX made from October 19 to October 30, 2016 experiments on impact on an ionosphere F-layer by the radiation potent HF. For assessment of impact of these experiments on geophysical processes mathematical methods carried out the analysis of change of the parameters of the Schumann resonances received on the basis of data from the station of constant observation of the Schumann resonances in the city of Tomsk, the Tomsk State University (Russia.

  9. Swimming performance in surf: the influence of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, M; Reilly, T; Rees, A; Spray, G; Golden, F

    2008-11-01

    This study tested the hypothesis (H1) that surf swimming involves a quantifiable experience component. Sixty-five beach lifeguards with (n = 35) and without surf experience (n = 30) completed: a best effort 200-m swim in a 25-m pool, a calm and a surf sea; an anthropometric survey; maximum effort 30-s swim bench test; 50-m pool swim (25 m underwater). In both groups, time to swim 200 m was slower in calm seas than in the pool and slower in surf than in either calm seas or the pool (p surf conditions (p surf experience as a predictor of surf swim time (R(2) = 0.32, p surf swimming. This limits the usefulness of pool swim times and other land-based tests as predictors of surf swimming performance. The hypothesis (H1) is accepted.

  10. Part-time work and adolescent heavy episodic drinking: the influence of family and community context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslin, F Curtis; Adlaf, Edward M

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies on part-time work and alcohol use suggest that teenagers who work longer hours drink more heavily. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether family- and community-level factors moderate the relationship between part-time work hours and heavy episodic drinking. Data were drawn from the Canadian Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of Canadians. The survey included 8,080 respondents 15-19 years of age who reported work hours and frequency of heavy episodic drinking over the past 12 months. These respondents were located in 136 counties or municipalities across Canada. On average, work hours were positively associated with the frequency of heavy drinking by teenagers in the past 12 months. At the community level, the proportion of teenagers in each community drinking any alcohol was independently and positively associated with respondents' frequency of heavy drinking. In terms of moderating effects, we found that the work hours-drinking association was weaker among youth from low socioeconomic status families. Examination of community-level factors indicated that longer work hours were more strongly associated with heavy episodic drinking in communities with high rates of teen alcohol abstinence. Although the cross-sectional data prohibit any firm conclusions on how family and community factors influence the work-alcohol use relationship, these data suggest that interventions to reduce heavy episodic drinking among teens should address the broader environmental as well as the individual determinants.

  11. In-hospital Breastfeeding and Intention to Return to Work Influence Mothers' Breastfeeding Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas-Jackson, Shera C; Bentley, Gail E; Keyton, Kristina; Reifman, Alan; Boylan, Mallory; Hart, Sybil L

    2016-11-01

    Research continues to demonstrate that formula feeding is associated with numerous long-term negative outcomes for a mother and her infant. However, many women cease breastfeeding sooner than intended and recommended. Breastfeeding has been found to be related to demographics, maternal mood, and returning to work outside the home. This study aimed to shed light on the woman's perception of the effect of working on intended breastfeeding duration. This study used intentions to return to work and in-hospital breastfeeding to predict breastfeeding intentions. Women (N = 160) were surveyed during the first 48 hours postdelivery of healthy, full-term infants. Survey instruments included demographics (socioeconomic status, maternal age, education, and marital status), depression, fetal attachment, current exclusive breastfeeding status, as well as breastfeeding and return-to-work intentions for the next year. A path analysis was used to explore relationships and predictors of breastfeeding intentions. The model had a good fit and breastfeeding intentions were predicted by exclusive breastfeeding in the hospital (β = 0.21, P work (β = -0.18, P work influence how long a mother intends to breastfeed. Attention to these areas can be provided immediately postpartum to support exclusive breastfeeding and provide informational support on continuing to breastfeed/express milk upon return to work if the mother intends to return to work.

  12. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Esliger, Dale W; Taylor, Ian M; Sherar, Lauren B

    2017-01-01

    Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking) is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions. 1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation) and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues) with commuter walking. Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49%) were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within the workplace and organisational level travel policies may be required in order to promote commuter walking.

  13. Why Does Disaster Recovery Work Influence Mental Health?: Pathways through Physical Health and Household Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Kwok, Richard K; Payne, Julianne; Engel, Lawrence S; Galea, Sandro; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-12-01

    Disaster recovery work increases risk for mental health problems, yet the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. We explored links from recovery work to post-traumatic stress (PTS), major depression (MD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms through physical health symptoms and household income in the aftermath of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. As part of the NIEHS GuLF STUDY, participants (N = 10,141) reported on cleanup work activities, spill-related physical health symptoms, and household income at baseline, and mental health symptoms an average of 14.69 weeks (SD = 16.79) thereafter. Cleanup work participation was associated with higher physical health symptoms, which in turn were associated with higher PTS, MD, and GAD symptoms. Similar pattern of results were found in models including workers only and investigating the influence of longer work duration and higher work-related oil exposure on mental health symptoms. In addition, longer worker duration and higher work-related oil exposure were associated with higher household income, which in turn was associated with lower MD and GAD symptoms. These findings suggest that physical health symptoms contribute to workers' risk for mental health symptoms, while higher household income, potentially from more extensive work, might mitigate risk. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  14. Study of the influence on emotional work contract nurses on Job Burnout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Changping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discuss the influences of contract nurse’ emotion work on job burnout and provide theoretical basis for reducing the job burnout of perception level which caused by emotion work of contract nurse. Methods: The data which comes from the questionnaire survey about the Chinese edition of Maslach job burnout scale for 298 contract nurse is used statistical analysis by SPSS11.5 software. Results: The current contract nurse is more inclined to “surface acting” on working and the nurses have a lower level “depersonalization” (P < 0.05, the difference is statistically significant and the more “deep acting” are used the lower level of job burnout. There is a various factors’ correlation between contract nurse’s emotion work and job burnout. : Conclusions: The “surface acting” could increase job burnout, “deep acting” and emotion expression requirements could increase personal job satisfaction.

  15. A Numerical Experiment to Test the Influence of the Uncertainty of Earth Model on Nutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C. L.; Zhang, M.

    2014-12-01

    From an infinite set of coupled ordinary differential equations that govern the infinitesimal elastic-gravitational oscillations of a rotating, slightly elliptical Earth, as well as a set of boundary conditions on displacement vector, stress tensor and gravity potential, the theoretical nutation model of non-rigid earth can be numerically obtained. In these differential equations and the boundary conditions, the distributions of density and elastic (Lame) parameters interior the Earth are key parameters and are usually input from 1D earth model like PREM. However, the influence of the uncertainty of a given earth model on nutation has never been checked. In this work, we made a numerical experiment to test it, and some primary results will be presented.

  16. Human Rights and Neoliberalism in Australian Welfare to Work Policy: Experiences and Perceptions of People with Disabilities and Disability Stakeholders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Parker Harris

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent policy approaches in Australia, influenced by neoliberalism, have constrained the implementation of international disability rights at the national level. Within the neoliberal and human rights approaches to social policy, what is the lived experience of people with disabilities? In focus groups with people with disabilities and interviews with disability stakeholders in Australia, participants were asked about their experiences and perspectives of welfare to work programs. We analyzed the data by drawing on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities as a framework. The analysis revealed tensions between the rights and responsibilities of citizens and the government, and a disconnection between policy discourse and policy practice. The results suggest that disability rights are jeopardized unless governments take responsibility to create the policy environment for rights-based policy to be implemented; including the equalization of opportunities, providing accessible information and communication about employment, and addressing the administration and process practices that employment service providers follow.

  17. The influence of authentic leadership and areas of worklife on work engagement of registered nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamford, Megan; Wong, Carol A; Laschinger, Heather

    2013-04-01

    To examine the relationships among nurses' perceptions of nurse managers' authentic leadership, nurses' overall person-job match in the six areas of worklife and their work engagement. Reports have highlighted the impact of demanding and unsupportive work environments on nurses' wellbeing, resulting in a need for strong nursing leadership to build sustainable and healthier work environments. A secondary analysis of data collected from a non-experimental, predictive design survey of a random sample of 280 registered nurses working in acute care hospitals was conducted. An overall person-job match in the six areas of worklife fully mediated the relationship between authentic leadership and work engagement. Further, authentic leadership, overall person-job match in the six areas of worklife and years of nursing experience explained 33.1% of the variance in work engagement. Findings suggest that nurses who work for managers demonstrating higher levels of authentic leadership report a greater overall person-job match in the six areas of worklife and greater work engagement. As nurse managers' play a key role in promoting work engagement among nurses, authentic leadership development for nurse managers focusing on self-awareness, relational transparency, ethics and balanced processing would be beneficial. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. 'How science works' and data logging: eleven quick experiments with a kettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin

    2010-11-01

    The benefits of using data logging to teach 'how science works' are presented. Pedagogical approaches that take advantage of other school ICT are briefly described. A series of simple, quick experiments are given together with their resulting charts. Examples of the questions that arise from the charts show how the rich data lead to the refinement of the experiments, increased confidence in the measurements and improved understanding of the physics involved. The charts themselves support pupil discussion and curiosity about the physics. The simple experiments enable familiarity with data logging hardware and software to be built up.

  19. The Influence of Perceived Organizational Injustice towards Workplace Personal Web Usage and Work Productivity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Fathonah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Workplace personal web usage (WPWU is an employee’s activity in using internet for non-related task during working hours. It is considered a counterproductive behavior when done excessively because it can interrupt employee’s productivity, but it can increase creativity and eliminate bore- dom when used in a rational amount. The objective of this study was to prove whether perceived organizational injustice had influence on WPWU which affected work productivity. A total of 222 respondents working in various industries were gathered through web-survey. By using multino- mial logistic regression analysis, this study found that high level use of internet for unrelated jobs between 2 to 4 hours a day was influenced by respondents’ perception of not getting fair treatment and incentive for being good performer, which then caused them to perform very low completion of tasks. There were two contrasting views regarding this result; organizations considered it as deviant behavior because it reduced employees’ performance whereas employees regarded it as just short breaks to get rid of stress. Hence, this finding suggested that companies should redesign its internet policies to accommodate “Work-Life Blend”; blending work and personal lives, as a consequence of cultural shift in the era of globalization and new technologies.

  20. Influence of Teachers' Teaching Experience on Students' Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examined teachers' teaching experience and students' learning outcomes in the secondary schools in Ondo State Nigeria. As a correlational survey, the study population comprised all the 257 secondary schools that presented students for the year 2003 senior secondary certificate (SSC) examinations in the ...

  1. Influence of Teachers' Teaching Experience on Students' Learning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Items 1 - 6 ... differences in teaching strategies, Schuler (1984) grouped teachers into three levels of teaching experience (3-6; 7-10 and ... better job prospects in other sectors of the economy. However, the desire by ... examinations has replaced the WASC and GCE examinations in Nigeria, it still uses the GCE 'O'. & 'A' level ...

  2. Early breastfeeding experiences influence parental self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunseler, F.C.; Hankel, M.A.; Balm, K.E.; Oosterman, M.; Schuengel, C.

