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Sample records for woreda snnpr ethiopia

  1. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR. Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'. Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71% from natural vegetation and 27 (29% from home gardens. Forty-five (62% were used for humans, 15(21% for livestock and 13(18% for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2% were Shrubs, 28(34.5% herbs, 17 (20.9% trees and 1(1.2% climbers. The root (35.8% was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4% in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%. Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for

  2. Assessment of cattle marketing practices in Guradamole woreda, Bale zone of Oromia regional state, Ethiopia

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    Dejene Taye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess cattle marketing practice in the crop-livestock production system areas of the highland, mid-altitude and pastoralists in the lowlands of Guradamole Woreda of Bale zone of Ethiopia. That is conducted from July 2015 to 2015 March. Cattle marketing practice were assessed based on market monitoring and questionnaire survey in each altitude. A total of 100 farmers were selected randomly from 10 peasant associations which are selected from each altitude based on proportion of peasant association in each altitude. Market monitoring was done at two livestock marketing places of Rayitu town and Jibri, which is capital city of Guradamole Woreda. Cattle marketing varied considerably across the peasant associations and marketing places. Cattle supplied to markets include calves, heifers, bulls and oxen, dry and lactating cows. Who often supply cattle to marketing places are farmers and pastoralists from Guradamole Woreda and neighboring ethnic societies. Livestock market infrastructure and management are among the key constraints to the development and sustainable management of livestock markets. Long trekking distances to markets are a significant impediment to pastoralists’ ability to profitably sell their cattle. During drought periods, animals lose weight on the journey to market, which significantly lowers their value. In some cases, animals are too weak to embark on the homeward journey, forcing producers to sell at very low prices. Poor and uneven access to market information remains a major constraint for market actors and producers in particular. Observations at market sites point to an imbalance in the bargaining power of traders and producers. Traders collude and jointly determine prices ahead of market day and producers have very little or no ability to negotiate prices.

  3. Burden of podoconiosis in poor rural communities in Gulliso woreda, West Ethiopia.

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    Getahun Alemu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is an environmental lymphoedema affecting people living and working barefoot on irritant red clay soil. Podoconiosis is relatively well described in southern Ethiopia, but remains neglected in other parts of the Ethiopian highlands. This study aimed to assess the burden of podoconiosis in rural communities in western Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Gulliso woreda (district, west Ethiopia. A household survey in the 26 rural kebeles (villages of this district was conducted to identify podoconiosis patients and to measure disease prevalence. A more detailed study was done in six randomly selected kebeles to describe clinical features of the disease, patients' experiences of foot hygiene, and shoe wearing practice. 1,935 cases of podoconiosis were registered, giving a prevalence of 2.8%. The prevalence was higher in those aged 15-64 years (5.2% and in females than males (prevalence ratio 2.6∶1. 90.3% of patients were in the 15-64 year age group. In the detailed study, 335 cases were interviewed and their feet assessed. The majority of patients were farmers, uneducated, and poor. Two-third of patients developed the disease before the age of thirty. Almost all patients (97.0% had experienced adenolymphangitis (ALA - red, hot legs, swollen and painful groin at least once during the previous year. Patients experienced an average of 5.5 ALA episodes annually, each of average 4.4 days, thus 24 working days were lost annually. The incidence of ALA in podoconiosis patients was higher than that reported for filariasis in other countries. Shoe wearing was limited mainly due to financial problems. CONCLUSIONS: We have documented high podoconiosis prevalence, frequent adenolymphangitis and high disease-related morbidity in west Ethiopia. Interventions must be developed to prevent, treat and control podoconiosis, one of the core neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia.

  4. Health Extension Workers' and Mothers' Attitudes to Maternal Health Service Utilization and Acceptance in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region, Ethiopia

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    Jackson, Ruth; Tesfay, Fisaha Haile; Godefay, Hagos; Gebrehiwot, Tesfay Gebregzabher

    2016-01-01

    Background The maternal health system in Ethiopia links health posts in rural communities (kebeles) with district (woreda) health centres, and health centres with primary hospitals. At each health post two Health Extension Workers (HEWs) assist women with birth preparedness, complication readiness, and mobilize communities to facilitate timely referral to mid-level service providers. This study explored HEWs’ and mother’s attitudes to maternal health services in Adwa Woreda, Tigray Region. Methods In this qualitative study, we trained 16 HEWs to interview 45 women to gain a better understanding of the social context of maternal health related behaviours. Themes included barriers to health services; women’s social status and mobility; and women’s perceptions of skilled birth attendant’s care. All data were analyzed thematically. Findings There have been substantial efforts to improve maternal health and reduce maternal mortality in Adwa Woreda. Women identified barriers to healthcare including distance and lack of transportation due to geographical factors; the absence of many husbands due to off-woreda farming; traditional factors such as zwar (some pregnant women are afraid of meeting other pregnant women), and discouragement from mothers and mothers-in-law who delivered their children at home. Some women experienced disrespectful care at the hospital. Facilitators to skilled birth attendance included: identification of pregnant women through Women’s Development Groups (WDGs), and referral by ambulance to health facilities either before a woman’s Expected Due Date (EDD) or if labour started at home. Conclusion With the support of WDGs, HEWs have increased the rate of skilled birth attendance by calling ambulances to transfer women to health centres either before their EDD or when labour starts at home. These findings add to the growing body of evidence that health workers at the community level can work with women’s groups to improve maternal

  5. Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Rea Tschopp

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2% with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4% with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4% yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM. The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.

  6. Determinants of Anemia among Children Aged 6–59 Months Living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, Northern Ethiopia

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    Gebremedhin Gebreegziabiher

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia and determinant factors among children aged 6–59 months living in Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, eastern zone. Method. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted during February 2013 among 6 tabias of Kilte Awulaelo Woreda, northern Ethiopia. A total of 568 children were selected by systematic random sampling method. Anthropometric data and blood sample were collected. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors related to anemia. Result. The mean hemoglobin level was 11.48 g/dl and about 37.3% of children were anemic. Children who were aged 6–23 months [AOR = 1.89: 95% CI (1.3, 2.8], underweight [AOR = 2.05: 95% CI (1.3, 3.3], having MUAC less than 12 cm [AOR = 3.35: 95% CI (2.1, 5.3], and from households with annual income below 10,000 Ethiopian birr [AOR = 4.86: 95% CI (3.2, 7.3] were more likely to become anemic. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the children is found to be high. It was associated with annual household income, age, and nutritional status of the child. So, improving family income and increasing awareness of the mother/caregiver were important intervention.

  7. Factors associated with complete immunization coverage in children aged 12–23 months in Ambo Woreda, Central Ethiopia

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    Etana Belachew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12–23 months in Ambo woreda. Methods A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12–23 months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mother’s verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12–23 months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9, being born in the health facility (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4, mothers’ knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6 and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR = 4.3, 95% CI: 2

  8. Prevalence of Active Trachoma and Its Associated Factors among Rural and Urban Children in Dera Woreda, Northwest Ethiopia: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

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    Metadel Alemayehu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Trachoma is the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Once an epidemic in most parts of the world, it has largely now disappeared from developed countries. However, it continues to be endemic in many developing countries like Ethiopia. Even if several studies were conducted in different parts of Ethiopia, most of them did not show the independent predictors for rural and urban children separately. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of active trachoma in urban and rural children. Methods. Community based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in Dera woreda. Multistage sampling technique was used to select 671 children of one up to nine years of age. Data were collected by face to face interview and observation using a structured and pretested questionnaire. Binary Logistic Regression Model was fitted to consider adding independent predictors of outcome. Results. Out of 671 children, 20 (9.3% of urban and 85 (18.6% of rural children were positive for active trachoma. Having discharge on eye (AOR = 6.9, 95% CI: 1.79–27.89, presence of liquid waste around the main house (AOR = 5.6, 95% CI: 1.94–16.18, and living in households without latrine (AOR = 4.39, 95% CI: 1.39–13.89 were significantly associated with active trachoma of urban children. Rural children who had discharge on their eye (AOR = 5.86, 95% CI: 2.78–12.33, those who had unclean face (AOR = 4.68, 95% CI: 2.24–9.81, and those living in households with feces around their main houses (AOR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.04–3.62 were significantly associated with active trachoma. Conclusion. The result showed that the prevalence of active trachoma in urban areas of the district was below WHO threshold of 10% to determine trachoma as public health problem. However, in rural areas of the district it is far from elimination of trachoma as a public health problem. Thus, in order to improve awareness of the community

  9. Determinants of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Goba Woreda, South East Ethiopia: A cross sectional study

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    Belachew Tefera

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although breastfeeding is universal in Ethiopia, ranges of regional differences in timely initiation of breastfeeding have been documented. Initiation of breastfeeding is highly bound to cultural factors that may either enhance or inhibit the optimal practices. The government of Ethiopia developed National Infant and Young Child Feeding Guideline in 2004 and behavior change communications on breast feeding have been going on since then. However, there is a little information on the practice of timely initiation of breast feeding and factors that predict these practices after the implementation of the national guideline. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and determinant factors of timely initiation of breastfeeding among mothers in Bale Goba District, South East Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross sectional study was carried out from February to March 2010 using both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. A total of 608 mother infant pairs were selected using simple random sampling method and key informants for the in-depth interview were selected conveniently. Descriptive statistics, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed to identify factors associated with timely initiation of breast feeding. Results The prevalence of timely initiation of breastfeeding was 52.4%. Bivariate analysis showed that attendance of formal education, being urban resident, institutional delivery and postnatal counseling on breast feeding were significantly associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding (P Conclusions The practice of timely initiation of breast feeding is low as nearly half the mothers did not start breastfeeding with one hour after delivery. The results suggest that breast feeding behavior change communication especially during the post natal period is critical in promoting optimal practice in the initiation of breast feeding. Rural mothers

  10. Ethnobotanical study of wild edible plants of Kara and Kwego semi-pastoralist people in Lower Omo River Valley, Debub Omo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia

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    Teklehaymanot Tilahun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rural populations in Ethiopia have a rich knowledge of wild edible plants and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of the different cultures in the country. In the southern part of the country, wild edible plants are used as dietary supplements and a means of survival during times of food shortage. Therefore, the aim of this study is to document the wild edible plants gathered and consumed by Kara and Kwego people, and to analyze patterns of use between the two people. Methods A cross sectional ethnobotanical study of wild edible plant species was conducted from January 2005 to March 2007. About 10% of each people: 150 Kara and 56 Kwego were randomly selected to serve as informants. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire and group discussions. Analysis of variance (α = 0.05 was used to test the similarity of species richness of wild edible plants reported by Kara and Kwego people; Pearson's Chi-square test (α = 0.05 was used to test similarity of growth forms and plant parts of wild edible plants used between the two people. Results Thirty-eight wild plant species were reported as food sources that were gathered and consumed both at times of plenty and scarcity; three were unique to Kara, five to Kwego and 14 had similar local names. The plant species were distributed among 23 families and 33 genera. The species richness: families, genera and species (p > 0.05 were not significantly different between Kara and Kwego. Nineteen (50% of the reported wild edible plants were trees, 11 (29% were shrubs, six (16% were herbs and two (5% were climbers. Forty plant parts were indicated as edible: 23 (58.97% fruits, 13 (33.33% leaves, 3 (7.69% roots and one (2.56% seed. There was no difference between wild edible plants growth forms reported (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.872 and plant parts used (Pearson's Chi-square test (d.f. = 3 = 0.994 by Kara and Kwego people. The majority of

  11. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

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    Woldemariam Zemede

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District; it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3% and 14 (12% species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6% are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90% were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5% for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5% were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8% followed by fire (22.3% and construction (19%. Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34 were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community, which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process

  12. Assessment of caregiver’s knowledge, complementary feeding practices, and adequacy of nutrient intake from homemade foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia

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    Motuma A Abeshu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6 month onwards. Homemade complementary foods, however, are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6 – 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia.A cross sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households.Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2% children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6% were fed 3 or more times per day. Daily energy intake however was significantly lower (P<0.05 than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77 and 364.76 (kcal/dayfor 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (mg/day were below the daily requirements (p=0.000, with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11 and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p=0.000 was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11months (3.25, 4.17mg/day, respectively, even accounting for high bioavailability.The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn and Fe (except 12 – 23 months intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  13. Assessment of Caregiver's Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6-23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia.

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    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver's complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6-23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver's knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6-8 and 9-11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12-23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements.

  14. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor “Parshot” as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia

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    Sunano, Yui

    2015-01-01

    Abstract For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From t...

  15. Evaluation of energy, protein, and selected micronutrient density of homemade complementary foods consumed by children between 6 months and 23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Southern Ethiopia

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    Abeshu MA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Motuma Adimasu Abeshu,1,2 Abdulaziz Adish,3 Gulelat D Haki,4 Azeb Lelisa,5 Bekesho Geleta6 1John Snow, Inc, 2Addis Ababa University, Center for Food Science and Nutrition, 3Micronutrient Initiative Africa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 4Department of Food Science and Technology, University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana; 5Micronutrient Initiative Ethiopia, 6Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract: Complementary feeding should be timely, adequate, and given in a way that is appropriate for the age of the child, applying responsive feeding to fill the gap between what is provided by breastfeeding and the total nutritional requirements of the infant. The purpose of this study was to assess nutrient composition and evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient densities (energy, protein, calcium [Ca], iron [Fe], and zinc [Zn] in homemade complementary foods for children of age 6–23 months, in comparison to the desired levels in food insecure woredas of the Wolayita zone, Southern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional weighed food record method was used to assess the energy and micronutrient compositions of homemade complementary foods and evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient densities in relation to the desired levels. Multistage sampling was used to locate the children. Observation and measurement of complementary food preparations throughout the day was made. Representative portions from the diets were sampled for further laboratory analysis and to evaluate adequacy of observed nutrient levels. More than 20 different complementary food types (mostly an extension of family foods prepared from various food items were observed. Dietary diversity of the foods was very poor. The average dietary diversity score was only 2.54, while animal-source foods and vitamin A-rich fruits and vegetables were virtually absent. The energy and protein compositions of the diets, however, were sufficient. Energy density of 0.92 kcal/g, 1.24 kcal/g, and 1.41

  16. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

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    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  17. Procedure of brewing alcohol as a staple food: case study of the fermented cereal liquor "Parshot" as a staple food in Dirashe special woreda, southern Ethiopia.

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    Sunano, Yui

    2016-07-01

    For most brews, alcohol fermentation and lactic fermentation take place simultaneously during the brewing process, and alcohol fermentation can progress smoothly because the propagation of various microorganisms is prevented by lactic fermentation. It is not necessary to cause lactic fermentation with a thing generated naturally and intentionally. The people living in the Dirashe area in southern Ethiopia drink three types of alcoholic beverages that are prepared from cereals. From these alcoholic beverages, parshot is prepared by the addition of plant leaves for lactic fermentation and nech chaka by adding cereal powder for lactic fermentation before alcohol fermentation. People living in the Dirashe area partake of parshot as part of their staple diet. The brewing process used for parshot and a food culture with alcoholic beverages as parts of the staple diet are rare worldwide. This article discusses the significance of using lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation and focuses on lactic fermentation in the brewing methods used for the three kinds of alcoholic beverages consumed in the Dirashe area. We initially observed the brewing process and obtained information about the process from the people in that area. Next, we determined the pH and analyzed the lactic acid (g/100 g) and ethanol (g/100 g) content during lactic fermentation of parshot and nech chaka; the ethyl acetate (mg/100 g) and volatile base nitrogen (mg/100 g) content during this period was also analyzed. In addition, we compared the ethanol (g/100 g) content of all three kinds of alcoholic beverages after completion of brewing. The results showed that it was possible to consume large quantities of these alcoholic beverages because of the use of lactic fermentation before alcoholic fermentation, which improved the safety and preservation characteristics of the beverages by preventing the propagation of various microorganisms, improving flavor, and controlling the alcohol level.

  18. Epidemiology of laboratory confirmed measles virus cases in the southern nations of Ethiopia, 2007–2014

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    Getahun, Mekonen; Beyene, Berhane; Ademe, Ayesheshem; Teshome, Birke; Tefera, Mesfin; Afework, Aklog; HaileMariam, Yoseph; Assefa, Esete; Hailegiorgis, Yonas; Asha, Anjelo

    2017-01-01

    Background In Ethiopia, measles case-based surveillance was introduced in 2004 as one strategy for measles control by laboratory confirmation of suspected cases. In this article, epidemiological distribution of laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported from the Southern Nation Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia between 2007 and 2014, as the region is one of the highly measles affected areas in Ethiopia. Method A serum sample was collected from all measles suspected ca...

  19. Mange mite infestation in small ruminants in Ethiopia: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Asmare, Kassahun; Abebe, Rahmeto; Sheferaw, Desie; Krontveit, Randi I; Barbara, Wieland

    2016-03-15

    Mange mites are economically important ectoparasites of sheep and goats responsible for rejection or downgrading of skins in tanneries or leather industries in Ethiopia. The objective of this systematic review was to compute the pooled prevalence estimate and identify factors influencing mange mite prevalence in sheep and goats at national level based on the available research evidence. Articles on mange mite infestation of small ruminants in Ethiopia were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Google scholar and African journals on-line. The review was based on 18 cross-sectional studies carried out between 2003 and 2015 in four administrative states of Ethiopia. Accordingly, the pooled prevalence estimate in a random effects meta-analysis was estimated to be 4.4% (95% CI 3.0, 6.3) although there were evidence of a substantial amount of between-study variance (I(2)=98.4%). In subgroup and multivariable meta-regression analyses, animal species, agro-ecology and administrative state were found to have significant effect on the prevalence estimate (Pagro-ecology. Region wise the highest estimate was calculated for Amhara (6.4%) followed by Oromia (4.7%), Tigray (3.6%) and Southern Nations, Nationalities and People Region (SNNPR) (3.1%). Significant difference was noted between Amhara and SNNPR. The study further revealed that mites of the genus Sarcoptes, Demodex and Psoroptes are the most prevalent mites infesting small ruminants in Ethiopia. Valid studies were lacking from five regional states. As some of these regions are known for their large small ruminant population, further studies are warranted to produce better picture of the infestation at a national level. Meanwhile, the need for monitoring the ongoing control intervention is suggested.

  20. Study of gastro-intestinal helminths of scavenging chickens in four rural districts of Amhara region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshetu, Y; Mulualem, E; Ibrahim, H; Berhanu, A; Aberra, K

    2001-12-01

    A total of 267 rural scavenging chickens were examined from October 1998 to August 1999 in four woredas (districts) of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Of these chickens, 243 (91.01%) were found to harbour one to nine different helminth parasites and 24 (8.99%) were free of helminth parasites. A significant difference (P Raillietina echinobothrida (25.84%), Raillietina tetragona (45.69%), Raillietina cesticillus (5.62%), Amoebotaenia sphenoides (40.45%), Davainea proglottina (1.12%) and Choanotaenia infundibulum (4.49%).

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Halaba district, South Ethiopia

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    Bacha Ketema

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine is an anti-malarial drug being used to treat Plasmodium vivax malaria cases in Ethiopia. However, emergence of chloroquine resistant strains of the parasite has challenged the current efficacy of the drug. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of chloroquine against P. vivax strains in one of the malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia, namely Halaba district, located in South Nations and Nationalities Peoples Region (SNNPR of South Ethiopia Results Among 87 malaria patients enrolled in the study, only 80 of them completed the 28-days follow-up. Seven of them dropped from the study for different reasons. Among those study participants that completed their follow-up, 69 were classified under the category of adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR. However, the remaining 11 cases were considered as under treatment failure mainly due to recurrence of parasitemia on day 7 (four patients, day 14 (six patients, and day 21 (one patient. The age of all cases of treatment failures was found to be less than 20 years. The load of parasitemia of patients with treatment failure on day of admission (4709.4/μl was higher than day of recurrence (372.37/μl. Parasite reduction ratio (PRR of treatment failure cases was 12.6/μl. Conclusion This report revealed the rise in treatment failure (13% [95% CI = 0.074 - 0.217] as compared to earlier reports from Ethiopia. It signals the spreading of chloroquine resistant P. vivax (CRPv strains to malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia. It is recommended that all concerned bodies should act aggressively before further expansion of the current drug resistant malaria.

  2. Seroprevalence of Newcastle disease and other infectious diseases in backyard chickens at markets in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

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    Chaka, H; Goutard, F; Bisschop, S P R; Thompson, P N

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the seroprevalence of Newcastle disease (ND), Pasteurella multocida (PM) infection, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) infection, and infectious bursal disease (IBD) and to assess the level of concurrent seropositivity during the dry and wet seasons of the year 2010. In total, 234 and 216 sera were collected during the dry and wet seasons, respectively, from unvaccinated backyard chickens at 4 live poultry markets in 2 woredas (districts) of Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia, and were tested using commercial ELISA kits. The overall seroprevalence of ND, PM, MG, and IBD was 5.9, 66.2, 57.7, and 91.9%, respectively, during the dry season, and 6.0, 63.4, 78.7, and 96.3%, respectively, during the wet season. The seroprevalence of MG was higher (P backyard poultry production in Ethiopia.

  3. Podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia.

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    Yordanos B Molla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Podoconiosis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD that is prevalent in red clay soil-covered highlands of tropical Africa, Central and South America, and northern India. It is estimated that up to one million cases exist in Ethiopia. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of podoconiosis in East and West Gojam Zones of Amhara Region in northern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha woredas (districts in East and West Gojam Zones, respectively. The survey covered all 17,553 households in 20 kebeles (administrative subunits randomly selected from the two woredas. A detailed structured interview was conducted on 1,704 cases of podoconiosis identified in the survey. RESULTS: The prevalence of podoconiosis in the population aged 15 years and above was found to be 3.3% (95% CI, 3.2% to 3.6%. 87% of cases were in the economically active age group (15-64 years. On average, patients sought treatment five years after the start of the leg swelling. Most subjects had second (42.7% or third (36.1% clinical stage disease, 97.9% had mossy lesions, and 53% had open wounds. On average, patients had five episodes of acute adenolymphangitis (ALA per year and spent a total of 90 days per year with ALA. The median age of first use of shoes and socks were 22 and 23 years, respectively. More men than women owned more than one pair of shoes (61.1% vs. 50.5%; χ(2 = 11.6 p = 0.001. At the time of interview, 23.6% of the respondents were barefoot, of whom about two-thirds were women. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed high prevalence of podoconiosis and associated morbidities such as ALA, mossy lesions and open wounds in northern Ethiopia. Predominance of cases at early clinical stage of podoconiosis indicates the potential for reversing the swelling and calls for disease prevention interventions.

  4. Preliminary survey of Geray reservoir, Amhara National Regional State, West Gojjam, Jabitehnan Woreda, Ethiopia: focus on wetland management

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    Miheret Endalew Tegegnie

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To collect baseline information, to raise public awareness on the reservoir wetland situation, and to recommend an intervention mechanism to sustain its ecosystem services. Methods: Survey on Geray reservoir was carried out during 2010-2011. Questionnaire survey to collect data in Geray reservoir watershed kebeles was deployed and the data included land use and land cover, livestock and human population, crop patterns, topography and soil type in these kebeles. Focus group discussion with local community to obtain indigenous knowledge was considered. Secondary data collection and relevant literature were surveyed. The collected data were analysed with descriptive statistics. Results: Critical problems observed on the wetland and the surrounding watershed included vegetation cover removal, land degradation, wetland hardening, pressurized grazing, expansion of floating macrophytes on the reservoir, water seepage at the weir, water use management and water use conflicts, drainage structures maintenance and lack of institutional accountability. Open access and inadequate management has increased anthropogenic factors resulting amplified decline of ecosystem goods and services. Conclusions: The reservoir is under growing stress and nearing to disappearance unless and otherwise timely measures are taken to mitigate the prevailing encroachment towards the wetland. Sustainable management of hydrological, ecological, social, biodiversity and economical values based on knowledge and experience on environment, land use, extension services and research to restore and sustain the various values and functions, calls for different stakeholders to alleviate negatively impacting factors on the wetland. Further information generation on the wetland situation on the Geray wetland specifically on wetland valuation is highly demanded.

  5. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

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    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  6. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema Deribew; Zinaye Tekeste; Beyene Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis, malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases. Methods: Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children (216 males and 171 females) to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda, Afar region, Ethiopia. Results: The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54% and 6.20% respectively. Only 2.84% of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites. There was high percentage of anemic patients (81.81%) in the coinfected cases than in either malaria (33.3%) or schistosomiasis (38.94%) cases. There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected (P0.05). The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs/10 mL urine (r=-0.6) and malaria parasitemia (r=-0.53). Conclusions: The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected. Furthermore, level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S. haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia. Therefore, examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  7. Mapping and Modelling the Geographical Distribution and Environmental Limits of Podoconiosis in Ethiopia.

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    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is assumed to have the highest burden of podoconiosis globally, but the geographical distribution and environmental limits and correlates are yet to be fully investigated. In this paper we use data from a nationwide survey to address these issues.Our analyses are based on data arising from the integrated mapping of podoconiosis and lymphatic filariasis (LF conducted in 2013, supplemented by data from an earlier mapping of LF in western Ethiopia in 2008-2010. The integrated mapping used woreda (district health offices' reports of podoconiosis and LF to guide selection of survey sites. A suite of environmental and climatic data and boosted regression tree (BRT modelling was used to investigate environmental limits and predict the probability of podoconiosis occurrence.Data were available for 141,238 individuals from 1,442 communities in 775 districts from all nine regional states and two city administrations of Ethiopia. In 41.9% of surveyed districts no cases of podoconiosis were identified, with all districts in Affar, Dire Dawa, Somali and Gambella regional states lacking the disease. The disease was most common, with lymphoedema positivity rate exceeding 5%, in the central highlands of Ethiopia, in Amhara, Oromia and Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples regional states. BRT modelling indicated that the probability of podoconiosis occurrence increased with increasing altitude, precipitation and silt fraction of soil and decreased with population density and clay content. Based on the BRT model, we estimate that in 2010, 34.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.2-51.7 million people (i.e. 43.8%; 95% CI: 25.3-64.8% of Ethiopia's national population lived in areas environmentally suitable for the occurrence of podoconiosis.Podoconiosis is more widespread in Ethiopia than previously estimated, but occurs in distinct geographical regions that are tied to identifiable environmental factors. The resultant maps can be used to guide

  8. Tuberculosis lymphadenitis in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tesfaye, Weghata; Anagaw, Belay; Tessema, Belay; Debebe, Tewodrose; Anagaw, Berhanu; Mulu, Andargachew; Sack, Ulrich; Rodloff, Arne C

    2013-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most serious public health challenges in Ethiopia. Indeed, Ethiopia ranks 7th among 22 countries with a high burden of TB worldwide. Both pulmonary TB and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB) are issues of concern. Ethiopia ranks 3rd in terms of the number of EPTB patients worldwide, with TB lymphadenitis (TBL) being the most common. According to the World Health Organization's Global TB Report 2009, the estimated number of TB patients in Ethiopia was 314,267 in 2007, with an estimated incidence rate of 378 patients per 100,000 population. Furthermore, 36% patients suffered from EPTB, with TBL accounting for 80% of these patients. In Ethiopia, pathological services, culture, and drug susceptibility testing for mycobacterium species are not available as routine tests, not even for cases with suspected infection by drug-resistant strains. Therefore, the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB in Ethiopia is currently unsatisfactory. Against this background, a high index of clinical doubt and timely use of diagnostic methods, prompt confirmation of diagnosis, and early initiation of specific anti-TB treatment are the key factors for the successful management of MDR-TB and TBL in Ethiopia.

  9. Urinary schistosomiasis and malaria associated anemia in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ketema; Deribew; Zinaye; Tekeste; Beyene; Petros

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To assess the prevalence of anemia in children with urinary schistosomiasis,malaria and concurrent infections by the two diseases.Methods:Urine and blood samples were collected from 387 children(216 males and 171 females)to examine urinary schistosomiasis and malaria and to determine hemoglobin concentration at Hassoba and Hassoba Buri village in Amibara woreda,Afar region,Ethiopia.Results:The overall prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis and Plasmodium falciparum malaria was 24.54%and 6.20%respectively.Only 2.84%of children carried concurrent infections of both parasites.There was high percentage of anemic patients(81.81%)in the coinfected cases than in either malaria(33.3%)or schistosomiasis(38.94%)cases.There was significantly low mean hemoglobin concentration in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected(P<0.05).The mean hemoglobin concentration between Plasmodium falciparum and S.haematobium infected children showed no significant difference(P>0.05).The level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs/10 mL urine(r=-0.6)and malaria parasitemia(r=-0.53).Conclusions:The study showed that anemia is higher in concurrently infected children than non-infected and single infected.Furthermore,level of hemoglobin was negatively correlated with the number of S.haematobium eggs and malaria parsitemia.Therefore,examination of hemoglobin status in patients co-infected with malaria and schistosomiasis is important to reduce the risk of anemia and to improve health of the community.

  10. Preparing for and Executing a Randomised Controlled Trial of Podoconiosis Treatment in Northern Ethiopia: The Utility of Rapid Ethical Assessment.

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    Henok Negussie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Community-based randomized controlled trials are often complex pieces of research with significant challenges around the approach to the community, information provision, and decision-making, all of which are fundamental to the informed consent process. We conducted a rapid ethical assessment to guide the preparation for and conduct of a randomized controlled trial of podoconiosis treatment in northern Ethiopia.A qualitative study was carried out in Aneded woreda, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Regional State from August to September, 2013. A total of 14 In-depth Interviews (IDIs with researchers, experts, and leaders, and 8 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs involving 80 participants (people of both gender, with and without podoconiosis, were conducted. Interviews were carried out in Amharic. Data analysis was started alongside collection. Final data analysis used a thematic approach based on themes identified a priori and those that emerged during the analysis.Respondents made a range of specific suggestions, including that sensitisation meetings were called by woreda or kebele leaders or the police; that Health Extension Workers were asked to accompany the research team to patients' houses; that detailed trial information was explained by someone with deep local knowledge; that analogies from agriculture and local social organisations be used to explain randomisation; that participants in the 'delayed' intervention arm be given small incentives to continue in the trial; and that key community members be asked to quell rumours arising in the course of the trial.Many of these recommendations were incorporated into the preparatory phases of the trial, or were used during the course of the trial itself. This demonstrates the utility of rapid ethical assessment preceding a complex piece of research in a relatively research-naive setting.

  11. Self-Supply as a Complementary Water Services Delivery Model in Ethiopia

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    John Butterworth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Self-supply, where households invest to develop their own easily-accessible water supplies, is identified as an alternative service delivery model that is potentially complementary to more highly subsidised community-level provision. The approach is widespread in Ethiopia with family wells bringing additional benefits that are in line with wider government objectives, such as supporting small-scale irrigation. However, two recent studies show the current performance of traditional or family wells to be far below potential with most sources providing unsafe water in the absence of adequate protection. Wider formal recognition of Self-supply in policy and the development of the government-led Self-supply Acceleration Programme (SSAP aim to extend access and improve aspects of performance including water quality. However, a key finding of the paper is that successful uptake of this programme requires a transformation in the attitudes of donor agencies and the roles of government regional- and woreda-level staff, amongst others. Necessary shifts in mindsets and revision of planning mechanisms, as well as the day-to-day operational support requirements, represent a challenge for an under-resourced sector. Other household-focused development interventions such as Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS and Household Water Treatment and Storage (HWTS face some similar challenges, so the processes for the development of one approach could help in the scaling up of all.

  12. Patients’ perceptions of podoconiosis causes, prevention and consequences in East and West Gojam, Northern Ethiopia

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    Molla Yordanos B

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a form of non-filarial elephantiasis that affects barefoot individuals in highland tropical areas. The disease presents with bilateral, asymmetric swelling of the legs, usually confined to below the knee. This study aimed to assess podoconiosis patients’ perceptions of prevention, control, causes and familial clustering of the disease, and to document physical, social and economic impairments associated with the disease, with the ultimate aim of enabling development of tailored interventions in this region. Methods This descriptive study is part of the largest cross-sectional community-based household survey yet conducted on podoconiosis. It was completed in November and December, 2011, in Debre Eliyas and Dembecha Woredas of East and West Gojam Zones, northern Ethiopia, and consisted of a house-to-house census by community health workers followed by interviews of identified patients using a structured questionnaire. Results In the 17,553 households surveyed, 1,319 patients were identified. More male as compared to female patients were married (84.6% vs. 53.6%, χ2 = 157.1, p 2 = 102.3, p  Conclusion This study shows that podoconiosis has strong psychosocial, physical and economic impacts on patients in East and West Gojam Zones of northern Ethiopia. Concerns related to familial clustering, poor understanding of the causes and prevention of podoconiosis all add to the physical burden imposed by the disease. Strategies that may ease the impact of podoconiosis include delivery of tailored health education on the causes and prevention of disease, involving patients in intervention activities, and development of alternative income-generating activities for treated patients.

  13. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

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    Zepro NB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nejimu Biza Zepro,1 Ahmed Tahir Ahmed2 1College of Health Sciences, Samara University, Samara, Afar, Ethiopia; 2College of Health Science, Jigjiga University, Jigjiga, Somali, Ethiopia Abstract: Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5% of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6% of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9% women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6% of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96. Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8. Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women

  14. Cohort profile: improving treatment of HIV-infected Ethiopian children through better detection of treatment failure in southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Byron Alexander; Jerene, Degu; Ruff, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The Ethiopian Paediatric HIV Cohort (EPHIC) was established to identify clinical and laboratory predictors of virological treatment failure to ultimately develop a clinical–immunological prediction rule with area under the curve of >0.80 for detecting first-line antiretroviral therapy failure (ARTF). It will also assess the performance of the current WHO guidelines for detection of first-line ARTF in children. Participants Using a prospective cohort design, HIV-infected children and adolescents below the age of 18 years are followed every 6 months with a set of clinical and laboratory parameters at 6 hospitals in southern Ethiopia. For inclusion in the cohort, children should be on or are initiating first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and are not on second-line ART. Virological treatment failure is taken as the gold standard for the diagnosis of treatment failure. Findings to date From October 2015 through April 2016, 628 children have been enrolled from 6 different HIV treatment centres across southern Ethiopia. The mean age at enrolment was 11.1 years and 47.6% were girls. Many of the children (88.6%) were at WHO Clinical stage 1 at time of enrolment. At enrolment, the mean duration on first-line ART was 45 months. Substitution of ART drugs was performed to nearly half (42.6%) of the cohort. Adherence as assessed with the Visual Analogue Scale was high (mean, 94.4%; SD=11.9). The median CD4 count of the cohort at enrolment was 741 with 3.1% having a value consistent with ARTF. Future plans Regular data uploads from the 6 hospitals in southern Ethiopia enable this cohort to be followed prospectively. The cohort will be completed in September 2017. The successful completion of this study will allow for better targeting of viral-load testing to those at highest risk in resource-poor settings and provide clinicians and policymakers with a practical prediction rule. Ethics approval SNNPR Regional Health Bureau Institutional Review Board. PMID

  15. Some Issues of Micro and Small Enterprises in Wolaita Soddo Town of SNNPR, Ethiopia and Implication for Technical and Vocational Education and Skills Training: Leather Sector in Extra Emphasis

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    Ginja, Tamirat Gibon

    2016-01-01

    Technical and Vocational Education & skills Training (TVET) and Micro & Small Enterprises (MSEs) are so significant sectors in socio-economic development journey of a country. This Article was aimed at investigating empirically the challenges that Micro and Small Enterprises facing and the extent of business development services provided…

  16. Typhoid fever in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Asrat, Daniel; Mengistu, Yohannes; Aseffa, Abrham; Wain, John

    2008-12-01

    This review focuses on the reports of salmonellosis by investigators in different parts of Ethiopia, in particular focusing on the levels of typhoid fever. Many of the reports are published in local journals that are not available online. There have been seven studies which diagnosed typhoid fever by laboratory culture and there is no coordinated epidemiological surveillance. All conducted research and reports from different health institutions in Ethiopia indicate that typhoid fever was still a common problem up to the most recent study in 2000 and that the extensive use of first-line drugs has led to the development of multiple drug resistance. In the sites covered by this review, the total number of published cases of typhoid fever dropped over time reflecting the decline in research capacity in the country. Data on the proportion of patients infected by different serovars of Salmonella suggest that the non-Typhi serovars of Salmonella are increasing. The published evidence suggests that typhoid fever is a current public health problem in Ethiopia although population based surveys, based on good microbiological diagnosis, are urgently needed. Only then can the true burden of enteric fever be estimated and the benefit of public health control measures, such as health education, safe water provision, improved food hygienic practices and eventually vaccination, be properly assessed.

  17. Household-level risk factors for Newcastle disease seropositivity and incidence of Newcastle disease virus exposure in backyard chicken flocks in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaka, Hassen; Goutard, Flavie; Roger, Francois; Bisschop, Shahn P R; Thompson, Peter N

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional study with repeated sampling was conducted to investigate potential risk factors for Newcastle disease (ND) seropositivity and for incidence of ND virus (NDV) exposure in household flocks of backyard chickens in Eastern Shewa zone, Ethiopia. Data were collected from 260 randomly selected households in 52 villages in Adami Tulu Jido Kombolcha and Ada'a woredas (districts) using a structured questionnaire, and serum samples from chickens were tested for NDV antibodies using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sampling took place during September 2009 and the same households were again sampled in May 2010. Household-level seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were estimated in various ways using serological results from the two samplings, flock dynamics, and farmers' reports of ND in their flocks. The risk factors were assessed using multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression models. Household-level seroprevalence at the two sampling times was 17.4% and 27.4%, respectively, and the estimated incidence of household-level NDV exposure during the intervening period ranged between 19.7% and 25.5%. At the first sampling, reduced frequency of cleaning of poultry waste was associated with increased odds of seropositivity (OR=4.78; 95% CI: 1.42, 16.11; P=0.01) while hatching at home vs. other sources (buying in replacement birds, receiving as gift or buying fertile eggs) was associated with lower odds of seropositivity, both at the first sampling (OR=0.30; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.82; P=0.02) and the second sampling (OR=0.23; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.52; PNewcastle disease seroprevalence and incidence of NDV exposure were more heterogeneous between villages than between kebeles (aggregations of villages) and woredas in the study area. Further investigation of village-level risk factors would likely improve our understanding of ND epidemiology in backyard chickens.

  18. Physician distribution and attrition in the public health sector of Ethiopia

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    Assefa T

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tsion Assefa,1 Damen Haile Mariam,1 Wubegzier Mekonnen,1 Miliard Derbew,2 Wendimagegn Enbiale3 1School of Public Health, 2School of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3College of Medicine and Health Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Shortages and imbalances in physician workforce distribution between urban and rural and among the different regions in Ethiopia are enormous. However, with the recent rapid expansion in medical education training, it is expected that the country can make progress in physician workforce supply. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physician workforce in Ethiopia and assess the role of retention mechanisms in the reduction of physician migration from the public health sector of Ethiopia. Methods: This organizational survey examined physician workforce data from 119 hospitals from 5 regions (Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region [SNNPR], Tigray, and Harari and 2 city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa City. Training opportunity, distribution, and turnover between September 2009 and July 2015 were analyzed descriptively. Poisson regression model was used to find the association of different covariates with physician turnover. Results: There were 2,300 medical doctors in 5 regions and 2 city administrations in ~6 years of observations. Of these, 553 (24.04% medical doctors moved out of their duty stations and the remaining 1,747 (75.96% were working actively. Of the actively working, the majority of the medical doctors, 1,407 (80.5%, were males, in which 889 (50.9% were born after the year 1985, 997 (57% had work experience of <3 years, and most, 1,471 (84.2%, were general practitioners. Within the observation period, physician turnover among specialists ranged from 21.4% in Dire Dawa to 43.3% in Amhara region. The capital, Addis Ababa, was the place of destination for 32 (82% of the physicians who moved out to

  19. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assefa Wendimu, Mengistu; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    Contract farming is often seen as a panacea to many of the challenges faced by agricultural production in developing countries. Given the large heterogeneity of contract farming arrangements, it is debatable whether all kinds of contract farming arrangements offer benefits to participating...... smallholders. We apply matching methods to analyze the effects of a public sugarcane outgrower scheme in Ethiopia. Participation in the outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks of outgrowers who contributed irrigated land to the outgrower scheme, while the effect was insignificant...

  20. Tortricidae (Lepidoptera from Ethiopia

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    Józef Razowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty six new species of Tortricidae from southeast Ethiopia are reported: Russograptis albulata sp. n., Acleris baleina sp. n., Acleris harenna sp. n., Procrica dinshona sp. n., Procrica parisii sp. n., Choristoneura palladinoi sp. n., Lozotaenia karchana sp. n., Lozotaenia sciarrettae sp. n., Endothenia ethiopica sp. n., Crotalaria albapex sp. n., Eccopsis brunneopostica sp. n., Eccopsis subincana sp. n., Megalota lygaria sp. n., Bubonoxena alatheta sp. n., Plutographa xanthala sp. n., Epinotia anepenthes sp. n., Epinotia latiloba sp. n., Coccothera triorbis sp. n., Coccothera carolae sp. n., Multiquestia aequivoca sp. n., Coniostola separata sp. n., Cydia tytthaspis sp. n., Cydia dinshoi sp. n., Cydia lathetica sp. n., Grapholita insperata sp. n., Thaumatotibia spinai sp. n. Some faunistic data on the known taxa from this country are included. The material examined is too scarce to draw any zoogeographic conclusion but there are some species common to Ethiopia and the Republic of South Africa, Mozambique and Uganda or are very closely related with them. Two Acleris Hübner, 1825 described in this paper are closely allied with the Afghan species.

  1. Vitamin D Deficiency is Associated with Overweight and/or Obesity among Schoolchildren in Central Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakayo, Tolassa; Whiting, Susan J; Belachew, Tefera

    2016-04-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity is an international public health problem leading to an increased risk of adulthood obesity, mortality and morbidity. Its prevalence is increasing in low-income populations, and we hypothesized it may be associated with vitamin D deficiency. Low vitamin D status is a worldwide public health issue including in Ethiopia; however, no one has examined overweight/obesity in Ethiopian schoolchildren with regard to vitamin D status. The Analyses of a data set from a school-based cross-sectional study conducted in Adama Town (n = 89) and in rural Adama Woreda (n = 85) was carried out to determine vitamin D deficiency and its association with overweight and/or obesity. Data on a total of 174 schoolchildren aged 11-18 years was used for these analyses. The overall prevalence of overweight and/or obesity was 10.3%, with 8.5% overweight and 2.3% obese; the prevalence of underweight was 19%. In the multivariable logistic regression model, vitamin D deficiency, being in the higher age group, female sex and urban residence of students, their mothers' occupation of being employed and their households' high and middle socioeconomic status were significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity. We concluded that vitamin D deficiency is an independent predictor significantly associated with overweight and/or obesity among schoolchildren from rural and urban settings in Ethiopia. The results imply the need for behavior change communications on the importance of exposure to sunlight to produce adequate vitamin D to curb this emerging health problem of overweight/obesity following economic growth and globalization in Ethiopia. As this study only highlighted the association, prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are required to establish causality.

  2. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Ayichew; Urgessa, Kedir; Gobena, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, especially in Ethiopia. Despite the ongoing efforts and progress in fighting HIV/AIDS and malaria, these diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. In this study, we assessed community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community-based multistage stratified cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2014 among six woredas of the East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. The data were collected from 2,319 households using structured questionnaires. A total of 12 well trained data collectors conducted a face-to-face interview with the head female of each household. The data entered on Epi-Data version 3 were then exported for analysis on STATA version 11. Results Multivariable logistic regression showed that among the 1,967 (92.7%) study participants who scored above the mean value in regard to the overall knowledge of HIV/AIDS, study participants who could read/write (adjusted odd ratios [AOR] =2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–5.61, P=0.021) and worked as a daily laborer (AOR =0.40, 95% CI: 0.17–0.91, P=0.029) were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, out of the 2,172 eligible study participants for the malaria interview, 934 (43%) scored above the mean in regard to the overall knowledge about malaria. Rural residents (AOR =0.27, 95% CI: 0.17–0.44, P45 years of age (AOR =1.44, 95% CI: 1.04–1.99, P=0.030), and single marital status (AOR =3.81, 95% CI: 1.97–7.37, P<0.005) were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about malaria. Conclusion Based on the findings of this study, health extension workers

  3. Analysis of Seed Potato Systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hirpa, A.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Tesfaye, A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the seed potato systems in Ethiopia, identify constraints and prioritize improvement options, combining desk research, rapid appraisal and formal surveys, expert elicitation, field observations and local knowledge. In Ethiopia, informal, alternative and formal seed system

  4. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waja T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tsegereda Waja,1 Jemal Ebrahim,2 Zegeye Yohannis,1 Asres Bedaso2 1Department of Psychiatry, Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, 2School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, SNNPR, Ethiopia Introduction: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods: An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results: A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60% were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69], not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39], availability of house (AOR

  5. Sugarcane outgrowers in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Henningsen, Arne; Gibbon, Peter

    2016-01-01

    by the recent rush for large-scale agricultural land acquisition in most developing countries, often described as "land grabbing," because contract farming and outgrower schemes can result in the same advantages as large-scale farming, but avoid its main drawback-namely the displacement of the current land......-users. Using data from the oldest and some more recently established sugarcane outgrower schemes in Ethiopia, this paper examines the effects of compulsory participation in sugarcane outgrower production on total household income and asset stocks. Because outgrowers and non-outgrowers may have some differences...... prior to joining sugarcane outgrower schemes, we use genetic matching and propensity score matching to make the two groups comparable based on their observable characteristics. Our results indicate that compulsory participation in an outgrower scheme significantly reduces the income and asset stocks...

  6. Mapping return levels of absolute NDVI variations for the assessment of drought risk in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonini, F.; Hochmair, H. H.; Jona Lasinio, G.

