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Sample records for woreda snnpr ethiopia

  1. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Teklehaymanot Tilahun; Demissew Sebsebe; Mesfin Fisseha

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, a...

  2. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for

  3. Physicochemical characteristics of the rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa, Ethiopia

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    Louis E. Attah

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physicochemical properties of rhizosphere soils of some cereal crops in Ambo Woreda, West Shoa in Ethiopia have been investigated. Soil samples were collected from four different localities, viz. Awaro, Senkele, Meja and Guder, and their edaphic characteristics are determined. The soils are dominated by clay (40.4-45.8% along with coarse particles of sand. Bulk density, organic carbon (1.52-1.81% and electrical conductivity (1.3-1.9 dSm are low in all the soil samples. The soils are acidic with pH varying from 6.2 to 6.7. There are similarities in the relatively low content of available phosphorus (1.4-2.4 mg kg-1 and high available nitrogen content (480-986 mg kg-1 in all the soil samples while available potassium content (240-496 mg kg-1 is found to be medium in Awaro soil but high in the other three soil samples. Deficiencies are observed in the levels of available micro-nutrients (Cu: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1, Zn: 1.2-1.8 µg g-1 and Mn: 3.2-3.8 µg g-1 while the Fe content is sufficient in all the soil samples (340-496 µg g-1. With proper soil management, the farmlands studied are recommended for the cultivation of cereal crops.

  4. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

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    Jackson, Ruth; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Godefay, Hagos; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Background The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles) with district (woreda) health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs) assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs’ and mother’s attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region. Methods In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women’s social status and mobility; and women’s perceptions of skilled birth attendant’s care. All data were analyzed thematically. Findings There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women), and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women’s Development Groups (WDGs), and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman’s Expected Due Date (EDD) or if labour started at home. Conclusion With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women’s groups to improve maternal

  5. Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Rea Tschopp

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2% with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4% with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4% yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM. The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.

  6. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  7. Education in focus: impacts of school feeding program on school participation : a case study in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Dheressa, Desalegn Keba

    2011-01-01

    It has been claimed that School Feeding Programs increase school participation among poor and food insecure group of people. This study investigates if the program has significant positive impact on school enrollment, class attendance, and student drop-out patterns among primary school children in Dara Woreda of Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Data were collected from 102 households as well as 17 selected individual stakeholders. Household Questionnaire, Key Informant Interviews and Observati...

  8. Institutional delivery service utilization in Munisa Woreda, South East Ethiopia: a community based cross-sectional study

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    Amano Abdella

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is a global priority which is particularly relevant to developing countries like Ethiopia. One of the key strategies for reducing maternal morbidity and mortality is increasing institutional delivery service utilization of mothers under the care of skilled birth attendants. The aim of this study was to determine the level of institutional delivery service utilization and associated factors. Methods A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from April 1–20, 2011, among mothers who gave birth 12 months before the study began in Munesa Woreda, Arsi Zone, Oromia Region, Southeast Ethiopia. A stratified cluster sampling was used to select a sample of 855 participants. Results Out of all deliveries, only 12.3% took place at health facilities. Women who were urban residents (AOR = 2.27, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.40, women of age at interview less than 20 years (AOR = 6.06, 95%CI: 1.54, 23.78, women with first pregnancy (AOR = 2.41, 95%CI: 1.17, 4.97 and, women who had ANC visit during the last pregnancy (AOR = 4.18, 95%CI: 2.54, 6.89 were more likely to deliver at health institutions. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education had also a significant effect on health institution delivery with AOR = 4.31 (95%CI: 1.62, 11.46 and AOR = 2.77 (95%CI: 1.07, 7.19 respectively. Conclusion Institutional delivery service utilization was found to be low in the study area. Secondary and above level of mother`s and husband`s education, urban residence and ANC visit were amongst the main factors that had an influence on health institution delivery. Increasing the awareness of mothers and their partners about the benefits of institutional delivery services are recommended.

  9. Managing frame diversity in environmental participatory processes - Example from the Fogera woreda in Ethiopia.

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    Hassenforder, Emeline; Brugnach, Marcela; Cullen, Beth; Ferrand, Nils; Barreteau, Olivier; Daniell, Katherine Anne; Pittock, Jamie

    2016-07-15

    Many participatory processes fail to generate social change and collaborative outcomes. This failure can partly be explained by how divergent stakeholders' frames are handled. This paper builds on the framing and participation literature to explain how facilitators can manage frame diversity and foster collaborative outcomes. It suggests two pragmatic steps: identifying frames and managing frames. The two steps are applied to a participatory process for natural resource management in Fogera, Ethiopia. Effectiveness of facilitators' strategies to manage frame diversity in the Fogera case is discussed. Two main elements challenging effectiveness are identified: counter-strategies used by facilitators and most-powerful stakeholders, and the constraining factors knowledge, champions and frame sponsorship. We argue that these elements need to be taken into account by participatory process facilitators when managing frame diversity. PMID:27107955

  10. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

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    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  11. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Batisso Esey

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS, and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8 of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4 of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0. Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7% were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8% of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6% reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7. Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1. Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little

  12. Magnitude and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization among childbearing mothers in Cheha district, Gurage zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia: a community based cross sectional study

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    Habte, Feleke; Demissie, Meaza

    2015-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six countries that contributes’ to more than 50 % of worldwide maternal deaths. While it is revealed that delivery attended by skilled provider at health facility reduced maternal deaths, more than half of all births in Ethiopia takes place at home. According to EDHS 2011 report nine women in every ten deliver at home in Ethiopia. The situation is much worse in southern region. The aim of our study is to measure the prevalence and to identify factors associat...

  13. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Metadel Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community

  14. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (α = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (α = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of

  15. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  16. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

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    Woldemariam Zemede

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District; it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3% and 14 (12% species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6% are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90% were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5% for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5% were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8% followed by fire (22.3% and construction (19%. Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34 were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community, which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process

  17. Assessment of caregiver’s knowledge, complementary feeding practices, and adequacy of nutrient intake from homemade foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia

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    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6 month onwards. Homemade complementary foods, however, are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6 – 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households.Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2% children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6% were fed 3 or more times per day. Daily energy intake however was significantly lower (P<0.05 than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77 and 364.76 (kcal/dayfor 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (mg/day were below the daily requirements (p=0.000, with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p=0.000 was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11months (3.25, 4.17mg/day, respectively, even accounting for high bioavailability.The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn and Fe (except 12 – 23 months intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  18. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  19. Evaluation of energy, protein, and selected micronutrient density of homemade complementary foods consumed by children between 6 months and 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Abeshu MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Motuma Adimasu Abeshu,1,2 Abdulaziz Adish,3 Gulelat D Haki,4 Azeb Lelisa,5 Bekesho Geleta6 1John Snow, Inc, 2Addis Ababa University, Center for Food Science and Nutrition, 3Micronutrient Initiative Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 4Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 5Micronutrient Initiative Ethiopia, 6Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Complementary feeding should be timely, adequate, and given in a way that is appropriate for the age of the child, applying responsive feeding to fill the gap between what is provided by breastfeeding and the total nutritional requirements of the infant. The purpose of this study was to assess nutrient composition and evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient densities (energy, protein, calcium [Ca], iron [Fe], and zinc [Zn] in homemade complementary foods for children of age 6–23 months, in comparison to the desired levels in food insecure woredas of the Wolayita zone, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional weighed food record method was used to assess the energy and micronutrient compositions of homemade complementary foods and evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient densities in relation to the desired levels. Multistage sampling was used to locate the children. Observation and measurement of complementary food preparations throughout the day was made. Representative portions from the diets were sampled for further laboratory analysis and to evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient levels. More than 20 different complementary food types (mostly an extension of family foods prepared from various food items were observed. Dietary diversity of the foods was very poor. The average dietary diversity score was only 2.54, while animal-source foods and vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables were virtually absent. The energy and protein compositions of the diets, however, were sufficient. Energy density of 0.92 kcal/g, 1.24 kcal/g, and 1.41

  20. Prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smears examination: a 1-year retrospective study from the Serbo Health Center, Kersa Woreda, Ethiopia.

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    Karunamoorthi, Kaliyaperumal; Bekele, Mammo

    2009-01-01

    Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Over the past years, the disease has been consistently reported as the first leading cause of outpatient visits, hospitalization and death in health facilities across the country. Thus, a retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of malaria from peripheral blood smear examination from the Serbo Health Center of Ethiopia. The case notes of all malaria cases treated between July 2007 and June 2008 were carefully reviewed and analyzed. Of the total 6863 smears, 3009 were found to be positive and contribute 43.8% of diagnostic yield. Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most predominant [64.6% (1946/3009 cases)], while Plasmodium vivax confirmed with 34.9% (1052/3009) cases. Among patients who underwent diagnostic testing and treatment for malaria, males [63.8% (1918/3009 cases)] were more prone to have a positive malaria smear than females [36.2% (1091/3009 cases)]. Chi-square statistical analysis shown that there was a statistically significant association found between male cases and number of positive blood smear (chi(2)=28.1; df=7; p-value=0.001). The present study results clearly suggest that the catchment area of Serbo Health Center is prone for epidemic malaria and the situation is quite deteriorating. At the moment, although we are not equipped with magic bullet for malaria effective low-cost strategies are available for its treatment, prevention, and control. Therefore, creating awareness by active health education campaigns and applying integrated malaria control strategy could bring the constructive outcome in the near future. PMID:20701879

  1. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  2. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level. PMID

  3. Agricultural extension in Ethiopia through a gender and governance lens:

    OpenAIRE

    Mogues, Tewodaj; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina; Lemma, Mamusha; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Tadesse, Fanaye; Paulos, Zelekawork

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on a household survey collected in eight woredas in seven Ethiopian regions in 2009, as well as on qualitative fieldwork in four of the eight woredas, this paper provides analysis of agricultural extension delivery in Ethiopia. While overall extension services are relatively accessible in Ethiopia, there are differences in access between men and women, and particularly stark differences by region. Individual visits by public sector extension agents to household farms are by far the mo...

  4. Pastoral Livelihoods in South Ethiopia - Value Chain Assessment of Gum & Resins in Moyale Area

    OpenAIRE

    Bernabini, Francesca

    2012-01-01

    This research assessed the value chain of gum and resins, which are available in four woreda in the southern lowlands of Ethiopia. They are Moyale Somali, Moyale Oromia, Dhas and Dire woreda. The output of this research is the elaboration of three value chains. The first is a general one for all the woreda, while the other two concern the Moyale and Dubluk markets. The assessed products are the gum arabic from Acacia trees and the resin exuded by the dunkhal tree - Boswellia family. The aim o...

  5. Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    This discussion of Ethiopia reviews the history of the country's demographic situation and reports on the government's overall approach to population problems; the population data systems and development planning; institutional arrangements for the integration of population with development planning; the government's view of the importance of population policy in realizing development objectives; population size, growth, and natural increase; morbidity and mortality; fertility; international migration; and spatial distribution. Ethiopia is 1 of the few remaining countries in the world that has never conducted a population census. The prevailing demographic data come from sample surveys, none of which had a complete national coverage. UN estimates indicate a crude birthrate of 51.8/1000 for the 1950s, with a slight decline to 49.6/1000 by 1970-75. The crude death rate was estimated to have dropped from 30.6/1000 in the early 1950s to 23.2/1000 in the early 1970s. Infant mortality is reported to have declined from 208/1000 in the early 1950s to 155/1000 during 1970-75. and life expectancy increased from 32.9 years in 1950-55 to 40.9 in 1970-75. Historically, Ethiopia is not known to have experienced any serious migration problems except for the massive exodus of refugees into neighboring countries in recent years due to continuous military operations. The government has no explicit policy to modify fertility or population growth, although in recent years it has acknowledged that these rates are too high. The most pressing concern is the improvement of the health situation through a primary health care approach. Institutional arrangements in the area of population remain at an early stage of development. The government explicitly recognizes the interrelationships between population and socioeconomic development. The Central Statistical Office estimated the population size at 24.1 million in January 1970, and the annual rate of population growth at 2.2% for the early

  6. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Travassos, Mark A.; Berhane Beyene; Zenaw Adam; Campbell, James D.; Nigisti Mulholland; Diarra, Seydou S.; Tassew Kassa; Lisa Oot; Jenny Sequeira; Mardi Reymann; William C Blackwelder; Yukun Wu; Inna Ruslanova; Jaya Goswami; Sow, Samba O.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys. Methods Households with children aged 12–23 (N = 300) or 6–8 months (N = 100) in each of three districts (woredas) were randomly selected for immunization cover...

  7. HIV-Related Sexual Behaviors among Migrants and Non-migrants in Rural Ethiopia: Role of Rural to Urban Migration in HIV Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Tamiru, Melesse; Hailemariam, Damen; Mitike, Getnet; Haidar, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare HIV-related sexual risk behavior among temporary rural to urban migrants and non-migrants and to explore the role of migration in HIV transmission in a rural area of Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in Bure Woreda, West Gojam, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A total of 1,310 male subjects (655 rural to urban migrants and 655 non-migrants) were selected randomly and were assessed, analyzed using SPSS version 17 software for their HIV related s...

  8. A systems approach to improving rural care in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth H Bradley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Multiple interventions have been launched to improve the quality, access, and utilization of primary health care in rural, low-income settings; however, the success of these interventions varies substantially, even within single studies where the measured impact of interventions differs across sites, centers, and regions. Accordingly, we sought to examine the variation in impact of a health systems strengthening intervention and understand factors that might explain the variation in impact across primary health care units. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a mixed methods positive deviance study of 20 Primary Health Care Units (PHCUs in rural Ethiopia. Using longitudinal data from the Ethiopia Millennium Rural Initiative (EMRI, we identified PHCUs with consistently higher performance (n = 2, most improved performance (n = 3, or consistently lower performance (n = 2 in the provision of antenatal care, HIV testing in antenatal care, and skilled birth attendance rates. Using data from site visits and in-depth interviews (n = 51, we applied the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis to identify key themes that distinguished PHCUs with different performance trajectories. Key themes that distinguished PHCUs were 1 managerial problem solving capacity, 2 relationship with the woreda (district health office, and 3 community engagement. In higher performing PHCUs and those with the greatest improvement after the EMRI intervention, health center and health post staff were more able to solve day-to-day problems, staff had better relationships with the woreda health official, and PHCU communities' leadership, particularly religious leadership, were strongly engaged with the health improvement effort. Distance from the nearest city, quality of roads and transportation, and cultural norms did not differ substantially among PHCUs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Effective health strengthening efforts may require intensive

  9. Review of Malaria Epidemics in Ethiopia using Enhanced Climate Services (ENACTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, A.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria is a disease directly linked to temperature and rainfall. In Ethiopia, the influence of climate variables on malaria transmission and the subsequent role of ENSO in the rise of malaria incidence are becoming more recognized. Numerous publications attest to the extreme sensitivity of malaria to climate in Ethiopia. The majority of large-scale epidemics in the past were associated with climatic factors such as temperature and rainfall. However, there is limited information on climate variability and ENSO at the district level to aid in public health decision-making. Since 2008, the National Meteorogy Agency (NMA) and the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) have been collaborating on improving climate services in Ethiopia. This collaboration spurred the implementation of the Enhancing National Climate Services (ENACTS) initiative and the creation of the IRI Data Library (DL) NMA Ethiopia Maproom. ENACTS provides reliable and readily accessible climate data at high resolutions and the Maproom uses ENACTS to build a collection of maps and other figures that monitor climate and societal conditions at present and in the recent past (1981-2010). A recent analysis exploring the relationship of rainfall and temperature ENACTS products to malaria epidemics in proceeding rainy seasons within 12 woredas found above normal temperature anomalies to be more readily associated with epidemics when compared to above normal rainfall anomalies, regardless of the ENSO phase (Figure 1-2).

  10. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  11. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Travassos

    Full Text Available Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys.Households with children aged 12-23 (N = 300 or 6-8 months (N = 100 in each of three districts (woredas were randomly selected for immunization coverage surveys (inspection of vaccination cards and immunization clinic records and maternal recall and linked serosurveys. IgG-ELISA serologic biomarkers included tetanus antitoxin ≥ 0.15 IU/ml in toddlers (receipt of tetanus toxoid and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib anti-capsular titers ≥ 1.0 mcg/ml in infants (timely receipt of Hib vaccine.Coverage surveys enrolled 1,181 children across three woredas; 1,023 (87% also enrolled in linked serosurveys. Administrative data over-estimated coverage compared to surveys, while maternal recall was unreliable. Serologic biomarkers documented a hierarchy among the districts. Biomarker measurement in infants provided insight on timeliness of vaccination not deducible from toddler results.Neither administrative projections, vaccination card or EPI register inspections, nor parental recall, substitute for objective serological biomarker measurement. Including infants in serosurveys informs on vaccination timeliness.

  12. Immunization Coverage Surveys and Linked Biomarker Serosurveys in Three Regions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, Mark A.; Beyene, Berhane; Adam, Zenaw; Campbell, James D.; Mulholland, Nigisti; Diarra, Seydou S.; Kassa, Tassew; Oot, Lisa; Sequeira, Jenny; Reymann, Mardi; Blackwelder, William C.; Wu, Yukun; Ruslanova, Inna; Goswami, Jaya; Sow, Samba O.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Steinglass, Robert; Kebede, Amha; Levine, Myron M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Demographic and health surveys, immunization coverage surveys and administrative data often divergently estimate vaccination coverage, which hinders pinpointing districts where immunization services require strengthening. We assayed vaccination coverage in three regions in Ethiopia by coverage surveys and linked serosurveys. Methods Households with children aged 12–23 (N = 300) or 6–8 months (N = 100) in each of three districts (woredas) were randomly selected for immunization coverage surveys (inspection of vaccination cards and immunization clinic records and maternal recall) and linked serosurveys. IgG-ELISA serologic biomarkers included tetanus antitoxin ≥ 0.15 IU/ml in toddlers (receipt of tetanus toxoid) and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) anti-capsular titers ≥ 1.0 mcg/ml in infants (timely receipt of Hib vaccine). Findings Coverage surveys enrolled 1,181 children across three woredas; 1,023 (87%) also enrolled in linked serosurveys. Administrative data over-estimated coverage compared to surveys, while maternal recall was unreliable. Serologic biomarkers documented a hierarchy among the districts. Biomarker measurement in infants provided insight on timeliness of vaccination not deducible from toddler results. Conclusion Neither administrative projections, vaccination card or EPI register inspections, nor parental recall, substitute for objective serological biomarker measurement. Including infants in serosurveys informs on vaccination timeliness. PMID:26934372

  13. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  14. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  15. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  16. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  17. Epidemiology and individual, household and geographical risk factors of podoconiosis in Ethiopia: results from the first nationwide mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deribe, Kebede; Brooker, Simon J; Pullan, Rachel L; Sime, Heven; Gebretsadik, Abeba; Assefa, Ashenafi; Kebede, Amha; Hailu, Asrat; Rebollo, Maria P; Shafi, Oumer; Bockarie, Moses J; Aseffa, Abraham; Reithinger, Richard; Cano, Jorge; Enquselassie, Fikre; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Although podoconiosis is one of the major causes of tropical lymphoedema and is endemic in Ethiopia its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood. Individual-level data for 129,959 individuals from 1,315 communities in 659 woreda (districts) were collected for a nationwide integrated survey of lymphatic filariasis and podoconiosis. Blood samples were tested for circulating Wuchereria bancrofti antigen using immunochromatographic card tests. A clinical algorithm was used to reach a diagnosis of podoconiosis by excluding other potential causes of lymphoedema of the lower limb. Bayesian multilevel models were used to identify individual and environmental risk factors. Overall, 8,110 of 129,959 (6.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-6.4%) surveyed individuals were identified with lymphoedema of the lower limb, of whom 5,253 (4.0%, 95% CI 3.9-4.1%) were confirmed to be podoconiosis cases. In multivariable analysis, being female, older, unmarried, washing the feet less frequently than daily, and being semiskilled or unemployed were significantly associated with increased risk of podoconiosis. Attending formal education and living in a house with a covered floor were associated with decreased risk of podoconiosis. Podoconiosis exhibits marked geographical variation across Ethiopia, with variation in risk associated with variation in rainfall, enhanced vegetation index, and altitude. PMID:25404069

  18. Use of previous maternal health services has a limited role in reattendance for skilled institutional delivery: cross-sectional survey in Northwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede B

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bekana Kebede,1 Abebaw Gebeyehu,2 Gashaw Andargie11Department of Health Services Management, 2Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, EthiopiaBackground: Maternal mortality rates are unacceptably high in Ethiopia. Institutional delivery with skilled care of the mother is one of the interventions proven to reduce the risk of complications that can cause maternal and neonatal mortality. Quality of service given during antenatal visits and childbirth are important measures. The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of skilled institutional delivery and its repeat use during a subsequent pregnancy and to identify any reasons why women avoid institutional delivery.Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to June 2012 in Chilga Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia. Data were collected from women who gave birth during the year preceding the survey. Information was entered and cleaned using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Multivariate and binary logistic regression was used to identify the relative effect of each explanatory variable on the outcome.Results: A total of 402 (84.2% women gave birth at home. Previous experience of skilled institutional delivery had a limited role in subsequent acceptance or use of institutional delivery. Most mothers who had previously had institutional delivery gave birth at home. Although 111 (40.8% women visited the health facility during their pregnancy only because of illness, 184 (38.8% did not know when to visit for antenatal care. In multivariate analysis, lower maternal education, being a rural resident, previous use of institutional delivery, remoteness of the health facility, and multiparity were factors significantly associated with less likelihood of institutional delivery. Number of months pregnant at the time of the first antenatal visit had no role in increasing the likelihood of institutional delivery.Conclusion: The

  19. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  20. Country programme review. Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the current nuclear program in Ethiopia, identifying the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in the country and possible future technical cooperation activities. Separate brief sections deal with food and agriculture; human health; water and geothermal resources; industrial applications and instrumentation; radiation protection; higher education; programming, coordination and development

  1. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant for...

  2. Ethiopia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This Report on Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSC) provides a review of the accounting and auditing practices and the institutions underpinning the accounting and auditing environment in the corporate sector in Ethiopia. The review drew on best international practices and makes policy recommendations aimed at improving the quality of financial reporting in the country. There are some...

  3. Endline report – Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, CARE Ethiopia. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  4. Educational choices in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Pereznieto, Paola; Jones, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    Ethiopia has one of the lowest primary school enrolment rates and one of the highest illiteracy rates in the world. These rates are significantly lower than those of other similarly low-income countries. There are concerns that education quality is falling due to insufficient spending to provide more teachers and textbooks and reform the curriculum. Other key problems include disparities between regions, between boys and girls, and between rural and urban areas. It remains uncertain whether E...

  5. Ethiopia Poverty Assessment 2014

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    In 2000 Ethiopia had one of the highest poverty rates in the world, with 56 percent of the population living on less than United States (U.S.) $1.25 purchasing power parity (PPP) a day. Ethiopian households experienced a decade of remarkable progress in wellbeing since then and by the start of this decade less than 30 percent of the population was counted as poor. This poverty assessment d...

  6. Rural Risk Management Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This document investigates prospects for the use of index based weather insurance in Ethiopia for commercial and semi-commercial farmers. The document first summarizes the impact of risk weather risk in particular on Ethiopian agriculture and the need to balance investments in weather risk mitigation and weather risk management. Because the focus of this document is on risk management in the face of potential weather shocks, this introduction is followed by a summary of the traditional risk...

  7. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  8. LIVESTOCK FEEDS AND FEEDING SYSTEM IN ENSET (Ensete ventricosum DOMINATED MIXED FARMING SYSTEM OF SOUTHERN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel MENBERE AFELE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to identify the livestock feeds resources, feeding systems, feed related problems and the determinant factors under smallholder farmers’ livestock production system in the Sidama zone of Southern Nations, Nationalities and People's Region (SNNPR of Ethiopia. A total of 135 sample household heads which represents about 10 percent of the household heads in the two study districts (Shebedino and Dale were included in the study. According to the order of importance, natural grazing/scavenging, crop residue and purchased feeds from market/other farmers were the major (X2=1078.103, p<0.001, n=553 feed resources used to fed different livestock species/classes in the area. Due to the economic importance difference among species/classes, the provision priorities of each particular feed resource were also significantly different. Especially the provision disparity was more (X2=302.96, p<0.001 pronounced for crop residue for which male cattle (oxen and young bulls get top priority than natural pasture (X2=157.48, p<0.001 on which other species/classes are highly dependent and purchased feed (X2=62.29, p<0.001 by which the scavenging poultry production is subsidized. In feed production, conservation and treatment aspects, growing of improved forages is not common practice in the area and majority about 57.0% (n=77 of farmers have not grown improved forages (X2=4.28, p<0.001, considerable 63.7% (n=86 and limited 25.9% (n=35 of farmers have also practiced feed conservation (mainly maize Stover and elephant grass (X2=15.96, p<0.001 and crop residue treatment (mostly add and mix salt (X2=33.34, p<0.001, respectively. Grazing land is a scares resource in the livestock production sub-system of the area and only about 34.1% (n=46 of the farmers in the study area posses private grazing land with an average holding of 0.073±0.014 ha. Land shortage, feed shortage and population pressure were identified as major (X2=132.09, p<0.001 problems

  9. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality. PMID:27043619

  10. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality.

  11. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  12. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  13. Child Mortality Rate in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sathiya Susuman

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia childhood mortality has continued to decline although at a swift pace. The drop in urban childhood mortality decline, duration of breastfeeding is the principle reason for the overall decline in mortality trends in Ethiopia. Data from the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Surveys 2000 and 2005 were used. Indirect estimation of Brass and Trussells methods were adopted. Selected demographic and socio-economic variables were included in the analysis with statistically significant effects. Findings clearly show neonatal and post neonatal mortality decline gradually. Even though, Ethiopia childhood mortality rates are still high. The result shows less than 2 years birth interval have higher infant mortality rates than higher birth interval (113 deaths per 1000. The proper spacing of births allows more time for childcare to make more maternal resources available for the care of the child and mother. Therefore, further research is urgent for regional level and national level investigation.

