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Sample records for words qualitative study

  1. In Their Own Words: A Qualitative Study of the Reasons Australian University Students Plagiarize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Marcia; Gray, Kathleen

    2007-01-01

    The ways in which universities and individual academics attempt to deter and respond to student plagiarism may be based on untested assumptions about particular or primary reasons for this behaviour. Using a series of group interviews, this qualitative study gathered the views of 56 Australian university students on the possible reasons for…

  2. In their own words: A qualitative study exploring influences on the food choices of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Michelle; Chivers, Paola; Farringdon, Fiona

    2018-06-11

    University students generally make independent decisions regarding food choices. Current research about knowledge of Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG), sources of nutrition information and influences on food choices for this group is scarce. Qualitative data was collected from gender separated focus groups comprising four female (n=31) and four male (n=18) to identify: knowledge of ADG, sources of nutrition information; factors that influence food choices; perceived relevant nutrition messages and how best to deliver them. Gaps in knowledge were identified particularly regarding number of serves and serving size for food groups. Social media was the most commonly reported source of knowledge. Social media was also a major influence on food choice due to its impact on body ideals. Current health promotion nutrition messages were perceived irrelevant given the focus on long-term health risks. Health and adhering to the ADG were not identified as important. The desire to look a particular way was the major influence on food choices. SO WHAT?: While there is an awareness of ADG, our participants made a deliberate decision not to follow them. This provides a challenge for developing relevant preventive health messages for this target audience. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis with Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Nideröst

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite some fragmentary references in the literature about qualitative methods, it is fairly unknown that Word can be successfully used for computer-aided Qualitative Data Analyses (QDA. Based on several Word standard operations, elementary QDA functions such as sorting data, code-and-retrieve and frequency counts can be realized. Word is particularly interesting for those users who wish to have first experiences with computer-aided analysis before investing time and money in a specialized QDA Program. The well-known standard software could also be an option for those qualitative researchers who usually work with word processing but have certain reservations towards computer-aided analysis. The following article deals with the most important requirements and options of Word for computer-aided QDA. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0202225

  4. These terrifying three words: A qualitative, mixed methods study of students' and mentors' understandings of 'fitness to practise'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock-Stuart, Elaine; MacLaren, Jessica; McLachlan, Alison; James, Christine

    2016-08-01

    There is little empirical published research pertaining to fitness to practise and pre-registration nursing students. Much of the existing fitness to practise literature focuses on medical students and there is a preponderance of literature reviews and descriptive or discursive papers. The multicentre study aimed to explore students' and mentor's understandings of fitness to practise processes in pre-registration nursing programmes. A qualitative study in the interpretive paradigm with interpretive analysis involving 6 focus groups and 4 face-to-face interviews with nursing students and mentors. Eleven Higher Education Institutions providing pre-registration nursing education in the UK. Data were collected January 2014-March 2015 following ethical approval. Purposive sampling was used to recruit mentors and nursing (but not midwifery) students from pre-registration nursing programmes at different stages of educational preparation. Qualitatively driven semi-structured focus groups (n=6) and interviews (n=4) were conducted with a total of 35 participants (17 pre-registration nursing students and 18 nursing mentors). Three themes identified from the student and mentor data are considered: Conceptualising Fitness to Practise; Good Health and Character; and Fear and Anxiety Surrounding Fitness to Practise Processes. Uncertainty about understandings of fitness to practise contributed to a pervasive fear among students and reluctance among mentors to raise concerns about a student's fitness to practise. Both students and mentors expressed considerable anxiety and engaged in catastrophic thinking about fitness to practise processes. Higher Education Institutes should reinforce to students that they are fit to practise the majority of the time and reduce the negative emotional loading of fitness to practise processes and highlight learning opportunities. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Illuminating trajectories of adolescent thriving and contribution through the words of youth: qualitative findings from the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberg, Rachel M; DeSouza, Lisette M; Warren, Amy E A; Lerner, Jacqueline V; Lerner, Richard M

    2014-06-01

    Theory and research in adolescent development have emphasized that contributing to self, others, and community is important to the success of society and predictive of positive youth and later adult development. Despite this emphasis, there is a lack of qualitative and youth-centered research exploring whether adolescents themselves value contribution as part of their daily lives or future goals. Understandings of contribution are, thus, limited in their generalizability. To lessen this gap, we implemented qualitative analyses of open-ended responses from youth in the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development. We addressed questions about what is meaningful to youth and about their future goals through descriptive and thematic analyses of responses from 56 youth (66% female) who participated in the 4-H Study in each of three grades (6, 9, and 12). Findings indicated that most youth in this study valued acts and/or ideologies of contribution at some point in their adolescence, and several were committed to facets of contribution across grades. The analyses also identified other aspects of these youth experiences (e.g., athletics, family relationships, and academic competencies) that were described as meaningful across adolescence. Findings are discussed in relationship to youth programming aimed at encouraging well-being and contribution in adolescence.

  6. Qualitative Case Study Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Introduction to Sociological Methods. 2nd ed. New York, McGraw-Hill 14. Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (2011) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative...The Art of Science. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage 19. GAO (1990) Case Study...Rinehart & Winston 39. Stake, R. E. (1994) Case Studies. In: Denzin , N. K. and Lincoln , Y. S. (eds.) Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, Sage

  7. A qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismail - [2010

    Methods: A descriptive qualitative study was carried out in Adami Tulu District of East Shoa Zone – the ... to enhance teaching learning at CBE sites and facilitate ..... on good nutrition”. ... not observing any misbehavior: “The behavior of the.