    2012-01-01

    Parental self-efficacy (PSE) is defined as "the expectation caregivers hold about their ability to parent successfully" (Jones & Prinz, 2005, p. 342). According to Bandura (1977), self-efficacy is based on four sources, including ‘performance accomplishments’: if successful experiences are repeated

  3. Surgeons' work engagement: influencing factors and relations to job and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mache, Stefanie; Vitzthum, Karin; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2014-08-01

    Work engagement has become a topic of great interest in recent years. However, clinicians' work engagement has rarely been studied and relatively little is known about its predictors and consequences. Therefore the objective of this cross-sectional questionnaire study was to test a model of possible institutional and personal predictors and significant relations to job and life satisfaction. 123 clinicians specializing in Surgery Medicine participated in the study. Self-administered questionnaires, including the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, the Brief Resilient Coping Scale and the Questionnaire for Self-efficacy, Optimism and Pessimism, were administered. Bivariate analyses and a stepwise regression analysis were performed. The whole sample of surgeons rated work engagement with a high mean of M = 4.38; SD = .91. Job satisfaction and perceived quality of life have been rated with moderate scores. The results show that job resources have a greater impact on surgeons' work engagement than their job demands. Significant correlations between surgeons' work engagement, their job satisfaction and quality of life were found. Moreover, work engagement mediated the relation between institutional factors and surgeons' job satisfaction. Our research suggests that strengthening surgeons' work engagement will contribute to a more sustainable workplace, in terms of both individual and hospital performance. Therefore, increasing work engagement among surgeons should be of concern for supervisors and hospital managers. Future research should focus on further predictors that may have an influence on health professionals' work engagement. Another field for future research is to study potential effects of interventions on work engagement. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of Pre-Pharmacy Work Experience on Development of Professional Identity in Student Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Timothy J; Smith, Jennifer D; Rich, Wesley

    2017-12-01

    Objective. To determine the benefit of pharmacy work experience on the development of student pharmacists' professional identity. Methods. Students in all four professional years were surveyed using a validated Professional Self-identity Questionnaire (PSIQ). They were also asked about pharmacy experience prior to matriculation and their performance on Drug Information tests given midway through the P1 year and at the beginning of the P3 year. PSIQ responses and test results were compared based on pharmacy experience. Results. The PSIQ was completed by 293 student pharmacists, for a 67% response rate, with 76% of respondents reporting pharmacy experience prior to matriculation. Statistically higher scores on responses to 6 of the 9 PSIQ Likert-type items were observed from students in the first professional year for those with pharmacy experience; however, only one item in the second year showed differences with none in the third and fourth years. No impact of experience was observed on Top 100 or Top 300 grades. Conclusion. Pre-matriculation pharmacy experience may increase development of professional identity early in the student experience but may have little impact on academic readiness. Schools and colleges of pharmacy hoping to recruit students with an early sense of professional identity should consider adding such experience to their admissions requirements.

  5. Work Floor Experiences of Supply Chain Partnering in the Dutch Housing Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marieke Venselaar

    2017-11-01

    internal generalization are underexposed. All identified gaps have in common specific time and place dependent details that may have influenced understanding of studied individuals are underexposed and that may explain a feeling that current literature is abstracted from individual work experiences. What are work floor experiences of project leaders who work for Dutch housing associations and who try to apply the principles of SCP? The narratives describe that with or without a managerial intervention, some of the project leaders start experimenting with applying SCP. Individual initiatives have risen, albeit in a somewhat patchy and uncoordinated manner. The number and nature of supply chain partners is large, diverse, complex and dynamic. It appeared to be difficult to unify all the participants with different agendas and frames of reference. The cases address many issues in intra-organizational relations that hamper the collaboration with external partners. The work experiences also show that key values associated with SCP are applied only to some groups and individuals within the supply chain. Similarities between the cases in terms of strength, scope, duration and depth The cases were compared using four dimensions that were provided by Eriksson (2015. The dimensions are strength, scope, duration and depth of SCP. This resulted in multiple observations. None of the project leaders worked with preferred partners (by-passing expensive and time-consuming procurement and selection procedures in any case, and there is no indication that this will change in the future. In all three cases, it was expected that applying SCP would reduce costs, but there was no agreement as to what those costs were specifically. In general, pricing and cost remained a complex topic, and all project leaders referred to different aspects of this topic. Formally, the duration of relationship with the contractors was one project only. Informally, the respondents acknowledged that they expected to

  6. Influence of Motivation on the Effectiveness of Work in a chosen Firm

    OpenAIRE

    Hrutkaiová, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    This bachelor thesis is concerned with motivation of employees, describes factors, which can directly or indirectly influence workers and instigate them to efficient work. Theory engages with the definition of motivation term, and its importance, motivation progression and also describes concrete tools, which stimulate increase in employee's motivation. The practical part evaluates system of motivation and its effect in chosen company and also decides whether chosen methods succeeded.

  7. An examination of the relationship of interpersonal influences with walking and biking to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew E; Bopp, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Active commuting (AC) to the workplace is a successful strategy for incorporating more physical activity into daily life and is associated with health benefits. The purpose of this study was to understand the relationship between interpersonal influences and AC. A cross-sectional online survey was delivered to workplaces in the mid-Atlantic region. A volunteer convenience sample of adults (N = 1234) completed questions about demographics, number of times per week actively commuting, spouse and coworker AC patterns, and spousal and coworker normative beliefs for AC. Basic descriptive and frequencies described the sample; bivariate correlations examined the relationship between AC and spouse and coworker variables. A multivariate regression analysis predicted the variance in AC with interpersonal independent variables. The sample was primarily middle-aged, white (92.7%), female (67.9%), and well-educated (83.3% college graduate or higher). Of those surveyed, 20.3% report AC to work at least once per week by means of walking or biking. The number of times per week of AC for spouse (P coworkers (P = .006) and AC norms for spouse (P coworker (P < .001) were positively related to AC. The multivariate regression model accounted for 37.9% of the variance in AC (F = 101.83, df = 4, P < .001). This study demonstrates that interpersonal influences are significantly related to actively commuting to work. Future interventions targeting AC should consider these interpersonal influences in addition to individual and environmental influences that have been previously documented.

  8. How sex work becomes an option: Experiences of female sex workers in Kerman, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Foroozanfar, Zohre; Ahmadi, Azal; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Vogel, Joanna; Zolala, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    Sex work is rarely an occupation of choice for Iranian women and is often described as a last resort. While several factors play a role in creating an environment where individuals become involved in sex work, female sex workers' experiences regarding entry into sex work in Iran are poorly understood. In this qualitative study, a convenience sample of 24 participants was recruited from a drop-in centre for vulnerable women in Kerman, Iran. Through in-depth interviews, participants were asked about their personal lived experiences of initiating sex work. Grounded theory was used to analyse findings from this research. We learned that major factors impacting on women's initiation into sex work circulated around their vulnerability and chronic poverty. Participants continued to sell sex due to their limited opportunities, drug dependence and financial needs. Improving sex workers' economic status could be a vital intervention in providing vulnerable women with options other than sex work. Female sex workers should be provided with government support and educational programmes delivered through special centres. Despite the illegal status of their work, sex workers' needs should be recognised across all aspects of policy and legislation.

  9. Progression paths in children's problem solving: The influence of dynamic testing, initial variability, and working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resing, Wilma C M; Bakker, Merel; Pronk, Christine M E; Elliott, Julian G

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated developmental trajectories of analogical reasoning performance of 104 7- and 8-year-old children. We employed a microgenetic research method and multilevel analysis to examine the influence of several background variables and experimental treatment on the children's developmental trajectories. Our participants were divided into two treatment groups: repeated practice alone and repeated practice with training. Each child received an initial working memory assessment and was subsequently asked to solve figural analogies on each of several sessions. We examined children's analogical problem-solving behavior and their subsequent verbal accounts of their employed solving processes. We also investigated the influence of verbal and visual-spatial working memory capacity and initial variability in strategy use on analogical reasoning development. Results indicated that children in both treatment groups improved but that gains were greater for those who had received training. Training also reduced the influence of children's initial variability in the use of analogical strategies with the degree of improvement in reasoning largely unrelated to working memory capacity. Findings from this study demonstrate the value of a microgenetic research method and the use of multilevel analysis to examine inter- and intra-individual change in problem-solving processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diving in: Adolescents' Experiences of Physical Work in the Context of Theatre Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuisku, Hannu

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with adolescents' experiences and perceptions of physical actor training practice in the context of theatre education. The study took place in Kallio Upper Secondary School of Performing Arts in Helsinki, Finland, where I work as a drama teacher. As a researcher, I carried out an authorized inquiry with two groups of 16-year old…

  11. 20 CFR 664.460 - What are work experiences for youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are work experiences for youth? 664.460 Section 664.460 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Youth Program Design, Elements, and Parameters § 664...

  12. The Effect of Agile Workspace and Remote Working on Experiences of Privacy, Crowding and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Keeling

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Occupant density is an important and basic metric of space use efficiency. It affects user experience of privacy, crowding and satisfaction. The effect of agile working has been two fold. Firstly, offices have an increasing range of workspace settings such as break out space, collaborative space and contemplative space in contrast to the traditional workspace settings of assigned desks and formal meeting rooms. Secondly, office workers have become increasingly mobile as they are able to work from a greater variety of locations both in and out of their main place of work. This study asks whether workers who occupy agile workspaces and those with greater mobility experience privacy differently from workers with more conventional offices and work patterns. The experience of privacy can be considered in terms of retreat from people, control of information flow and control of interactions. Our results show that agile workspaces improve the ability to control information compared with open plan offices. It was also found that highly mobile workers are more sensitive to the negative effects of interacting with people. From this a taxonomy of offices is defined in terms of the features that contribute to the experience of privacy.

  13. Work Experiences of Foreign-Born Asian Women Counseling and Psychology Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Mok, Geoffrey; Nishida, Harumi

    2014-01-01

    Eleven foreign-born and -raised Asian women faculty in counseling and psychology programs in the United States were interviewed about their work experiences. Analysis using consensual qualitative research revealed 7 sources of stressors, 6 emotional reactions associated with stressors, 5 coping strategies, and 4 types of intrinsic rewards gained…

  14. Language, Work, and Learning: Exploring the Urban Experience of Ethnic Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shibao; Zhang, Jijiao

    2010-01-01

    This study, involving a questionnaire and personal interviews with participants from more than 10 ethnic minority groups, explores the work and learning experiences of ethnic migrant workers in China's Beijing and Shenzhen. The study reveals that China's ethnic migrant workers face multifaceted barriers in their adaptation to urban life. They…

  15. Which Type of Work-Study Experience Is More Beneficial?: Perceptions of Taiwanese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng Cheng; Ho, Hsuan-Fu; Chen, Shan-Hua

    2013-01-01

    The rapid increase of tuition and the reduced financial support from government and families have forced many more students to take part-time jobs, however, different jobs might bear different benefits. The main purposes of this study were to identify the major benefits of part-time jobs or work-study experiences performed by college students, and…

  16. Working with mental health problems : clients' experiences of IPS, vocational rehabilitation and employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koletsi, Marsha; Niersman, Astrid; van Busschbach, Jooske T.; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Burns, Tom; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Roessler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Wiersma, Durk

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of

  17. 20 CFR 220.127 - When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When the only work experience is arduous unskilled physical labor. 220.127 Section 220.127 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... education who has a life-long history of arduous physical labor. B says that he is disabled because of...

  18. A Different Kind of Animal: Liminal Experiences of Social Work Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, Gail; Cronley, Courtney; Smith, Kenneth Scott

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that social and academic integration is a vital factor in doctoral student retention. This paper describes findings from a qualitative study which explored the experiences of a cohort of social work doctoral students during the first year in their programme of study. We used the anthropological concept of liminality which…

  19. Promoting Chemistry Learning through Undergraduate Work Experience in the Chemistry Lab: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hong-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Hiring undergraduate lab assistants in chemistry departments is common in college. However, few studies have focused on promoting undergraduate chemistry learning and thinking skills through this work experience in chemistry teaching laboratories. This article discusses the strategy we implemented in the lab assistant program. The…

  20. Astronaut Donald McMonagle works with HPP-2 experiment on middeck

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Atlantis' mid-deck, astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, works with the Heat Pipe Performance (HPP-2) experiment. HPP-2 was flown to investigate the thermal performance and and fluid dynamics of heat pipes operating with asymmetric and multiple heating zones under microgravity conditions.

  1. "How Science Works" and Data Logging: Eleven Quick Experiments with a Kettle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Justin

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of using data logging to teach "how science works" are presented. Pedagogical approaches that take advantage of other school ICT are briefly described. A series of simple, quick experiments are given together with their resulting charts. Examples of the questions that arise from the charts show how the rich data lead to the refinement…

  2. A Quantitative Analysis of the Work Experiences of Adults with Visual Impairments in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolffe, Karen E.; Ajuwon, Paul M.; Kelly, Stacy M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Worldwide, people with visual impairments often struggle to gain employment. This study attempts to closely evaluate the work experiences of employed individuals with visual impairments living in one of the world's most populous developing nations, Nigeria. Methods: The researchers developed a questionnaire that assessed personal and…

  3. Examining Education and Newsroom Work Experience as Predictors of Communication Students' Perceptions of Journalism Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detenber, Benjamin H.; Cenite, Mark; Malik, Shelly; Neo, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines education and work experience in newsrooms as predictors of ethical perceptions among communication undergraduates at a large Singaporean university (N = 826). Results indicate that education is associated with ethical ideologies, perceived importance of journalism ethics codes, justifiability of using contentious news…

  4. Translation of work experience into a Diploma of Public Administration, BA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anne

    Administration. It is examined how this particular case could be successful, and how the translations of work experiences into academic standards took place using an actor-network theory approach. It is based on the candidate’s written reflections, conversations with the involved professionals and the authors...