  14. Uranium exploration in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive exploration dates back to 1955 and since then little progress has been made. Few pits and trenches in some places show radioactive anomalies.The Wadera radioactive anomaly occurs within the lower part of Wadera series, Southern Ethiopia. As observed from a trench the anomalous bed has a thickness of 0.9-1.2 m and is made of reddish-grey thin bedded sandstones.The presence of Xenotime in arkosic sandstone points to the sedimentary origin of mineralization. It was noticed that the sandstone in the lower part of Wadera series has at places a radioactivity 2-3 times higher than adjacent gneisses. The presence of a placer of such a type in the Wadera series is probably a clue for the existence of larger deposits in the area. In 2007 geological, geochemical and geophysical surveys were conducted to identify and delineate Uranium mineralization in three localities(Kuro, Kalido and Gueti) of Werri area, southern Ethiopia. Kaolinization, silicification, epidotization and chloritization are the main types of alteration associated with different units in the area. Uranium-bearing grains which are hosted in pegmatite veins and associated with magnetite/or ilmenite were observed in the three localities. Geochemical exploration accompanied by geological mapping and radiometric survey was done by employing heavy mineral concentrate, soil, chip and trench channel sampling. Radiometric readings of total count, U,Th and K were taken using GAD-6.Soil and trench geochemical samples of the localities analyzed by ICP-MS have shown 0.1 to 3.8 ppm and 3.9 to 147 ppm Uranium and 3.5 to 104.7 ppm and 3.9 to 147ppm Thorium respectively. Radiometric reading is higher in pegmatite veins that host Uranium-bearing minerals and some course grained pegmatoidal granite varieties. The areas recognized for Uranium associations need further investigations using state-of-the-art to discover economic deposits for development and utilization of the resource. (author)

  15. Ethiopia - Capturing the Demographic Bonus in Ethiopia : Gender, Development, and Demographic Actions

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This is a sector report on demographics in Ethiopia. The first part of this study puts the population issue in Ethiopia in perspective. Chapter 1 updates Ethiopia's demographic profile, looking in particular at the size of its population, its age structure, the speed at which it grows and its distribution across space. Chapter 2 explores the relationships between population growth, economi...

  16. Debt Management Performance Assessment : Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The DeMPA is a methodology for assessing public debt management performance through a comprehensive set of indicators spanning the full range of government debt management functions. The DeMPA tool presents debt performance indicators along with a scoring methodology. This report pertains to a debt management performance assessment of Ethiopia in 2013, and provides an overview of strengths...

  17. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  18. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  19. Evaluation of progress with using community conversation as a strategy to encourage district level abandonment of female genital mutilation and/or cutting in 10 districts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Alem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation and/or cutting (FGM/C, whilst widespread, is declining in Ethiopia; 81% of 45–49-year-old women were circumcised in a 2005 survey, and 62%of 15–19-year-olds.Objectives: This evaluation examined progress in abandoning FGM/C in ten woredas(districts where strategy based on the social convention theory had led to official declarations of abandonment and assessed if the strategy could accelerate the declining trend of the FGM/C practice in Ethiopia.Method: Quantitative and qualitative instruments collected data from a document review, a household survey (1275 households, in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions.Results: Overall, there were encouraging results in terms of awareness creation and behavioural change to some extent. Sixty-nine percent of women and 41% of girls interviewed perceived a decline in the practice (range 40% – 90% after the declaration. Seventy-six percent of women said they would not circumcise girls in the future. The involvement of influential people such as religious leaders, elders, health extension workers, and law enforcement officials in the teaching contributed immensely to the awareness creation. However, some districts reports indicated the practice had gone underground. The costs of facilitating the strategy varied from USD 3 to 7 per person, with better results where costs were higher. The abandonment events tended to costaround 25% of total costs, an area where cost efficiency can be improved.Conclusion: The evaluation has informed the dialogue around the development of the country’s first national budgeted strategy that aims to accelerate the abandonment of all harmful traditionalpractices.

  20. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  1. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...... in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...

  2. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines......, they suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies....

  3. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agricult...

  4. Ethiopia : Legal and Judicial Sector Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    The judicial and legal sector of Ethiopia presents a variety of significant challenges. The legal system as it exists today combines elements of both civil and common law1 with traditional practices, resulting in multiple layers intermingling and superimposing distinct types of modern, traditional, and religious laws and processes. This report provides an overview of Ethiopia's current leg...

  5. Country report ETHIOPIA - MFS II EVALUATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, R.; Asenso-Okyere, K.; Bahiigwa, G.; Cao, De E.; Eriksen, S.; Jemaneh, S.; Gutu, T.; Hansen, N.; Lutz, C.; Tadesse, G.; Tefera, W.; Yirga, C.; Zerfu, E.; Berg, van der M.; Klaver, D.C.; Jacobs, J.; Hofstede, M.; Ingen, van T.; Getew, H.; Tigabu, A.; Babu, S.; Buizer, N.N.; Desalos, C.B.; Kefyalew, D.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Bulte, E.; Pradhan, M.

    2015-01-01

    This report on Ethiopia is one of a series of evaluation reports, consisting of ten reports in total, reflecting the results of the jointly-organised MFS II evaluation: - Eight country reports (India, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Uganda, Indonesia, DR Congo, Liberia, Pakistan); - A synthesis report (coveri

  6. Epidemiology of bean rust in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habtu Assefa,

    1994-01-01

    Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted to study the epidemiology of rust ( Uromyces appendiculatus ) on beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Ethiopia. The experiments were conducted under low input conditions reflecting the traditional bean production practices. Surveys identified five major

  7. Land Rights and Expropriation in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ambaye, Daniel Weldegebriel

    2013-01-01

    This study examines and analyses the expropriation laws and practices in Ethiopia. The objective of the thesis is to analyze and describe the land rights and expropriation laws in Ethiopia and to compare them with the practice in order to determine the fairness of compensation. The study is made against the Ethiopian Constitution and other subsidiary legislations which provide the basic land rights and the nature and details of expropriation. The basic argument made in this thesis is that eve...

  8. Nutrition in Ethiopia: An emerging success story?:

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, Derek D.

    2015-01-01

    Research does not always provide the results that we expect. At the recent conference on improving nutrition in Ethiopia, Together for Nutrition 2015, we learnt about the rapid progress in Ethiopia in child nutritional outcomes that are linked to improved birth size and, hence, improved maternal health. However, most of the improvement in maternal health seems related to better sanitation, rather than to diet, care, or health factors.

  9. Marek's disease in local chicken strains of Ethiopia reared under confined management regime in central Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duguma, R.; Yami, A.; Dana, N.; Hassen, H.H.; Esatu, W.

    2005-01-01

    The prevalence, clinical and pathological manifestations and extent of mortality due to Marek’s disease (MD) was investigated from November 2003 to January 2004 among indigenous chickens of Ethiopia reared under confined management at the Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center, central Ethiopia. Cl

  10. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  11. Information, motivation and resources: the missing elements in agricultural pesticide policy implementation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistie, B.T.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.; Simane, B.

    2015-01-01

    To promote pesticide governance that protects the environment and human health, Ethiopia has developed a legal framework for pesticide registration and control. However, in Ethiopia, pesticides are still registered, traded and used inappropriately. This research analyses how Ethiopia's pesticide pol

  12. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  13. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  14. Antenatal care strengthening in jimma, ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje;

    2014-01-01

    of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students...... respect to protect maternal and infant health....

  15. Demand for money and shortages in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the long-run monetary conditions in Ethiopia in the last three decades. These decades can be characterized by large political changes, leading to shocks on income and population growth, and two serious periods of drought. Both affected inflation and real demand for M-1 through sh

  16. The Pineapple Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the pineapple value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve market ac

  17. Status of geothermal energy in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that there are several identified geothermal localities in Ethiopia. Ten geothermal localities have been studied with regional assessments, while three localities have had pre-feasibility studies. In one area, the Aluto-Langano geothermal field, the feasibility studies have been completed. However, the geothermal resources have not been utilized yet except in the traditional baths

  18. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between...

  19. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  20. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  1. A bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2003-01-01

    This bibliography on Christianity in Ethiopia covers material published from the early 1960s onwards. It focuses on the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, including the Eritrean Orthodox Church, which became autonomous in 1993, but references on modern missionary and evangelical Christianity, as well as Cat

  2. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response t

  3. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  4. Electronic-Banking in Ethiopia- Practices, Opportunities and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gardachew Worku

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the practices, opportunities and challenges of E-banking services in Ethiopia. Ethiopian banking system is one of the most underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world. In Ethiopia cash is still the most dominant medium of exchange and electronic-banking is not well known, let alone used for transacting banking business. All banks in Ethiopia except Dashen Bank are too late to move with technological advancement and they should clearly ch...

  5. Self-Medication Practices in Mekelle, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tadele Eticha; Kalkidan Mesfin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Self-medication makes consumers more health conscious, reduces treatment burden on healthcare facilities and curtails the cost and time of obtaining access to treatment. However, it increases risks such as drug resistance, adverse drug reactions, incorrect diagnosis, drug interactions and polypharmacy. The purpose of this study was to assess the practices and factors associated with self-medication in Mekelle, Tigray region, Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertake...

  6. Coffee Innovation Systems in Ethiopia and Rwanda

    OpenAIRE

    Mequaninte, Teferi; Müller, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    We use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to investigate the networking and knowledge management in the coffee value chain in Ethiopian and Rwanda and its applicability to the agricultural innovation system (AIS). The AIS aims at putting farmers at the center of the knowledge management and innovation system. Results of the SNA show that farmers from both Ethiopia and Rwanda are not at the center of the innovation system. In the Ethiopian coffee value chain, cooperatives are at the center of the k...

  7. Rural water supply corruption in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Calow, Roger; Macdonald, Alan; Cross, Piers

    2012-01-01

    In Ethiopia, investment in rural water supply underpins the government’s poverty reduction efforts. The challenge is huge: roughly 50 percent of the (mainly rural) population still have no access to safe water, and the country has the highest number of people in Sub-Saharan Africa without access to improved water supply and sanitation. The consequences are dire: every year, roughly 250,000 children die from diseases related to poor water and sanitation, and many others face ...

  8. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constitution's explicit reinstatement of ethnicity in law coincides with a politico-economic situation which has made ethnoregional groups more interdependent than ever before, and where the central State ha...

  9. Cereal production and technology adoption in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Bingxin; Nin-Pratt, Alejandro; Funes, José; Gemessa, Sinafikeh Asrat

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government has been promoting a package-driven extension that combines credit, fertilizers, improved seeds, and better management practices. This approach has reached almost all farming communities, representing about 2 percent of agricultural gross domestic product in recent years. This paper is the first to look at the extent and determinants of the adoption of the fertilizer-seed technology package promoted in Ethiopia using nationally representative data from the Central Sta...

  10. A Canadian Medical Team in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Caldwell, J. Paul; Kain, Brian F.; Robert C. McDonald

    1985-01-01

    In February 1985, a Canadian medical relief team was established in a northern Ethiopia refugee camp. Volunteer physicians, nurses, and support staff have worked in the camp since February 1985. Their activities range from supervising intensive feeding programs, to controlling infections, to educating patients. About 300-400 patients visit the outpatient clinics daily. Malnutrition, vitamin A and B deficiencies, scurvy, rickets, gastroenteritis, malaria, leprosy, tuberculosis, pneumonia, trac...

  11. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  12. Proposal for Business Support Facility for Ethiopia : A mission report

    OpenAIRE

    Blomne Sopov, M.

    2012-01-01

    This report, requested by the Royal Dutch Embassy in Ethiopia, outlines the modalities of setting up a Business Support Facility in the country with the objectives of: 1. Supporting sector coordination and business partnerships; 2. Brokering business relations between Ethiopia and the Netherlands; 3. Strengthening innovation capacity to ensure technical, business and entrepreneurial know how.

  13. FACTORS AFFECTING VASECTOMY ACCEPTABILITY IN ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Admasu , Negalign chekol , Temesegen Chekol , Z. Shewamene*, Zelalem Eteffa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Vasectomy is one of the most effective but less utilized types of contraception method which could addresses the involvement of males to the family planning. The aim of the study was therefore to investigate the awareness about and practice of men towards vasectomy among workers in Dashen brewery, Ethiopia. Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted using pre tested self-administered questioner to assess the Knowledge, attitude and factors associated with low utilization of vasectomy. A total of 187 study participants were included to this study using single population proportion formula and random sampling technique. Majority of the participants 155 (82.9% never heard about vasectomy as a contraception method. Their knowledge about vasectomy is generally very poor as large proportion of respondents didn’t know how it works, its effectiveness and its effect on their sexual performance. None of the respondents have ever used vasectomy as a modern male contraception method. Misleading information towards its impact on sexual performance/desire was reported as a main reason not to use this method. Among others need of more children, unavailability of services, lack of information, spouse refusal and religious concerns were mentioned as a potential reasons for their negative perception towards vasectomy. Lack of awareness, myths and rumors, limited access to services, and indifference and bias on the part of providers about vasectomy limit its popularity in Ethiopia. Therefore, it is vital to introduce appropriate educational plan to increase awareness and usage of vasectomy in Ethiopia.

  14. The transitional semi-evergreen bushland in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew

    2016-01-01

    Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen...... bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia and eastern Africa. Methods: Based on a review of the recent descriptions of evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia, we hypothesize that there is a distinct zone of natural semi-ever-green bushland, which is restricted to the eastern and southeastern escarpment of the Ethiopian...... Highlands. In contrast, evergreen bushlands in other parts of Ethiopia are considered to be of a secondary nature. To test this hypothesis, we carried out qualitative vegetation surveys in 354 locations across Ethiopia and classified the vegetation in these locations based on the occurrences of indicator...

  15. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  16. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  17. Electronic-Banking in Ethiopia- Practices, Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardachew Worku

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the practices, opportunities and challenges of E-banking services in Ethiopia. Ethiopian banking system is one of the most underdeveloped compared to the rest of the world. In Ethiopia cash is still the most dominant medium of exchange and electronic-banking is not well known, let alone used for transacting banking business. All banks in Ethiopia except Dashen Bank are too late to move with technological advancement and they should clearly chart out the time schedule for their integration and technological advancement.

  18. The effects of zero grazing in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Van; Berg, van den, M.M.; Tizale, C.Y.; Wondwosen, T.

    2013-01-01

    In the high lands of Ethiopia, almost every plot of farmland is allotted for crop husbandry, leaving no or only road sides and marginal lands for grazing. However, land is scarce in these areas and this limits the role of crop production in poverty alleviation and it also limits the availability of local off-farm employment. Moreover, with the years, livestock feed has become scarce and crop residues are the major feed source for the animals. This feed problem also potentially affects crop pr...

  19. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party...

  20. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Fekadu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global mental health (GMH advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design: A case study method is used. Results: Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions: GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings.

  1. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  2. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta Lemenih; Habtemariam Kassa

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha) of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specific...

  3. Eradicating tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farming activities in Ethiopia, as in much of sub-Saharan Africa, are restricted by the presence of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.). These carry the livestock and human disease, trypanosomosis, which severely affects agricultural production and human well-being. In collaboration with the Ethiopian authorities, the International Atomic Energy Agency is sponsoring a Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) programme to eradicate tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia. (IAEA)

  4. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopia. The low uptake may be related to the high costs of recommended production methods for these varieties. The objective of this study was to formulate least-cost seed potato production methods for ...

  5. Urbanization and spatial connectivity in Ethiopia: Urban growth analysis using GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Emily; Kedir, Mekamu

    2009-01-01

    In comparison to other African countries, Ethiopia has a low urbanization rate. According to the World Bank World Development Report (WDR) 2009, Sub-Sahara Africa is 30% urbanized, whereas Ethiopia is only 10.9% urbanized. Urbanization rates differ according to methodologies and data base utilized: the United Nations classifies Ethiopia as 14.9% urban, while the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia reports a 16% urbanization rate. In an effort to standardize and measure Ethiopian urbanizati...

  6. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    . The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of “marginal” land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant...... narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha...... investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study...

  7. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009.......En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  8. Foreign exchange rationing, wheat markets and food security in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Ahmed, Hashim

    2009-01-01

    In spite of remarkable growth in Ethiopia’s agricultural production and overall real incomes (GDP/capita) from 2004/05 to 2008/09, prices of major cereals (teff, maize, wheat and sorghum) have fluctuated sharply in both nominal and real terms. International prices of cereals also fluctuated widely, particularly between 2006 and 2008. However, the links between Ethiopia’s domestic cereal markets and the international market are by no means straightforward. Among the major staples, only whe...

  9. Partners against tuberculosis: Ethiopia's "TB clubs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, H

    1998-11-01

    TB (tuberculosis) clubs were first introduced in the Estie district of South Gonder administrative zone, Amhara region of northwestern Ethiopia in January 1997, in an attempt to improve TB control in rural areas. Before the clubs were introduced, patients who were family members or close neighbors were given different treatment follow-up dates. Walking long distances alone to secure treatment, patients often grew discouraged from continuing treatment once their health began to improve. However, upon the introduction of the TB clubs, neighboring patients, or those in the same family, had their follow-up appointment dates rearranged in the same clinics. Local neighborhoods were also used to group nearby patients in the same follow-up clinic. The patients then formed their own groups (TB clubs) and elected leaders. 3-10 members usually comprise each club, with the club leaders monitoring drug intake and new developments, such as drug side effects and toxic skin reactions. The social ostracism and stigma otherwise experienced by patients have been largely overcome as a result of the TB information disseminated within the communities by the clubs, while patient attendance for treatment has increased from 68% to 98%, according to one study's findings. This intervention has taken place using the long-course treatment protocol (2STH/EH and 10TH/EH). TB clubs are improving patient adherence to treatment, passive case detection, defaulter tracing, TB reporting and recording, and community involvement in health care. PMID:12294916

  10. Revisiting resistance in Italian-occupied Ethiopia : the Patriots' Movement (1936-1941) and the redefinition of post-war Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the glob

  11. Endline report – Ethiopia, FSCE MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, FSCE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  12. Endline report – Ethiopia, ECFA MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Getu, D.; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, ECFA. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  13. Endline report – Ethiopia, HUNDEE MFS II country evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Ingen, van, T.; Kusters, C.S.L.; Zerfu, E.; Kefyalew, D.; Peters, B; Buizer, N.N.

    2015-01-01

    This report presents the findings of the endline of the evaluation of the organisational capacity component of the MFS II country evaluations. The focus of this report is Ethiopia, HUNDEE. The format is based on the requirements by the synthesis team and NWO/WOTRO. The endline was carried out in 2014. The baseline was carried out in 2012.

  14. Forest governance dynamics in Ethiopia : histories, arrangements, and practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayana, A.N.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with forest governance in Ethiopia. Forest governance is an important subject to study both as an emerging field of scientific analysis and as a means to understand and tackle the practical challenges facing forest resource management and conservation. Forests are one of the vital

  15. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  16. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  17. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to imp

  18. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance...

  19. Adult Basic Literacy "Initiatives" in Ethiopia: Change and Continuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenea, Ambissa

    2014-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…

  20. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive sta

  1. Consumption, Vulnerability, and Shocks in Rural Ethiopia, 1999-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercon, S.; Hodinnott, J.; Woldehanna, T.

    2006-01-01

    Improving our understanding of risk and vulnerability is an issue of increasing importance for Ethiopia as it is for much of Africa. A small, but growing, body of evidence, points to the role that risk, shocks and vulnerability in perpetuating poverty. Specifically, uninsured shocks ¿ adverse events

  2. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  3. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement Potentials for the Cement Industry in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tesema, G.; Worrell, E.

    2015-01-01

    The cement sector is one of the fast growing economic sectors in Ethiopia. In 2010, it consumed 7 PJ of primary energy. We evaluate the potential for energy savings and CO2 emission reductions. We start by benchmarking the energy performance of 8 operating plants in 2010, and 12 plants under constru

  5. Incomplete Markets and Fertilizer Use : Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerfu, Daniel; Donald F. Larson

    2010-01-01

    While the economic returns to using chemical fertilizer in Africa can be large, application rates are low. This study explores whether this is due to missing and imperfect markets. Results based on a panel survey of Ethiopian farmers suggest that while fertilizer markets are not altogether missing in rural Ethiopia, high transport costs, unfavorable climate, price risk, and illiteracy pres...

  6. Micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia and their inter-relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde-Gebriel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide study on the prevalence of xerophthalmia was carried out in 6,636 children aged 6 months to 6 years in all the Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai which were excluded for security reasons. Bitot's spots were observed in 1.0% of all children with higher prevalence in the pastor

  7. Development Strategy for the Export- Oriented Horticulture in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The export-oriented horticulture sector in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly and forms an important element in the country’s efforts to expand and diversify the economy, raise export earnings and create employment. This rapid growth is remarkable particularly when placed in a historic context. Furth

  8. Least-Cost Seed Potato Production in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Improved potato varieties can increase potato yields of smallholders, and thus contribute to food security improvement in Ethiopia. However, the uptake of these varieties by farmers is very limited so far and this is one of the causes of insufficient seed quality in the seed potato system in Ethiopi

  9. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes o

  10. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  11. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  12. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  13. Impacts of maternal mortality on living children and families: A qualitative study from Butajira, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Molla, Mitike; Mitiku, Israel; Worku, Alemayehu; Yamin, Alicia Ely

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consequences of maternal mortality on orphaned children and the family members who support them are dramatic, especially in countries that have high maternal mortality like Ethiopia. As part of a four country, mixed-methods study (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Tanzania) qualitative data were collected in Butajira, Ethiopia with the aim of exploring the far reaching consequences of maternal deaths on families and children. Methods: We conducted interviews with 28 adult fa...

  14. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    OpenAIRE

    Shiferaw, Melashu

    2016-01-01

    Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service...

  15. Examining the incentive effects of food aid on household behaviour in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hoddinott, John

    2004-01-01

    "In Ethiopia, while superficial examination suggests strong disincentive effects of food aid on labor supply and agricultural activities, these largely vanish under more careful statistical analysis." from Text

  16. Summary of Reports from the Country Representatives: Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geography: Ethiopia is located between 3o-15o N latitude and 33o-48oE longitude. The total surface area is about 1.1M km2. The highland plateau that ranges between 2000-3000 meters above sea level is dissected by the Great Rift Valley and many other river valleys and escarpments and covered by about a dozen of mountains rising above 4000 meters. Altitude is one of the important factors that influence the distribution of diseases in Ethiopia. Malaria Situation: Malaria affects about 4-5 million people annually, and is prevalent in 75% of the country putting over 40 million people at risk. Generally, areas lying below 2000 meters altitude are malarious whilst the highlands are densely populated and over cultivated. In addition, transmissions of malaria in Ethiopia are closely linked with the rainy seasons. The major transmission season follows the June-September rains and occurs between September-December while the minor transmission season occurs between April-May following the February-March rains. Of the total 350 DLY's/1000 population lost annually, malaria accounts for 10.5%. Epidemiology: All the four Plasmodium parasites are reported in Ethiopia. P. falciparum is the most important one and comprises 60% of all malaria cases in the country. P. vivax makes 40% of the cases. P. malariae and P. ovale constitute less than 1%. P. falciparum has been reported to be resistant to chloroquine. Malaria vectors in Ethiopia include Anopheles arabiensis, An. pharoensis, A. funestus and An. nili; the major vector being An. arabiensis. An. gambiae complex (in which An. arabiensis is a member) is known to be the most frequent and widely distributed species in the country. From the An. gambiae complex only two species, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus, are reported to exist in Ethiopia. In a five year period (1984-1988) outdoor and indoor collections made at areas representing low, moderate and intense transmissions of malaria in different administrative regions; 75.5% of

  17. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros;

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the Barto......More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp...... of the Bartonella RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene. We used a generalized linear mixed model to relate the probability of Bartonella infection to species, season, locality, habitat, sex, sexual condition, weight, and ectoparasite infestation. Overall, Bartonella infection prevalence among the small mammals...

  18. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  19. The Short Life of the Bank of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Mauri

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bank of Abyssinia, established in 1905, was given a 50-years concession by theEmperor Menelek II. This institution was engaged in issuing notes as well as in any kind ofcommercial banking business. Haile Sellassie, after acceding to the throne in 1930, could not acceptthat the country’s issuing bank was a foreign-owned share company and decided for nationalization.The change was implemented, however, in a soft way, providing an adequate compensation toshareholders, and in agreement with the main foreign shareholder, the National Bank of Egypt. TheBank of Abyssinia went, therefore, into liquidation and a new institution, the Bank of Ethiopia, wasestablished in 1931. The new bank, although under full Government control, retained management,staff, premises and clients of the ceased financial institution. Italian occupation of the country, in1936, brought the liquidation of the Bank of Ethiopia.

  20. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  1. Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Abera, Birhanu Hadush

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi in Northern Ethiopia: epidemiology, diversity and alternative diagnostics Animal African trypanosomosis (AAT) is a complex of parasitic diseases of various domestic and wild animal species caused by different species of trypanosomes. Trypanosoma (T.) brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax are transmitted by tsetse flies. Trypanosoma evansi, but also T. vivax, is mechanically transmitted by other biting flies and T. equiperdum is sexually transmitted in Equidae. All these ...

  2. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia: ’Forced’ to remain poor?

    OpenAIRE

    Mengistu Assefa Wendimu; Arne Henningsen; Peter Gibbon

    2015-01-01

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of ...