    2012-12-01

    The analysis and forecasting of extreme climatic events has become increasingly relevant to planning effective financial and food-related interventions in third-world countries. Natural disasters and climate change, both large and small scale, have a great impact on non-industrialized populations who rely exclusively on activities such as crop production, fishing, and similar livelihood activities. It is important to identify the extent of the areas prone to severe drought conditions in order to study the possible consequences of the drought on annual crop production. In this paper, we aim to identify such areas within the South Tigray zone, Ethiopia, using a transformation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) called Absolute Difference NDVI (ADVI). Negative NDVI shifts from the historical average can generally be linked to a reduction in the vigor of local vegetation. Drought is more likely to increase in areas where negative shifts occur more frequently and with high magnitude, making it possible to spot critical situations. We propose a new methodology for the assessment of drought risk in areas where crop production represents a primary source of livelihood for its inhabitants. We estimate ADVI return levels pixel per pixel by fitting extreme value models to independent monthly minima. The study is conducted using SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) ten-day composite (S10) images from April 1998 to March 2009. In all short-term and long-term predictions, we found that central and southern areas of the South Tigray zone are prone to a higher drought risk compared to other areas.; Temporal autocorrelation among monthly minima within the Alamata woreda. (a) ACF-Boxplot and (b) PACF-Boxplot. ; ADVI return level estimates. (a) 10-Month return levels. (b) 100-Month return levels. (c) 1000-Month return levels.

  7. ENHANCING RURAL LIVELIHOODS THROUGH SUSTAINABLE LAND AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN NORTHWEST ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehretie Belay

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural livelihoods (RLs in highland Ethiopia is critically threatened by increasing degradation of land and water resources (LWRs and lack of sufficient livelihood assets. In response, farmers adapted diverse indigenous land and water management (LWM technologies and livelihood strategies. This paper describes farmers’ methods of soil erosion identification and the practices of managing LWRs to enhance RLs. It presents the results of studies focusing on assessment of soil erosion indicators, farmers’ in-built sustainable land and water management practices (LWMPs and RLs in Dangila woreda (district in the northwestern highlands of Ethiopia. Data were gathered from May 2010 to October 2013 through participatory transect walks, field observation, formal and informal discussions with farmers, examination of office documents and from a survey of 201 rural households. Descriptive statistics and the livelihood strategy diversification index (LSDI were used to analyze the data. Results indicated that farmers employ around 13 indicators to identify soil erosion on their farmlands. Over 79% of the farmers indicated the occurrence of soil erosion on their farm fields and some 59% reported the trend was increasing for twenty years, 1991-2011. More than 174 km soil-bunds and greater than 4 km stone-bunds were constructed on farmlands and on grazing fields through farmer participatory watershed development campaigns. Some 34 gullies were stabilized using check-dams and vegetative measures. Almost 72% of the households applied cattle manure on about of their 75 ha lands to improve soil fertility. A total of 44 diversion canals and 34 water committees were established to facilitate the irrigation practice of 33% rural households. Over 20% farmers obtained results ranging from moderate to excellent by combining manure with chemical fertilizers in the same field. Nevertheless, introduced methods such as improved seeds and fertilizers were commented for

  8. Adapting Active Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Carolyn Frances

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopia is a developing country that has invested extensively in expanding its educational opportunities. In this expansion, there has been a drastic restructuring of its system of preparing teachers and teacher educators. Often, improving teacher quality is dependent on professional development that diversifies pedagogy (active learning). This…

  9. Ethiopia: Country Status Report (Revision).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Ethiopia begins with an overview of the distribution of Amharic, the sole official language and medium of elementary instruction, and Tigrinya, Oromo, Wolayto, Somali, Sidamo, Hadiyya, and English, the medium of secondary and higher education instruction. The relationship of language usage patterns to…

  10. Evaluation of progress with using community conversation as a strategy to encourage district level abandonment of female genital mutilation and/or cutting in 10 districts in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Alem

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Female genital mutilation and/or cutting (FGM/C, whilst widespread, is declining in Ethiopia; 81% of 45–49-year-old women were circumcised in a 2005 survey, and 62%of 15–19-year-olds.Objectives: This evaluation examined progress in abandoning FGM/C in ten woredas(districts where strategy based on the social convention theory had led to official declarations of abandonment and assessed if the strategy could accelerate the declining trend of the FGM/C practice in Ethiopia.Method: Quantitative and qualitative instruments collected data from a document review, a household survey (1275 households, in-depth and key informant interviews and focus group discussions.Results: Overall, there were encouraging results in terms of awareness creation and behavioural change to some extent. Sixty-nine percent of women and 41% of girls interviewed perceived a decline in the practice (range 40% – 90% after the declaration. Seventy-six percent of women said they would not circumcise girls in the future. The involvement of influential people such as religious leaders, elders, health extension workers, and law enforcement officials in the teaching contributed immensely to the awareness creation. However, some districts reports indicated the practice had gone underground. The costs of facilitating the strategy varied from USD 3 to 7 per person, with better results where costs were higher. The abandonment events tended to costaround 25% of total costs, an area where cost efficiency can be improved.Conclusion: The evaluation has informed the dialogue around the development of the country’s first national budgeted strategy that aims to accelerate the abandonment of all harmful traditionalpractices.

  11. Participatory forest management in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yietagesu, Aklilu Ameha; Larsen, Helle Overgaard; Lemenih, Mulugeta

    2014-01-01

    Different arrangements of decentralized forest management have been promoted as alternatives to centralized and top down approaches to halt tropical deforestation and forest degradation. Ethiopia is one of the countries piloting one of these approaches. To inform future programs and projects...... it is essential to learn from existing pilots and experiences. This paper analyses five of the pilot participatory forest management (PFM) programs undertaken in Ethiopia. The study is based on the Forest User Group (FUG) members’ analyses of the programs using selected outcome variables: forest income, change...... in forest conditions, forest ownership feelings and effectiveness of FUGs as forest managing institutions. These variables were assessed at three points in time—before the introduction of PFM, during the project implementation and after the projects ended. Data were collected using group discussions, key...

  12. Dynamics of poverty in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses issues related to the dynamics of income poverty using unique household panel data for urban and rural areas of Ethiopia covering the period 1994-97. The percentage of households that remained in poverty was twice as large in urban areas as in rural areas. This suggests that income variability is a serious problem in rural areas, while the persistence is a key feature of urban poverty. The paper also discusses household characteristics that are correlated with the inciden...

  13. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun Berhane; Prowse, Martin

    Ethiopia is vulnerable to climate change due to its limited development and dependence on agriculture. Social protection schemes like the Productive Safety Net Programme (PSNP) can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing households’ risk management. This article examines......, they suggest the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on smallholders’ adaptation strategies....

  14. Ethiopia: The Search for Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    University, op. cit., p.70. 13 ••"> The official language of Ethiopia is Amharic which is spoken by about half of the population. However, in the...language, Amharic , and English. About 907c of the Ethiopian people are engaged in agriculture. The remaining are principally functionaries of the...alphabet, and the unfamiliarity by about half of the population with the official state language, Amharic . Although considerable progress has been

  15. Community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoum A

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Ayichew Seyoum,1 Kedir Urgessa,1 Tesfaye Gobena2 1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, 2Department of Environmental Health Sciences, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Ethiopia constitutes approximately 1% of the world’s population but it contributes to 7% of the world’s HIV/AIDS cases. Malaria is the most important disease of humans in terms of mortality, morbidity, and long-term effects upon quality of life, especially in Ethiopia. Despite the ongoing efforts and progress in fighting HIV/AIDS and malaria, these diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the country. In this study, we assessed community knowledge and the role of health extension workers on integrated diseases among households in East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based multistage stratified cross-sectional study was conducted from February to March 2014 among six woredas of the East Hararghe Zone, Ethiopia. The data were collected from 2,319 households using structured questionnaires. A total of 12 well trained data collectors conducted a face-to-face interview with the head female of each household. The data entered on Epi-Data version 3 were then exported for analysis on STATA version 11. Results: Multivariable logistic regression showed that among the 1,967 (92.7% study participants who scored above the mean value in regard to the overall knowledge of HIV/AIDS, study participants who could read/write (adjusted odd ratios [AOR] =2.54, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15–5.61, P=0.021 and worked as a daily laborer (AOR =0.40, 95% CI: 0.17–0.91, P=0.029 were significantly associated with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS. Meanwhile, out of the 2,172 eligible study participants for the malaria interview, 934 (43% scored above the mean in regard to the overall knowledge about malaria. Rural residents (AOR =0.27, 95% CI: 0.17–0.44, P<0.005, >45 years of age (AOR =1.44, 95

  16. Determinants of institutional delivery service utilization among pastorals of Liben Zone, Somali Regional State, Ethiopia, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepro, Nejimu Biza; Ahmed, Ahmed Tahir

    2016-01-01

    Maternal health service utilizations are poorly equipped, inaccessible, negligible, and not well documented in the pastoral society. This research describes a quantitative and qualitative study on the determinants of institutional delivery among pastoralists of Liben Zone with special emphasis on Filtu and Deka Suftu woredas of Somali Region, Ethiopia. The study was funded by the project “Fostering health care for refugees and pastoral communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia”. This community-based cross-sectional study was conducted during November 2015. Interviews through a questionnaire and focus group discussions were used to collect the data. Proportional to size allocation followed by systematic sampling technique was used to identify the study units. The major determinants of institutional delivery in the study area were as follows: being apparently healthy, lack of knowledge, long waiting time, poor quality services, cultural beliefs, religious misconception, partner decision, and long travel. Around one-third (133, 34.5%) of the women had visited at least once for their pregnancy. More than half (78, 58.6%) of the women had visited health facilities due to health problems and only 27 (19.9%) women had attended the recommended four antenatal care visits. Majority (268, 69.6%) of the pregnant women preferred to give birth at home. Women who attended antenatal care were two times more likely to deliver at health facilities (AOR, 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.38, 1.065–4.96). Women whose family members preferred health facilities had 14 times more probability to give birth in health institutions (AOR, 95% CI =13.79, 5.28–35.8). Women living in proximity to a health facility were 13 times more likely to give birth at health facilities than women living far away (AOR, 95% CI =13.37, 5.9–29.85). Nomadic way of life, service inaccessibility, and sociodemographic and cultural obstacles have an effect on the utilization of delivery services. Increasing

  17. Implementing Forest Landscape Restorationin Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Pistorius

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Driven by various initiatives and international policy processes, the concept of Forest Landscape Restoration, is globally receiving renewed attention. It is seen internationally and in national contexts as a means for improving resilience of land and communities in the face of increasing environmental degradation through different forest activities. Ethiopia has made a strong voluntary commitment in the context of the Bonn Challenge—it seeks to implement Forest Landscape Restoration (FLR on 15 million ha. In the context of rural Ethiopia, forest establishment and restoration provide a promising approach to reverse the widespread land degradation, which is exacerbated by climate change and food insecurity. This paper presents an empirical case study of FLR opportunities in the Amhara National Regional State, Ethiopia’s largest spans of degraded and barren lands. Following the Restoration Opportunity Assessment Methodology, the study categorizes the main types of landscapes requiring restoration, identifies and prioritizes respective FLR options, and details the costs and benefits associated with each of the five most significant opportunities: medium to large‐scale afforestation and reforestation activities on deforested or degraded marginal land not suitable for agriculture, the introduction of participatory forest management, sustainable woodland management combined with value chain investments, restoration of afro‐alpine and sub‐afro‐alpine areas and the establishment of woodlots.

  18. A climate trend analysis of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Rowland, Jim; Eilerts, Gary; Kebebe, Emebet; Biru, Nigist; White, Libby; Galu, Gideon

    2012-01-01

    This brief report, drawing from a multi-year effort by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET), examines recent trends in March-June, June-September, and March-September rainfall and temperature, identifying significant reductions in rainfall and increases in temperature over time in many areas of Ethiopia. Conclusions: * Spring and summer rains in parts of Ethiopia have declined by 15-20 percent since the mid-1970s. * Substantial warming across the entire country has exacerbated the dryness.* An important pattern of observed existing rainfall declines coincides with heavily populated areas of the Rift Valley in south-central Ethiopia, and is likely already adversely affecting crop yields and pasture conditions. * Rapid population growth and the expansion of farming and pastoralism under a drier, warmer climate regime could dramatically increase the number of at-risk people in Ethiopia during the next 20 years.* Many areas of Ethiopia will maintain moist climate conditions, and agricultural development in these areas could help offset rainfall declines and reduced production in other areas.

  19. Energy and the agroeconomic complexity of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Since the Industrial Revolution, modern agriculture has transformed from a net energy supplier to a net energy user, via the extensive use fossil fuels -that substituted solar energy inputs- and petroleum derivative products (fertilizers) (Pimentel and Pimentel 2008; Woods et al. 2010). This condenses a significant overview of agricultural energetics, especially for economies set on their first stage of development, growth and economic diversification, such as Ethiopia. Ethiopia is the Blue Nile's most upstream country, constituting a very sensitive hydroclimatic area. Since 2008, Ethiopian agriculture experiences a boost in energy use and agricultural value-added per worker, due to the rapid introduction of oil-fueled agricultural machinery that increased productivity and allowed crop diversification. Agriculture in Ethiopia accounts for ~82% of its total exports, ~45% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and ~75% of its total labor force. In addition, Ethiopia's agricultural sector is equipped with a set of new financial tools to deal with hydroclimatic extremes, like the 1983-85 droughts that deteriorated its crop output, causing a devastating famine. In fact, Ethiopia's resilience from the (most) recent drought (2015-16) has been remarkable. These facts signify that Ethiopia satisfies the necessary conditions to become a regional agritrade gravity center in the Blue Nile, granted that the dispersion of agricultural trade comprises a primary tool for securing food supply. As gravity equations have been used to model global trade webs (Tinbergen 1962), similar principles may apply to agritrade as well, for identifying emergent topological structures and supply chains. By examining the relation between energy inputs in agriculture with crop diversification and value-added chains of Ethiopia's agritrade, we could extract accurate information on the importance of energy for the country's agroeconomic complexity and regionalization trend across its first stages of

  20. Pottery ethnoarchaeology in Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Ruibal, Alfredo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of three ethnoarchaeological field seasons carried out among the Berta, Gumuz, Mao and Kwama of western Ethiopia are presented here. Fieldwork focused on the gathering of general data on the material culture of Benishangul- Gumuz, and particularly on pottery and vernacular architecture. The data relating to production, distribution and consumption of pottery are addressed in this article. The peoples studied are organised on egalitarian lines and practise a slash-and-burn agriculture.

    Se presentan los resultados de tres campañas etnoarqueológicas llevadas a cabo entre los Berta, Gumuz, Mao y Kwama de Etiopía. El trabajo se centró en la recogida de datos generales sobre la cultura material de la región de Benishangul-Gumuz y en particular en la cerámica y la arquitectura vernácula. Aquí se tratan los datos relativos a la producción, distribución y consumo de cerámica. Los pueblos estudiados se organizan en comunidades igualitarias y practican una agricultura de roza y quema.

  1. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response t

  2. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the Constituti

  3. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 8

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    General information about the Flora project, the history of the scientific exploration of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, the natural vegetation, the regional diversity and endemism as reflected in the Flora, the use of wild and cultivated plants in the flora region, important scientific plant...

  4. Demand for money and shortages in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterken, E.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the long-run monetary conditions in Ethiopia in the last three decades. These decades can be characterized by large political changes, leading to shocks on income and population growth, and two serious periods of drought. Both affected inflation and real demand for M-1 through sh

  5. Determinants of southeast Ethiopia seasonal rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2016-12-01

    The bi-modal climate of SE Ethiopia shares attributes with East Africa, notably that El Niño enhances rainfall, particularly in Sep-Nov season. In this study SE Ethiopia's continuous and seasonal rainfall relationships to global climate are studied to extend our knowledge of its determinants and predictability. A statistical forecast algorithm for the Sep-Nov short rains accounts for 54% of variance in 1980-2010. The Apr-Jun predictors include South Atlantic sea surface temperature, east Indian Ocean sea level air pressure and China upper zonal wind. Cooling in the South Atlantic coincides with a strengthened sub-tropical anticyclone, and later to changes in low level winds that bring orographic convection to SE Ethiopia. The slower El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) interacts with the faster Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), but both signals mature too late for direct use in statistical prediction of Sep-Nov rainfall. Composite differences of the upper divergent circulation exhibit a global wave-2 pattern consistent with satellite-observed convection. One key feature is a zonal gradient in upper velocity potential over the Indian Ocean corresponding with a zonal atmospheric circulation. One outcome of this research is useful forecasts of SE Ethiopia Sep-Nov rainfall that will assist in agricultural planning.

  6. Communities and community genetics in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Luche; Tafesse, Fikru; Hamamy, Hanan

    2014-01-01

    The rates of congenital and genetic disorders in low and middle income countries are similar or might be higher than in high income countries due to a multitude of risk factors and the dearth of community genetic services. To direct effective preventive, diagnostic and counseling services, collecting data on the incidence and prevalence of various congenital and genetic disorders and their risk factors is a pre-requisite for establishing genetic services at the community level and mainly at the primary health care setting. This brief review is meant to assess the available epidemiological data in Ethiopia pertaining to congenital and genetic disorders on which the future community genetic services could be built. Existing epidemiological data on congenital and genetic disorders in Ethiopia is limited, and the few studies conducted revealed that folate and iodine deficiencies are prevalent among women in the reproductive age. Pregnant women's infection with syphilis and rubella is prevailing. Based on available data, cleft lip and palate, congenital heart diseases, club-foot, and gastro-intestinal malformations are the most common birth defects in Ethiopia. Community based studies to accurately demonstrate the incidence and prevalence levels of these disorders are almost unavailable. To plan for organization and implementation of community genetic services at the primary health care level in Ethiopia, conducting standardized epidemiological studies is currently highly recommended.

  7. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  8. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between...

  9. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha...... investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study...... indicates that moisture stress is the key factor in the failure of many large-scale jatropha plantations in Ethiopia....

  10. Ethiopia: An agrarian economy in transition

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ethiopia has experienced rapid economic growth since 2005. Real gross domestic product (GDP) grew at an average rate of 10.5 per cent per annum for the period between 2004-05 and 2013-14. Public investment in key infrastructure and interventions in the agriculture sector have made important contributions to GDP growth. This growth has been accompanied by a process of capital deepening and signs of structural shift away from traditional and primary sectors towards secondary and tertiary sector...

  11. Ethiopia : Well-Being and Poverty in Ethiopia, The Role of Agriculture and Agency

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    A decade and a half of relative peace and political stability, broad economic reforms, and far-reaching political decentralization have brought Ethiopia back from one of its lowest levels of income per capita to one of its highest levels over the past forty years. At the same time, Gross Domestic Product per capita today is still only slightly above the levels reached in the early 1970 underscoring the deep-rooted and complex nature of poverty in Ethiopia. The positive developments at the mac...

  12. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.; Adriaanse, P.I.; Horst, ter M.M.S.; Deneer, J.W.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small

  13. Extension Agents' Awareness of Climate Change in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Dagmawi M.; Wims, Padraig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The fact that highly vulnerable countries like Ethiopia face far greater challenges from climate change makes agricultural adaptation a top priority. Even though the public agriculture extension system in Ethiopia plays a central role in facilitating and supporting adaptation, very limited information is available on how aware the actual…

  14. The Practices of Student Network as Cooperative Learning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, Weldemariam Nigusse; Hagos, Girmay Tsegay

    2015-01-01

    Student network is a teaching strategy introduced as cooperative learning to all educational levels above the upper primary schools (grade 5 and above) in Ethiopia. The study was, therefore, aimed at investigating to what extent the student network in Ethiopia is actually practiced in line with the principles of cooperative learning. Consequently,…

  15. Notes from the Field: Baskeet Phonological Sketch and Digital Wordlist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treis, Yvonne; Werth, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In literature, "Baskeet," also known by the Amharic term, "Basketo," is an Omotic language spoken by about 80,000 speakers in the Basketo Special Woreda and in the Melokoza Woreda of the Gamo-Gofa Zone in the Southern Region of Ethiopia. Baskeet (ISO 639-3 code: bst) belongs to the Ometo branch of North Omotic and is hitherto…

  16. Health and medical care in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, R M; Kloos, H

    1988-10-01

    Ethiopia is a country of 45 million people in northeast Africa. With a stagnant, agriculture-based economy and a per capita gross national product of $110 in 1984, it is one of the world's poorest nations. 70% of the children are mildly to severely malnourished, and 25.7% of children born alive die before the age of 5. Life expectancy is 41 years. The population is growing at the rate of 2.9%/year, but only 2% of the people use birth control. After the 1974 revolution, the socialist government nationalized land and created 20,000 peasant associations and kebeles (urban dwellers' associations), which are the units of local government. The government has set ambitious goals for development in all sectors, including health, but famine, near famine, forced resettlement programs, and civil war have prevented any real progress from being made. The government's approach to health care is based on an emphasis on primary health care and expansion of rural health services, but the Ministry of Health is allocated only 3.5% of the national budget. Ethiopia has 3 medical schools -- at Addis Ababa, Gondar, and the Jimma Institute of Health Sciences. Physicians are government employees but also engage in private practice. A major problem is that a large proportion of medical graduates emigrate. Ethiopia has 87 hospitals with 11,296 beds, which comes to 1 bed per 3734 people. There are 1949 health stations and 141 health centers, but many have no physician, and attrition among health workers is high due to lack of ministerial support. Health care is often dispensed legally or illegally by pharmacists. Overall, there is 1 physician for 57,876 people, but in the southwest and west central Ethiopia 1 physician serves between 200,000 and 300,000 people. In rural areas, where 90% of the population lives, 85% live at least 3 days by foot from a rural health unit. Immunization of 1-year olds against tuberculosis, diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles is 11, 6, 6, and

  17. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Gary Eilerts,; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  18. Antenatal care strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Negussie, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health......Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC) strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content...

  19. Reconfiguring Ethiopia: The Politics of Authoritarian Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    reconfigured Ethiopian society and state in the past two decades. Yet, as the contributors to this volume demonstrate, ‘democracy’ in Ethiopia has not changed the authority structures and the culture of centralist decision-making of the past. The political system is tightly engineered and controlled from top...... to bottom by the ruling Ethiopian Peoples’ Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). Navigating between its 1991 announcements to democratise the country and its aversion to power-sharing, the EPRDF has established a de facto one-party state that enjoys considerable international support. This ruling party...

  20. Global mental health: perspectives from Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebaw Fekadu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global mental health (GMH advocates for access to and the equitable provision of mental health care. Although the treatment gap is a useful construct to measure access and equitability of care, it fails to communicate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the urgent need to address care disparities. Objective: The aim of this article is to present a perspective on the practical application of the principles of GMH to understand the real-life impact of the treatment gap and the approaches taken to improve treatment coverage in Ethiopia. Design: A case study method is used. Results: Multiple international collaborations undertaken in Ethiopia and facilitated by GMH to improve care, capacity, and the evidence base for increased treatment coverage are described briefly. A series of steps taken at the local and national levels to address the treatment gap are highlighted. The stories of two patients are also presented to illustrate the real-life consequences of the treatment gap and the potential transformational impact of addressing the treatment gap on patients, families, and communities. Conclusions: GMH has a key role to play in addressing the treatment gap, which improves the life of people with mental disorders, their families, and their communities. However, national-level policy support and coordination are essential for any realistic improvement in treatment coverage. The reflections offered through the case examples may have utility in similar low-income settings.

  1. Geothermal energy and hot springs in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, T. (Hot Springs Therapeutics Research Institute, Kyushu, Univ., Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The hot springs in Ethiopia are concentrated in two areas: the North Afar depression and adjacent Red Sea shore, and a geothermal field 100 km from northeast to southwest in the central part of Ethiopia. The latter extends not only to the Great Rift Valley but also to the Aden Gulf. In the lake district in the central Great Rift Valley, there are a number of hot springs on the lake shore. These are along NE-SW fault lines, and the water is a sodium bicarbonate-type rich in HCO/sub 3/ and Na but low in C1 and Ca. In Dallol in the North Afar depression, CO/sub 2/-containing hot springs with high temperatures (110/sup 0/C) and a specific gravity of 1.4, were observed. In the South Afar depression, located in the northeastern part of the Rift Valley, there are many active volcanoes and hot springs between the lake district and the Danakil depression. The spring water is a sodium bicarbonate saline type. Nine graphs and maps are included.

  2. Land degradation: a challenge to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddese, G

    2001-06-01

    Land degradation is a great threat for the future and it requires great effort and resources to ameliorate. The major causes of land degradation in Ethiopia are the rapid population increase, severe soil loss, deforestation, low vegetative cover and unbalanced crop and livestock production. Inappropriate land-use systems and land-tenure policies enhance desertification and loss of agrobiodiversity. Utilization of dung and crop residues for fuel and other uses disturbs the sustainability of land resources. The supply of inputs such as fertilizer, farm machinery and credits are very low. The balance between crop, livestock, and forest production is disturbed, and the farmer is forced to put more land into crop production. For environmentally and socially sustainable development, there is an urgent need to promote awareness and understanding of the interdependence of natural, socioeconomic, and political systems at local and national levels. Understanding the current status and causes of land degradation is very important. This paper reveals the important elements of land degradation in Ethiopia and suggests possible solutions that may help to ameliorate the situation.

  3. On a mission: training traditional birth attendants in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolino, Alice

    2011-06-01

    Alice Ciolino, a midwife from London spent eight months in Ethiopia with Doctors of the World. Her mission was to train Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Based in the Somali region of Ethiopia, access to healthcare facilities was limited; indeed Kebri Dehar had the only hospital in the region. Here Alice shares her experience of what it is like to live and work in a remote part of the world, far from the medical facilities we take for granted in the West.

  4. Medication administration errors in an intensive care unit in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication administration errors in patient care have been shown to be frequent and serious. Such errors are particularly prevalent in highly technical specialties such as the intensive care unit (ICU). In Ethiopia, the prevalence of medication administration errors in the ICU is not studied. Objective To assess medication administration errors in the intensive care unit of Jimma University Specialized Hospital (JUSH), Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Prospective observation based cross...

  5. Anemia among Primary School Children in Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Firehiwot Mesfin; Yemane Berhane; Alemayehu Worku

    2015-01-01

    Background Anemia during childhood impairs physical growth, cognitive development and school performance. Identifying the causes of anemia in specific contexts can help efforts to prevent negative consequences of anemia among children. The objective of this study was to assess prevalence and identify correlates of anemia among school children in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted from January 2012 to February 2012 in Kersa, Eastern Ethiopia. The study included ran...

  6. Food aid and child nutrition in rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Agnes R. Quisumbing

    2003-01-01

    "Food aid programs have become increasingly important for disaster relief in many developing countries. In Ethiopia, a drought-stricken economy with one of the lowest per capita incomes in the world, food aid has amounted to almost 10 million metric tons (mt) from 1984 to 1998, almost 10 percent of annual cereal production. Because of the importance of food aid in Ethiopia, much effort has been devoted to evaluation of its effectiveness.....Many evaluations of food aid have examined its impac...

  7. Comparative Hydrology in Ethiopia: a learning experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhanu, B.; Terefe, M.; Viglione, A.; Fant, C.; Gebretsadik, Y.; Cullis, J.; Mekonnen, G.; Alamirew, T.; Sivapalan, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ethiopia is climatically and environmentally extremely heterogeneous. The highlands receive a lot of rainfall (more than 2000 mm/year) concentrated in only three months. Most of Ethiopian runoff is produced in these highlands (part of this water reaches the Mediterranean sea through the Nile river). Lowlands vary from forests to deserts. The hottest place on earth is there (the Danakil depression, more than 150 meters below see level). This makes the spatial and temporal variability of hydrologic signatures very strong in the country. We present the results of a comparative hydrology exercise performed during a three-week Winter Research Workshop held in Addis Ababa during Christmas time this year. There, a new institution, the Ethiopian Institute of Water Resources (EIWR), and a new education program (18 PhD + 24 MSc) has been started less than one year ago. Instead of the traditional approach of education, based on lectures, reading and exercises, a learner-centered approach has been used: the students have been asked to collect available rainfall and runoff data, to interpret them by comparing and contrasting different catchments in the country, to develop conceptual models and use them to critically test ideas. The R software has been used in the workshop for two reason: (1) its flexibility makes it an ideal language for learner-centered education, since students can easily define new functions and extensions and can autonomously develop and test their hypothesis; (2) it is open source, light and free of charge, which makes it particularly appealing in developing countries like Ethiopia.

  8. Ethiopia officially announced national population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In comprehensive efforts to rehabilitate the shattered social and economic structure and to lay down a strong foundation for sustainable development, the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) has officially adopted a National Population Policy on July 12, 1993. The major goals of the newly adopted National Population Policy (NPP) include the harmonization of the rate of population growth with the capacity of the country for development, and the rational utilization of resources, thereby creating conditions conducive to the improvement of the welfare of the population. Thus, the NPP will be pursuing the following objectives: 1) closing the gap between high population growth and low economic productivity through planned reduction of population growth and increasing economic returns; 2) expediting economic and social development processes through holistic, integrated development programs designed to expedite the structural differentiation of the economy and employment; 3) reducing the rate of rural to urban migration; 4) maintaining/improving the carrying capacity of the environment by taking appropriate environmental protection/conservation measures; 5) raising the economic and social status of women by freeing them from the restrictions and drudgeries of traditional life and making it possible for them to participate productively in the larger community; 6) significantly improving the social and economic status of vulnerable groups (women, youth, children, and the elderly). The task of harmonizing the rate of population growth with the tempo of economic and social development requires the involvement and collaboration of a number of governmental and nongovernmental agencies. The UNFPA Governing Council had approved the allocation of 95 million Ethiopian Birr to Ethiopia. This assistance may be increased in the next few years if the financial situation permits.

  9. Geothermal exploitation activity by the United Nations in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, H. (Geological Survey of Japan)

    1971-01-01

    The Rift Valley in Ethiopia was investigated for geothermal exploitation by the United Nations because it has Quaternary volcanoes which often indicate possible geothermal power generation. Preparations for the project are still being made, and the chemical analysis of hot springs is being conducted. The Rift Valley has high temperature springs and potential mineral deposits. The Danakil basin in Ethiopia which is included in the Northern Afar, has several active volcanoes made up of basalt deposits and has active hot springs. The East Africa Rift Valley, the Red Sea Rift Valley, and the Afar area are also areas suitable for investigation. Seven maps are included.

  10. Revisiting resistance in Italian-occupied Ethiopia : the Patriots' Movement (1936-1941) and the redefinition of post-war Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    During the Italian occupation of Ethiopia (1936-1941) a significant indigenous resistance movement, the Patriots' Movement, emerged. The nature and impact of this resistance is reconsidered by highlighting aspects of its role in 'redefining Ethiopia', its internal policy and its position in the glob

  11. The Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea project concluded with a fourth Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium held in Uppsala, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    En beretning om afslutningen af det etiopiske floraprojekt, udgivelsen i 10 bind af florahåndbogen Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea og det fjerde Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea-symposium afholdt i Uppsala den 9. til den 12. november 2009....

  12. Teacher Preparation in Ethiopia: A Critical Analysis of Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semela, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a more comprehensive picture of teacher preparation in Ethiopia on top of a closer scrutiny of current teacher education reforms. In particular, it presents teacher education within the context of policy implementation over the last six decades by highlighting key reforms and how these reforms impacted the…

  13. Growth and Visual Information Processing in Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Tay; Thomas, David G.; Woltamo, Tesfaye; Abebe, Yewelsew; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Sykova, Vladimira; Stoecker, Barbara J.; Hambidge, K. Michael

    2008-01-01

    Speed of information processing and recognition memory can be assessed in infants using a visual information processing (VIP) paradigm. In a sample of 100 infants 6-8 months of age from Southern Ethiopia, we assessed relations between growth and VIP. The 69 infants who completed the VIP protocol had a mean weight z score of -1.12 plus or minus…

  14. Sustaining reservoir use through sediment trapping in NW Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Getahun, Mulatie Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    To increase crop production and improve food self-sufficiency, rain-fed agriculture need to be supplemented with irrigated agriculture. To this end, a large number of reservoirs had been constructed in Ethiopia. However, reservoirs are suffering from sedimentation. This study was conducted in Minizr

  15. Quality Education Reform and Aid Effectiveness: Reflections from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Chris; Bogale, Solomon Shiferaw

    2011-01-01

    Ethiopia is a large country in the Horn of Africa. It has a diverse population of eighty million people who speak over thirty distinct languages. Approximately 80% of the population live in rural areas and rely on subsistence agriculture. Despite economic growth and an abundance of natural resources, it is a country with a per-capita income of…

  16. Outcomes of Orphanhood in Ethiopia: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the question of whether parental death always has a strongly negative effect on children's outcomes using quantitative and qualitative data from Young Lives, a longitudinal study of childhood poverty in Ethiopia. It investigates the validity of potential mediating factors identified by other studies in Sub-Saharan Africa using…

  17. Development and management of irrigated lands in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eyasu, Y.H.

    2005-01-01

    Ethiopia is one of the poorest countries in the world. It is characterised by famine as a result of high population pressure, resource base degradation, and insufficient rainfall for rainfed agriculture. On the other hand, it is endowed with a huge annual water resource potential of about 110 billio

  18. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  19. The transitional semi-evergreen bushland in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Friis, Ib; Sebsebe, Demissew

    2016-01-01

    Question: Evergreen bushlands in Ethiopia have been inadequately studied and mapped. We address the question whether there is a transitional semi-ever-green bushland on the eastern escarpment of the Ethiopian Highlands, with unique floristic characteristics that distinguish it from the evergreen ...

  20. What Community Participation in Schooling Means: Insights from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift-Morgan, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    Community participation is a term frequently used and often cited in international educational development. In this article, Jennifer Swift-Morgan investigates the definition and impact of community participation in schooling in rural Ethiopia. Although national governments, development agencies, and nongovernmental organizations across the…

  1. The Analysis of Potato Farming Systems in Chencha, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersseh, Waga Mazengia; Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse; Schulte, R.P.O.; Struik, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    A household survey was conducted for mixed farming systems in Chencha, Ethiopia. Goals of the survey were to establish a baseline for the current production system, to quantify the variation in input and output, and to identify constraints hindering expansion of potato production. Descriptive sta

  2. Factors Affecting the Financing Policy of Commercial Banks in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W/Michael Shibru

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining the optimal capital structure is one of the most fundamental policy decisions faced by financial managers. Since optimal debt ratio influences firm’s value, different firms determine capital structures at different levels to maximize the value of their firms. Thus, this study examines the relationship between leverage and firm specific (profitability, tangibility, growth, risk, size and liquidity determinants of capital structure decision, and the theories of capital structure that can explain the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In order to investigate these issues a mixed method research approach is utilized, by combining documentary analysis and in-depth interviews. More specifically, the study uses twelve years (2000 - 2011 data for eight banks in Ethiopia.   The findings show that profitability, size, tangibility and liquidity of the banks are important determinants of capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. However, growth and risk of banks are found to have no statistically significant impact on the capital structure of banks in Ethiopia. In addition, the results of the analysis indicate that pecking order theory is pertinent theory in Ethiopian banking industry, whereas there are little evidence to support static trade-off theory and the agency cost theory. Therefore, banks should give consideration to profitability, size, liquidity and tangibility when they determine their optimum capital structure.

  3. Household waste disposal in Mekelle city, Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse Woeldesenbet, T.; Ruijs, A.J.W.; Hagos, F.

    2008-01-01

    In many cities of developing countries, such as Mekelle (Ethiopia), waste management is poor and solid wastes are dumped along roadsides and into open areas, endangering health and attracting vermin. The effects of demographic factors, economic and social status, waste and environmental attributes o

  4. The Honey and Beeswax Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: coordination group, or CG) for stakeholders of the honey and bees wax value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to improve

  5. Micronutrient deficiencies in Ethiopia and their inter-relationships.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolde-Gebriel, Z.

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide study on the prevalence of xerophthalmia was carried out in 6,636 children aged 6 months to 6 years in all the Regions of Ethiopia except Eritrea and Tigrai which were excluded for security reasons. Bitot's spots were observed in 1.0% of all children with higher prevalence in the pastor

  6. A review of toxoplasmosis in humans and animals in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Tiao, N; Gebreyes, W A; Jones, J L

    2012-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis caused by the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, is a worldwide zoonosis. In this paper published information on toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia is reviewed. Limited data indicate that the prevalence of T. gondii in humans in Ethiopia is very high, up to 41% of children aged 1-5 years were reported to be seropositive. There is little information on seroprevalence data in pregnant women and no data on congenital toxoplasmosis in children. About 1 million adults in Ethiopia are considered to be infected with HIV with less than one-third likely receive highly active antiviral therapy. Based on a conservative T. gondii seroprevalence of 50%, thousands might die of concurrent opportunistic infections, including toxoplasmosis. However, exact figures are not available, and most serological surveys are not current. Serological surveys indicate up to 79% of goats and sheep have T. gondii antibodies. However, there is no information on losses due to toxoplasmosis in livestock or the presence of viable T. gondii in any host in Ethiopia.

  7. Examining Some Aspects of Alternative Basic Education Programmes in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Agu, Augustine

    2010-01-01

    This study examines some aspects of the quality of Alternative Basic Education (ABE) provision in Ethiopia. Educational indicators of quality were formulated under two general topic areas of ABE programme process and content, and pupil learning outcomes. A qualitative-interpretative research approach and survey design was used to collect data from…

  8. Soil carbon and nitrogen losses following deforestation in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia have faced vast exploitation and almost all these forests have been converted to agricultural lands. The disappearance of the forests has been most drastic during the past 100 years and has affected the functionality and stability of agroecosystem. The dynamics in...

  9. Determinants of Children's Schooling: The Case of Tigray Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafita, Jemal; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the determinants of educational outcomes of primary school children in Tigray region of Ethiopia using a survey data gathered from four villages in 2013. Four different measures of schooling were used to examine the impact of household and child-specific factors. First, we examine the determinants of school attendance (ever-attendance,…

  10. Hemoglobin, Growth, and Attention of Infants in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon-Endsley, Nicki L.; Grant, Stephanie L.; Berhanu, Getenesh; Thomas, David G.; Schrader, Sarah E.; Eldridge, Devon; Kennedy, Tay; Hambidge, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Male and female infants from rural Ethiopia were tested to investigate relations among hemoglobin (Hb), anthropometry, and attention. A longitudinal design was used to examine differences in attention performance from 6 (M = 24.9 weeks, n = 89) to 9 months of age (M = 40.6 weeks, n = 85), differences hypothesized to be related to changes in iron…

  11. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagwiza, Clarietta; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, Ruerd

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of cooperative membership among dairy producers in Selale, Ethiopia. We selected ten impact indicators: proportion of dairy income to total household income, total dairy income, proportion of crossbreed cows to the total number of cows in the herd (indicator of tech

  12. Cooperative membership and dairy performance among smallholders in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chagwiza, C.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of cooperative membership among dairy producers in Selale, Ethiopia. We selected ten impact indicators: proportion of dairy income to total household income, total dairy income, proportion of crossbreed cows to the total number of cows in the herd (indicator of technol

  13. Food choices in Ethiopia: Does nutritional information matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, A.D.; Beuving, J.J.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a framed market experiment conducted to examine whether milk choices are responsive to changes in the nutritional characteristics of milk products. Using a random-effect Tobit model, we analyzed experimental data collected from 160 participants in urban Ethiopia. It

  14. Twenty years of revolutionary democratic Ethiopia, 1991 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagmann, Tobias; Abbink, Jon

    2011-01-01

    with a short summary of these 11 papers, but then moves to a substantive review of Ethiopia's political history over the past two decades, featuring consideration of the extent of transformation and continuity under the ruling Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), the importance...

  15. The Edible Oil and Oilseeds Value Chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Mandefro (Fenta); S. Drost (Sarah); J.C.A.C. van Wijk (Jeroen)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis report investigates the dynamics of a multi-stakeholder platform (named: Coordination Group, or CG) for stakeholders of the oilseeds and edible oil value chains in Ethiopia. The CG was initiated by the Dutch development organisation SNV in 2005 as part of a broader programme to imp

  16. Poverty and inequality in Ethiopia: 1995/96-2004/05

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Hoddinott, J.; Dercon, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores trends in poverty and inequality, and the role of growth, inequality and sectoral changes in the evolution of poverty in Ethiopia between 1996 and 2005. We find that while poverty remains widespread, it declined markedly over this period. However, while inequality remained unchan

  17. Development Strategy for the Export- Oriented Horticulture in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The export-oriented horticulture sector in Ethiopia has been growing rapidly and forms an important element in the country’s efforts to expand and diversify the economy, raise export earnings and create employment. This rapid growth is remarkable particularly when placed in a historic context. Furth

  18. Cystic hydatidosis in Ethiopia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Kassa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis is a cestode infection caused by the larval stage of Echinocococcus granulosus. It is an important zonoses, as humans get infected by ingesting eggs passed in the feces of dogs, and important cause of economic loss mainly due to organ condemnation and reducing the quality of meat, milk, and wool production. Hydatidosis is prevalent in cattle and small ruminant population of Ethiopia in a range of 3.1% to 72.44%. The prevalence rate reaches up to 30.8% in camels and 25% in dogs. Very few retrospective and case reports of cystic human hydatidosis also indicated the relevance of the disease in the human population of the country. Besides to the scarcity of reports the slow growing nature of disease development may result in underestimation of the situation. Economic losses in a range of 3201 to 1,167,512 USD have been reported in the country. Diagnosis of the larvae in the intermediate hosts, especially in humans, is mainly by imaging and immunology techniques. During post mortem examination the cyst can be diagnosed during meat inspection procedures in lungs, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, muscle bones and other tissues of intermediate hosts. In the definitive host diagnosis can be by demonstration of the parasite from there faces or the small intestine or the detection of specific coproantigens or coproDNA. The role of holistic and systematic interventions approaches involving the public, veterinarians and public health professional for the action to be simultaneous and effectual along with prevalence of hydatidosis are highlighted in the present review.

  19. Microbiology of discharging ears in Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Getachew Tesfaye; Daniel Asrat; Yimtubezinash Woldeamanuel; Messele Gizaw

    2009-01-01

    Objectives:To isolate and identify the bacterial etiologic agents,including their antibiotic susceptibility pat-tern isolated from patients with discharging ear infections.Methods:Between September 2006 and February 2007,178 patients with discharging ear visiting ENT clinics of St.Paul and Tikur Anbessa University Hospi-tals Addis Ababa,Ethiopia were investigated.Results:Of the patients investigated,52.8% were males and 47.2% were females resulting in an overall male to female ratio of 1.1:1.Ear discharge was the commonest clinical finding followed by hearing problem (91.2%),otalgia (ear pain)(74.7%),fever (17.9%)and itching of external ear (5.1%).S.aureus accounted for 30.2% of the total isolates followed by Proteus ssp. (P.mirabilis,P.vulgaris )(25.4%),and P.aeruginosa (13.4%).Both gram positive and negative bac-teria isolated from ear infections showed low resistance rates to most antimicrobial agents tested.Overall ceftri-axone and ciprofloxacin were the most effective drugs when compared to other drugs tested against the gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.Conclusion:Otitis media was the most common clinical finding in pa-tients with ear infection.With discharging ear,the gram-negative bacteria were the predominant isolates.The susceptibility pattern of isolates from the study showed that ceftriaxone,ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective drugs.It is recommended that treatment of ear infections should be based on culture and sensi-tivity at the study sites.Therefore,efforts should be directed towards early diagnosis and treatment of acute ear infection and continued re-evaluation of the resistant patterns of organisms to optimize treatments and reduce complications.

  20. Ethiopia: between Sub-Saharan Africa and western Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, A; Moreau, C; Yotova, V; Xiao, F; Bourgeois, S; Gehl, D; Bertranpetit, J; Schurr, E; Labuda, D

    2005-05-01

    Ethiopia is central to population genetic studies investigating the out of Africa expansion of modern humans, as shown by Y chromosome and mtDNA studies. To address the level of genetic differentiation within Ethiopia, and its relationship to Sub-Saharan Africa and Eurasia, we studied an 8 kb segment of the X-chromosome from 72 chromosomes from the Amhara, Oromo and Ethiopian Jews, and compared these results with 804 chromosomes from Middle Eastern, African, Asian and European populations, and 22 newly typed Saharawi. Within Ethiopia the two largest ethnic groups, the Amhara and Oromo, were not found to be statistically distinct, based on an exact test of haplotype frequencies. The Ethiopian Jews appear as an admixed population, possibly of Jewish origin, though the data remain equivocal. There is evidence of a close relationship between Ethiopian and Yemenite Jews, likely a result of indirect gene flow. Within an African and Eurasian context, the distribution of alleles of a variable T(n) repeat, and the spread of haplotypes containing Africa-specific alleles, provide evidence of a genetic continuity from Sub-Saharan Africa to the Near East, and furthermore suggest that a bottleneck occurred in Ethiopia associated with an out of Africa expansion. Ethiopian genetic heterogeneity, as evidenced by principal component analysis of haplotype frequencies, most likely resulted from periods of subsequent admixture. While these results are from the analysis of one locus, we feel that in association with data from other marker systems they add a complementary perspective on the history of Ethiopia.

  1. Reducing Maternal Deaths in Ethiopia: Results of an Intervention Programme in Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitiku, Demissew; Zidda, Zillo; Yaya, Yaliso

    2017-01-01

    Background In a large population in Southwest Ethiopia (population 700,000), we carried out a complex set of interventions with the aim of reducing maternal mortality. This study evaluated the effects of several coordinated interventions to help improve effective coverage and reduce maternal deaths. Together with the Ministry of Health in Ethiopia, we designed a project to strengthen the health-care system. A particular emphasis was given to upgrade existing institutions so that they could carry out Basic (BEmOC) and Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC). Health institutions were upgraded by training non-clinical physicians and midwives by providing the institutions with essential and basic equipment, and by regular monitoring and supervision by staff competent in emergency obstetric work. Results In this implementation study, the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was the primary outcome. The study was carried out from 2010 to 2013 in three districts, and we registered 38,312 births. The MMR declined by 64% during the intervention period from 477 to 219 deaths per 100,000 live births (OR 0.46; 95% CI 0.24–0.88). The decline in MMR was higher for the districts with CEmOC, while the mean number of antenatal visits for each woman was 2.6 (Inter Quartile Range 2–4). The percentage of pregnant women who attended four or more antenatal controls increased by 20%, with the number of women who delivered at home declining by 10.5% (Ptraditional birth attendants. Households living near to all-weather roads had lower maternal mortality rates (MMR 220) compared with households without roads (MMR 598; OR 2.72 (95% CI 1.61–4.61)). Conclusions Our results show that it is possible to achieve substantial reductions in maternal mortality rates over a short period of time if the effective coverage of well-known interventions is implemented. PMID:28046036

  2. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    d’Avigdor, Elizabeth; Wohlmuth, Hans; Asfaw, Zemede; Awas, Tesfaye

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an e...