  5. Experience of Social Media, Training and Development on Work Proficiency: A Qualitative Study with Security Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyireh, Rexford Owusu; Okyireh, Marijke Akua Adobea

    2016-01-01

    How useful is social media and training programs to the development of professionals in the security sector? In this study the researchers examined three key issues pertaining to training programs. These were marketing of training programs, participant experiences of training content and work proficiency. A sample of ten participants of a forensic…

  6. The Lived Experience of Nurses Working with Student Nurses in the Clinical Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathorn, Donna; Machtmes, Krisanna; Tillman, Ken

    2009-01-01

    One response to the nursing shortage is to increase promotion and retention in nursing programs: However, negative attitudes of nurses threaten student progression and retention. A phenomenological study explored the lived experience of nurses who worked with student nurses to discover "what" attitudes nurses had toward student nurses…

  7. The Effect of Group Works and Demonstrative Experiments Based on Conceptual Change Approach: Photosynthesis and Respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibik, Ayse Sert; Diken, Emine Hatun; Darcin, Emine Selcen

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of the use of group works and demonstration experiments based on conceptual change approach in the elimination of misconception about the subject of photosynthesis and respiration in plants in pre-service science teachers. This study was conducted with 78 pre-service science teachers including…

  8. Brushed behind the Bike Shed: Working-Class Lesbians' Experiences of School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Yvette

    2007-01-01

    This article aims to address concerns about schools as locations where students grapple, materially and subjectively, with class-based notions of femininity, the promotion of heterosexuality and the support of hetero-normative, middle-class families against, and in contrast with, their own working-class families, identities and experiences. Two…

  9. Improving the Work-Integrated Learning Experience through a Third-Party Advisory Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Denise; Ferns, Sonia; Rowbottom, David; Mclaren, Diane

    2017-01-01

    This study trialled a Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) Advisory Service, provided by the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Western Australia (CCIWA) in collaboration with four WA universities. The service was established to broker relationships between industry and universities, support employers engaged in WIL and enhance the WIL experience for…

  10. Reflections and Experiences of Student Paramedics Undertaking International Work-Integrated Learning Placements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Paul; Thyer, Liz; Van Nugteren, Ben; Mitchell, Glen; Werner, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    International work-integrated learning (WIL) is increasingly common in health-related programs in Australian universities. Paramedicine programs are beginning to explore international WIL in line with the globalization of paramedicine as a profession and the national higher education emphasis on outward bound learning experiences. Using…

  11. Stress at work: Differential experiences of high versus low SES workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, Sarah; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Smyth, Joshua M

    2016-05-01

    This paper asks whether workers with higher socioeconomic status (SES) experience different levels of stress at work than workers with lower SES and, if so, what might explain these differences. We collected innovative assessments of immediate objective and subjective measures of stress at multiple time points across consecutive days from 122 employed men and women. We find that in comparison to higher SES individuals, those with lower SES reported greater happiness at work, less self-reported stress, and less perceived stress; cortisol, a biological marker of stress, was unrelated to SES. Worker's momentary perceptions of the workplace were predicted by SES, with higher SES individuals more commonly reporting feeling unable to meet work demands, fewer work resources, and less positive work appraisals. In turn, perceptions of the workplace had a generally consistent and robust effect on positive mood, subjective stress, and cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Breastfeeding experiences of women who work at a textile industry from Ceará, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Ana Márcia Bustamante; Machado, Márcia Maria Tavares; Aquino, Priscila de Souza; de Almeida, Maria Irismar

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to understand the experience of women staff employed in a textile industry from Ceara State, Brazil, after returning to work, compared to the process of breastfeeding or weaning. Qualitative research carried out in June 2007 with five working mothers. The stories of these women, from a set of open-ended questions revealed difficulties in reconciling work and breast feeding, because of their beliefs and lack of social and institutional support. The poor conditions of work which these women are exposed are also determining factors in the continuation or discontinuation of breast feeding, being necessary to extend the improvements in institutions with childcare, milk collection places and escorting permanently of these women, when produce their return to work.

  13. Commuter migration: work environment factors influencing nurses' decisions regarding choice of employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajacich, D; Freeman, M; Armstrong-Stassen, M; Cameron, S; Wolfe, B

    2014-06-01

    Nurse migration is of global concern for every country, and study of migration can provide critical information for managers concerned with nurse recruitment and retention. This mixed-methods research examined factors influencing registered nurses' (RNs') decisions to work in their home country, Canada, or to commute daily to a nursing position in the United States. Measures included nurses' feelings about their work environment conditions, work status congruence (the goodness of fit between employer expectations and their own regarding hours and times worked), professional development opportunities, and their perceptions of organizational support and autonomy (freedom and independence) in the workplace. All work environment variables were significantly higher for nurses working in Michigan. Qualitative results supported these survey findings, providing additional information about nurses' satisfaction. Nurses in our sample were more satisfied with all the work environment factors examined, even when stress from commuting out of country was experienced. The environmental issues examined in this study should be considered by nurse managers concerned with recruitment and retention of nurses. Copyright © 2014 Longwoods Publishing.

  14. General experiences + race + racism = Work lives of Black faculty in postsecondary science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Eileen R. C.; Bulls, Domonique L.; Freeman, Tonjua B.; Butler, Malcolm B.; Atwater, Mary M.

    2016-12-01

    Existent research indicates that postsecondary Black faculty members, who are sorely underrepresented in the academy especially in STEM fields, assume essential roles; chief among these roles is diversifying higher education. Their recruitment and retention become more challenging in light of research findings on work life for postsecondary faculty. Research has shown that postsecondary faculty members in general have become increasingly stressed and job satisfaction has declined with dissatisfaction with endeavors and work overload cited as major stressors. In addition to the stresses managed by higher education faculty at large, Black faculty must navigate diversity-related challenges. Illuminating and understanding their experiences can be instrumental in lessening stress and job dissatisfaction, outcomes that facilitate recruitment and retention. This study featured the experiences and perceptions of Black faculty in science education. This study, framed by critical race theory, examines two questions: What characterizes the work life of some Black faculty members who teach, research, and serve in science education? How are race and racism present in the experiences of these postsecondary Black faculty members? A phenomenological approach to the study situates the experiences of the Black participants as valid phenomena worthy of investigation, illuminates their experiences, and seeks to retain the authenticity of their voices.

  15. INFLUENCE OF MODERATE TRAINING ON GAIT AND WORK CAPACITY OF FIBROMYALGIA PATIENTS: A PRELIMINARY FIELD STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pierrynowski

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available This field study examined the influence of moderate intensity training on gait patterns and work capacity of individuals with fibromyalgia syndrome (FS. FS is a chronic condition of unknown etiology, characterized by muscle tenderness, pain and stiffness and often accompanied by depression and fatigue which seems to occur primarily in middle aged females. There is no known cure for FS but treatment often includes a prescription of mild exercise. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of mild exercise on work capacity and gait patterns in FS patients. Participants were 14 females (age 47.0± 7.6 y who participated in a 10 wk community based aerobic, strength and stretching program designed for FS individuals. Subjects were evaluated pre- and post-program and at a 2 month follow up. Work capacity was estimated by a sub-maximal PWC 170 cycle ergometer test and a Borg perceived exertion scale. Gait was assessed using OptoTrack three dimensional kinematics with 16 channel analogue data acquisition system. Trunk flexibility was also assessed. No significant change in estimated work capacity or flexibility was seen between pre- post- and follow up times. Nevertheless, a significant increase in self selected walking speed (p < 0.05 and a trend toward a more normal gait pattern that was sustained in the follow up testing was noted. We had previously also reported a significant improvement in muscle pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms in this population consequent to the training program. It was concluded that mild exercise training that does not influence work capacity or trunk flexibility can nevertheless positively influence gait mechanics and fibromyalgia symptoms in female FS patients

  16. Experiments on Factors That Influence Muscular Function in Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-25

    intermittent isometric contractions as described before (Lind & Williams, 1979) using a hand-grip dynamometer (Clark, Hellon & Lind, 1958). The training...measurements of blood flow.min-1 ; a wrist -cuff was not used in these experiments (Williams & Lind, 1979). As previously described (Lind & Williams,9% 1979...exert isometric contractions on a hand-grip dynamometer (Clarke et al., 1958). The training procedure involved the exertion of 2 maximal voluntary

  17. Nursing in Times of Neoliberal Change: An Ethnographic Study of Nurses’ Experiences of Work Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Selberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic study of nurses’ experiences of work intensification, this article shows how nurses respond to and act upon neoliberal transformations of work. The article identifies and explores those transformations considered by the informants, nurses working in public sector hospital wards, as central to changing conditions of work and experiences of work intensifications. It further analyzes nurses’ responses toward these transformations and locates these responses within a particular form of femininity evolving from rationalities of care, nurses’ conditions within the organization, and classed and gendered experiences of care work. The article illustrates that in times of neoliberal change and public sector resource depletion, nurses respond to women’s traditional caring responsibilities as well as to professional commitments and cover for the organization. Maintaining the level of frontline service is contingent on increased exploitation and performance control of ward nurses, and their ability and willingness to sacrifice their own time and health for the sake of their patients. The article argues that in the case of ward nurses in the Swedish public sector, work intensification is a multilayered process propelled by three intersecting forces: austerity ideology linked to the neoliberal transformation of the welfare state and public sector retrenchment; explicit care rationalities impelled by aspirations of the nursing profession to establish, render visible, and expand the nursing field both in relation to the medical profession and in relation to so-called unskilled care work performed by assistant nurses and auxiliaries; and the progressive aspect of New Public Management, which challenges the power and authority of the professions and contributes to strengthening the positions of clients and patients.

  18. Work experiences among attendees of day centres for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Mona; Sandlund, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    It is possible that people with psychiatric disabilities who visit day centres have previous work experiences that may be seen as resources for their current engagement in day centre activities. Research in this respect seems to lack, however. To investigate work experiences among attendees at day centres for people with psychiatric disabilities and relationships with current type of day centre (work-oriented, meeting place-oriented or mixed), engagement in day centre activities, motivation and socio-demographic and health-related factors. Seventy-seven attendees responded to questionnaires. Global Assessment of Functioning, GAF, was also used. Work was categorised into Group I (professionals, semi-professionals), Group II (clerical support, services workers) and Group III (e.g. craft workers, elementary occupations). Almost everyone had previously had open-market employment; more than half for ≥ 10 years. Group I was more common in mixed centres, Group II in meeting place-oriented ones and Group III in work-oriented ones. Group I more frequently had college degree and was rated high on GAF functioning. Women were over-represented in Group II, and men in Group III and in meeting place-oriented centres. Attending mixed centres was more likely when having a college degree, scoring high on GAF functioning and being highly engaged in activities. Attendees at work-oriented day centres were characterised by being motivated for spending time alone and reporting a diagnosis of psychosis. The participants had unused working capacity. No clear-cut relationships were found between work experiences and the investigated correlates.

  19. Formulating a return-to-work decision for employees with major depressive disorders: occupational therapists' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramano, Enos; Buys, Tania; De Beer, Marianne

    2016-04-20

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is worldwide one of the most concerning health problems as it is associated with reduced work productivity and permanent disability. Occupational therapists are often called upon to make a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD in order to facilitate continued employment. Sustaining employment is in alignment with achieving the Millennium Development Goal 1: Eradicating extreme poverty, as it is known that people suffering from mental health disorders are frequently denied employment opportunities leading to reduced financial resources and therefore possible poverty. This study described occupational therapists' experiences of formulating a return-to workdecision on employees with MDD. It formed part of a larger study. Occupational therapists working in vocational rehabilitation or mental health in South Africa with a postgraduate qualification in vocational rehabilitation or mental health participated in the study. A qualitative research design was used. Two separate focus groups explored 11 occupational therapists' experiences of formulating a return-to-work decision on employees with MDD. Ethics clearance number: S34/2007. Seven themes emerged, which were, (1) the biographical profile of the employee, (2) point of view of employer, (3) point of view of employee, (4) point of view of occupational therapist, (5) declaring the employee as temporary incapacitated, (6) declaring the employee as permanently incapacitated and (7) employee's level of motivation. Occupational therapists ought to have sound knowledge, skill, experience and the ability to collaborate with employees and employers in formulating a return-to-work decision.