  3. The Road to Maternal Death In Rural Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deribe, Kebede; Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Belachew, Tefera; Woldemichael, Kifle

    2010-01-01

    The study explored cultural beliefs and practices contributing to maternal deaths together with maternal deaths reviews as testimonial. Six maternal deaths were retrospectively observed in rural southwest Ethiopia. Four of the 6 deaths occurred due to direct obstetric causes. Substandard primary and referral care, not understanding the severity of the problem, and lack of transport were the major themes identified as contributing factors. The result highlighted the need to improving primary h...

  4. Ethiopia's Tourism Sector : Strategic Paths to Competitiveness and Job Creation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This study analyzes strategic intervention options that can inform the implementation process of Ethiopia s national tourism development policy in an effort to make the sector globally competitive. It also outlines the analytical foundations for technical assistance that will be provided to Ministry of Culture and Tourism (MoCT) by the World Bank-funded Ethiopian Sustainable Tourism Development Program (ESTDP). This study uses the world economic forum tourism and travel competitiveness index ...

  5. A female Homo erectus pelvis from Gona, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, Scott W.; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E.; Butler, Robert; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Everett, Melanie; Semaw, Sileshi

    2008-01-01

    Analyses of the KNM-WT 15000 Homo erectus juvenile male partial skeleton from Kenya concluded that this species had a tall thin body shape due to specialized locomotor and climatic adaptations. Moreover, it was concluded that H. erectus pelves were obstetrically restricted to birthing a small-brained altricial neonate. Here we describe a nearly complete early Pleistocene adult female H. erectus pelvis from the Busidima Formation of Gona, Afar, Ethiopia. This obstetrically capacious pelvis dem...

  6. How do health extension workers in Ethiopia allocate their time?

    OpenAIRE

    Mangham-Jefferies, L; Mathewos, B; Russell, J.; Bekele, A

    2014-01-01

    Background Governments are increasingly reliant on community health workers to undertake health promotion and provide essential curative care. In 2003, the Government of Ethiopia launched the Health Extension Programme and introduced a new cadre, health extension workers (HEWs), to improve access to care in rural communities. In 2013, to inform the government’s plans for HEWs to take on an enhanced role in community-based newborn care, a time and motion study was conducted to understand the r...

  7. Investment analysis of smallholder Eucalyptus globulus plantations in Amhara, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Matthies, Brent

    2013-01-01

    In this study the financial returns related to smallholders’ return on investments in Eucalyptus globulus (Labill.) were analyzed for the Kentai sub-watershed in the Tana-Beles Watershed Monitoring and Evaluation project in Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia. This was accomplished by reviewing the inputs used in activities carried out by smallholders. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to analyze the inputs and outputs realized by different household investment choices. The Net Present Val...

  8. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  9. Risk mapping for northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne

    2001-01-01

    We used results from 120 group interviews collected in 1998 to quantify how inhabitants across northern Kenya and southern Ethiopia perceive and rank various risks to their livelihoods. We also mapped risk patterns using Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinates. Respondents recognized 15 sources of risk overall, with the most common being reliable access to food and water. Other risks were not mentioned by a majority of respondents and reflected diversity in local situations. Country of re...

  10. Pastoralism Under Pressure: Tracking System Change in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Desta, Solomon

    2003-01-01

    While economic development has proven elusive in African pastoral systems, change is pervasive. The Kajiado Maasai, for example, have endured declines in terms of per capita livestock holdings and other aspects of human welfare over the past 50 years. Activity diversification has occurred in Maasailand as the population copes with pressure from human population growth. We surveyed up to 317 Borana households during the late 1990s to see if similar patterns occurred in southern Ethiopia. Once ...

  11. Economic implications of foreign exchange rationing in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Robinson, Sherman; Ahmed, Hashim

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia enjoyed remarkable economic growth from 2004/05 to 2008/09, in large part due to increases in foreign transfers and capital inflows combined with expanded domestic credit to fund major increases in private and public investments in infrastructure and housing. However, this rapid growth was accompanied by a major appreciation of the real exchange rate (by 34 percent between July 2004 and July 2008) that reduced incentives for domestic production of exportables and non-protected import...

  12. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu Ozdogan; Benjamin F. Zaitchik; Belay Simane

    2013-01-01

    Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 ...

  13. Feed resources, livestock production and soil carbon dynamics in Teghane, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, van H.; Oosting, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, integrated crop-livestock production within smallholder farms is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed availability and quality are serious constraints to livestock production in Ethiopia in general, and in its Northern Highlands in particular. The

  14. The Cost of Business Registration and Licensing in Ethiopia and Options for Reform

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    The Ethiopia Investment Climate Program, managed by the World Bank Group’s Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice aims at streamlining and simplifying high priority regulatory practices and processes burdensome to the private sector and address investment climate issues that are holding back investment and productivity growth in Ethiopia. This report presents a summary of the major find...

  15. Expansion vs. Quality: Emerging Issues of For-Profit Private Higher Education Institutions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Private for-profit higher education has been rapidly expanding in developing countries worldwide since the early 1990s. This global trend has been particularly evident in Ethiopia, where only three public universities existed until 1996. By 2005, about 60 private for-profit higher education institutions had been founded in Ethiopia. This has led…

  16. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  17. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  18. Land management in the north-western highlands of Ethiopia: adoption and impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akalu Teshome Firew,; Firew, A.T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Over the last four decades, the government of Ethiopia and various a consortium of donors have been promoting different land management (LM) practices in the highlands of Ethiopia to halt land degradation. However, the adoption rate of these practices has been low. This is

  19. Managing Water Resources to Maximize Sustainable Growth : A World Bank Water Resources Assistance Strategy for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Sadoff, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    This note contains a summary, for practitioners, of the World Bank Country Water Resources Assistance Strategy (CWRAS) report: it concerns managing water resources to maximize sustainable growth and focuses on World Bank water resources assistance strategy for Ethiopia (March 2006). Specifically, the note describes the scope and scale of the impacts of hydrological variability on Ethiopia'...

  20. Wages in the food chain in Ethiopia: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Tijdens; J. Besamusca; N. Asteraye

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The

  1. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely

  2. Disaster, relief and political change in southern Ethiopia : developments from within Suri society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Sorenson, J.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in Käfa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to env

  3. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  4. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (PTheileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  5. Divorce in Ethiopia: the impact of early marriage and childlessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilson, D; Larsen, U

    2000-07-01

    Forty-five per cent of first marriages in Ethiopia end in divorce within 30 years, and two-thirds of women who divorce do so within the first 5 years of marriage. This paper looks at two factors that may have an impact on the risk of divorce in Ethiopia: early age of first marriage, and childlessness within the first marriage. Data used were from the 1990 National Family and Fertility Survey conducted by the Government of Ethiopia. A total of 8757 women of reproductive age (15-49) were analysed. Life table analysis was used to determine the median age at first marriage, first birth and the median duration of marriage. Cox models were analysed to determine the differentials of divorce. The results of this analysis showed that both early age at marriage and childlessness have a significant impact on the risk of divorce. An inverse relationship was found between age at marriage and risk of divorce. Having a child within the first marriage also significantly reduced the risk of divorce. In addition, several cultural and socioeconomic variables were significant predictors of divorce. PMID:10979229

  6. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  7. Scaling of Health Information Systems in Nigeria and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Shaw, Vincent; Braa, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Systems Programme in Nigeria and Ethiopia, the interdependencies between three spheres are identified as being important in scaling health information systems. The three spheres that are explored are the volume of data collected, human resource factors and access to technology. We draw on concepts from...... the balance. Three flexible standards are identified as being critical strategies to global health information scaling initiatives, namely an essential data set, a scalable process of information systems collection and collation consisting of gateways between paper based systems and hardware and software...

  8. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  9. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    S. G. Gebrehiwot; Ilstedt, U.; Gärdenas, A. I.; Bishop, K.

    2011-01-01

    Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2), in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a...

  10. Conservation and Livelihood Impacts of Decentralized Forest Governance in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha

    expected outcomes of PFM. In the four articles that form the thesis, the study argues that the PFM programme in Ethiopia contributes to forest conservation compared to other types of management regimes. However, conservation is also challenged mainly by lack of support from the authorities to forest user...... donors and NGOs, with a model where only subsistence level incentives are made available to forest user group members. The study confirms the theoretical claim that rules imposed from above are not followed, and uniquely shows that commercialization of timber and forest conservation can go side by side...

  11. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do...

  12. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  13. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agonafir, M.; Lemma, E.; Wolde-Meskel, D.; Goshu, S.; Santhanam, A.; Girmachew, F.; Demissie, D.; Getahun, M.; Gebeyehu, M.; Soolingen, D. van

    2010-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and to genetically characterise multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. DESIGN: A total of 107 M. tuberculosis isola

  14. The Effect of Targeting Credit to Married Women on Intra-household Expenditure Roles in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, H.B.; Bock, B.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is attempted to explore the potential effects of microfinance targeted at married women on intra-household expenditure roles and women’s economic power taking the cases of two microfinance institutions in Ethiopia

  15. Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melesse, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia Mequanint Biset Melesse Abstract Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evid

  16. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia. Lack of access to credit is a

  17. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  18. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated

  19. Monetary Developments and Decolonization in Ethiopia (1941-1952

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Mauri

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the reorganization process of the monetary setting in Ethiopia which started in 1941 along with decolonization, when the Italian colonial rule came to an end. The country regained independence and the former Ethiopian empire was restored. The monetary reform in Ethiopia after the liberation during World War II, was a necessary measure to be adopted. Different paths however could have been followed at that moment by the Ethiopian government. The crucial choice made in money matter was to re-establish a national monetary unit instead of keeping the country inside the East African shilling area, as it was envisaged in British designs for the post-war setting of the Horn of Africa. The Ethiopian project unpredictably prevailed at the end of a weary negotiation, due to the chiefly American support in the framework of a new role gained by the United States in this area. The Ethiopian Authorities were, as a consequence, enabled to free themselves from dependence on Great Britain.

  20. ASSESSEMENT OF PRESCRIBING PATTERN IN BORUMEDA HOSPITAL NORTH EAST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assen M

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Appropriate drug utilization has a huge contribution to global reduction in morbidity and mortality with its consequent medical, social and economic benefits [1]. Inappropriate prescribing is known all over the world as a major problem of health care delivery. Drug Utilization Reviews (DURs are useful for obtaining information about drug usage patterns and for identifying high cost drugs, which are of economic interest Objectives: To assess prescribing pattern in medical outpatient department (OPD of Boru Meda Hospital, North East, Ethiopia Methods: A retrospective, descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 385 prescriptions were randomly collected from the OPD prescription papers existing from Jan 2012 to Dec 2012. The prescriptions were analyzed in the context of adherence to some of WHO core prescribing indicators. Result: Average number of drugs was 1.88. 80.02% prescriptions had drugs prescribed by generic name. Antibiotics were prescribed in 34.57% and 6.06% prescriptions had injectable preparations. (85.26% of drugs were from essential drugs list for Ethiopia (EDL (3rd edition. Conclusion: On the basis of the finding of this study, antibiotics use, adherence to essential drug list and generic prescription showed deviation from the standard recommended by WHO. This calls for sustained interventional strategies and periodic audit at all levels of health care to avoid the negative consequences of inappropriate prescriptions. On the other hand, poly-pharmacy, injectable prescribing were not found to be a problem in this study.

  1. Soil erosion assessment and control in Northeast Wollega, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adugna, A.; Abegaz, A.; Cerdà, A.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion is the main driver of land degradation in Ethiopia, and in the whole region of East Africa. This study was conducted at the Northeast Wollega in West Ethiopia to estimate the soil losses by means of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). The purpose of this paper is to identify erosion spot areas and target locations for appropriate development of soil and water conservation measures. Fieldwork and household survey were conducted to identify major determinants of soil erosion control. Six principal factors were used to calculate soil loss per year, such as rainfallerosivity, soil erodiblity, slope length, slope steepness, crop management and erosion-control practices. The soil losses have shown spatio-temporal variations that range from 4.5 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in forest to 65.9 Mg ha-1 yr-1 in cropland. Results from the analysis of stepwise multiple linear regression show that sustainable soil erosion control are determined byknowledge of farmers about soil conservation, land tenure security and off-farm income at community level. Thus, policy aim at keeping land productivity will need to focus on terracing, inter-cropping and improved agro-forestry practices.

  2. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  3. Natural infection of bats with Leishmania in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Aysheshm; Sadlova, Jovana; Benda, Petr; Kostalova, Tatiana; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Baneth, Gad; Volf, Petr; Votypka, Jan

    2015-10-01

    The leishmaniases, a group of diseases with a worldwide-distribution, are caused by different species of Leishmania parasites. Both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis remain important public health problems in Ethiopia. Epidemiological cycles of these protozoans involve various sand fly (Diptera: Psychodidae) vectors and mammalian hosts, including humans. In recent years, Leishmania infections in bats have been reported in the New World countries endemic to leishmaniasis. The aim of this study was to survey natural Leishmania infection in bats collected from various regions of Ethiopia. Total DNA was isolated from spleens of 163 bats belonging to 23 species and 18 genera. Leishmania infection was detected by real-time (RT) PCR targeting a kinetoplast (k) DNA and internal transcribed spacer one (ITS1) gene of the parasite. Detection was confirmed by sequencing of the PCR products. Leishmania kDNA was detected in eight (4.9%) bats; four of them had been captured in the Aba-Roba and Awash-Methara regions that are endemic for leishmaniasis, while the other four specimens originated from non-endemic localities of Metu, Bedele and Masha. Leishmania isolates from two bats were confirmed by ITS1 PCR to be Leishmania tropica and Leishmania major, isolated from two individual bats, Cardioderma cor and Nycteris hispida, respectively. These results represent the first confirmed observation of natural infection of bats with the Old World Leishmania. Hence, bats should be considered putative hosts of Leishmania spp. affecting humans with a significant role in the transmission. PMID:26232657

  4. Village Chicken Husbandry Practice, Marketing and Constraints in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarekegn, Getachew

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is designed to study the characteristics of village chicken husbandry practice, marketing and constraints in eastern Ethiopia. The study was conducted from July in four selected districts in the highlands of eastern Ethiopia (Haramaya, Kersa, Jarso and Meta. A total of 80 chicken owner households were randomly selected and interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Data on characteristics of village chicken production, feeds and feeding practices, housing, management of chicken and eggs, Marketing, diseases and constraints of village chicken production system were collected. Scavenging chicken production system is observed in all households of the districts. Average flock size of chickens in the study area was 9.4 birds and varied between 4 and 17 birds. In the present study, 82% of the households provide overnight housing within the family house for their chicken. Scavenging is the only feeding system encountered in all study districts with little grain supplementation. Most of the chicken are owned and managed by women (36.75%. Selling of unprocessed eggs and live chickens is mainly practiced. External parasites (mites, Coccidiosis and Newcastle disease were the most important and prevailing diseases in the study area with 39%, 38% and 34% incidence rates, respectively. The magnitude of occurrence of the parasites and diseases were higher in the wet season. Poor genetic quality, lack of extension service, inadequate veterinary service and poor management were the main constraints of village poultry production in the study area.

  5. Maternal risk factors for childhood anaemia in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habte, Dereje; Asrat, Kalid; Magafu, Mgaywa G M D; Ali, Ibrahim M; Benti, Tadele; Abtew, Wubeshet; Tegegne, Girma; Abera, Dereje; Shiferaw, Solomon

    2013-09-01

    A total of 8260 children between the ages of 6-59 months were analyzed to identify the risk factors associated with childhood anaemia in Ethiopia. The overall mean (SD/standard deviation) haemoglobin (Hgb) level among the under-five children was 10.7 (2.2) g/dl and 50.3% were anaemic. Childhood anaemia demonstrated an increasing trend with maternal anaemia levels of mild, moderate and severe anaemia: odds ratio of 1.82, 2.16 and 3.73 respectively (p< 0.01). Children whose mothers had no formal education were 1.38 times more likely to be anaemic (p<0.01). The poorest and poorer wealth index groups had 1.52 and 1.25 increased odds of childhood anaemia respectively (p< 0.01). Childhood anaemia in Ethiopia is a severe public health problem. Maternal anaemia and socio-economic status were found to be associated with anaemia in children. A holistic approach of addressing mothers and children is of paramount importance. PMID:24069773

  6. Biofuels and food security: Micro-evidence from Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel

  7. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashalla, Yohana J.S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Setting The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services. Objective The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS) delivery in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0. Results Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socio-economic standing. Conclusion Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.

  8. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibeltal T. Bayou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting: The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services.Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS delivery in Addis Ababa.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0.Results: Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socioeconomic standing.Conclusion: Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.

  9. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  10. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  11. Understanding Political Will in Groundwater Management: Comparing Yemen and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the role of politics in water management, in particular, comparing groundwater management in Yemen and Ethiopia. It tries to understand the precise meaning of the often-quoted term 'political will' in these different contexts and compares the autocratic and oligarchic system in Yemen with the dominant party 'developmental state' in Ethiopia. The links between these political systems and the institutional domain are described as well as the actual management of groundwater on the ground. Whereas the Ethiopian state is characterised by the use of hard power and soft ideational power, the system in Yemen relies at most on soft negotiating power. There is a strong link between the political system, the positioning of different parties and access to power, the role of central and local governments, the propensity to plan and vision, the effectiveness of government organisations, the extent of corruption, the influence of informal governance mechanisms, the scope for private initiative and the political interest in groundwater management and development in general. More important than political will per se is political capacity – the ability to implement and regulate.

  12. Contraceptive use in women with hypertension and diabetes: cross-sectional study in northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen TT; Woldeyohannes SM; Yigzaw T

    2015-01-01

    Tensae Tadesse Mekonnen,1 Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes,2 Tegbar Yigzaw3 1Department of Midwifery, Tseda Health Science College, 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, 3Jhpiego-Ethiopia, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Women with diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of pregnancy complications, including those from surgical delivery and their offspring are at risk for congenital anomalies. Thus, diabetic and hyperten...

  13. Self-Medication with Antibiotics and Antimalarials in the Community of Silte Zone, South Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir Tajure Wabe; Dargicho Ahmed; Mulugeta Tarekegn Angamo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: Self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials occurs among the population in Ethiopian. We studied to estimate the prevalence of self-medication with antibiotics and antimalarials in Ethiopia and evaluate factors associated with self-medications. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 households, selected from Silte Zone in South Ethiopia, using a random sampling technique by employing a pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS for windows version 16.0. ...

  14. Health seeking behavior for cervical cancer in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Birhanu Zewdie; Abdissa Alemseged; Belachew Tefera; Deribew Amare; Segni Hailemariam; Tsu Vivien; Mulholland Kim; Russell Fiona M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although cervical cancer is a leading cause of cancer related morbidity and mortality among women in Ethiopia, there is lack of information regarding the perception of the community about the disease. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with men, women, and community leaders in the rural settings of Jimma Zone southwest Ethiopia and in the capital city, Addis Ababa. Data were captured using voice recorders, and field notes were transcribed verbatim from the loca...

  15. Incidence of Rabies in Humans and Domestic Animals and People's Awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Wudu Temesgen Jemberu; Wassie Molla; Gizat Almaw; Sefinew Alemu

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar z...

  16. Domestic violence in a developing context: The perspectives of women in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Mary; Ní Raghallaigh, Muireann

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization's multicountry study of the prevalence rates of intimate partner violence found extremely high rates of violence against women in Ethiopia. This article seeks to develop an understanding of this violence further. By drawing on focus group research conducted with women in the Tigray region of Ethiopia, it explores the types of domestic violence experienced by these women, the impact of this violence, the reasons for it, and the multiple resistanc...

  17. Peer counselors' role in supporting patients' adherence to ART in Ethiopia and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Gusdal, Annelie Karin; Obua, Celestino; Andualem, Tenaw; Wahlström, Rolf; Chalker, John; Fochsen, Grethe

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Our aim was to explore peer counselors? work and their role in supporting patients? adherence to ART in resource-limited settings in Ethiopia and Uganda. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 79 patients, 17 peer counselors and 22 providers in ART facilities in urban and rural areas of Ethiopia and Uganda. Two main categories with related subcategories emerged from the analysis. The first main category, Peer counselors as facilitators of adherence, des...

  18. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  19. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Dissemination of Mini and Micro Hydropower - the Case of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Feibel, Hedi

    2003-01-01

    Successful implementation of MHP projects in Ethiopia and subsequently a broader dissemination of the technology require an interdisciplinary approach. Based on the analyses of present hindrances in Ethiopia, crucial aspects are identified. Even though an adequate hydrological potential and electricity requirements are provided for at numerous sites, special attention must be directed to competing technologies, such as a diesel generator system or the connection to an existing grid, to invest...

  20. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kidane, Berhane; Van Andel, Tinde; van der Maesen, Laurentius Josephus Gerardus; Asfaw, Zemede

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussion...

  1. Foreign Direct Investment Development between European Union and Least Developed Countries : Business Opportunities in Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Eshete, Biruhe; Gebre, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) is a category of international investment that indicates an intention to acquire a lasting interest in an enterprise operating in another economy. This study assesses the development of FDI between EU and Least Developed Countries and also examines investment opportunities in Ethiopia. The primary goal was to examine economical and social contribution of FDI inflow. In addition, this study assesses Ethiopia's business opportunity, FDI policies, incentives ...

  2. Borderless world vs borders as walls: insights from a borderland group in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, Alexandra Magnólia

    2013-01-01

    The border between Eritrea and Ethiopia changed status frequently from the 19th century up to Eritrea’s independence (Triulzi, 2006: 7). With the creation of Eritrea as an Italian colony and prior to the incorporation of Ethiopia into the Italian East African Empire the border was defined according to colonial treaties. However, the border waxed and waned over the decades of their political coexistence. Indeed, the border's status shifted from a mere internal-administrative marker to a coloni...

  3. Small-scale irrigation dams, agricultural production, and health - theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation...

  4. The Right to Primary Education in Ethiopia: Progress, Prospects and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The present study focuses on Ethiopia, a country despite facing daunting development challenges, is said to have sustained a notable push towards realizing universal primary education. The study was, therefore, made with an objective of critically assessing and evaluating the right to primary education in the present Ethiopia. Using both qualitative and quantitative method, this study not only attempted to describe the political, economic and legal/policy reforms the Ethiopian Government...

  5. Efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Assefa Mulu; Berhanu Geresu; Yeshiwork Beyene; Muluneh Ademe

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of resistance to antimalarials is insidious and unless efficacy studies are conducted, resistance may go unrecognized. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of artemether/lumefantrine, for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infections in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods: Artemether/lumefantrine efficacy study was conducted in Kemisie Health Center, Northeast Ethiopia from September, 2012 to May, 2013. The study participa...

  6. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    S Hawaze; Deti, H.; Suleman, S.

    2012-01-01

    The leaves extracts of two indigenous plants of Ethiopia: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentra...

  7. Tourists-perceived service quality and satisfaction of sustainable tourism in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Woldesenbet, Addis

    2015-01-01

    For the economic development tourism plays a great role for countries like Ethiopia. As international tourism continues to grow from time to time, it is necessary to maintain the tourism sector for generations. As a result, sustainable tourism becomes the best tool to achieve the goal. The purpose of this study is to measure the sustainable tourism management with regard to tourists’ satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the service they get while they staying in Ethiopia. The study has used the...

  8. Implications of accelerated agricultural growth on household incomes and poverty in Ethiopia: A general equilibrium analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Dorosh, Paul A.; Thurlow, James

    2009-01-01

    Ethiopia’s national development strategy, A Plan for Accelerated and Sustained Development to End Poverty for 2005/06 to 2009/10 (PASDEP) places a major emphasis on achieving high rates of agricultural and overall economic growth. Consistent with the PASDEP, Ethiopia is also in the process of implementing the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme (CAADP) together with other African governments. As part of CAADP, the country has committed itself to meeting targets of devotin...

  9. The Role of Government in East Asian Development : Lessons for Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane, Esayas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This paper examines the lessons Ethiopia can learn from East Asia’s growth to sustain its recent economic growth. By an in-depth analysis of the role of government in East Asian’s development it provides recommendations for Ethiopia. The study is based on the experiences of South Korea, Taiwan and Japan in the context of three issues: selective intervention policies, coordination problem and export orientation. Results of the study show that governments in East Asia have used phased ...

  10. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  11. Key informants' perspectives on development of family medicine training programs in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossa, Weyinshet; Wondimagegn, Dawit; Mekonnen, Demeke; Eshetu, Wondwossen; Abebe, Zerihun; Fetters, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    As a very low-income country, Ethiopia faces significant development challenges, though there is great aspiration to dramatically improve health care in the country. Family medicine has recently been recognized through national policy as one potential contributor in addressing Ethiopia's health care challenges. Family medicine is a new specialty in Ethiopia emerging in the context of family medicine development in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Addis Ababa University family medicine residency program started in 2013 and is the first and the only family medicine program in the country as of March 2016. Stakeholders on the ground feel that family medicine is off to a good start and have great enthusiasm and optimism for its success. While the Ministry of Health has a vision for the development of family medicine and a plan for rapid upscaling of family medicine across the country, significant challenges remain. Continuing discussion about the potential roles of family medicine specialists in Ethiopia and policy-level strategic planning to place family medicine at the core of primary health care delivery in the country is needed. In addition, the health care-tier system needs to be restructured to include the family medicine specialists along with appropriately equipped health care facilities for training and practice. Key stakeholders are optimistic that family medicine expansion can be successful in Ethiopia through a coordinated effort by the Ministry of Health and collaboration between institutions within the country, other Sub-Saharan African countries, and international partners supportive of establishing family medicine in Ethiopia. PMID:27175100

  12. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alemi Kebede,1 Kalkidan Hassen,2 Aderajew Nigussie Teklehaymanot1 1Department of Population and Family Health, 2College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home.Objective: The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia.Methods: The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test.Results: People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68, with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively, who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39, and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57 showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization.Conclusion and recommendation: Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available

  13. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  14. DIVERSITY AND ENDEMICITY OF CHILIMO FOREST, CENTRAL ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshome Soromessa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the regeneration, structural and uses of some woody species in Chilimo Forest, one of the dry Afromontane Forests of Ethiopia were conducted. To gather vegetation and environmental data from the study forest, a 900 m2 (30 m x 30 m quadrat was laid following the homogeneity of vegetation. All together the plant species recorded from Chilimo Forest are 213 which can be categorised into 83 families. Of these, the highest proportion is the angiosperm (represented by 193 species followed by pteridophyta (16 species; the least represented being the gymnosperms (represented by 2 exotic and 2 indigenous species. To provide a better management and monitoring as well as to maintain the biodiversity, cultural and economic values of the forest unsustainable utility of the forest would be controlled with the various conservation activities in place.