  3. Assessment of Breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia using different data mining techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abebe Alemu; Yosef Berhanu; Dr. M. Mahalkshmi

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding is one of the critical issues in Ethiopia because researches show that 24.0% - 27.0% of infant death in Ethiopia is due to poor breastfeeding practices. UNICEF has been reported that a good promotion of breastfeeding practices is a most important strategic plan to reduce child mortality in developed and developing countries. Hence, it is important to identifying the determinate factors of poor breastfeeding practice, especially poor countries like Ethiopia. Poor Breastfeeding is...

  4. Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalew MB

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mohammed Biset Ayalew Department of Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Self-medication patterns vary among different populations, and are influenced by many factors. No review has been done that comprehensively expresses self-medication practice in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on self-medication practice in Ethiopia.Materials and methods: Databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and Hinari were searched for published studies on the practice of self-medication in Ethiopia without restriction in the year of publication or methodology. Some studies were also identified through manual Google search. Primary search terms were “self medication”, “Ethiopia”, “self care”, “non-prescription”, “OTC drug use”, “drug utilization”, and “drug hoarding”. Studies that measured knowledge only or attitude only or beliefs only and did not determine the practice of self-medication were excluded.Results: The database search produced a total of 450 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 articles were found suitable for the review. All studies were cross-sectional in nature. The prevalence of self-medication varied from 12.8% to 77.1%, with an average of 36.8%. Fever/headache, gastrointestinal tract diseases, and respiratory diseases were the commonest illnesses/symptoms for which self-medication was taken. The major reasons for practicing self-medication were previous experience of treating a similar illness and feeling that the illness was mild. Analgesics/antipyretics, antimicrobials, gastrointestinal drugs, and respiratory drugs were the common drug classes used in self-medication. Mainly, these drugs were obtained from drug-retail outlets. The use of self-medication was commonly suggested by pharmacy professionals and friends

  5. Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam: Implications for Downstream Riparian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P. J.; Hammond, M.; King, A.

    2013-12-01

    Ethiopia has begun seriously developing their significant hydropower potential by launching construction of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile River to facilitate local and regional growth. Although this has required substantial planning on Ethiopia's part, no policy dictating the reservoir filling rate strategy has been publicly issued. This filling stage will have clear implications on downstream flows in Sudan and Egypt, complicated by evaporative losses, climate variability, and climate change. In this study, various filling policies and future climate states are simultaneously explored to infer potential streamflow reductions at Lake Nasser, providing regional decision-makers with a set of plausible, justifiable, and comparable outcomes. Schematic of the model framework Box plots of 2017-2032 percent change in annual average streamflow at Lake Nasser for each filling policy constructed from the 100 time-series and weighted precipitation changes. All values are relative to the no dam policy and no changes to future precipitation.

  6. Bartonella Prevalence and Genetic Diversity in Small Mammals from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meheretu, Yonas; Leirs, Herwig E.l.; Welegerima, Kiros;

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp of the Barto......More than 500 small mammals were trapped at 3 localities in northern Ethiopia to investigate Bartonella infection prevalence and the genetic diversity of the Bartonella spp. We extracted total DNA from liver samples and performed PCR using the primers 1400F and 2300R targeting 852 bp...... of the Bartonella RNA polymerase beta subunit (rpoB) gene. We used a generalized linear mixed model to relate the probability of Bartonella infection to species, season, locality, habitat, sex, sexual condition, weight, and ectoparasite infestation. Overall, Bartonella infection prevalence among the small mammals...

  7. Domestic violence against women in Kersa, Oromia region, eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanko, W.; Wolday, M.; Assefa, N.

    2013-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross-sectional in......Intimate partner violence is common in rural areas of Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and prevalence of domestic violence among women in Kersa district of Oromia region and identify the types, perpetuators and triggers for violence. A community-based cross......-sectional interview-based survey was conducted in 2008 on 858 women of reproductive age. Only 39.7% of women reported that they recognized that violence against women was a problem in their area. Ever experience of violence by an intimate partner was reported by 166 women (19.6%) and 70.3% of the perpetuators were...

  8. Special Report: Political Violence and Democratic Uncertainty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-01

    Washington, D.C. • María otero (Vice Chair), President, ACCION International, Boston, Mass. • Betty f. Bumpers, Founder and former President, Peace Links...well- planned intervention by Ethiopian forces in December 2006. Aside from its regional implications, the conflict suggests a smolder- ing tension among...from a national census of vital bureaucratic and administrative importance in a decentralized state such as Ethiopia, it is an invalu- able planning

  9. Changing educational aspirations of children living in poverty in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Using both qualitative and quantitative data, this paper examines the changing educational and occupational aspirations and educational achievements of children living in poor communities in Ethiopia. The results suggest that children had high aspirations at an earlier age but that these changed later, with poverty rarely influencing their earlier aspirations but having a strong impact later on. Children with high educational achievement, mostly urban children and some rural girls, maintained...

  10. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  11. Network Science Center Research Teams Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    constructed of bamboo which is abundant in Ethiopia and is a very durable material. Another example is a solar-powered lamp in which the battery charges...headquarters complex was inaugurated in Addis Ababa on 28 January 2012. The complex was built by China State Construction Engineering 3 | P a g e...German Government in achieving its objectives in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development. Construction of Road

  12. Prevalence and risk factors of malaria in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele Dawit G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 75% of the total area of Ethiopia is malarious, making malaria the leading public health problem in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence rate and the associated socio-economic, geographic and demographic factors of malaria based on the rapid diagnosis test (RDT survey results. Methods From December 2006 to January 2007, a baseline malaria indicator survey in Amhara, Oromiya and Southern Nation Nationalities and People (SNNP regions of Ethiopia was conducted by The Carter Center. This study uses this data. The method of generalized linear model was used to analyse the data and the response variable was the presence or absence of malaria using the rapid diagnosis test (RDT. Results The analyses show that the RDT result was significantly associated with age and gender. Other significant covariates confounding variables are source of water, trip to obtain water, toilet facility, total number of rooms, material used for walls, and material used for roofing. The prevalence of malaria for households with clean water found to be less. Malaria rapid diagnosis found to be higher for thatch and stick/mud roof and earth/local dung plaster floor. Moreover, spraying anti-malaria to the house was found to be one means of reducing the risk of malaria. Furthermore, the housing condition, source of water and its distance, gender, and ages in the households were identified in order to have two-way interaction effects. Conclusion Individuals with poor socio-economic conditions are positively associated with malaria infection. Improving the housing condition of the household is one of the means of reducing the risk of malaria. Children and female household members are the most vulnerable to the risk of malaria. Such information is essential to design improved strategic intervention for the reduction of malaria epidemic in Ethiopia.

  13. Review and quantitative assessment of ex situ household rainwater harvesting systems in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moges, G.; Hengsdijk, H.; Jansen, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    Ex situ household rainwater harvesting (RWH) systems have been introduced at a large scale in Ethiopia to increase the water availability for smallholders through supplementary irrigation. The first objective of this paper is to review the performance of these systems in Ethiopia based on various as

  14. Local leadership and State governance in southern Ethiopia : from charisma to bureaucracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Vaughan, O.

    2003-01-01

    Based on the study of chiefs, elders and local leaders in southern Ethiopia, this paper analyses the idea of authority, legitimacy and governance among three small-scale societies, the Meén, the Dizi and the Suri. It shows that in southern Ethiopia efforts were made to replace charismatic and tradit

  15. Disaster, relief and political change in southern Ethiopia : developments from within Suri society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Sorenson, J.

    1995-01-01

    This chapter describes responses to the ecological crisis and political changes in Ethiopia in the early 1990s among the Suri, an agropastoral group in Käfa Region, southern Ethiopia. Data are derived from fieldwork carried out in the area after the change of regime in 1991. Attention is paid to env

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 87 Aeronautics... Regulation No. 87—Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Ethiopia 1... SFAR, no person described in paragraph 1 may conduct flight operations within the territory...

  17. Feed resources, livestock production and soil carbon dynamics in Teghane, Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.; Keulen, van H.; Oosting, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    In the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia, integrated crop-livestock production within smallholder farms is the dominant form of agricultural production. Feed availability and quality are serious constraints to livestock production in Ethiopia in general, and in its Northern Highlands in particular. The

  18. Five thousand years of sustainability? : a case study on Gedeo land use (Southern Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kippie Kanshie, T.

    2002-01-01

    Key words : Ethiopia, Gedeo, ensete , pacemaker , spacemaker , placemaker, agroforest, agro-ecosystem, sustainability, biodiversity.The present volume is a study of an ancient way of land use, over five thousand years old, by the Gedeo in Ethiopia. The densely

  19. Empty pockets, empty ponds? Disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wakeyo, M.B.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses disadoption of water harvesting technologies in Ethiopia where the average disadiption rate in the sample areas is as high as 42%. Given that Ethiopia is a drought-prone country with 95% of its crop production being rain-fed, such a high disadoption rate for irrigation technologi

  20. 78 FR 16029 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive this restriction....

  1. 76 FR 61134 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7086(c)(2) of... Section 7086(c)(1) of the Act with respect to Ethiopia and I hereby waive such restriction....

  2. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  3. Wages in the food chain in Ethiopia: WageIndicator survey 2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; Besamusca, J.; Asteraye, N.

    2013-01-01

    This WageIndicator Data Report presents the results of the face-to-face WageIndicator survey in Ethiopia, conducted between the 2rd of March and the 20th of May 2013 in all provinces of Ethiopia. In total 2,126 persons were interviewed; 53% were men, 47% women and 48% were under 30 years of age. The

  4. Theileria infection in domestic ruminants in northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Hailu, Asrat; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Rohoušová, Iva; Maia, Carla; Talmi-Frank, Dalit; Warburg, Alon; Baneth, Gad

    2014-02-24

    Piroplasmosis caused by different tick-borne hemoprotozoan parasites of the genera Theileria and Babesia is among the most economically important infections of domestic ruminants in sub-Saharan Africa. A survey for piroplasm infection was conducted in three locations in Northern Ethiopia. Of 525 domestic ruminants surveyed, 80% of the cattle, 94% of the sheep and 2% of the goats were positive for different Theileria spp. based on PCR of blood followed by DNA sequencing. Sheep had a significantly higher rate of infection compared with cattle (PTheileria were detected in cattle: T. velifera, T. mutans, T. orientalis complex and T. annulata with infection rates of 66, 8, 4, and 2%, respectively. This is the first report of T. annulata, the cause of Tropical Theileriosis in Ethiopia. Of the two Theileria spp. detected in small ruminants, T. ovis was highly prevalent (92%) in sheep and rare in goats (1.5%) whereas T. seperata was infrequent in sheep (2%) and rare in goats (0.4%). None of the animals were positive for Babesia spp.; however, Sarcocystis capracanis and S. tenella were detected in one goat and a sheep, respectively. The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. among cattle in northern Ethiopia including the virulent T. annulata and more mildly pathogenic T. mutans and T. orientalis, and the high infection rate in sheep with the usually sub-clinical T. ovis indicate extensive exposure to ticks and transmission of piroplasms with an important economic impact.

  5. Campaigning against female genital mutilation in Ethiopia using popular education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadacini, B; Nichols, P

    1998-07-01

    In Ethiopia, the Italian Association for Women in Development (AIDOS) has been working with Ethiopia's National Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children for 5 years. AIDOS began working on female genital mutilation in the early 1980s and rejects charges of cultural imperialism that are applied to Northern organizations attempting to help African organizations address this violation of universal human rights. In Ethiopia, 85% of women are mutilated, with most undergoing Sunna, or removal of the prepuce of the clitoris. The joint project seeks to increase awareness about the health consequences of female genital mutilation in the target group. The primary technique used is provision of training of trainers courses and presentation of four modular units and audiovisual materials specifically designed for use with socially influential women, male and female secondary school students, community leaders, and health workers. In addition, an information/education campaign uses videos and sound and slide shows with accompanying story books. A second category of communication tools was developed for a mass information campaign, including radio spots, posters, information leaflets, and a newsletter. When the project was ready for expansion into the southern region of the country, it became clear that a new participatory communication strategy was required to stimulate discussion, such as the use of role playing and theater. Working together, the two organizations have successfully confronted project constraints such as the difficulty in assessing project impact, scheduling problems, and gender-biased assess to information.

  6. Leishmaniasis recidivans in Ethiopia: cutaneous and mucocutaneous features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassoni, Federica; Daba, Frehiwot; Naafs, Bernard; Morrone, Aldo

    2017-01-30

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in Ethiopia. An unusual clinical form of this disease is leishmaniasis recidivans (LR), a prolonged, relapsing form of cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling tuberculosis of the skin that may persist for many years with a chronic and relapsing course. This rare variant has been shown to be caused by Leishmania tropica species in the Old World and by Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania panamensis, and Leishmania guyanensis in the New World, as reported in various studies. To our knowledge, there are no reports from Ethiopia, and mucocutaneous involvement of LR has not been described to date. This was a retrospective analysis of the patients seen at the Italian Dermatological Center in Mekelle on the Tigrean highlands over a three-year period (2008-2011). Seven patients with typical clinical features of LR were seen. Two of them presented with signs of mucosal involvement. To date, Leishmania aethiopica is shown to be the only species causing CL that is endemic in the Ethiopian highlands. Therefore, it had to be assumed that the lesions in these patients were caused by this species. The aims of this communication are to report, for the first time, the presence of LR, most likely due to Leishmania aethiopica, in Ethiopia, and to report mucosal involvement in this rare clinical form of CL.

  7. Seasonal Water Balance Forecasts for Drought Early Warning in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Christoph; Bhend, Jonas; Liniger, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Droughts severely impact Ethiopian agricultural production. Successful early warning for drought conditions in the upcoming harvest season therefore contributes to better managing food shortages arising from adverse climatic conditions. So far, however, meteorological seasonal forecasts have not been used in Ethiopia's national food security early warning system (i.e. the LEAP platform). Here we analyse the forecast quality of seasonal forecasts of total rainfall and of the meteorological water balance as a proxy for plant available water. We analyse forecast skill of June to September rainfall and water balance from dynamical seasonal forecast systems, the ECMWF System4 and EC-EARTH global forecasting systems. Rainfall forecasts outperform forecasts assuming a stationary climate mainly in north-eastern Ethiopia - an area that is particularly vulnerable to droughts. Forecasts of the water balance index seem to be even more skilful and thus more useful than pure rainfall forecasts. The results vary though for different lead times and skill measures employed. We further explore the potential added value of dynamically downscaling the forecasts through several dynamical regional climate models made available through the EU FP7 project EUPORIAS. Preliminary results suggest that dynamically downscaled seasonal forecasts are not significantly better compared with seasonal forecasts from the global models. We conclude that seasonal forecasts of a simple climate index such as the water balance have the potential to benefit drought early warning in Ethiopia, both due to its positive predictive skill and higher usefulness than seasonal mean quantities.

  8. Women's autonomy and maternal health-seeking behavior in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam; Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2010-11-01

    This paper examines the net effect of women's autonomy on their health seeking behavior in Ethiopia. We hypothesize that women with higher autonomy are more likely to seek health care during pregnancy and delivery than those with lower autonomy. The paper also examines whether the autonomy-health utilization relationship is influenced by individual (education, work status, religion) and, household (wealth and rural-urban residence) level factors, all of which are important for both autonomy and health-care utilization. Results indicate that women's autonomy remains significant even after adjusting for other individual and household variables. Besides autonomy, our results highlight other individual and household level influences on the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. Results also demonstrate the need to look beyond individual level factors when examining the health seeking behaviors of women in Ethiopia. The statistical significance of some individual-level measures, such as education means it cannot be used as proxy for women's autonomy. This calls for policy makers not only to empower women, but also provide them with better formal education.

  9. Climatic trends over Ethiopia: regional signals and drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.; Funk, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses observed and projected climatic trends over Ethiopia, through analysis of temperature and rainfall records and related meteorological fields. The observed datasets include gridded station records and reanalysis products; while projected trends are analysed from coupled model simulations drawn from the IPCC 4th Assessment. Upward trends in air temperature of + 0.03 °C year−1 and downward trends in rainfall of − 0.4 mm month−1 year−1 have been observed over Ethiopia's southwestern region in the period 1948-2006. These trends are projected to continue to 2050 according to the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab model using the A1B scenario. Large scale forcing derives from the West Indian Ocean where significant warming and increased rainfall are found. Anticyclonic circulations have strengthened over northern and southern Africa, limiting moisture transport from the Gulf of Guinea and Congo. Changes in the regional Walker and Hadley circulations modulate the observed and projected climatic trends. Comparing past and future patterns, the key features spread westward from Ethiopia across the Sahel and serve as an early warning of potential impacts.

  10. Teaching the right hydrology with minimum resources in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuis, Tammo; Collick, Amy; Wondie, Ayalew; Jemberu, Tsehai

    2010-05-01

    This presentation will highlight our experience in teaching 19 Master's students from diverse backgrounds hydrology and watershed management in Ethiopia. Although the program was based at Bahir Dar University on the shores of Lake Tana in Ethiopia, the students received an US degree. The goal was to train professionals who can help to institute more effective and sustainable watershed management practices in Ethiopia. Teaching hydrology was a challenge. From the literature and personal observation, it was obvious that the traditional techniques of predicting runoff based on infiltration excess runoff and SCS curve number method were not satisfactory. Saturation excess runoff was more likely. However there was no research to prove that it actually was the case. In class we taught both runoff principles but stressed the saturation excess runoff. It was impossible to convince the students that the techniques that came from the western world be incorrect. For their Masters thesis, eight students did field research on runoff and erosion processes in watershed (some of which has a long record of discharge and sediment data). The students recorded water table heights, measured infiltration rates and determined where most erosion took place in the landscape. Based on this data they modeled the previously observed discharge successful using a saturation excess type model. From these studies we could establish that saturation in the landscape had a great effect on both runoff and sediment losses. As result of the field work, students had changed their mind about the appropriateness of using for example the SCS curve number method in Ethiopian highlands Perhaps the lesson to be learned is that we do not need a lot of funds to teach students the right hydrology. However, there is no substitute for going out in the field and experiencing what the right hydrology is by studying the processes in the landscape itself. By simply teaching in class, students will and cannot accept

  11. Surface water risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Ter Horst, Mechteld M S; Deneer, John W; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    Scenarios for future use in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia were designed for 3 separate Ethiopian locations, which are aimed to be protective for the whole of Ethiopia. The scenarios estimate concentrations in surface water resulting from agricultural use of pesticides for a small stream and for two types of small ponds. Seven selected pesticides were selected since they were estimated to bear the highest risk to humans on the basis of volume of use, application rate and acute and chronic human toxicity, assuming exposure as a result of the consumption of surface water. Potential ecotoxicological risks were not considered as a selection criterion at this stage. Estimates of exposure concentrations in surface water were established using modelling software also applied in the EU registration procedure (PRZM and TOXSWA). Input variables included physico-chemical properties, and data such as crop calendars, irrigation schedules, meteorological information and detailed application data which were specifically tailored to the Ethiopian situation. The results indicate that for all the pesticides investigated the acute human risk resulting from the consumption of surface water is low to negligible, whereas agricultural use of chlorothalonil, deltamethrin, endosulfan and malathion in some crops may result in medium to high risk to aquatic species. The predicted environmental concentration estimates are based on procedures similar to procedures used at the EU level and in the USA. Addition of aquatic macrophytes as an ecotoxicological endpoint may constitute a welcome future addition to the risk assessment procedure. Implementation of the methods used for risk characterization constitutes a good step forward in the pesticide registration procedure in Ethiopia.

  12. Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia

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    Muchohi Simon

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax accounts for about 40% of all malaria infection in Ethiopia. Chloroquine (CQ is the first line treatment for confirmed P. vivax malaria in the country. The first report of CQ treatment failure in P. vivax was from Debre Zeit, which suggested the presence of chloroquine resistance. Methods An in vivo drug efficacy study was conducted in Debre Zeit from June to August 2006. Eighty-seven patients with microscopically confirmed P. vivax malaria, aged between 8 months and 52 years, were recruited and treated under supervision with CQ (25 mg/kg over three days. Clinical and parasitological parameters were assessed during the 28 day follow-up period. CQ and desethylchloroquine (DCQ blood and serum concentrations were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC in patients who showed recurrent parasitaemia. Results Of the 87 patients recruited in the study, one was lost to follow-up and three were excluded due to P. falciparum infection during follow-up. A total of 83 (95% of the study participants completed the follow-up. On enrolment, 39.8% had documented fever and 60.2% had a history of fever. The geometric mean parasite density of the patients was 7045 parasites/μl. Among these, four patients had recurrent parasitaemia on Day 28. The blood CQ plus DCQ concentrations of these four patients were all above the minimal effective concentration (> 100 ng/ml. Conclusion Chloroquine-resistant P. vivax parasites are emerging in Debre Zeit, Ethiopia. A multi-centre national survey is needed to better understand the extent of P. vivax resistance to CQ in Ethiopia.

  13. Modeling the Determinats of Domestic Private Investments in Ethiopia

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    G. G. Ambaye

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the determinants of domestic private investment in Ethiopia using a time series data over the period 1992-2010. The study employed an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL model and applied the bounds test approach in modeling the long run determinants of domestic private investment. The study found exchange rate, domestic saving and domestic credit as key factors having negative and significant impact on domestic private investment. External debt and government expenditure are found to have significant and positive effect on domestic private investment. The results imply that government expenditure stimulates domestic private investment while domestic credit and domestic saving have a constrained effect on the sector.

  14. Social Networks and Factor Markets: Panel Data Evidence from Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abay, Kibrom Araya; Kahsay, Goytom Abraha; Berhane, Guush

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the role of an indigenous social network in Ethiopia, the iddir, in facilitating factor market transactions among smallholder farmers. We use detailed longitudinal household survey data and employ fixed effects estimation approaches to identify the effect of iddir membership...... on factor market transactions among farmers. We find that joining an iddir network improves households’ access to land, labour and credit transactions. Our findings also hint that iddir networks may crowd-out borrowing from local moneylenders (locally referred as ‘Arata Abedari’), a relatively expensive...... credit source. These results suggest that non-market institutions can play crucial roles in facilitating market transactions....

  15. Labour markets for irrigated agriculture in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa; Gibbon, Peter

    Labour market segmentation in developing countries has been considered in a growing literature, some of which suggests an informal sector wage premium. However, such studies have mainly focused on urban labour markets and have not discriminated between the informally self-employed and wage workers....... This paper examines segmentation in rural markets for agricultural wage workers in Ethiopia, controlling for location, farming systems and observed worker characteristics. Applying an endogenous switching model with simultaneous estimation of wage equations it establishes an informal sector wage premium...

  16. Self-medication practice in Ethiopia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-medication patterns vary among different populations, and are influenced by many factors. No review has been done that comprehensively expresses self-medication practice in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the literature on self-medication practice in Ethiopia. Materials and methods Databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and Hinari) were searched for published studies on the practice of self-medication in Ethiopia without restriction in the year of publication or methodology. Some studies were also identified through manual Google search. Primary search terms were “self medication”, “Ethiopia”, “self care”, “non-prescription”, “OTC drug use”, “drug utilization”, and “drug hoarding”. Studies that measured knowledge only or attitude only or beliefs only and did not determine the practice of self-medication were excluded. Results The database search produced a total of 450 papers. After adjustment for duplicates and inclusion and exclusion criteria, 21 articles were found suitable for the review. All studies were cross-sectional in nature. The prevalence of self-medication varied from 12.8% to 77.1%, with an average of 36.8%. Fever/headache, gastrointestinal tract diseases, and respiratory diseases were the commonest illnesses/symptoms for which self-medication was taken. The major reasons for practicing self-medication were previous experience of treating a similar illness and feeling that the illness was mild. Analgesics/antipyretics, antimicrobials, gastrointestinal drugs, and respiratory drugs were the common drug classes used in self-medication. Mainly, these drugs were obtained from drug-retail outlets. The use of self-medication was commonly suggested by pharmacy professionals and friends/relatives. Conclusion Self-medication practice is prevalent in Ethiopia and varies in different populations and regions of the country. Some of the self-medication practices are harmful and need

  17. Water quality of Wenchi Crater Lake in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malairajan Singanan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination of physico-chemical properties of water samples from Wenchi Crater Lake in Ethiopia was carried out. Selected heavy metals in water, sediment, and plant samples from the lake were also comparatively determined. The results indicated that most general physico-chemical properties of the lake water fell within those recommended for drinking water. However, the lake water was found to be high in some heavy metals, which also accumulated in the sediment. Bioconcentration of these metals was also observed in the plant samples.

  18. Major reproductive health problems of indigenous Borena cows in Ethiopia

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    Ararsa Duguma Benti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to identify the major reproductive health problems and its associated risk factors in indigenous Borena breed cows in Borena zone in Southern Ethiopia between September 2013 and February 2014. Out of the total 409 cows examined, 195 (47.7% were having at least one of the reproductive problems identified by either questionnaire interview (n=329 or regular follow up (n=80 of individual cows. The major reproductive health problems identified in the present study were mastitis (21.3%; n=87/409, abortion (12.2%; n=50/409, repeat breeder (10.3%; n=42/409, anestrus (10.3%; n=42/409 and retained fetal membrane (RFM; 7.6%; n=31/409. The rate of abortion increased significantly (p=0.001 with the increase in the stage of gestation. Laboratory findings indicated that brucellosis and mastitis had great roles in reproductive health problems of dairy cows in the study area with prevalence rates of 2.91% and 68.41%, respectively. In conclusion, the study revealed that several reproductive health problems such as mastitis, abortion, repeat breeder, anestrus and RFM are mostly prevalent in dairy cows in Borena zone in southern Ethiopia.

  19. Regionalization and Prediction of Seasonal Precipitation in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Block, P.

    2014-12-01

    Rainfed agriculture continues to be an important part of Ethiopia's livelihoods and economy. Highly variable inter-annual precipitation, however, presents a serious challenge to sustainable production and subsistence survival. An improved understanding of what drives hydroclimatic extremes and an effective prediction system may help to buffer resulting impacts through improved decision-making. Precipitation data from the National Meteorological Agency at 0.1 x 0.1 grids for 1983 - 2011 during the June-September rainy season over western Ethiopia is evaluated through a cluster analysis to investigate homogeneous regions with similar rainfall patterns for subsequent prediction of seasonal precipitation for each region. A k-means clustering method is applied with the optimal number of clusters (K) selected by the within cluster sum of square errors (WSS) metric. Homogenous regions are defined with relatively clear and smooth boundaries, low inter-cluster correlations, and high intra-cluster correlations. The precipitation prediction models are statistically based, with a seasonal total prediction for each cluster; grid-based predictions are subsequently conditioned on the cluster level prediction through regression. Prospective model predictors include large-scale ocean-land-atmospheric climate variables and local variables and conditions. These predictions will be used in economic and water management models.

  20. Epidemiology in Ethiopia 200 years after John Snow's birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enquselassie, Fikre

    2013-10-01

    The year 2013 marks exactly 200 years since John Snow, known as the father of modern epidemiology, was born. In 19th century, epidemiologists like John Snow, concentrated almost entirely upon infectious diseases of humans measuring the burden of disease, describing pattern and attempting to understand the transmission dynamics. During the second half of the 20th century; big changes occurred so that epidemiologists in the developed world started to use systematized approaches to investigate the etiologies, conditions and to evaluate interventions through different study designs. However, the situation in the developing world is not the same as the rest of the world. Even 200 years after Snow's birth, epidemiological capacity is lowest in Africa. This article attempts to describe that Ethiopia is not exceptional. In the past few decades, there have been some attempts to build capacity in the country by launching training programs in clinical epidemiology, general epidemiology and field epidemiology. However, not only few epidemiologists are trained, but, limited funding, high-teaching burdens, poor working conditions and low salaries are among important contributors for epidemiological brain drain in Ethiopia. Thus, strengthening learning opportunities and rewarding career paths are required to increase human resource capacity and retain skilled personnel in the field of epidemiology.

  1. Re-Greening Ethiopia: History, Challenges and Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulugeta Lemenih

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, deforestation rates remain high and the gap between demand and domestic supply of forest products is expanding, even though government-initiated re-greening efforts began over a century ago. Today, over 3 million hectares (ha of degraded forest land are under area exclosure; smallholder plantations cover 0.8 million ha; and state-owned industrial plantations stagnate at under 0.25 million ha. This review captures experiences related to re-greening practices in Ethiopia, specifically with regards to area exclosure and afforestation and reforestation, and distills lessons regarding processes, achievements and challenges. The findings show that farmers and non-governmental organizations (NGOs are the main players, and that the private sector has so far played only a small role. The role of the government was mixed: supportive in some cases and hindering in others. The challenges of state- and NGO-led re-greening practices are: inadequate involvement of communities; poorly defined rehabilitation objectives; lack of management plans; unclear responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and poor silvicultural practices. The lessons include: a more active role for non-state actors in re-greening initiatives; more attention to market signals; devolution of management responsibility; clear definition of responsibilities and benefit-sharing arrangements; and better tenure security, which are all major factors to success.

  2. Dynamically downscaled multi-model ensemble seasonal forecasts over Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asharaf, Shakeel; Fröhlich, Kristina; Fernandez, Jesus; Cardoso, Rita; Nikulin, Grigory; Früh, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    Truthful and reliable seasonal rainfall predictions have an important social and economic value for the east African countries as their economy is highly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and pastoral systems. Only June to September (JJAS) seasonal rainfall accounts to more than 80% crop production in Ethiopia. Hence, seasonal foresting is a crucial concern for the region. The European Provision of Regional Impact Assessment on a seasonal to decadal timescale (EUPORIAS) project offers a common framework to understand hindcast uncertainties through the use of multi-model and multi-member simulations over east Africa. Under this program, the participating regional climate models (RCMs) were driven by the atmospheric-only version of the ECEARTH global climate model, which provides hindcasts of a five-months period (May to September) from 1991-2012. In this study the RCMs downscaled rainfall is evaluated with respect to the observed JJAS rainfall over Ethiopia. Both deterministic and probabilistic based forecast skills are assessed. Our preliminary results show the potential usefulness of multi-model ensemble simulations in forecasting the seasonal rainfall over the region.

  3. Internal migration and household living conditions in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blessing Uchenna Mberu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the 1998 Migration, Gender and Health Survey in Five Regions of Ethiopia, and multivariate regression techniques, this paper examines the relationship between internal migration and household living conditions. The analysis finds significant living condition advantage of permanent and temporary migrants over non-migrants. These advantages are primarily linked to migration selectivity by education and non-agricultural income. Once the independent effects of these variables are controlled, no statistical significant independent association exists between migration status and living conditions. Government policies of resettlement in the 1980s and ethnic federalism of the 1990s may have engendered stress migration and exacerbated poor living outcomes for return migrants. The resort to migration and/or resettlement as an individual or government policy response to periodic unfavorable conditions in places of origin is not strongly supported by this analysis as the key to improved living conditions. Promoting higher education and opportunities for employment outside the agricultural sector are more likely to yield improved living conditions in Ethiopia.

  4. Patterns of caesarean-section delivery in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

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    Yibeltal T. Bayou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Setting: The study was conducted in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. Specifically, it was conducted in all healthcare facilities offering maternity and obstetric services.Objective: The objective of the study was to explore the patterns of caesarean-section (CS delivery in Addis Ababa.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between December 2013 and January 2014. The population for the study were women aged between 15 and 19 years of age who had given birth in the last 1–3 years before the date of data collection. The Census and Survey Processing System software was used for data capturing and analysing both descriptive and inferential statistics using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0.Results: Amongst the 835 women who delivered at health facilities, 19.2% had given birth by CS. The prevalence of CS based on medical indication was 91.3%. However, 6.9% of CS performed had no medical indication. Private health facilities performed more CSs than public health facilities, 41.1% and 11.7% respectfully. CS was high amongst women of higher socioeconomic standing.Conclusion: Overall, CS deliveries rate in Ethiopia is above the rate recommended by the World Health Organisation. Because socio-economic factors influence CS delivery, governments should play a key role in regulating performance of CSs in private institutions.

  5. The Effect of Targeting Credit to Married Women on Intra-household Expenditure Roles in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, H.B.; Bock, B.B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is attempted to explore the potential effects of microfinance targeted at married women on intra-household expenditure roles and women’s economic power taking the cases of two microfinance institutions in Ethiopia

  6. Institutional change and economic development : evidence from natural and artefactual field experiments in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melesse, M.B.

    2015-01-01

    Thesis title: Institutional Change and Economic Development: Evidence from Natural and Artefactual Field Experiments in Ethiopia Mequanint Biset Melesse Abstract Institutions are the essential underpinning of economic development. A large volume of empirical literature has documented conclusive evid

  7. Two new species of Afroarabiella Yakovlev, 2008 (Lepidoptera, Cossidae from Sudan and Ethiopia

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    Roman V. Yakovlev

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes two new species of Afroarabiella (Cossidae: A. sulaki sp. nov. from Sudan and A. strohlei sp. nov. from Ethiopia. For all the species of the genus Afroarabiella images and distribution maps are given.

  8. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

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    José Manuel Ramos

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  9. Climate variability and change in Ethiopia : exploring impacts and adaptation options for cereal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kassie, B.T.

    2014-01-01

    Key words: Climate change, Adaptation, Crop modelling, Uncertainty, Maize (Zea mays), Central Rift Valley. Smallholder farmers in Ethiopia have been facing severe climate related hazards, in particular highly variable rainfall and severe droughts that negativelyaffect their livelihoods.Anticipated

  10. Phenotypic and genotypic analysis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agonafir, M.; Lemma, E.; Wolde-Meskel, D.; Goshu, S.; Santhanam, A.; Girmachew, F.; Demissie, D.; Getahun, M.; Gebeyehu, M.; Soolingen, D. van

    2010-01-01

    SETTING: National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratory, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the drug susceptibility pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates and to genetically characterise multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates. DESIGN: A total of 107 M. tuberculosis isola

  11. Household fuel consumption and resource use in rural-urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: biofuels; land degradation; technology adoption; fuel-savings efficiency; stove R&D; household and community tree investments; fuelwood availability; animal dung; biogas; urban fuel demand; rural hinterlands; northern Ethiopia.   Fuel scarcity and land degradation are intertwin

  12. Health workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services for unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tilahun Mesfin; Mengistie Bezatu; Egata Gudina; Reda Ayalu A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescents in developing countries face a range of sexual and reproductive health problems. Lack of health care service for reproductive health or difficulty in accessing them are among them. In this study we aimed to examine health care workers' attitudes toward sexual and reproductive health services to unmarried adolescents in Ethiopia. Methods We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional survey among 423 health care service providers working in eastern Ethiopia in 2010....

  13. Factors associated with incomplete childhood immunization in Arbegona district, southern Ethiopia: a case – control study

    OpenAIRE

    Negussie, Abel; Kassahun, Wondewosen; Assegid, Sahilu; Hagan, Ada K.

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevention of child mortality through immunization is one of the most cost-effective and widely applied public health interventions. In Ethiopia, the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) schedule is rarely completed as planned and the full immunization rate is only 24 %. The objective of this study was to identify determinant factors of incomplete childhood immunization in Arbegona district, Sidama zone, southern Ethiopia. Methods A community based unmatched case-control stud...

  14. Performance of small-scale photovoltaic systems and their potential for rural electrification in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutenbaeumer, Ulrich; Negash, Tesfaye; Abdi, Amensisa [Addis Ababa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Addis Ababa (Ethiopia)

    1999-09-01

    The performance of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic systems is tested under the climatic conditions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. With climatic data obtained at a station in the Rift Valley, the photovoltaic systems performance is estimated for those climatic conditions. The economics of small-scale stand-alone photovoltaic system applications under Ethiopian conditions are analysed. The potential of photovoltaics for the rural electrification of Ethiopia is discussed. (Author)

  15. The Revised Family Code of 2000: Impact on norms and education in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Kjernli-Wijnen, Sofie

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines the effect of the Revised Family Law implemented in Ethiopia in 2000, using a difference-in-difference approach. The main data used is from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for Ethiopia from 2000 and 2005. Utilizing the different regional timing of the implementation of the law, the effect of the law change is measured clear from other underlying trends. Focusing on the outcome variables for education and violence against women, the main results show that there i...

  16. Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Megabiaw Berihun; Zegeye Desalegn; Mulu Abay

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 6...

  17. Anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia: prevalence, severity and associated risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Kefiyalew, Filagot; Zemene, Endalew; Asres, Yaregal; Gedefaw, Lealem

    2014-01-01

    Background Anemia is a significant public health problem in developing countries, particularly in pregnant women. It may complicate pregnancy, sometimes resulting in tragic outcomes. There is a lack of information on the magnitude of anemia among pregnant women in Southeast Ethiopia. The aim of this study is, therefore, to determine the prevalence of anemia and assess associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) at Bisidimo Hospital in Southeast Ethiopia. Methods A f...

  18. The burden of neglected tropical diseases in Ethiopia, and opportunities for integrated control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Kebede

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs are a group of chronic parasitic diseases and related conditions that are the most common diseases among the 2·7 billion people globally living on less than US$2 per day. In response to the growing challenge of NTDs, Ethiopia is preparing to launch a NTD Master Plan. The purpose of this review is to underscore the burden of NTDs in Ethiopia, highlight the state of current interventions, and suggest ways forward. Results This review indicates that NTDs are significant public health problems in Ethiopia. From the analysis reported here, Ethiopia stands out for having the largest number of NTD cases following Nigeria and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Ethiopia is estimated to have the highest burden of trachoma, podoconiosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, the second highest burden in terms of ascariasis, leprosy and visceral leishmaniasis, and the third highest burden of hookworm. Infections such as schistosomiasis, trichuriasis, lymphatic filariasis and rabies are also common. A third of Ethiopians are infected with ascariasis, one quarter is infected with trichuriasis and one in eight Ethiopians lives with hookworm or is infected with trachoma. However, despite these high burdens of infection, the control of most NTDs in Ethiopia is in its infancy. In terms of NTD control achievements, Ethiopia reached the leprosy elimination target of 1 case/10,000 population in 1999. No cases of human African trypanosomiasis have been reported since 1984. Guinea worm eradication is in its final phase. The Onchocerciasis Control Program has been making steady progress since 2001. A national blindness survey was conducted in 2006 and the trachoma program has kicked off in some regions. Lymphatic Filariasis, podoconiosis and rabies mapping are underway. Conclusion Ethiopia bears a significant burden of NTDs compared to other SSA countries. To achieve success in integrated control of

  19. Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U;

    2010-01-01

    , Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0...... as a model identified 78.2% of isolates accurately as being African or Asian. Microsatellite analysis is a useful tool for mapping short-term outbreaks of malaria and for predicting ancestry....

  20. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Schunk, Mirjam; Kumma, Wondimagegn P.; Barreto Miranda, Isabel; Maha E. Osman; Roewer, Susanne; Alano, Abraham; Loescher, Thomas; Bienzle, Ulrich; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2006-01-01

    Background: In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods: In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assesse...

  1. Factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia

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    Kebede A

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alemi Kebede,1 Kalkidan Hassen,2 Aderajew Nigussie Teklehaymanot1 1Department of Population and Family Health, 2College of Health Sciences, Jimma University, Ethiopia Background: Most obstetric complications occur unpredictably during the time of delivery, but they can be prevented with proper medical care in the health facilities. Despite the Ethiopian government’s efforts to expand health service facilities and promote health institution-based delivery service in the country, an estimated 85% of births still take place at home.Objective: The review was conducted with the aim of generating the best evidence on the determinants of institutional delivery service utilization in Ethiopia.Methods: The reviewed studies were accessed through electronic web-based search strategy from PubMed, HINARI, Mendeley reference manager, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews, and Google Scholar. Review Manager V5.3 software was used for meta-analysis. Mantel–Haenszel odds ratios (ORs and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. Heterogeneity of the study was assessed using I2 test.Results: People living in urban areas (OR =13.16, CI =1.24, 3.68, with primary and above educational level of the mother and husband (OR =4.95, CI =2.3, 4. 8, and OR =4.43, CI =1.14, 3.36, respectively, who encountered problems during pregnancy (OR =2.83, CI =4.54, 7.39, and living at a distance <5 km from nearby health facility (OR =2.6, CI =3.33, 6.57 showed significant association with institutional delivery service utilization. Women’s autonomy was not significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization.Conclusion and recommendation: Distance to health facility and problems during pregnancy were factors positively and significantly associated with institutional delivery service utilization. Promoting couples education beyond primary education regarding the danger signs of pregnancy and benefits of institutional delivery through available

  2. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  3. Rural poverty and delayed presentation to tuberculosis services in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambanis, Alexis; Yassin, Mohammed A; Ramsay, Andy; Bertel Squire, S; Arbide, Isabel; Cuevas, Luis E

    2005-04-01

    To measure time to initial presentation and assess factors influencing the decision to seek medical attention, we interviewed 243 patients undergoing sputum examination for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) at a rural health centre near Awassa, Ethiopia. A structured questionnaire was used. Median (mean+SD) patient delay was 4.3 (9.8+12.4) weeks. Delays over 4 weeks were significantly associated with rural residence, transport time over 2 h, overnight travel, transport cost exceeding US $1.40, having sold personal assets prior to the visit, and use of traditional medicine. The majority of patients cited economic or logistical barriers to health care when asked directly about causes of delay. Case-finding strategies for TB must be sensitive to patient delay and health systems must become more accessible in rural areas.

  4. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  5. The genus Plumbago (Plumbaginaceae) in Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Wilmot-Dear, Melanie; Edmondson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Il genere Plumbago ha una concentrazione di specie indigene in Africa tropicale orientale e nel Madagascar: nove specie su un totale compreso tra dodici e venticinque specie. Però, nella Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, vol. 5, pubblicato nel 2006, solo due specie indigene sono stati accettati: la...... and Eritrea, e questi informazioni sono utilizzati qui: dopo una revisione di tutto il materiale di Etiopia e Eritrea, e un comparazione con materiale di Africa tropicale orientale, si è concluso che P. truncata è conspecifi ca con P. dawei, nota per l’Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania e Madagascar, e che un......’altra specie conosciuta per l’Africa tropicale orientale (Kenya e Tanzania), P. montis-elgonis, é stata raccolta anche in due stazioni nel sud-ovest dell’Etiopia. In Etiopia, le due specie rare, P. dawei e P. montis-elgonis, sono limitate alle aree originariamente coperti da foresta umida: P. dawei si trova...

  6. Scaling of Health Information Systems in Nigeria and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Shaw, Vincent; Braa, Jørn

    2007-01-01

    Systems Programme in Nigeria and Ethiopia, the interdependencies between three spheres are identified as being important in scaling health information systems. The three spheres that are explored are the volume of data collected, human resource factors and access to technology. We draw on concepts from......This paper addresses the IFIP 9.4 conference theme for papers that take stock of the development of ICT in the health sector, and in particular how infrastructure and human resource factors influence the implementation of e-development initiatives. Using case studies from the Health Information...... the balance. Three flexible standards are identified as being critical strategies to global health information scaling initiatives, namely an essential data set, a scalable process of information systems collection and collation consisting of gateways between paper based systems and hardware and software...

  7. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... is that they can not find a way out of the downward spiral of resource scarcity and conflict. And the authorities do not give them any chance to get involved themselves in actively searching for solutions specific to their complex problems. All they get is orders, and plans which are designed from above and do...... not take into account their experience about the complexity of their social situation, and consequently can not solve their problems. This paper was part of the requirements for a Masters degree at the University of Aalborg. Fieldwork for this study was supported by Chr. Michelsen Institute through a grant...

  8. Gravity field and isostatic state of Ethiopia and adjacent areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    Over 35,000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models against geologic structures over a part of the Afro-Arabian shield. The area of Ethiopia covers an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ≈5000 km Afro-Arabian rift and includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and the Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinesz (flexural rigidity D = 10 22 Nm) models. The isostatic residual anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expressions of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity in the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. The small mean isostatic residual anomaly (about 8 mGal) and the isostatic analysis show a slight positive bias indicating under compensation. The undercompensation may imply that there are upper crustal features that are not compensated regionally (probably supported by the rigidity of the lithosphere) and isostatic disequilibrium in the region. Therefore, the high topography of Ethiopia and East African plateau is partly compensated by thicker crust (broad negative isostatic regional anomaly) and partly by dynamic forces. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and quantitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  9. The scientific study of the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea up to the beginning of the Ethiopian Flora Project (1980)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An account of the history of the scientific exploration of the flora in Ethiopia and Eritrea, mainly based on experience from the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea, but with conclusions from the newest literature also taken into account....

  10. Institutions, sustainable land use and consumer welfare: the case of forest and grazing lands in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebreegziabher, Z.; Gabremedhin, B.; Mekonnen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Land is an essential factor of production. Institutions that govern its efficient use determine the sustainability of this essential resource. In Ethiopia all land is publicly owned. Such an institutional setting is said to have resulted in the major degradation of Ethiopia's land resources and diss

  11. Causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nigusse Tollosa, Mengistu Asnake Kibret

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObstetric fistula (OF is one of the major potential complications of childbirth mostly young women in developing countries including Ethiopia. Though few scientific studies have been conducted related to its causes and consequences, it is challenging to find a comprehensive figure about obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. Therefore, this paper sought that to review the causes and consequences of obstetric fistula in Ethiopia. A number of relevant obstetrics and gynaecology websites and journals were reviewed. Google, Pubmed, and Hinari searching engines were used to find out relevant references. Year of publication, location, language and its type of publication were the inclusion criteria used for reviewing literatures. It is observed that obstetric fistula has been a major burdened mainly for women in the rural Ethiopian and its causes and consequences are very deep and diverse. The great majority of obstetric fistula causes in Ethiopia is due to Obstetric labour. Distance to the health care facility, transportation access, economic factors (poverty, poor knowledge related to the problem, poor health seeking behaviour of the affected women and age at first marriage are the other triggering factors. Stigma and discrimination of obstetric fistula patients by their husbands and families, economic dependency and psychological disorder are often mentioned as consequences for OF patients in Ethiopia.