  20. The Influence of Hands On Physics Experiments on Scientific Process Skills According to Prospective Teachers' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirça, Necati

    2013-01-01

    In this study, relationship between prospective science and technology teachers' experiences in conducting Hands on physics experiments and their physics lab I achievement was investigated. Survey model was utilized and the study was carried out in the 2012 spring semester. Seven Hands on physics experiments were conducted with 28 prospective…

  1. The top-down influence of ergogenic placebos on muscle work and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollo, Antonella; Carlino, Elisa; Benedetti, Fabrizio

    2008-07-01

    Placebos have been shown to induce powerful effects in a variety of medical conditions, such as pain and movement disorders, as well as to increase physical performance and endurance in healthy subjects. Here we investigated the effects of an ergogenic placebo on the performance of the quadriceps muscle, which is responsible for the extension of the leg relative to the thigh. In a first experiment, a placebo was administered along with the suggestion that it was caffeine at high dose. This resulted in a significant increase in mean muscle work across subjects, which, however, was not accompanied by a decrease of perceived muscle fatigue. In a second experiment, the placebo caffeine was administered twice in two different sessions. Each time, the weight to be lifted with the quadriceps was reduced surreptitiously so as to make the subjects believe that the 'ergogenic agent' was effective. After this conditioning procedure, the load was restored to the original weight, and both muscle work and perceived fatigue assessed after placebo administration. Compared with the first experiment, the placebo effect was larger, with a significant increase in muscle work and decrease in perceived muscle fatigue. Within the context of the role of peripheral and/or central mechanisms in muscle performance, the present findings suggest a central mechanism of top-down modulation of muscle fatigue. In addition, the difference between the first and second experiment underscores the role of learning in increasing muscle performance with placebos.

  2. A natural experiment of peer influences on youth alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang; Li, Yi; Owen, Craig; Wang, Hongyu; Duncan, Greg J

    2015-07-01

    This study estimates peer effects on alcohol use, drawing from a database of about 2000 randomly-assigned roommates on a college campus. The estimation of peer influences also takes into consideration ego's history of alcohol use and friendship with the peer. College students averaged an additional two-fifths of a binge drinking episode per month and an additional one-half of a drinking episode per month when randomly assigned a roommate who drank in high school than when assigned a roommate who did not drink in high school. An individual's prior history of alcohol use proves important. Peer effects on binge drinking as well as drinking for those who already drank in high school were about twice as large as average peer effects. When one did not have a history of alcohol use, negative peer influences were absent. Also important is the friendship between peers. When a peer is considered a best friend, the step-up effect (or positive interaction effect) increased by 1.25-1.61 drinking episodes per month. However, even when a peer is not considered a best friend, a drinking peer still increased ego's drinking episodes by 0.75-1.00 per month. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Influence of work status of mothers on the weight of full-term newborns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemez-Sandoval, J C; Bermúdez-Meléndez, I; Camacho-Lozano, T; Coronel-Rodríguez, L A; Echeverría-Silva, M G; García-Navarrete, M E; Moysen-Márquez, F A; Nieto-Tapia, A; Peñafiel-Grijalva, A; Pineda-Molina, J L

    1990-10-01

    Birth weight is considered as the most important indicator of growth and intrauterine development as well as the nutritional status of the newborn. Several reports have demonstrated the influence of both biological and social variables on low birth weight, among which being discussed is the influence of the mothers work activities. Two hundred and thirty-two newborns were studied at the Regional Hospital "20 de Noviembre" of the Institute de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE) and selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria which homogenized the sample and allowed to associate the work status of the mother with the low birth weight of the child. The somatometric data of the newborns was obtained from official registrars from the Perinatology Ward and directly from the mothers who were interviewed. The results did not significant statistical differences in the weight of the newborns of those mothers who do work than in those who don't. It was concluded that for this sample, the favorable socioeconomic fund established by a double family income apparently compensates any disadvantages which the work activity could have on the newborns' weight.

  4. Influence of working gas properties on MWPC anode wire modulation effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hu; Chen, Xiao-Qiang

    2015-10-01

    For MWPCs used for X-ray position detection, simulation studies of the anode wire modulation effect of the detector were carried out using the Garfield program. Different gas mixtures were used as the working gas in the simulation, so as to obtain the influence of the X-ray cross section and electron diffusion coefficient of the working gases on the anode wire modulation effect of an MWPC with anode wire spacing of 2 mm. Results show that, though a working gas with higher X-ray cross section implies a larger average drift distance for the ionized electrons, such gas mixtures are of little use in improving the anode wire modulation effect of MWPCs. It is found that the transverse electron diffusion coefficient is the determining factor for the extent of the anode wire modulation effect in the detector. Supported by Scientific Research Fund of Sichuan Provincial Education Department (11ZA140)

  5. Male first-line managers' experiences of the work situation in elderly care: an empowerment perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagerman, Heidi; Engström, Maria; Häggström, Elisabeth; Wadensten, Barbro; Skytt, Bernice

    2015-09-01

    To describe male first-line managers' experiences of their work situation in elderly care. First-line managers' work is challenging. However, less attention has been paid to male managers' work situation in health care. Knowledge is needed to empower male managers. Fourteen male first-line managers were interviewed. The interview text was subjected to qualitative content analysis. Work situations were described as complex and challenging; challenges were the driving force. They talked about 'Being on one's own but not feeling left alone', 'Having freedom within set boundaries', 'Feeling a sense of satisfaction and stimulation', 'Feeling a sense of frustration' and 'Having a feeling of dejection and resignation'. Although the male managers report deficiencies in the support structure, they largely experience their work as a positive challenge. To meet increasing challenges, male first-line managers need better access to supportive structural conditions. Better access to resources is needed in particular, allowing managers to be more visible for staff and to work with development and quality issues instead of administrative tasks. Regarding organisational changes and the scrutiny of management and the media, they lack and thus need support and information from superiors. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Work or retirement: Exploration of the experiences of Iranian retired nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobahar, Monir; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Alhani, Fatemah; Khoshknab, Masood Fallahi

    2015-01-01

    According to recent studies, the level of international interest in bridge employment, as return to work after retirement, has been growing. This study aimed to explore the experiences of retired nurses in Iran with regard to making a decision about whether or not to seek bridge employment. A qualitative study using a content analysis approach was conducted in an urban area of Iran. Semi-structured interviews were held with 20 Iranian male and female retired nurses chosen using purposive sampling. During the data analysis, two main themes were identified as the participants' thoughts supporting the decision of seeking bridge employment. The first theme was entitled motivational factors with categories of ``serving the society,'' ``maintaining and promoting health,'' ``tendency toward flexible work,'' and ``maintaining the role and activity.'' The second theme was entitled forcing factors with categories of ``ardent desire to work (pluralistic ignorance)'' and ``financial need.' ' While some Iranian retired nurses were not motivated to seek work for health reasons, most preferred to return to work after retirement. They were motivated to seek bridge employment out of a desire to serve the society, to promote their own physical and mental health, to continue to use their expertise and maintain the worker role, and because of financial needs and perceived societal expectations. Nurses seeking employment later in life tended to look for job flexibility and less stressful work. Therefore, the management of bridge employment by healthcare system authorities can be useful in making use of the invaluable experiences of retired nurses.

  7. Students' Experience of Working with Socioscientific Issues - a Quantitative Study in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottander, Christina; Ekborg, Margareta

    2012-12-01

    This research project aims to investigate how students in lower secondary school experience work with socioscientific issues (SSI). The six socioscientific cases developed and used in this project are relevant according to characteristics of SSI and to the national curriculum. Approximately 1,500 students in Sweden have worked with one SSI case chosen by the teachers. A questionnaire-based instrument was used to measure the affective domain of students' attitudes towards and interest in science before starting to work with the case and a second questionnaire after finishing a case. The second student questionnaire, measured the situational characteristics of the SSI work and perceived cognitive and affective outcomes. According to the students' self-reported experience, all cases were interesting and related to a current issue. Most cases were equally interesting to boys and girls, the only exception was You are what you eat, which girls found more interesting than boys did. Almost all students claim that they learnt new facts, learnt to argue for their standpoint and to search and evaluate information during the work with the cases. The girls' average scores were higher on several aspects of learning outcomes. Furthermore the students, especially the girls, perceived that the outcome of working with SSI had relevance for their future, with some cases more relevant than others. The more interesting the student found the case, the more they claimed they learnt. The students do not, however, claim that they learnt more science than during ordinary lessons.

  8. Does Therapists' Disengaged Feelings Influence the Effect of Transference Work? A Study on Countertransference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Hanne-Sofie Johnsen; Høglend, Per; Ulberg, Randi; Amlo, Svein; Gabbard, Glen O; Perry, John Christopher; Christoph, Paul Crits

    2017-03-01

    Exploration of the patient-therapist relationship (transference work) is considered a core active ingredient in dynamic psychotherapy. However, there are contradictory findings as for whom and under what circumstances these interventions are beneficial. This study investigates long-term effects of transference work in the context of patients' quality of object relations (QOR) and therapists' self-reported disengaged feelings. Therapists' disengaged feelings may negatively influence the therapeutic process, especially while working explicitly with the transference since discussing feelings that are present in the session is an essential aspect of transference work. One hundred outpatients seeking psychotherapy for depression, anxiety and personality disorders were randomly assigned to one year of dynamic psychotherapy with transference work or to the same type and duration of treatment, but without transference work. Patients' QOR-lifelong pattern was evaluated before treatment and therapists' feelings were assessed using the Feeling Word Checklist-58 after each session. Outcome was measured with self-reports and interviews at pre-treatment, mid-treatment, post-treatment, one year and three years after treatment termination. A significant interaction of treatment group (transference work versus no transference work) by QOR by disengaged therapist feelings was present, indicating that disengaged feelings, even small amounts, were associated with negative long-term effects of transference work, depending on QOR Scale scores. The strengths of the negative association increased significantly with lower levels of QOR. The negative association between even a small increase in disengaged therapist feelings and long-term effects of transference interpretation was substantial for patients with poor QOR, but small among patients with good QOR. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Therapists' emotional reactions to their patients (countertransference) seem to have a

  9. Factors Influencing Positive Birth Experiences of First-Time Mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Nilsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The objective of this study was to describe first-time mothers’ experiences and reflections of their first birth. Study Design. This study is a part of a larger study which was carried out in southwestern Sweden in 2008. A qualitative method with content analysis was chosen for this study. The unit of data was 14 written narratives from the first-time mothers. Results. The theme “To be empowered increases first-time mothers’ chances for a positive birth experience” crossed over into all the three categories: “To trust the body and to face the pain,” “Interaction between body and mind in giving birth,” and “Consistency of support.” Conclusion. In order to feel confident in their first childbirth, the women wanted to be confirmed and seen as unique individuals by the professionals and their partner. If professionals responded to the individual woman’s needs of support, the woman more often had a positive birth experience, even if the birth was protracted or with medical complications.