  15. A review of uranium minerals exploration in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Radioactive minerals such as uraninite, UO2, thorianite, ThO2, thorite, ThSiO4, and the like have been valuable for their uranium and thorium contents which are becoming important energy resources today in many countries where atomic reactors are used. They are also essential ingredients in modern weapon industries for the manufacture of devastating weapons. Uraninite is the chief source of uranium although other minerals are important sources of the element such as carnotite, K2(UO2)2(VO4).3H2O, Tyuyamunite, Ca(UO2)2(VO4).5-8 1/2 H2O, torbernite, Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2.8-12H2O,and autunite (Hurlbut et.al, 1977). Th can substitute for U and a complete series between uraninite and thorianite occurs. Analyses usually show the presence of small amounts of Pb, Ra, Ce, Y, N, He and A. Lead occurs as one of two stable isotopes (Pb206 and Pb207) which result from the radioactive decay of uranium (Hurlbut et.al. 1977). According to Bill Morton, a pioneer in the study of Ethiopian Minerals and Rocks, there are a number of radioactive minerals in Ethiopia, with varying physical properties. The presence of the radioactive minerals can easily be detected using a geiger counter or scintillation counter.These radioactive minerals are mainly found in small amounts in pegmatites and in some sandstones reported from the Hararghe area, south-eastern Ethiopia. Uraninite occurs in a form of pitchblende, which is massive with a banded structure. To date no extensive radioactive mineral deposits have been discovered in Ethiopia. Besides the Uranium and thorium minerals observed in pegmatite veins belonging to gneisses of Hararge, Precambrian granite as well as Cretaceous and Jurassic sediments in the same region, i.e., south eastern Ethiopia, particularly in the Dire-Dawa - Harar area, seem to be favorable host rocks for radioactive minerals (Getaneh Assefa, 1992). There are also reports of occurrences of radioactive minerals in Sidamo (Wadera, Zenbaba and Genale localities), Kaffa

  16. Phenotypic variation of native chicken populations in northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima, Hassen; Neser, F W C; van Marle-Koster, E; de Kock, A

    2007-10-01

    Seven indigenous chicken populations were identified and characterized from four administrative zones in northwest Ethiopia. A total of three hundred chickens were characterized under field conditions for qualitative and quantitative traits following standard chicken descriptors. Large phenotypic variability among chicken populations was observed for plumage color. About 25.49, 22.3, and 16.4 % of the chickens have white, grayish and red plumage colors, respectively. The rest showed a considerable heterogeneity like black, multicolor, black with white tips, red brownish and white with red striped plumage colors. The following characteristics were also displayed: plain head shape (51.18%), yellow shank color (64.42%) and pea comb (50.72%). About 97.52% of the chickens did not have feathers on their legs. Variations were also observed on quantitative characters such as shank length, egg size and body weight and other reproductive traits characterized on intensive management system. PMID:17969713

  17. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.;

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...... husbands. Ever experience of domestic violence among women was significantly related to Amhara ethnicity and age group 30-49 years. Only 33 (19.9%) women who ever experienced violence had reported it to the legal authorities. Women's reasons for failing to report to the legal system were not wanting...

  18. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  19. The changing face of obstetric fistula surgery in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jeremy; Ayenachew, Fekade; Ballard, Karen D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the incidence and type of obstetric fistula presenting to Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia over a 4-year period. Study design This is a 4-year retrospective survey of obstetric fistula treated at three Hamlin Fistula Hospitals in Ethiopia, where approximately half of all women in the country are treated. The operation logbook was reviewed to identify all new cases of obstetric fistula presenting from 2011 to 2015. New cases of urinary fistula were classified by fistula type (high or low), age, and parity of the woman. Results In total, 2,593 new cases of urinary fistulae were identified in the study period. The number of new cases fell by 20% per year over the 4 years (P<0.001). A total of 1,845 cases (71.1%) were low (ischemic) fistulae, and 804 cases (43.6%) of these had an extreme form of low circumferential fistula. A total of 638 (24.6%) women had a high bladder fistula, which predominantly occurs following surgery, specifically cesarean section or emergency hysterectomy, and 110 (4.2%) women had a ureteric fistula. The incidence of high fistulae increased over the study period from 26.9% to 36.2% (P<0.001). A greater proportion of multiparous women had a high bladder fistula (70.3%) compared with primigravid women (29.7%) (P<0.001). Conversely, a greater proportion of primiparous women experienced a low circumferential fistulae (68.6%) compared with multiparous women (31.4%) (P<0.001). Conclusion There appears to be a decline in the number of Ethiopian women being treated for new obstetric urinary fistulae. However, the type of fistula being presented for treatment is changing, with a rise in high fistulae that very likely occurred following cesarean section and a decline in the classic low fistulae that arise following obstructed childbirth. PMID:27445505

  20. Participatory evaluation of chicken health and production constraints in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambo, Emmanuel; Bettridge, Judy; Dessie, Tadelle; Amare, Alemayehu; Habte, Tadiose; Wigley, Paul; Christley, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Chicken production has a major role in the economy of developing countries and backyard production is particularly important to women. Several programmes, in Ethiopia and elsewhere, have attempted to improve chicken production as a means to reduce poverty. A key constraint to chicken production identified by farmers is disease. This study used participatory rural appraisal methods to work with chicken-keepers in order to prioritise chicken diseases, place these within the context of other production constraints, and to explore perceptions of disease risk factors and biosecurity measures. The study, focused on Debre Zeit, Ethiopia, included 71 poultry keepers (41 backyard and 30 semi-intensive chicken producers). Although women played an important role in backyard production systems, semi-intensive farms were more likely to be controlled by men. Participants identified 9 constraints to production: 7 of 8 groups of backyard producers and 15/31 semi-intensive producers ranked diseases as the most important constraint to chicken production. In contrast to previous reports, farmers in both groups had considerable knowledge of diseases and of factors affecting disease risk. Both groups, but particularly semi-intensive producers, highlighted access to feed as a constraint. Many of the challenges faced by both groups were associated with difficulty accessing agricultural and veterinary inputs and expertise. Whilst many of the constraints identified by farmers could be viewed as simply technical issues to be overcome, we believe it is important to recognise the social factors underpinning what are, in reality, relatively modest technical challenges. The low involvement of women in semi-intensive production needs to be recognised by poultry development schemes. Provision needs to be made to allow access to inputs for a wide range of business models, particularly for those, such as women, who have limited access to the capital to allow them to make the jump from backyard to

  1. Ethiopia's national strategy for improving water resources management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ethiopia's current approach to assessing and managing water resources, including geothermal, assigns very high priority to the use of isotope hydrology. Incorporation of this technology into government planning began with a few activities, in local groundwater assessment and in geothermal studies, kicked off by a 1993 National Isotope Hydrology Training Workshop that the IAEA helped arrange. The first results of isotope studies were useful in characterizing the Aluto Geothermal Field, where a 7.2 MW(e) power plant was later built with support from the UNDP and the EEC. And the Government is now hoping to introduce isotope techniques to improve utilization of the field. Isotope hydrology has successfully aided attempts to better understand ground water occurrence, flow and quality problems in arid regions of Ethiopia. These efforts are continuing through studies in the Dire Dawa, Mekelle and Afar regions. Rising water levels in Lake Beseka are threatening to submerge vital rail and highway links. Isotope hydrology made a unique contribution to understanding the surface and subsurface factors responsible, leading to an engineering plan for mitigating the problem. The Government has allocated substantial funding and construction work has begun. A similar success story is emerging at Awassa Lake, where isotope hydrology is proving a very useful complement to conventional techniques. Another promising application of isotope hydrology is taking place as part of the Akaki Groundwater Study near Addis Ababa. Preliminary isotopic results indicate that earlier conclusions based on conventional techniques may have to be revised. If so, there will be significant implications for the exploitation and management strategy of the resource. Based on these encouraging results, the Government is proceeding with the preparation of a project document for the Ethiopian Groundwater Resource Assessment Programme. With the assistance of the IAEA, the U.S. Geological Survey

  2. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firehiwot Mesfin

    Full Text Available Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia.A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included randomly selected primary school students. Hemoglobin concentration was measured using a Hemocue haemoglobinometer. A child was identified as anemic if the hemoglobin concentration was <11.5 g/dl for children (5-11 yrs and < 12 g/dl for child older than 12 years age. Poisson regression model with robust variance was used to calculate prevalence ratios.The overall prevalence of anemia was 27.1% (95% CI: 24.98, 29.14: 13.8% had mild, 10.8% moderate, and 2.3% severe anemia. Children with in the age group of 5-9 years (APR, 1.083; 95% CI, 1.044-1.124 were at higher risk for anemia. Paternal education (Illiterate, 1.109; 1.044-1.178 was positively associated with anemia. Children who had irregular legume consumption (APR, 1.069; 95% CI, 1.022-1.118 were at higher risk for anemia.About a quarter of school children suffer from anemia and their educational potential is likely to be affected especially for those with moderate and severe anemia. Child age, irregular legume consumption, and low paternal schooling were associated with anemia. Intervention programmes aimed to reduce anemia among school children are crucial to ensure proper growth and development of children.

  3. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  4. Farmers' strategies to perceived trends of rainfall and crop productivity on the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.; Kessler, C.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2014-01-01

    Despite decades of international attention to find solutions for the annual food shortages in Ethiopia, the problem still persists. This study, carried out in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia, focuses on farmers¿ strategies to counter yield failures and food shortages. It reveals that farme

  5. Spatial Runoff Estimation and Mapping of Potential Water Harvesting Sites: A GIS and Remote Sensing Perspective, Northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Melesse, A.M.; Keesstra, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater resources scarcity is becoming a limiting factor for development and sustenance in most parts of Ethiopia. The Debre Mewi watershed, in northwest Ethiopia, is one of such areas where the need for supplemental water supply through rainwater harvesting is essential. Suitable water harvestin

  6. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss

  7. The Ethiopian Health Extension Program and Variation in Health Systems Performance: What Matters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netsanet Fetene

    Full Text Available Primary health care services are fundamental to improving health and health equity, particularly in the context of low and middle-income settings where resources are scarce. During the past decade, Ethiopia undertook an ambitious investment in primary health care known as the Ethiopian Health Extension Program that recorded impressive gains in several health outcomes. Despite this progress, substantial disparities in health outcomes persist across the country. The objective of this study was to understand how variation in the implementation of the primary health care efforts may explain differences in key health outcomes.We conducted a qualitative study of higher-performing and lower-performing woredas using site visits and in-depth interviews undertaken in 7 woredas. We classified woredas as higher-performing or lower-performing based on data on 5 indicators. We conducted a total of 94 open-ended interviews; 12-15 from each woreda. The data were analyzed using the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis. Substantial contrasts were apparent between higher-performing and lower-performing woredas in use of data for problem solving and performance improvement; collaboration and respectful relationships among health extension workers, community members, and health center staff; and coordination between the woreda health office and higher-level regulatory and financing bodies at the zonal and regional levels. We found similarities in what was reported to motivate or demotivate health extension workers and other staff. Additionally, higher-performing and lower-performing woredas shared concerns about hospitals being isolated from health centers and health posts. Participants from both woredas also highlighted a mismatch between the urban health extension program design and the urban-dwelling communities' expectations for primary health care.Data-informed problem solving, respectful and supportive relationships with the community, and

  8. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts. PMID:26949190

  9. Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty, poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.

  10. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  11. Geology, geochronology and geodynamic implications of the Cenozoic magmatic province in W and SE Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New K-Ar dates are presented for areas in W and SE Ethiopia. In the west, the dates distinguish the Geba Basalts of 40 to 32 Ma from the Welega Shield Volcanics which are shown to range from 11.2 + -2.2 to 7.8 + - 1.6 Ma. In SE Ethiopia, the Lower Stratoid flood basalts range from 30 + - 4.5 to 23.5 + - 4.5 Ma and are unconformably overlain by the Reira-Sanete shield volcanics which range from c. 15 to c. 2 Ma. The unconformity is marked by a palaeosol as are several of the intervals between the major volcanic stages of Ethiopia

  12. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces. PMID:25911028

  13. State-Society Relations in Ethiopia: A Political-Economy Perspective of the Post-1991 Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshtila Wondemeneh Bekele

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses state-society relations in Ethiopia with particular emphasis on the post-1991 period. The objective of the study is to identify and analyse the fundamental factors of state-society relations at the national level: property rights, political representation, and the urban-rural elite cleavage. The article views state-society relations at the local level with reference to perception and practice, taking into account symbols, social control, ability to make decisions and control over the means of violence. The study was conducted in eight purposively selected localities in three administrative regions in Ethiopia. The empirical data was collected at national and local levels using key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and a household survey. The analysis shows that state-society relations in Ethiopia are driven by three major factors: property rights, political representations and the urban-rural divide.

  14. The Effect of Shocks: An Empirical Analysis of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilebes Addisu Damtie

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Besides striving for the increase of production and development, it is also necessary to reduce the losses created by the shocks. The people of Ethiopia are exposed to the impact of both natural and man-made shocks. Following this, policy makers, governmental and non-governmental organizations need to identify the important shocks and their effect and use as an input. This study was conducted to identify the food insecurity shocks and to estimate their effect based on the conceptual framework developed in Ethiopia, Amhara National Regional State of Libo Kemkem District. Descriptive statistical analysis, multiple regression, binary logistic regression, chi-squared and independent sample t-test were used as a data analysis technique. The results showed eight shocks affecting households which were weather variability, weed, plant insect and pest infestation, soil fertility problem, animal disease and epidemics, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict. Weather variability, plant insect and pest infestation, weed, animal disease and epidemics created a mean loss of 3,821.38, 886.06, 508.04 and 1,418.32 Birr, respectively. In addition, human disease and epidemics, price fluctuation problem and conflict affected 68.11%, 88.11% and 14.59% of households, respectively. Among the sample households 28,1 % were not able to meet their food need throughout the year while 71,9 % could. The result of the multiple regression models revealed that weed existence (β = –0,142, p < 0,05, plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,279, p < 0,01 and soil fertility problem (β = –0,321, p < 0,01 had significant effect on income. Asset was found significantly affected by plant insect and pest infestation (β = –0,229, p < 0,01, human disease and epidemics (β = 0,145, p < 0,05, and soil fertility problem (β = –0,317, p < 0,01 while food production was affected by soil fertility problem (β = –0,314, p < 0,01. Binary logistic

  15. Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing District-based Health Information System in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2005-01-01

    This paper has analyzed the challenges of sustainability and scalability of HIS. The empirical analysis was conducted in a backward and disadvantaged region of Ethiopia. An ongoing process of HISP (Health Information System Program) was addressed and the main challenges in the implementation...... of sustainable and scalable district-based health information system in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC) sector in Ethiopia were identified. Human resource, infrastructure, and HIS related problems are the main challenges hindering the implementation of sustainable and scalable district-based health...... information systems in the region....

  16. Adaptation and validation of the short version WHOQOL-HIV in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye Woldeyohannes, Markos; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Medhin, Girmay;

    2016-01-01

    -cultural equivalence of the WHOQOL-HIV when used among people with HIV in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study aimed at adapting the WHOQOL-HIV bref for the Ethiopian setting. METHODS: A step-wise adaptation of the WHOQOL-HIV bref for use in Ethiopia was conducted to produce an Ethiopian version...... were recruited from HIV clinics. RESULTS: In the process of adaptation, new items of relevance to the context were added while seven items were deleted because of problems with acceptability and poor psychometric properties. The Cronbach's α for the final tool with twenty-seven items WHOQOL...

  17. Ethiopia: The Impact of External Factors on the Security of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Záhořík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Ethiopia witnesses so far unseen economic growth while the transformation to democracy more or less failed. Due to the fact that the Horn of Africa belongs to the most unstable regions in Africa, external factors play a significant role in shaping and reshaping of internal politics of each state. In this study, we will focus on an analysis of external factors and their impact on security and politics in Ethiopia. As we argue, it is these factors that have a substantial impact on Ethiopian politics and security.

  18. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    OpenAIRE

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely populated Gedeo country (500 persons per km 2) covers highlands (range 1200 to 3000m asl) between 5 oand 7 oNorth and 38 oand 40 oEast, in the escarpment of the Rift Valley facing Lake Abaya. Based on perennial cropping, emphasis on tre...

  19. Common mental disorders in TB/HIV co-infected patients in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Gemeda; Apers Ludwig; Hailmichael Yohannes; Tesfaye Markos; Deribew Amare; Duchateau Luc; Colebunders Robert

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background- The relationship between TB/HIV co-infection and common mental disorders (CMD) has been scarcely investigated. In this study, we compared the occurrence of CMD in TB/HIV co-infected and non-co-infected HIV patients in Ethiopia. Methods- We conducted a cross sectional study in three hospitals in Ethiopia from February to April, 2009. The study population consisted of 155 TB/HIV co-infected and 465 non-co-infected HIV patients. CMD was assessed through face to face intervie...

  20. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a cross-sectional study of 305 breastfed infants aged 5-11 mo and their mothers; a double-blind randomised controlled zinc supplementation trial on growth of 200 breastfed infants aged 6-12 mo for 6...

  1. Fertilizer supply chain in Ethiopia: structure, performance and policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes U.I. Agbahey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.

  2. Diet of Australopithecus afarensis from the Pliocene Hadar Formation, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jonathan G.; Sponheimer, Matt; Kimbel, William H.; Alemseged, Zeresenay; Reed, Kaye; Bedaso, Zelalem K.; Wilson, Jessica N.

    2013-06-01

    The enhanced dietary flexibility of early hominins to include consumption of C4/crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) foods (i.e., foods derived from grasses, sedges, and succulents common in tropical savannas and deserts) likely represents a significant ecological and behavioral distinction from both extant great apes and the last common ancestor that we shared with great apes. Here, we use stable carbon isotopic data from 20 samples of Australopithecus afarensis from Hadar and Dikika, Ethiopia (>3.4-2.9 Ma) to show that this species consumed a diet with significant C4/CAM foods, differing from its putative ancestor Au. anamensis. Furthermore, there is no temporal trend in the amount of C4/CAM food consumption over the age of the samples analyzed, and the amount of C4/CAM food intake was highly variable, even within a single narrow stratigraphic interval. As such, Au. afarensis was a key participant in the C4/CAM dietary expansion by early australopiths of the middle Pliocene. The middle Pliocene expansion of the eastern African australopith diet to include savanna-based foods represents a shift to use of plant food resources that were already abundant in hominin environments for at least 1 million y and sets the stage for dietary differentiation and niche specialization by subsequent hominin taxa.

  3. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes on household solid waste disposal are investigated using data from household survey. Household level data are then analyzed using multinomial logit estimation to determine the factors that affect household waste disposal decision making. Results show that demographic features such as age, education and household size have an insignificant impact over the choice of alternative waste disposal means, whereas the supply of waste facilities significantly affects waste disposal choice. Inadequate supply of waste containers and longer distance to these containers increase the probability of waste dumping in open areas and roadsides relative to the use of communal containers. Higher household income decreases the probability of using open areas and roadsides as waste destinations relative to communal containers. Measures to make the process of waste disposal less costly and ensuring well functioning institutional waste management would improve proper waste disposal

  4. Isotope Hydrology Projects in Ethiopia Provide Valuable Information and Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water Resources Programme involvement in Ethiopian projects since 1991 has been extensive. The information and training provided have equipped the country to better resolve its water resource issues. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been working with the Ethiopian government in the areas of agriculture, nutrition, nuclear medicine and isotope hydrology over the last four decades. Eight national and four regional Technical Cooperation (TC) projects on isotope hydrology have been carried out in collaboration with various Ethiopian institutions over the last two decades (1991-2011). The IAEA has also been analyzing the monthly isotopic composition of rainfall samples collected from a meteorological station in Addis Ababa since 1961. Environmental isotopes (2H, 3H, 18O, 13C and 14C) have been used as complementary tools in water resource assessment and management and in geothermal studies. These isotopes have been implemented mainly to trace recharge provenance, estimate recharge rates and investigate lake- groundwater interaction in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. Nitrogen-15 isotopes were also used to trace the source of nitrate pollution in Diredawa, which lies in Ethiopia's south-east.

  5. Instructional Leadership Practices in Seconday schools of Assosa Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Abdurahim Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate instructional leadership practices in secondary schools of Assosa zone, Ethiopia. In order to address the objectives of the study, a descriptive survey method was employed. The population of the study were 266 teachers and 12 principals. From this number of population, 141 teachers and 12 principals were used as a sample using simple random and comprehensive sampling techniques respectively. Data collected from these respondents was analyzed and interpreted using Percentage, one sample t-test, weighted mean and mean ranking. The finding revealed that, among instructional leadership functions, instructional leaders’ role in communicating school goals, supervision and evaluation of instruction, monitoring of school progress, protection of instructional time, maintaining high visibility, are promoting professional development seemed at a level near to average. Whereas, coordination of the curriculum, providing incentive for teachers, and incentive for students were significantly low performed. Based on findings it is concluded that, instructional leadership practices in the zone seem to be poor. On top of the findings, recommendations are forwarded to address the challenges the principals’ faced in their instructional leadership activities mainly focusing on empowering both principals and schools to foster instructional leadership practices in the secondary schools of the zone.

  6. Household Contact Screening Adherence among Tuberculosis Patients in Northern Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs

    Full Text Available Household contacts of active tuberculosis cases are at high risk of getting tuberculosis disease. Tuberculosis detection rate among contacts of household members is high. Hence, this study investigated household contact screening adherence and associated factors among tuberculosis patients in Amhara region, Ethiopia.A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 10 - June 30, 2013 in five urban districts of Amhara region, where 418 patients receiving treatment at tuberculosis clinic were interviewed. All patients were interviewed using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bringing at least one household contact to TB clinic was regarded as adherent to household contacts screening. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to investigate association.The overall adherence to household contact screening in Amhara region was 33.7%. Adherence was higher among Muslims than Christians. Adherence was high if patient took health education from Health Care Worker [AOR: 3.22, 95% CI: 1.88 to 5.51] and 2.17 times higher if patient had sufficient knowledge on tuberculosis [AOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.67] during interview. Relationship with contact was a significant [AOR: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9] social related factor.One third of tuberculosis patients adhered to household contact screening in health facilities during their treatment course. Promoting knowledge of tuberculosis in the community and continuous health education to tuberculosis patients are recommended.

  7. Remains of Homo erectus from Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaw, Berhane; Gilbert, W Henry; Beyene, Yonas; Hart, William K; Renne, Paul R; WoldeGabriel, Giday; Vrba, Elisabeth S; White, Tim D

    2002-03-21

    The genesis, evolution and fate of Homo erectus have been explored palaeontologically since the taxon's recognition in the late nineteenth century. Current debate is focused on whether early representatives from Kenya and Georgia should be classified as a separate ancestral species ('H. ergaster'), and whether H. erectus was an exclusively Asian species lineage that went extinct. Lack of resolution of these issues has obscured the place of H. erectus in human evolution. A hominid calvaria and postcranial remains recently recovered from the Dakanihylo Member of the Bouri Formation, Middle Awash, Ethiopia, bear directly on these issues. These approximately 1.0-million-year (Myr)-old Pleistocene sediments contain abundant early Acheulean stone tools and a diverse vertebrate fauna that indicates a predominantly savannah environment. Here we report that the 'Daka' calvaria's metric and morphological attributes centre it firmly within H. erectus. Daka's resemblance to Asian counterparts indicates that the early African and Eurasian fossil hominids represent demes of a widespread palaeospecies. Daka's anatomical intermediacy between earlier and later African fossils provides evidence of evolutionary change. Its temporal and geographic position indicates that African H. erectus was the ancestor of Homo sapiens. PMID:11907576

  8. Level and differentials of fertility in Awassa town, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Samson; Betre, Mulugeta

    2009-03-01

    A cross-sectional, descriptive study with internal comparison was conducted among 1376 women of reproductive age with the objective of assessing the level and determinants of fertility in Awassa town, Ethiopia. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) was 3.4 and the mean Child Ever Born (CEB) was 1.72 and 3.02 among all women and married women. Regarding proximate determinants of fertility, the mean age at first marriage and duration of postpartum infecundability were 17.75 years and 12.3 months, respectively. Further, Contraceptive Prevalence Rate among married women was 41.2% and Total Abortion Rate was 0.02. Sociodemographic characteristics of mothers like poor educational status, absence of income, rural place of birth, early marriage, and other variables like history of child death, negative husbands' attitude towards contraceptive use, poor educational status of husbands, need for additional children, were found to have significant association with high fertility; accordingly, these variables need to addressed in activities against high fertility. PMID:20687268

  9. Marriage through abduction ('Telefa') in rural north west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getahun, H

    2001-04-01

    A community based cross sectional study was conducted in a rural district of North West Ethiopia between February and April 1997 to determine the magnitude of marriage through abduction ('Telefa') and identify problems associated with it. Randomly selected and currently married 1,168 women were interviewed. The prevalence of marriage through abduction was 6.2% (72/1168). All the abductions reported were only once in lifetime during the first marriage. The median age at first marriage of abducted women was 13 years with a range of 13 (Minimum = 7 and Maximum 20). About two third (66.7%) of abducted women had been married more than once in their life time. Following a multivariate analysis in a logistic regression model abducted women were likely to be victims of abortion [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.71 (1.10-3.05)], marital instability [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.87 (1.10-3.18)], rape [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 7.77 (3.78-15.95)] and domestic violence [Adjusted OR (95% CI) = 1.69 (1.11-2.81)]. The recognition of the magnitude and the associated health problems of marriage through abduction (Telefa) is important. Appropriate strategies that address the health needs of abducted women must be designed. Enforcing the judiciary system to discourage this harmful practice and empowerment of young girls and rural women is needed. PMID:11501287

  10. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  11. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  12. Motor Pump Revolution in Ethiopia: Promises at a Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Dessalegn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.