  12. Legal harvest and illegal trade: Trends, challenges, and options in khat production in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Logan; O'Regan, Davin

    2016-04-01

    The production of khat in Ethiopia has boomed over the last two decades, making the country the world's leading source. Khat is now one of Ethiopia's largest crops by area of cultivation, the country's second largest export earner, and an essential source of income for millions of Ethiopian farmers. Consumption has also spread from the traditional khat heartlands in the eastern and southern regions of Ethiopia to most major cities. This steady growth in production and use has unfolded under negligible government support or regulation. Meanwhile, khat, which releases a stimulant when chewed, is considered an illicit drug in an increasing number of countries. Drawing on government data on khat production, trade, and seizures as well as research on the political, socioeconomic, and development effects of plant-based illicit narcotics industries, this commentary identifies possible considerations and scenarios for Ethiopia as the country begins to manage rising khat production, domestic consumption, and criminalization abroad. Deeply embedded in social and cultural practices and a major source of government and agricultural revenue, Ethiopian policymakers have few enviable choices. Criminalization abroad raises a small but not insignificant possibility that previously nonexistent linkages between khat and transnational organized crime and trafficking networks will emerge. Likewise, more stringent regulation of khat in Ethiopia could merge with lingering political cleavages and anti-government sentiments, exacerbating low-level domestic conflicts.

  13. Anaplasma, Ehrlichia and rickettsial pathogens in ixodid ticks infesting cattle and sheep in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshale, Sori; Kumsa, Bersissa; Menandro, Maria Luisa; Cassini, Rudi; Martini, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Although ticks are widely distributed in all agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia, information on tick-borne pathogens is scarce. This study was conducted to determine the presence of Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia spp., and Rickettsia spp. in Rhipicephalus evertsi and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus collected from cattle and sheep at Bako, western Oromia, Ethiopia, using polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. Anaplasma ovis and Anaplasma spp., Ehrlichia ruminantium and Ehrlichia spp. were detected in Rh. decoloratus, whereas only A. ovis was detected in Rh. evertsi. Both tick species were found to harbor DNA belonging to Rickettsia spp., and Rickettsia africae. Our findings highlight the risk of infection of animals and humans with these zoonotic tick-borne bacteria in Ethiopia.

  14. Peace in the Clinic: Rethinking "Global Health Diplomacy" in the Somali Region of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, Lauren

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research with Somalis, within aid organizations, and within health care facilities in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, this article argues that what is called "global health diplomacy," despite its origins and articulations in interstate politics, is fundamentally local and interpersonal. As evidence, I outline two very different health programs in the Somali Region of Ethiopia, and how, in each, existing animosities and political grievances were either reinforced or undermined. I argue that the provision of health care in politically insecure and post-conflict settings like the Somali Region of Ethiopia is precarious but pivotal: medical encounters have the potential to either worsen the conditions in which conflicts and crises recur, or build new interpersonal and governmental relations of trust. Effective global health diplomacy, therefore, cannot be limited to building clinics and donating medicine, but must also explicitly include building positive relationships of trust between oppositional groups within clinical spaces.

  15. Cystic echinococcosis amongst small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Assefa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of cystic echinococcosis (CE in small ruminants and humans in Addis Ababa, central Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study involving systematic random sampling was conducted to estimate the prevalence of CE in 512 small ruminants (262 sheep and 250 goats slaughtered at Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise between October 2011 and March 2012. Hydatid cysts were identified macroscopically during postmortem examination and their fertility and viability were determined. CE was observed in 21 (8.02% sheep and 17 (6.80% goats. In sheep 13 (4.96% of the lungs, 10 (3.81% livers and 1 (0.381% heart were found to be infected with hydatid cysts. Involvement of lung and liver in goats was found to be 10 (4.0% and 8 (3.2% respectively, with no cysts recorded in the heart. Of the total of 77 and 47 cysts encountered in sheep and goats, 33 (42.85% and 15 (31.91% respectively were fertile. Viability of protoscoleces from fertile cysts in sheep (29 [87.87%] was higher than in goats (6 [40.0%]. For humans, retrospective analysis covering five years of case reports at two major hospitals in Addis Ababa between January 2008 and December 2012 showed that of the total of 25 840 patients admitted for ultrasound examination, 27 CE cases were registered, a prevalence of 0.1% and mean annual incidence rate of approximately 0.18 cases per 100 000 population. Liver was the major organ affected in humans (81.5% in affected patients followed by spleen (11.1% and kidney (7.4%. Logistic regression analysis showed that prevalence of CE varied significantly in relation to host age in the small ruminants (OR = 3.93, P < 0.05 as well as in humans (95% CI, R = 4.8. This epidemiological study confirms the importance of CE in small ruminants and humans in central Ethiopia, emphasising the need for integrated approaches to controlling this neglected preventable disease.

  16. Ethiopia: The Impact of External Factors on the Security of the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Záhořík

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In last decade, Ethiopia witnesses so far unseen economic growth while the transformation to democracy more or less failed. Due to the fact that the Horn of Africa belongs to the most unstable regions in Africa, external factors play a significant role in shaping and reshaping of internal politics of each state. In this study, we will focus on an analysis of external factors and their impact on security and politics in Ethiopia. As we argue, it is these factors that have a substantial impact on Ethiopian politics and security.

  17. Challenges and Opportunities of Implementing District-based Health Information System in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw

    2005-01-01

    of sustainable and scalable district-based health information system in the context of Primary Health Care (PHC) sector in Ethiopia were identified. Human resource, infrastructure, and HIS related problems are the main challenges hindering the implementation of sustainable and scalable district-based health......This paper has analyzed the challenges of sustainability and scalability of HIS. The empirical analysis was conducted in a backward and disadvantaged region of Ethiopia. An ongoing process of HISP (Health Information System Program) was addressed and the main challenges in the implementation...... information systems in the region....

  18. Census in a rural area of Ethiopia: methodology and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, E; Mehari, W; Mele, A; Rosmini, F; Stazi, M A; Damen, H M; Basile, G; Kifle, T; Miuccio, G; Ferrigno, L

    1993-01-01

    A census and an ecologic survey were performed in 39 villages of a rural district of Arsi Region, Ethiopia, in difficult field circumstances. Information on age, ethnic group, education and family relationship, as well as data on health facilities and availability of basic services were collected. Supervised students, working in teams, were used as interviewers. Communities were involved through plenary meetings and community health agents participated in the data collection process. A total of 64,714 people in 12,152 households were registered. The repeatability of age assessment was investigated by comparing the results from two villages with data obtained in a pilot study carried out 6 months earlier. The technical error was only 0.80 and 1.67 in the 0-5 and 6-15 age-groups, respectively. Three percent of the total population was under one year, less than previously estimated. This may, in part, be due to the family planning programme in the region. Eighteen percent of the households were headed by females. School attendance was less common among females and in the Oromo ethnic group. The availability of basic services, including safe water and basic sanitation supplies, was very poor in the area.

  19. Assessing the management of healthcare waste in Hawassa city, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel Deneke Haylamicheal; Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie; Biruck Desalegn Yirsaw; Hanibale Atsbeha Zegeye

    2011-08-01

    Inadequate management of healthcare waste is a serious concern in many developing countries due to the risks posed to human health and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate healthcare waste management in Hawassa city, Ethiopia. The study was conducted in nine healthcare facilities (HCFs) including hospitals (four), health centres (two) and higher clinics (three) in two phases, first to assess the waste management aspect and second to determine daily waste generation rate. The result showed that the median quantity of waste generated at the facilities was 3.46 kg bed(-1) day(-1) (range: 1.48-8.19 kg bed(-1) day(-1)). The quantity of waste per day generated at a HCF increased as occupancy increased (p waste generated at government HCFs was more than at private HCFs (p waste (20-63.1%) generated at the different HCFs was much higher than the WHO recommendation (10-25%). There was no waste segregation in most HCFs and only one used a complete color coding system. Solid waste and wastewater were stored, transported, treated and disposed inappropriately at all HCFs. Needle-stick injuries were prevalent in 25-100% of waste handlers employed at these HCFs. Additionally, low levels of training and awareness of waste legislation was prevalent amongst staff. The study showed that management of healthcare waste at HCFs to be poor. Waste management practices need to be improved through improved legislation and enforcement, and training of staff in the healthcare facilities in Hawassa.

  20. Regional groundwater flow modeling of the Geba basin, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyohannes, Tesfamichael; De Smedt, Florimond; Walraevens, Kristine; Gebresilassie, Solomon; Hussien, Abdelwassie; Hagos, Miruts; Amare, Kassa; Deckers, Jozef; Gebrehiwot, Kindeya

    2017-01-01

    The Geba basin is one of the most food-insecure areas of the Tigray regional state in northern Ethiopia due to recurrent drought resulting from erratic distribution of rainfall. Since the beginning of the 1990s, rain-fed agriculture has been supported through small-scale irrigation schemes mainly by surface-water harvesting, but success has been limited. Hence, use of groundwater for irrigation purposes has gained considerable attention. The main purpose of this study is to assess groundwater resources in the Geba basin by means of a MODFLOW modeling approach. The model is calibrated using observed groundwater levels, yielding a clear insight into the groundwater flow systems and reserves. Results show that none of the hydrogeological formations can be considered as aquifers that can be exploited for large-scale groundwater exploitation. However, aquitards can be identified that can support small-scale groundwater abstraction for irrigation needs in regions that are either designated as groundwater discharge areas or where groundwater levels are shallow and can be tapped by hand-dug wells or shallow boreholes.

  1. Change Detection of Lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczynski, R.; Rylko, A.

    2016-06-01

    Old topographic map published in 1975 elaborated from aerial photographs taken in 1972, Landsat TM data acquired in May 1986 and Landsat ETM+ from June 2002 have been used to assess the changes of the lake Aba Samuel in Ethiopia. First map of the lake has been done in the framework of UNDP project running in 1988-90 in the Ethiopian Mapping Authority. The second classification map has been done as M.Sc. thesis in the MUT in 2015. Supervised classification methods with the use of ground truth data have been used for elaboration of the Landsat TM data. From the year 1972 up to 1986 the area of the lake has decreased by 23%. From 1986 up to 2002 the area of the lake has decreased by 20%. Therefore, after 30 years the lake was smaller by 43%. This have had very bad influence on the lives of the local population. From other recent data in the period from 2002-2015 the lake has practically disappeared and now it is only a small part of the river Akaki. ENVI 5.2 and ERDAS IMAGINE 9.2 have been used for Radiometric Calibration, Quick Atmospheric Correction (QUAC) and supervised classification of Landsat ETM+ data. The Optimum Index Factor shows the best combination of Landsat TM and ETM+ bands for color composite as 1,4,5 in the color filters: B, G, R for the signature development. Methodology and final maps are enclosed in the paper.

  2. Field temperature measurements at Erta'Ale Lava Lake, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgi, Pierre-Yves; Caillet, Marc; Haefeli, Steven

    2002-06-01

    The shield volcano Erta'Ale, situated in the Danakil Depression, Ethiopia, is known for its active lava lake. In February 2001, our team visited this lake, located inside an 80-m-deep pit, to perform field temperature measurements. The distribution and variation of temperature inside the lake were obtained on the basis of infrared radiation measurements performed from the rim of the pit and from the lake shores. The crust temperature was also determined from the lake shores with a thermocouple to calibrate the pyrometer. We estimated an emissivity of the basalt of 0.74 from this experiment. Through the application of the Stefan-Boltzmann law, we then obtained an estimate of the total radiative heat flux, constrained by pyrometer measurements of the pit, and visual observations of the lake activity. Taking into account the atmospheric convective heat flux, the convected magma mass flux needed to balance the energy budget was subsequently derived and found to represent between 510 and 580 kg s-1. The surface circulation of this mass flux was also analyzed through motion processing techniques applied to video images of the lake. Electronic supplementary material to this paper can be obtained by using the Springer LINK server located at http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00445-002-0224-3.

  3. Extension by faulting, stretching and magma intrusion in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastow, I. D.; Keir, D.

    2012-12-01

    The 2001-2004 Ethiopia Afar Geoscientific Lithospheric Experiment showed that high seismic wavespeed, dense, mafic crustal intrusions exist beneath many zones of Quaternary magmatism in the Main Ethiopian rift, and that crustal thinning is minimal. From these observations, a consensus quickly emerged that extension presently occurs not by ductile stretching and brittle faulting but by magma intrusion. Striking InSAR images and accompanying seismic data from the 2005 Afar diking episode provided further compelling evidence in support of the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Patterns of mantle seismic anisotropy, constrained by a combination of body and surface-wave analysis showed that melt intrusion likely also plays an important role in accommodating extension at greater depths in the extending plate. Evidence from further north in Afar, however, where crustal thickness decreases abruptly into the Danakil Depression, is not so easily explained by the magma assisted rifting hypothesis. Subsidence of the newly forming margin towards and below sea level, and eruption of voluminous basalt flows, is likely the result of late-stage thinning of the heavily intruded, weakened plate just before the onset of seafloor spreading. Faulting, stretching and magma intrusion are thus each important, but at different times during breakup. Combining, not isolating, these mechanisms of strain in new rifting models and appreciating how plate strength varies during rifting is essential in developing a clearer understanding of the incomplete geological record that documents continental breakup over time.

  4. Regional and local tectonics at Erta Ale caldera, Afar (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acocella, Valerio

    2006-10-01

    Erta Ale volcano lies along the on-shore Red Sea Rift (northern Afar, Ethiopia), separating the Nubia and Danakil plates. Erta Ale has a NNW-SSE elongated caldera, with a subvertical rim scarp, hosting a lava lake. Structural field work was aimed at defining the deformation pattern around the caldera. The caldera consists of along-rim and across-rim structures, resulting from local and regional (maximum extension ˜NE-SW) stress fields, respectively. These structures cross-cut each other at high angles, suggesting that the two stress fields remain distinct, each prevailing during rifting or caldera collapse. The local along-rim extensional fractures are gravity-driven structures that formed due to the retreat of the caldera wall after collapse, and are confined to the region of caldera subsidence. The across-rim structures are mainly located to the N and S of the caldera, where they form rift zones each accommodating a similar amount of extension (˜6.3 m), but displaying different trends and extension directions. Analogue models of interacting fractures are consistent with the Southern Rift being representative of the regional fault kinematics, while the Northern Rift is a local perturbation, resulting from the interaction between two right-stepping rift segments along the Erta Ale Range.

  5. Motor Pump Revolution in Ethiopia: Promises at a Crossroads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengistu Dessalegn

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sub-Saharan Africa, motor pump irrigation is at an earlier stage than in Asia but is growing rapidly in many countries. The focus of both policy and research in Africa to date has been on facilitating supply chains to make pumps available at a reasonable price. In Africa, pump irrigation is mainly based on two sources: shallow groundwater aquifers and small streams and rivers. Both usually have limited and variable yields. We present a case study from Ethiopia where pump irrigation based on small rivers and streams is expanding rapidly, and draw parallels to experiences in Asia and other African countries. We show that while farmers understand the social nature of community-managed irrigation, they share with policymakers a narrow understanding of pump irrigation as being primarily 'technical'. They perceive pumps as liberating them from the 'social' limitations of traditional communal irrigation. However, the rapid expansion of pump irrigation is leading to increasing competition and conflict over the limited water resource. We analyse the wider implications for Africa of this blindness to the social dimension of pump irrigation and offer suggestions on future policy and applied research to address the problem before it becomes a widespread crisis.

  6. Fertilizer supply chain in Ethiopia: structure, performance and policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanes U.I. Agbahey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In Ethiopia, less than 40% of farmers use fertilizer and those who do, apply rates significantly below those recommended. This low fertilizer use is primarily due to prices being two to three times higher than prices on the world markets. Reducing the price of fertilizer requires a sound understanding of the product´s supply chain. This study investigates whether fertilizer is delivered to farmers in an efficient way and at the lowest possible costs using an institutional economics framework. It was conducted in the Arsi zone and relied on secondary data as well as primary data collected through interviews. The findings point out the presence of several formal and informal institutions regulating the market. A market monopoly at each stage of the supply chain and a striking correspondence between the central organization of the chain and the rise in left-over stocks were observed. This pinpoints the imperfect structure of the chain and a misallocation of resources locked up in fertilizer stockholding. In order to improve the demand estimation procedure, this study suggests that incentives should be instituted to enhance the reliability of the information transferred along the process. Additionally, expert knowledge used in the process should be well documented, stock inventories should not be limited to central warehouses and stockholding needs to be reduced.

  7. Beyond PTSD: Socio-economic Bereavement in Tigray, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordanger, Dag Ø

    2007-04-01

    By drawing upon data collected through in-depth interviews with 20 victims of the Ethio-Eritrean war, this paper addresses how psychosocial consequences of political war are expressed and conceptualized by people from Tigray, Ethiopia. War events were typically described in terms of their negative impacts on the household's means for income generation, and psychosocial complaints centred on aspects of impaired post-war economy rather than on politically violent experiences. The most reported complaints were (a) household erosion complaints, (b) social marginalization complaints and (c) education abortion complaints. Post-war psychosocial health problems were perceived as consequences of these aspects of impaired household economy, and were described in terms of their negative impacts on future income generation. Informants' expressions of distress were found to be highly informed by the socio-cultural and socio-economic structures of the Tigrayan society. Being the only study of its kind from this context, the study provides a unique illustration of the limitations of western trauma measures and calls for a context-based conceptualization of trauma.

  8. Botanical collecting activity in the area of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea during the "motor period"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2011-01-01

    The account summarizes the botanical field work in Eritrea and Ethiopia since the 1930s, in the period when motor cars have been used for transport of equipment and collections, as opposed to the "heroic" period, when pack animals were used. The use of cars for botanical collecting in Eritrea...... and Ethiopia has been seriously hampered by the difficult and mountainous terrain, and cars therefore came into use in connection with botanical collecting relatively late in comparison with the situation in many other African countries. The big expeditions during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  9. The African Moringa is to change the lives of millions in Ethiopia and far beyond

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Habtemariam

    2016-01-01

    Dear Editor,I vividly recall one of my medicinal plant collection trips in the southern regions of Ethiopia back in 1986.Besides collecting few plants of interest,we were asking the locals to show us medicinal plants of importance in the region.Within few minutes,a group of enthusiastic young men brought us branches of

  10. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands of Northern Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emiru Birhane, E.B.; Kuyper, T.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Bongers, F.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) status of Boswellia papyrifera (frankincense-tree) dominated dry deciduous woodlands in relation to season, management and soil depth in Ethiopia. We studied 43 woody species in 52 plots in three areas. All woody species were colonized by AM fungi,

  11. Participatory Plant Breeding with Traders and Farmers for White Pea Bean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, T.; Sperling, L.; Dagne, B.; Argaw, W.; Tessema, D.; Beebe, S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This research, conducted in Ethiopia, involved select stakeholders in the variety evaluation process early: to identify a greater number of acceptable varieties and to shorten a lengthy research and release process. Design/methodology/approach: A Participatory Plant Breeding (PPB) approach was used in both on-station and community-based…

  12. Characterisation of adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebebe, E G; Oosting, S J; Baltenweck, I; Duncan, A J

    2017-04-01

    While there is a general consensus that using dairy technologies, such as improved breeds of dairy cows, can substantially increase farm productivity and income, adoption of such technologies has been generally low in developing countries. The underlying reasons for non-adoption of beneficial technologies in the dairy sector are not fully understood. In this study, we characterised adopters and non-adopters of dairy technologies in Ethiopia and Kenya based on farmers' resources ownership in order to identify why many farmers in Ethiopia and Kenya have not adopted improved dairy technologies. As compared to non-adopters, farmers who adopt dairy technology own relatively more farm resources. The result signals that differences in resource endowments could lead to divergent technology adoption scenarios. Results show that a higher proportion of sample smallholders in Kenya have adopted dairy technologies than those in Ethiopia. Except for the use of veterinary services, fewer than 10% of sample farmers in Ethiopia have adopted dairy technologies-less than half the number of adopters in Kenya. The higher level of dairy technology adoption in Kenya can be ascribed partly to the long history of dairy development, including improvements in the value chain for the delivery of inputs, services and fluid milk marketing. Interventions that deal with the constraints related to access to farm resources and input and output markets could facilitate uptake of dairy technology in developing countries.

  13. Integrated watershed management: a planning methodology for construction of new dams in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezuayehu, Tefera; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated watershed management (IWM) is emerging as an alternative to the centrally planned and sectoral approaches that currently characterize the planning process for dam construction in Ethiopia. This report clarifies the concept of IWM, and reviews the major social, environmental and economic p

  14. The impact of contracts on organic honey producers' incomes in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girma, J.; Gardebroek, C.

    2015-01-01

    In southwestern Ethiopia honey is a non-timber forest product that provides income for many smallholders. Some of these beekeepers supply their honey under contract to a company that markets their organic honey internationally allowing them to access premium markets. Since both production and market

  15. Democracy deferred : understanding elections and the role of donors in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits the issue of elections and democracy in Africa, a theme that emerged as dominant in scholarly discussions in African Studies in the 1990s. The trigger for featuring Ethiopia as a case study was the May 2010 parliamentary elections when the incumbent party, which had been in pow

  16. Molecular characterization of Xanthomonas strains responsible for bacterial leaf spot of tomato in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial spot of tomato (BST) is a major constraint to tomato production in Ethiopia and many other countries leading to significant crop losses. In the present study, using pathogenicity tests, sensitivity to copper and streptomycin, and multilocus sequence analysis, a diverse group of Xanthomonas...

  17. Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Kaguongo, W.; Ortiz, O.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Kakuhenzire, R.; Kinyae, P.; Nyongesa, M.; Struik, P.C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could result in improved productivity. Through a diagnosi

  18. Omotic Peoples and the Early History of Agriculture in Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Shiferaw Alemu

    2011-01-01

    The primary objective of this dissertation is to reconstruct the history of the Omotic societies of southwestern Ethiopia. Although historical, anthropological, and linguistic studies exist for this region, the gaps in our knowledge are great. Information on the history of Omotic people, their economic and political systems, beliefs and values,…

  19. THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION TO THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT OF ETHIOPIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KERBRET, MAKONNEN

    AN ANALYSIS OF THE PRESENT SITUATION IN ETHIOPIA AND A REVIEW OF AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN THE WORLD WAS MADE THROUGH INTENSIVE LIBRARY RESEARCH. GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE BASED ON THE REVIEW SUBMITTED TO A JURY OF EXPERTS FOR VERIFICATION. REVISED GUIDELINES AND OBJECTIVES WERE THEN DEVELOPED FOR GUIDING AND IMPLEMENTING THE…

  20. Econometric analyses of horticultural production and marketing in Central and Eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaleta Debello, M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: vegetables, food and cash crops, land and labour allocations, crop and market outlet choice, price information, farm households, Ethiopia.The central item of this research is to examine the development of less-favoured areas through commercializing small-scale agriculture that produces cro

  1. Conservation tillage systems and water productivity implications for smallholder farmers in semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Conservation tillage systems have been adopted by farmers in many countries to solve the problem of land degradation and declining water productivity. However, direct application of such tillage systems was not possible among resource poor smallholder farmers in semi arid areas of Ethiopia. Problems

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicinal plants used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, B.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Andel, van T.; Asfaw, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Livestock production is an integral part of the agricultural system in Ethiopia. Medicinal plants are used and are important for rural communities for the treatment of livestock diseases. We studied and analysed the traditional medicinal plants used for the treatment

  3. Survey of Aspergillus and Aflatoxin in Groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) and Groundnut Cake in Eastern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important cash and food crop in eastern Ethiopia. The lack of awareness and data on Aspergillus and aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and groundnut food products in the area are lacking. Therefore, this study was conducted to: i) assess major Aspergillus spec...

  4. Rural non-farm activities in impoverished agricultural communities : the case of North Shoa Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeke, M.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the extent of deagrarianization in North Shoa, one of the most impoverished regions of Ethiopia. It describes the role and trend of farm activities and output, the trends in income diversification and the historical evolution of non-farm activities, and the relationship between f

  5. Farm management in mixed crop-livestock systems in the Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abegaz Yimer, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key Words: nutrient dynamics, fertility management, feed availability and quality and livestock production, Northern Highlands of EthiopiaIn the Northern Highlands of Ethiopiaone of the least-fa

  6. CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--EXPERIENCES, NEEDS, AND INTEREST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDSTROEM, LARS-OLOF

    THIS REPORT ON THE SALIENT FEATURES AND CONCERNS OF CORRESPONDENCE INSTRUCTION IN ETHIOPIA, KENYA, TANZANIA, MALAWI, ZAMBIA, AND UGANDA--(1) DISCUSSES ADVANTAGES, DISADVANTAGES, AND REQUIREMENTS OF THE CORRESPONDENCE METHOD IN AN AFRICAN CONTEXT, (2) SURVEYS CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES (POSTAL SERVICES, ROADS, INSTRUCTIONAL RADIO AND TELEVISION,…

  7. Using Eucalyptus for Soil & Water Conservation on the highland Vertisols of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidanu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Resource degradation is a critical problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. With agricultural productivity lingering behind population growth the gap between the availability and the demand for agricultural land continues to grow. This results in severe land-use conflicts. Thus, high potential and more

  8. Challenges and Opportunities in Mainstreaming Environmental Education into the Curricula of Teachers' Colleges in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waktola, Daniel Kassahun

    2009-01-01

    Lack of environmental awareness is one of the underlying causes of severe environmental degradation in Ethiopia. As teachers' colleges are a seedbed of such awareness, assessment of college curricula should shed light on the possibilities they offer to develop capacities to address environmental degradation. This small-scale study is based on the…

  9. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of organization

  10. Irrigation Practices, State Intervention and Farmers' Life- Worlds in Drought-Prone Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshome, W.

    2003-01-01

    This study examines irrigation practices, state intervention and the responses of farmers in theTigrayregion ofEthiopiaZinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may pla

  11. Formal law and customary change : A lab-in-field experiment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Melesse, Mequanint Biset

    2016-01-01

    Do customary courts strategically adapt arbitration outcomes if they face increased competition by the formal law? Through a lab-in-field experiment with villagers and real customary judges in rural Ethiopia, we show that post-arbitration payouts to agents disfavored by the customary system are down

  12. Globalization of psychology: Implications for the development of psychology in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swancott, Rachel; Uppal, Gobinderjit; Crossley, Jon

    2014-10-01

    The present article reports on the variation of mental health resources across the globe and considers the merits or otherwise of the process of globalization in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), with a specific emphasis on Ethiopia. Although globalization has gained momentum in recent years, there is a concern that the globalization of Western mental health frameworks is problematic, as these concepts have been developed in a different context and do not accommodate the current diversity in understanding in LMIC countries. The importance of understanding the mental health frameworks of LMIC like Ethiopia, prior to considering if and how aspects of high-income countries (HIC) conceptualizations may be appropriately imported, is therefore reflected upon. Traditional approaches in managing mental health difficulties and possible reasons for the limited engagement with clinical psychology in Ethiopia are considered. Current developments within the fields of mental health and clinical psychology in Ethiopia are discussed, and the need to develop more local research in order to increase understanding and evaluate treatment interventions is recognized. Further consideration and debate by Ethiopian mental health professionals as well as those from HIC are recommended, to promote both reciprocal learning and new local discourses about mental health.

  13. Historical Frames and the Politics of Humanitarian Intervention: From Ethiopia, Somalia to Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ibrahim Seaga

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that historical frames we often find in news media discourse can skew the way we perceive distant wars, and that this can have a knock-on effect on international humanitarian response within a cosmopolitan framework of global justice. Drawing on an empirical exploration of recent "humanitarian interventions" in Ethiopia,…

  14. Traditional access and forest management arrangements for beekeeping: the case of Southwest Ethiopia forest region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endalamaw, T.B.; Wiersum, K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Forest beekeeping is an ancient form of forest exploitation in south west Ethiopia. The practice has continued to the present with a gradual evolution in beekeeping technology and resource access and management arrangements. The aim of the present study is to study traditional forest management syst

  15. Smallholder milk market participation, dietary diversity and nutritional status among young children in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenjiso, B.M.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Ruben, R.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of smallholder milk market participation on household and intra-household dietary diversity and on nutritional status of young children in Ethiopia. Using the FAO dietary diversity questionnaire, 164 households were followed for two consecutive days and all food items

  16. Smallholder Milk Market Participation and Intra-household Time Allocation in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Megersa Lenjiso, Birhanu; Smits, Jeroen; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    We study the effects of smallholder market participation on intra-household time allocation in Ethiopia. We followed 156 households for 2 consecutive days and recorded the time allocated to dairying, domestic chores, schooling, wage work and leisure. Propensity score matching was used to determine t

  17. Essays on Women’s Bargaining Power and Intra-household Resource in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.B. Dito

    2011-01-01

    textabstractxv Abstract This thesis investigates the effect of a woman’s bargaining power on her welfare and that of her children in rural Ethiopia. The issue is of particular concern because, as empirical evidence shows, intra-household inequalities in welfare are frequently the direct consequence

  18. A participatory Agroforestry approach for soil and water conservation in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele-Tesemma, A.

    1997-01-01

    The rates of soil erosion and land degradation in Ethiopia are frighteningly high. Crop production, livestock keeping and energy supply situations are at risk. The highlands are the most affected. Past rehabilitation efforts have been immense. Much labour, capital and trained staff have been mobiliz

  19. Famine, gold and guns : the Suri of southwestern Ethiopia, 1985-91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1993-01-01

    Over the past few years (1985-1991), the Suri of the far southwest of Ethiopia have lived through a deep ecological and social crisis without substantial external aid from either the Ethiopian government or international aid agencies. They have experienced drought, cattle disease and an increasing l

  1. "Stew without Bread or Bread without Stew": Children's Understandings of Poverty in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camfield, Laura

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores children's understandings of poverty, ill-being and well-being in Ethiopia using data collected through group exercises with children aged 5-6 and 11-13 participating in Young Lives, an international study of childhood poverty. In some respects the characteristics of poverty reported by children resemble those reported by…

  2. Effectiveness of Higher Diploma Program for Early Career Academics in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Demewoz Admasu

    2016-01-01

    Unprecedented expansion of the public higher education sector in Ethiopia has brought about masses of early career academics (ECAs) to take up teaching and research in the sector. In recognition of a multitude of responsibilities and challenges these ECAs would face, a higher diploma program (HDP) was introduced in 2004 both for ECAs and senior…

  3. Content of zinc, iron, calcium and their absorption inhibitors in foods commonly consumed in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Fufa, H.

    2005-01-01

    The zinc, iron, calcium, phosphorus, phytate, tannin and moisture content of 36 foods consumed in rural Ethiopia were analysed. The foods analysed included those based on cereals, starchy tubers and roots, and legumes and vegetables as well as some fruits. Although many foods were relatively rich in

  4. Human papillomavirus related cervical cancer and anticipated vaccination challenges in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebremariam, TeweldeTesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths among women in Ethiopia. This may be due to the high prevalence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) genotypes in the population. So far, few studies have been done that showed the presence of HR-HPV genotypes. The HR-HPV-16, -18, -52, -56, -31 and -58 were the most common genotypes reported in Ethiopia. The introduction of HPV vaccines in Ethiopia is likely to go a long way in reducing cervical cancer deaths. However, there are few challenges to the introduction of the vaccines. The target population for HPV vaccination is at the moment not well-defined. Besides, the current HPV vaccines confer only type-specific (HPV-16 and -18) immunity, leaving a small proportion of Ethiopian women unprotected against other HR-HPV genotypes such as 52, 56, 31 and 58. Thus, future HPV vaccines such as the nanovalent vaccine may be more useful to Ethiopia as they will protect women against more genotypes.

  5. Floristic richness and endemism in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of the distribution of species richness and endemism on the floristic regions that have been used for the preparation of the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea; the article is based on a previously published and more comprehensive study of the flora of the entire Horn of Africa....

  6. Poverty persistence and informal risk management: Micro evidence from urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azomahou, T.T.; Yitbarek, E.

    2015-01-01

    Two factors that have received limited attention in poverty dynamic studies are the role of risk in causing poverty mobility and attrition bias. Controlling for the attrition bias, we study poverty dynamics in urban Ethiopia with an emphasis on the effect of idiosyncratic shocks and informal risk ma

  7. First experiences with a high-resolution imagery-based adjudication approach in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.H.J.; Zevenbergen, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the first phase certificates – those without a georeference. In 2008, a team conducted a simple field test using high resolution imagery. On-site tests were performed to determi

  8. Water Hyacinth in the Rift Valley Water Bodies of Ethiopia: Its Distribution, Socioeconomic Importance and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Firehun, Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2014-01-01

    A survey was conducted in the Rift Valley water bodies of Ethiopia from 2009 to 2011 to (i) determine the prevalence, agro-ecological distribution and sources of infestation of water hyacinth, (ii) investigate the socio-economic impact of water hyacinth, and (iii) assess changes in its agro-ecologic

  9. Collectors of botanical specimens from the flora area mentioned in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    Information based on all available sources about full name, nationality, profession, area and period of collection, with whom they are known to have made joint collections, herbaria in which the collections have been deposited etc., for all collectors mentioned in vol. 1-7 of the Flora of Ethiopia...

  10. Managing Ethiopian Cities II: Informality in Ethiopia: Taxing the Hard to Tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bongwa (Aloysius)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractLarge informal (hard to tax) sectors are an integral part of the economies of developing countries (Ethiopia included). In much of Africa, the informal, or gray economy that escapes tax collectors and government regulators, is the hidden dynamic driving economic growth. The informal econ

  11. Ethnocentrism and Ethnic-Based Peer Preferences in Higher Education Institutions: Challenges and Implications for Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admasu Gebru, Demewoz

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia, a country containing more than 80 ethnic groups, has remarkably expanded the higher education sector and established universities based on equitable regional distribution in the two past decades. This article discusses and analyzes attitudes and behaviors of university students from various ethnic groups toward their own and other…

  12. Evaluating quantitative and qualitative models: an application for nationwide water erosion assessment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, B.G.J.S.; Keyzer, M.A.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper tests the candidacy of one qualitative response model and two quantitative models for a nationwide water erosion hazard assessment in Ethiopia. After a descriptive comparison of model characteristics the study conducts a statistical comparison to evaluate the explanatory power of the mode

  13. Higher Education Policy Reform in Ethiopia: The Representation of the Problem of Gender Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje

    2013-01-01

    The higher education (HE) subsystem in Ethiopia has passed through a series of policy reforms in the last 10 years. Key reform areas ranged from improving quality and relevance of programmes to promoting equality in access to and success in HE. Despite the effort underway, gender inequality has remained a critical challenge in the subsystem. This…

  14. How resource poor households value and access poultry: Village poultry keeping in Tigray, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aklilu, H.A.; Udo, H.M.J.; Almekinders, C.J.M.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the role of poultry in the livelihoods of rural households and the ownership of poultry and related technology in three locations with different market access in Tigray, Ethiopia. The study employed multiple methods such as individual and group open interviews, a cross-sectional

  15. Plant use among the Suri people of southern Ethiopia : a system of knowledge in danger?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes some findings of research on plant names and plant use of the Suri people (more widely known by outsiders as "Surma"), a relatively isolated group of agro-pastoralists in the border area of Southwest Ethiopia and Sudan. The research was carried out as part of a long-term anth

  16. Political Geographies of Academic Development in Jamaica, Ethiopia and Japan: Reflections on the Impossibilities of Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Mervin E.; Jimma, Tefera Tadesse; Tatsuya, Natsume; Manathunga, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this dialogue was to begin grappling with notions of neutrality and academic development in three non-western contexts: (1) Jamaica; (2) Ethiopia; and (3) Japan. The authors were asked to describe the political geography of academic development in their countries and to explore questions of neutrality. This dialogue therefore tries…

  17. Selection of Arabica coffee types resistant to coffee berry disease in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, van der N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Descriptive part. A review is given of: the importance of Coffea arabica to Ethiopia; coffee research; habitus, origin and cultivation of C. arabica ; theoretical aspects of resistance and its implications for the system C. arabica -parasites; Coffee Berry Disease, symptoms, epidemiology, geographic

  18. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers' livelihoods: Evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.; Muradian Sarache, R.P.; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is - next to petroleum - one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

  19. Biology and management of fish stocks in Bahir Dar Gulf, Lake Tana, Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wudneh, T.

    1998-01-01

    The biology of the fish stocks of the major species in the Bahir Dar Gulf of Lake Tana, the largest lake in Ethiopia, has been studied based on data collected during August 1990 to September 1993. The distribution, reproduction patterns, growth and mortality dynamics and gillnet selectivity of these

  20. Community natural resource management: the case of woodlots in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebremedhin, B.; Pender, J.; Tesfay Belay, Girmay

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of community management of woodlots and investigates the determinants of collective action and its effectiveness in managing woodlots, based on a survey of 100 villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Despite limited current benefits received by community members, the wo

  1. Multi-criteria assessment of community-based fluoride-removal technologies for rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterwalder, Lars; Johnson, C Annette; Yang, Hong; Johnston, Richard B

    2014-08-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally-occurring fluoride in groundwater pose a serious health risk to millions of people living in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. In the absence of low-fluoride water resources of sufficient capacity, fluoride removal from drinking water is the accepted mitigation option. To date, five different community-level fluoride-removal technologies have been implemented in Ethiopia, although only a few units have been found in a functional state in the field. Which technology should be promoted and up-scaled is the subject of controversial debate amongst key stakeholders. This paper describes a multi-criteria decision analysis exercise, which was conducted with the participation of stakeholders in Ethiopia during a one-day workshop, to assess in an objective and transparent manner the available technology options. Criteria for technology comparison were selected and weighted, thus enabling the participants to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the different technologies and hear the views of other stakeholders. It was shown that there is no single most-preferable, technical solution for fluoride removal in Ethiopia. Selection of the most suitable solution depends on location-specific parameters and on the relative importance given to different criteria by the stakeholders involved. The data presented in this paper can be used as reference values for Ethiopia.

  2. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi causing rust on soybean in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soybean rust, caused by the fungal pathogen P. pachyrhizi, has been reported in 10 African countries since the first report in Uganda in 1996. In 2016, a severe epidemic caused “clouds” of urediniospores to be observed when walking through fields in mid-October 2016 in Jimma Ethiopia. In the first ...

  3. Understanding Farmers: Explaining Soil and Water Conservation in Konso, Wolaita and Wello, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beshah, T.

    2003-01-01

    Soil erosion by water is an old problem in Ethiopia. The prevalence of mountainous and undulating landscapes, coupled with the expansion of arable farming on steep areas due to population pressure have aggravated the soil erosion problem in the country. Prompted by one of the great famines in the co

  4. Competing practices of drinking and power : alcoholic 'hegemonism'in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.

    1997-01-01

    This paper focuses on problems and dilemmas of changing alcohol use among the Surma, a group of lowland agropastoralists in Maji, southern Ethiopia. The area under discussion is inhabited by indigenous agriculturalists, descendants of northern immigrants of mixed origin, and Surma and Me'en agropast

  5. Empowering Preschool Teachers to Identify Mental Health Problems: A Task-Sharing Intervention in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desta, Menelik; Deyessa, Negussie; Fish, Irving; Maxwell, Benjamin; Zerihun, Tigist; Levine, Saul; Fox, Claire; Giedd, Jay; Zelleke, Tesfaye G.; Alem, Atalay; Garland, Ann F.

    2017-01-01

    In Ethiopia there is a severe shortage of child mental health professionals. Identification and intervention for young children's mental health problems is crucial to improve developmental trajectories and reduce the severity of emotional and behavioral disorders. Teachers can play an important role in early problem detection. This role is…

  6. Invisible Actors: The Oromo and the Creation of Modern Ethiopia (1855-1913)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian James

    2009-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of key Oromo actors in the central Ethiopia traditional provinces of Wallo and Shawa, specifically the Mammadoch of Wallo and the Tulama of Shawa during the reigns of Emperors Tewodros II (r.1855-68), Yohannes IV (1872-1888) and Menilek II (1889-1913). The Oromo entered the political arena in the highlands of Ethiopia…

  7. Reflections on Meeting the Needs of Children with Disabilities in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Kimberly M.; Shepherd, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    In many countries, children with disabilities seldom receive the educational services they need. Economic instability has often forced a reduction in services for children with disabilities. Cultural values have also impacted support for children with disabilities. A special education residential facility in Ethiopia that serves orphaned children…

  8. 78 FR 76698 - Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Waiver of Restriction on Assistance to the Central Government of Ethiopia Pursuant to Section 7031(b)(3) of... Section 7031(b)(1) of the Act and similar provisions of law in prior year Acts with respect to...

  9. Khat Use and Its Impact on Academic Performance: The Case of Jimma University, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abafita, Jemal; Chala, Badassa Wolteji; Eba, Kasahun; Kim, Kyung-Ryang; Kim, Chang-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The use or misuse of addictive substances like khat has become widespread among the youths especially in countries where the substance is produced and/or consumed. In this paper, we examine whether khat use has any impact on the academic achievement of university students with particular reference to undergraduates in Jimma University, Ethiopia.…

  10. Performance assessment of smallholder irrigation in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halsema, van G.E.; Lencha, B.K.; Assefa, M.; Hengsdijk, H.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    The recent increase in smallholder irrigation schemes in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia has been associated with the overexploitation of water resources, while the economic viability of these schemes has been questioned. This paper assesses water use efficiencies of the Haleku Irrigation Scheme

  11. Setting up Micro-enterprises to Promote Soybean Utilization at Household Level in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blomne Sopov, M.; Sertse, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This project built on the previous work of the Centre for Development Innovation, Wageningen UR in the soy sector development in Ethiopia. As processors were linked more and more to producers in the soy sector, the need arose to explore options to enhance household nutrition security of producers in

  12. Nutritional aspects in the EDGET project : Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ; report of a mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van M.

    2014-01-01

    A mission was implemented to advise SNV project management and project staff on how to integrate human nutritional considerations into the EDGET project that aims at increasing the production of milk and dairy products in selected areas in Ethiopia. The EDGET project already also identified the obje

  13. Does Microfinance Reduce Rural Poverty? Evidence Based on Household Panel Data from Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane, G.; Gardebroek, C.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence on the long-term impacts of microfinance credit is scarce.We use a unique four-round panel dataset on farm households in northern Ethiopia that had access to microfinance, observed on two key poverty indicators:household consumption and housing improvements.Fixed-effects and random trend mo

  14. Risk assessment by sowing date for barley (Hordeum vulgare) in northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhe, A.A.; Stroosnijder, L.; Habtu, S.; Keesstra, S.D.; Berhe, M.; Hadgu Meles, K.

    2012-01-01

    Risks of dry and wet sowing methods of rainfed barley were evaluated in northern Ethiopia. The evaluation was based on yield simulation using a validated AquaCrop model. Risks of failure (false start) were assessed by taking biomass threshold levels (

  15. To tie or not to tie ridges for water conservation in Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, B.B.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2012-01-01

    The Rift Valley drylands of Ethiopia are characterized by sandy loam soils that have poor fertility and unreliable rainfall conditions. The aim of this study was to examine the potential benefit of rainwater harvesting by tied-ridges and improved soil fertility on maize productivity through field ex

  16. Economic and agronomic analysis of the seed potato supply chain in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Production and productivity of potato in Ethiopia are very low because of poor quality seed tubers and unavailability of seed tubers of improved varieties. These poor quality seed tubers and unavailability of seed tubers of improved varieties are caused by economic and agronomic factors. This thesis

  17. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Graaf, de M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning durin

  18. Browse species from Ethiopia: role in methane reduction and nematode control in goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, Genet F.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the research reported in this thesis was to evaluate browse species collected from Ethiopia for preference by goats, and for their in vitro anthelmintic and methane (CH4) reduction properties. During the conduct of the studies observations were made warranting a further aim, to compare in

  19. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  20. The Long-Run Macroeconomic Effects of Aid and Disaggregated Aid in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebregziabher, Fiseha Haile

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the long-run macroeconomic effects of aid and disaggregated aid flows in Ethiopia, currently the world's largest recipient of official development assistance, for the period 1960-2009. The results show that aid affects gross domestic product (GDP), investment and imports...

  1. AFLP Analysis of Enset Clonal Diversity in South and Southwestern Ethiopia for Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Tsegaye, A.; Treuren, van R.; Visser, B.

    2002-01-01

    Enset [Ensete ventricosum (Welw.) Cheesman] is a major multi-purpose crop in Ethiopia, which has been identified as the center of origin and diversity of enset. During the last decades, the local farming systems in which enset is maintained have become endangered. Conservation of clonally propagated

  2. A new agro-climatic classification for crop suitability zoning in northern semi-arid Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, A.; Keesstra, S.D.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2010-01-01

    The agro-climatic resources of Giba catchment in northern Ethiopia were assessed and characterized. The objectives were (i) to ascertain the suitability of the climate for growing teff (Eragrostis tef) and barley (Hordeum vulgare); (ii) to determine the onset and length of the growing period (LGP),

  3. GM crops in Ethiopia : a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azadi, Hossein; Taisma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance productivity, equitabili

  4. Perceived Causes of Mental Health Problems and Help-Seeking Behavior among University Students in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, Yirgalem

    2014-01-01

    The study examined perceived causes of mental health problems and professional help-seeking behavior among university students in Ethiopia. Data were collected from 370 students from four randomly selected colleges. The results revealed that the majority of the participants were able to recognize major mental health problems such as schizophrenia…

  5. Sediment trapping with indigenous grass species showing differences in plant traits in northwest Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Ritsema, Coen J.; Stroosnijder, Leo; Baartman, Jantiene E.M.

    2016-01-01

    Soil loss from an 8% sloping Teff field in north-western Ethiopia is significant (~ 70 t ha− 1 yr− 1), and thus found to be an important source of sediment. Grass barriers showing sediment trapping efficacy (STE) are important measures in trapping sediment inside Teff fields

  6. Farmers' opinion on seed potato management attributes in Ethiopia: a conjoint analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tufa, A.H.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Lans, van der I.A.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Tsegaye, A.; Struik, P.C.

    2012-01-01

    A low adoption of recommended seed potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) technologies in Ethiopia could be due to a lack of alternative seed potato production methods compatible with farmers’ economic and agro-ecological conditions. A conjoint analysis (a technique used to measure relative contribution of p

  7. The invisibility of children's paid and unpaid work: implications for Ethiopia's national poverty reduction policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.; Jones, N.; Tefera, B.

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mi

  8. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  9. Tree Regeneration in Church Forests of Ethiopia: Effects of Microsites and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassie Eshete, A.; Sterck, F.J.; Teketay, D.; Bongers, F.