  10. Control works in debris-flow channels: influence on morphology and sediment transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchi, L.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive torrent control works, such as grade-control dams, debris basins, deflecting walls, etc. have been implemented in the European Alps since the last decades of 19th century. These structural measures, aimed at stabilizing channels and to control sediment transport, are also widespread in Japan and are increasingly present in other mountain regions. As debris flows are one of the most destructive processes in steep mountain channels, hydraulic works are often intended to attenuate debris-flow hazard. Multi-temporal aerial photos and historic records permit evaluating the long term effects of torrent control works on the morphological settings of the channels and the delivery of sediment. The experience arising from over one century of torrent control works in debris-flow channels of the Alps permits also to improve the management of steep headwater catchments. A basic issue in the management of debris-flow channels is the recognition of success versus failure of engineering control works. Successful debris-flow control works provide benchmarks for further implementations, whereas the failure in reducing debris-flow hazard may lead to refinements in planning and design of control works or to the choice of preferring non-structural measures for coping with debris flows. Data from historical archives on debris-flow occurrence and on the performance of control works are the basic sources of information for these analyses. Moreover, when dealing with hydraulic structures for debris-flow control, it should be reminded that the artificial morphology resulting from the construction of check dams provides only a temporary stability to the channel and adjacent banks. This stresses the importance of evaluating the state of conservation and the effectiveness of control works and implies the need for their careful and continuous maintenance. Inventories of hydraulic structures, coupled with detailed data on catchment and channel topography, sediment sources and supply

  11. Can cognitive activities during breaks in repetitive manual work accelerate recovery from fatigue? A controlled experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svend Erik Mathiassen

    Full Text Available Neurophysiologic theory and some empirical evidence suggest that fatigue caused by physical work may be more effectively recovered during "diverting" periods of cognitive activity than during passive rest; a phenomenon of great interest in working life. We investigated the extent to which development and recovery of fatigue during repeated bouts of an occupationally relevant reaching task was influenced by the difficulty of a cognitive activity between these bouts. Eighteen male volunteers performed three experimental sessions, consisting of six 7-min bouts of reaching alternating with 3 minutes of a memory test differing in difficulty between sessions. Throughout each session, recordings were made of upper trapezius muscle activity using electromyography (EMG, heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV using electrocardiography, arterial blood pressure, and perceived fatigue (Borg CR10 scale and SOFI. A test battery before, immediately after and 1 hour after the work period included measurements of maximal shoulder elevation strength (MVC, pressure pain threshold (PPT over the trapezius muscles, and a submaximal isometric contraction. As expected, perceived fatigue and EMG amplitude increased during the physical work bouts. Recovery did occur between the bouts, but fatigue accumulated throughout the work period. Neither EMG changes nor recovery of perceived fatigue during breaks were influenced by cognitive task difficulty, while heart rate and HRV recovered the most during breaks with the most difficult task. Recovery of perceived fatigue after the 1 hour work period was also most pronounced for the most difficult cognitive condition, while MVC and PPT showed ambiguous patterns, and EMG recovered similarly after all three cognitive protocols. Thus, we could confirm that cognitive tasks between bouts of fatiguing physical work can, indeed, accelerate recovery of some factors associated with fatigue, even if benefits may be moderate and some

  12. Mixed methods study examining work reintegration experiences from perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, Marina; Rattray, Nicholas A; Salyers, Michelle P

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that reintegration for Veterans is often challenging. One difficult aspect of reintegration—transitioning into the civilian workplace—has not been fully explored in the literature. To address this gap and examine work reintegration, this mixed methods study examined the perspectives of Veterans with mental health disorders receiving Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare. Forty Veterans rated factors that affect work success; participants also provided narratives on their most and least successful work experiences. We used t-tests and qualitative analysis to compare participants who did and did not serve in combat. Several themes relevant to work reintegration emerged in the narratives, particularly for Veterans who served in combat. An array of work difficulties were reported in the months following military discharge. In addition, Veterans who served in combat reported significantly more work barriers than Veterans who did not serve in combat, particularly health-related barriers. In conclusion, Veterans with mental health disorders who served in combat experienced more work reintegration difficulty than their counterparts who did not serve in combat. The role of being a Veteran affected how combat Veterans formed their self-concept, which also shaped their work success and community reintegration, especially during the early transition period.

  13. Symptoms of ADHD are related to education and work experience among incarcerated adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arve Egil Asbjørnsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several reports document increased prevalence of attention deficit and hyperactivity (ADHD and similar symptoms in incarcerated members of the community, but little is known about how the symptoms are related to education and work experience. An ongoing study among Norwegian inmates reveals that 60 % report signs of ADHD. In the present study a sample of 600 inmates incarcerated in Norway filled out a questionnaire including the WURS-k (Wender Utah Rating Scale, short form and questions to survey completed education level and work experience. A clear relationship was found between the WURS-k score and earlier job-experience, with increased probability of ADHD with work experience from low socio-economic status jobs. The scale was also found to share variance with the inmates’ reported education history, as higher education reduces the probability of ADHD among the incarcerated adults. Thus, the WURS-k could be a useful screening instrument in education assessment among inmates. The link between the present findings and development of anti-social behaviour is discussed.

  14. Learning from the experience of working with consumers in educational developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Karen A; Taylor, Jean

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the experience of working with local parents as collaborators in an educationally focussed research study. This work subsequently led to the development of a new module aimed at professionals providing parenting support. The ensuing discussion centres on the involvement of healthcare consumers in the development of educational programmes. Focus group interviews were held with local parents to identify their various experiences of parenting support services. In addition the interviews were used as a means of recruiting local parent volunteers willing to join the research advisory group. This group had the task of guiding both the research and development of the educational programme. Involvement of the parents introduced fresh insights to both the understanding of the content of parent education module and the necessary ingredients needed for effective consumer involvement. Lecturers have gained first hand experience of working collaboratively with parents in carrying out a research study and curriculum development. Three key issues emerged from this experience. These included the identification of who the consumer is, the approaches and skills required by professionals and lastly the importance of resources to support this commitment.

  15. Influence of helping and breeding experience on reproductive performance in the Seychelles warbler: A translocation experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Komdeur, J

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive success of the cooperative breeding Seychelles warbler (Acrocephalus sechellensis) increases with age. This age effect is not due to differential survival or increased reproductive effort, but to accumulated helping and breeding experience. In their first year of breeding, reproductive performance of inexperienced warblers with neither helping nor breeding experience was significantly lower than that of warblers of the same age with either previous helping or breeding experience....

  16. Hope and despair: community health assistants' experiences of working in a rural district in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Kinsman, John; Michelo, Charles; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-05-25

    In order to address the challenges facing the community-based health workforce in Zambia, the Ministry of Health implemented the national community health assistant strategy in 2010. The strategy aims to address the challenges by creating a new group of workers called community health assistants (CHAs) and integrating them into the health system. The first group started working in August 2012. The objective of this paper is to document their motivation to become a CHA, their experiences of working in a rural district, and how these experiences affected their motivation to work. A phenomenological approach was used to examine CHAs' experiences. Data collected through in-depth interviews with 12 CHAs in Kapiri Mposhi district and observations were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Personal characteristics such as previous experience and knowledge, passion to serve the community and a desire to improve skills motivated people to become CHAs. Health systems characteristics such as an inclusive work culture in some health posts motivated CHAs to work. Conversely, a non-inclusive work culture created a social structure which constrained CHAs' ability to learn, to be innovative and to effectively conduct their duties. Further, limited supervision, misconceptions about CHA roles, poor prioritisation of CHA tasks by some supervisors, as well as non- and irregular payment of incentives also adversely affected CHAs' ability to work effectively. In addition, negative feedback from some colleagues at the health posts affected CHA's self-confidence and professional outlook. In the community, respect and support provided to CHAs by community members instilled a sense of recognition, appreciation and belonging in CHAs which inspired them to work. On the other hand, limited drug supplies and support from other community-based health workers due to their exclusion from the government payroll inhibited CHAs' ability to deliver services. Programmes aimed at integrating

  17. Experiment study on the characteristics of two-dimensional line scale working standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shuanghua; Xue, Zi; Wang, Heyan

    2015-02-01

    National working standard of two-dimensional line scale based on laser two-coordinate standard device was set up to solve the problem of the calibration and traceability of 2-D line scale optical standard and high precision photomask. The operating principle and system composition of the working standard device were introduced. The characteristics were test in special experiments. A high precision differential laser interferometer system was used for a length standard, a high magnification optical microvision system was used for precision optical positioning feedback. In order to improve the measuring accuracy, several high precision sensors were installed to measure environmental parameters for compensating the laser wavelength in atmosphere according to the empirical Edlén equation. High resolution CCD modeling and calibrating based on two-dimensional nanoscale positioning movable platform and laser interferometer were adopted to improve the pointing accuracy. Two-dimensional line scale working standard could be used to measure line spacing, point spacing, and coordinates of 2-D optical standard or photomask, with measurement range 300mm × 300mm, measurement uncertainty U=(0.1~0.3)μm, k=2. Some experiments were carried out to identify the characteristics of length measurement error, probing error, measurement repeatability and measurement reproducibility of the working standard, and measurement uncertainty was validated by the measurement experiments.

  18. Group Work and the Change of Obstacles over Time: The Influence of Learning Style and Group Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetanto, Danny; MacDonald, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    It is through working in groups that students develop cooperative learning skills and experience. However, group work activity often leads students into a difficult experience, especially for first-year students who are not familiar with group work activities at university. This study explores obstacles faced by first-year students during their…

  19. Understanding how social networking influences perceived satisfaction with conference experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Riper, Carena J.; van Riper, Charles; Kyle, Gerard T.; Lee, Martha E.

    2013-01-01

    Social networking is a key benefit derived from participation in conferences that bind the ties of a professional community. Building social networks can lead to satisfactory experiences while furthering participants' long- and short-term career goals. Although investigations of social networking can lend insight into how to effectively engage individuals and groups within a professional cohort, this area has been largely overlooked in past research. The present study investigates the relationship between social networking and satisfaction with the 10th Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau using structural equation modelling. Results partially support the hypothesis that three dimensions of social networking – interpersonal connections, social cohesion, and secondary associations – positively contribute to the performance of various conference attributes identified in two focus group sessions. The theoretical and applied contributions of this paper shed light on the social systems formed within professional communities and resource allocation among service providers.

  20. Influence of Caloric Vestibular Stimulation on Body Experience in Healthy Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eSchönherr; Christian-Albrecht eMay

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system has more connections with and influence on higher cortical centers than previously thought. These interactions with higher cortical centers and the phenomena that they elicit require a structural intact cerebral cortex. To date, little is known about the role and influence of the vestibular system on one’s body experience. In this study we show that caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) in healthy participants has an effect on the perceptive component of one’s body experi...

  1. Pre-college Science Experiences; Timing and Causes of Gender Influence Science Interest Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplita, E.; Reed, D. E.; McKenzie, D. A.; Jones, R.; May, L. W.

    2015-12-01

    It is known that female students tend to turn away from science during their pre-college years. Experiences during this time are not limited to the classroom, as cultural influences extend beyond K-12 science education and lead to the widely studied reduction in females in STEM fields. This has a large impact on climate science because currently relatively little effort is put into K-12 climate education, yet this is when college attitudes towards science are formed. To help quantify these changes, 400 surveys were collected from 4 different colleges in Oklahoma. Student responses were compared by gender against student experiences (positive and negative), and interest in science. Results of our work show that females tend to have their first positive experience with science at a younger age with friends, family and in the classroom, and have more of an interest in science when they are younger. Males in general like experiencing science more on their own, and surpass the interest levels of females late in high school and during college. While in college, males are more comfortable with science content than females, and males enjoy math and statistics more while those aspects of science were the largest areas of dislike in females. Understanding how to keep students (particularly female) interested in science as they enter their teen years is extremely important in preventing climate misconceptions in the adult population. Potential small changes such as hosting K-12 climate outreach events and including parents, as opposed to just inviting students, could greatly improve student experiences with science and hence, their understanding of climate science. Importantly, a greater focus on female students is warranted.

  2. Being Both Helpers and Victims: Health Professionals' Experiences of Working During a Natural Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugelius, Karin; Adolfsson, Annsofie; Örtenwall, Per; Gifford, Mervyn

    2017-04-01

    In November 2013, the Haiyan typhoon hit parts of the Philippines. The typhoon caused severe damage to the medical facilities and many injuries and deaths. Health professionals have a crucial role in the immediate disaster response system, but knowledge of their experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster is limited. Aim The aim of this study was to explore health professionals' experiences of working during and in the immediate aftermath of a natural disaster. Eight health professionals were interviewed five months after the disaster. The interviews were analyzed using phenomenological hermeneutic methods. The main theme, being professional and survivor, described both positive and negative emotions and experiences from being both a helper, as part of the responding organization, and a victim, as part of the surviving but severely affected community. Sub-themes described feelings of strength and confidence, feelings of adjustment and acceptance, feelings of satisfaction, feelings of powerless and fear, feelings of guilt and shame, and feelings of loneliness. Being a health professional during a natural disaster was a multi-faceted, powerful, and ambiguous experience of being part of the response system at the same time as being a survivor of the disaster. Personal values and altruistic motives as well as social aspects and stress-coping strategies to reach a balance between acceptance and control were important elements of the experience. Based on these findings, implications for disaster training and response strategies are suggested. Hugelius K , Adolfsson A , Örtenwall P , Gifford M . Being both helpers and victims: health professionals' experiences of working during a natural disaster. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(2):117-123.