  13. In Rural Eastern Ethiopia Hearing Loss Is the Most Frequent Disability during Childhood: A Community Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Geda, Biftu; Berhane, Yemane; Assefa, Nega; Worku, Alemayehu

    2016-01-01

    Background The type and extent of childhood disability in Ethiopia is unknown due to lack of accurate and reliable data. This study tried to assess the magnitude and types of disabilities among children 0–14 years of age in eastern Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional community-based study among households that are under demographic and health surveillance in eastern Ethiopia. The study population consisted of all children aged 0–14 year. A structured questionnaire was used to ass...

  14. 'Beyond the rivers of Ethiopia' : Pentecostal Pan-Africanism and Ghanaian identities in the transnational domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van R.A.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    Rev. Mensa Otabil, the founder of the International Central Gospel Church in Accra, is considered an influential representative of a new Pentecostal-inspired Pan-Africanist ideology. His book 'Beyond the Rivers of Ethiopia' lays the foundations of a Pentecostal Liberation Theology that proclaims a C

  15. Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

    1997-01-01

    We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis...

  16. A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele-Tesemma, A.

    1997-01-01

    The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobiliz

  17. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers' livelihoods: Evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is - next to petroleum - one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

  18. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  19. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  20. Ethnic-based federalism and ethnicity in Ethiopia : reassessing the experiment after 20 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the core principles instituted by the post-1991 government in Ethiopia that took power after a successful armed struggle was ethnic-based federalism, informed by a neo-Leninist political model called revolutionary democracy. In this model, devised by the reigning Tigray People's Liberation Fr

  1. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; de Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during t

  2. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  3. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  4. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic

  5. Soil seed banks in church forests of northern Ethiopia: Implications for the conservation of woody plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie, A.; Teketay, D.

    2006-01-01

    Church forests are sanctuaries for different organisms, ranging from microbes to large animals, which have almost disappeared in most parts of northern Ethiopia. Despite the actual and potential significance of these forests, studies and documented information on their bio-physical features and soci

  6. Environmental concern and its implication to household waste separation and disposal: Evidence from Mekelle, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.

    2009-01-01

    Proper understanding of the relationship among concern for the environment, waste separation and disposal can contribute to good waste management and safer environment. This is particularly vital in cities of developing countries (such as Ethiopia) where waste separation is poor and there is widespr

  7. Child Labour and Child Schooling in Rural Ethiopia: Nature and Trade-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Getinet; Haile, Beliyou

    2012-01-01

    We examine work participation and schooling for children aged 7-15 using survey data from rural Ethiopia. Bivariate probit and age-adjusted educational attainment equations have been estimated. Male children are found to be more likely to attend school than their female counterparts. "Specialization" in child labour is also found, with females…

  8. Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia.

  9. Self-reported health care seeking behavior in rural Ethiopia: Evidence from clinical vignettes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.D. Mebratie (Anagaw); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); Z.Y. Debebe (Zelalem); D. Abebaw Ejigie (Degnet); G. Alemu (Getnet ); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBetween 2000 and 2011, Ethiopia rapidly expanded its health-care infrastructure recording an 18-fold increase in the number of health posts and a 7-fold increase in the number of health centers. However, annual per capita outpatient utilization has increased only marginally. The extent t

  10. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the co

  11. Violence and the crisis of conciliation : Suri, Dizi and the State in south-west Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the social and political background of escalating violence between ethnic groups in southwestern Ethiopia who until recently had customary and ritually sanctioned ways of resolving conflict. It focuses on the Maji area, a frontier region inhabited by two indigenous groups - the

  12. Two distinctive new species of Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae) from gypsum outcrops in eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile;

    2016-01-01

    During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new...... for gypsum endemics....

  13. Tree Regeneration in Church Forests of Ethiopia: Effects of Microsites and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Teketay, D.; Bongers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Tree regeneration is severely hampered in the fragmented afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia. We explored how trees regenerate in remnant forests along the gradient from open field, forest edge to closed sites and canopy gaps inside the forest. We investigated the effects of seed sowing, litter

  14. Toolbox for the Development of Cadastral and Registration Proclamation for Second Level Certification Program in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land together with its fixtures is the single most important asset in almost all societies. In Ethiopia land is also playing a pivotal role for sustainable development. Large scale cadastral projects supporting sustainable development and increased investments are planned all over the country as part of the country’s five years growth and transformation plan. But cadastral and registration proclamation is not enacted to facilitate and guide the implementation of cadastral projects. There is a consensus on the importance of cadastral and registration proclamation in Ethiopia, but there is no clear methodology for its development. The purpose of the study was to extend the land administration toolbox RRR edition to guide the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for the implementation of second level certification (mapping of parcels in Ethiopia. Field surveys, focused group discussions, expert panels, and desk work with special emphasis to the review of legal documents and state of the art experiences from other countries, were the major inputs for the study. The toolbox will be used for the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for rural land administration in Ethiopia and may guide the law development in other developing countries with a similar situation.

  15. Evaluation of sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali against Fusarium thapsinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-eight sorghum accessions from Ethiopia and Mali along with resistant (Sureno and SC719) and susceptible (RTx430 and RTx2536) checks were evaluated in replicated plots for resistance against Fusarium thapsinum at Isabela, Puerto Rico. Environmental conditions such as temperature, relative hum...

  16. AFLP Analysis of Enset Clonal Diversity in South and Southwestern Ethiopia for Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Tsegaye, A.; Treuren, van R.; Visser, B.

    2002-01-01

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is a major multi-purpose crop in Ethiopia, which has been identified as the center of origin and diversity of enset. During the last decades, the local farming systems in which enset is maintained have become endangered. Conservation of clonally propagated

  17. A new agro-climatic classification for crop suitability zoning in northern semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    The agro-climatic resources of Giba catchment in northern Ethiopia were assessed and characterized. The objectives were (i) to ascertain the suitability of the climate for growing teff (Eragrostis tef) and barley (Hordeum vulgare); (ii) to determine the onset and length of the growing period (LGP),

  18. GM crops in Ethiopia : a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Taisma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance productivity, equitabili

  19. First experiences with High Resolution Imagery Based Adjudication Approach for Social Tenure Domain Model in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lengoiboni, M.; Deininger, K.; Burns, T.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the so called first phase certificates. These certificates do identify the land holding households (with name etc. and photographs), but lim

  20. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands of Northern Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi,

  1. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  2. Smallholder milk market participation, dietary diversity and nutritional status among young children in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenjiso, B.M.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of smallholder milk market participation on household and intra-household dietary diversity and on nutritional status of young children in Ethiopia. Using the FAO dietary diversity questionnaire, 164 households were followed for two consecutive days and all food items

  3. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mi

  4. Smallholder Milk Market Participation and Intra-household Time Allocation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megersa Lenjiso, Birhanu; Smits, Jeroen; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of smallholder market participation on intra-household time allocation in Ethiopia. We followed 156 households for 2 consecutive days and recorded the time allocated to dairying, domestic chores, schooling, wage work and leisure. Propensity score matching was used to determine t

  5. Essays on Women’s Bargaining Power and Intra-household Resource in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Dito

    2011-01-01

    textabstractxv Abstract This thesis investigates the effect of a woman’s bargaining power on her welfare and that of her children in rural Ethiopia. The issue is of particular concern because, as empirical evidence shows, intra-household inequalities in welfare are frequently the direct consequence

  6. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment

  7. Assessment of renewable energy resources potential for large scale and standalone applications in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucho, Gudina Terefe; Weesie, Peter D.M.; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the contribution of renewable energy to large scale and standalone application in Ethiopia. The assessment starts by determining the present energy system and the available potentials. Subsequently, the contribution of the available potentials for large scale and standal

  8. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic p

  9. Field evaluation of a fast anti-Leishmania antibody detection assay in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hailu; G.J. Schoone; E. Diro; A. Tesfaye; Y. Techane; T. Tefera; Y. Assefa; A. Genetu; Y. Kebede; T. Kebede; H.D.F.H. Schallig

    2006-01-01

    A fast agglutination screening test (FAST) for the detection of Leishmania antibodies in human serum samples was evaluated under harsh field conditions in northern Ethiopia. Test performance was compared with a standard serological test, namely the direct agglutination test (DAT), and with parasitol

  10. The community-based Health Extension Program significantly improved contraceptive utilization in West Gojjam Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yitayal M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mezgebu Yitayal,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku,3 Yigzaw Kebede11University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Ethiopia has implemented a nationwide primary health program at grassroots level (known as the Health Extension Program since 2003 to increase public access to basic health services. This study was conducted to assess whether households that fully implemented the Health Extension Program have improved current contraceptive use.Methods: A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted to collect data from 1,320 mothers using a structured questionnaire. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of current contraceptive utilization. A propensity score analysis was used to determine the contribution of the Health Extension Program “model households” on current contraceptive utilization.Result: Mothers from households which fully benefited from the Health Extension Program (“model households” were 3.97 (adjusted odds ratio, 3.97; 95% confidence interval, 3.01–5.23 times more likely to use contraceptives compared with mothers from non-model households. Model household status contributed to 29.3% (t=7.08 of the increase in current contraceptive utilization.Conclusion: The Health Extension Program when implemented fully could help to increase the utilization of contraceptives in the rural community and improve family planning.Keywords: Health Extension Program, current contraceptive utilization

  11. Modelling soil nutrient dynamics under alternative farm management practices in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, van H.

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural production in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia is low, stagnant or unsustainable. The objectives of this study were to explore long-term dynamics of soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) and the consequences for crop-available N and P to support the design of sustai

  12. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  13. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  14. Multiplying a Force for Good? the Impact of Security Sector Management Postgraduate Education in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, Paula-Louise; Fitz-Gerald, Ann

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues for the importance, benefits and wider impact of a donor-funded, locally supported postgraduate programme in security sector management (SSM) for government officials in Ethiopia. With the exception of specialised education and training programmes within the field of peace and conflict studies, the role of education in…

  15. Assessing gully widening and its control in the Debri-Mawi Watershed, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highlands of northern Ethiopia suffer from severe land degradation manifested by widespread gully and channel erosion and network development. Research on the geomorphic adjustment of similar landscapes in the midcontinental United States has resulted in the development of the computer models BS...

  16. Interrogating the Continuing Professional Development Policy Framework in Ethiopia: A Critical Discourse Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akalu, Girmaw Abebe

    2016-01-01

    The continuing professional development (CPD) of teachers has increasingly come to be considered an important component of teacher policy reforms throughout much of the world. As part of its comprehensive school improvement and teacher development programmes, Ethiopia has recently developed a national policy framework on CPD for teachers. Arguing…

  17. Impediments to Educative Practicum: The Case of Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jeylan Wolyie

    2011-01-01

    The study is a phenomenological case study into the lived experience of teacher candidates and associate teachers in Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to gain a phenomenological sensitivity to the "lived" experience of the participants and through that to identify key structural and conceptual impediments to meaningful professional learning. The…

  18. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  19. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  20. Religion in public spaces : emerging Muslim-Christian polemics in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia, as in other parts of Africa, relations between Christians and Muslims show a new dynamic under the impact of both state policies and global connections. Religious identities are becoming more dominant as people's primary public identity, and more ideological. This development has ramifi

  1. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may pla

  2. Biology and management of fish stocks in Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wudneh, T.

    1998-01-01

    The biology of the fish stocks of the major species in the Bahir Dar Gulf of Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia, has been studied based on data collected during August 1990 to September 1993. The distribution, reproduction patterns, growth and mortality dynamics and gillnet selectivity of these

  3. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers’ livelihoods: evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, Amsaya Anteneh; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is – next to petroleum – one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

  4. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  5. Rural non-farm activities in impoverished agricultural communities : the case of North Shoa Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeke, M.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the extent of deagrarianization in North Shoa, one of the most impoverished regions of Ethiopia. It describes the role and trend of farm activities and output, the trends in income diversification and the historical evolution of non-farm activities, and the relationship between f

  6. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of organization

  7. First experiences with a high-resolution imagery-based adjudication approach in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the first phase certificates – those without a georeference. In 2008, a team conducted a simple field test using high resolution imagery. On-site tests were performed to determi

  8. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  9. Globalization of psychology: Implications for the development of psychology in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancott, Rachel; Uppal, Gobinderjit; Crossley, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The present article reports on the variation of mental health resources across the globe and considers the merits or otherwise of the process of globalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific emphasis on Ethiopia. Although globalization has gained momentum in recent years, there is a concern that the globalization of Western mental health frameworks is problematic, as these concepts have been developed in a different context and do not accommodate the current diversity in understanding in LMIC countries. The importance of understanding the mental health frameworks of LMIC like Ethiopia, prior to considering if and how aspects of high-income countries (HIC) conceptualizations may be appropriately imported, is therefore reflected upon. Traditional approaches in managing mental health difficulties and possible reasons for the limited engagement with clinical psychology in Ethiopia are considered. Current developments within the fields of mental health and clinical psychology in Ethiopia are discussed, and the need to develop more local research in order to increase understanding and evaluate treatment interventions is recognized. Further consideration and debate by Ethiopian mental health professionals as well as those from HIC are recommended, to promote both reciprocal learning and new local discourses about mental health.

  10. Poverty persistence and informal risk management: Micro evidence from urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Yitbarek, E.

    2015-01-01

    Two factors that have received limited attention in poverty dynamic studies are the role of risk in causing poverty mobility and attrition bias. Controlling for the attrition bias, we study poverty dynamics in urban Ethiopia with an emphasis on the effect of idiosyncratic shocks and informal risk ma

  11. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  12. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more

  13. Evaluating sediment storage dams: structural off-site sediment trapping measures in northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, M.M.; Keesstra, S.D.; Baartman, J.E.M.; Ritsema, C.J.; Melesse, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Reservoir and lake sedimentation is a vital problem in Ethiopia. Constructing small and medium size dams at the outlets of sub-catchments within larger catchment helps to reduce the transport of sediment downstream to reservoirs or lakes. This study assessed the sediment trapping efficacy (STE) of s

  14. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  15. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (PDemodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested. PMID:26872931

  16. Geochronology and geochemistry of volcanic glasses associated with early Homo sapiens in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Renne, P. R.; Woldegabriel, G.; White, T. D.

    2005-12-01

    In past work at hominid sites in Ethiopia, 40Ar/39Ar dating was used to constrain obsidian from the base of the Upper Herto Member of the Bouri Formation to 160 ± 2 ka. An overlying vitric tuff was then geochemically correlated to one from the Konso region of Ethiopia, which is constrained to be older than 154 ± 7 ka, thus leaving only 6 ± 7 ky between eruption and deposition of the fossils and artifacts at Herto. To continue these studies, we have collected and are currently analyzing obsidian and associated volcanic ashes from Middle Stone Age (MSA) archaeological and paleontological sites in the Middle Awash, Ethiopia. Distinctive geochemical signatures among most obsidian fragments collected (n=20 per site) suggest that obsidian was being derived from a variety of sources. By comparing our geochemical data with that from known obsidian deposits in Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa, we hope to determine the source localities for the obsidian and thus gauge the extent of trade networks during the MSA. Thus, by characterizing obsidian using both 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and trace element geochemistry, will make it possible to temporally refine the stratigraphy and prehistory at hominid sites, which in turn improves understanding of hominid behavior and evolution.

  17. The impact of contracts on organic honey producers' incomes in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girma, J.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    In southwestern Ethiopia honey is a non-timber forest product that provides income for many smallholders. Some of these beekeepers supply their honey under contract to a company that markets their organic honey internationally allowing them to access premium markets. Since both production and market

  18. Current and future fire regimes and their influence on natural vegetation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe;

    2016-01-01

    Fire is a major factor shaping the distribution of vegetation types. In this study, we used a recent high resolution map of potential natural vegetation (PNV) types and MODIS fire products to model and investigate the importance of fire as driver of vegetation distribution patterns in Ethiopia. W...

  19. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  20. To tie or not to tie ridges for water conservation in Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, B.B.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia are characterized by sandy loam soils that have poor fertility and unreliable rainfall conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefit of rainwater harvesting by tied-ridges and improved soil fertility on maize productivity through field ex

  1. Spices, condiments and medicinal plants in Ethiopia, their taxonomy and agricultural significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The book is the third in a series of publications on useful plants of Ethiopia. It describes 12 spices and condiments and 13 medicinal plants, both from a taxonomic and an agricultural viewpoint.The extensive botanical description of each taxon is accompanied by a full-page drawing, relevant photogr

  2. Higher education and fertility : evidence from a natural experiment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tequame, M.; Tirivayi, J.N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of women's higher education on fertility outcomes in Ethiopia. We exploit an abrupt increase in the supply of tertiary education induced by a liberalisation policy. Using an age discontinuity in the exposure to higher education reform, we find that education lowers fert

  3. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  4. Output-Based Aid in Ethiopia : Dealing with the 'Last Mile' Paradox in Rural Electrification

    OpenAIRE

    Maurer, Luiz; Nonay, Carmen

    2009-01-01

    Providing electricity to poor households in rural areas in Ethiopia is critical to improving the health and living conditions of the population, reducing poverty, and stimulating growth. A project supported by the Global Partnership on Output-Based Aid (GPOBA) is accelerating the pace of connections in electrified areas and fostering energy efficiency. The scheme provides a performance-bas...

  5. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  6. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  7. Towards integrated watershed management in highland Ethiopia: the Chemoga watershed case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bewket, W.

    2003-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in highland Ethiopia. Past soil and water conservation efforts did not bring about significant results. Hence, there is an urgent need to tackle the problem through new conservation approaches and technologies. This thesis discusses the need for and possibi

  8. Economic impact of foot and mouth disease outbreaks onsmallholder farmers in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jemberu, W.T.; Mourits, Monique C.M.; Woldehanna, T.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Foot and mouth disease is endemic in Ethiopia with occurrences of several outbreaks everyyear. Quantitative information about the impact of the disease on smallholder farming sys-tems in the country is, however, scarce. This study presents a quantitative assessment ofthe clinical and direct economic

  9. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopiaAssessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  10. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopia...

  11. Small-scale edible oil milling operations: Alternative business models for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertse, Y.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Danse, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government is aiming to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oil by 2015. The aim of this research was to develop sustainable business models for millers, increase their competitiveness, and enhance food safety and security in Ethiopia within the changing policy context.

  12. Plant use among the Suri people of southern Ethiopia : a system of knowledge in danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes some findings of research on plant names and plant use of the Suri people (more widely known by outsiders as "Surma"), a relatively isolated group of agro-pastoralists in the border area of Southwest Ethiopia and Sudan. The research was carried out as part of a long-term anth

  13. Market Orientation and Market Participation of Smallholders in Ethiopia: Implications for Commercial Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Tegegne, Azage

    2012-01-01

    The literature on commercial transformation of smallholders makes little distinction between market orientation and market participation. This paper analyzes the determinants of market orientation and market participation in Ethiopia separately and examines if market orientation translates into market participation. Results show that subsistence requirements, market access, and production factors affect market orientation, while market access and volume of production affect market participati...

  14. Managing Ethiopian Cities II: Informality in Ethiopia: Taxing the Hard to Tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bongwa (Aloysius)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLarge informal (hard to tax) sectors are an integral part of the economies of developing countries (Ethiopia included). In much of Africa, the informal, or gray economy that escapes tax collectors and government regulators, is the hidden dynamic driving economic growth. The informal econ

  15. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  16. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  17. Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

    2010-02-01

    Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms.

  18. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun M. Hiwotu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories.Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges.Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hoursfor cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star ratinglevels.Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01,respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% ofthe first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified.Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

  19. Hydrological characterization of watersheds in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gebrehiwot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two watersheds (31–4350 km2, in the Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia, were hydrologically characterized with data from a study of water and land resources by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation (USBR published in 1964. The USBR document contains data on flow, topography, geology, soil type, and land use for the period 1959 to 1963. The aim of the study was to identify watershed variables best explaining the variation in the hydrological regime, with a special focus on low flows. Moreover, this study aimed to identify variables that may be susceptible to management policies for developing and securing water resources in dry periods. Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Partial Least Square (PLS were used to analyze the relationship between five hydrologic response variables (total flow, high flow, low flow, runoff coefficient, low flow index and 30 potential explanatory watershed variables. The explanatory watershed variables were classified into three groups: land use, climate and topography as well as geology and soil type. Each of the three groups had almost equal influence on the variation in hydrologic variables (R2 values ranging from 0.3 to 0.4. Specific variables from within each of the three groups of explanatory variables were better in explaining the variation. Low flow and low flow index were positively correlated to land use types woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland, whereas grazing land and bush land were negatively correlated. We concluded that extra care for preserving low flow should be taken on tuffs/basalts which comprise 52% of the Blue Nile Basin. Land use management plans should recognize that woodland, dense wet forest and savannah grassland can promote higher low flows, while grazing land diminishes low flows.

  1. Rinderpest disease and sero-survey in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinderpest is endemic in Ethiopia. In 1992/1993 twenty seven outbreaks were investigated and six of these were confirmed by agar gel diffusion test. Most of the disease outbreaks were associated with lowland nomadic cattle. Areas of rinderpest maintenance have been identified and it was decided to carry out sero-survey activities primarily in one of these areas. This report includes results from the north-western part of the country, where rinderpest is known to occur throughout the year. A total of 7582 sera were collected from 225 herds in 34 districts from five regions during 1992/93. 3491 (46%) were found to be positive for rinderpest antibody. 52% (117/225) of the herds investigated had below 50% and 19% (42/225) had above 75% of herd immunity. The distribution of immunity in animals varied in average from 30% to 63% with age. Analysis of data on relation to the presence of ear marks and immunity displayed that 70% (1966/2811) of ear marked and 32% (1516/4771) of not marked animals were positive for rinderpest antibody. It is not known why a significant number of ear marked animals have been antibody negative. Marking of animals as being vaccinated could be misleading if not carried out properly. It appears that the distribution of herd immunity varied from district to district and with age within herds. Serological monitoring is an excellent management tool for rinderpest control programme if well designed survey is carried out. (author). 5 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  2. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  3. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    High mountain forests, such as the afro-alpine Erica arborea L. forests in Ethiopia, are very important for the livelihood of local communities, in relation to their impacts on the water balance of mountain ecosystems and surrounding agricultural areas. On volcanoes, the dominance of volcanic tuffs on the slopes, as well as that of gelifracts near the top further enhances infiltration, making it recharge areas. Earlier forest cover change studies in the Ethiopian highlands mainly deal with the lower vegetation belts. In this study, 3.37 km² on the western slopes of Mount Guna (one of the dozens of Miocene shield volcanoes that exist on top of the Ethiopian plateau) was mapped. The slope has an elevation between 3200 at its base and 4113 m a.s.l. at the peak. The present forest cover was recorded from high-resolution georeferenced satellite imagery from Google Maps and field data (2015), while historical forest cover was studied from georeferenced aerial photographs of 1982. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to identify the trend of forest cover change and management practices. Whereas burning of the Erica forest for sake of land clearance (a typical practice on all Ethiopian mountains until the 1980s) most strikingly took place for three consecutive days in 1975, large-scale deforestation resulting from agricultural expansion and livestock pressure continued thereafter. However, between 2000 and 2014, due to active involvement of local and governmental institutions there was a slight regeneration of the vegetation and the Erica forest. Protection and regeneration of the forest was particularly efficient after it was given into custody of an orthodox church established in 1999 at the lower side of the forest. Overall, the study revealed that human and livestock pressures are the strongest drivers of deforestation. Furthermore, the study indicated that integrating the actions of local and governmental institutions is key for the protection of the

  4. Bovine mastitis in selected areas of southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dego, O Kerro; Tareke, F

    2003-06-01

    A study on bovine mastitis, designed to determine the causal agents, prevalence of infection and impact of risk factors in three cattle breeds, was conducted in selected areas of southern Ethiopia. A total of 307 lactating and non-lactating cows, of which 162 were indigenous Zebu, 85 Jersey and 60 Holstein-Friesian. were examined by clinical examination and the California mastitis (CMT) test. Of these, 40.4% were positive by CMT and bacteriology for clinical or subclinical mastitis, with prevalence rates of 37.1% and 62.9%, respectively. Out of 1133 quarters examined, 212 (18.7%) were found to be infected, 83 (39.21%) clinically and 129 (60.8%) subclinically. The prevalence of mastitis was significantly higher in Holstein-Friesian than in indigenous Zebu, in non-lactating cows than in lactating cows, in the early lactation stage than in the mid-lactation stage, in cows with lesions and/or tick infestation on skin of udder and/or teats than in cows without this factor, and in the wet season than in the dry season. Mastitis increased with parity number (R = 0.9). Of 248 CMT and clinically positive udder quarter samples analysed microbiologically, 212 were culturally positive for known mastitis pathogens and 36 were negative. Of the 199 positive samples. Staphylococcus accounted for 39.2%. Streptococcus for 23.6%, coliforms for 14.1%, Micrococcus and Bacillus species for 8.0% each and Actinomyces or Arcanobacterium (Corynebacterium) for 7.0%. It was concluded that there was a high prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis, mainly caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli, in this study area. PMID:12797409

  5. Bovine Demodecosis: Treat to Leather Industry in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tewodros Fantahun

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted commencing October 2010 to June 2011 in and around Gondar, Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia with the objectives of assessing the economic impact; determine prevalence and extent of hide damage. A total of 384 cattle of all age, sex and breed OF were examined and deep skin scrapings with pus and ten hides were sampled. SPSS version 19 was used for data analysis. Higher prevalence was observed in cross breeds 15.75% than local breeds, 15.55%. The highest prevalence was observed from animals greater than 3 years of age, 48 (18.32 % while the lowest, 9 (0.96 % in those one to three years. 18.25% and 11.1% was recorded in female and male animals respectively. The spatial distribution of demodex on shoulder was 8.08 % and 1.04 % on ears and eyes respectively. Production system of semiintensive and extensive managements was found almost affecting similarly with 13.66% and 13.43% respectively. In lime-sulphide treated hides large nodules were prominent with dark contents; small nonprotruding nodules, enlarged openings and ragged depressions near the grain surface were dipcted. In conclusion the highest overall prevalence (15.63% of D. bovis infestation was recorded. This indicates that despite many efforts tried to study infectious diseases prevalence in the study area, demodicosis has been given lesser attention to be treated as a separate health problem. Therefore, Prevention and control measures should be taken rather than treating demodicosis.