    2009-01-01

    Tree regeneration is severely hampered in the fragmented afromontane forests of northern Ethiopia. We explored how trees regenerate in remnant forests along the gradient from open field, forest edge to closed sites and canopy gaps inside the forest. We investigated the effects of seed sowing, litter

  10. Toolbox for the Development of Cadastral and Registration Proclamation for Second Level Certification Program in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebeyehu Belay Shibeshi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land together with its fixtures is the single most important asset in almost all societies. In Ethiopia land is also playing a pivotal role for sustainable development. Large scale cadastral projects supporting sustainable development and increased investments are planned all over the country as part of the country’s five years growth and transformation plan. But cadastral and registration proclamation is not enacted to facilitate and guide the implementation of cadastral projects. There is a consensus on the importance of cadastral and registration proclamation in Ethiopia, but there is no clear methodology for its development. The purpose of the study was to extend the land administration toolbox RRR edition to guide the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for the implementation of second level certification (mapping of parcels in Ethiopia. Field surveys, focused group discussions, expert panels, and desk work with special emphasis to the review of legal documents and state of the art experiences from other countries, were the major inputs for the study. The toolbox will be used for the development of cadastral and registration proclamation for rural land administration in Ethiopia and may guide the law development in other developing countries with a similar situation.

  11. Spawning migrations of the endemic Labeobarbus (Cyprinidae, Teleostei) species of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, status and threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anteneh, W.; Getahun, A.; Dejen, E.; Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; de Graaf, M.; Wudneh, T.; Vijverberg, J.; Palstra, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    The reproductive biology of the only known intact species flock of large cyprinids, the 16 Labeobarbus species of Lake Tana (Ethiopia), has been extensively studied for the past two decades. Seven species of Labeobarbus are known to migrate >50 km upstream into tributary rivers for spawning during t

  12. Literacy and Development: A Study of Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostrom, Margareta; Sjostrom, Rolf

    The Yemissrach Dimts Literacy Campaign in Ethiopia, begun in 1962 and concentrated in rural areas for the benefit of adults, was evaluated in a study of 466 program participants and 66 additional adult villagers. The study focused on student achievement, teaching methods, benefits experienced by participants, and the literacy campaign's role…

  13. The Emergence of the National Language in Ethiopia: An Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Mulugeta

    Modern Ethiopia has made progress that has altered the status and functions of its various languages. With modernization, the reasons for and means of interethnic contact have multiplied, creating the need for a common language. Amharic, once confined to a rather small area, has spread geographically and grown in status in the last thousand years,…

  14. Market Orientation and Market Participation of Smallholders in Ethiopia: Implications for Commercial Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Gebremedhin, Berhanu; Tegegne, Azage

    2012-01-01

    The literature on commercial transformation of smallholders makes little distinction between market orientation and market participation. This paper analyzes the determinants of market orientation and market participation in Ethiopia separately and examines if market orientation translates into market participation. Results show that subsistence requirements, market access, and production factors affect market orientation, while market access and volume of production affect market participati...

  15. First experiences with High Resolution Imagery Based Adjudication Approach for Social Tenure Domain Model in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmen, C.; Zevenbergen, J.A.; Lengoiboni, M.; Deininger, K.; Burns, T.

    2009-01-01

    Since the start of the 21st century, great progress has been made with rural land certification in Ethiopia. This process, however, has been mainly confined to the so called first phase certificates. These certificates do identify the land holding households (with name etc. and photographs), but lim

  16. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  17. Impact of multiple certification on smallholder coffee farmers’ livelihoods: evidence from southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, Amsaya Anteneh; Muradian, Roldan; Ruben, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is – next to petroleum – one of the most valuable agricultural commodities traded at international markets (Arslan and Reicher, 2010; Rodriquez, 2012). Today, coffee remains one of the most important sources of export income for East African nations (i.e. Ethiopia, Uganda, Kenya, and Tanzania

  18. Small-scale edible oil milling operations: Alternative business models for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sertse, Y.; Ruijter de Wildt, de M.J.M.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Danse, M.G.

    2011-01-01

    The Ethiopian government is aiming to achieve self-sufficiency in edible oil by 2015. The aim of this research was to develop sustainable business models for millers, increase their competitiveness, and enhance food safety and security in Ethiopia within the changing policy context.

  19. Competitiveness as an Indicator of Sustainable Development of Tourism: Applying Destination Competitiveness Indicators to Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wondowossen, T.A.; Nakagoshi, N.; Yukio, Y.; Jongman, R.H.G.; Dawit, A.Z.

    2014-01-01

    Competitiveness can be applied to predict the economic sustainability of tourism in destinations which has been measured in terms of leakages and linkage related to employment and income generation opportunities to the destinations. This article examines destination competitiveness of Ethiopia based

  20. The Invisibility of Children's Paid and Unpaid Work: Implications for Ethiopia's National Poverty Reduction Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldehanna, Tassew; Jones, Nicola; Tefera, Bekele

    2008-01-01

    The complexities of intergenerational and gendered intra-household resource allocations are frequently overlooked in poverty reduction policies. To address this lacuna, this article focuses on links between macro-development policies and children's paid and unpaid work burden in Ethiopia. Using a mixed methods approach, quantitative household…

  1. Low-land Gully Formation in the Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijkee, Pim; Keesstra, Saskia; Mekonnen Gethahun, Mulatie

    2015-04-01

    Land degradation and related processes such as gullying, flooding and sedimentation, are global phenomena. Their economic consequences however are more severe in developing countries, which lack resources for prevention and mitigation. In Ethiopia, therefore, gully erosion as a form of land degradation is a prime issue. Over the past decade, gullies have formed in the foothills of the Minizr sub-catchment in the highlands of North-Western Ethiopia. Local extension workers have reported increased gully growth rates in the past five years in the downslope foothill areas. This study answers the following questions: has the gully growth rate indeed increased over the past five years compared to historical rates? What is the mechanism behind gully formation in the study area? In addition, this study looked at three possible root causes for increased erosion rates: changing land use, an increase in the ground water level, and the implementation of soil and water conservation measures in the watershed of the study area. The merit of this study is twofold. First, it shows the applicability of a fast, accessible and accurate way to digitally represent gullies through the use of video footage and photogrammetry. Secondly, it shows the dominant processes in gully formation in the area, allowing for a justified selection of measures to halt further gully growth and rehabilitate existing gullies. Two medium and one large gully were selected for detailed analysis. All gullies were located in gently-sloped areas (0-5%), with Vertisol-dominated soils. Gully shape and volume were derived using terrestrial photogrammetry in AgiSoft PhotoScan Professional. Still frames exported from video footage served as input. Approximately 30 points per gully were sampled weekly for soil moisture content over the course of September, November, and December 2014. In addition, the sites were checked for signs of subsurface flow at the end of the rainy season and again 3 months into the dry season

  2. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  3. Laboratory system strengthening and quality improvement in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilahun M. Hiwotu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, a National Laboratory Strategic Plan was set forth in Ethiopia to strengthen laboratory quality systems and set the stage for laboratory accreditation. As a result, the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme was initiated in 45 Ethiopian laboratories.Objectives: This article discusses the implementation of the programme, the findings from the evaluation process and key challenges.Methods: The 45 laboratories were divided into two consecutive cohorts and staff from each laboratory participated in SLMTA training and improvement projects. The average amount of supportive supervision conducted in the laboratories was 68 hours for cohort I and two hoursfor cohort II. Baseline and exit audits were conducted in 44 of the laboratories and percent compliance was determined using a checklist with scores divided into zero- to five-star ratinglevels.Results: Improvements, ranging from < 1 to 51 percentage points, were noted in 42 laboratories, whilst decreases were recorded in two. The average scores at the baseline and exit audits were 40% and 58% for cohort I (p < 0.01; and 42% and 53% for cohort II (p < 0.01,respectively. The p-value for difference between cohorts was 0.07. At the exit audit, 61% ofthe first and 48% of the second cohort laboratories achieved an increase in star rating. Poor awareness, lack of harmonisation with other facility activities and the absence of a quality manual were challenges identified.Conclusion: Improvements resulting from SLMTA implementation are encouraging. Continuous advocacy at all levels of the health system is needed to ensure involvement of stakeholders and integration with other improvement initiatives and routine activities.

  4. Afro-alpine forest cover change on Mt. Guna (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Adugnaw; Frankl, Amaury; Jacob, Miro; Lanckriet, Sil; Hendrickx, Hanne; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    High mountain forests, such as the afro-alpine Erica arborea L. forests in Ethiopia, are very important for the livelihood of local communities, in relation to their impacts on the water balance of mountain ecosystems and surrounding agricultural areas. On volcanoes, the dominance of volcanic tuffs on the slopes, as well as that of gelifracts near the top further enhances infiltration, making it recharge areas. Earlier forest cover change studies in the Ethiopian highlands mainly deal with the lower vegetation belts. In this study, 3.37 km² on the western slopes of Mount Guna (one of the dozens of Miocene shield volcanoes that exist on top of the Ethiopian plateau) was mapped. The slope has an elevation between 3200 at its base and 4113 m a.s.l. at the peak. The present forest cover was recorded from high-resolution georeferenced satellite imagery from Google Maps and field data (2015), while historical forest cover was studied from georeferenced aerial photographs of 1982. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted to identify the trend of forest cover change and management practices. Whereas burning of the Erica forest for sake of land clearance (a typical practice on all Ethiopian mountains until the 1980s) most strikingly took place for three consecutive days in 1975, large-scale deforestation resulting from agricultural expansion and livestock pressure continued thereafter. However, between 2000 and 2014, due to active involvement of local and governmental institutions there was a slight regeneration of the vegetation and the Erica forest. Protection and regeneration of the forest was particularly efficient after it was given into custody of an orthodox church established in 1999 at the lower side of the forest. Overall, the study revealed that human and livestock pressures are the strongest drivers of deforestation. Furthermore, the study indicated that integrating the actions of local and governmental institutions is key for the protection of the

  5. Dairy technology adoption in smallholder farms in "Dejen" district, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, H; Dehninet, G; Kelay, B

    2010-02-01

    Factors influencing dairy technology adoption and impact on milk yield were studied in 240 smallholder farms in Dejen district, Ethiopia. The majority of the smallholders had more than 20 years of farming experience and were living at more than 10 km distance from market or trading centers (67% and 54% in that order). The dairy technologies studied included the use of crossbred animals, improved feed technologies and improved management practices. Application of acaricides, deworming, vaccination, heat-detection and haymaking had wide application (more than 80% adoption levels) while urea straw treatment, silage making, rotational grazing and fodder beet development were the least practiced ones. Only 20 percent of the cows were crossbred animals. It has been found that higher level of technology adoption is associated with better milk yield regardless of the breed of cattle (local or crossbred) owned by the farmers. Milk yields in local breeds increased by 0.07 times when the number of technologies increased by one unit. In crossbred cows, this rate of increase was five fold higher (0.38 times for one unit increase). Correlation coefficients between and within farm household characteristics and technologies adoption were, generally, significant. Male-headed households adopted significantly higher number of technologies than female-headed households (P < 0.001). Technology adoption rates increased significantly with increased education level and family size and decreasing distance from market or trade centers (P < 0.01). The level of technology adoption by smallholder farmers is still unsatisfactory and is highly dependent on gender, family size and level of education of smallholder farmers and location of farms.

  6. River sedimentation and channel bed characteristics in northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demissie, Biadgilgn; Billi, Paolo; Frankl, Amaury; Haile, Mitiku; Lanckriet, Sil; Nyssen, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Excessive sedimentation and flood hazard are common in ephemeral streams which are characterized by flashy floods. The purposes of this study was to investigate the temporal variability of bio-climatic factors in controlling sediment supply to downstream channel reaches and the effect of bridges on local hydro-geomorphic conditions in causing the excess sedimentation and flood hazard in ephemeral rivers of the Raya graben (northern Ethiopia). Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was analyzed for the study area using Landsat imageries of 1972, 1986, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2012). Middle term, 1993-2011, daily rainfall data of three meteorological stations, namely, Alamata, Korem and Maychew, were considered to analyse the temporal trends and to calculate the return time intervals of rainfall intensity in 24 hours for 2, 5, 10 and 20 years using the log-normal and the Gumbel extreme events method. Streambed gradient and bed material grain size were measured in 22 river reaches (at bridges and upstream). In the study catchments, the maximum NDVI values were recorded in the time interval from 2000 to 2010, i.e. the decade during which the study bridges experienced the most severe excess sedimentation problems. The time series analysis for a few rainfall parameters do not show any evidence of rainfall pattern accountable for an increase in sediment delivery from the headwaters nor for the generation of higher floods with larger bedload transport capacities. Stream bed gradient and bed material grain size data were measured in order to investigate the effect of the marked decrease in width from the wide upstream channels to the narrow recently constructed bridges. The study found the narrowing of the channels due to the bridges as the main cause of the thick sedimentation that has been clogging the study bridges and increasing the frequency of overbank flows during the last 15 years. Key terms: sedimentation, ephemeral streams, sediment size, bridge clogging

  7. The Isostatic State of Ethiopia and Adjacent Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldetinsae, G.; Götze, H.-J.

    2003-04-01

    Over 35000 onshore and offshore gravity stations have been compiled in order to test isostatic models and perform geologic correlations over a large section of the Afro-Arabian shield. Ethiopia is an important part of this system because it contains the major section of the ca. 5000km Afro-Arabian rift and it includes the transition between the Arabo-Nubian-Shield (ANS) and Mozambique Belt (MB). Isostatic residual anomalies have been calculated using both Airy and Vening-Meinsez models. These anomalies outline the major Precambrian belts, the Cenozoic rifts and associated major structures. Positive residual anomalies associated with the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and Kenyan rift systems could be the expression of an axial intrusive body and swarms of local faults and fractures. The residual anomalies indicate relative stability in the MER and increased tectonic activity over the areas of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Afar. Near-zero isostatic residuals flank the MER and Kenya rifts and are found within the Danakil Alps and some plateau regions. A series of NW-SE and E-W trending features are evident in the different isostatic residual maps. These parallel features include, from north to south, the Najid fault system, Red Sea axial zone, Melka Werer cross structure, the Anza rift and the Aswa shear zone. Additional NW-SE structures are apparent in the southern rift system, although these features are somewhat diffuse. Curvature enhanced maps are also useful for mapping fracture zones, major gravity lineaments and, in some cases, orientation of faults. Important areas from a metallogenesis point of view have been identified for further examination. The results of the qualitative interpretation form the basis of continuing three-dimensional gravity modelling and qualitative analysis that also integrates data from eastern Sudan.

  8. Thermal imaging of Erta 'Ale active lava lake (Ethiopia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spampinato, L.; Oppenheimer, C.; Calvari, S.; Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.

    2009-04-01

    Active lava lakes represent the uppermost portion of a volume of convective magma exposed to the atmosphere, and provide open windows on magma dynamics within shallow reservoirs. Erta ‘Ale volcano located within the Danakil Depression in Ethiopia, hosts one of the few permanent convecting lava lakes, active at least since the last century. We report here the main features of Erta ‘Ale lake surface investigated using a hand-held infrared thermal camera between 11 and 12 November 2006. In both days, the lake surface was mainly characterized by efficient magma circulation reflecting in the formation of well-marked incandescent cracks and wide crust plates. These crossed the lake from the upwelling to the downwelling margin with mean speeds ranging between 0.01 and 0.15 m s-1. Hot spots opened eventually in the middle of crust plates and/or along cracks. These produced explosive activity lasting commonly between ~10 and 200 sec. Apparent temperatures at cracks ranged between ~700 and 1070˚C, and between ~300 and 500˚C at crust plates. Radiant power output of the lake varied between ~45 and 76 MW according to the superficial activity and continuous resurfacing of the lake. Time series analysis of the radiant power output data reveals cyclicity with a period of ~10 min. The combination of visual and thermal observations with apparent mean temperatures and convection rates allows us to interpret these signals as the periodic release of hot overpressured gas bubbles at the lake surface.

  9. Notes on Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert, M. G.

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Precursory notes on Euphorbia subgen. Euphorbia for the Flora of Ethiopia are given. Revised synonymies are given for E. abyssinica, E. ampliphylla and E. polyacantha. Six species: E. burgen M.G. Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.G. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.G.Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.G. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert and E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert, and one subspecies: E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert, are described as new.

    Es presenten unes notes preliminars per a la Flora d'Etiòpia sobre Euphorbia L. subgen. Euphorbia. Es do nen les sinonímies revisades per a E. abyssinica, E. Ampliphylla i E. poJyacantha. Es descriuen sis espècies noves (E. Burgeri M.a . Gilbert, E. nigrispinoides M.O. Gilbert, E. sebsebei M.a . Gilbert, E. bitataënsis M.O. Gilbert, E. baleënsis M.G. Gilbert i E. awashensis M.G. Gilbert i una subespècie (E. septentrionalis subsp. gamugofana M.G. Gilbert.

  10. Care and support in the classroom : the case of three teachers in their cassroom in an elementary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tekle, Teshome Kebede

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Ethiopia is a country represented by the three wide horizontal strips of green, yellow and red coloured national flag constituting about 70 million people. It is an old nation with people proud of their culture and civilization. Like several other countries, Ethiopia is a land of a multitude of nations, nationalities and people with diverse languages, religion and culture. Like other developing countries, in Ethiopia, the low socio-economic condition, the traditional beliefs of...

  11. Risk Factors of Active Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV/AIDS in Southwest Ethiopia: A Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, Mohammed; Deribew, Amare; Tessema, Fasil; Assegid, Sahilu; Duchateau, Luc; Colebunders, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background Determinants of active tuberculosis among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) are not well elucidated in countries with limited resources. The objective of this study was to assess distal and proximate determinants of active tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS in southwest Ethiopia. Methods A case-control study was conducted from January to March, 2009 in South West Ethiopia. The study population consisted of 162 cases and 647 controls. Cases were adult people living with...

  12. Prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gudina EK; Michael Y; Assegid S

    2013-01-01

    Esayas Kebede Gudina,1 Yadani Michael,1 Sahilu Assegid2 1Department of Internal Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 2Department of Epidemiology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a common medical condition worldwide. It is an important public health challenge because of the associated morbidity, mortality, and the cost to the society. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its risk factors among attendants of adult...

  13. The functioning of accreditation in Ethiopia : a study focusing on the views of private higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, Essete Abebe

    2009-01-01

    Many higher education systems are undergoing transformations in the face of today‟s highly changing environment. One such change has to do with the establishment of external quality assurance systems. In Ethiopia, the number of private higher education institutions (HEIs) has increased significantly over the past decade. The government of Ethiopia has set up, as the main mechanism of overseeing the performance of private HEIs, an accreditation system. Higher education relevance and quality ag...

  14. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor (Ricinus communis) Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean ( Ricinus communis ) in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio...

  15. Genetically Divergent Types of the Wheat Leaf Fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a Center of Tetraploid Wheat Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, J A; Acevedo, M A

    2016-04-01

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya, from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. Single-uredinial isolates were derived and tested for virulence phenotype to 20 lines of Thatcher wheat that differ for single leaf rust resistance genes and for molecular genotypes with 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers. Nine virulence phenotypes were described among the 193 isolates tested for virulence. Phenotype BBBQJ, found only in Ethiopia, was predominantly collected from tetraploid wheat. Phenotype EEEEE, also found only in Ethiopia, was exclusively collected from tetraploid wheat and was avirulent to the susceptible hexaploid wheat 'Thatcher'. Phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS, found in both Ethiopia and Kenya, were predominantly collected from common wheat. Phenotypes CCMSS, CCPSS, and CBMSS were found in Ethiopia from common wheat at low frequency. Phenotypes TCBSS and TCBSQ were found on durum wheat and common wheat in Kenya. Four groups of distinct SSR genotypes were described among the 48 isolates genotyped. Isolates with phenotypes BBBQJ and EEEEE were in two distinct SSR groups, and isolates with phenotypes MBDSS and MCDSS were in a third group. Isolates with CCMSS, CCPSS, CBMSS, TCBSS, and TCBSQ phenotypes were in a fourth SSR genotype group. The diverse host environment of Ethiopia has selected and maintained a genetically divergent population of P. triticina.

  16. Stock assessment of fishery target species in Lake Koka, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gashaw; Wolff, Matthias

    2015-09-01

    Effective management is essential for small-scale fisheries to continue providing food and livelihoods for households, particularly in developing countries where other options are often limited. Studies on the population dynamics and stock assessment on fishery target species are thus imperative to sustain their fisheries and the benefits for the society. In Lake Koka (Ethiopia), very little is known about the vital population parameters and exploitation status of the fishery target species: tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, common carp Cyprinus carpio and catfish Clarias gariepinus. Our study, therefore, aimed at determining the vital population parameters and assessing the status of these target species in Lake Koka using length frequency data collected quarterly from commercial catches from 2007-2012. A total of 20,097 fish specimens (distributed as 7,933 tilapia, 6,025 catfish and 6,139 common carp) were measured for the analysis. Von Bertalarffy growth parameters and their confidence intervals were determined from modal progression analysis using ELEFAN I and applying the jackknife technique. Mortality parameters were determined from length-converted catch curves and empirical models. The exploitation status of these target species were then assessed by computing exploitation rates (E) from mortality parameters as well as from size indicators i.e., assessing the size distribution of fish catches relative to the size at maturity (Lm), the size that provides maximum cohort biomass (Lopt) and the abundance of mega-spawners. The mean value of growth parameters L∞, K and the growth performance index ø' were 44.5 cm, 0.41/year and 2.90 for O. niloticus, 74.1 cm, 0.28/year and 3.19 for C. carpio and 121.9 cm, 0.16/year and 3.36 for C. gariepinus, respectively. The 95 % confidence intervals of the estimates were also computed. Total mortality (Z) estimates were 1.47, 0.83 and 0.72/year for O. niloticus, C. carpio and C. gariepinus, respectively. Our study suggest that

  17. Determinants of active pulmonary tuberculosis in Ambo Hospital, West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ephrem

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with active pulmonary tuberculosis seen in cases in Ambo Hospital, Ethiopia.Design: A facility-based prospective case-control study.Setting: Patients attending Ambo Hospital from 01 December 2011 to 29 March 2012.Participants: The sample included 312 adult patients attending Ambo Hospital. The main outcome measure was presence of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB.Explanatory measures: Age, gender, occupation, educational status, marital status, place of residence, patient history of TB, family history of TB, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, smoking, alcohol intake, khat chewing, body mass index (BMI, employment, diabetes, history of asthma, previous history of worm infestation, history of hospitalisation, number of adults living in the household (HH, person per room, housing condition.Results: A total of 312 study participants, including 104 active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB cases (cases and 208 non-active PTB cases (controls, were recruited for the present study. Having one or more family member with a history of TB (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.50–12.90, marital status (OR = 7.6; 95% CI: 2.2–12.6, male gender (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 1.4–7, rural residence (OR = 3.3; P = 0.012, being a current or past smoker (OR = 2.8; 95% CI: 1.1–7.2, BMI < 18.5 (OR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.03–4.2, HIV infection (OR = 8.8; 95% CI: 2.4–23.8 and a history of worm infestation (OR = 6.4; 95% CI: 2.6–15.4 remained significant independent host-related factors for active PTB.Conclusion: Patients who came from a compound with more than two HHs were more likely to develop active PTB than those who came from a compound with only one HH. Those who lived in houses with no windows were more likely to develop active PTB than those who lived in houses with one or more windows, had a family history of TB, lived in rural areas. Sex of the patient was a predicting factor. Not being the owner of the house

  18. Retinal detachment in southwest Ethiopia: a hospital based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsedeke Asaminew

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The incidence of retinal detachment in Blacks is generally considered to be low though there are few supporting studies in Africa. This study, thus, aimed at describing the clinical profile of patients with retinal detachment in Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A hospital-based study was done on all consecutive retinal detachment patients who presented to Jimma University Hospital over six months period. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect patients' sociodemographic characteristics and clinical history. Comprehensive anterior and posterior segment eye examinations were done and risk factors were sought for. Statistical tests were considered significant if P < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 94 eyes of 80 patients (1.5% had retinal detachment (RD and about 69% of patients were symptomatic for over a month before presentation. The mean age was 41.4 years (SD ±16.5. Fourteen patients (17.5% had bilateral RD. At presentation, 61 eyes (64.9% were blind from RD and 11 (13.8% patients were bilaterally blind from RD. Rhegmatogenous RD was seen in 55 eyes (58.5% and tractional RD in 22 eyes (23.4%. The most common risk factors were ocular trauma (32 eyes, 34.0%, myopia (23 eyes, 24.5%, posterior uveitis (13 eyes, 13.8% and diabetic retinopathy (9 eyes, 9.6%. Most retinal breaks (25 eyes, 43.1% were superotemporal and horse-shoe tear was the most common (19 eyes, 20.2%. Macula was off in 77 eyes (81.9% and 38 eyes (69.1% of RRD eyes had grade C proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Macular status was significantly associated with PVR (P=0.011, and duration of symptoms (RR=1.25, 95%CI: 1.059-1.475, P=0.040. CONCLUSIONS: A significant numbers of patients with ocular problem had retinal detachment, and nearly two third of the patients presented late. Trauma and myopia were the most important risk factors. People should be educated to improve their health seeking behavior and use eye safety precautions to prevent ocular trauma.

  19. Point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in two teaching hospitals of Amhara region in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yallew WW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Walelegn Worku Yallew,1 Abera Kumie,2 Feleke Moges Yehuala3 1Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 2School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, 3Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: Hospital-acquired infection (HAI is a major safety issue affecting the quality of care of hundreds of millions of patients every year, in both developed and developing countries, including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, there is no comprehensive research that presents the whole picture of HAIs in hospitals. The objective of this study was to examine the nature and extent of HAIs in Ethiopia. Methods: A repeated cross-sectional study was conducted in two teaching hospitals. All eligible inpatients admitted for at least 48 hours on the day of the survey were included. The survey was conducted in dry and wet seasons of Ethiopia, that is, in March to April and July 2015. Physicians and nurses collected the data according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention definition of HAIs. Coded and cleaned data were transferred to SPSS 21 and STATA 13 for analysis. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine the prevalence of HAIs and relationship between explanatory and outcome variables. Results: A total of 908 patients were included in this survey, the median age of the patients was 27 years (interquartile range: 16–40 years. A total of 650 (71.6% patients received antimicrobials during the survey. There were 135 patients with HAI, with a mean prevalence of 14.9% (95% confidence interval 12.7–17.1. Culture results showed that Klebsiella spp. (22.44% and Staphylococcus aureus (20.4% were the most commonly isolated HAI-causing pathogens in these hospitals. The association of patient age and hospital type with the occurrence of HAI was

  20. Prevalence and associated factors of stunting among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic

  1. Land Acquisitions, the Politics of Dispossession, and State-Remaking in Gambella, Western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Gebresenbet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that development through large-scale land acquisitions (LSLAs in Gambella, western Ethiopia, belies a state-remaking project under a dispossessive political economy. This argument is based on fieldwork in Gambella, Addis Ababa, and Minneapolis and is situated within the broader development agenda pursued by Ethiopia’s ruling party. The political economy of LSLAs tells us that the deals are not occurring in a predominantly economic manner; rather, extra-economic state intervention clears the way for, facilitates, and ensures sustained accumulation. This political intervention is “unlocking” and making the lowland resources accessible and extractable by the state, while a concomitant villagisation project is guaranteeing continued accumulation by disempowering the local population by making the community legible, governable, and controllable. Through a combination of these processes, the Ethiopian state is mastering, and building itself in, Gambella’s lowlands.

  2. Developing and sustaining human resources in the health supply chain in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Traulsen, Janine M; Damene Kabtimer, Woynabeba

    2016-01-01

    management. The aim of this study was to explore the current status of the development of human resources in health supply chain management in Ethiopia and to identify important factors affecting this development. METHODS: A series of face-to-face interviews with key stakeholders was carried out in 2014...... and training, and Barriers and enablers. Results confirm the development of human resources in health supply chain management in many areas. However, several problems were identified including lack of coordination, partly due to the large number of stakeholders; reported high staff mobility; and a lack...... of overall strategy regarding the job/career structures necessary for maintaining human resources. Rural areas have a particular set of problems, including in transportation of goods and personnel, attracting and keeping personnel, and in communication and access to information. CONCLUSIONS: Ethiopia...

  3. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M.; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F.; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7–9 and 9–10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade. PMID:28130456

  4. Boxwood Borer Heterobostrychus brunneus (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) Infesting Dried Cassava: A Current Record from Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Aditya; Kirchner, Sascha M; Langguth, Henning; Döring, Thomas F; Hensel, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Insect specimens of adult beetles and larvae of 7-9 and 9-10 mm length, respectively were collected from infested dry cassava at two locations from multiple stores in southern Ethiopia. The specimens were identified as Heterobostrychus brunneus (Murray, 1867) commonly known as boxwood borer and auger beetle. The study presents a current record of H. brunneus in Ethiopia, particularly in the context of infesting food products. Additionally, a wide geographical distribution of the pest was reviewed and presented in this article. Current evidence suggests that H. brunneus is a serious pest of forest wood, structural timbers, and dried food products and that it carries a risk to be introduced into various other parts of the world via global trade.

  5. Two distinctive new species of Commicarpus (Nyctaginaceae) from gypsum outcrops in eastern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Gilbert, Michael G.; Weber, Odile;

    2016-01-01

    During field trips in 2013 and 2014, two distinctive plants belonging to the genus Commicarpus were collected in the Lele Hills, Bale Zone, eastern Ethiopia, on outcrops of sedimentary rock belonging to the Gorrahei Formation with high contents of gypsum. The plants are here described as two new...... in Commicarpus, being a small self-supporting shrub to 0.8 (– 1) m high. Both new species occur in small populations with restricted distribution; models based on the available information show that the potential distribution is also restricted. C. macrothamnus is here evaluated as Vulnerable (VU), while C....... leleensis, only known from the type, should remain Data Deficient (DD). Outcrops of gypsum with restricted-range species are well known from eastern Ethiopia and Somalia, but the locality with the two new species of Commicarpus is the most north-western and one of the highest sites recorded so far...

  6. Biofuels for a Greener Economy? Insights from Jatropha Production in Northeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Portner

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many observers view Jatropha as a miracle plant that grows in harsh environments, halts land degradation and provides seeds for fuel production. This makes it particularly attractive for use in Ethiopia, where poverty levels are high and the degradation of agricultural land is widespread. In this article, we investigate the potentials and limitations of a government-initiated Jatropha project for smallholders in northeastern Ethiopia from a green economy perspective. Data are based on a 2009 household survey and interviews with key informants, as well as on a 2012 follow-up round of interviews with key informants. We conclude that the project has not contributed to a greener economy so far, but has the potential to do so in the future. To maximize Jatropha’s potential, interventions must focus mainly on smallholders and pay more attention to the entire biofuel value chain.

  7. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulat Yimer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  8. Epidemiology of elephantiasis with special emphasis on podoconiosis in Ethiopia: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer, Mulat; Hailu, Tadesse; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Abera, Bayeh

    2015-06-01

    Elephantiasis is a symptom of a variety of diseases that is characterized by the thickening of the skin and underlying tissues, especially in the legs, male genitals and female breasts. Some conditions having this symptom include: Elephantiasis nostras, due to longstanding chronic lymphangitis; Elephantiasis tropica or lymphatic filariasis, caused by a number of parasitic worms, particularly Wuchereria bancrofti; non-filarial elephantiasis or podoconiosis, an immune disease caused by heavy metals affecting the lymph vessels; proteus syndrome, the genetic disorder of the so-called Elephant Man, etc. Podoconiosis is a type of lower limb tropical elephantiasis distinct from lymphatic filariasis. Lymphatic filariasis affects all population at risk, whereas podoconiosis predominantly affects barefoot subsistence farmers in areas with red volcanic soil. Ethiopia is one of the countries with the highest number of podoconiosis patients since many people are at risk to red-clay soil exposure in many parts of the country. The aim of this review was to know the current status and impact of podoconiosis and its relevance to elephantiasis in Ethiopia. To know the epidemiology and disease burden, the literatures published by different scholars were systematically reviewed. The distribution of the disease and knowledge about filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are not well known in Ethiopia. It is relatively well studied in southern Ethiopia but data from other parts of the country are limited. Moreover, programmes that focus on diagnosis, treatment, prevention and control of filarial elephantiasis and podoconiosis are also non-existent even in endemic areas. Furthermore, the disease mapping has not been carried out country-wide. Therefore, in order to address these gaps, Ethiopian Ministry of Health needs to take initiative for undertaking concrete research and mapping of the disease in collaboration with stakeholders.

  9. For public service or money: Understanding geographical imbalances in the health workforce in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Serneels, Pieter; Lindelow, Magnus; Garcia Montalvo, José; Barr, Abigail

    2006-01-01

    Geographical imbalances in the health workforce have been a consistent feature of nearly all health systems, and especially in developing countries. In this paper we investigate the willingness to work in a rural area among final year nursing and medical students in Ethiopia. Analyzing data obtained from contingent valuation questions, we find that household consumption and the student’s motivation to help the poor, which is our proxy for intrinsic motivation, are the main determinants of wil...

  10. Improving Potato Production in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia: A System Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gildemacher, P.R.; Kaguongo, W.; Ortiz, O.; Tesfaye, A.; Woldegiorgis, G.; Wagoire, W.W.; Kakuhenzire, R.; Kinyae, P.; Nyongesa, M.; Struik, P.C.; Leeuwis, C.

    2009-01-01

    Increased productivity of potatoes can improve the livelihood of smallholder potato farmers in Kenya, Uganda and Ethiopia and is required to meet the growing demand. This paper investigates the opportunities for potato system improvement that could result in improved productivity. Through a diagnosis of the potato systems in the three countries on the basis of surveys and stakeholder workshops, seed potato quality management, bacterial wilt control, late blight control and soil fertility mana...

  11. How Can African Agriculture Adapt to Climate Change? A Counterfactual Analysis from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the impact of different adaptation strategies on crop net revenues in the Nile Basin of Ethiopia. We estimate a multinomial endogenous switching regression model of climate change adaptation and crop net revenues and implement a counterfactual analysis. Households data are combined with spatial climate data. We find that adaptation to climate change based upon a portfolio of strategies significantly increases farm net revenues. Changing crop varieties has a positive and significant...

  12. Multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and associated risk factors in Oromia Region of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Mulisa

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: The rate of MDR-TB was high among suspected cases in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Local MDR-TB detection capacity and local epidemiology studies are essential to detect MDR-TB and guide the use of the sparse resources to optimize MDR-TB control. If TB is suspected, the presence of any of the above factors should alert Oromia Region clinicians and public health professionals to screen for MDR-TB.

  13. Changes in the frequency and severity of hydrological droughts over Ethiopia from 1960 to 2013

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, A. M.

    2016-06-27

    Here we present an analysis of drought occurrence and variability in Ethiopia, based on the monthly precipitation data from the Climate Research Unit (CRU-v3.22) over the period from 1960 to 2013. The drought events were characterized by means of the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) applied to precipitation data at a temporal scale of 12 months. At the national scale, the results reveal a statistically significant decrease in the severity of droughts over the 54-year period, a pattern that is mostly attributed to a statistically significant decrease in the frequency of high intensity drought episodes (i.e., extreme and very extreme droughts), compared to moderate droughts. To assess the general patterns of drought evolution, a principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the SPI series. PCA results indicate a high spatial heterogeneity in the SPI variations over the investigated period, with ten different spatially well-defined regions identified. These PCA components accounted for 72.9% of the total variance of drought in the region. These regions also showed considerable differences in the temporal variability of drought, as most of the regions exhibited an increase in wetness conditions in recent decades. In contrast, the regions that receive less than 400 mm of annual precipitation showed a declining  trend, with the largest changes occurring over Afar region. Generally, the highly elevated regions over the central Ethiopian Highlands showed the weakest changes, compared to the lowlands. This study confirms the local character of drought evolution over Ethiopia, providing evidence for policy makers to adopt appropriate local policies to cope with the risks of drought. Over Ethiopia, the detailed spatial assessment of drought evolution is required for a better understanding of the possible impacts of recurrent drought on agriculture, food production, soil degradation, human settlements and migrations, as well as energy production and water resources

  14. Resource potential of bamboo, challenges and future directions towards sustainable management and utilization in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getachew Desalegn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Bamboo, the fastest growing and high yielding perennial plant of the world has more than 1500 species and 1500 versatile socio-economic uses and ecological services. Ethiopia has two indigenous bamboo species namely Yushania alpina and Oxytenantheria abyssinica, covering about one million ha with a wide distribution. The objective of this paper is to highlight the potential of bamboo resources, challenges including biodeterioration damage, opportunities and future research directions towards its sustainable management and rational utilization.Area of study: Bamboo resources of EthiopiaMaterial and Methods: Reconnaissance survey was done to some parts of the bamboo growing potential areas in Ethiopia besides the literature review. Main results: The bamboo resource, despite its socio-economic and environmental benefits, currently, in most areas has been under high pressure due to land use changes, bamboo mass- flowering, poor processing with low value addition, and damage by biodeteriorating agents (termites, beetles and fungi. The preservative tests on Ethiopian bamboos revealed low natural durability and highlighted the paramount importance of appropriate protection measures such as Tanalith and vehicles used motor oil to increase durability, service life and rational utilization of bamboo-based products and structures as potential alternative construction and furniture material.Research highlights: Therefore, integrated research and development interventions involving different propagation and managements techniques, harvesting season, processing, value addition including proper seasoning and preservation technologies and marketing are recommended to fill the information and technological gaps on sustainable management and rational utilization of this fast growing and multipurpose bamboo resources in Ethiopia.Key words: Bamboo; challenges; management; socio-economic and environmental significance; utilization.

  15. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    metal and old axles. The new model will primarily be constructed of bamboo which is abundant in Ethiopia and is a very durable material. Another...by China State Construction Engineering 3 | P a g e Network Science Center, West Point www.netscience.usma.edu 845.938.0804 Corporation as a...sustainable development. Construction of Road Interchange in Addis Ababa The hub is also supported by Center for Creative Leadership (CCL

  16. Attitudes of undergraduate medical students of Addis Ababa University towards medical practice and migration, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Deressa Wakgari; Azazh Aklilu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The health care system of Ethiopia is facing a serious shortage of health workforce. While a number of strategies have been developed to improve the training and retention of medical doctors in the country, understanding the perceptions and attitudes of medical students towards their training, future practice and intent to migrate can contribute in addressing the problem. This study was carried out to assess the attitudes of Ethiopian medical students towards their trainin...

  17. Parasitic Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Collected from Selected Local Markets of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tefera, Tamirat; Biruksew, Abdissa; Mekonnen, Zeleke; Eshetu, Teferi

    2014-01-01

    Background. A study aimed at determining the prevalence and predictors of parasitic contamination of fruits and vegetables collected from local markets in Jimma Town, Ethiopia, was conducted between April and May 2013. Methods. A total of 360 samples of fruits and vegetables were examined by sedimentation concentration after washing using normal saline. Results. The overall prevalence of parasitic contamination was 57.8%. Strongyloides like parasite (21.9%) was the most frequent parasitic con...

  18. The impact of podoconiosis on quality of life in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mousley, Elizabeth; Deribe, Kebede; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND\\ud \\ud Podoconiosis is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, which untreated, causes considerable physical disability and stigma for affected individuals. Little is known about the quality of life (QoL) of patients with podoconiosis. This study aimed to assess the QoL of patients with podoconiosis in comparison with healthy controls in Ethiopia.\\ud \\ud METHODS\\ud \\ud A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in May 2012, among 346 clinically confirmed adult patients ...

  19. Oral and anal sex practices among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Cherie Amsale; Berhane Yemane

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Understanding the full range of sexual behaviors of young people is crucial in developing appropriate interventions to prevent and control sexually transmitted infections including HIV. However, such information is meager in developing countries. The objective of this study was to describe oral and anal sex practices and identify associated factors among high school youth. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A mul...

  20. Cost-effectiveness of anti-retroviral therapy at a district hospital in southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robberstad Bjarne

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the resource implications of expanding anti-retroviral therapy (ART are likely to be large, there is a need to explore its cost-effectiveness. So far, there is no such information available from Ethiopia. Objective To assess the cost-effectiveness of ART for routine clinical practice in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia. Methods We estimated the unit cost of HIV-related care from the 2004/5 fiscal year expenditure of Arba Minch Hospital in southern Ethiopia. We estimated outpatient and inpatient service use from HIV-infected patients who received care and treatment at the hospital between January 2003 and March 2006. We measured the health effect as life years gained (LYG for patients receiving ART compared with those not receiving such treatment. The study adopted a health care provider perspective and included both direct and overhead costs. We used Markov model to estimate the lifetime costs, health benefits and cost-effectiveness of ART. Findings ART yielded an undiscounted 9.4 years expected survival, and resulted in 7.1 extra LYG compared to patients not receiving ART. The lifetime incremental cost is US$2,215 and the undiscounted incremental cost per LYG is US$314. When discounted at 3%, the additional LYG decreases to 5.5 years and the incremental cost per LYG increases to US$325. Conclusion The undiscounted and discounted incremental costs per LYG from introducing ART were less than the per capita GDP threshold at the base year. Thus, ART could be regarded as cost-effective in a district hospital setting in Ethiopia.

  1. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Primiparous Mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Minas, Anteneh Girma; Ganga-Limando, Makombo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. Objectives The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers dur...

  2. The World Health Organization work and experiences in combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Mladonova, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to a better understanding of World Health Organization contribution to process of combating female genital mutilation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The World Health Organization is well known all over the world for their work in public health. This organization is dealing with many issues concerning health and well being of people, the one of these issues is combating female genital mutilation. The practice of female circumcision/female genital mutilation is practic...

  3. Medication prescribing errors and associated factors at the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zeleke, Abebe; Chanie, Tesfahun; Woldie, Mirkuzie

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication error is common and preventable cause of medical errors and occurs as a result of either human error or a system flaw. The consequences of such errors are more harmful and frequent among pediatric patients. Objective To assess medication prescribing errors and associated factors in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in the pediatric wards of Dessie Referral Hospital from February 17 to Marc...

  4. Dictyocaulus Filaria and Muellerius capillaris are Important Lungworm Parasites of Sheep in Wogera District, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nibret Moges; Basaznew Bogale; Mersha Chanie

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sectional study was conducted from October 2010 to March 2011 to determine lungworm species and their prevalence in sheep and evaluate the effect of risk factors in Wogera district, northern Ethiopia. Faecal samples were randomly taken from 390 heads of sheep for examination of first stage larvae (L1) of lungworms using a modified Baerman technique. The overall prevalence of lungworm infection was in sheep 67.69% (264 of 390). The lungworm species found were Dictyocaulus filaria (D. fil...

  5. A Review of Ethiopia’s Security Challenges in The Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    hotels and public buildings in both Addis Ababa and other towns in eastern Ethiopia. AIAI also attacked Ethiopian defense force units in the Ethiopian...Somalia forces invaded the Ethiopian Ogaden region in mid-1977, but they were repulsed by Ethiopians with Soviet and Cuba assistance in the following year...current Ethiopian government took power in 1991 have usually been bombings of hotels , restaurants, government buildings, and public means transportation

  6. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants in and Around Alamata, Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gidey Yirga

    2010-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted to investigate the use of medicinal plants in and around Alamata district, southern Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 15 traditional healers: 11 females and 4 males, using semistructured questionnaire. The healers were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Twenty-five medicinal plants used as a cure for 18 aliments were documented. Most (64%) of the traditional medicinal plants were found in cultivation....

  7. Molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundie, Gadissa Bedada; Raj, V Stalin; Michael, Daniel Gebre; Pas, Suzan D; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koopmans, Marion P; Smits, Saskia L; Haagmans, Bart L

    2016-06-01

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is hyperendemic in Ethiopia and constitutes a major public health problem, little is known about its genetic diversity, genotypes, and circulation. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular epidemiology and genetic diversity of HBV in Ethiopia, using 391 serum samples collected from HBsAg-positive blood donors living in five different geographic regions. The HBV S/pol gene was amplified, sequenced, and HBV genotypes, subgenotypes, serotypes, and major hydrophilic region (MHR) variants were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of 371 samples (95%) revealed the distribution of genotypes A (78%) and D (22%) in Ethiopia. Further phylogenetic analysis identified one subgenotype (A1) within genotype A, and 4 subgenotypes within genotype D (D1; 1.3%, D2; 55%, D4; 2.5%, and D6; 8.8%). Importantly, 24 isolates (30%) of genotype D formed a novel phylogenetic cluster, distinct from any known D subgenotypes, and two A/D recombinants. Analysis of predicted amino-acid sequences within the HBsAg revealed four serotypes: adw2 (79%), ayw1 (3.1%), ayw2 (7.8%), and ayw3 (11.6%). Subsequent examination of sequences showed that 51 HBV isolates (14%) had mutations in the MHR and 8 isolates (2.2%) in the reverse transcriptase known to confer antiviral resistance. This study provides the first description of HBV genetic diversity in Ethiopia with a predominance of subgenotypes A1 and D2, and also identified HBV isolates that could represent a novel subgenotype. Furthermore, a significant prevalence of HBsAg variants in Ethiopian population is revealed.

  8. Ethiopia: Crisis of a Marxist Economy. Analysis and Text of a Soviet Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    of further nationalization. More and more of the economy is slipping underground, out of regime control. 131 Unclassified SCURI? CLASSFICArION OiF...power engineering, and mining (pp. A.48-A.49). 7The Economist, November 28, 1987. OThe inevitable result of such a system would be to create...come only from the West, prospects for industrial development in Ethiopia are dim. The GOSPLAN advisers could not raise the image of a glorious

  9. Prevalence and predictors of sexual violence among commercial sex workers in Northern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu, Mussie; Yohannes, Gebregizabeher; Damte, Ashenafi; Fantahun, Atsede; Gebrekirstos, Kahsu; Tsegay, Resom; Goldberger, Adina; Yebyo, Henock

    2015-01-01

    Background Gender-based violence is a natural outgrowth of the stigma and discrimination experienced by commercial sex workers (CSWs) across the globe. In light of this, the current study aimed to describe the prevalence and character of sexual violence, as well as any risk factors for violence, experienced by CSWs in Mekelle City, Northern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Mekelle City in April 2013. 250 CSWs were selected for participation using simple random sampli...