  3. Workstyle and Musculoskeletal Discomfort (MSD): Exploring the Influence of Work Culture in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maakip, Ismail; Keegel, Tessa; Oakman, Jodi

    2015-12-01

    Workstyle can be defined as an individual pattern of cognitions, behaviours and physiological reactivity that can occur while performing job tasks. Workstyle has been associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) amongst office workers in developed countries. However, little is known about the contribution of workstyle on MSDs in developing countries such as Malaysia. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between workstyle and musculoskeletal discomfort in a sample of office workers in Malaysia. Office workers (N = 417; response rate 65.5 %) from four organisations completed a survey measuring physical and psychosocial hazards, job satisfaction, work-life balance, workstyle, and MSD discomfort levels. Hierarchical regression analyses were undertaken to examine predictors associated with self-reported musculoskeletal discomfort, and more specifically the relationship between workstyle and MSD discomfort. Musculoskeletal discomfort was significantly associated with working through pain, mental health, physical demands, gender and work-life balance (R (2) = 50.2, adjusted R (2) = 0.48; F (13, 324) = 25.09, p = 0.001). Working through pain is the strongest risk factor associated with MSD discomfort (ß = 0.49, p = 0.001) compared to other potential risk factors. Working through pain is influenced by work, social culture and religious beliefs. Workplace MSDs interventions that focus on the impact of physical and psychosocial hazards with emphasis on addressing adverse workstyles should take into account aspects related to work and social culture of the target population. Changes are recommended at both employee and management levels such as better communications and understanding concerning workplace problems with regards to minimizing MSDs at work.

  4. The experiences of new graduate midwives working in midwifery continuity of care models in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Allison M; Denney-Wilson, E; Homer, C S E

    2015-04-01

    midwifery continuity of care has been shown to be beneficial to women through reducing interventions and other maternal and neonatal morbidity. In Australia, numerous government reports recognise the importance of midwifery models of care that provide continuity. Given the benefits, midwives, including new graduate midwives, should have the opportunity to work in these models of care. Historically, new graduates have been required to have a number of years׳ experience before they are able to work in these models of care although a small number have been able to move into these models as new graduates. to explore the experiences of the new graduate midwives who have worked in midwifery continuity of care, in particular, the support they received; and, to establish the facilitators and barriers to the expansion of new graduate positions in midwifery continuity of care models. a qualitative descriptive study was undertaken framed by the concept of continuity of care. the new graduate midwives valued the relationship with the women and with the group of midwives they worked alongside. The ability to develop trusting relationships, consolidate skills and knowledge, be supported by the group and finally feeling prepared to work in midwifery continuity of care from their degree were all sub-themes. All of these factors led to the participants feeling as though they were 'becoming a real midwife'. this is the first study to demonstrate that new graduate midwives value working in midwifery continuity of care - they felt well prepared to work in this way from their degree and were supported by midwives they worked alongside. The participants reported having more confidence to practice when they have a relationship with the woman, as occurs in these models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Patterns of variation in the influence of natal experience on habitat choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeremy M

    2008-12-01

    The experience of animals in their natal or larval habitats has long been considered a potential source of variation in the habitat choices made later during dispersal. This idea has been of particular interest to evolutionary biologists because of the role such variation plays in the formation of host races and species. However, experiments that have tested for the effect of natal experience on habitat choice have produced widely variable results, leading to disagreement about the ecological importance of these effects. Here, I review the results of experiments within a broad range of animal taxa to assess the potential sources of variation in observed effects of natal experience on habitat choice. I provide a comprehensive summary of previous studies and demonstrate that when natal experience influences habitat choice, it nearly always increases the acceptance of the natal habitat type. Furthermore, I discuss mechanisms that allow natal experience to affect later habitat choice and describe how these mechanisms are influenced by various experimental design elements, such as the life stage at which early experience is provided to subjects. I conclude by reviewing the adaptive hypotheses for why animals might or might not respond to natal experience, and also how these hypotheses might explain interspecific differences in the importance of natal experience during habitat selection decisions. By understanding in what species, and in which contexts, experience influences habitat selection, we will be able to predict the ecological and evolutionary consequences of these effects more accurately.

  6. Influence of Early Exposure to Family Business Experience on Developing Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarling, Cath; Jones, Paul; Murphy, Lyndon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to consider the influences of family business and exposure to family business ideas upon students and graduates during their transition from higher education (HE) towards career identification of entrepreneurship. It explores influences, values and experiences actively impacting on business start-up following…

  7. College Student Environmental Activism: How Experiences and Identities Influence Environmental Activism Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Laura A. H.

    2016-01-01

    College student environmental activism is one way students civically engage in addressing social issues. This study explores the environmental activism of twelve college students and how their experiences outside of college and in college influenced their activism. In addition, how students' identities influenced their approach to activism was…

  8. Workplace Stress and Working from Home Influence Depressive Symptoms Among Employed Women with Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Bell, Janice F; Basu, Anirban; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Harris, Jeffrey R

    2016-02-01

    Poor balance between work and family can be a major stressor for women with young children and have a negative impact on emotional well-being. Family-friendly workplace attributes may reduce stress and depressive symptoms among this population. However, few studies have analyzed the role of specific workplace attributes on mental health outcomes among women with young children because available data are limited. This study examines the impact of workplace attributes on changes in depressive symptoms among working women with young children between 6 and 24 months of age. This study uses data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD) collected between 1991 and 1993 to examine the effects of work intensity, work schedule (night/day/variable), schedule flexibility, working from home, and work stress on changes in depressive symptoms among a national US sample of 570 women who returned to work within 6 months after childbirth. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the CES-D score. Treatment effects were estimated using fixed effects regression models. Working from home and work stress predicted within-individual changes in depressive symptoms between 6 and 24 months postchildbirth. Women who worked from home reported a statistically significant decrease in depression scores over time (β = -1.36, SE = 0.51, p = 0.002). Women who reported a one-unit increase in job concerns experienced, on average, a 2-point increase in depression scores over time (β = 1.73, SE = 0.37, p flexibility were not associated with changes in depressive symptoms. This study is one of the few to use longitudinal data and causal-inference techniques to examine whether specific workplace attributes influence depressive symptoms among women with young children. Reducing stress in the workplace and allowing women to work from home may improve mental health among women who transition back

  9. The Liminality of Temporary Agency Work: Exploring the Dimensions of Temporary Agency Workers’ Liminal Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo; Mahmood, Mustafa Khalil

    2015-01-01

    along which liminality can unfold in organizational and work-related contexts. We argue that future studies should explore the various dimensions in other contexts of passages from one relatively stable state to another. In doing so, similarities and differences between various liminal experiences...... on political anthropology we identify the dimensions of ‘types of subjects,’‘time,’ ‘space,’ and ‘scale’ in order to analytically unlock the liminal experience. Exemplifying our concept we present the findings from an own study of temporary agency workers in Denmark. Exploring the workers’ interpretations...

  10. Gendered experiences of work environment : A study of stress and ambiguity among dental students in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Schéle, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores how dental students experience their education. We aim to generate ways to understand which elements relate to the students’ experience based on current theories and models regarding the quality of working life and gender (and) power relations.   Methods Twelve interviews with Umeå dental students in their clinical semesters were analysed with a Grounded Theory (GT) as well as a content analysis approach. A web-survey was sent to all clinical dental students in Sweden (P ...

  11. BACKSTAGE CHILDHOOD AND THE BACKSTAGE OF CHILDHOOD: AN EXPERIENCE WITH CHILDREN WORKING ON TELEVISION

    OpenAIRE

    RENATA BARRETO LACOMBE

    2004-01-01

    Análise e levantamento de questões relativas à infância contemporânea brasileira e sua relação com a mídia (mais especificamente a televisão), a partir de experiência como psicóloga com crianças que trabalham na TV. Analysis and study of questions related to Brazilian contemporary childhood and its relation to the media (more specifically to television), based on experience as a psychologist with children who work on television.

  12. Working with mental health problems: clients' experiences of IPS, vocational rehabilitation and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Marsha; Niersman, Astrid; van Busschbach, Jooske T; Catty, Jocelyn; Becker, Thomas; Burns, Tom; Fioritti, Angelo; Kalkan, Rana; Lauber, Christoph; Rössler, Wulf; Tomov, Toma; Wiersma, Durk

    2009-11-01

    Although the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) has been well established, little is known about clients' perceptions of the model compared to usual vocational rehabilitation, nor about their experiences of searching for and returning to work with this kind of support. This qualitative study aimed to explore clients' views of the difficulties of obtaining and maintaining employment, their experiences of the support received from their IPS or Vocational Service workers and the perceived impact of work on clients' lives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 48 people with psychotic disorders participating in a six-centre international randomised controlled trial of IPS compared to usual vocational rehabilitation. To assess their experiences of the services and the perceived effects of working, two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had found work during the study period were interviewed, along with two IPS and two Vocational Service clients at each centre who had not. IPS clients reported having received more help seeking and maintaining employment, whereas Vocational Service clients reported having received more help in finding sheltered employment or placements. Clients who had worked associated this with financial stability, improved social lives, increased self-esteem, integration into society and amelioration of their symptoms, as well as reduced feelings of boredom and isolation, but also reported increased levels of stress. IPS clients as well as Vocational Service ones reported not receiving enough follow-up support, despite this being proposed as a key feature of the model. Findings from the in-depth interviews reflect differences in service models that have also been tested quantitatively but further work in disaggregating the IPS model and assessing the impact of each component would be valuable.

  13. Bearing the brunt: co-workers' experiences of work reintegration processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunstan, Debra A; MacEachen, Ellen

    2013-03-01

    Work disability research has found co-worker support to be a significant but under-recognised aspect of work reintegration (WR) processes. Although co-workers work alongside returning workers, their practical contribution to WR success or failure is often invisible to others. This study aimed to gain further insight into the role and contribution of co-workers in WR interventions. An exploratory qualitative pilot study was conducted in Toronto, Canada in 2011. Three focus groups were conducted with 13 co-workers, recruited for their direct experience of 'working alongside' a returning worker. An iterative data gathering and analysis process occurred. Themes were generated from categories in open-ended interview questions and new issues arising from the data. The findings detail co-workers' practical experiences of WR processes and their reflections on social and work conditions that impacted their participation. Co-workers' capacity to support returning workers was related to the quality of the WR arrangements, the relationship with the returning worker, work culture, and the duration of the required support. Workplace privacy and confidentiality requirements were identified as a key challenge for co-worker participation. The effects on co-workers of WR processes ranged from the opportunity to learn new skills to disillusionment and withdrawal from the workplace. In worst case scenarios, 'ripple effects' including emotional distress, physical injury and termination of co-workers' employment had occurred. Co-workers are not a neutral party in WR procedures. Formalizing the co-worker role to include communication, consideration and recognition might improve co-workers' WR experiences.

  14. Factors That Influence Domestic Violence Practice Self-Efficacy: Implications for Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Danis

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the results of an exploratory study to identify facilitating factors and barriers for practice self-efficacy with battered women. Based on self-efficacy theory, personal factors such as professional experience, academic preparation, personal experience, and continuing education training were explored with a random sample of licensed and degreed professional social workers. Professional experience (ß=.61; t=9.54, p=.000 and academic preparation (ß=.26; t=4.29, p=.000 were the strongest predictors of self-efficacy. These findings suggest that to advance the capacity of social workers to respond to domestic violence, social work education, practitioners, and researchers have a number of important steps available to take.