  6. Can a community-based maternal care package in rural Ethiopia increase the use of health facilities for childbirth and reduce the stillbirth rate?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Karen; Atnafu,Habtamu; Belete,Zelalem; Kinfu,Hirut; Tadesse,Mebkyou; Amin, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Habtamu Atnafu, Zelalem Belete, Hirut Kinfu, Mebkyou Tadesse, Mohammed Amin, Karen D Ballard Hamlin Fistula Ethiopia, Addis Ababa Fistula Hospital, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaObjective: To measure the impact of a maternal health package on health facility delivery and stillbirth rates.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in Ethiopia where a maternal package was integrated into eight health centers across three regions. The package included trained midwives with a mentoring program, transport fo...

  7. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Lema, Tefera Belachew; Lindstrom, David; Gebremariam, Abebe; Hogan, Dennis; Lachat, Carl; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13–17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  8. Aboveground biomass equations for sustainable production of fuelwood in a native dry tropical afro-montane forest of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye, Mehari Alebachew; Bravo Oviedo, Andrés; Bravo Oviedo, Felipe; Ruiz Peinado, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Biomass equations are needed to correctly quantify harvestable stock and biomass for sustainability efforts in forest management, but this kind of information is scarce in Ethiopia. This study sought to develop biomass models for five of the most common native tree species in the Chilimo dry afro-montane mixed forest in the central highlands of Ethiopia: Allophyllus abyssinicus, Olea europaea ssp.cuspidata, Olinia rochetiana, Rhus glutinosa and Scolopia theifolia. Comparison with generaliz...

  9. Economic valuation and management of common-pool resources : the case of exclosures in the highlands of Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Balana, Bedru Babulo

    2007-01-01

    Environmental degradation and the deterioration of the natural resource base have become serious problems in Ethiopia. The existing biophysical, environmental and socio-economic indicators provide sufficient testimonies for the severity of the problem of natural resources deterioration in Ethiopia. Most forms of the nation’s environmental problems are directly or indirectly attributable to the rapid dwindling of the country’s vegetation cover and the consequent degradation of its land resourc...

  10. Travel history and malaria infection risk in a low-transmission setting in Ethiopia: a case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Yukich Joshua O; Taylor Cameron; Eisele Thomas P; Reithinger Richard; Nauhassenay Honelgn; Berhane Yemane; Keating Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Malaria remains the leading communicable disease in Ethiopia, with around one million clinical cases of malaria reported annually. The country currently has plans for elimination for specific geographic areas of the country. Human movement may lead to the maintenance of reservoirs of infection, complicating attempts to eliminate malaria. Methods An unmatched case–control study was conducted with 560 adult patients at a Health Centre in central Ethiopia. Patients who receiv...

  11. Addressing the Neglected Tropical Disease Podoconiosis in Northern Ethiopia: Lessons Learned from a New Community Podoconiosis Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sara Tomczyk; Abreham Tamiru; Gail Davey

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite its great public health importance, few control initiatives addressing podoconiosis (non-filarial elephantiasis, a geochemical neglected tropical disease) exist. In June 2010, the first podoconiosis program in Northern Ethiopia, consisting of prevention, awareness, and care and support activities, began in Debre Markos, Northern Ethiopia. This study aims to document and disseminate the lessons learned from a new community podoconiosis program in Debre Markos. Method...

  12. In-situ Conservation of wild forest coffee-Exploring the potential of participatory forest management in south west Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tolera, Motuma; Lemenih, Mulugeta; O'Hara, Peter; Wood, Adrian P.

    2015-01-01

    Maintaining the gene pool of Coffea arabica in the forests of South West Ethiopia, where this plant evolved and has its genetic hearth, is a challenge of global importance. Participatory Forest Management (PFM) and Biosphere Reserves (BR) are among the various initiatives being tested to maintain this forest and its biodiversity that includes major stands of wild Arabica coffee. This paper makes a comparative analysis of PFM and BR approaches to conservation as applied in Ethiopia. While BR l...

  13. Predictors of defaulting from completion of child immunization in south Ethiopia, May 2008 – A case control study

    OpenAIRE

    Woldie Mirkuzie; Deribew Amare; Tadesse Henoke

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological investigations of recent outbreaks of vaccine preventable diseases have indicated that incomplete immunization was the major reason for the outbreaks. In Ethiopia, full immunization rate is low and reasons for defaulting from immunization are not studied well. The objective of the study was to identify the predictors of defaulting from completion of child immunization among children between ages 9–23 months in Wonago district, South Ethiopia. Methods Unmatc...

  14. Food insecurity, food based coping strategies and suboptimal dietary practices of adolescents in Jimma Zone Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tefera Belachew; David Lindstrom; Abebe Gebremariam; Dennis Hogan; Carl Lachat; Lieven Huybregts; Patrick Kolsteren

    2013-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of adolescent food insecurity in Ethiopia, there is no study which documented its association with suboptimal dietary practices. The objective of this study is to determine the association between adolescent food insecurity and dietary practices. We used data on 2084 adolescents in the age group of 13-17 years involved in the first round survey of the five year longitudinal family study in Southwest Ethiopia. Adolescents were selected using residence stratified ran...

  15. Quality of medicines commonly used in the treatment of soil transmitted helminths and giardia in ethiopia: a nationwide survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Suleman; Gemechu Zeleke; Habtewold Deti; Zeleke Mekonnen; Luc Duchateau; Bruno Levecke; Jozef Vercruysse; Matthias D'Hondt; Evelien Wynendaele; Bart De Spiegeleer

    2014-01-01

    Background: The presence of poor quality medicines in the market is a global threat on public health, especially in developing countries. Therefore, we assessed the quality of two commonly used anthelminthic drugs [mebendazole (MEB) and albendazole (ALB)] and one antiprotozoal drug [tinidazole (TNZ)] in Ethiopia. Methods/Principal Findings: A multilevel stratified random sampling, with as strata the different levels of supply chain system in Ethiopia, geographic areas and government/priva...

  16. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Ayichew

    2016-01-01

    Ayichew Seyoum,1 Kedir Urgessa,1 Tesfaye Gobena2 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, esp...

  17. Geographic Variation and Factors Associated with Female Genital Mutilation among Reproductive Age Women in Ethiopia: A National Population Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfaye Setegn; Yihunie Lakew; Kebede Deribe

    2016-01-01

    Background Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a common traditional practice in developing nations including Ethiopia. It poses complex and serious long-term health risks for women and girls and can lead to death. In Ethiopia, the geographic distribution and factors associated with FGM practices are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the spatial distribution and factors associated with FGM among reproductive age women in the country. Method We used population based national representati...

  18. Successful Implementation of Collective Action and Human-Capacity Building Among Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia: Lessons Learned, 2001-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon; Gebru, Getachew

    2008-01-01

    Since 2000 the PARIMA project has implemented pilot risk-management activities among poverty-stricken, semi-settled pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. The goal has been to improve human welfare via collective action and capacity building. Outcomes include progress in income generation, asset conservation, and livelihood diversification. The approach has been unique to southern Ethiopia in that a bottom-up, participatory perspective has dominated. It has focused on the priorities and felt need...

  19. Assessment of the health care waste generation rates and its management system in hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Debere Mesfin Kote; Gelaye Kassahun Alemu; Alamdo Andamlak Gizaw; Trifa Zemedu Mehamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Healthcare waste management options are varying in Ethiopia. One of the first critical steps in the process of developing a reliable waste management plan requires a widespread understanding of the amount and the management system. This study aimed to assess the health care waste generation rate and its management system in some selected hospitals located in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods Six hospitals in Addis Ababa, (three private and three public), were selected using s...

  20. Seroprevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Eticha, Begna Tulu; Sisay, Zufan; Alemayehu, Addisu; Shimelis, Techalew

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of syphilis and its risk factors among people with HIV at a hospital in Ethiopia. Design A hospital-based cross-sectional study. Setting This study was conducted at one of the largest public hospitals in Addis Ababa , Ethiopia. Participants A consecutive 306 HIV-positive patients were recruited prospectively from January to March 2010. For comparative purposes, 224 HIV-negative consecutive attendees at the voluntary counselling and testing centre in the s...

  1. The governance of service delivery for the poor and women: A study of rural water supply in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mogues, Tewodaj; Cohen, Marc J.; Birner, Regina; Lemma, Mamusha; Randriamamonjy, Josee; Tadesse, Fanaye; Paulos, Zelekawork

    2009-01-01

    This study presents empirical findings on drinking water supply in Ethiopia from a set of qualitative and quantitive surveys on rural public services. Access to safe drinking water is very low: 32% of the surveyed households use safe drinking water sources, and the average time to get to safe water sources during dry season ranged from 29 minutes to 82 minutes. The households covered in the Ethiopia survey may still have better access than the national average. Households identify drinking wa...

  2. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  3. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallew WW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Walelegn Worku Yallew,1 Abera Kumie,2 Feleke Moges Yehuala3 1Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results: A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years. A total of 650 (71.6% patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1. Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44% and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4% were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was

  4. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiferaw MB

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Melashu Balew Shiferaw,1 Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs,2 Mulusew Alemneh Sinishaw,3 Yohannes Amede Yesuf,4 1Laboratory Capacity Building Core Process, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, College of Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Ethiopia; 3Department of Clinical Chemistry, Bahir Dar Regional Health Research Laboratory Center, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 4Department of Laboratory, Africa Service Committee Clinic, Kombolcha, Ethiopia Introduction: Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014.Methods: An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to ­January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection.Results: The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674. The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5

  5. Prevalence and associated factors of stunting among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Mesfin F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic

  6. Agroecosystem Analysis of the Choke Mountain Watersheds, Ethiopia

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    Mutlu Ozdogan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Tropical highland regions are experiencing rapid climate change. In these regions the adaptation challenge is complicated by the fact that elevation contrasts and dissected topography produce diverse climatic conditions that are often accompanied by significant ecological and agricultural diversity within a relatively small region. Such is the case for the Choke Mountain watersheds, in the Blue Nile Highlands of Ethiopia. These watersheds extend from tropical alpine environments at over 4000 m elevation to the hot and dry Blue Nile gorge that includes areas below 1000 m elevation, and contain a diversity of slope forms and soil types. This physical diversity and accompanying socio-economic contrasts demand diverse strategies for enhanced climate resilience and adaptation to climate change. To support development of locally appropriate climate resilience strategies across the Blue Nile Highlands, we present here an agroecosystem analysis of Choke Mountain, under the premise that the agroecosystem—the intersection of climatic and physiographic conditions with agricultural practices—is the most appropriate unit for defining adaptation strategies in these primarily subsistence agriculture communities. To this end, we present two approaches to agroecosystem analysis that can be applied to climate resilience studies in the Choke Mountain watersheds and, as appropriate, to other agroecologically diverse regions attempting to design climate adaptation strategies. First, a full agroecoystem analysis was implemented in collaboration with local communities. It identified six distinct agroecosystems that differ systematically in constraints and adaptation potential. This analysis was then paired with an objective landscape classification trained to identify agroecosystems based on climate and physiographic setting alone. It was found that the distribution of Choke Mountain watershed agroecosystems can, to first order, be explained as a function of

  7. Retinal detachment in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study.

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    Tsedeke Asaminew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5% had retinal detachment (RD and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5. Fourteen patients (17.5% had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9% were blind from RD and 11 (13.8% patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5% and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%. The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%, myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%, posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8% and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%. Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1% were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%. Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9% and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011, and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040. CONCLUSIONS: A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.

  8. Retinal Detachment in Southwest Ethiopia: A Hospital Based Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaminew, Tsedeke; Gelaw, Yeshigeta; Bekele, Sisay; Solomon, Berhan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients’ sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. Results A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5%) had retinal detachment (RD) and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5). Fourteen patients (17.5%) had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9%) were blind from RD and 11 (13.8%) patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5%) and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%). The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%), myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%), posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8%) and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%). Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1%) were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%). Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9%) and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes) had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011), and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040). Conclusions A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma. PMID:24086614

  9. Improving artificial insemination Services for dairy cattle in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies to determine the current status and efficiency of artificial insemination (AI) were undertaken by the National Artificial Insemination Centre (NAIC) of Ethiopia on 52 dairy farms (4 large and 48 small-to-medium farms) located around Addis Ababa. Milk samples were collected from 417 cows on the day of AI (day 0), and on days 10-12 and 21-23 after AI. A total of 1085 samples were assayed for the concentration of progesterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Data pertaining to the farm, inseminated cow, the inseminator and semen batch were recorded. Rectal palpation was done to check for pregnancy two months after AI. The overall mean interval from calving to first service was 161.7 ± 139.8 days. Cows that calved during March to August, coinciding with wet weather when the availability and quality of feed is good, had shorter intervals to first service than those that calved during the rest of the year. Results from RIA showed that 89% of the cows had low progesterone on day 0, indicating that they were in the follicular phase or anoestrous. However, only 49% of the cows had elevated progesterone on day 10, indicating that an ovulatory oestrus had occurred at the time of AI. The results from all three milk samples indicated that 45% of the cows were likely to have conceived, but only 39% were later confirmed pregnant by manual palpation. A survey was done on seven medium to large farms on the costs and benefits of a service for early non-pregnancy diagnosis and infertility management using progesterone RIA. The overall mean calving interval was 435 days, which was 70 days longer than the optimum interval of 365 days. In most farms, 50% or more of the total expenses were for feed purchases, with expenses for health care and AI services accounting for only 5%. The profit, as a percentage of income, ranged from - 4% to 50% in the seven farms. The cost of determining the progesterone concentration in one milk sample was calculated to be $8, of which 43% was

  10. Determinants of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Ambo Hospital, West Ethiopia

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    Tenna Ephrem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis seen in cases in Ambo Hospital, Ethiopia.Design: A facility-based prospective case-control study.Setting: Patients attending Ambo Hospital from 01 December 2011 to 29 March 2012.Participants: The sample included 312 adult patients attending Ambo Hospital. The main outcome measure was presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB.Explanatory measures: Age, gender, occupation, educational status, marital status, place of residence, patient history of TB, family history of TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, smoking, alcohol intake, khat chewing, body mass index (BMI, employment, diabetes, history of asthma, previous history of worm infestation, history of hospitalisation, number of adults living in the household (HH, person per room, housing condition.Results: A total of 312 study participants, including 104 active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases (cases and 208 non-active PTB cases (controls, were recruited for the present study. Having one or more family member with a history of TB (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.50–12.90, marital status (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.2–12.6, male gender (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7, rural residence (OR = 3.3; P = 0.012, being a current or past smoker (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–7.2, BMI < 18.5 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.03–4.2, HIV infection (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 2.4–23.8 and a history of worm infestation (OR = 6.4; 95% CI: 2.6–15.4 remained significant independent host-related factors for active PTB.Conclusion: Patients who came from a compound with more than two HHs were more likely to develop active PTB than those who came from a compound with only one HH. Those who lived in houses with no windows were more likely to develop active PTB than those who lived in houses with one or more windows, had a family history of TB, lived in rural areas. Sex of the patient was a predicting factor. Not being the owner of the house

  11. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  12. A status report of veterinary education in Ethiopia: perceived needs, past history, recent changes, and current and future concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayen, Friederike

    2006-01-01

    Ethiopia, which owns the most important livestock resources in Africa, opened its first faculty of veterinary medicine in 1979. In 2003, in response to a government mandate to increase the number of veterinarians, four new veterinary faculties were founded, but these facilities still have very limited resources. Currently, quality standards and controls for veterinary studies are not established in Ethiopia, and the country does not have any type of veterinary council or oversight body to establish such standards or the essential evaluation and credentialing procedures. The veterinary degree, as currently obtained in Ethiopia, is not internationally recognized. A second specific concern for veterinary education in Ethiopia is that it is not well adapted to the special needs of the country. Clearly, quality control of veterinary education needs to be established, and teaching methods and materials need to be adapted to the special needs of the country. So far, the veterinary faculty in Ethiopia has been more interested in partnerships with universities from developed countries than in partnerships and cooperation with other African universities. In 2002, after six years of cooperation with a German university, the Veterinary Faculty at Addis Ababa started its own post-graduate program, with some key contributions from foreign instructors and some foreign funding. While this has been a service to Ethiopian veterinary medicine, the cooperation of the Ethiopian veterinary schools with African universities must also be strengthened. Overall, the good efforts to date in Ethiopian veterinary medicine have only barely scratched the surface of its critical needs. In order to meet Ethiopia's needs for both a reliable and high-quality veterinary education and a trustworthy animal disease surveillance mechanism, it is important that veterinary education in Ethiopia be improved. PMID:16849305

  13. A nonlinear approach to modelling the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an attempt is made to model, analyze and forecast the residential electricity consumption in Ethiopia using the self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SETAR) model and the smooth transition regression (STR) model. For comparison purposes, the application was also extended to standard linear models. During the empirical presentation of both models, significant nonlinear effects were found and linearity was rejected. The SETAR model was found out to be relatively better than the linear autoregressive model in out-of-sample point and interval (density) forecasts. Results from our STR model showed that the residual variance of the fitted STR model was only about 65.7% of that of the linear ARX model. Thus, we can conclude that the inclusion of the nonlinear part, which basically accounts for the arrival of extreme price events, leads to improvements in the explanatory abilities of the model for electricity consumption in Ethiopia. (author)

  14. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba;

    2016-01-01

    and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack...... management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...... of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia...

  15. Why are current efforts to eliminate female circumcision in Ethiopia misplaced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyden, Jo

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the eradication challenges of female circumcision in Ethiopia. It argues that despite an overall decline in the practice nationally, eradication efforts have caused significant quandaries for girls and their families. The most common justification by far for its continuance is that circumcision confirms a girl's social place by proving her readiness for marriage and adulthood and thereby ensures her protection against material want. Hence, intervention has often resulted in the transformation, rather than the elimination, of the practice, the exchange of one type of risk for another, or even increased risk to girls. In discussing policy, the paper argues that there has been a misapplication of the risk concept in the promotion of change in Ethiopia. It calls for risk definitions and interventions that are more holistic, correspond more closely with children's social realities and take into account the phenomenological dimensions of experience. PMID:23030606

  16. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women's malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Darge Delbiso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. Objective: To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates. Design: Our analysis was based on the body mass index (BMI of 6,334 adult women aged 20–49 years, obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS. A Bayesian multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to capture the clustered structure of the data and the possible correlation that may exist within and between clusters. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, women living close to borders (i.e. ≤100 km in Ethiopia were 59% more likely to be underweight (posterior odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.32–1.90 than their counterparts living far from the borders. This result was robust to different choices of border delineation (i.e. ≤50, ≤75, ≤125, and ≤150 km. Women from poor families, those who have no access to improved toilets, reside in lowland areas, and are Muslim, were independently associated with underweight. In contrast, more wealth, higher education, older age, access to improved toilets, being married, and living in urban or lowlands were independently associated with overweight. Conclusions: The problem of undernutrition among women in Ethiopia is most worrisome in the border areas. Targeted interventions to improve nutritional status in these areas, such as improved access to sanitation, economic and livelihood support, are recommended.

  17. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Giday Mirutse; Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2007-01-01

    Abstract An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fideli...

  18. Health Sector Initiatives for Disaster Risk Management in Ethiopia: A Narrative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, Luche; Ardalan, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Natural and man-made disasters are prevailing in Ethiopia mainly due to drought, floods, landslides, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, and disease epidemics. Few studies so far have critically reviewed about medical responses to disasters and little information exists pertaining to the initiatives being undertaken by health sector from the perspective of basic disaster management cycle. This article aimed to review emergency health responses to disasters and other related interventi...

  19. Developing and optimizing processes for biological nitrogen removal from tannery wastewaters in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Leta, Seyoum

    2004-01-01

    In Ethiopia industrial effluents containing high contents of organic matter, nitrogen and heavy metals are discharged into inland surface waters with little or no pre-treatment. Significant pollution concerns related to these effluents include dissolved oxygen depletion, toxicity and eutrophication of the receiving waters. This has not only forced the government to formulate regulations and standards for discharge limits but also resulted in an increasing interest and development of methods a...

  20. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Oromia Region of Ethiopia

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    Girma Mulisa

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The rate of MDR-TB was high among suspected cases in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Local MDR-TB detection capacity and local epidemiology studies are essential to detect MDR-TB and guide the use of the sparse resources to optimize MDR-TB control. If TB is suspected, the presence of any of the above factors should alert Oromia Region clinicians and public health professionals to screen for MDR-TB.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

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    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  2. Landscape genetics and behavioural ecology of mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) in the Southern highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Many African wildlife species are at risk of extinction as a result of habitat loss and fragmentation associated with human influence. Among these is the endangered antelope, mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), endemic to the highlands of southern Ethiopia. I implemented a multidisciplinary approach, including geographic information system (GIS), satellite image analysis and non-invasive genetics to provide basic knowledge required for the conservation this species. My study reveals new ins...

  3. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders. PMID:26119541

  4. SHIFTING TO ALTERNATIVE FOOD SOURCE: POTENTIAL TO OVERCOME ETHIOPIAS' MALNUTRITION AND POVERTY PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gelmesa, Dandena

    2010-01-01

    N° ISBN - 978-2-7380-1284-5 International audience The currently population of more than 70 million people in Ethiopia is expected to double within the next 30 years. Almost 80% of the populations are living in the countryside while the rest situated in urban area. An estimated five million people are suffering from lack of vitamins and essential minerals, of which 80% are children for the next generation. Every year, on the average, about five million people have problems securing enou...

  5. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.

    2016-06-27

    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  6. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in Amhara Regional State of Ethiopia, 2004–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Asha, Anjelo; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariyam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Gallagher, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Background Measles is a highly contagious viral infection causing large outbreaks all over the world. Despite the availability of safe and cost effective vaccine, measles remained endemic with persistent periodic outbreaks in the Horn of Africa. The aim of this study is to characterize laboratory confirmed measles cases in Amhara Regional State, which was one of the highly affected regions in Ethiopia. Method A suspected measles case was defined as any person presenting with fever, maculopapu...

  7. The Future in Mind: Aspirations and Forward-Looking Behaviour in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Dercon; Tanguy Bernard; Kate Orkin; Alemayehu Seyoum Taffesse

    2014-01-01

    Poor people often do not make investments, even when returns are high. One possible explanation is that they have low aspirations and form mental models which ignore some options for investment. This paper reports on findings of an innovative experiment to test this in rural Ethiopia. Firstly, individuals were randomly invited to watch documentaries about people from similar communities who had succeeded in agriculture or small business, without help from government or NGOs. A placebo group w...

  8. A Rural-Urban Comparison of Manufacturing Enterprise Performance in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Rijkers, Bob; Soderbom, Mans; Loening, Josef L.

    2010-01-01

    Manufacturing enterprises in rural and urban Ethiopia are compared to examine how location and investment climate characteristics affect performance. Urban firms are larger, more capital intensive and have higher labor productivity than rural firms, yet there is no strong evidence of increasing returns to scale. The hypothesis that firms in rural towns have the same average total factor productivity as urban firms is not rejected; however, firms in remote rural areas are less productive. Rura...

  9. Property Rights, Institutions and Source of Fuel Wood in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Damte; Steven F. Koc

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between property rights, defined by land tenure security and the strength of local-level institutions, and household demand for fuel wood, as measured by the source from which fuel wood is collected. A multinomial regression model is applied to survey data collected in rural Ethiopia. Results from the discrete choice model indicate that active local-level institutions increase household dependency on open access forests, while land security reduces open ac...

  10. Persistent Soil Seed Banks for Natural Rehabilitation of Dry Tropical Forests in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrehiwot, K; HEYN, M; Reubens, B; Hermy, M.; Muys, B.

    2007-01-01

    Dry tropical forests are threatened world-wide by conversion to grazing land, secondary forest, savannah or arable land. In Ethiopia, natural dry forest cover has been decreasing at an alarming rate over the last decennia and has reached a critical level. Efforts like the rehabilitation of dry forests to curb this ecological degradation, need a stronger scientific basis than currently available. The aim of the present research was to test the hypothesis whether soil seed banks can contribute ...

  11. A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele-Tesemma, A.

    1997-01-01

    The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobilized to correct the situation, but the outcome has not been encouraging. There are a number of reasons for the failure. Methodical and technological problems are evident. Exclusion of farmers and the...

  12. Prevalence and Predictors of Intestinal Parasites among Food Handlers in Yebu Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tamirat Tefera; Getye Mebrie

    2014-01-01

    Background As a result of urbanization, eating and drinking from food service establishments is becoming a common practice in developing countries like Ethiopia, which increases the chances of food borne diseases. The health status and hygiene practices of food handlers are the major determinants of food contamination. In developing countries where there are poor regulatory systems for food hygiene, food handlers are often appointed without screening for possible infections associated with po...