  10. Adoption and diffusion of agricultural innovations in Ethiopia: the role of Education.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Schooling has been shown to provide substantial externality benefits by increasing farm output and shifting the production frontier outwards. This paper investigates the role of schooling at the household- and site-levels in the adoption and diffusion of agricultural innovations in rural Ethiopia. We find that household-level education is important to the timing of adoption but less crucial to the question of whether a household has ever adopted fertiliser, i.e., early innovators tend to be e...

  11. Health at the borders: Bayesian multilevel analysis of women's malnutrition determinants in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Darge Delbiso

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Women's malnutrition, particularly undernutrition, remains an important public health challenge in Ethiopia. Although various studies examined the levels and determinants of women's nutritional status, the influence of living close to an international border on women's nutrition has not been investigated. Yet, Ethiopian borders are regularly affected by conflict and refugee flows, which might ultimately impact health. Objective: To investigate the impact of living close to borders in the nutritional status of women in Ethiopia, while considering other important covariates. Design: Our analysis was based on the body mass index (BMI of 6,334 adult women aged 20–49 years, obtained from the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS. A Bayesian multilevel multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to capture the clustered structure of the data and the possible correlation that may exist within and between clusters. Results: After controlling for potential confounders, women living close to borders (i.e. ≤100 km in Ethiopia were 59% more likely to be underweight (posterior odds ratio [OR]=1.59; 95% credible interval [CrI]: 1.32–1.90 than their counterparts living far from the borders. This result was robust to different choices of border delineation (i.e. ≤50, ≤75, ≤125, and ≤150 km. Women from poor families, those who have no access to improved toilets, reside in lowland areas, and are Muslim, were independently associated with underweight. In contrast, more wealth, higher education, older age, access to improved toilets, being married, and living in urban or lowlands were independently associated with overweight. Conclusions: The problem of undernutrition among women in Ethiopia is most worrisome in the border areas. Targeted interventions to improve nutritional status in these areas, such as improved access to sanitation, economic and livelihood support, are recommended.

  12. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receivin...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies....

  13. Poverty Dynamics and Vulnerability: Empirical Evidence from Smallholders in Northern Highlands of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Tsehay, Abrham Seyoum; Bauer, Siegfried

    2012-01-01

    This study is primarily intended to examine the dynamics and determinants of rural household poverty and vulnerability in Northern Highlands of Ethiopia. The data for this research is mainly based on the Ethiopian Household Survey (ERHS). Results from disaggregation of the poor indicate that ultra poverty is predominant in the area. Similarly, using a three steps feasible generalized least squares (FGLS) we found that many of the households in the region are vulnerable to poverty. However, th...

  14. Agriculture and economic growth in Ethiopia: growth multipliers from a four-sector simulation model

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Agriculture accounts for over half of Ethiopian GDP, yet the case for agriculture as a focus of economic growth strategies must rely on identifying a set of intersectoral linkages through which agricultural growth contributes to the growth of nonagriculture in the Ethiopian economy. This article develops a four-sector numerical simulation model of economic growth in Ethiopia which permits the calculation of macroeconomic growth multipliers resulting from income shocks to agriculture, services...

  15. Occurrence and diversity of fungal pathogens associated with water hyacinth and their potential as biocontrol agents in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, Firehun; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Tessema, Taye

    2017-01-01

    Water hyacinth poses serious socio-economic and environmental problems in Ethiopia. To integrate fungal pathogens into water hyacinth management, a survey was conducted in the Rift Valley of Ethiopia. Based on morphological characterization and DNA sequencing, 25 fungal species were identified th

  16. A REVIEW ON INDIGENOUS CATTLE GENETIC RESOURCES IN ETHIOPIA: ADAPTATION, STATUS AND SURVIVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Getinet MEKURIAW

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethiopia is endowed with different Indigenous cattle genetic resources with millions of people directly depending on them. However, despite the potentials of these diversified genetic resources, the huge loss of cattle genetic diversity is becoming a prominent challenge these days. The aim of this review is to show the current status and performance of some selected indigenous cattle breeds of Ethiopia for better understanding of the situation of these breeds for the collective efforts towards conserving and improving the breeds. Based on the review, there are persuasive evidences on the critical situation of the selected indigenous cattle breeds. The facts and figures of the past and current situation of the selected indigenous cattle of Ethiopia showed that the situation of these breeds is very critical. This situation therefore demands the need to devise strategies to conserve and improve the cattle breeds based on the challenges that threatens them. Use of new biological and information technologies is also imperative to facilitate the genetic restoration process. Besides, use of new biological and information technologies which can enhance the conservation and improvement program are crucial. Various ongoing development interventions like Artificial Insemination and introduction of genotypes into new environments that are exacerbating threat of the breeds should totally be avoided by revising and designing sound approaches for cattle Conservation and improvement programs. Strict regulations and by laws should also be in place for illegal movement of breeding cattle to the neighboring countries.

  17. Reflections on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw

    2014-10-01

    The introduction and development of psychology in Ethiopia has been mainly limited to Addis Ababa University in the capital city, and also to educational and school psychology which was highly influenced by the field of education at this pioneering university. Similarly, mental health services have been principally developed at the Amanuel Mental Hospital in Addis Ababa that has existed since the 1950s. However, the expansion of higher learning institutions on one hand, and the apparent growing prevalence of mental illness on the other, seem to have contributed to the development of both mental health training and services in other regional cities and towns. Although the influence of the education-oriented psychological training of the Addis Ababa University is still present, clinical psychology education and services are now being started in other universities. One of these is the master's programme in clinical psychology opened for the first time in the University of Gondar. This article sheds light on the development of psychology in Ethiopia and addresses some of the issues raised about the factors that have influenced its development such as traditional beliefs, poverty and comparisons between mental health in lower middle-income countries and higher middle-income countries ( Uppal et al., 2014 ). The paper also proposes future directions for the education, research, infrastructure and services of clinical psychology and mental health in Ethiopia.

  18. Scourge of life or an economic lifeline? Public discourses on khat (Catha edulis) in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebissa, Ezekiel

    2008-01-01

    Until the turn of the 20th century, only the religious and political elite of the city of Harer in eastern Ethiopia chewed khat. Its consumption has since spread to all regions of Ethiopia and all social groups, irrespective of religious affiliation, gender category, and age bracket, have taken up the habit. In a few decades khat has been transformed from a shrub grown for domestic consumption to the region's predominant cash crop; from a substance chewed on religious and cultural occasions to a visible and pervasive social habit; from a product sold in local markets to the most profitable commodity, whose trade involves millions of farmers, traders, and other service providers in the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. The growing importance of khat has engendered a heated national debate in Ethiopia concerning the legal status of the plant. Opponents contend that khat is a health hazard with deleterious socioeconomic consequences and seek a complete ban to curb its "evil influence" on the country's youth and future. Others oppose any policy that ignores khat's micro- and macroeconomic benefits. This article outlines the positions the protagonists in this debate have staked out, critically evaluates their merits, and concludes by urging a public discourse on how to use the prosperity that the khat industry has generated to engender a sustainable economic development.

  19. GRADUATION DETERMINANTS OF PRODUCTIVE SAFETY NET PROGRAM BENEFICIARY HOUSEHOLDS: A LOGISTIC ANALYSIS, TIGRAI-ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibrah Hagos Gebresilassie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Household food security issues have become the concern of international communities as well as national government of Ethiopia. Social safety nets (like Productive Safety Net Program in Ethiopia are programs that offer protection to poor rural people by providing income through transfer programs and employment opportunities. The main objective of this study was to identify the major graduation determinants of Productive safety Net Program beneficiary rural households using a logistic regression technique from a total of 400 sample respondents using Eastern zone of Tigrai regional national state, northern Ethiopia, as case study site. The researcher was initially identified about sixteen predicting factors of which just ten of them were found to be statistically significant, and all exhibited the expected signs. Regression results revealed thatan introduction to integrated agricultural package make use of, male-headed household, age squared of the household head, educational status of the household head, saving culture, male adults, non-government organizations follow-up, access to credit, access to petty trading and irrigation have led productive safety net program beneficiary households to have more probability of graduation. Finally, it is recommended that assisting farming rural households to diversify and expand their sources of income in order to be able to meet their minimum food requirement and graduate soon through the provision of integrated agricultural packages. Besides, program participants should be followed up by non-government organizations and highly engaged in petty trading to graduate sooner, boost their income and food secure.

  20. An Assessment of Reservoir Filling Policies under a Changing Climate for Ethiopia's Grand Renaissance Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A.; Block, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Climate variability and change cause unsteady hydrologic response, commonly experienced through varying river flows. These variations affect the performance and reliability of water resources dependent systems, including domestic, agriculture, energy, and the environment, with economic implications. Long-term design and operation of these systems is therefore inherently uncertain, producing copious risks at time-scales of months to decades. Yet evaluation of system performance under non-stationary climate conditions is typically ignored. Here we demonstrate the potential performance of Ethiopia's forthcoming Grand Renaissance hydropower dam on the Blue Nile River, subject to coincident climate change and reservoir filling policies. Presently, no agreed-upon reservoir retention policy exists between Ethiopia and downstream countries, even though construction has already begun. We will present a tool designed to allow users to select expected future climate conditions and reservoir filling rates, from a stochastic perspective. Additionally, the maximum reservoir volume may also be varied. Major outputs include hydropower generation and downstream flow for use by policy-makers. Ethiopia's desire to rapidly expand hydropower dams on the Nile constitutes an enormous financial investment and latent risk, with further implications on streamflow reduction to Sudan and Egypt, and a need for multi-national energy contracts, necessitating proper advanced planning.

  1. Investing in human and natural capital. An alternative paradigm for sustainable development in Awassa, Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Travis W. [Evans School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, 98195 (United States); Farley, Joshua [Gund Institute for Ecological Economics and Department of Community Development and Applied Economics, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States); Huber, Candice [UVM Agricultural Extension Service, University of Vermont, Burlington, Vermont, 05405 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Ethiopia remains underdeveloped due to limitations in natural, human, social and built capital. A 2006 scientific atelier conducted in the city of Awassa, Ethiopia investigated investments in human and natural capital as a sustainable development strategy. Local stakeholders identified firewood shortages, degradation of croplands, rising lake levels encroaching on croplands and poor water quality as major impediments to development. They further identified ecological degradation as a key component of these problems, and they acknowledged multiple vicious cycles compounding the environmental and economic threats to the Awassa community. Proposed solutions included investment in natural capital in the form of reforestation activities, investment in human capital in the form of promoting more efficient wood stoves along with increasing public awareness of environmental threats, and investments in social capital in the form of inter-institutional coordination to address environmental problems. All recommended investments rely primarily on national resources, in distinct contrast to the extensive imports required for most built capital investments. Unfortunately, Awassa lacks the surplus necessary for major capital investments of any kind. The atelier therefore helped local participants identify potential funders and write grant proposals for various projects, though none have been funded so far. Reversing the ecological degradation on the scale necessary for sustained economic development in Ethiopia however will require a steady flow of substantial investments, and cannot rely solely on the short term generosity of funders. International payments for carbon sequestration and other ecosystem services could help provide the necessary resources. (author)

  2. Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Knowledge on Tuberculosis among Adults in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sifrash Meseret Gelaw

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ethiopia is among highly tuberculosis affected countries. This might be related to low level of awareness on the disease in the population. The objective of the study was to determine the level of tuberculosis knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with it. Methods. The 2011 Ethiopia health and demographic survey data were used. Overall tuberculosis knowledge score was computed to evaluate the outcome variable. Multivariable logistic regression was employed to identify independent socioeconomic factors associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Results. The overall tuberculosis knowledge was low, 44.05% (95% CI: 42.05–46.24% among women and 32.3% (95% CI: 30.34–34.32% among men. Rural women (AOR = 1.22 and youth, no formal education (women: AOR = 3.28, men: AOR = 7.42, attending only primary education (women: AOR = 1.95, men: AOR = 3.49, lowest wealth quintiles (women: AOR = 1.4, Men: AOR = 1.28, unskilled female manual workers (AOR = 4.15, female agricultural employee (AOR = 2.28, and lack of access to media (women: AOR = 1.52, men: AOR = 1.71 are significantly associated with low tuberculosis knowledge. Conclusion. The level of tuberculosis knowledge among adults in Ethiopia is low and varied by socioeconomic groups. Tuberculosis control programs should consider appropriate strategies for tuberculosis education, promotion, communication, and social mobilization to address the rural women, youths, the poor, less educated people, and unskilled workers.

  3. Magnitude and correlates of intimate partner violence against women and its outcome in Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate Partner Violence (IPV is a major public health problem with serious consequences. This study was conducted to assess the magnitude of IPV in Southwest Ethiopia in predominantly rural community. METHODS: This community based cross-sectional study was conducted in May, 2009 in Southwest Ethiopia using the World Health Organization core questionnaire to measure violence against women. Trained data collectors interviewed 851 ever-married women. Stata version 10.1 software and SPSS version 12.0.1 for windows were used for data analysis. RESULT: In this study the life time prevalence of sexual or physical partner violence, or both was 64.7% (95%CI: 61.4%-67.9%. The lifetime sexual violence [50.1% (95% CI: 46.7%-53.4%] was considerably more prevalent than physical violence [41.1% (95%:37.8-44.5]. A sizable proportion [41.5%(95%CI: 38.2%-44.8%] of women reported physical or sexual violence, or both, in the past year. Men who were controlling were more likely to be violent against their partner. CONCLUSION: Physical and sexual violence is common among ever-married women in Southwest Ethiopia. Interventions targeting controlling men might help in reducing IPV. Further prospective longitudinal studies among ever-married women are important to identify predictors and to study the dynamics of violence over time.

  4. Internalized stigma among patients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional facility-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assefa Dereje

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the potential impact on treatment adherence and recovery, there is a dearth of data on the extent and correlates of internalized stigma in patients with schizophrenia in low income countries. We conducted a study to determine the extent, domains and correlates of internalized stigma amongst outpatients with schizophrenia in Ethiopia. Methods The study was a cross-sectional facility-based survey conducted at a specialist psychiatric hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Consecutive consenting individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were recruited and assessed using an Amharic version of the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI scale. Results Data were collected from 212 individuals, who were mostly single (71.2%, unemployed (70.3% and male (65.1%. Nearly all participants (97.4% expressed agreement to at least one stigma item contained in the ISMI; 46.7% had a moderate to high mean stigma score. Rural residence (OR = 5.67; 95% CI = 2.30, 13.00; p  Conclusion Internalized stigma is a major problem among persons with schizophrenia in this outpatient setting in Ethiopia. Internalized stigma has the potential to substantially affect adherence to medication and is likely to affect the recovery process.

  5. Long-term, deep-mantle support of the Ethiopia-Yemen Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembroni, Andrea; Faccenna, Claudio; Becker, Thorsten W.; Molin, Paola; Abebe, Bekele

    2016-04-01

    Ethiopia is a key site to investigate the interactions between mantle dynamics and surface processes because of the presence of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), Cenozoic continental flood basalt volcanism, and plateau uplift. The role of mantle plumes in causing Ethiopia's flood basalts and tectonics has been commonly accepted. However, the location and number of plumes and their impact on surface uplift are still uncertain. Here, we present new constraints on the geological and topographic evolution of the Ethiopian Plateau (NW Ethiopia) prior to and after the emplacement of the large flood basalts (40-20 Ma). Using geological information and topographic reconstructions, we show that the large topographic dome that we see today is a long-term feature, already present prior the emplacement of the flood basalts. We also infer that large-scale doming operated even after the emplacement of the flood basalts. Using a comparison with the present-day topographic setting we show that an important component of the topography has been and is presently represented by a residual, non-isostatic, dynamic contribution. We conclude that the growth of the Ethiopian Plateau is a long-term, probably still active, dynamically supported process. Our arguments provide constraints on the processes leading to the formation of one of the largest igneous plateaus on Earth.

  6. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

  7. "We prefer greeting rather than eating:" life in an elder care center in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teka, Alemnesh; Adamek, Margaret E

    2014-12-01

    In Ethiopia where family care is a centuries-long tradition, living in an elder care institution invariably brings social devaluation. Accordingly, this study explored the psychosocial needs of older adults in a residential elder care center in Ethiopia from the perspective of both staff and residents. Three focus group discussions of 24 residents and interviews with 5 staff persons revealed that elders were living a subsistence lifestyle, eating the same meal every day, mostly cutoff from the surrounding community, and lacking basic amenities. Despite the absence of basic amenities, residents yearned even more so for meaningful social interaction. Psychosocial support was both undervalued and underutilized by staff members, and thus, residents' psychosocial well-being appeared to be at risk. The addition of social workers in institutional care in Ethiopia may help to promote improved living standards. Advocacy is needed on behalf of residents to establish and implement guidelines on care and support of residents in old age homes. As elders in developing countries are living longer--a growing number with disabilities--at the same time that informal supports are waning, the need for developing long term care policies is becoming critical.

  8. Human Trafficking in Ethiopia: A Scoping Review to Identify Gaps in Service Delivery, Research, and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Dana C; Choi, Kristen R; Munro-Kramer, Michelle L; Lori, Jody R

    2016-03-31

    The purpose of this review is to integrate evidence on human trafficking in Ethiopia and identify gaps and recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy. A scoping literature review approach was used to systematically search nursing, medical, psychological, law, and international databases and synthesize information on a complex, understudied topic. The search yielded 826 articles, and 39 met the predetermined criteria for inclusion in the review. Trafficking in Ethiopia has occurred internally and externally in the form of adult and child labor and sex trafficking. There were also some reports of organ trafficking and other closely related human rights violations, such as child marriage, child soldiering, and exploitative intercountry adoption. Risk factors for trafficking included push factors (poverty, political instability, economic problems, and gender discrimination) and pull factors (demand for cheap labor). Trafficking was associated with poor health and economic outcomes for victims. Key recommendations for service delivery, research and training, and policy are identified, including establishing comprehensive services for survivor rehabilitation and reintegration, conducting quantitative health outcomes research, and reforming policy around migration and trafficking. Implementing the recommendations identified by this review will allow policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to take meaningful steps toward confronting human trafficking in Ethiopia.

  9. Meta-analysis of Brucella seroprevalence in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun; Krontveit, Randi I; Ayelet, Gelagay; Sibhat, Berhanu; Godfroid, Jacques; Skjerve, Eystein

    2014-12-01

    This meta-analysis estimates a single-group summary (effect size) for seroprevalence of Brucella spp. exposure in dairy cattle of Ethiopia. It also attempts to identify study-level variables that could explain the variation in apparent seroprevalence. The literature search was restricted to studies published in English language from January 2000 to December 2013. A template was designed to retrieve the most biologically plausible and consistent variables from the articles. A total of 29 published papers containing 40 animal-level studies were used in the analyses. The single-group summary of Brucella seroprevalence in cattle was estimated to reach 3.3 % with 95 % confidence interval (CI) (2.6-4.2 %). Of all the variables considered, region was the only specific factor identified to explain about 20 % of between-study variation. Accordingly, the region-based meta-analysis forest plot revealed the highest prevalence in central Ethiopia followed by southern part. The lowest prevalence estimate was observed in the western part of the country. The visual inspection of the funnel plot demonstrated the presence of possible publication bias which might dictate shortage of studies with higher prevalences or variance inflation due to infectiousness of Brucella. In conclusion, the quantitative review showed the seroprevalence to be low but widely distributed. More importantly, the review underscores the need for isolation and characterization of the circulating Brucella spp. to capture the type of Brucella spp. involved and its distribution in cattle in Ethiopia.

  10. Assessment of Breastfeeding practices in Ethiopia using different data mining techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abebe Alemu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is one of the critical issues in Ethiopia because researches show that 24.0% - 27.0% of infant death in Ethiopia is due to poor breastfeeding practices. UNICEF has been reported that a good promotion of breastfeeding practices is a most important strategic plan to reduce child mortality in developed and developing countries. Hence, it is important to identifying the determinate factors of poor breastfeeding practice, especially poor countries like Ethiopia. Poor Breastfeeding is a reasonable well-defined problem caused by many factors that are related to motherhood, environment, community and child. Therefore, it is very important to predict the determinate factors of poor breastfeeding practice in various communities in the country in order to come up with feasible intervention strategies to minimize the problem. This research intends to provide a survey of current techniques of knowledge discovery in large databases using data mining techniques which will be useful for medical practitioner to improve the breast feeding practices. The assessment was carried out with cross validation and percentage split of different data mining algorithms such as decision tree, Naive Bayes , Artificial Neural Network and Bagging.

  11. Aid Donor Meets Strategic Partner? The European Union’s and China’s Relations with Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Hackenesch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The motives, instruments and effects of China’s Africa policy have spurred a lively debate in European development policy circles. This paper assesses the “competitive pressure” that China’s growing presence in Africa exerts on the European development policy regime. Drawing on a large number of interviews conducted in China, Ethiopia and Europe between 2008 and 2011, the paper analyses Ethiopia as a case study. Ethiopia has emerged as one of the most important countries in Chinese as well as European cooperation with Africa. Yet, Chinese and European policies toward Ethiopia differ greatly. The EU mainly engages Ethiopia as an aid recipient, whereas China has developed a comprehensive political and economic partnership with the East African state. China has thereby become an alternative partner to the Ethiopian government, a development that both sheds light on the gap between European rhetoric and policy practice and puts pressure on the EU to make more efforts to reform its development policy system.

  12. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

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    Melese H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hermela Melese,1 Molla Mesele Wassie,2 Haile Woldie,2 Abilo Tadesse,3 Nebiyu Mesfin3 1HIV Follow-up Care Clinic, Debre-Tabor Hospital, Debre‑Tabor, 2Department of Human Nutrition, Institute of Public Health, 3Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results: A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9% were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART. The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6. Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14, having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67, taking zidovudine (ZDV-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57, and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of <200 cells/µL (AOR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.04, 4.36 were associated with occurrence of anemia among adult HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation: Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART

  13. Prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia

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    Astatkie A

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ayalew Astatkie,1 Meaza Demissie,2 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 3School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Khat (Catha edulis is commonly chewed for its psychostimulant and euphorigenic effects in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Students use it to help them study for long hours especially during the period of examination. However, how regularly khat is chewed among university students and its associated factors are not well documented. In this article we report on the prevalence of and factors associated with regular khat chewing among university students in Ethiopia. Methods: We did a cross-sectional study from May 20, 2014 to June 23, 2014 on a sample of 1,255 regular students recruited from all campuses of Hawassa University, southern Ethiopia. The data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. We analyzed the data to identify factors associated with current regular khat chewing using complex sample adjusted logistic regression analysis. Results: The prevalence of current regular khat chewing was 10.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.1%–14.9%. After controlling for sex, religion, year of study, having a father who chews khat, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking in the adjusted logistic regression model, living off-campus in rented houses as compared to living in the university dormitory (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =8.09 [1.56–42.01], and having friends who chew khat (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] =4.62 [1.98–10.74] were found to significantly increase the odds of current regular khat use. Conclusion: Students living outside the university campus in rented houses compared to those living in dormitory and those with khat chewing peers are more likely to use

  14. Circulating serovars of Leptospira in cart horses of central and southern Ethiopia and associated risk factors.

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    Tsegay, K; Potts, A D; Aklilu, N; Lötter, C; Gummow, B

    2016-03-01

    Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses. A significantly higher seropositivity (62.1%) was noted in horses from the highland agroecology followed by midland (44.4%) and lowland (39.8%). Serovar Bratislava (34.5%) was the predominant serovar followed by serovars Djasiman (9.8%), Topaz (5.98%) and Pomona (5.3%). Age and location proved to be associated with seropositive horses with older horses being more commonly affected and the districts of Ziway (Batu) (Apparent Prevalence (AP)=65.5%), Shashemene (AP=48.3%) and Sebeta (AP=41.4%) having the highest prevalence. Multivariable logistic regression found risk factors significantly associated with Leptospira seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.8) and horses 7-12 years old (OR=5) and risk factors specifically associated with serovar Bratislava seropositive horses were drinking river water (OR=2.5), horses ≥13 years (OR=3.5) and the presence of dogs in adjacent neighbouring properties (OR=0.3). Dogs had a protective effect against seropositivity to serovars Bratislava and Djasiman, which may be due to their ability to control rodents. The high seroprevalence confirm that leptospirosis is endemic among horses of Central and Southern Ethiopia. The predominance of serovar Bratislava supports the idea that serovar Bratislava may be adapted to and maintained by the horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia

  15. Adherence to WHO breastfeeding guidelines among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia: implication for intervention

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    Haile D

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Demewoz Haile,1 Tesfaye Setegn,2 Sibhatu Biadgilign31Department of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Madawalabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia; 2Department of Reproductive Health, School of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 3Independent Public Health Research Consultants, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Breastfeeding reduces major causes of infant mortality and morbidity. On the other hand, it is a major mode of vertical HIV transmission. In developing countries like Ethiopia, HIV positive mothers are advised to continue breastfeeding up to 12 months. But there is scarce literature regarding the mothers' adherence to continued breastfeeding recommendations. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess HIV positive mothers' adherence to the infant feeding recommendations of the new World Health Organization (WHO guidelines for HIV-exposed infants aged ≥6 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in health institutions with antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother to child transmission facilities in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Health institutions were considered as clusters and cluster sampling technique was employed. A total of 184 HIV positive mothers with their infants registered at respective health institutions were recruited and assessed for their infant breastfeeding practices. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, median, and standard deviation were computed to describe the breastfeeding practices of HIV positive mothers. Result: Almost all (181 [98.4%] of the HIV-exposed infants were “ever breastfed”. Among those mothers who had ever breastfed, 158 (87.3% initiated breastfeeding within an hour of delivery and 157 (85.8% had fed their babies colostrum while 31 (16.8% gave prelacteal food to their infants. The prevalence of continued breastfeeding at 1 year was (54.5% (46.9% for urban mothers and 75% for rural

  16. Food insecurity, mental health and quality of life among people living with HIV commencing antiretroviral treatment in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tesfaye, Markos; Kæstel, Pernille; Olsen, Mette Frahm;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies from high-income settings show that both food insecurity and common mental disorders (CMDs) are associated with lower quality of life among people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, there is limited research among PLHIV in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we tested...... the hypothesis that food insecurity and CMDs would be associated with poorer quality of life of PLHIV in Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 348 PLHIV who were initiating antiretroviral therapy recruited from two primary care centers and a tertiary Hospital in southwest Ethiopia. Food...... insecurity, CMD, and quality of life were measured using instruments adapted and validated in Ethiopia (Household Food Insecurity Access Scale, Kessler-6, and WHOQOL-HIV-BREF-ETH, respectively). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with quality of life after adjusting...

  17. A westward extension of the tropical Pacific warm pool leads to March through June drying in Kenya and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. Park; Funk, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    An estimated 14.3 million people are currently (July 2010) food insecure in Kenya and Ethiopia, and the U.S. government has spent more than $972 million on food aid in these two countries since 2009 (USAID, 2010). This insecurity stems from recent drought and rapid population growth that has outpaced agricultural development (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Brown, 2009). Previous work by Funk and others (2005, 2008) and Verdin and others (2005) has linked drought conditions in Kenya and Ethiopia with warm sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the Indian Ocean. Recent work has shown that Indian Ocean SSTs substantially affect rainfall in this region from March through June (Funk and others, 2008; Funk and Verdin, 2009). This season is known as the 'long rains' in Kenya and the 'Belg' rains in Ethiopia.

  18. Modeling and analysis of long-term energy scenarios for sustainable strategies of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senshaw, Dereje Azemraw

    2014-04-15

    Despite robust economic growth, Ethiopia is one of the countries with poor energy accesses. Contributing factors are poor availability of energy, unreliable and insufficient quality of energy, and insufficient policy. Recognizing that energy access and security are indispensable to economic transformation, Ethiopia needs to cope with key challenges related to energy security, climate change mitigation and also diversification of energy supply. In order to achieve these targets and strive towards sustainable energy for all, Ethiopia's energy system requires a major transformation. The main achievement of this research has been the development of alternative energy options under different conditions for Ethiopia up to 2050. To identify an energy pathway that would meet Ethiopia's energy needs in a sustainable manner, three scenarios are considered: the business-as usual (BAU), moderate shift (Scenario1) and the advanced shift scenario (Scenario 2). The scenarios were developed, quantified and analyzed using a bottom-up model for Long Term Alternative Energy Planning (LEAP). These scenarios represent a range of energy policy measures that Ethiopia could adopt to achieve its sustainable development goals. The BAU scenario reflects a continuation of the current policy trend and considers on economic growth rate of 7%, while Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 represent moderate and advanced levels of commitment in economic growth, energy diversity and reduction of energy import dependency and CO{sub 2} emissions limits, respectively. The scenario analysis shows that the primary energy requirements for Ethiopia's socio-economic development will increase sharply over the period (2010-2050) in all three scenarios. BAU, Scenario 1 and Scenario 2 show an expected to growth at annual rates of 4.1, 4.9 and 5.7% respectively. If the current policy trends (as represented by BAU) continue, the total energy demand in Ethiopia is expected to reach 6,553 Petajoule (PJ) by 2050

  19. Factors Affecting the Adoption of Information and Communication Technologies: Small Hotels and Tour Operators in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegene, Demeke; Olden, Anthony; Abdelnour-Nocera, Jose

    2016-01-01

    In Africa the adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) varies considerably from one country to another, for example between Kenya and Tanzania on the one hand and Ethiopia on the other. In Kenya and Tanzania telecommunications systems have been liberalized, while in Ethiopia......: individual, organizational and national. The major factors that affect the adoption arise from the national level factors: the political, socio-economic, technological and legal factors that play a critical role in the adoption or rejection of ICT in this sector. This paper provides insights into the impact...

  20. Changing handwashing behaviour in southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study on infrastructural and commitment interventions.

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    Contzen, Nadja; Meili, Iara Helena; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Improved hand hygiene efficiently prevents the major killers of children under the age of five years in Ethiopia and globally, namely diarrhoeal and respiratory diseases. Effective handwashing interventions are thus in great demand. Evidence- and theory-based interventions, especially when matched to the target population's needs, are expected to perform better than common practice. To test this hypothesis, we selected two interventions drawing on a baseline questionnaire-study that applied the RANAS (Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, Self-regulation) approach and focused on the primary caregivers of households in four rural, water-scarce kebeles (smallest administrative units of Ethiopia) in southern Ethiopia (N = 462). The two interventions were tested in combination with a standard education intervention in a quasi-experiment, as follows: kebele 1, education intervention, namely an f-diagram exercise, (n = 23); kebele 2, education intervention and public-commitment (n = 122); kebele 3, education intervention and tippy-tap-promotion (i.e. handwashing-station-promotion; n = 150); kebele 4, education intervention, public-commitment and tippy-tap-promotion (n = 113). In kebeles 3 and 4, nearly 100% of the households followed the promotion and invested material and time to construct for themselves a tippy-tap. Three months after intervention termination, the tippy-taps were in use with water and soap being present in up to 83% of the households (kebele 4). Pre-post data analysis on self-reported handwashing revealed that the population-tailored interventions, and especially the tippy-tap-promotion, performed better than the standard education intervention. Tendencies in observed behaviour and a recently developed implicit self-measure pointed to similar results. Changing people's hand hygiene is known to be a challenging task, especially in a water-scarce environment. The present project suggests not only to apply theory and evidence to improve handwashing

  1. Risk of DDT residue in maize consumed by infants as complementary diet in southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Lachat, Carl; Ambelu, Argaw; Steurbaut, Walter; Kolsteren, Patrick; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Wondafrash, Mekitie; Houbraken, Michael; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2015-04-01

    Infants in Ethiopia are consuming food items such as maize as a complementary diet. However, this may expose infants to toxic contaminants like DDT. Maize samples were collected from the households visited during a consumption survey and from markets in Jimma zone, southwestern Ethiopia. The residues of total DDT and its metabolites were analyzed using the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method combined with dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup (d-SPE). Deterministic and probabilistic methods of analysis were applied to determine the consumer exposure of infants to total DDT. The results from the exposure assessment were compared with the health based guidance value in this case the provisional tolerable daily intake (PTDI). All maize samples (n=127) were contaminated by DDT, with a mean concentration of 1.770 mg/kg, which was far above the maximum residue limit (MRL). The mean and 97.5 percentile (P 97.5) estimated daily intake of total DDT for consumers were respectively 0.011 and 0.309 mg/kg bw/day for deterministic and 0.011 and 0.083 mg/kg bw/day for probabilistic exposure assessment. For total infant population (consumers and non-consumers), the 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake were 0.265 and 0.032 mg/kg bw/day from the deterministic and probabilistic exposure assessments, respectively. Health risk estimation revealed that, the mean and 97.5 percentile for consumers, and 97.5 percentile estimated daily intake of total DDT for total population were above the PTDI. Therefore, in Ethiopia, the use of maize as complementary food for infants may pose a health risk due to DDT residue.

  2. Sediment storage dam: A structural gully erosion control and sediment trapping measure, northern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mulatie; Keesstra, Saskia; Baartman, Jantiene; Ritsema, Coen

    2014-05-01

    Gully erosion is a prime problem in Ethiopia. This study assessed the severity of gully erosion and the role of sediment storage dams (SSD) in restoring gullies and preventing further gully development, its sediment trapping efficacy (STE) and its capacity in converting degraded gully lands to productive land. On average 2.5 m deep, 6.6 m wide and 28.3 m long gullies were formed in Minizr watershed, northwest Ethiopia, in 2013. Concentrated surface runoff, traditional ditches, graded terraces without suitable water ways and road construction are the main causes of such serious gully erosion. Over grazing, tunnel flow and lack of proper immediate gully treatment actions after gully initiation are found to be additional causes of the problem. Gully erosion was also found as the major source of sediment for downstream rivers and water reservoirs. The annual volume of soil eroded from only four gullies was 1941.3 m3. To control gully erosion, SSDs were found to be important physical structures, which can trap significant amount of sediment within gullies and they can convert unproductive gully land to productive agricultural land for fruit and crop production. Eight SSDs trapped about 44*103 m3 of sediment within 2 to 8 years. Two representative SSDs constructed using gabion and stone were tested for their STE. Results showed that their efficacy was 74.1% and 66.4% for the gabion and stone SSDs, respectively. Six of the older SSDs were already full of sediment and created 0.75 ha of productive land within 2 to 8 years. SSDs best fits to treat large size and deep gullies where other gully control measures, check dams, could not function well. To prevent gully formation, controlling its causes that is avoiding traditional ditches, practicing grassed water ways to safely remove runoff water from graded terraces, integrated watershed and road side management practices are important solutions. KEY WORDS: Sediment storage dam, gully erosion, sediment trapping efficacy

  3. Climatic variables and malaria transmission dynamics in Jimma town, South West Ethiopia

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    Abebe Gemeda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background:- In Ethiopia, malaria is seasonal and unstable, causing frequent epidemics. It usually occurs at altitudes 2,000 m above sea level. For transmission of malaria parasite, climatic factors are important determinants as well as non-climatic factors that can negate climatic influences. Indeed, there is a scarcity of information on the correlation between climatic variability and malaria transmission risk in Ethiopia in general and in the study area in particular. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the level of correlation between meteorological variables and malaria cases. Methods: - Time-series analysis was conducted using data on monthly meteorological variables and monthly total malaria in Jimma town, south west Ethiopia, for the period 2000-2009. All the data were entered and analyzed using SPSS-15 database program. Spearman correlation and linear regression analysis were used to asses association between the variables. Results: - During last ten years (2000-2009, a fluctuating trend of malaria transmission was observed with P.vivax becoming predominant species. Spearman correlation analysis showed that monthly minimum temperature, total rainfall and two measures of relative humidity were positively related with malaria but monthly maximum temperature negatively related. Also regression analysis suggested that monthly minimum (p = 0.008, monthly maximum temperature (p = 0.013 and monthly total rainfall (p = 0.040, at one month lagged effect, were significant meteorological factors for transmission of malaria in the study area. Conclusion: - Malaria incidences in the last decade seem to have a significant association with meteorological variables. In future, prospective and multidisciplinary cooperative research involving researchers from the fields of parasitology, epidemiology, botany, agriculture and climatology is necessary to identify the real effect of meteorological factors on vector- borne diseases like

  4. Ectoparasites of sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia

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    Bersissa Kumsa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for ectoparasites infestation in sheep in three agro-ecological zones in central Oromia, Ethiopia, from October 2009 to April 2010. The study revealed that 637 (48.1% of the 1325 sheep examined were infested with one or more ectoparasites. The ectoparasites identified were Bovicola ovis (27.2%, Melophagus ovinus (16.4%, Ctenocephalides sp. (2.3%, Linognathus africanus (1.2%, Linognathus ovillus (0.3%, Sarcoptes sp. (1.2%, Amblyomma variegatum (4.4%, Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi (1.9%, Rhipicephalus pravus (1.9%, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus (1.1%, Rhipicephalus sanguineus (0.9%, Rhipicephalus praetextatus (1.1% and Hyalomma truncatum (1.6%. Statistically significant difference was observed in prevalence of B. ovis amongst study agroecological zones: highland 36.6%, midland 20.9% and lowland 14.0%. Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in highland agroecological zone. A significantly (OR = 0.041, p 0.05 was never recorded in the prevalence of all the identified species of ectoparasites between male and female sheep hosts. However, a significantly (p = 0.006 higher prevalence of B. ovis was recorded between young and adult sheep. The risk of B. ovis infestation was 1.45 times higher in young than the adult sheep. Furthermore, a significantly (p < 0.001 higher prevalence of M. ovinus, B. ovis and Sarcoptes sp. was found between sheep with poor and a good body condition. The ever increasing threat of ectoparasites on overall sheep productivity and tanning industry in Ethiopia warrants urgent control intervention. Further studies on the role of ectoparasites in transmission of diseases to sheep, zoonotic importance, comparative prevalence and load, and the importance of sheep as alternative hosts in different agroecological zones, breeds and management systems in Ethiopia are recommended so as to design applicable control programme in the country.

  5. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jose Manuel Ramos; Paula Moles-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinch on

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Results: A total of 324 children were included (59.6%male) whose median age was 16.4 months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.0%–50.8%] under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101 (68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46 (31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children (28.7%;95%CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children (16.5%;95%CI:13.0%–21.1%) it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies (n=44, 13.6%;95%CI:10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children (9.9%;95%CI:7.1%–13.3%), of which 23 (71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children (5.9%;95%CI:3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10 (3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea (n = 9; 2.8%), infected wound and ulcer (n=7;2.2%), and burns (n=6;1.9%). Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  6. Gravity tectonics of topographic ridges: Halokinesis and gravitational spreading in the western Ogaden, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mège, Daniel; Le Deit, Laetitia; Rango, Tewodros; Korme, Tesfaye

    2013-07-01

    The Cenozoic history of the western Ogaden region of Ethiopia, between the Ethiopian rift and the South Afar margin, is marked by uplift and incision of the Ogaden plateau down to the Gorrahei Formation, an upper Cretaceous evaporite formation. Debuttressing of this and the overlying sedimentary formations resulted in widespread and spectacular gravitational spreading landforms over a minimum surface area of 15,000 km2, most of which remains unstudied. After clearing up some misconceptions about the surface geology of the study area, the Kebenawa Ridge in the Audo Range, observations are reported that point to a tectonic style controlled by halokinesis and subsequently, gravitational spreading. The role of diapirism and karstification in the observed halokinesis is discussed, as well as the influence of halokinesis on gravitational spreading. Spreading is in part akin to sackung, in that ridge deformation features include a crestal graben and basal ridge topography extrusion, and deformation was triggered by lateral ridge debuttressing. Ridge spreading also presents analogy with gravitational spreading of the Canyonlands grabens in the Needles District, Canyonlands National Park, Utah. The scale and the mechanisms are found to be basically similar, but two differences are noted. First, incision by the drainage network in response to plateau uplift in Ethiopia has debuttressed the topography along two parallel rivers, instead of a single river (the Colorado River) in Utah. Secondly, incision proceeded to the base of the evaporite layer in the Ogaden, whereas incision has not exceeded the top of the evaporite layer in Utah. These differences may have influenced the details of the spreading mechanisms in ways that remain to be investigated. Overall, in Ethiopia, association of halokinesis and a transitional mode of gravitational spreading at the interface between narrow ridge spreading (sackung) and plateau spreading (Canyonlands-type), illustrates a fascinating and

  7. Factors affecting voluntary HIV counselling and testing among men in Ethiopia: a cross-sectional survey

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    Leta Tesfaye H

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT is one of the key strategies in the HIV/AIDS prevention and control programmes in Ethiopia. However, utilization of this service among adults is very low. The aim of the present study was to investigate factors associated with VCT utilization among adult men since men are less likely than women to be offered and accept routine HIV testing. Methods The study utilized data from the Ethiopian Demographic Health Survey (EDHS 2005, which is a cross-sectional survey conducted on a nationally representative sample. Using cluster sampling, 6,778 men aged 15–59 years were selected from all the eleven administrative regions in Ethiopia. Logistic regression was used to analyze potential factors associated with VCT utilization. Results Overall, 21.9% of urban men and 2.6% of rural men had ever tested for HIV through VCT and most of them had learned their HIV test result. Having no stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS was found to be strongly and positively associated with VCT utilization in both urban and rural strata. In rural areas HIV test rates were higher among younger men (aged ≤44 years and those of higher socio-economic position (SEP. Among urban men, risky sexual behaviour was positively associated with VCT utilization whereas being Muslim was found to be inversely associated with utilization of VCT. Area of residence as well as SEP strongly affected men’s level of stigmatizing attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Conclusions VCT utilization among men in Ethiopia was low and affected by HIV/AIDS-related stigma and residence. In order to increase VCT acceptability, HIV/AIDS prevention and control programs in the country should focus on reducing HIV/AIDS-related stigma. Targeting rural men with low SEP should be given first priority when designing, expanding, and implementing VCT services in the country.

  8. Skin problems in children under five years old at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José Manuel Ramos; Paula Molés-Poveda; Dalu Tessema; Mubarack Kedir; Gamadi Safayo; Abraham Tesfasmariam; Francisco Reyes; Isabel Belinchón

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of cutaneous disorders in children under 5 years old who attended a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia.Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from January 26 to February 20, 2015 in children under 5 years old who attended Gambo Rural Hospital in West Arsi of the Oromia Region, Ethiopia.Results: A total of 324 children were included(59.6% male) whose median age was 16.4months. In total, 147 children [45.4%; 95% confidence interval(CI): 40.0%–50.8%]under 5 years had a skin problem, of which 101(68.7%) consulted for that reason. The other 46(31.3%) consulted for a general health problem and the dermatological condition was a secondary finding during the physical exploration. In 93 children(28.7%; 95% CI:20%–33.8%), it was the main disease, and in 54 children(16.5%; 95% CI: 13.0%–21.1%)it was concomitant with other diseases. The most common dermatological disease was scabies(n = 44, 13.6%; 95% CI: 10.3%–17.7%). Impetigo was diagnosed in 32 children(9.9%; 95% CI: 7.1%–13.3%), of which 23(71.9%) had complicated impetigo. Nineteen children(5.9%; 95% CI: 3.8%–9.0%) had eczema, 10(3.1%) had eczema associated to other conditions. The following most frequent skin problems were tinea(n = 9; 2.8%),infected wound and ulcer(n = 7; 2.2%), and burns(n = 6; 1.9%).Conclusions: Skin problems, mainly scabies, impetigo, and eczema were common in young children attended at a rural hospital in Southern Ethiopia. Children under 5 years should be examined thoroughly to rule out skin diseases, especially scabies.

  9. Spatial distribution of podoconiosis in relation to environmental factors in Ethiopia: a historical review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebede Deribe

    Full Text Available An up-to-date and reliable map of podoconiosis is needed to design geographically targeted and cost-effective intervention in Ethiopia. Identifying the ecological correlates of the distribution of podoconiosis is the first step for distribution and risk maps. The objective of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution and ecological correlates of podoconiosis using historical and contemporary survey data.Data on the observed prevalence of podoconiosis were abstracted from published and unpublished literature into a standardized database, according to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. In total, 10 studies conducted between 1969 and 2012 were included, and data were available for 401,674 individuals older than 15 years of age from 229 locations. A range of high resolution environmental factors were investigated to determine their association with podoconiosis prevalence, using logistic regression.The prevalence of podoconiosis in Ethiopia was estimated at 3.4% (95% CI 3.3%-3.4% with marked regional variation. We identified significant associations between mean annual Land Surface Temperature (LST, mean annual precipitation, topography of the land and fine soil texture and high prevalence of podoconiosis. The derived maps indicate both widespread occurrence of podoconiosis and a marked variability in prevalence of podoconiosis, with prevalence typically highest at altitudes >1500 m above sea level (masl, with >1500 mm annual rainfall and mean annual LST of 19-21°C. No (or very little podoconiosis occurred at altitudes 24°C.Podoconiosis remains a public health problem in Ethiopia over considerable areas of the country, but exhibits marked geographical variation associated in part with key environmental factors. This is work in progress and the results presented here will be refined in future work.