  15. Praise matters: the influence of nurse unit managers' praise on nurses' practice, work environment and job satisfaction: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sveinsdóttir, Herdís; Ragnarsdóttir, Erla Dögg; Blöndal, Katrín

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between praise from nurse unit managers and job satisfaction, professional practice, workload, work climate and organizational commitment of nurses caring for surgical patients. Praise influences experiences of employees. Web-based, cross-sectional explorative survey design. A structured questionnaire was used to measure praise given by nurse unit managers as perceived by nurses (n = 383; 49% response rate) working with surgical patients. Data were collected between December 2009-January 2010. Several variables assessed the major concepts under study. Binary logistic regression analysis was employed to compare nurses who receive praise very rarely/rarely as compared with very often/rather often. Praise was received often/very often by 31·6% of participants. Compared with nurses receiving praise rarely/very rarely those who received it often/rather showed more job satisfaction, stated they had more opportunities to practice professionally, described a more positive work climate and were more committed to the organization such as being proud to work at and willing to make effort for the unit and hospital. There was no difference between the groups regarding workload. Main findings of the regression analysis were that nurses display their organizational commitment by not thinking about leaving the current workplace and those who value professional recognition are likelier to receive praise than their counterparts. Nurse unit managers should praise their staff in a realistic fashion. Such praise is cost-effective, takes short time, produces positive influences on members of their staff and may improve patient safety. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Factors that influence the approach to leadership: directors of nursing working in rural health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Melanie; Kenny, Amanda; Nay, Rhonda

    2015-04-01

    To identify factors that influence directors of nursing in their approach to leadership when working in rural Victoria, Australia. In rural areas, nurses account for the largest component of the health workforce and must be equipped with leadership knowledge and skills to lead reform at a service level. A qualitative descriptive design was used. In-depth semi-structured interviews were undertaken with directors of nursing from rural Victoria. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and a thematic network was developed. Empowerment emerged as the highest order category in the thematic network. This was derived from three organising themes: influence, capital and contextual understanding and the respective basic themes: formal power, informal power, self-knowledge; information, support, resources; and situational factors, career trajectory, connectedness. Rural nurse leaders contend with several issues that influence their approach to leadership. This study provides a platform for further research to foster nurse leadership in rural healthcare services. Acknowledgement of what influences the rural nurse leaders' approach to leadership may assist in the implementation of initiatives designed to develop leadership in a manner that is contextually sensitive. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Working with Space and Shape in Early Childhood Education: Experiences in Collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Luiza da Silva Fernandes

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This report shows the experience of a work conducted with the Meli-Melo puzzle in two early childhood education classes at two different schools in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. With the work’s activities as a starting point, aspects related to space and shape, as well as quantities and measures, were approached. Children from two and a half to five years old participated in the playful activities, which had the following goals: to develop spatial and geometric skills, to allow measuring actions, to favor dialogue and to boost group work experience. There were several activities, like handling the pieces, assembling images freely or according with outlines and models, assembling three-dimensional figures, and the length game. The following questions were considered in the evaluation of the work: how was the children’s participation in large groups and small groups? How did children of different age groups engage in the different proposals? Which activities were easier or more difficult for each group? Which behaviors and conversations showed us new knowledge? The fulfillment of the planned activities showed that the children had several hypotheses regarding shapes and that they were able to identify similarities and differences, use geometry vocabulary, and discuss their thoughts, particularly when working in small groups, which favored the participation of nearly all children. We believe the work reported has allowed learnings and a contact with mathematics in early childhood education.

  18. Explaining Intergenerational Parallelism in Adverse School Experiences: Mediating Influence of Young and Middle Adulthood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Diane S.; Liu, Ruth X.; Kaplan, Howard B.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretically informed model was estimated with the LISREL-VIII program using panel data from 1,384 mother-adolescent child pairs to examine processes by which mothers' adolescent school experiences measured in 1971 (Time 1) affected the adolescent school experiences of their children measured in the 1990s (Time 3) through mediating variables…

  19. The influence of work and treatment related factors on clinical status and disability in patients with non-specific work-related upper limb disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsden-Besseling, M.D. van; Bergh, K.A. van den; Staal, J.B.; Bie, R.A. de; Smeets, R.J.P.; Heuvel, W.J.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of work- and treatment-related factors on clinical status and functional disability in patients with non-specific work-related upper limb disorders (WRULD). PARTICIPANTS: 182 computer workers with non-specific WRULD, 18-50 years old, not having specific WRULD nor

  20. Influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on polishing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Satoshi; Gemma, Masaya; Hayashi, Keitoku; Kondo, Yasuo; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Yakou, Takao; Arakawa, Susumu

    2017-09-01

    Diamond electrodeposited wire tools are frequently used to cut thin wafers from hard and brittle materials. However, microcracks sometimes appear during the slicing process. The appearance of microcracks adversely affects slicing efficiency and slicing accuracy. In this study, we examine the influence of brittle behavior on the polishing characteristics such as polishing depth and tool wear. This is the first step toward investigating the influence of the brittle behavior of work materials on slicing characteristics. Ceramics such as alumina, silicon carbide, and zirconia are used as work materials. Even with the same degree of hardness, we found that the polishing depth values were greater for materials exhibiting brittle behavior. In the polishing of high-hardness materials, abrasive grains were badly damaged during the initial stages of polishing. Damage to the abrasive paper was less in wet polishing as compared with dry polishing. Moreover, wet polishing had a greater polishing depth than dry polishing. The polishing characteristics of the brittle materials were similar to the grooving characteristics produced using wire tools; however, both these characteristics depend on the brittle behavior of the work materials. Therefore, by performing simple polishing tests, estimating the state of grooving or slicing using wire tools is possible.

  1. Participatory ergonomics simulation of hospital work systems: The influence of simulation media on simulation outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm; Broberg, Ole

    2015-11-01

    Current application of work system simulation in participatory ergonomics (PE) design includes a variety of different simulation media. However, the actual influence of the media attributes on the simulation outcome has received less attention. This study investigates two simulation media: full-scale mock-ups and table-top models. The aim is to compare, how the media attributes of fidelity and affordance influence the ergonomics identification and evaluation in PE design of hospital work systems. The results illustrate, how the full-scale mock-ups' high fidelity of room layout and affordance of tool operation support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the work system entities space and technologies & tools. The table-top models' high fidelity of function relations and affordance of a helicopter view support ergonomics identification and evaluation related to the entity organization. Furthermore, the study addresses the form of the identified and evaluated conditions, being either identified challenges or tangible design criteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45–64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.......6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. Results: During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses...... exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02–2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were...

  3. A survey of influence of work environment on temporomandibular disorders-related symptoms in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishiyama Akira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction This study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD-related symptoms (TRS in a Japanese working population. Methods Our study subjects comprised of 1,969 employees from the same Japanese company. The subjects were assessed using a questionnaire that covered both TRS and the work environment. TRS were measured from 4 items on the questionnaire. The work environment factors recorded were the daily mean duration of personal computer use, driving, precise work, commuting, time spent at home before going to bed, sleeping, attending business meetings, and performing physical labor. Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses. A result with P  Results The median total score on the 4 items used to assess TRS was 5 (25% = 4, 75% = 7. Two groups were defined such that the participants scoring ≤7 were assigned to the low-TRS group and those scoring ≥8, to the high-TRS group. The high-TRS group constituted 22.6% of the subjects. Logistic regression analyses indicated that female gender and extended periods of computer use were significant contributors to the manifestation of TRS. Conclusion This questionnaire-based study showed that gender and computer use time was associated with the prevalence of TRS in this working population. Thus, evaluation of ergonomics is suggested for TMD patients.

  4. A survey of influence of work environment on temporomandibular disorders-related symptoms in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Akira; Kino, Koji; Sugisaki, Masashi; Tsukagoshi, Kaori

    2012-09-21

    This study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms (TRS) in a Japanese working population. Our study subjects comprised of 1,969 employees from the same Japanese company. The subjects were assessed using a questionnaire that covered both TRS and the work environment. TRS were measured from 4 items on the questionnaire. The work environment factors recorded were the daily mean duration of personal computer use, driving, precise work, commuting, time spent at home before going to bed, sleeping, attending business meetings, and performing physical labor. Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses. A result with P low-TRS group and those scoring ≥8, to the high-TRS group. The high-TRS group constituted 22.6% of the subjects. Logistic regression analyses indicated that female gender and extended periods of computer use were significant contributors to the manifestation of TRS. This questionnaire-based study showed that gender and computer use time was associated with the prevalence of TRS in this working population. Thus, evaluation of ergonomics is suggested for TMD patients.

  5. The influence of shift work on cognitive functions and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Pınar Güzel; Selvi, Yavuz; Özkol, Halil; Aydın, Adem; Tülüce, Yasin; Boysan, Murat; Beşiroğlu, Lütfullah

    2013-12-30

    Shift work influences health, performance, activity, and social relationships, and it causes impairment in cognitive functions. In this study, we investigated the effects of shift work on participants' cognitive functions in terms of memory, attention, and learning, and we measured the effects on oxidative stress. Additionally, we investigated whether there were significant relationships between cognitive functions and whole blood oxidant/antioxidant status of participants. A total of 90 health care workers participated in the study, of whom 45 subjects were night-shift workers. Neuropsychological tests were administered to the participants to assess cognitive function, and blood samples were taken to detect total antioxidant capacity and total oxidant status at 08:00. Differences in anxiety, depression, and chronotype characteristics between shift work groups were not significant. Shift workers achieved significantly lower scores on verbal memory, attention-concentration, and the digit span forward sub-scales of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), as well as on the immediate memory and total learning sub-scales of the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT). Oxidative stress parameters were significantly associated with some types of cognitive function, including attention-concentration, recognition, and long-term memory. These findings suggest that night shift work may result in significantly poorer cognitive performance, particularly working memory. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A survey of influence of work environment on temporomandibular disorders-related symptoms in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction This study aimed at identifying the factors that influence the incidence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD)-related symptoms (TRS) in a Japanese working population. Methods Our study subjects comprised of 1,969 employees from the same Japanese company. The subjects were assessed using a questionnaire that covered both TRS and the work environment. TRS were measured from 4 items on the questionnaire. The work environment factors recorded were the daily mean duration of personal computer use, driving, precise work, commuting, time spent at home before going to bed, sleeping, attending business meetings, and performing physical labor. Statistical analysis was performed using t-tests, Chi-square tests, and logistic regression analyses. A result with P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The median total score on the 4 items used to assess TRS was 5 (25% = 4, 75% = 7). Two groups were defined such that the participants scoring ≤7 were assigned to the low-TRS group and those scoring ≥8, to the high-TRS group. The high-TRS group constituted 22.6% of the subjects. Logistic regression analyses indicated that female gender and extended periods of computer use were significant contributors to the manifestation of TRS. Conclusion This questionnaire-based study showed that gender and computer use time was associated with the prevalence of TRS in this working population. Thus, evaluation of ergonomics is suggested for TMD patients. PMID:22995447

  7. The Influence of Attention Set, Working Memory Capacity, and Expectations on Inattentional Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Furley, Philip; Memmert, Daniel; Simons, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    The probability of inattentional blindness, the failure to notice an unexpected object when attention is engaged on some primary task, is influenced by contextual factors like task demands, features of the unexpected object, and the observer's attention set. However, predicting who will notice an unexpected object and who will remain inattentionally blind has proven difficult, and the evidence that individual differences in cognition affect noticing remains ambiguous. We hypothesized that greater working memory capacity might modulate the effect of attention sets on noticing because working memory is associated with the ability to focus attention selectively. People with greater working memory capacity might be better able to attend selectively to target items, thereby increasing the chances of noticing unexpected objects that were similar to the attended items while decreasing the odds of noticing unexpected objects that differed from the attended items. Our study (N = 120 participants) replicated evidence that task-induced attention sets modulate noticing but found no link between noticing and working memory capacity. Our results are largely consistent with the idea that individual differences in working memory capacity do not predict noticing of unexpected objects in an inattentional blindness task. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Influence of minor children and contribution to household income on work hours of female dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuthy, Raymond A; Jennings, Adrienne D; McQuistan, Michelle R; Marshall, Teresa A; Qian, Fang

    2013-01-01

    To study the association of having minor children and contribution to household income on weekly work hours of Iowa female dentists. A 28-question survey was mailed to all active Iowa dentists. This study represents female dentists who responded to the survey (n = 192; response rate = 63 percent). The dependent variable was whether dentists currently worked full- or part-time (≥ 32 versus 60 percent to household income (57.8 percent) were 3.0 times as likely to work full-time (P = 0.0129). The final regression model indicated that those who contributed >60 percent to household income (P = 0.0096) and had no leave of absence longer than 45 consecutive days within the prior 2 years (P = 0.0483) were more likely to work full-time compared with their counterparts. Iowa female dentists who provided more than 60 percent to household income and had not taken a leave of absence during the past 2 years were more likely to work full-time. The inclusion of leave of absence as a predictor variable negates any additional influence of the presence or absence of minor children in the regression model, indicating that these variables are highly correlated for this population. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  9. Electrocortical consequences of image processing: The influence of working memory load and worry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Evan J; Grant, DeMond M

    2017-03-30

    Research suggests that worry precludes emotional processing as well as biases attentional processes. Although there is burgeoning evidence for the relationship between executive functioning and worry, more research in this area is needed. A recent theory suggests one mechanism for the negative effects of worry on neural indicators of attention may be working memory load, however few studies have examined this directly. The goal of the current study was to document the influence of both visual and verbal working memory load and worry on attention allocation during processing of emotional images in a cued image paradigm. It was hypothesized that working memory load will decrease attention allocation during processing of emotional images. This was tested among 38 participants using a modified S1-S2 paradigm. Results indicated that both the visual and verbal working memory tasks resulted in a reduction of attention allocation to the processing of images across stimulus types compared to the baseline task, although only for individuals low in worry. These data extend the literature by documenting decreased neural responding (i.e., LPP amplitude) to imagery both the visual and verbal working memory load, particularly among individuals low in worry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Influence of Ethical Ideologies on Promotive Extra Role Behaviors and Positive Work Behavior of Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Işıl Mendeş Pekdemir

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Following the previous studies on ‘extra-role behavior’, this study focuses especially on ‘promotive extra-role behavior’ as well as ‘positive work behavior’, and explores of ethical ideologies on them. On that framework, this paper aims to achieve the effect of ‘ethical ideologies’ (idealism and relativism on promotive extra-role behaviors (helping and voice and positive work behavior. Moreover, we examine the impact of being high and low idealist personality as well as high and low relativist personality on level of ‘helping extra-role behavior’, ‘voice behavior’, ‘extra-role behavior’, and ‘positive work behaviors’ that individuals exhibit. This paper also aims to explore the influence of demographic variables on helping, voice, and positive work behavior. In order to achieve the goals mentioned, we collected data from 356 MBA students, and used the ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that idealism significantly correlates to helping, voice, and positive work behavior.