  13. Exposure to Leishmania spp. and sand flies in domestic animals in northwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Rohousova, Iva; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Kostalova, Tatiana; Polanska, Nikola; Lestinova, Tereza; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Maia, Carla; King, Roni; Votypka, Jan; Jaffe, Charles L.; Warburg, Alon; Hailu, Asrat; Volf, Petr; Baneth, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Background Human visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani is considered an anthroponosis; however, Leishmania-infected animals have been increasingly reported in L. donovani foci, and the role of these animals as reservoirs for human L. donovani infection remains unclear. Methods We conducted a study of domestic animals (goats, sheep, cows, dogs, and donkeys) in three L. donovani foci in northwestern Ethiopia. Domestic animals were screened for Leishmania DNA and for anti-L. donov...

  14. Psychological distress and associated factors among prisoners in North West Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Fekadu, Abel; Kisi, Teresa; Yigzaw, Nigussie; Bisetegn, Telake Azale

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, mental health is an important public health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown that, mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general population. However, still there is no accurate count of persons with mental disorder who are incarcerated in Ethiopia and information about prisoners’ health conditions is scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of psychologic...

  15. The adequacy of antenatal care services among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bayou, Yibeltal T.; Mashalla, Yohana S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2016-01-01

    Background There are recent efforts made to eliminate inequalities in the utilisation of basic health care services. More emphasis is given for improvement of health in developing countries including maternal and child health. However, disparities for the fast-growing population of urban poor are masked by the urban averages. The aim of this paper is to report on the findings of antenatal care adequacy among slum residents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods This was a quantitative and cross-se...

  16. Validation of the condom use self-efficacy scale in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Shaweno, Debebe; Tekletsadik, Emebet

    2013-01-01

    Background The measurement of condom use self-efficacy requires contextually suitable, valid and reliable instruments due to variability of the scale across nations with different cultural and ethnic backgrounds. This study aims to construct a condom use self-efficacy scale suitable to Ethiopia (CUSES-E), based on the original scale developed by Brafford and Beck. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of 492 students at Hawassa University. A self-administered questi...

  17. Regulatory Legal Regime on the Protection of Privacy and Personal Information in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The right to privacy has been guaranteed in various human rights instruments, including in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights as fundamental right. On the other hand, the right has been increasingly threatened owing to the advancement of information technology. As a state party to the Covenant, Ethiopia has constitutionally given recognition to the right. Nonetheless, the country does not have a specific privacy law to enforce the constitutionally guaranteed right. Howev...

  18. Land Degradation in Ethiopia: What Do Stoves Have To Do With It?

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; van Kooten, G. Cornelis; Soest, Daan P. Van

    2006-01-01

    In Ethiopia deforestation is a major problem and many peasants have switched from fuelwood to dung for cooking and heating purposes, thereby damaging the agricultural productivity of cropland. The Ethiopian government has embarked on a two-pronged policy in an effort to stem deforestation and the degradation of agricultural lands: (i) tree planting or afforestation; (ii) dissemination of more efficient stove technologies. The motivation in here is, therefore, to examine the potential of the s...

  19. Tuberculosis among HIV-positive patients at Butajira Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Seada Mohammed; Tewelde Tesfaye Gebremariam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tuberculosis and its associated factors among HIV-positive patients at Butajira Hospital, South-Central Ethiopia. Methods: A retrospective review of standardized 222 HIV-positive patient records between July 2011 and June 2012 was conducted. A data sheet was used to collect relevant variables. Data...

  20. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitz, Karen; Kempker, Russell R.; Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward; Abebe, Engida; Tadesse, Lia; Jirru, Ermias Kacha; Blumberg, Henry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care...

  1. Organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals in fish from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia : Insights from stable isotope analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; Saengtienchai, Aksorn; Watanabe, Kensuke; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    The levels and bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and heavy metals were studied in muscle and liver of three fish species, with two trophic levels, from Lake Awassa, Ethiopia. DDTs were the predominant organic pollutant in all species with a maximum level of 73.28 ng g(-1) wet weight (ww). p,p'-DDE was the predominate congener and showed a significant (p

  2. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollel Tiruneh, Getachew [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)], E-mail: gwollel@yahoo.com; Wodaje Kebede, Worku [Ethiopian Radiation Protection Authority, PO Box 20486 code 1000, Addis-Ababa (Ethiopia)

    2008-11-15

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels.

  3. Impacts of Adoption of Improved Wheat Technologies on Households' Food Consumption in Southeastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mulugeta, Tsegaye; Hundie, Bekele

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at shedding light on the potential impact of agricultural technology adoption on household food consumption status. The analysis is based on the data collected from randomly selected 200 farm households in Southeast Ethiopia. Since the process of technology adoption usually involves non-random placement of adopters, we employed a propensity score matching method to avoid bias arising from possible self-selection. The results show that adoption of improved wheat technologies ha...

  4. Preliminary results of natural radioactivity measurements in the southern part of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the first results of natural radioactivity measurements in the Southern part of Ethiopia (Bale Zone-Oromiya Regional State). The preliminary results indicate that radiation levels in the mining areas of Kallido Mountain are elevated compared with those in the town of Negele Borena (background area). Both external gamma radiation and alpha surface contamination levels are significantly elevated above local background levels

  5. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, Iran, Nigeria, Ethiopia and Ivory Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes briefly main informations on petroleum production, prices and market trends, trade and contracts, petroleum exploration in Bahrain, Ethiopia, Libya, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In Ivory Coast, a consortium led by Electricite de France and Bouygues has obtained the exploitation of Foxtrot natural gas field. Statistics on petroleum and natural gas reserves, production in the world in 1991 and 1992 are also given

  6. Environmental Education about, in and for the Environment : The case of two secondary schools in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Ethiopia is one of the most severely affected climate change prone countries and among the most at risk in future consequences of climate change and related disasters, such as land degradation, deforestation, drought, rainfall variability and climate borne disease (Bangay, C. and Blum, N., 2010). Thus, education as one of the tools to combat various environment related problems, to assess what is being done in education particularly as to how climate related problem...

  7. Cataract surgery in Southern Ethiopia: distribution, rates and determinants of service provision.

    OpenAIRE

    Habtamu, E.; Eshete, Z; Burton, MJ

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cataract is the leading cause of blindness worldwide, with the greatest burden found in low-income countries. Cataract surgery is a curative and cost-effective intervention. Despite major non-governmental organization (NGO) support, the cataract surgery performed in Southern Region, Ethiopia is currently insufficient to address the need. We analyzed the distribution, productivity, cost and determinants of cataract surgery services. METHODS Confidential interviews were conducte...

  8. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  9. Study on Identification of Gaps and Intervention Needs of Smallholder Organic Farmers in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ferede, Addisu

    2013-01-01

    A study on identification and analysis of the major gaps of smallholder organic farmers of Ethiopia in terms of technical, technological, institutional and financial is conducted in year 2011 in order to develop strategic programme that fill the gaps of organic producers. In order to make the study both primary and secondary information were collected through questionnaire, desk review, field visit, key informative interviews and group discussion. The study covered 80 respondents from 14 coop...

  10. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwined problems of global concern. Land degradation affects some 2 billion hectares of land world-wide. In Africa some 500 million hectares of land have been affected by land or soil degradation, including abo...

  11. Enhancing Land-Use-Efficiency through Appropriate Land Policies in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Grover, D.K.; Temesgen, Anteneh

    2006-01-01

    The land tenure system has been a controversial issue in Ethiopia: The advocates of the existing land policy believe that if the farmers are given the right to own land privately and are allowed to sell, many farmers will become landless and exposed to various hardships. The critics argues that the existing land tenure arrangements has contributed towards increased degradation of farmers' land resulting in soil erosion and poor productivity level of various crops. Farmers with ownership right...

  12. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Teklay, Abraha; Abera, Balcha; Giday, Mirutse

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between...

  13. Household Tree Planting in Tigrai, Northern Ethiopia: Tree Species, Purposes, and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Gebreegziabher, Zenebe; Mekonnen, Alemu; Kassie, Menale; Köhlin, Gunnar

    2010-01-01

    Trees have multiple purposes in rural Ethiopia, providing significant economic and ecological benefits. Planting trees supplies rural households with wood products for their own consumption, as well for sale, and decreases soil degradation. We used cross-sectional household-level data to analyze the determinants of household tree planting and explored the most important tree attributes or purpose(s) that enhance the propensity to plant trees. We set up a sample selection framework that simult...

  14. Impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households: Evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mekonnen, Alemu; Ghebru, Hosaena; Holden, Stein; Kassie, Menale

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households in the Amhara and Tigray regions of Ethiopia. Household and plot level panel data from before and after land certification from stratified random samples of households were used for the analysis. The results suggest a positive impact of land certification on tree growing on private plots of rural households. Law restrictions on tree planting on land suitable for agricultural production may...

  15. Potential impact of land certification on rural households' land-related investment intentions in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Taddese, Amare

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the effect of land registration and certification on rural farm households’ intention to engage in tree planting, an indicator used as a proxy to measure land-related investments in the Oromia and Southern nations and nationalities people (SNNP) regions, Ethiopia. I used cross-sectional data from Wollaita and West Arisi zones collected in 2012. Maximum Likelihood probit model was employed for estimation. Results suggest that there is indeed a positive and highly significan...

  16. Assessing The Current Status Of Solid Waste Management Of Gondar Town Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Gedefaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Ethiopia is facing rapid urbanization leading to overcrowding and the development of slums and informal settlements with poor waste management practices. Urban dwellers generally consume more resources than rural dwellers and so generate huge quantities of solid wastes. This study is focused on the overall assessment of the existing MSWM service of Gondar town. The overall objective of this study was assessing the current solid waste management service of Gondar town. Both primary an...

  17. Households’ Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Waste Management in Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hagos, Dagnew; Mekonnen, Alemu; Gebreegziabher, Zenebe

    2012-01-01

    Cities in developing countries experiencing rapid urbanization and population growth too often lack the financial resources and institutional capacity to provide needed municipal infrastructure for adequate solid waste management, despite citizens’ demand for it. This paper uses a cross-sectional survey of 226 randomly selected households in Mekelle City, Ethiopia, to assess the current municipal sanitation fees and the willingness to pay (WTP) of residents for improved urban waste management...

  18. Socioeconomic and cultural implications of health interventions: the case of smoking in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaw, Y

    1986-01-01

    The growth rate of tobacco production and of cigarette smoking is rapidly increasing in developing countries. This article examines smoking as a health problem in Ethiopia. According to the author, Ethiopia is in a favorable position for action in this area because smoking is not yet extensive (restricted largely to urban areas) and the Government is committed to preventing a smoking epidemic. However, tobacco plays an important and growing role in Ethiopia's economy. Commercial production tobacco, which is a state monopoly, accounted for 5% of the total industrial gross value of production in 1977 and over 1% of the total number of employees in industry. Of total government revenues in 1977, 1.6% was from tobacco. Household expenditure on tobacco was 1.5-2.9% in 1975, compared with 1.8-3% for medical care. The smoking habit is extensively promoted through advertising. Given the general problems of poverty and unemployment in Ethiopia, it seems unreasonable to press for changes that would entail a loss of government revenues and create unemployment. An alternative solution to this problem is to stimulate self-reliance in the environment of the working people. Smoking must be made into a politicl issue at both the national and international level. On the national level, health workers would have to continue spreading knowledge on the harmful effects of smoking, study and disseminate better ways to prevent smoking, and lobby for better legislation on the issue. The international level is particularly significant, not only because tobacco interests are transnational, but because the success of an antismoking campaign is related to the struggle for a New Economic order. Such an approach could provide the economic basic for effective action to reduce tobacco production and consumption. PMID:3734089

  19. Shrinking the Lymphatic Filariasis Map of Ethiopia: Reassessing the Population at Risk through Nationwide Mapping.

    OpenAIRE

    Rebollo, Maria P.; Heven Sime; Ashenafi Assefa; Jorge Cano; Kebede Deribe; Alba Gonzalez-Escalada; Oumer Shafi; Gail Davey; Brooker, Simon J.; Amha Kebede; Bockarie, Moses J.

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary About 1.4 billion people are believed to be living in areas where Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is actively transmitted. However, the distribution of this disfiguring mosquito-borne parasitic disease and the true population at risk that can be targeted for treatment have not been defined for all endemic countries. By 2013, Ethiopia had not delineated the majority of the endemic implementation units that can be targeted for MDA. Here, we present the results of a nationwide mapping e...

  20. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen; Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl; Dereje Negussie; Abebe GebreMariam; Abebech Tilahun; Henrik Friis; Vibeke Rasch

    2014-01-01

    Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national...

  1. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Yewhalaw Delenasaw; Yineger Haile; Teketay Demel

    2008-01-01

    Abstract An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge and use by traditional healers in southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Data were collected from 45 randomly selected traditional healers using semi-structured interviews and observations. Sixty-seven ethnomedicinal plant species used by traditional healers to manage 51 different human ailments were identified and documented. Healers' indigenous knowledge was positively cor...

  2. Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Demewoz; Azage, Muluken; Mola, Tegegn; Rainey, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting reflects a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time. Stunting is associated with adverse functional consequences including poor cognition, low educational performance, low adult wages, and poor reproductive outcomes. The objective of the study was to investigate spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. Methods This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A t...

  3. Seed-borne fungi of the afromontane tree species Podocarpus falcatus and Prunus africana in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gure, Abdella

    2004-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of four studies regarding seed-borne fungi of the afromontane forest trees, Podocarpus falcatus (Thunb. Mirb.) and Prunus africana (Hook. F.) Kalkman, in Ethiopia. Based on morphology and molecular data from the rDNA (ITS) region, a diverse group of mainly Ascomycota, some Basidiomycota and a few Zygomycota were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS sequences revealed several clades differentiated according to the host. Some of these fungi were previously repor...

  4. Medication prescribing errors and associated factors at the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke, Abebe; Chanie, Tesfahun; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients. Objective To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to Marc...

  5. The Evolution of the Internet in Ethiopia and Rwanda: Towards a “Developmental” Model?

    OpenAIRE

    Gagliardone, Iginio; Golooba-Mutebi, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    The Internet in Africa has become an increasingly contested space, where competing ideas of development and society battle for hegemony. By comparing the evolution of the Internet in Ethiopia and Rwanda, we question whether policies and projects emerging from two of Africa’s fastest growing, but also most tightly controlled countries, can be understood as part of a relatively cohesive model of the ‘developmental’ Internet, which challenges mainstream conceptions. Our answer is a qualified yes...

  6. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in Ethiopia: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tolla, Mieraf Taddesse; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Memirie, Solomon Tessema; Abdisa, Senbeta Guteta; Ababulgu, Awel; Jerene, Degu; Bertram, Melanie; Strand, Kirsten; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne

    2016-01-01

    Background: The coverage of prevention and treatment strategies for ischemic heart disease and stroke is very low in Ethiopia. In view of Ethiopia’s meager healthcare budget, it is important to identify the most cost-effective interventions for further scale-up. This paper’s objective is to assess cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stroke in an Ethiopian setting. Methods: Fifteen single interventions and sixteen intervention packages w...

  7. Dynamics and Drivers of Consumption and Multidimensional Poverty: Evidence from Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Brück, Tilman; Workneh Kebede, Sindu

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to explore poverty measures, its dynamics and determinants using Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) and consumption poverty. Our results show that the two measures assign similar poverty status to about 52 percent of households and that both approaches confirm poverty is mainly transient in rural Ethiopia. However, we find that the trend in adjusted head count poverty is different when using these two poverty measures. In terms of determinants of poverty dynamics, we find th...

  8. Prey of Peri-urban Spotted Hyena (Crocuta crocuta) in Southeastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gidey Yirga; Hans Bauer

    2010-01-01

    In Tigray, regional state of Ethiopia, spotted hyenas are sources of conflict with livestock-owning people. The present study was conducted in southeastern Tigray to investigate diet and economic impact of hyena predation on livestock. To obtain information about the actual diet of hyenas, hyena droppings were collected in the field. A total of 180 hyena droppings were collected, washed, hairs extracted and were then compared with a prey species hair reference collection. Economic impact of l...

  9. Assessment of antiretroviral treatment (ART) care service provision in Tigray Region health centers, North Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tessema, Shewaye Belay; Adane, Mesafint Molla

    2015-01-01

    Background Client satisfaction is a vital component and main concern intertwined with strategic decisions in service provisions. To improve efficiency of services, eliciting the opinion of users about the available services and identifying factors associated with dissatisfaction is very critical. Thus, the main objective of this study was to assess the perceived levels of clients’ satisfaction with health services at ART clinic level in health centres of Tigray Region in Ethiopia. Methods Cro...

  10. Ethiopia: Social dynamics of abandonment of harmful practices. Experiences in four locations

    OpenAIRE

    Haile Gabriel Dagne

    2009-01-01

    Special Series on Social Norms and Harmful Practices Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) is still a widespread practice in Ethiopia, although important declines in prevalence rates can be observed in some areas of the country. Attitudes towards the practice have drastically changed, evidenced by the fact that overall support for FGM/C has declined and younger mothers are less likely than older mothers to have their daughters cut. This paper provides an analysis of the social dynamics of...

  11. Antenatal care strengthening for improved quality of care in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Negussie, Dereje; GebreMariam, Abebe;

    2015-01-01

    and assess the implementation process and effectiveness on quality of ANC in Jimma, Ethiopia. METHODS: The intervention comprised trainings, supervisions, equipment, development of health education material, and adaption of guidelines. It was implemented at public facilities and control sites were included...... of intervention on various outcomes was significantly modified by maternal education. CONCLUSION: The quality of care can be improved in some important aspects with limited resources. Moreover, the study provides strategic perspectives on how to facilitate improved quality of ANC....

  12. Humanitarian mission improves health conditions of schoolchildren in Ethiopia. The case of Adwa

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrara, P.; Romano, V.; F. del Bufalo; Bottaro, G.; O. Caporale; V. Del Volgo; F. Vena; Pecoraro, R; M. Malamisura; M.C. De Angelis; Fasano, A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to compare health conditions of schoolchildren receiving aids from the mission Kidane Mehret Integrated Project (KMIP) in the city of Adwa, Ethiopia, with the ones of the general population. Methods: From September, 2008, to November, 2008, 400 children were randomly selected in the school inside KMIP and in the one of Adi Abetu. In phase 1, a questionnaire was distributed to children’s families. In phase 2, children underwent physical examination. Re...

  13. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women’s malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Delbiso, Tefera Darge; Rodriguez-Llanes, Jose Manuel; Altare, Chiara; Masquelier, Bruno; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Women’s malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women’s nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women’s nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health.Objective: To investigate the impact of living close to borders ...

  14. FINANCIAL AND RISK ANALYSIS OF MAIZE TECHNOLOGY IN ETHIOPIA, BASED ON CERES-MAIZE MODEL RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, Eric W.; Howard, Julie A.; Kelly, Valerie A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a financial and risk analysis of improved versus traditional maize production technology in Ethiopia, based on yields simulated with the CERES-Maize crop growth model (Schulthess and Ward, 2000). The purpose is to analyze the potential performance of the SG2000/Ministry of Agriculture program technology under less favorable meteorological conditions (rainfall level and distribution), and in areas with lower agroecological potential than those covered by the SG2000/MOA prog...

  15. Export Barriers and its Impact on Export Competitiveness of Leather Footwear Manufacturing Firms in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gebrewahid, Gebreyohannes Gebreslassie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: the purpose of this research was to identify the export barriers that affect the export competitiveness of the Ethiopian leather footwear-manufacturing firms, with a special emphasis on the SMEs. SMEs occupy a prominent position in the development agenda of many developing countries like Ethiopia. Hence, this study investigated the export barriers of SMEs in ELFMFs. Research Methodology: A survey of 15 manufacturing firms was conducted in Ethiopian, Addis Ababa. Out of 100 sampled...

  16. Prevalence and predictors of sexual violence among commercial sex workers in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Yohannes, Gebregizabeher; Damte, Ashenafi; Fantahun, Atsede; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Tsegay, Resom; Goldberger, Adina; Yebyo, Henock

    2015-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence is a natural outgrowth of the stigma and discrimination experienced by commercial sex workers (CSWs) across the globe. In light of this, the current study aimed to describe the prevalence and character of sexual violence, as well as any risk factors for violence, experienced by CSWs in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle City in April 2013. 250 CSWs were selected for participation using simple random sampli...

  17. Seeking Health Information In Rural Context: Exploring Sources of Maternal Health Information in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsehay, Ashenafi Berihun

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, the levels of maternal mortality and morbidity is among the highest in the world. However, many of these deaths and injuries could be prevented if they are properly communicated with interventions that are currently available. The motivation for researching in this area comes from an interest in contributing to further understanding of the convenient sources of maternity information that promotes the health needs of the community. This study is relevant in t...

  18. Rural livestock asset portfolio in northern Ethiopia: A microeconomic analysis of choice and accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tegebu, Fredu Nega; Mathijs, Erik; Deckers, Jozef A.; Tollens, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Livestock of different species fulfill different functions. Depending on their livelihood strategies, households differ in their choice of type of animal to keep and accumulation of the chosen animal overtime. This paper investigates the dynamic behavior of rural households’ livestock holding to identify determinants of choice of type of animal households’ keep and accumulation of the chosen animals using a panel data of 385 rural households in a mixed farming system in northern Ethiopia. Dyn...

  19. EVALUATION OF FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE OF BANKING ENTERPRISES; THE CASE OF CONSTRUCTION AND BUSINESS BANK OF ETHIOPIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene Mamo Bekana (MBA); Asres Abitie (MBA)

    2012-01-01

    This study is proposed to evaluated the financial performance of Construction and Business Bank (CBB) of Ethiopia. The study emphasized on financial performance measurement ratios such as asset utilization/efficiency ratios, deposit mobilization, loan performance, liquidity ratio, leverage/financial efficiency ratios, profitability ratios, solvency ratios and coverage ratios to evaluate the bank’s financial performance. For this study, the researchers dominantly relied on secondary data; eigh...

  20. Energy security, uncertainty, and energy resource use option in Ethiopia: A sector modelling approach

    OpenAIRE

    Guta, Dawit Diriba; Börner, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia's energy sector faces critical challenges to meeting steadily increasing demand given limited infrastructure, heavy reliance on hydroelectric power, and underdevelopment of alternative energy resources. The main aim of this paper is to investigate an optimal least cost investment decisions for integrated energy source diversification. We seek to contribute to the relevant literature by paying particular attention to the role of public policy for promoting renewable energy investment ...

  1. Socioeconomic factors affecting tree species abundance and composition in Gondar, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Maru Shete

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated if there is variation in the frequency of tree species maintained at household level, and the socioeconomic factors that can explain its variation. Data were collected from 156 randomly selected households in 2009 in Ambober village of Gondar district, Ethiopia. Farm visits and recording, observation, group discussion and interview were the methods used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using mean, independent samples test, one way analysis of variance, and multip...

  2. Species composition and diversity of small Afromontane forest fragments in northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Aerts, Raf; Van Overtveld, Koenraad; Haile, M.; Hermy, Martin; Deckers, Jozef A.; Muys, Bart

    2006-01-01

    In the highlands of northern Ethiopia, remnants of the original Afromontane forest vegetation are largely restricted to church yards and other sacred groves in a matrix of cropland and semiarid degraded savanna. To assess the potential for natural forest regeneration, species composition and diversity of all forest fragments (10) in a study area of 13,000 ha were analyzed in relation to environmental and soil variables. Using a random design and a density of approximately one plot per two h...

  3. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...

  4. Costs of Implementing Collective Action and Capacity Building Among Pastoralists in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Coppock, David Layne; Tezera, Seyoum; Desta, Solomon

    2009-01-01

    Since 2000, the PARIMA project has implemented risk-management activities among semi-settled pastoralists in southern Ethiopia. The goal has been to improve human welfare via collective action and capacity building. Outcomes include progress in income generation, asset conservation, and livelihood diversification. Fifty-nine collective-action groups were created. Dominated by women, they included over 2,000 founding members and groups have recently merged to form 37 cooperatives, consistent w...

  5. Anxiety and associated factors among prisoners in North West of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Kisi, Teresa; Yigzaw, Nigussie; Azale, Telake

    2016-01-01

    Background Mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general public. However, little attention is given to mental health service in low and middle income countries in general. The problem is more so for prisoners where the overall health care is poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and the associated factors among prisoners of North West Amhara, Ethiopia. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was employed from F...

  6. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopiaAnger expression, violent behavior, and symptoms of depression among male college students in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Berhane Yemane; Gelaye Bizu; Terasaki Dale J; Williams Michelle A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Depression is an important global public health problem. Given the scarcity of studies involving African youths, this study was conducted to evaluate the associations of anger expression and violent behavior with symptoms of depression among male college students. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and lifestyle characteristics and violent behavior among 1,176 college students in Awassa, Ethiopia in June, 2006. Th...

  7. Disentangling HIV and AIDS Stigma in Ethiopia,Tanzania and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Nyblade, Laura; Pande, Rohini; Mathur, Sanyukta; MacQuarrie, Kerry; Kidd, Ross; Banteyerga, Hailom; Kidanu, Aklilu; Kilonzo, Gad; Mbwambo, Jessie; Bond, Virginia

    2003-01-01

    The International Center for Research on Women (ICRW), in partnership with organizations in Ethiopia, Tanzania, and Zambia, led a study of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in these three countries. This project, conducted from April 2001 to September 2003, unraveled the complexities around stigma by investigating the causes, manifestations and consequences of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in sub-Saharan Africa. It then uses this analysis to suggest program inter...