  10. Effectiveness of interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Southern Ethiopia

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    Merdekios B

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Behailu Merdekios1, Adebola A Adedimeji2 1College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Arba Minch University, Ethiopia; 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Jack and Pearl Resnick Campus, New York, USA Background: In Ethiopia, Progress in Reducing Mother-to-Child-Transmission (PMTCT of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is being curtailed by behavioral and cultural factors that continue to put unborn children at risk, and mother-to-child transmission is responsible for more than 90% of HIV infection in children. The objective of this study was to assess PMTCT services by examining knowledge about reducing vertical transmission among pregnant women. Methods: A multistaged sampling institution-based survey was conducted in 113 pregnant women in Arba Minch. Qualitative and quantitative data were obtained. Results: Of the 113 respondents, 89.4% were from Arba Minch, 43.4% were at least 25 years of age, 73.4% had formal education at primary level or above, 100% reported acceptance of voluntary counseling and testing, 92.0% were knowledgeable about mother-to-child transmission, and 90.3% were aware of the availability of the PMTCT service in the health facility. Of 74 HIV-positive women in PMTCT, only three (4.1% had had skilled birth attendants at delivery. There was an unacceptable degree of loss of women from PMTCT. Maternal educational level had a statistical association with income (P < 0.001 and voluntary counseling and testing for pregnant women (P < 0.05. Factors that determined use of PMTCT included culture, socioeconomic status, and fear of stigma and discrimination. Conclusion: In the area studied, intervention to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV is failing to reach its goal. This is an alarming discovery requiring quick reconsideration and strengthening of preventive strategies at all levels. Keywords: human immunodeficiency virus, mother-to-child transmission, pregnant women, Ethiopia

  11. The lived experience of patients regarding patients' rights practice at hospitals in Amhara Region, northern Ethiopia

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    Berhane A

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Adugnaw Berhane,1 Fikre Enquselassie2 1College of Health Sciences, Debre Berhan University, Debre Berhan, 2School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: There are a number of different international guidelines promoting the practice of observing patients’ rights in the health care service. Patients experience greater satisfaction in the health care service when their rights are protected. The purpose of this study was to examine patients’ experiences regarding their rights in hospital settings in northern Ethiopia.Patients and methods: Data were collected using semistructured interviews of 22 patients, who have had experience of health care service in the hospital setting. The patients were selected from the outpatient and inpatient departments of referral and district hospitals in northern Ethiopia. The interview data were tape-recorded, transcribed, translated, reviewed, and analyzed using a phenomenographic approach. Categories of descriptions were constructed based on the patients’ conceptions and ways of understanding the phenomenon of patients’ rights practice.Results: The findings revealed four main qualitatively different ways of understanding patients’ rights practice from the patients’ perspective. These main categories of description were patient-centered practice, being secured, respecting patients’ dignity, and getting referral.Conclusion: The different conceptions of patient rights give us a deeper understanding of how patients may experience patients’ rights practice. The result provides a foundation for developing health care practice that equips the patient with a positive experience, thus contributing in drafting patients’ bill of rights in the local context.Keywords: patient rights, phenomenography, hospital health care, patient experience

  12. Prevalence and molecular characterization of human noroviruses and sapoviruses in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Gebreyes, Wondwossen; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Njahira, Moses N; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-08-01

    Viral gastroenteritis is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, very limited studies have been done on the epidemiology of enteropathogenic viruses. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs) from acute gastroenteritis patients of all ages. Fecal samples were collected from diarrheic patients (n = 213) in five different health centers in Addis Ababa during June-September 2013. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using the sequences of the PCR products. Of the clinical samples, 25.3 % and 4.2 % were positive for NoV and SaV RNA, respectively. Among the norovirus positives, 22 were sequenced further, and diverse norovirus strains were identified: GI (n = 4), GII (n = 17) and GIV (n = 1). Most strains were GII (n = 17/22: 77.2 %), which were further divided into three different genotypes (GII.4, GII.12/GII.g recombinant-like and GII.17), with GII.17 being the dominant (7/17) strain detected. GI noroviruses, in particular GI.4 (n = 1), GI.5 (n = 2) and GI.8 (n = 1), were also detected and characterized. The GIV strain detected is the first from East Africa. The sapoviruses sequenced were also the first reported from Ethiopia. Collectively, this study showed the high burden and diversity of noroviruses and circulation of sapoviruses in diarrheic patients in Ethiopia. Continued surveillance to assess their association with diarrhea is needed to define their epidemiology, disease burden, and impact on public health.

  13. First detection and molecular characterization of sapoviruses and noroviruses with zoonotic potential in swine in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisay, Zufan; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Berhe, Nega; Belay, Gurja; Abegaz, Woldaregay Erku; Wang, Q H; Saif, Linda J

    2016-10-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, are important human and animal enteric pathogens with zoonotic potential. In Ethiopia, no study has been done on the epidemiology of animal NoVs and SaVs. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize NoVs and SaVs from swine of various ages. Swine fecal samples (n = 117) were collected from commercial farms in Ethiopia. The samples were screened for caliciviruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using universal and genogroup-specific primer pairs. Phylogenetic analysis was conducted using a portion of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) region and the VP1 region of genome sequences of caliciviruses. Among 117 samples, potential caliciviruses were detected by RT-PCR in 17 samples (14.5 %). Of the RT-PCR-positive fecal samples, four were sequenced, of which two were identified as human NoV GII.1 and the other two as porcine SaV GIII. The porcine SaV strains that were detected were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain genogroup III (GIII), which is the prototype porcine SaV strain. No porcine NoVs were detected. Our results showed the presence of NoVs in swine that are most similar to human strains. These findings have important implications for NoV epidemiology and food safety. Therefore, continued surveillance of NoVs in swine is needed to define their zoonotic potential, epidemiology and public and animal health impact. This is the first study to investigate enteric caliciviruses (noroviruses and sapoviruses) in swine in Ethiopia.

  14. Anemia among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia: a hospital-based cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Hermela; Wassie, Molla Mesele; Woldie, Haile; Tadesse, Abilo; Mesfin, Nebiyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Anemia is a major public health problem in HIV patients around the world. It has a negative effect on the quality of life of HIV patients and progression of the HIV disease. In the sub-Saharan African setting, including Ethiopia where both HIV infection and under-nutrition are expected to be high, there is a paucity of data on the matter. This study was aimed to reveal the magnitude and factors associated with anemia among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital, northwest Ethiopia. Methods A hospital-based cross-sectional study was used among adult HIV patients in Debre-Tabor Hospital from April 1 to May 30, 2015. The diagnosis of anemia was made following the 2011 World Health Organization recommendation on hemoglobin cut-off points. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was carried out to assess factors associated with anemia. Results A total of 377 patients’ charts were reviewed. Most of the participants (n=237, 62.9%) were taking antiretroviral treatment (ART). The overall prevalence of anemia was 23% (95% CI: 19.1, 27.6). Being ART-naïve (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 7.14), having treatment history with anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug (AOR: 3.2; 95% CI: 1.19, 8.67), taking zidovudine (ZDV)-containing ART regimen (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.03, 4.57), and having recent CD4+ T-lymphocytes count of HIV patients. Conclusion and recommendation Anemia continues to be a major co-morbidity among adult HIV patients in Ethiopia. Adult HIV patients who are taking ZDV-containing ART, with a history of TB treatment, have a low CD4+T-lymphocytes count and are ART-naïve should be carefully screened and treated for anemia. PMID:28243151

  15. Age at menarche and the menstrual pattern of secondary school adolescents in northwest Ethiopia

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    Megabiaw Berihun

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population studies on normal and dysfunctional characteristics of menstrual cycles are scarce in Ethiopia. In addition variability in menarcheal age and menstrual characteristics are common. Knowledge on this variability is necessary for patient education and to guide clinical evaluation. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted in two small towns called Dabat and Kola Diba, northwest Ethiopia between April and May 2007. Systematic sampling method was used to select 622 school girls from two secondary schools. A pretested questionnaire prepared in Amharic was used to gather data. Selected girls cooperated in answering the questionnaire in their classrooms under the supervision of the research team. Only 612 of the adolescent females were included in the final analysis, of which 305 were from Koladiba High School and 307 from Dabat. Results The age of the study subjects ranges between 14 and 19 with a mean (standard deviation of 16.9 ± 1 years. About 92.2% had attained menarche by the time the survey was conducted. The probit analysis of the status quo data yielded a median (CI age at menarche of 14.8 (13.9-15.3 years. The average age at menarche by recall method was 15.8 ± 1 years. The mean age at menarche was 0.3 years younger for urban females compared with rural ones (p Conclusion In this study age of menarche was found to be delayed which is even higher than the findings indicated similar studies conducted in Ethiopia and other African countries. A significant number of students complain of abnormal menstrual cycle, dysmenorrhoea and premenstrual symptoms which call for appropriate counselling and management.

  16. Medication adherence in diabetes mellitus and self management practices among type-2 diabetics in Ethiopia

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    Nasir T Wabe

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complication are becoming more prevalent in Ethiopia. Evidence abound that the most important predictor of reduction of morbidity and mortality due to diabetes complication is the level of glycemic control achieved. Aims : The aim is to assess adherence to anti diabetic drug therapy and self management practice among type-2 diabetic patient in Ethiopia. Patients and Method : The study consists of two phases. A cross-sectional review of randomly selected 384 case notes of type-2 diabetic patient that attend diabetes mellitus clinic over 3 month and cross-sectional interview, with pre tested adherence and self management and monitoring tool questioner of 347 consecutive patients that attend in Jimma university specialized hospital diabetic clinic. Result: Oral hypoglycemic agent were prescribed for 351(91.4 of the patient while insulin and oral hypoglycemic agent was prescribed in 33(8.6%. About 312 (88.9% patients on oral hypoglycemic agent were on mono therapy, the most frequently prescribed oral hypoglycemic agent was glibenclamide 232(74.3% and metformine 80(25.7%. Only 41.8% of the patient had adequate glycemic control. The main external factors for non adherence were lack of finance (37.1% followed by perceived side effect of drug 29.2%. Only 6.5% patient who missed their medications disclosed to physician during consultation. The knowledge and practice of critical component of diabetes self management behavior were generally low among the patient studied. Conclusion: Majority of the patient with type 2 diabetes in Ethiopia are managed by OHA monotherapy mainly glybenclamide and metformine. While the current prescribing strategy do not achieve glycemic control on majority of the patient. This is due to poor adherence with the prescribed drug regimen and poor knowledge and practice of successful self management.

  17. Motivation of health workers and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia

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    Weldegebriel Z

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Zemichael Weldegebriel,1 Yohannes Ejigu,2 Fitsum Weldegebreal,3 Mirkuzie Woldie2 1Public Planning Department, Debark Hospital, Debark, North Gondar, Amhara Region, 2Department of Health Services Management, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health and Medical Science, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Health professionals’ motivation reflects the interaction between health professionals and their work environment. It can potentially affect the provision of health services; however, this important attribute of the workplace climate in public hospitals is not usually given serious attention to the desired level. For this reason, the authors of this study have assessed the level of motivation of health professionals and associated factors in public hospitals of West Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia.  Methods: A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight public hospitals of West Amhara from June 1 to July 30, 2013. A total of 304 health professionals were included in this study. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS software version 20. The reliability of the instrument was assessed through Cronbach’s α. Factor scores were generated for the items found to represent the scales (eigenvalue greater than one in varimax rotation used in the measurement of the variables. The scores were further analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, t-tests, Pearson’s correlation, and hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses. The cut-off point for the regression analysis to determine significance was set at β (95% confidence interval, P<0.05.  Results: Mean motivation scores (as the percentage of maximum scale scores were 58.6% for the overall motivation score, 71.0% for the conscientiousness scale, 52.8% for the organizational commitment scale, 58.3% for the intrinsic motivation scale, and 64.0% for organizational

  18. Demand for modern family planning among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.

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    Tesfaye Regassa Feyissa

    Full Text Available People living with HIV (PLHIV have diverse family planning (FP needs. Little is reported on FP needs among women living with HIV in Ethiopia. Thus, the objective of the study was to assess the demand for modern FP among married women living with HIV in western Ethiopia.A facility-based cross-sectional survey was conducted on 401 married women living with HIV selected from Nekemte Referral Hospital and Health Center, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia. Convenience sampling of every other eligible patient was used to recruit respondents. Data were collected using a pretested, structured questionnaire. We first calculated frequency and percentage of unmet need, met need and total demand by each explanatory variable, and performed chi-squared testing to assess for differences in groups. We then fitted logistic regression models to identify correlates of unmet need for modern FP at 95% CL.The proportion of respondents with met need for modern FP among married women living with HIV was 61.6% (30.7% for spacing and 30.9% for limiting. Demand for family planning was reported in 77.0% (38.2% for spacing and 38.8% for limiting, making unmet need for modern FP prevalent in 15.4% (7.5% for spacing and 7.9% for limiting. Whereas age 25-34 years [adjusted odds ratio (AOR (95% confidence interval (CI = .397 (.204-.771] was protective against unmet need for modern FP, not having knowledge of MTCT [AOR (95% CI = 2.531 (1.689-9.290] and not discussing FP with a partner [AOR (95% CI = 3.616(1.869-6.996] were associated with increased odds of unmet need for modern FP.There is high unmet need for modern FP in HIV-positive married women in western Ethiopia. Health care providers and program managers at a local and international level should work to satisfy the unmet need for modern family planning.

  19. Do Health and Demographic Surveillance Systems benefit local populations? Maternal care utilisation in Butajira HDSS, Ethiopia

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    Mesganaw Fantahun Afework

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The benefits of Health and Demographic Surveillance sites for local populations have been the topic of discussion as countries such as Ethiopia take efforts to achieve their Millennium Development Goal targets, on which they lag behind. Ethiopia's maternal mortality ratio is very high, and in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (2011 EDHS it was estimated to be 676/100,000 live births. Recent Global Burden of Disease (GBD and estimates based on the United Nations model reported better, but still unacceptably high, figures of 497/100,000 and 420/100,000 live births for 2013. In the 2011 EDHS, antenatal care (ANC utilization was estimated at 34%, and delivery in health facilities was only 10%. Objectives: To compare maternal health service utilization among populations in a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS to non-HDSS populations in Butajira district, south central Ethiopia. Design: A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted in January and February 2012 among women who had delivered in the 2 years before the survey. Results: A total of 2,296 women were included in the study. One thousand eight hundred and sixty two (81.1% had attended ANC at least once, and 37% of the women had attended ANC at least four times. A quarter of the women delivered their last child in a health facility. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, 715 (75.3% attended ANC at least once compared to 85.1% of women living in the HDSS areas [adjusted odds ratio (AOR 0.59; 95% CI 0.46, 0.74]. Of the women living outside the HDSS areas, only 170 (17.9% delivered in health facilities and were assisted by skilled attendants during delivery, whereas 30.0% of those living in HDSS areas delivered in health facilities (AOR 0.66; 95% CI 0.48, 0.91. Conclusion: This paper provides possible evidence that living in an HDSS site has a positive influence on maternal health. In addition, there may be a positive influence on

  20. The ecology of large carnivores in the highlands of northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yirga, Gidey; De Iongh, Hans H.; Leirs, Herwig

    2013-01-01

    ), leopard (Panthera pardus) and jackal (Canis aureus aureus) in the highlands of northern Ethiopia. The annual mean economic loss per household was approximately U.S.$ 20.2, about 7% of the average annual income of households in the area. Households surveyed reported losses of a total of 3122 livestock......; and jackal for goat and sheep. Livestock predation of spotted hyaena and leopard were mainly during the night. We conclude that assessing depredation problems is important to develop actions for management of either livestock practices or wildlife conservation....

  1. Female genital mutilation: prevalence, perceptions and effect on women's health in Kersa district of Ethiopia

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    Gebremichael MW

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Wondimu Shanko Yirga1,2, Nega Assefa Kassa2, Mengistu Welday Gebremichael2, Arja R Aro31University of Southern Denmark, Faculty of Health Sciences, Esbjerg, Denmark; 2Haramaya University College of Health Sciences, Harar, Ethiopia; 3University of Southern Denmark, Unit for Health Promotion Research, Esbjerg, DenmarkBackground: Female genital mutilation (FGM is nontherapeutic surgical modification of the female genitalia. It is an ancient tradition in large parts of Africa, including Ethiopia, especially in the eastern part of the country. This study aimed to identify the prevalence, perceptions, perpetuators, reasons for conducting FGM, and factors associated with this practice with regard to women's health.Methods: Community-based cross-sectional house-to-house interviews were conducted during 2008 among 858 females of reproductive age (15–49 years, in Kersa district, East Hararge, Oromia region, Ethiopia. Proportions and Chi-square tests were used to describe the data and logistic regression was used to describe statistical associations. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Results: FGM was reported to be known by 327 (38.5% of the interviewees. The majority (n = 249, 76.1% reported that local healers were the main performers of FGM, and 258 (78.9% respondents stated that the clitoris was the part removed during circumcision. The main reason for the practice of FGM was reduction of female sexual hyperactivity (reported by 198 women [60.3%]. Circumcision of daughters was reported by 288 (88.1% respondents, and this showed a statistically significant association with the Christian religion (P = 0.003, illiteracy (P = 0.01, and Amhara ethnicity (P = 0.012. The majority of the respondents (792, 92.3% were themselves circumcised and 68.8% did not know of any health-related problems associated with FGM.Conclusion: In spite of FGM being a common practice in the study area, only one third of the respondents stated that they knew about it

  2. Zinc status and cognitive function of pregnant women in Southern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Stoecker, BJ; Abebe, Y; Hubbs-Tait, L; Kennedy, TS; Gibson, RS; Arbide, I; Teshome, A; Westcott, J; Krebs, NF; Hambidge, KM

    2009-01-01

    The relation between zinc status and cognitive function was examined in a cross-sectional study in the Sidama area of Southern Ethiopia. Pregnant women >24 weeks of gestation from three adjacent rural villages volunteered to participate. Mean (s.d.) plasma zinc of 99 women was 6.97 (1.07) μmol/l (below the cutoff of 7.6 μmol/l indicative of zinc deficiency at this stage of gestation). The Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM) test was administered individually. Scores for the Raven’s sc...

  3. Malaria indicator survey 2007, Ethiopia: coverage and use of major malaria prevention and control interventions

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    Graves Patricia M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2005, a nationwide survey estimated that 6.5% of households in Ethiopia owned an insecticide-treated net (ITN, 17% of households had been sprayed with insecticide, and 4% of children under five years of age with a fever were taking an anti-malarial drug. Similar to other sub-Saharan African countries scaling-up malaria interventions, the Government of Ethiopia set an ambitious national goal in 2005 to (i provide 100% ITN coverage in malarious areas, with a mean of two ITNs per household; (ii to scale-up indoor residual spraying of households with insecticide (IRS to cover 30% of households targeted for IRS; and (iii scale-up the provision of case management with rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT, particularly at the peripheral level. Methods A nationally representative malaria indicator survey (MIS was conducted in Ethiopia between September and December 2007 to determine parasite and anaemia prevalence in the population at risk and to assess coverage, use and access to scaled-up malaria prevention and control interventions. The survey used a two-stage random cluster sample of 7,621 households in 319 census enumeration areas. A total of 32,380 people participated in the survey. Data was collected using standardized Roll Back Malaria Monitoring and Evaluation Reference Group MIS household and women's questionnaires, which were adapted to the local context. Results Data presented is for households in malarious areas, which according to the Ethiopian Federal Ministry of Health are defined as being located Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, respectively. Moderate-severe anaemia (haemoglobin Conclusions Since mid-2005, the Ethiopian National Malaria Control Programme has considerably scaled-up its malaria prevention and control interventions, demonstrating the impact of strong political will and a committed partnership. The MIS showed, however, that besides sustaining and

  4. Who takes the medicine? Adherence to antiretroviral therapy in Southern Ethiopia

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    Teshome W

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Wondu Teshome,1 Mihretu Belayneh,1 Mathewos Moges,1 Misganu Endriyas,2 Emebet Mekonnen,2 Sinafiksh Ayele,2 Tebeje Misganaw,2 Mekonnen Shiferaw,2 Palanivel Chinnakali,3 Sven Gudmund Hinderaker,4 Ajay MV Kumar5 1School of Public and Environmental Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 2Research Technology Transfer Process Unit, SNNP Regional Health Bureau, Hawassa, Ethiopia; 3Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post-graduate Medical Education and Research, Puducherry, India; 4Centre for International Health, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; 5The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, South-East Asia Regional Office, New Delhi, India Background: Treatment adherence is critical for the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART for people living with HIV. There is limited representative information on ART drug adherence and its associated factors from Southern Ethiopia. We aimed at estimating the level of adherence to ART among people living with HIV and factors associated with it in 20 randomly selected ART clinics of Southern Ethiopia.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we interviewed consecutive HIV patients on first-line antiretroviral regimen attending the clinics in June 2014 using a pretested and structured questionnaire. For measuring adherence, we used 4-day recall method based on “The AIDS Clinical Trial Group adherence assessment tool”. Patients were classified as “Incomplete adherence” if they missed any of the doses in the last 4 days. Data were singly entered using EpiData and descriptive analysis, and unadjusted odds ratios were calculated using EpiDataStat software. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed using Stata v12.0.Results: Of 974 patients interviewed, 539 (56% were females, and mean age was 35 years. The proportion of patients with incomplete adherence was 13% (95% confidence interval: 11%–15

  5. Do women with higher autonomy seek more maternal health care? Evidence from Eritrea and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldemicael, Gebremariam

    2010-07-01

    Using data from the 2002 Eritrea and 2005 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), this study was carried out to investigate the link between women's autonomy and maternal health care utilization in relation to socioeconomic factors. Although some dimensions of women's autonomy are significantly linked to an increased likelihood of receiving health care, they do not emerge to be mediators of the link between socioeconomic factors and use of health services for antenatal care and delivery care. In order to derive a complete understanding of the determinants of maternal health care utilization, both women's autonomy and socioeconomic indicators should be analyzed.

  6. Using task analysis to generate evidence for strengthening midwifery education, practice, and regulation in Ethiopia

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    Yigzaw T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tegbar Yigzaw,1 Catherine Carr,2 Jelle Stekelenburg,3,4 Jos van Roosmalen,5 Hannah Gibson,1 Mintwab Gelagay,1 Azeb Admassu6 1Jhpiego, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; 2Jhpiego, Washington DC, USA; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Leeuwarden Medical Centre, Leeuwarden, 4Department of Health Sciences, Global Health, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, 5Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 6Federal Ministry of Health, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Purpose: Realizing aspirations for meeting the global reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health goals depends not only on increasing the numbers but also on improving the capability of midwifery workforce. We conducted a task analysis study to identify the needs for strengthening the midwifery workforce in Ethiopia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of recently qualified midwives in Ethiopia. Purposively selected participants from representative geographic and practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire, making judgments about the frequency of performance, criticality, competence, and location of training for a list of validated midwifery tasks. Using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 20, we computed the percentages and averages to describe participant and practice characteristics. We identified priority preservice education gaps by considering the tasks least frequently learned in preservice, most frequently mentioned for not being trained, and had the highest not capable response. Identification of top priorities for in-service training considered tasks with highest “not capable” and “never” done responses. We determined the licensing exam blueprint by weighing the composite mean scores for frequency and criticality variables and expert rating across practice categories. Results: One hundred and thirty-eight midwives participated in the study. The majority of

  7. GM crops in Ethiopia: a realistic way to increase agricultural performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadi, Hossein; Talsma, Nanda; Ho, Peter; Zarafshani, Kiumars

    2011-01-01

    Much has been published on the application of genetically modified (GM) crops in Africa, but agricultural performance has hardly been addressed. This paper discusses the main consequences of GM crops on agricultural performance in Ethiopia. Three main criteria of performance - productivity, equitability and sustainability - are evaluated in the context of the Ethiopian agricultural sector. We conclude that the application of GM crops can improve the agricultural productivity and sustainability, whereas equitability cannot be stimulated and might even exacerbate the gap between socioeconomic classes. Before introducing GM crops to Ethiopian agriculture, regulatory issues should be addressed, public research should be fostered, and more ex ante values and socioeconomic studies should be included.

  8. Predictors of breast self - examination among female teachers in Ethiopia using health belief model

    OpenAIRE

    Birhane, Negussie; Mamo, Abebe; Girma, Eshetu; Asfaw, Shifera

    2015-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is by far the most frequent cancer of women. It is the second leading cause of death in women worldwide. Approximately one out of eight women develops breast cancer all over the world. Majority of cases of cancer of the breast are detected by women themselves, stressing the importance of breast self-examination. The main objective of this study was to assess predictors of breast self-examination among female teachers in Kafa Zone, South West part of Ethiopia. Methods ...

  9. Population ecology of rodents of maize fields and grassland in central Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekel'e, Afework; Leirs, Herwig

    1997-01-01

    We report on the presence of rodents in grassland and maize fields in central Ethiopia, during the course of a 21-month study by means of removal and capture-recapture trapping. In both habitats, the small mammal fauna consisted of the same species but in different relative proportions: Arvicanthis...... of A.dembeensis reached high values in the grassland. Breeding was seasonal and related to rainfall periods: extended rainy seasons resulting in longer periods with breeding females and higher litter sizes and, consequently, population size increases. These observations suggest that rodent population...

  10. Agricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of EthiopiaAgricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yihun, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    Title of the PhD Thesis: ‘Agricultural Water Productivity Optimization for Irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water Scarce Semi-Arid region of Ethiopia’ Yenesew Mengiste Yihun In water stressed regions such as the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, increasing Crop Water Productivity (CWP)

  11. Dryland resources, livelihoods and institutions : diversity and dynamics in use and management of gum and resin trees in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale

    2011-01-01

    Dry woodlands comprise the largest forest resources in Ethiopia. An important feature of these forests is their richness in Acacia, Boswellia and Commiphora (ABC) species that produce gum and resin. Gums/resins significantly contribute to rural livelihoods, the national economy, and ecosystem sta

  12. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in retail meat and dairy products in the area of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Derra, F. A.; Karlsmose, Susanne; Monga, D. P.

    2013-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antimicrobial profiles, and genetic relatedness of L. monocytogenes from raw meat and dairy products (raw milk, cottage cheese, cream cake), collected from the capital and five neighboring towns in Ethiopia. Methods. Two hundred forty food samples were purchased...

  13. Personal, Social and Environmental Risk Factors of Problematic Gambling Among High School Adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdi, T.A.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Adal, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding risk factors of problematic gambling is prerequisite to effective intervention design to alleviate the negative consequences of gambling. This study explored the personal, social and environmental risk factors of problematic gambling in four high schools in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, among

  14. Teachers of Poor Communities: The Tale of Instructional Media Use in Primary Schools of "Gedeo" Zone, Southern Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Mehadi; Semela, Tesfaye

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of working conditions at school on teachers' level of instructional media use in the primary school system of Gedeo Zone, southern Ethiopia. The survey was made on a sample of 139 (24.4% female and male 75.6%) teachers who were randomly drawn from 9 primary schools (four rural and five urban…

  15. Technical Vocational Education and Training for Micro-Enterprise Development in Ethiopia: A Solution or Part of the Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Tendayi; Dafuleya, Gift

    2010-01-01

    Technical vocational education and training (TVET) programmes have recently received increased attention as an area of priority for stimulating growth in developed and developing countries. This paper considers the situation in Ethiopia where the promotion of micro and small-sized enterprises (MSEs) has been central to the development and…

  16. Exploring the potential of co-investments in land management in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adimassu Teferi, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Like in any other part of the country, land degradation resulting from water erosion and nutrient depletion     is one of the most challenging problems for farmers in the Central Rift Valley (CRV) of Ethiopia.     Nevertheless, investments in land management t

  17. Indigenous multiplication and production practices of the tuber crop Plectranthus edulis in Chencha and Wolaita, Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taye, M.; Lommen, W.J.M.; Struik, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Plectranthus edulis (syn. Coleus edulis) is a tuber-bearing labiate species cultivated in parts of southern Ethiopia. To learn about traditional cultural practices and their rationale, a survey was conducted among farmers from Chencha and Wolaita experienced in growing this crop. A pre-tested questi

  18. Adoption of Improved Potato Varieties in Ethiopia: the role of Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System and Farmers' Quality Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abebe, G.K.; Bijman, J.; Pascucci, S.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2013-01-01

    Although potato is considered to be one of the strategic crops for ensuring food security in Ethiopia, the adoption of high yielding and disease tolerant improved potato varieties is low. Common explanations include farmers’ attitudes to risk and socio-cultural factors. We develop a system perspecti

  19. The effect of long-term Maresha ploughing on soil physical properties in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temesgen, B.B.; Stroosnijder, L.; Temesgen, M.; AdulKedir, A.; Sterk, G.

    2011-01-01

    For thousands of years, smallholder-based crop farming in Ethiopia has been practiced with oxen ploughing using the traditional Maresha ard plough where consecutive tillage operations are undertaken perpendicular to each other. Despite its wide acceptance by smallholder farmers, long-term use of the

  20. The potential of medical abortion to reduce maternal mortality in Africa: what benefits for Tanzania and Ethiopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca F Baggaley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is estimated to account for 13% of maternal mortality globally. Medical abortion is a safe alternative. METHODS: By estimating mortality risks for unsafe and medical abortion and childbirth for Tanzania and Ethiopia, we modelled changes in maternal mortality that are achievable if unsafe abortion were replaced by medical abortion. We selected Ethiopia and Tanzania because of their high maternal mortality ratios (MMRatios and contrasting situations regarding health care provision and abortion legislation. We focused on misoprostol-only regimens due to the drug's low cost and accessibility. We included the impact of medical abortion on women who would otherwise choose unsafe abortion and on women with unwanted/mistimed pregnancies who would otherwise carry to term. RESULTS: Thousands of lives could be saved each year in each country by implementing medical abortion using misoprostol (2122 in Tanzania and 2551 in Ethiopia assuming coverage equals family planning services levels: 56% for Tanzania, 31% for Ethiopia. Changes in MMRatios would be less pronounced because the intervention would also affect national birth rates. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first analysis of impact of medical abortion provision which takes into account additional potential users other than those currently using unsafe abortion. Thousands of women's lives could be saved, but this may not be reflected in as substantial changes in MMRatios because of medical abortion's demographic impact. Therefore policy makers must be aware of the inability of some traditional measures of maternal mortality to detect the real benefits offered by such an intervention.

  1. Competing claims for water resources in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia: Global drivers and local opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Jansen, H.C.; Driel, van J.

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to favourable policies for agricultural investments, both small scale and large scale irrigated agriculture has expanded rapidly in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia. This closed river basin encompasses a chain of three lakes with unique hydrological and ecological characteristics including

  2. The significance of enset culture and biodiversity for rural household food and livelihood security in southwestern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negash, A.; Niehof, A.

    2004-01-01

    The significance of enset (Ensete ventricosum Welw. Cheesman) for the food and livelihood security of rural households in Southwestern Ethiopia, where this crop is the main staple, raises two major questions. The first concerns the related issues of household food security and livelihood security an

  3. Transforming gender relations through the market: Smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining power in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenjiso, B.M.; Ruben, R.; Smits, J.P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    We study the relationship between smallholder milk market participation and women's intra-household bargaining position in Ethiopia, using a quasi-experiment and propensity score matching. In market participant households, milk income is higher and its control has shifted from women to men. Our data

  4. Visceral leishmaniasis in Aba-Roba, south-western Ethiopia: prevalence and incidence of active and subclinical infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hailu; M. Gramiccia; P.A. Kager

    2009-01-01

    Between August 1997 and February 2005, a prospective study of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was undertaken in two villages in the Konso district of south-western Ethiopia, to provide epidemiological indices of subclinical infection and active VL. Six cross-sectional surveys at 6-month intervals

  5. New additions to the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea in the families Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), Lamiaceae, Campanulaceae, Eriocaulaceae and Poaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Phillips, Sylvia M.; Gilbert, Michael G.;

    2011-01-01

    During recent field work by Ib Friis and Sally Bidgood six collections were collected that did not represent taxa accounted for in the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. These were Phyllanthus chevalieri, Indigofer bracteolata, Wahlenbergia paludicola, Clerodendrum triflorum, Tragus mongolorum and Hy...

  6. A novel species within the Fusarium graminearum complex from Ethiopia detected by a multilocus genotyping assay and molecular phylogenetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenty isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex (Fg complex; O’Donnell et al., Fungal Genet. Biol. 41:600-623, 2004) were isolated from ground wheat samples collected in two different geographic areas in Ethiopia. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay (Ward ...

  7. Multilocus Genotyping and Molecular Phylogenetics Resolve a Novel Head Blight Pathogen within the Fusarium graminearum Species Complex from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of Fusarium head blight (FHB)-contaminated wheat in Ethiopia recovered 31 isolates resembling members of the Fusarium graminearum species complex. Results of a multilocus genotyping (MLGT) assay for FHB species and trichothecene chemotype determination suggested that 22 of these isolates m...

  8. Effects of a Theory-Based Audio HIV/AIDS Intervention for Illiterate Rural Females in Amhara, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Gebeyehu W.; Boer, Henk; Seydel, Erwin R.

    2011-01-01

    In Ethiopia the level of illiteracy in rural areas is very high. In this study, we investigated the effects of an audio HIV/AIDS prevention intervention targeted at rural illiterate females. In the intervention we used social-oriented presentation formats, such as discussion between similar females and role-play. In a pretest and posttest…

  9. Co-Creating a Psychiatric Resident Program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent…

  10. Standardization Techniques for Grade-Inflation Problems at Higher Educational Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassahun, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…

  11. Towards New Ventures in Education. Workshop on Nonformal Education (Yared Music School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 18, 1974).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neqniq, Ato Million

    The major responsibility of this workshop on nonformal education is to establish some prototypes of community training activities which will coordinate with the agricultural and health components of Ethiopia's Fourth Five Year Plan for rural development and which can later be reproduced in the countryside. Linking education to overall development…

  12. Four new species of Aloe (Aloaceae) from Ethiopia, with notes on the ethics of describing new taxa from foreign countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demissw, Sebsebe; Friis, Ib; Awas, Tesfaye;

    2011-01-01

    Subsequent to the treatment of the Aloaceae, with 38 species of Aloe, in the Flora of Ethiopia (Sebsebe Demissew & Gilbert 1997), four more species, Aloe bertemariae Sebsebe & Dioli (2000), A. friisii Sebsebe & M. G. Gilbert (2000), A. clarkei L. E. Newton (2002) and A. elkerriana Dioli & T. A. M...

  13. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  14. Joint use of insects and fungal pathogens in the management of waterhyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes): Perspectives for Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebregiorgis, F.Y.; Struik, P.C.; Lantinga, E.A.; Taye, T.

    2013-01-01

    Waterhyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] remains one of the worst aquatic weeds worldwide. Its presence in Ethiopia was officially reported in Koka Lake and Awash River about 60 yr ago. Experiences worldwide indicate that the use of bioagents is the most economical and sustainable control

  15. Quality of life after postconflict displacement in Ethiopia: comparing placement in a community setting with that in shelters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araya, M.; Chotai, J.; Komproe, I.H.; de Jong, J.T.V.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background The resilience of post-war displaced persons is not only influenced partly by the nature of premigration trauma, but also by postmigration psychosocial circumstances and living conditions. A lengthy civil war leading to Eritrea separating from Ethiopia and becoming an independent state in

  16. Diversity and dynamics of management of gum and resin resources in Ethiopia: a trade-off between domestication and degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemenih, M.; Wiersum, K.F.; Teshale Woldeamanuel Habebo, Teshale; Bongers, F.

    2014-01-01

    Although the human domestication of forest and tree resources is often considered to result in resource degradation, it may also lead to improved resource potentials. This paper assesses the nature and dynamics of gum and resin focused woodland exploitation and management systems in Ethiopia in the

  17. Early Marriage, Rape, Child Prostitution, and Related Factors Determining the Psychosocial Effects Severity of Child Sexual Abuse in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Reschke, Konrad; Schroder, Harry

    2011-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying factors that determine the psychosocial effects severity of child sexual abuse. Data were collected from 318 female children in Ethiopia using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results revealed that respondents who survived rape and child…

  18. Genetically divergent types of the wheat leaf fungus Puccinia triticina in Ethiopia, a center of tetraploid wheat diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collections of Puccinia triticina, the wheat leaf rust fungus, were obtained from tetraploid and hexaploid wheat in the central highlands of Ethiopia, and a smaller number from Kenya from 2011 to 2013, in order to determine the genetic diversity of this wheat pathogen in a center of host diversity. ...

  19. Ecomorphology as a tool in fisheries: identification and ecotyping of Lake Tana barbs (Barbus intermedius complex), Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sibbing, F.A.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Osse, J.W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Fisheries development of Lake Tana, Ethiopia, urgently requires the identification of its unknown units of fish stock. A diversity of large barbs (up to 80 cm SL), lumped into one species Barbus intermedius and contributing over 35% of the annual catch, consists of at least thirteen distinct morphot

  20. Potential Natural Vegetation Map of Eastern Africa (Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya Malawi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia). Version 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map is...

  1. A comprehensive linear programming tool to optimize formulations of ready-to-use therapeutic foods: An application to Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-use therapeutic food (RUTF) is the standard of care for children suffering from noncomplicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM). The objective was to develop a comprehensive linear programming (LP) tool to create novel RUTF formulations for Ethiopia. A systematic approach that surveyed inter...

  2. Wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kidane, Berhane; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Asfaw, Zemede; Sosef, M.S.M.; Andel, van Tinde

    2015-01-01

    We studied wild and semi-wild leafy vegetables used by the Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia. Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical methods, including individual and focus group (n = 18) discussions, field observations, and individual interviews (n = 144), were used in t

  3. The freshwater crabs of Ethiopia, northeastern Africa, with the description of a new Potamonautes cave species (Brachyura: Potamonautidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cumberlidge, N.; Clark, P.F.

    2012-01-01

    A recent collection of freshwater potamonautid crabs from a newly-explored cave in Ethiopia included a new species of Potamonautes MacLeay, 1838, which is described. The new species is associated with caves but is not troglobitic because it has no special morphological adaptations for life in caves

  4. Interdisciplinary on-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyssen, Jan; Poesen, Jean; Gebremichael, Desta

    2007-01-01

    Since two decades, stone bunds have been installed in large areas of the Tigray Highlands, Northern Ethiopia, to control soil erosion by water. Field studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness, efficiency, side effects and acceptance of stone bunds. Based on measurements on 202 field pa...

  5. The barbs of Lake Tana, Ethiopia: morphological diversity and its implications for taxonomy, trophic resource partitioning, and fisheries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerke, L.A.J.

    1997-01-01

    The rediscovery of a unique species flock of cyprinid fish, its taxonomy and its feeding-biology are described. Fourteen species of barbs (Barbus spp, Cyprinidae, Teleostei) were found in highland (1800 m) Lake Tana, in northwestern Ethiopia. Lake Tana is an isolated fresh-water system, because its

  6. Assessing the Desired and Actual Levels of Teachers' Participation in Decision-Making in Secondary Schools of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bademo, Yismaw; Tefera, Bekalu Ferede

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the desired and actual levels of teachers' participation in decision-making process in Ethiopian secondary schools. For this, the study employed a cross-sectional survey design collecting data from sampled secondary school teachers (n = 258) found in Assosa Zone, Benishangual Gumuz Regional state, Ethiopia.…

  7. Modern variety adoption and risk management in drought prone areas: insights from the sorghum farmers of eastern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavatassi, R.; Lipper, L.; Narloch, U.

    2011-01-01

    Adoption rates of improved or modern varieties (MV) of sorghum in eastern Ethiopia are generally low. Although these MV may represent an effective means of coping with droughts, given their early maturing traits, landraces could prove to be more drought-tolerant and better adapted to marginal produc

  8. Gender Equality in Public Higher Education Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egne, Robsan Margo

    2014-01-01

    Ensuring gender equality in higher education system is high on the agenda worldwide particularly in science disciplines. This study explores the problems and prospects of gender equality in public higher education institutions of Ethiopia, especially in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Descriptive survey and analytical research…

  9. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  10. Traditional perceptions and treatment of mental disorders in western Ethiopia before the 1974 revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsson, L; Merdasa, F

    1991-11-01

    This article describes the traditional concepts and treatment of mental disorders in the Oromo areas in western Ethiopia before the revolution in 1974. There are three traditional cultural influences operating: traditional Oromo thinking, the Coptic church and the Islamic culture. One important element in traditional Oromo thinking is that each person is believed to possess an ayana, which is a special divine agent that can descend upon people, but also means a person's character and personality. In the traditional Oromo society, the Kallu is the religious leader who, through an ecstatic ritual technique, can investigate the causes of the disorder and advise what to do. Mental disorders are generally explained as resulting from disturbances in the relationship between people and divinity. The second important cultural element in western Ethiopia is the orthodox Coptic church, which usually looks upon mental disorders as possession by evil spirits, which are thus treated by specially gifted priests and monks by praying and giving holy water or eventually exhortation. According to Islamic teaching in the area, mental disorders are caused by evil spirits sent by God to punish the unfaithful people. Some Muslim sheiks treat mental cases with prayers, but herbal remedies are also used. There is a great intermingling of these different cultural and religious elements and people attend different healers and religious leaders more depending on the reputation of the person than on cultural and religious affiliation.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA assessment of Phytophthora infestans isolates from potato and tomato in Ethiopia reveals unexpected diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelash, Daniel; Hussien, Temam; Fininsa, Chemeda; Forbes, Greg; Yuen, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotypes were determined using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) for P. infestans sampled from 513 foliar lesions of late blight found on potato and tomato in different regions of Ethiopia. Among the four reported mitochondrial haplotypes of Phytophthora infestans, Ia, Ib and IIb were detected in 93 % of the samples analyzed but the vast majority of these were Ia. The remaining 7 % represented a previously unreported haplotype. DNA sequencing of this new haplotype also confirmed a single base nucleotide substitution that resulted in loss of EcoRI restriction site and gain of two additional MspI sites in cox1 and atp1 genes, respectively. There were 28 polymorphic sites among all nucleotide sequences including five reference isolates. Sites with alignment gaps were observed in P4 with one nucleotide deletion in 11 Ethiopian isolates. None of the reference sequence produced frame-shifts, with the exception of the 3-nucleotide deletion in the P4 region by Phytophthora andina, a feature that can be used to distinguish the new Ethiopian isolates from P. andina. While a distinguishing molecular data presented here clearly separated them from P. infestans, 7 % of the isolates that share this feature formed an important component of the late blight pathogen causing disease on Solanum tuberosum in Ethiopia. Thus, these Ethiopian isolates could represent a novel Phytophthora species reported for the first time here.

  12. Changing risk of environmental Campylobacter exposure with emerging poultry production systems in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brena, M C; Mekonnen, Y; Bettridge, J M; Williams, N J; Wigley, P; Sisay Tessema, T; Christley, R M

    2016-02-01

    Campylobacter is a leading cause of diarrhoea, and its presence in chickens is a significant risk for zoonotic infection. Poultry production is becoming increasingly intensive in Ethiopia and is incorporating more high-producing breeds into traditionally managed smallholdings, especially in peri-urban areas. This cross-sectional study sampled 219 household environments in one peri-urban and two rural areas of Ethiopia, and an additional 20 semi-intensive farms in the peri-urban district. Campylobacter was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific assays in 44 samples; 16 of which could be identified as C. jejuni. Flocks in the peri-urban area were at significantly greater odds of detection, including those which only kept indigenous birds under a scavenging system. It was also noted that scavenging flocks of exotic high-production birds (Rhode Island Red) were at slightly greater risk, perhaps as exotic birds are under more stress when kept under traditional management systems. We suggest that changes to the system of chicken production may alter the ecology and epidemiology of Campylobacter in the environment, chickens and people, which may drive emergence of new epidemiological patterns of disease. Further research is needed to determine the extent to which the current management intensification and the distribution programmes of exotic and/or improved indigenous birds may alter Campylobacter epidemiology, ecology and public health risk, before their widespread adoption.

  13. Initial community perspectives on the Health Service Extension Programme in Welkait, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McAuliffe Eilish

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Health Service Extension Programme (HSEP is an innovative approach to addressing the shortfall in health human resources in Ethiopia. It has developed a new cadre of Health Extension Workers (HEWs, who are charged with providing the health and hygiene promotion and some treatment services, which together constitute the bedrock of Ethiopia's community health system. Methods This study seeks to explore the experience of the HSEP from the perspective of the community who received the service. A random sample of 60 female heads-of-household in a remote area of Tigray participated in a structured interview survey. Results Although Health Extension Workers (HEWs had visited them less frequently than planned, participants generally found the programme to be helpful. Despite this, their basic health knowledge was still quite poor regarding the major communicable diseases and their vectors. Participants felt the new HESP represented an improvement on previous health provision. HEWs were preferred over Traditional Birth Attendants for assistance with labour Conclusion While the introduction of HEWs has been a positive experience for women living at the study site, the frequency of visits, extent of effectively imparted health knowledge and affects of HEWs on other health providers needs to be further explored.

  14. Deforestation and Forest Management in Southern Ethiopia: Investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  15. High Frequency of Symptomatic Zinc Deficiency in Infants in Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Dassoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Zinc deficiency occurs in infants when its demand exceeds its supply. It presents with cutaneous signs which, in severe cases, are associated with diarrhea, alopecia, and irritability. Genetic and acquired forms of zinc deficiency have been reported and often overlap clinical features. Malnutrition, prematurity, malabsorption syndromes, and burns may cause an increased demand for zinc. Methods. Cases of acquired transient infantile zinc deficiency (TIZD observed during a period of 3 years at Ayder Referral Hospital of Mekelle, Northern Ethiopia, are reported here. Since no sophisticated tests were available at our center, the diagnosis was based on the clinical signs and prompt response to oral zinc supplementation. Results. We observed 18 cases of TIZD at our center. All patients were full-term and breastfeeding infants with no relevant associated diseases. Conclusions. In this region, a high incidence of this condition is observed. We could not rule out whether heterozygosity for the genetic mutation was present or that the disease was caused by a nutritional deficiency in the mothers or more probably because both the factors coexisted together. However, further studies are necessary to better understand the causes of the increased incidence of this disease in Northern Ethiopia.

  16. Factors related to discontinued clinic attendance by patients with podoconiosis in southern Ethiopia: a qualitative study

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    Tora Abebayehu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoconiosis is a lymphoedema of non-infectious cause which results in long-term ill health in affected individuals. Simple, effective treatment is available in certain parts of Ethiopia, but evidence indicates that not all patients continue collecting treatment supplies from clinic sites once started. We used qualitative techniques to explore factors related to discontinued attendance at outreach clinics of a non-government organization in southern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative study was conducted in four clinic sites through unstructured in-depth interviews, key informant interviews and focus group discussions with the involvement of 88 study subjects. Results Discontinuation of clinic visits is common among podoconiosis patients. The reasons were: remoteness from the clinic sites, unrealistic expectation of ‘special’ aid, worry about increasing stigma, illness and misconceptions about treatment. Conclusions Several of these factors are remediable through community and individual information and education. Appropriate routes to deliver this information must be identified. Certain factors (such as distance to clinic sites and stigma require substantial expansion of services or liaison with village-level government health services.