  11. Joining and leaving sex work: experiences of women in Kigali, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingabire, Marie Chantal; Mitchell, Kirstin; Veldhuijzen, Nienke; Umulisa, Marie Michelle; Nyinawabega, Jeanine; Kestelyn, Evelyne; Van Steijn, Minouk; Van De Wijgert, Janneke; Pool, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Although sex work can bring significant economic benefit there are serious downsides, not least vulnerability to adverse sexual health outcomes. Focus-groups discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 70 female sex workers to explore the context in which they started sex work, their motivations to leave, and their experiences of trying to leave. The pathway to becoming a sex worker was underscored by poverty, with disruptive events leading to increasing vulnerability and increasingly difficult life choices. A sizeable minority of women became sex workers while working as house-girls, a position associated with financial, physical and sexual vulnerability. The majority of participants were still working as sex workers, citing financial reasons for not leaving. Motivations to leave sex work included experiencing a frightening incident, peer pressure and concerns about dependent children. Those who left often described a change in their financial circumstances that enabled them to leave. Some had left but had returned to sex work following a financial crisis or because they found their new life too hard. House-girls are particularly vulnerable and therefore an appropriate focus for prevention. Programmes assisting women to leave need to include financial safety nets so that a time of financial difficulty does not necessitate a return to sex work.

  12. [The Influence of Emotional Coloring of Images on Visual Working Memory in Adults and Adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozovskaya, R I; Machinskaya, R I; Pechenkova, E V

    2016-01-01

    The influence of emotional valence (positive, negative and neutral) of realistic images on the visual working memory (WM) capacity was studied in adults (N = 40) and adolescents (N = 17). In adults, emotional coloring of stimuli increased the reaction time and decreased the accuracy of WM task performance. This effect was more pronounced for negative than for positive valence: the reaction time has its maximum value for negative emotional stimuli and minimum value for neutral ones with significant differences between all three valences; the accuracy was lower for negative stimuli than for both positive and neutral stimuli. Comparing with adults, adolescents aged 14-16 years showed the lower indices of the performance accuracy and rate during the retention of neutral and positive stimuli in WM. In this group, no significant influence of emotional valence of visual stimuli on the accuracy of WM task performance was found.

  13. Errorless learning for training individuals with schizophrenia at a community mental health setting providing work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Robert S; Liberman, Robert P; Becker, Deborah R; Drake, Robert E; Sugar, Catherine A; Green, Michael F

    2009-07-01

    The effects of errorless learning (EL) on work performance, tenure, and personal well-being were compared with conventional job training in a community mental health fellowship club offering 12-week time-limited work experience. Participants were 40 clinically stable schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder outpatients randomly assigned to EL vs conventional instruction (CI) at a thrift-type clothing store. EL participants received training on how to perform their assigned job tasks based on principles of EL, such as error reduction and automation of task performance. CI participants received training common to other community-based entry-level jobs that included verbal instruction, a visual demonstration, independent practice, and corrective feedback. Participants were scheduled to work 2 hours per week for 12 weeks. For both groups, job training occurred during the first 2 weeks at the worksite. Work performance (assessed using the Work Behavior Inventory, WBI) and personal well-being (self-esteem, job satisfaction, and work stress) were assessed at weeks 2, 4, and 12. Job tenure was defined as the number of weeks on the job or total number of hours worked prior to quitting or study end. The EL group performed better than the CI group on the Work Quality Scale from the WBI, and the group differences were relatively consistent over time. Results from the survival analyses of job tenure revealed a non-significant trend favoring EL. There were no group differences on self-esteem, job satisfaction, or work stress. The findings provide modest support for the extensions of EL to community settings for enhancing work performance.

  14. Does influence at work modify the relation between high occupational physical activity and risk of heart disease in women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Rugulies, Reiner; Aadahl, Mette; Boyle, Eleanor; Søgaard, Karen

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether influence at work modifies the association between demanding and strenuous occupational physical activity (OPA) and risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). A sample of 12,093 nurses aged 45-64 years from the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was followed for 20.6 years by individual linkage to incident IHD in the Danish National Patient Registry. Information on OPA, influence at work, other occupational factors and known risk factors for IHD was collected by self-report in 1993. During follow-up 869 nurses were hospitalised with incident IHD. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and low influence at work had a 46% increased risk of IHD [hazard ratio (HR) 1.46 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.09)] compared to the reference group of nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. Nurses exposed to strenuous OPA and high influence at work were not at an increased risk of IHD [HR 1.10 (95% CI 0.59-2.06)]. An additive hazards model showed there were 18.0 (95% CI -0.01 to 36.0) additional cases of IHD per 10,000 person years among nurses with strenuous OPA and low influence at work compared to nurses with moderate OPA and high influence at work. A detrimental additive interaction between strenuous OPA and low influence at work that could explain the additional cases of IHD among nurses with strenuous OPA and low influence at work was indicated. The findings suggest that high influence at work may buffer some of the adverse effects of strenuous OPA on risk of IHD.

  15. Primary care nurses' experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bekkum, Jennifer E; Hilton, Shona

    2013-11-24

    Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses' experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants' workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices.

  16. Primary care nurses’ experiences of how the mass media influence frontline healthcare in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Mass media plays an important role in communicating about health research and services to patients, and in shaping public perceptions and decisions about health. Healthcare professionals also play an important role in providing patients with credible, evidence-based and up-to-date information on a wide range of health issues. This study aims to explore primary care nurses’ experiences of how mass media influences frontline healthcare. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 18 primary care nurses (nine health visitors and nine practice nurses) working in the United Kingdom (UK). Interviews were recorded and transcribed. The data was analysed using thematic analysis, with a focus on constant comparative analysis. Results Three themes emerged from the data. First, participants reported that their patients were frequently influenced by controversial health stories reported in the media, which affected their perceptions of, and decisions about, care. This, in turn, impinged upon participants’ workloads as they had to spend additional time discussing information and reassuring patients. Second, participants also recalled times in their own careers when media reports had contributed to a decline in their confidence in current healthcare practices and treatments. Third, the participants in this study suggested a real need for additional resources to support and expand their own media literacy skills, which could be shared with patients. Conclusion In an ever expanding media landscape with greater reporting on health, nurses working in the primary care setting face increasing pressure to effectively manage media stories that dispute current health policies and practices. These primary care nurses were keen to expand their media literacy skills to develop critical autonomy in relation to all media, and to facilitate more meaningful conversations with their patients about their health concerns and choices. PMID:24267614

  17. Extreme weather and experience influence reproduction in an endangered bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Brian E; Cattau, Christopher E; Fletcher, Robert J; Kendall, William L; Kitchens, Wiley M

    2012-12-01

    Extreme weather events, such as droughts and heat waves, are expected to become more severe and more frequent in the coming years, and understanding their impacts on demographic rates is of increasing interest to both evolutionary ecologists and conservation practitioners. An individual's breeding probability can be a sensitive indicator of the decision to initiate reproductive behavior under varying environmental conditions, has strong fitness consequences, and can be considered the first step in a life history trade-off between allocating resources for breeding activities or self-survival. Using a 14-year time series spanning large variation in climatic conditions and the entirety of a population's breeding range, we estimated the effects of extreme weather conditions (drought) on the state-specific probabilities of breeding and survival of an endangered bird, the Florida Snail Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus). Our analysis accounted for uncertainty in breeding status assignment, a common source of uncertainty that is often ignored when states are based on field observations. Breeding probabilities in adult kites (> 1 year of age) decreased during droughts, whereas the probability of breeding in young kites (1 year of age) tended to increase. Individuals attempting to breed showed no evidence of reduced future survival. Although population viability analyses of this species and other species often implicitly assume that all adults will attempt to breed, we find that breeding probabilities were significantly < 1 for all 13 estimable years considered. Our results suggest that experience is an important factor determining whether or not individuals attempt to breed during harsh environmental conditions and that reproductive effort may be constrained by an individual's quality and/or despotic behavior among individuals attempting to breed.

  18. The influence of work control trajectories on men's mental and physical health during the middle years: mediational role of personal control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickrama, K A S; Surjadi, Florensia F; Lorenz, Frederick O; Elder, Glen H

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated whether men's mental and physical health problems during the middle years may be attributed, in part, to the influence of varying levels of, and changes in, work control among members of a rural midwestern cohort. Specific study objectives were to examine (a) how trajectories of work control influence men's mental and physical health outcomes and (b) how this influence is mediated by the trajectories of personal control during the middle years. The study used four waves of data on 318 employed men across 10 years of midlife. Variables included self-reported work control, personal control, and mental and physical health. The results supported the hypothesis that both the initial level and change in work control contribute to men's mental and physical health outcomes during the middle years. This influence was mediated by the initial level and change in personal control. Our results demonstrate the dynamic nature of work experiences, personal control beliefs, health, and long-term health consequences due to work conditions in a sample of middle-aged men. We discuss the theoretical implications of this.

  19. Dizziness and the genetic influences on subjective experiences to initial cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberstick, Brett C; Ehringer, Marissa A; Lessem, Jeffrey M; Hopfer, Christian J; Hewitt, John K

    2011-02-01

    To examine individual differences in positive and negative subjective experiences to initial cigarette use. Retrospective self-reports of initial subjective experiences were examined to estimate the genetic and environmental influences and the extent of their covariation across different effects. Data was drawn from 2482 young adult same-and opposite sex twins- and siblings participating in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Subjective experiences were retrospectively collected using the Early Smoking Experience (ESE) questionnaire. Positive experiences evidenced moderate heritable contributions (40%, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.56), as did an overall hedonic measure (34%, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.46) and dizziness (34%, 95% CI: 0.15 to 0.52). Negative experiences evidenced small heritable contributions (13%, 95% CI: 0.00 to 0.36). Individual specific environmental influences were strong and accounted for the remaining proportion of observed variation in these experiences. Multivariate genetic modeling identified a moderately heritable underlying factor (37%, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.52) that influenced the covariation of diverse subjective experiences and loaded most heavily on dizziness. Positive experiences also evidence residual genetic influences that were uncorrelated with other subjective experiences. How a person experiences their initial few cigarettes is due to both heritable contributions and environmental experiences unique to the person. The covariation of diverse subjective experiences appears to be due to a heritable latent sensitivity to the chemicals contained in an average cigarette and is best indexed by dizziness. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Nearshore Wind-Stress Measurements: Background Preliminary Field Work and Experiment Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    data collection support, and Ms. Harriet Klein for logistical coordination. Further recognition goes to Ms. Linda L. Lee, Coastal Oceanography Branch... Jacobs (1987) and in laboratory work by Papadimitrakis, Hsu, and Street (1984) and Papadimitrakis, Hsu, and Wu (1986). In analogy with flow over...Data Summary Report," Miscellaneous Paper CERC-87-3, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS. Jacobs , S. J. 1987. "An Asymptotic