  8. Syphilis among people with HIV infection in southern Ethiopia: sero-prevalence and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Shimelis, Techalew; Lemma, Kinfe; Ambachew, Henock; Tadesse, Endale

    2015-01-01

    Background Syphilis facilitates both HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) transmission and acquisition, reflecting the complex interplay between the two infections. Scarce information exists regarding syphilis epidemiology in Ethiopian context. Thus, this study determined the sero-prevalence of syphilis and associated risk factors in people with HIV infection. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa Referral Hospital, southern Ethiopia from January to May, 2014. A consecutive 9...

  9. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulat Yimer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  10. Monitoring performance or performing monitoring? The case of rural water access in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Welle, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Performance monitoring is commonly portrayed as providing a uniquely objective, rational foundation for decisions, based on a single-stranded feedback loop between setting objectives and measuring results. In this thesis, I investigate whether this portrayal is accurate. I analyse whether the linear model underlying performance monitoring provides an adequate basis for understanding decisions about access to rural water supply in Ethiopia. My examination focuses primarily on the politics of k...

  11. Infrastructure and cluster development: A case study of handloom weavers in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayele, Gezahegn; Chamberlin, Jordan; Moorman, Lisa; Wamisho, Kassu; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2009-01-01

    Rural non-farm development plays a key role in generating employment in many developing countries. Clustering is an important industrial organization in the rural non-farm sector. Based on primary surveys of both urban and rural handloom weaver clusters in Ethiopia which took place in May/June 2008, one of the most important rural nonfarm sectors, this paper examines the mechanism and performance of clustering. The clustering way of handloom production is observed even in remote rural areas, ...

  12. Synopsis: Agricultural production and children’s diets: Evidence from rural Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvonen, Kalle; Hoddinott, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between pre-school children’s food consumption and household agricultural production. Using a large household survey from rural Ethiopia, we find that increasing household production diversity leads to considerable improvements in children’s diet diversity. However, we also document how this non-separability of consumption and production does not hold for households that have access to food markets. These findings imply that nutrition-sensitive agricultural inter...

  13. Synopsis: An analysis of trends and determinants of child undernutrition in Ethiopia, 2000-2011:

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, Derek D.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses two rounds of the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS) to statistically analyze patterns and trends in undernutrition (child growth) in Ethiopia over the period 2000 to 2011. In 2000, over half of Ethiopian preschool children were stunted and almost a third were severely stunted. However, progress against child undernutrition over the study period was solid, with stunting prevalence reduced by 1.4 percentage points per year, although progress has slowed since to 1.0 poin...

  14. Synopsis: Social networks and factor markets: Panel data evidence from Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Abay, Kibrom A.; Kahsay, Goytom A.; Berhane, Guush

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of well-established factor markets, the roles of indigenous institutions and social networks as mobilizing factors for agricultural production can be substantial. We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. Using detailed longitudinal household survey data and employing a difference-in-differences approach, we find that iddir membership improves households’ access to fact...

  15. Long-term Bioethanol Shift and Transport Fuel Substitution in Ethiopia : Status, Prospects, and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Yacob Gebreyohannes Hiben, Yacob

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels with a sustainable and environmentally sound improvements, the government of Ethiopia has recognized the need to promote biofuels development so as to support the green economy strategy of the country designed to bring a breakthrough for socio-economic and environmental transformations which are becoming the central excellence for current and future prosperity of the country towards the quality of life and global competitiveness. Unde...

  16. Restoration and sustainable management of frankincense forests in Ethiopia: a bio-economic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gelaye, Mesfin Tilahun

    2012-01-01

    Boswellia papyrifera (Del.) Hochst is a multipurpose deciduous tree species with high economic, cultural and environmental values. Frankincense from this tree species is a traded commodity used in the pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and chemical industries, for clerical services in different religions, and as a fragrance during coffee ceremonies in Ethiopia. However, the resource has been declining due to unsustainable management, which includes shifting to crop cultivation, free grazing and i...

  17. Characterization of seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) storage, pre-planting treatment and marketing systems in Ethiopia: The case of West-Arsi Zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayalew, T.; Struik, P.C.; Hirpa, A.

    2014-01-01

    Potato is a high potential food security crop in Ethiopia due to its high yield potential and nutritional quality tuber, short growing period, and wider adaptability. Arsi administrative province is one of the potential potato growing areas in southern parts of Ethiopia. The potato is grown there as

  18. Identification of drug susceptibility pattern and mycobacterial species in sputum smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients with and without HIV co-infection in north west Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekonen, Mekdem; Abate, Ebba; Aseffa, Abraham;

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is among the high-burden countries of tuberculosis (TB) in the world Since mycobacterial culture and susceptibility testing are not routinely performed in Ethiopia, recent data on susceptibility patterns and the mycobacterial species cultured from sputum smear positive patients are limited....

  19. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.

  1. Multisector Nutrition Program Governance and Implementation in Ethiopia: Opportunities and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Eileen; Tessema, Masresha; Hailu, Tesfaye; Zerfu, Dilnesaw; Belay, Adamu; Ayana, Girmay; Kuche, Desalegn; Moges, Tibebu; Assefa, Tsehai; Samuel, Aregash; Kassaye, Tarik; Fekadu, Habtamu; Van Wassenhove, Joan

    2015-12-01

    Governments globally are stressing both direct nutrition interventions combined with nutrition sensitive policies and programs to combat malnutrition. Governance at all levels has been identified as a critical element in ensuring success of national nutrition plans. For example, the most recent National Nutrition Program (NNP) in Ethiopia discusses the essentiality of governance and coordination at all levels. The research uses a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with key informant. The research discussed in this article focuses on governance structures from national to regional to district level in Ethiopia with an emphasis on translation of a strategy and implementation of the NNP. This article concentrates primarily on results from the national and regional levels. Data at both the national and regional levels indicate that there is general agreement on the nature of the nutrition problems in Ethiopia. At all levels of government, under nutrition, food insecurity, and micronutrient deficiencies were listed as the main nutrition problems. The challenges in governance and implementation identified at both the national and regional levels, however, varied. The implementation of the 2013 NNP was in its early stages at the time of this research. While there was palpable energy around the launch of the NNP, respondents indicated issues related to leadership, coordination, collaboration, advocacy, and budget would be challenges in sustaining momentum. PMID:26531747

  2. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  3. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  4. Long-term, deep-mantle support of the Ethiopia-Yemen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembroni, Andrea; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Molin, Paola; Abebe, Bekele

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is a key site to investigate the interactions between mantle dynamics and surface processes because of the presence of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), Cenozoic continental flood basalt volcanism, and plateau uplift. The role of mantle plumes in causing Ethiopia's flood basalts and tectonics has been commonly accepted. However, the location and number of plumes and their impact on surface uplift are still uncertain. Here, we present new constraints on the geological and topographic evolution of the Ethiopian Plateau (NW Ethiopia) prior to and after the emplacement of the large flood basalts (40-20 Ma). Using geological information and topographic reconstructions, we show that the large topographic dome that we see today is a long-term feature, already present prior the emplacement of the flood basalts. We also infer that large-scale doming operated even after the emplacement of the flood basalts. Using a comparison with the present-day topographic setting we show that an important component of the topography has been and is presently represented by a residual, non-isostatic, dynamic contribution. We conclude that the growth of the Ethiopian Plateau is a long-term, probably still active, dynamically supported process. Our arguments provide constraints on the processes leading to the formation of one of the largest igneous plateaus on Earth.

  5. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D. Dye

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants’ narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years. Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed.

  6. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251

  7. The clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis in Dabat, Ethiopia: a population based cross sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takele Tadesse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia where tuberculosis epidemic remains high, studies that describe hotspots of the disease are unavailable. This study tried to detect the spatial distribution and clustering of smear-positive tuberculosis cases in Dabat, Ethiopia. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based cross sectional study conducted in the Dabat Health and Demographic Surveillance System site from October 2010 to September 2011 identified smear-positive tuberculosis cases. Trained field workers collected demographic and location data from each study participant through house-to-house visits. A spatial scan statistic was used to identify purely spatial and space-time clusters of tuberculosis among permanent residents. Two significant (p<0.001 spatial and space-time clusters were identified in the study district. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis is concentrated in certain geographic locations in Dabat, Ethiopia. This kind of clustering can be common in the country, so the National Tuberculosis Control Program can be more effective by identifying such clusters and targeting interventions.

  8. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet MEKURIAW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts towards conserving and improving the breeds. Based on the review, there are persuasive evidences on the critical situation of the selected indigenous cattle breeds. The facts and figures of the past and current situation of the selected indigenous cattle of Ethiopia showed that the situation of these breeds is very critical. This situation therefore demands the need to devise strategies to conserve and improve the cattle breeds based on the challenges that threatens them. Use of new biological and information technologies is also imperative to facilitate the genetic restoration process. Besides, use of new biological and information technologies which can enhance the conservation and improvement program are crucial. Various ongoing development interventions like Artificial Insemination and introduction of genotypes into new environments that are exacerbating threat of the breeds should totally be avoided by revising and designing sound approaches for cattle Conservation and improvement programs. Strict regulations and by laws should also be in place for illegal movement of breeding cattle to the neighboring countries.

  9. Drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mengistu Kebede, Dereje Kebebe Borga, Eshetu Mulisa Bobasa Department of Pharmacy, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Sustaining the availability and rational use of safe and effective drugs is a major problem in developing countries. Irrational drug use affects quality of health care more than accessibility of drugs. Objective: To assess drug utilization in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in selected health facilities of South West Shoa Zone from January 21–28, 2012 by using structured questionnaires. Results: Of 50 prescribers and 30 dispensers, 58% and 83.3% were males, respectively. The result showed that majority of prescribers agreed on availability of essential drugs (72% and had access to up-to-date drug information (76%. However, 43.3% of dispensers didn't get access to up-to-date drug information. 86% and 88% of prescribers note cost of drugs and stick to standard treatment guidelines of Ethiopia during prescription, respectively. All drug dispensers check the name of the drug (100%, age of the patient (90%, the dosage form of drug (96.7%, the route of administration (90%, the duration of therapy (86.7%, and frequency of administration (86.7% for prescription papers. Conclusion: In general, drug utilization at the study sites was found to be good, although there are major deviations from the concept of rational drug use. Keywords: drug utilizations, rational drug use, health facilities

  10. Magnitude and correlates of intimate partner violence against women and its outcome in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. RESULT: In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%-67.9%. The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%-53.4%] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8-44.5]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%-44.8%] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. CONCLUSION: Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time.

  11. Prevalence and Genetic Characterization of Cryptosporidium Species in Dairy Calves in Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegayehu, Teklu; Karim, Robiul; Anberber, Manyazewal; Adamu, Haileeyesus; Erko, Berhanu; Zhang, Longxian; Tilahun, Getachew

    2016-01-01

    The burden of cryptosporidiosis due to Cryptosporidium parvum is well documented in HIV-positive patients in Ethiopia. However, the role of animals in zoonotic transmission of the disease is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and genotypes of Cryptosporidium species in dairy calves; to assess the role of cattle in zoonotic transmission in central Ethiopia. A total of 449 fecal samples were collected and screened using modified Ziehl-Neelson staining method and PCR targeting the small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium was 9.4% (42/449) and 15.8% (71/449) as detected by microscopy and nested PCR, respectively. The prevalence of infection varied significantly across the study areas with the higher prevalence being observed in Chancho 25.4% (30/118). Crossbred calves had significantly higher prevalence of Cryptosporidium than indigenous zebu. Genotyping results revealed the presence of C. andersoni (76.1%), C. bovis (19.7%) and C. ryanae (4.2%). The occurrence of these Cryptosporidium species appeared to be age-related. C. andersoni constituted 92.1% of the Cryptosporidium infection in calves older than 3 months. Sequence analysis also showed the existence of intra-species variation at SSU rRNA gene. Findings of the current study indicate that cattle may not be an important source of zoonotic cryptosporidiosis in central Ethiopia. Further molecular studies are needed to support this observation from other part of the country. PMID:27135243

  12. Experience of Initial Symptoms of Breast Cancer and Triggers for Action in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. This study assessed the initial experiences, symptoms, and actions of patients in Ethiopia ultimately determined to have breast cancer. Methods. 69 participants in a comprehensive breast cancer treatment program at the main national cancer hospital in Ethiopia were interviewed using mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches. Participants narratives of their initial cancer experience were coded and analyzed for themes around their symptoms, time to seeking advice, triggers for action, and contextual factors. The assessment was approved by the Addis Ababa University Faculty of Medicine Institutional Review Board. Results. Nearly all women first noticed lumps, though few sought medical advice within the first year (average time to action: 1.5 years). Eventually, changes in their symptoms motivated most participants to seek advice. Most participants did not think the initial lump would be cancer, nor was a lump of any particular concern until symptoms changed. Conclusion. Given the frequency with which lumps are the first symptom noticed, raising awareness among participants that lumps should trigger medical consultation could contribute significantly to more rapid medical advice-seeking among women in Ethiopia. Primary care sites should be trained and equipped to offer evaluation of lumps so that women can be referred appropriately for assessment if needed

  13. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  14. "We prefer greeting rather than eating:" life in an elder care center in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical.

  15. Reflections on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw

    2014-10-01

    The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia.

  16. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

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    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  17. PLusiinae (Excl. Abrostolini) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) of Ethiopia. A faunistical survey with biogeographical comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Ronkay, Laszlo; Behounek, Gottfried; Müller, Günter C

    2015-01-01

    The extensive survey in different regions of Ethiopia between 1987-1990 and 2005-2011 resulted in the recognition of 39 species of Plusiinae. The majority of the species belong to two large genera, Ctenoplusia (15 species) and Thysanoplusia (16 species). A new synonymy is established, Plusiotricha gorilla (Holland, 1894) is proved to represent the female sex of Plusiotricha livida Holland, 1894 (syn. nov.). The present paper does not include the records of the species of the tribe Abrostolini. Eighteen species are recorded for the first time from Ethiopia. Twenty species of the identified taxa are known only from tropical and subtropical Africa, while the areas of ten species extend from Africa to the Arabian Peninsula or even further to the north. Eight species are widespread not only in Africa but also in the Palearctic and Oriental regions. One species-Autographa gamma, a well-known Palearctic pest of different vegetables-is found in the Afrotropical region only in Ethiopia, at medium and high mountain elevations but not in the tropical lowlands. PMID:26623895

  18. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

  19. Assessment of Breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia using different data mining techniques

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    Abebe Alemu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is one of the critical issues in Ethiopia because researches show that 24.0% - 27.0% of infant death in Ethiopia is due to poor breastfeeding practices. UNICEF has been reported that a good promotion of breastfeeding practices is a most important strategic plan to reduce child mortality in developed and developing countries. Hence, it is important to identifying the determinate factors of poor breastfeeding practice, especially poor countries like Ethiopia. Poor Breastfeeding is a reasonable well-defined problem caused by many factors that are related to motherhood, environment, community and child. Therefore, it is very important to predict the determinate factors of poor breastfeeding practice in various communities in the country in order to come up with feasible intervention strategies to minimize the problem. This research intends to provide a survey of current techniques of knowledge discovery in large databases using data mining techniques which will be useful for medical practitioner to improve the breast feeding practices. The assessment was carried out with cross validation and percentage split of different data mining algorithms such as decision tree, Naive Bayes , Artificial Neural Network and Bagging.

  20. Serological survey of caprine toxoplasmosis in Ethiopia: prevalence and risk factors

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    Teshale S.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors of toxoplasmosis in goats in Southern and central Ethiopia between October 2005 and May 2006. A total of 641 goats sera were tested using Modified Direct Agglutination Test (MAT, of which 480 (74.8% CI: 71.3, 78.2 were found to be positive. The highest prevalence was recorded in South Omo zone (82% while the lowest was observed in East Shewa zone (62.2%. The study revealed that goats raised in southern Ethiopia are at a greater risk of acquiring T. gondii infection (OR = 2.55, CI: 1.726, 3.776; p = 0.000 than those which are raised in central Ethiopia. The prevalence of anti T. gondii antibody was significantly higher in older goats than in kids (OR = 2.33, CI: 1.490, 3.655; p < 0.0002 and in females than in males (p < 0.0007; OR = 0.68, CI: 0.542, 0.849. No significant difference was observed among goats kept under various husbandry practices. The high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Ethiopian goats suggests a high risk of human infections. Further epidemiological investigation, isolation and genotyping of T. gondii are planed.

  1. Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia

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    Christine Hackenesch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the most important countries in Chinese as well as European cooperation with Africa. Yet, Chinese and European policies toward Ethiopia differ greatly. The EU mainly engages Ethiopia as an aid recipient, whereas China has developed a comprehensive political and economic partnership with the East African state. China has thereby become an alternative partner to the Ethiopian government, a development that both sheds light on the gap between European rhetoric and policy practice and puts pressure on the EU to make more efforts to reform its development policy system.

  2. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

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    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  3. Food insecurity, mental health and quality of life among people living with HIV commencing antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income settings show that both food insecurity and common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with lower quality of life among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is limited research among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we tested...... the hypothesis that food insecurity and CMDs would be associated with poorer quality of life of PLHIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 348 PLHIV who were initiating antiretroviral therapy recruited from two primary care centers and a tertiary Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Food...... insecurity, CMD, and quality of life were measured using instruments adapted and validated in Ethiopia (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, Kessler-6, and WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-ETH, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with quality of life after adjusting...

  4. A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

  5. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO{sub 2} emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050

  6. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO2 emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050 from 1

  7. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

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    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  8. Sediment storage dam: A structural gully erosion control and sediment trapping measure, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy

  9. Medication adherence in diabetes mellitus and self management practices among type-2 diabetics in Ethiopia

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    Nasir T Wabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complication are becoming more prevalent in Ethiopia. Evidence abound that the most important predictor of reduction of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes complication is the level of glycemic control achieved. Aims : The aim is to assess adherence to anti diabetic drug therapy and self management practice among type-2 diabetic patient in Ethiopia. Patients and Method : The study consists of two phases. A cross-sectional review of randomly selected 384 case notes of type-2 diabetic patient that attend diabetes mellitus clinic over 3 month and cross-sectional interview, with pre tested adherence and self management and monitoring tool questioner of 347 consecutive patients that attend in Jimma university specialized hospital diabetic clinic. Result: Oral hypoglycemic agent were prescribed for 351(91.4 of the patient while insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent was prescribed in 33(8.6%. About 312 (88.9% patients on oral hypoglycemic agent were on mono therapy, the most frequently prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent was glibenclamide 232(74.3% and metformine 80(25.7%. Only 41.8% of the patient had adequate glycemic control. The main external factors for non adherence were lack of finance (37.1% followed by perceived side effect of drug 29.2%. Only 6.5% patient who missed their medications disclosed to physician during consultation. The knowledge and practice of critical component of diabetes self management behavior were generally low among the patient studied. Conclusion: Majority of the patient with type 2 diabetes in Ethiopia are managed by OHA monotherapy mainly glybenclamide and metformine. While the current prescribing strategy do not achieve glycemic control on majority of the patient. This is due to poor adherence with the prescribed drug regimen and poor knowledge and practice of successful self management.

  10. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia. PMID:27424025

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human noroviruses and sapoviruses in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Njahira, Moses N; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, very limited studies have been done on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic viruses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) from acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n = 213) in five different health centers in Addis Ababa during June-September 2013. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the sequences of the PCR products. Of the clinical samples, 25.3 % and 4.2 % were positive for NoV and SaV RNA, respectively. Among the norovirus positives, 22 were sequenced further, and diverse norovirus strains were identified: GI (n = 4), GII (n = 17) and GIV (n = 1). Most strains were GII (n = 17/22: 77.2 %), which were further divided into three different genotypes (GII.4, GII.12/GII.g recombinant-like and GII.17), with GII.17 being the dominant (7/17) strain detected. GI noroviruses, in particular GI.4 (n = 1), GI.5 (n = 2) and GI.8 (n = 1), were also detected and characterized. The GIV strain detected is the first from East Africa. The sapoviruses sequenced were also the first reported from Ethiopia. Collectively, this study showed the high burden and diversity of noroviruses and circulation of sapoviruses in diarrheic patients in Ethiopia. Continued surveillance to assess their association with diarrhea is needed to define their epidemiology, disease burden, and impact on public health. PMID:27193022

  12. Incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals and people's awareness in North Gondar Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Wudu Temesgen Jemberu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rabies is a zoonotic disease that has been prevalent in humans and animals for centuries in Ethiopia and it is often dealt with using traditional practices. There is lack of accurate quantitative information on rabies both in humans and animals in Ethiopia and little is known about the awareness of the people about the disease. In this study, we estimated the incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals, and assessed the people's awareness about the disease in North Gondar zone, Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The incidence of rabies in humans and domestic animals was prospectively followed up for one year period based on clinical observation. A questionnaire was also administered to 120 randomly selected dog owners and 5 traditional healers to assess the knowledge and practices about the disease. We found an annual estimated rabies incidence of 2.33 cases per 100,000 in humans, 412.83 cases per 100,000 in dogs, 19.89 cases per 100,000 in cattle, 67.68 cases per 100,000 in equines, and 14.45 cases per 100,000 in goats. Dog bite was the source of infection for all fatal rabies cases. Ninety eight percent of the questionnaire respondents were familiar with rabies and mentioned dog bite as a means of transmission. But discordant with current scientific knowledge, 84% and 32% of the respondents respectively mentioned any type of contact (irrespective of skin condition with saliva, and inhalation as a means of transmission of rabies. Eighty four percent of the respondents relied on traditional healers for management of rabies. CONCLUSIONS: The study shows high canine rabies burden, and lack of sufficient awareness about the disease and high reliance on traditional treatment that interfere with timely post exposure management. Vaccination of dogs, proper post exposure management, and increasing the awareness of the community are suggested to reduce the disease burden.

  13. Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia

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    Megabiaw Berihun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 622 school girls from two secondary schools. A pretested questionnaire prepared in Amharic was used to gather data. Selected girls cooperated in answering the questionnaire in their classrooms under the supervision of the research team. Only 612 of the adolescent females were included in the final analysis, of which 305 were from Koladiba High School and 307 from Dabat. Results The age of the study subjects ranges between 14 and 19 with a mean (standard deviation of 16.9 ± 1 years. About 92.2% had attained menarche by the time the survey was conducted. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median (CI age at menarche of 14.8 (13.9-15.3 years. The average age at menarche by recall method was 15.8 ± 1 years. The mean age at menarche was 0.3 years younger for urban females compared with rural ones (p Conclusion In this study age of menarche was found to be delayed which is even higher than the findings indicated similar studies conducted in Ethiopia and other African countries. A significant number of students complain of abnormal menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual symptoms which call for appropriate counselling and management.

  14. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

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    Berhane A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience

  15. Spatial distribution of podoconiosis in relation to environmental factors in Ethiopia: a historical review.

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    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available An up-to-date and reliable map of podoconiosis is needed to design geographically targeted and cost-effective intervention in Ethiopia. Identifying the ecological correlates of the distribution of podoconiosis is the first step for distribution and risk maps. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological correlates of podoconiosis using historical and contemporary survey data.Data on the observed prevalence of podoconiosis were abstracted from published and unpublished literature into a standardized database, according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 10 studies conducted between 1969 and 2012 were included, and data were available for 401,674 individuals older than 15 years of age from 229 locations. A range of high resolution environmental factors were investigated to determine their association with podoconiosis prevalence, using logistic regression.The prevalence of podoconiosis in Ethiopia was estimated at 3.4% (95% CI 3.3%-3.4% with marked regional variation. We identified significant associations between mean annual Land Surface Temperature (LST, mean annual precipitation, topography of the land and fine soil texture and high prevalence of podoconiosis. The derived maps indicate both widespread occurrence of podoconiosis and a marked variability in prevalence of podoconiosis, with prevalence typically highest at altitudes >1500 m above sea level (masl, with >1500 mm annual rainfall and mean annual LST of 19-21°C. No (or very little podoconiosis occurred at altitudes 24°C.Podoconiosis remains a public health problem in Ethiopia over considerable areas of the country, but exhibits marked geographical variation associated in part with key environmental factors. This is work in progress and the results presented here will be refined in future work.

  16. Barbers' knowledge and practice about occupational biological hazards was low in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia

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    Beyen Teresa Kisi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers’ profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. Results Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18% had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3% were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. Conclusion Barbers’ practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is

  17. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  18. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

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    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  19. The effect of dams and seasons on malaria incidence and anopheles abundance in Ethiopia

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    2013-01-01

    Background Reservoirs created by damming rivers are often believed to increase malaria incidence risk and/or stretch the period of malaria transmission. In this paper, we report the effects of a mega hydropower dam on P. falciparum malaria incidence in Ethiopia. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted over a period of 2 years to determine Plasmodium falciparum malaria incidence among children less than 10 years of age living near a mega hydropower dam in Ethiopia. A total of 2080 children from 16 villages located at different distances from a hydropower dam were followed up from 2008 to 2010 using active detection of cases based on weekly house to house visits. Of this cohort of children, 951 (48.09%) were females and 1059 (51.91%) were males, with a median age of 5 years. Malaria vectors were simultaneously surveyed in all the 16 study villages. Frailty models were used to explore associations between time-to-malaria and potential risk factors, whereas, mixed-effects Poisson regression models were used to assess the effect of different covariates on anopheline abundance. Results Overall, 548 (26.86%) children experienced at least one clinical malaria episode during the follow up period with mean incidence rate of 14.26 cases/1000 child-months at risk (95% CI: 12.16 - 16.36). P. falciparum malaria incidence showed no statistically significant association with distance from the dam reservoir (p = 0.32). However, P. falciparum incidence varied significantly between seasons (p < 0.01). The malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, was however more abundant in villages nearer to the dam reservoir. Conclusions P. falciparum malaria incidence dynamics were more influenced by seasonal drivers than by the dam reservoir itself. The findings could have implications in timing optimal malaria control interventions and in developing an early warning system in Ethiopia. PMID:23566411

  20. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

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    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.