  17. Meeting the need for safe abortion care in Ethiopia: results of a national assessment in 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdella, Ahmed; Fetters, Tamara; Benson, Janie; Pearson, Erin; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Andersen, Kathryn; Gebreselassie, Hailemichael; Tesfaye, Solomon

    2013-01-01

    Complications of an unsafe abortion are a major contributor to maternal deaths and morbidity in Africa. When abortions are performed in safe environments, such complications are almost all preventable. This paper reports results from a nationally representative health facility study conducted in Ethiopia in 2008. The safe abortion care (SAC) model, a monitoring approach to assess the amount, distribution, use and quality of abortion services, provided a framework. Data collection included key informant interviews with 335 health care providers, prospective data on 8911 women seeking treatment for abortion complications or induced abortion and review of facility logbooks. Although the existing hospitals perform most basic abortion care functions, the number of facilities providing basic and comprehensive abortion care for the population size fell far short of the recommended levels. Almost one-half (48%) of women treated for obstetric complications in the facilities had abortion complications. The use of appropriate abortion technologies in the first trimester and the provision of post-abortion contraception overall were reasonably strong, especially in private sector facilities. Following abortion law reform in 2005 and subsequent service expansion and improvements, Ethiopia remains committed to reducing complications from an unsafe abortion. This study provides the first national snapshot to measure changes in a dynamic abortion care environment.

  18. Productive performance of indigenous and HF crossbred dairy cows in Gondar, Ethiopia

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    Niraj Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the magnitude of variation in lactation length (LL, lactation milk yield (LMY and peak-yield (PYdue to genetic and non-genetic cases in indigenous and crossbred cattle reared under private dairy unit in and around Gondar, Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 411 milch animals from 86 dairy farmers comprising of 172 indigenous and 239 Holstein-Friesian (HF crossbred cows. These cows were maintained under farmer's management system in and around Gondar (Ethiopia and were analyzed by Least squares analysis to study the magnitude of variation in their LL, LMY and PY due to genetic and some non-genetic factors. Result: The overall Least squares means for LL, LMY and PY were estimated to be 275.1165.23 days, 1407.3471.34 litres and 6.880.38 litres respectively. Genetic group and lactation order had significant effect (P0.01 on LL, LMY and PY. Season of calving had significant effect (P0.01 on LMY and PY but its effect on LL was non-significant. Effect of location of herd was significant (P0.05 on LMY and PY while its effect on LL was non-significant. Variations in all the traits due to herd size and farming system were statistically non-significant. Conclusion: Productive performance of dairy cows in this study was found to be lesser than the optimum values desirable for profitable milk production.

  19. Indicators and Determinants of Small-Scale Bamboo Commercialization in Ethiopia

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    André Lindner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an abundant resource in Ethiopia and has a great potential for commercialization, which can drive rural development. In view of these realities, this study analyzed the state and determinants of small-scale bamboo commercialization in Ethiopia. Data were collected from three major bamboo-growing districts (Awi, Sidama, and Sheka and four urban centers (Masha, Hawassa, Bahir Dar, and Addis Ababa via semi-structured interviews, group discussions, and questionnaire surveys with key actors along the value chain. Results revealed distinctive differences in proportion of cash income, value chain structure, and management engagement among the districts. Percentages of cash income were 60.15, 42.60, and 9.48 at Awi, Sidam, and Sheka, respectively. Differences were statistically significant between Sheka and both other districts (p = 0.05, but not between Awi and Sidama. The value chain structure showed that compared with Sheka, Awi and Sidama have a relatively large number of actors involved. The major factors explaining commercialization differences among regions were distance to market and presence of alternative forest products. Within Sheka, households with larger family size, higher education attainment, and access to training reportedly engaged more in commercial extraction. Therefore, we conclude that development of infrastructure for linking resource and consumer centers and expansion of extension education among producers may enhance the commercial engagement of producers and improve the accessibility of bamboo resources for commercial production.

  20. Remote sensing and geographic information system-based African civet habitat mapping in Andracha, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melese, Dagnachew; Suryabhagavan, Karuturi Venkata; Gelet, Melakneh; Balakrishnan, Mundanthra

    2014-01-01

    Remote sensing and geographic information systems have enormous applications in ecological studies, particularly in the habitat analysis of wild animals. The present study aimed to evaluate the habitats of the African civet in Andracha, Ethiopia, in order to generate geo-referenced ecological data on the habitats of this species. Habitat evaluation and habitat changes during 1986 to 2012 were analyzed using LANDSAT imageries. In the year 1986, 1017.56 km2 (99.75%) of the study area was covered with forest, but in 2012 only 949.61 km2 (93.09%) had forest cover. There has been a reduction of 5.97% forest cover at a rate of 0.22% per year since 1986. The study area has been classified into three suitability categories based on forest cover, water, settlement/agriculture, road and slope. Currently, 611.07 km2 (59.9%) of the area has dense forest cover, which is less preferred by the African civet, 336.75 km2 (33.01%) is moderately interfered with human activities and is suitable for civets, and 70.56 km2 (6.91%) is degraded forest around human habitats, which is highly preferred by civets. Habitat suitability analysis is useful to predict potential habitats of African civets in Ethiopia and elsewhere in Africa.

  1. Developing a lifelong learning system in Ethiopia: Contextual considerations and propositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiy, Dessalegn Samuel; Kabeta, Genet Gelana; Mihiretie, Dawit Mekonnen

    2014-10-01

    Initiated by a "Pilot workshop on developing capacity for establishing lifelong learning systems in UNESCO Member States" held at the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning, the purpose of this study was to develop a Lifelong Learning system in Ethiopia. Preparations for its conceptualisation included the review of relevant national policy documents and an analysis of the Ethiopian educational, economic and social context. Focused group and one-to-one interviews were conducted with policy researchers, experts from the Ministry of Education, adult educators and coordinators at different levels. It emerged that some of the existing policy provisions and contexts reflecting the highly formalised and structured educational opportunities available to Ethiopian youth and adults require re-conceptualisation. Despite the enormous progress made in increasing children's access to primary school, more than two million children remain out of school and adult literacy rates are still far from reaching the targets set both by the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and by national educational programmes. Moreover, as many youth drop out after completing primary education, and as the quality of learning appears to have suffered due to efforts of expansion, it is necessary to revisit the responsiveness of Ethiopia's formal educational provisions in the face of these challenges. Based on the opportunities and challenges identified, the authors explore some major considerations believed to be fundamental in creating a platform for the conceptualisation of Lifelong Learning in the Ethiopian context and conclude with some suggestions for the way forward.

  2. Antenatal Care Strengthening in Jimma, Ethiopia: A Mixed-Method Needs Assessment

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    Sarah Fredsted Villadsen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We assessed how health system priorities matched user expectations and what the needs for antenatal care (ANC strengthening were for improved maternal health in Jimma, Ethiopia. Methods. A questionnaire survey among all recent mothers in the study area was conducted to study the content of ANC and to identify the predictors of low ANC satisfaction. Further, a qualitative approach was applied to understand perceptions, practices, and policies of ANC. Results. There were no national guidelines for ANC in Ethiopia. Within the health system, the teaching of health professional students was given high priority, and that contributed to a lack of continuity and privacy. To the women, poor user-provider interaction was a serious concern hindering the trust in the health care providers. Further, the care provision was compromised by the inadequate laboratory facilities, unstructured health education, and lack of training of health professionals. Conclusions. Health system trials are needed to study the feasibility of ANC strengthening in the study area. Nationally and internationally, the leadership needs to be strengthened with supportive supervision geared towards building trust and mutual respect to protect maternal and infant health.

  3. Household food insecurity and symptoms of neurologic disorder in Ethiopia: An observational analysis

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    Tessema Fasil

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food insecurity (FI has been shown to be associated with poor health both in developing and developed countries. Little is known about the relation between FI and neurological disorder. We assessed the relation between FI and risk for neurologic symptoms in southwest Ethiopia. Methods Data about food security, gender, age, household assets, and self-reported neurologic symptoms were collected from a representative, community-based sample of adults (N = 900 in Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. We calculated univariate statistics and used bivariate chi-square tests and multivariate logistic regression models to assess the relation between FI and risk of neurologic symptoms including seizures, extremity weakness, extremity numbness, tremors/ataxia, aphasia, carpal tunnel syndrome, vision dysfunction, and spinal pain. Results In separate multivariate models by outcome and gender, adjusting for age and household socioeconomic status, severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, movement abnormalities, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, spinal pain, and comorbid disorders among women. Severe FI was associated with higher odds of seizures, extremity numbness, movement abnormalities, difficulty speaking, carpal tunnel, vision dysfunction, and comorbid disorders among men. Conclusion We found that FI was associated with symptoms of neurologic disorder. Given the cross-sectional nature of our study, the directionality of these associations is unclear. Future research should assess causal mechanisms relating FI to neurologic symptoms in sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Rural income transfer programs and rural household food security in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraguchi, Zenebe B

    2012-01-01

    Based on household food security surveys conducted in Ethiopia, this study seeks to understand the roles and limitations of income transfer projects as determinants of households’ food security. By covering the Food-For-Work Programs (FFWPs) and the Productive Safety Net Programs (PSNPs), the study shows that these programs served as temporary safety nets for food availability, but they were limited in boosting the dietary diversity of households and their coping strategies. Households which participated in the programs increased their supply of food as a temporary buffer to seasonal asset depletion. However, participation in the programs was marred by inclusion error (food-secure households were included) and exclusion error (food-insecure households were excluded). Income transfer projects alone were not robust determinants of household food security. Rather, socio-demographic variables of education and family size as well as agricultural input of land size were found to be significant in accounting for changes in households’ food security. The programs in the research sites were funded through foreign aid, and the findings of the study imply the need to reexamine the approaches adopted by bilateral donors in allocating aid to Ethiopia. At the same time the study underscores the need to improve domestic policy framework in terms of engendering rural local institutional participation in project management.

  5. Unwanted Pregnancy and Associated Factors among Pregnant Married Women in Hosanna Town, Southern Ethiopia.

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    Belayneh Hamdela

    Full Text Available Of an estimated 210 million pregnancies that occur in the world each year, 38% are unplanned, out of which 22% end in abortion. In Ethiopia, the estimates of unintended pregnancy indicate that it is one of the major reproductive health problems with all its adverse outcomes. Women risk their lives in by seeking illegal abortions following unintended pregnancies. Thus, this study aims to determine the prevalence of unintended pregnancy and associated factors among pregnant married women residing in Hossana, Southern Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional study involving both qualitative and quantitative data collection methods was carried out in Hossana from April 02 to 15, 2011. 385 pregnant married women randomly selected from the census were included for the quantitative data and took in-depth interviews for the qualitative. Descriptive, binary and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed using SPSS version 16. Out of the total pregnancies, 131 (34% were unintended and 254 (66% were reported to be intended. A history of previous unintended pregnancy, the husband not wanting to limit family size, a desire for at least two children, the number of pregnancy 3–4 and parity of 5 and above were factors significantly associated with unintended pregnancy. With over one third of pregnancies unintended, having a previous unintended pregnancy, the number of previous pregnancies, and husbands’ disagreement over family size, and the desired number of children are factors that reproductive health programs should aim to focus on to reduce unintended pregnancy.

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Hypertensive Patients in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

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    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM therapies are being widely used by hypertensive patients worldwide. However, evidences regarding CAM use by hypertensive patients in Ethiopia are limited. This study aimed at assessing prevalence and correlates of CAM use among hypertensive patients attending ambulatory clinic at Gondar University Referral Hospital (GURH, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was employed on 423 patients visiting GURH. Descriptive statistics and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression tools were used to analyze/come up with the prevalence and correlates of CAM use. Results. The prevalence of CAM use in our study was found to be 67.8% and herbal based medicine was the most commonly utilized CAM therapies. Majority of CAM users (70.2% did not disclose CAM use for their physician. However, nearly half of CAM users (48.4% were satisfied with the result of CAM use. Conclusions. The higher prevalence of CAM use among hypertensive patients coupled with a very low disclosure rate to their health care providers can have a marked potential to cause ineffective hypertensive management and adverse effects due to CAM use. Health care providers should be open to discussing the use of CAM with their patients as it will lead to better health outcome.

  7. Strain Diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates from Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia

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    Mulugeta Belay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data on genotypic diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC is important to understand its epidemiology, human adaptation, clinical phenotypes, and drug resistance. This study aimed to characterize MTBC clinical isolates circulating in a predominantly pastoralist area in Ethiopia, a country where tuberculosis is the second leading cause of mortality. Culture of sputum samples collected from a total of 325 pulmonary TB suspects was done to isolate MTBC. Spoligotyping was used to characterize 105 isolates from culture positive slopes and the result was compared with an international database. Forty-four spoligotype patterns were observed to correspond to 35 shared-types (SITs containing 96 isolates and 9 orphan patterns; 27 SITs containing 83 isolates matched a preexisting shared-type in the database, whereas 8 SITs (n=13 isolates were newly created. A total of 19 SITs containing 80 isolates were clustered within this study (overall clustering of 76.19%. Three dominant lineages (T, CAS, and Manu accounted for 76.19% of the isolates. SIT149/T3-ETH was one of the two most dominant sublineages. Unlike previous reports, we show that Manu lineage strains not only constitute a dominant lineage, but are also associated with HIV infection in Afar region of Ethiopia. The high level of clustering suggests the presence of recent transmission that should be further studied using additional genotyping markers.

  8. Climate change adaptation in Ethiopia: to what extent does social protection influence livelihood diversification?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weldegebriel, Zerihun; Prowse, Martin Philip

    2013-01-01

    Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receivin...... in a positive manner for climate adaptation. The article concludes by arguing for the promotion of positive forms of income diversification and the further investigation of the PSNP’s influence on autonomous adaptation strategies.......Social-protection programmes like the Productive Safety-Net Programme (PSNP) in Ethiopia can play a positive role in promoting livelihoods and enhancing risk management. This article uses propensity score matching to estimate its effect on income diversification. The results suggest that receiving...... transfers from the PSNP, on average, did not increase farm or non-farm income but significantly increases natural-resource extraction (one component of off-farm income). While these results should be treated with caution, they suggest that the PSNP may not be helping smallholders diversify income sources...

  9. MARKETTING SITUATIONS OF LIVESTOCK FEEDS IN WELMERA AND DENDI WEREDA OF WEST SHOA ZONE, ETHIOPIA

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    R. MESFIN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explains the status of livestock feed resources and market situations in Welmera and Dendi weredas of West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia. The objective of the survey was to assess the potentials and constraints of feed resources and related marketing practices and suggest appropriate intervention options to overcome the constraints. Majority (76% of the interviewed farmers have faced shortage of livestock feeds. The diminishing trend of grazing land from time to time, roughage, concentrate feeds are the factors contributing to feed shortage. Moreover, the increasing trend in selling price of hay and concentrate feeds aggravates more to the problem. This situation is limiting livestock productiv in the highlands of Ethiopia. Under this condition, farmers purchase feeds to both local and crossbred animals. The purchased feeds include: hay, straw, grazing area, oilseed cakes, wheat bran and wet grass. Among these, the grazing area purchased takes the highest (52% proportion. Farmers and traders participate in purchasing of livestock feeds. The proportion of farmers that purchase feeds is higher (30% than that of the traders (1%. To alleviate the problems related to shortage of livestock feeds and decline of animal production and productivity, rearing of improved crossbred dairy cattle under intensive management and forage/fodder development and feeds conservation schemes should be promoted in a wider scale. Considering the ever-increasing price of feeds, there is a need to shift from purchased commercial feeds to the use of farm produced feed resources.

  10. Deforestation and forest management in southern Ethiopia: investigations in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf

    2014-02-01

    Long-term human impacts are considered to be the prime cause of unsustainable forest exploitation in Ethiopia. Yet there exist well-established systems and a wealth of local experience in maintaining and managing forests. This study explores the trends and driving forces of deforestation plus traditional practices regarding sustainable forest use and management in the Chencha and Arbaminch areas, Southern Ethiopia. Satellite image analysis (images from 1972, 1984 and 2006) combined with field surveys were used to detect and map changes in forest cover. Household interviews and group discussions with experienced and knowledgeable persons were also employed. The results show a 23 % decline in forest cover between 1972 and 2006 with the most significant change from 1986 to 2006. Change was greatest in the lowlands and remarkable episodic forest changes also occurred, suggesting nonlinear spatial and temporal forest cover dynamics. According to farmers, the main driver of deforestation is agricultural land expansion in response to local population increases and a decline in agricultural production. Growing local and regional fuel wood demand is another chief cause. Despite these issues, remarkable relicts of natural forests remain and trees on farmland, around homesteads and on fields in every village are basic elements of farm activities and social systems. This demonstrates the effect of cumulative traditional knowledge and long-term local experience with forest management and preservation. Therefore, these practices should be promoted and advanced through the integration of local knowledge and forest management practices in the design and implementation of sustainable environmental planning and management.

  11. Human capacity and institutional development towards a sustainable energy future in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulugetta, Yacob [Centre for Environmental Strategy, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    The overwhelming majority of Ethiopians lack access to modern energy fuels such as electricity and liquid petroleum gas, still locked into a biomass-based energy system. As such, women and children in rural areas spend long hours of productive time and labour on woodfuel collection and the urban poor spend a sizeable proportion of their income to meet their daily energy needs. Electricity, which is at the disposal of every household in Western Europe is largely restricted to the urban centres in Ethiopia, hence indicating a strong correlation between lack of access to modern energy and poverty. The paper will analyse the reasons why Ethiopia is lagging behind the rest of the developing world in setting up a sustainable energy pathway. As such, the performance and 'mind-set' of various 'agencies', i.e. higher education system, government, energy authorities, donor agencies, etc. will be reviewed. The paper refers to a range of cases in to illustrate the challenge of building the mechanisms that allow energy technologies to be successfully disseminated, supported and integrated into rural livelihoods. The paper will provide a series of observations and recommendations to ameliorate the current state-of-affairs and ways through which the various actors (community-based organisations, government at various levels and to a lesser degree, donors) can contribute towards that end. (author)

  12. Subclinical Iodine Deficiency among Pregnant Women in Haramaya District, Eastern Ethiopia: A Community-Based Study

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    Haji Kedir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is a worldwide problem. This study aimed to assess prevalence and predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency among pregnant women in Haramaya district, eastern Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional, community-based study was conducted on 435 pregnant women existing in ten randomly selected rural kebeles (kebele is the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia. Data on the study subjects’ background characteristics, dietary habits, and gynecological/obstetric histories were collected via a structured questionnaire. UIC of <150 μg/L defined subclinical iodine deficiency. Data were analyzed by Stata 11. A multivariable logistic regression was used to identify the predictors of subclinical iodine deficiency. Results. The median urinary iodine concentration (MUIC was 58.1 μg/L and 82.8% of the women who had subclinical iodine deficiency. The risk of subclinical iodine deficiency was reduced by the use of iodized salt (AOR = 0.13 and by intake of milk twice a month or more (AOR = 0.50, but it was increased by maternal illiteracy (AOR = 3.52. Conclusion. Iodine nutritional status of the pregnant women was poor. This shows that women and their children are exposed to iodine deficiency and its adverse effects. Thus, they need urgent supplementation with iodine and improved access to and intake of iodized salt and milk during pregnancy.

  13. Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR in Ethiopia: Analysis of a national serological survey

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    Pfeiffer Dirk U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peste des petits ruminants (PPR is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants in Africa and Asia. In 1999, probably the largest survey on PPR ever conducted in Africa was initiated in Ethiopia where 13 651 serum samples from 7 out of the 11 regions were collected and analyzed by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA. The objective of this paper is to present the results of this survey and discuss their practical implications for PPR-endemic regions. Methods We explored the spatial distribution of PPR in Ethiopia and we investigated risk factors for positive serological status. Intracluster correlation coefficients (ρ, were calculated for 43 wereda (administrative units. Results Seroprevalence was very heterogeneous across regions and even more across wereda, with prevalence estimates ranging from 0% to 52.5%. Two groups of weredas could be distinguished on the basis of the estimated ρ: a group with very low ρ (ρ 0.37. Conclusion The results indicate that PPRV circulation has been very heterogeneous, the values for the ρ may reflect the endemic or epidemic presence of the virus or the various degrees of mixing of animals in the different areas and production systems. Age appears as a risk factor for seropositive status, the linear effect seeming to confirm in the field that PPRV is highly immunogenic. Our estimates of intracluster correlation may prove useful in the design of serosurveys in other countries where PPR is of importance.

  14. A novel hepatitis B virus subgenotype D10 circulating in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundie, G B; Stalin Raj, V; Gebre Michael, D; Pas, S D; Koopmans, M P; Osterhaus, A D M E; Smits, S L; Haagmans, B L

    2017-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is genetically highly divergent and classified in ten genotypes and forty subgenotypes in distinct ethno-geographic populations worldwide. Ethiopia is a country with high HBV prevalence; however, little is known about the genetic variability of HBV strains that circulate. Here, we characterize the complete genome of 29 HBV strains originating from five Ethiopian regions, by 454 deep sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Phylogenetically, ten strains were classified as genotype A1 and nineteen as genotype D. Fifteen genotype D strains, provisionally named subgenotype D10, showed a novel distinct cluster supported by high bootstrap value and >4% nucleotide divergence from other known subgenotypes. In addition, the novel D10 strains harboured nine unique amino acid signatures in the surface, polymerase and X genes. Seventy-two per cent of the genotype D strains had the precore premature stop codon G1896A. In addition, 63% genotype A and 33% genotype D strains had the basal core promoter mutations, A1762T/G1764A. Furthermore, four pre-S deletion variants and two recombinants were identified in this study. In conclusion, we identified a novel HBV subgenotype D10 circulating in Ethiopia, underlining the high genetic variability of HBV strains in Africa.

  15. Bartonella melophagi in Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) collected from sheep in northern Oromia, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Socolovschi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melophagus ovinus (sheep ked) is one of the most common ectoparasites that contributes to enormous economic losses in the productivity of sheep in many countries. The present study was conducted from January 2012 to July 2013 on M. ovinus collected from sheep at three sites in Ethiopia. Of the sheep studied, 65.7% (88/134) were infested with M. ovinus. The prevalence of M. ovinus was 76% (76/100), 47% (8/17) and 23.5% (4/17) at the Kimbibit, Chacha and Shano sites, respectively. An overall number of 229 M. ovinus specimens (138 females, 86 males and five pupae) and 554 M. ovinus specimens (272 females, 282 males) were collected from young and adult sheep, respectively. Bartonella DNA was detected in 89% (694/783) of M. ovinus using a quantitative Bartonella genus-specific PCR assay targeting the 16S/23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. The sequencing of the PCR products of fragments of the gltA and rpoB genes showed 99.6-100% and 100% homology, respectively, with B. melophagi. Statistically significant variation was not noted in the overall prevalence of Bartonella DNA between female and male M. ovinus. All of the sheep infested with M. ovinus 100% (88/88) harbored at least one M. ovinus specimen that contained Bartonella DNA. This study highlights that B. melophagi in M. ovinus from sheep in highlands in Ethiopia possibly has certain zoonotic importance.

  16. Leadership in strategic information (LSI building skilled public health capacity in Ethiopia

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    Mitike Getnet

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In many developing countries, including Ethiopia, few have the skills to use data for effective decision making in public health. To address this need, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, in collaboration with two local Ethiopian organizations, developed a year long Leadership in Strategic Information (LSI course to train government employees working in HIV to use data from strategic information sources. A process evaluation of the LSI course examined the impact of the training on trainees' skills and the strengths and weaknesses of the course. The evaluation consisted of surveys and focus groups. Findings Trainees' skill sets increased in descriptive and analytic epidemiology, surveillance, and monitoring and evaluation (M and E. Data from the evaluation indicated that the course structure and the M and E module required revision in order to improve outcomes. Additionally, the first cohort had a high attrition rate. Overall, trainees and key stakeholders viewed LSI as important in building skilled capacity in public health in Ethiopia. Conclusion The evaluation provided constructive insight in modifying the course to improve retention and better address trainees' learning needs. Subsequent course attrition rates decreased as a result of changes made based on evaluation findings.

  17. The prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in cart mules in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Alina; Orion, Solomon; Tesfaye, Tewodros; Zambriski, Jennifer A

    2016-10-01

    Ethiopia has 7.1 million donkeys and mules, the majority of which are used as pack animals. Factors such as poor harness quality, long-distance traveling, and heavy cartloads have been linked to reduced work efficiency. Addressing the health and welfare of working equids is imperative not only for the animals but also for the households dependent upon them for livelihood. In developing countries, 75 % of working equids have gait or limb abnormalities, but the relationship between workload and prevalence of lameness is unknown. We examined 450 cart mules in Bahir Dar, Ethiopia. Lameness and workload were assessed through use of a survey and lameness exam. We found that 26.8 % of cart mules were lame, and acute lameness of the forelimb was the most common. Animals with poor harness quality were 2.5 times more likely to have sores and 1.6 times more likely to be lame. Lameness tended to be associated with cartloads >700 kg (P = 0.09), and there was a significant association between multiple-leg lameness and cartload weight (P = 0.03). The presence of sores was the best predictor of lameness (P = 0.001). Possible areas of intervention may include education to reduce average daily workload and improving harness design.

  18. Multiple anthelmintic resistance on a goat farm in Hawassa (southern Ethiopia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumsa, Bersissa; Abebe, Girma

    2009-04-01

    A study was conducted to determine the presence of anthelmintic resistance on Hawassa University goat farm in southern Ethiopia. The 180 goats were stratified by age and sex and randomly assigned to treatment groups (albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin and untreated control). Each treatment group included 15 goats and treatments were administered according to weight of each goat with 7.5 mg/kg bw albendazole, 22.5 mg/kg bw tetramisole and 0.2 mg/kg bw ivermectin dose rates recommended by scientists. Faecal samples were collected on day 0 before treatment, and again on day 12 post treatment. Efficacy of all the drugs was assessed on day 12 post treatment by faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). Multiple anthelmintic resistance in Haemonchus spp. against albendazole, tetramisole and ivermectin was recorded in all age categories of the goats. Likewise, Trichostrongylus/Teladorsagia spp. showed resistance against ivermectin. Coprocultures from all pre- and post-treatments revealed the predominance of Haemonchus spp. Resistance against anthelmintics is attributed to the high frequency of treatment and low dosage of treatment practices on the farm. Large scale studies, however, are needed to assess the current status of anthelmintic resistance against the most commonly used anthelmintics in different agroecology, species of animals and management systems in Ethiopia.

  19. Trends and spatial distribution of annual and seasonal rainfall in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, W.H.; Senay, G.B.; Singh, A.

    2008-01-01

    As a country whose economy is heavily dependent on low-productivity rainfed agriculture, rainfall trends are often cited as one of the more important factors in explaining various socio-economic problems such as food insecurity. Therefore, in order to help policymakers and developers make more informed decisions, this study investigated the temporal dynamics of rainfall and its spatial distribution within Ethiopia. Changes in rainfall were examined using data from 134 stations in 13 watersheds between 1960 and 2002. The variability and trends in seasonal and annual rainfall were analysed at the watershed scale with data (1) from all available years, and (2) excluding years that lacked observations from at least 25% of the gauges. Similar anlyses were also performed at the gauge, regional, and national levels. By regressing annual watershed rainfall on time, results from the one-sample t-test show no significant changes in rainfall for any of the watersheds examined. However, in our regressions of seasonal rainfall averages against time, we found a significant decline in June to September rainfall (i.e. Kiremt) for the Baro-Akobo, Omo-Ghibe, Rift Valley, and Southern Blue Nile watersheds located in the southwestern and central parts of Ethiopia. While the gauge level analysis showed that certain gauge stations experienced recent changes in rainfall, these trends are not necessarily reflected at the watershed or regional levels. Copyright ?? 2008 Royal Meteorological Society.

  20. Rural electrification in developing countries. Social acceptance of small photovoltaic lanterns in Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueggenburg, Hannah; Schweizer-Ries, Petra [Saarbruecken Univ. (DE). Forschungsgruppe Umweltpsychologie (FG-UPSY); Raabe, Tim [Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit GmbH (GIZ), Eschborn (Germany); Tillmans, Annika

    2011-07-01

    In order to combat poverty and fight for the Millennium Development Goals through providing access to modern energy, it is necessary to analyze social acceptance of new forms of energy in order to implement them successfully. Nine different Pico Photovoltaic systems were tested during a field study in a non-electrified village in Ethiopia. Each lamp was tested for a week by one of 24 families. Quantitative methods (interviews, focus groups, participant observation) were conducted in order to explore technology change and its social impacts. With these methods, an alternating change of induction and deduction is achieved to gain insight. The most important results are: Apart from expected benefits in health, work, education and economy, people also noticed improvements in the autonomy of children, flexibility, stress, security and family life. Negative aspects were found regarding inter-social relations and in the absence of possible activities. Quality of lamps is defined by respondents according to brightness, duration and cone of light. Furthermore, people prefer white, bright light as well as a built-in switch. Systems considered best in European laboratory tests were evaluated poorly in Ethiopia. In the end, people ordered 30 systems. The decision to buy was a collective one. Even though energy supply is the responsibility of women, men made the final deicision about the purchase of the lamps. (orig.)

  1. Epidemiology of Intestinal Parasite Infections among Kindergarten Children in Mekelle Town, Northern Ethiopia

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    Megbaru Alemu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Back ground: Intestinal parasitic infections are among the major public health problems in the Sub-Saharan Africa. However, surveys for intestinal parasites conducted in different areas of Ethiopia focused on school age children. Consequently, there is scarcity of data on the burden of intestinal parasites among children in Kindergartens. Material and Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in three Kindergartens in Mekelle City, North Ethiopia from October to November 2013. A total of 400 (240 male and 160 female pre-school children were eligible to provide stool samples. Wet mount preparations and Kato Katz technique were applied to process stool samples. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was 29.3% in the study. Six protozoan and helminthic parasites were indentified and Hymenelopis nana was the predominant species (8.75% followed by Giardia lamblia (5.75, Entamoeba histolytica (5%, Enterobius vermicularis (5% and Ascaris lumbricoides (4%. Hookworms and Schistosomiasis mansoni were the least prevalent species. Conclusions: Intestinal parasitosis was high in the study area which indicates a need for provision of anti protozoan and anti helminthics, sanitation, provision of safe water supply and latrines accompanied by appropriate health education.

  2. Feasibility study of a wind powered water pumping system for rural Ethiopia

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    Misrak Girma

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is the primary source of life for mankind and one of the most basic necessities for rural development. Most of the rural areas of Ethiopia do not have access to potable water. Is some regions of the country access potable water is available through use of manual pumping and Diesel engine. In this research, wind water pump is designed to supply drinking water for three selected rural locations in Ethiopia. The design results show that a 5.7 m diameter windmill is required for pumping water from borehole through a total head of 75, 66 and 44 m for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta to meet the daily water demand of 10, 12 and 15 m3, respectively. The simulation for performance of the selected wind pump is conducted using MATLAB software and the result showed that monthly water discharge is proportional to the monthly average wind speed at the peak monthly discharge of 685 m3 in June, 888 m3 in May and 1203 m3 in March for Siyadberand Wayu, Adami Tulu and East Enderta sites, respectively. An economic comparison is conducted, using life cycle cost analysis, for wind mill and Diesel water pumping systems and the results show that windmill water pumping systems are more feasible than Diesel based systems.

  3. How Sustainable Is Transnational Farmland Acquisition in Ethiopia? Lessons Learned from the Benishangul-Gumuz Region

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    Dereje Teklemariam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the nature of available land as one of the main attractions for investment, land lease marketing in Sub-Saharan Africa is appearing on policy agenda. This paper describes critical land-related institutional and governmental frameworks that have shaped the contemporary land governance and land lease contracts in Ethiopia. It also examines the effectiveness of the land lease process regarding economic, social, and environmental expectations from agricultural outsourcing. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were used and results showed that the size of the land cultivated by investors is significantly lower than the agreed-upon size in the contract. Besides, the supply of land to large-scale commercial investors in Ethiopia is made without adequate land use planning, land valuation, and risk analysis. Furthermore, limitations in monitoring systems have contributed to meager socio-economic gains and led to deforestation. Accordingly, the study concludes that supplying vast tracts of farmland to large-scale agricultural investors requires integrated land use planning, land valuation and governance, monitoring systems, and a capacity to implement the various social and environmental laws in coordination with other sectors. Improving rural infrastructure, particularly road, is also indispensable to enhance the level of performance of commercial farms. Last but most importantly, the customary land holding rights of residents should be respected and institutionally recognized.

  4. Soil Quality Indices for Evaluating Smallholder Agricultural Land Uses in Northern Ethiopia

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    Aweke M. Gelaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and increasing resource demands in Ethiopia are stressing and degrading agricultural landscapes. Most Ethiopian soils are already exhausted by several decades of over exploitation and mismanagement. Since many agricultural sustainability issues are related to soil quality, its assessment is very important. We determined integrated soil quality indices (SQI within the surface 0–15 cm depth increment for three agricultural land uses: rain fed cultivation (RF; agroforestry (AF and irrigated crop production (IR. Each land use was replicated five times within a semi-arid watershed in eastern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. Using the framework suggested by Karlen and Stott (1994; four soil functions regarding soil’s ability to: (1 accommodate water entry (WE; (2 facilitate water movement and availability (WMA; (3 resist degradation (RD; and (4 supply nutrients for plant growth (PNS were estimated for each land use. The result revealed that AF affected all soil quality functions positively more than the other land uses. Furthermore, the four soil quality functions were integrated into an overall SQI; and the values for the three land uses were in the order: 0.58 (AF > 0.51 (IR > 0.47 (RF. The dominant soil properties influencing the integrated SQI values were soil organic carbon (26.4%; water stable aggregation (20.0%; total porosity (16.0%; total nitrogen (11.2%; microbial biomass carbon (6.4%; and cation exchange capacity (6.4%. Collectively, those six indicators accounted for more than 80% of the overall SQI values.

  5. Neospora caninum versus Brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in Ethiopia: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmare, Kassahun

    2014-08-01

    This case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of Neospora caninum and Brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. The study was carried out between October 2011 and June 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of Ethiopia. Two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. The presence of antibody to N. caninum was screened using indirect ELISA, while Brucella spp. exposure was assayed serially using Rose Bengal Plate Test and Complement Fixation Test. Exposure to N. caninum was more frequently observed among cases (23.8%) than controls (12.7%), while no significant difference (p > 0.05) was noted for Brucella exposure between the two groups. Moreover, the proportion of cows with disorders like retention of fetal membrane, endometritis and increased inter-calving period were significantly higher (p Brucella spp. exposure. However, neither N. caninum nor Brucella spp. could explain the majority (73.2%) of the reported abortions and stillbirths in cattle. Hence, this observation underscores the need for more intensive investigation on the identification of causes of the aforementioned disorders in dairy cattle of Ethiopia.

  6. Community Perception on Beekeeping Practices, Management, and Constraints in Termaber and Basona Werena Districts, Central Ethiopia

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    Abadi Berhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adequate forage availability coupled with favorable and diversified agroclimatic conditions of Ethiopia creates environmental conditions conducive to the growth of over 7000 species of flowering plants which have supported the existence of large number of bee colonies in the country. Despite its potential of honey production, the contribution of apiculture to state GDP is far below its expectation and not well estimated yet. The objective of this study was to assess community perception in beekeeping management and constraints in central Ethiopia. 384 household heads were randomly selected from eight sentinel kebeles. Semistructured questionnaire, in-depth interview, and focus group discussions were employed to gather data. Chi-square (χ2 test was used to determine association. Three beekeeping management systems, namely, traditional, transitional, and modern beekeeping, were documented. Beekeeping was reported to create job opportunity for landless men and women for their livelihood and needs low capital to start. Significant difference (p<0.05 in beekeeping management activities between two districts was reported. Even though honey production is increasing, the trends of transferring traditional beekeeping to modern beekeeping practice showed a decline. Training and building capacity for hive management, colony feeding, and honey harvesting should be put in place in order to improve honey production.

  7. The impact of donkey ownership on the livelihoods of female peri-urban dwellers in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin Curran, M; Smith, D G

    2005-11-01

    This paper is based on an impact assessment of a donkey provision programme in Ethiopia. The work was carried out in 2001 as part of a DFID Livestock Production Programme project 'Use and management of donkeys by poor societies in peri-urban areas in Ethiopia'. In order to establish whether donkey ownership was a cause or an effect of improved livelihoods, an investigation was carried out that compared non-donkey-owning households with households that had owned no donkey until they were given one by a local NGO. Indicators that poor people use to express their well-being, wealth and health status (components of their livelihoods) were identified and used to compare communities. Guidelines were prepared for project managers for carrying out livelihood indicator identification and impact assessment. The results showed that the informants used a range of indicators to assess their livelihoods. A selection of these were investigated in depth, including number of children per household attending school, number of people per household earning an income, type and quantity of staple foods bought, and ability to save. A trend was identified that demonstrated that donkey owners' livelihoods were improved compared to non-donkey owners.

  8. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions.

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    Chris R Kenyon

    Full Text Available HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia's eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation.We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson's correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable.There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexual risk: mean lifetime number of partners (men: r = 0.87; P < 0.001; women: r = 0.60; P = 0.05; reporting sex with a non-married, non-cohabiting partner (men: r = 0.92; P < 0.001, women r = 0.93; P < 0.001; and premarital sex. Condom usage and HIV testing were positively associated with HIV prevalence, while the prevalence of circumcision, polygamy, age at sexual debut and male migration were not associated with HIV prevalence.Variation in sexual behavior may contribute to the large variations in HIV prevalence by region in Ethiopia. Population-level interventions to reduce risky sexual behavior in high HIV incidence regions should be considered.

  9. Women's rights and health: the case of Oromo women in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugassa, Begna Fufa

    2005-02-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), for which we have no cure or vaccination, is the major health problem in Ethiopia. This epidemic generally has affected poor communities and women. To contain this epidemic, the empowerment of women is essential. In fact, the current working definition of health by the World Health Organization (WHO) makes social well-being a part of everyday living, which is an essential dimension of the quality of life. The concept of quality of life means an opportunity to make choices and even change the situation one is in. Here, the concepts of health and human rights intersect, because of the quality of life requires freedom of choice, dignity and respect. Dignity, the right to access basic education and information, as well as the right to life are the major elements of human rights. It is for that purpose that health promotion is intended to enable people to increase their control over determinants of health and thereby improve their health. Women's involvement in outlining the agendas of health promotion is vital to achieve the desired goals. In this article I examine human rights violations in Ethiopia and the lost opportunities for Oromo women to make choices in life within the framework of the Universal Declarations of Human Rights (UDHR).

  10. Mapping Distribution and Forecasting Invasion of Prosopis juliflora in Ethiopia's Afar Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A. M.; Wakie, T.; Luizza, M.; Evangelista, P.

    2014-12-01

    Invasion of non-native species is among the most critical threats to natural ecosystems and economies world-wide. Mesquite (which includes some 45 species) is an invasive deciduous tree which is known to have an array of negative impacts on ecosystems and rural livelihoods in arid and semi-arid regions around the world, dominating millions of hectares of land in Asia, Africa, Australia and the Americas. In Ethiopia, Prosopis juliflora (the only reported mesquite) is the most pervasive plant invader, threatening local livelihoods and the country's unique biodiversity. Due to its rapid spread and persistence, P. juliflora has been ranked as one of the leading threats to traditional land use, exceeded only by drought and conflict. This project utilized NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) data and species distribution modeling to map current infestations of P. juliflora in the Afar region of northeastern Ethiopia, and forecast its suitable habitat across the entire country. This project provided a time and cost-effective strategy for conducting risk assessments of invasive mesquite and subsequent monitoring and mitigation efforts by land managers and local communities.

  11. In vitro Antimicrobial Activity and Phytochemical Screening of Clematis Species Indigenous to Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawaze, S; Deti, H; Suleman, S

    2012-01-01

    THE LEAVES EXTRACTS OF TWO INDIGENOUS PLANTS OF ETHIOPIA: Clematis longicauda steud ex A. Rich. and Clematis burgensis Engl. are used in Southwestern Ethiopia to treat otorrhoea and eczema. Antimicrobial activity and MIC of crude extracts were determined by disk diffusion and broth dilution. Phytochemical screening was performed on the extracts. The methanol and petroleum ether extracts of both plants showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. Sensitivity of reference strains was concentration dependent. Methanol and petroleum ether extracts of C. burgensis leaves exerted greater inhibitory effects than C. longicauda extracts whereas aqueous extracts of both plants were inactive. The MIC study revealed a concentration of 0.78 mg/ml on bacteria and 3.125 mg/ml on fungi for methanol extract and 1.56 mg/ml on both fungi and bacteria for petroleum ether extract. Phytochemical screening results indicated the presence of proteins, fixed oils, carbohydrates, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, and steroids. Preliminary chromatographic investigation showed fluorescing spots with R(f) values that ranged from 0.05 to 0.96 for phenolic compounds and saponins. As the study is one of the first reports on the two indigenous species of Clematis; isolation, purification and characterization of the different primary and secondary metabolites may further yield alternative options to the microbial chemotherapy.

  12. Induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesfaye, Gezahegn; Hambisa, Mitiku Teshome; Semahegn, Agumasie

    2014-01-01

    Unsafe abortion is one of the major medical and public health problems in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, there is a lack of up-to-date and reliable information on induced abortion distribution and its determinant factors in the country. This study was intended to assess induced abortion and associated factors in health facilities of Guraghe zone, Southern Ethiopia. Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted in eight health facilities in Guraghe zone. Client exit interview was conducted on 400 patients using a structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with induced abortion. Out of 400 women, 75.5% responded that the current pregnancy that ended in abortion is unwanted. However, only 12.3% of the respondents have admitted interference to the current pregnancy. Having more than four pregnancies (AOR = 4.28, CI: (1.24-14.71)), age of 30-34 years (AOR = 0.15, CI: (0.04-0.55)), primary education (AOR = 0.26, CI: (0.13-0.88)), and wanted pregnancy (AOR = 0.44, CI: (0.14-0.65)) were found to have association with induced abortion. The study revealed high level of induced abortion which is underpinned by high magnitude of unwanted pregnancy. There is requirement for widespread expansion of increased access to high quality family planning service and post-abortion care.

  13. A bio-economic farm household model to assess cropping systems in the Rift valley of Ethiopia : towards climate smart agriculture: do food security and mitigration goals match?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2012-01-01

    Modelling approach for rain fed farm household systems in the Central Rif Valley of Ethiopia to assess the possible effects of intensification of cereal-based cropping systems to farm income, mitigation of GHG emissions and other household indicators

  14. Temporal and spatial distribution of microcrustacean zooplankton in relation to turbidity and other environmental factors in a large tropical lake (L. Tana, Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Sibbing, F.A.

    2004-01-01

    The spatial and seasonal distribution of microcrustacean zooplankton of Lake Tana (Ethiopia) was monthly studied for 2 years. Concurrently, various environmental parameters were measured and related to zooplankton distribution. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to estimate the influen

  15. A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari: Hydrachnidia, Hygrobatidae from Ethiopia, with a discussion on the biodiversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region

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    Vladimir Pesic

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Atractides Koch, 1837 (Acari, Hydrachnidia is described from Ethiopia. The world number of Atractides now tallies 297 species. The diversity of the genus Atractides in the Afrotropical region is briefly discussed.

  16. Establishing fuelwood plantation and fire wood tree crop performance on the highlands of Ethiopia: The case of Eucalyptus globulus Labill.ssp globulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehari, A.

    1997-11-01

    This study reviews reasons for the establishment of fuelwood plantation and use of fuelwood in Ethiopia. The present and future status of fire wood and the environmental degradation and related consequences are also reviewed. 138 refs, 22 figs, 6 tabs

  17. Immunological and hematological reference intervals among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia

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    Genetu M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meaza Genetu,1 Debasu Damtie,1 Meseret Workineh,1 Biniam Mathewos Tebeje,1,2 Bamlaku Enawgaw,3 Tekalign Deressa1 1Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia; 2Molecular Parasitology Laboratory, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Australia; 3Department of Hematology and Immunohematology, School of Biomedical and Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Science, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Background: Pregnancy is a state characterized by profound physiological hematological changes. However, hematological reference intervals being used in clinical practice in Ethiopia are derived from nonlocal general populations, despite the significant variations reported previously. The aim of this study was to determine the immunological and hematological reference intervals in healthy pregnancy among HIV-seronegative pregnant women in northwest Ethiopia.Materials and methods: A total of 200 healthy, HIV-seronegative pregnant women were enrolled from February 2015 to June 2015 in a cross-sectional study setting at Gondar University Hospital. Sociodemographic and obstetric data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Blood samples collected from each participant were used to define the immunological and hematological parameters. The mean, median, and 95% interval values were calculated for the immunological and hematological parameters. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant for all variables.Results: This study found that there were changes in CD4+ T-cell count, platelet count, and hematocrit (HCT values as pregnancy advances. The calculated combined reference intervals for the absolute CD4+ T-cell count and platelet count were 712.47–760.67 and 221.25–240.14, respectively. A progressive decline in the platelet count was observed as pregnancy advanced, with 95

  18. Assessment of prescribing, dispensing, and patient use pattern of antihypertensive drugs for patients attending outpatient department of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Harar, Eastern Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrala F; Gabriel T

    2015-01-01

    Fedila Shukrala,1 Tesfaye Gabriel2 1Dil Chora Referral Hospital, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia; 2Department of Pharmaceutics and Social Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Hypertension is a global concern and is one of the key preventable risk factors for cardiovascular events, resulting in unnecessary morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to assess the prescribing, dispensing and patient use pattern of antih...

  19. Reproductive and Obstetric Factors Are Key Predictors of Maternal Anemia during Pregnancy in Ethiopia: Evidence from Demographic and Health Survey (2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Taddese Alemu; Melaku Umeta

    2015-01-01

    Anemia is a major public health problem worldwide. In Ethiopia, a nationally representative and consistent evidence is lacking on the prevalence and determinants during pregnancy. We conducted an in-depth analysis of demographic and health survey for the year 2011 which is a representative data collected from all regions in Ethiopia. Considering maternal anemia as an outcome variable, predicting variables from sociodemographic, household, and reproductive/obstetric characteristics were identi...

  20. Factors Associated with Anemia among Children Aged 6–23 Months Attending Growth Monitoring at Tsitsika Health Center, Wag-Himra Zone, Northeast Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Haile Woldie; Yigzaw Kebede; Amare Tariku

    2015-01-01

    Background. Globally, about 47.4% of children under five are suffering from anemia. In Ethiopia, 60.9% of children under two years are suffering from anemia. Anemia during infancy and young childhood period is associated with poor health and impaired cognitive development, leading to reduced academic achievement and earnings potential in their adulthood life. However, there is scarcity of information showing the magnitude of iron deficiency anemia among young children in Ethiopia. Therefore, ...