  8. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical decision task in which they should judge whether a two-character compound stimulus was a real word or not. Results showed that (1 emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicited similar P100 at the posteriors sites, (2 larger N170 was found for emotion-label words than for emotion-laden words at the occipital sites on the right hemisphere, and (3 negative emotion-label words elicited larger Late Positivity Complex (LPC on the right hemisphere than on the left hemisphere while such effect was not found for emotion-laden words and positive emotion-label words. The results indicate that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicit different cortical responses at both early (N170 and late (LPC stages. In addition, right hemisphere advantage for emotion-label words over emotion-laden words can be observed in certain time windows (i.e., N170 and LPC while fails to be detected in some other time window (i.e., P100. The implications of the current findings for future emotion research were discussed.

  9. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Chenggang; Meng, Yaxuan; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding) can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP) measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical decision task in which they should judge whether a two-character compound stimulus was a real word or not. Results showed that (1) emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicited similar P100 at the posteriors sites, (2) larger N170 was found for emotion-label words than for emotion-laden words at the occipital sites on the right hemisphere, and (3) negative emotion-label words elicited larger Late Positivity Complex (LPC) on the right hemisphere than on the left hemisphere while such effect was not found for emotion-laden words and positive emotion-label words. The results indicate that emotion-label words and emotion-laden words elicit different cortical responses at both early (N170) and late (LPC) stages. In addition, right hemisphere advantage for emotion-label words over emotion-laden words can be observed in certain time windows (i.e., N170 and LPC) while fails to be detected in some other time window (i.e., P100). The implications of the current findings for future emotion research were discussed.

  10. Situated Word Learning: Words of the Year (WsOY) and Social Studies Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heafner, Tina L.; Triplett, Nicholas; Handler, Laura; Massey, Dixie

    2018-01-01

    Current events influence public interest and drive Internet word searches. For over a decade, linguists and dictionary publishers have analyzed big data from Internet word searches to designate "Words of the Year" (WsOY). In this study, we examine how WsOY can foster critical digital literacy and illuminate essential aspects of inquiry…

  11. Knowledge inhibition and N400: a study with words that look like common words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debruille, J B

    1998-04-01

    In addition to their own representations, low frequency words, such as BRIBE, can covertly activate the representations of higher frequency words they look like (e.g., BRIDE). Hence, look-alike words can activate knowledge that is incompatible with the knowledge corresponding to accurate representations. Comparatively, eccentric words, that is, low frequency words that do not look as much like higher frequency words, are less likely to activate incompatible knowledge. This study focuses on the hypothesis that the N400 component of the event-related potential reflects the inhibition of incompatible knowledge. This hypothesis predicts that look-alike words elicit N400s of greater amplitudes than eccentric words in conditions where incompatible knowledge is inhibited. Results from a single item lexical decision experiment are reported which support the inhibition hypothesis. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  12. Different Neural Correlates of Emotion-Label Words and Emotion-Laden Words: An ERP Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Juan; Wu, Chenggang; Meng, Yaxuan; Yuan, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    It is well-documented that both emotion-label words (e.g., sadness, happiness) and emotion-laden words (e.g., death, wedding) can induce emotion activation. However, the neural correlates of emotion-label words and emotion-laden words recognition have not been examined. The present study aimed to compare the underlying neural responses when processing the two kinds of words by employing event-related potential (ERP) measurements. Fifteen Chinese native speakers were asked to perform a lexical...

  13. Longitudinal changes in quantitative and qualitative indicators of word and story recall in young-old and old-old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, B J; Dixon, R A; Hultsch, D F; Hertzog, C

    1999-03-01

    The present study examined longitudinal changes in quantitative and qualitative measures of episodic memory. The sample, taken from the Victoria Longitudinal Study, consisted of 158 young-old adults (initially 55 to 70 years old) and 84 old-old adults (initially 71 to 86 years old) who were tested three times over six years. Average word and text recall, as well as five indicators of qualitative aspects of word recall (e.g., number of categories recalled) and one indicator of structure of text recall (i.e., levels of information) were used. For word recall, although both age groups exhibited negative longitudinal changes in quantitative performance, overall qualitative performance was generally stable. Two qualitative indicators (number of categories and intrusions) showed modest decline and one (organization at recall) showed improvement. Results for overall text recall showed significant performance increments for the young-old group, whereas the old-old group exhibited slight declines in overall performance. Analyses of qualitative measures showed stable structure of hierarchical recall, with the old-old being impaired at all levels of detail in the stories. Overall results suggest that some underlying structural characteristics of word and text recall may be maintained into late life even when significant overall decline is observed.

  14. The Study of Synonymous Word "Mistake"

    OpenAIRE

    Suwardi, Albertus

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the synonymous word "mistake*.The discussion will also cover the meaning of 'word' itself. Words can be considered as form whether spoken or written, or alternatively as composite expression, which combine and meaning. Synonymous are different phonological words which have the same or very similar meanings. The synonyms of mistake are error, fault, blunder, slip, slipup, gaffe and inaccuracy. The data is taken from a computer program. The procedure of data collection is...

  15. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nineteen interviews with doctors working at different public and private hospitals in. Islamabad and ... problems due to polypharmacy, overuse of antibiotics ... Study design. A qualitative ..... drug selection, procurement and dispensing he is the ...

  16. a qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    what I have already read). • I wake up at night when everyone is asleep and read my books precisely around 4am and stop by 6am to carry out my house chores. I spend every two hours at night to study my books . If I read in a noisy environment, I hardly understand, so I try to avoid such places . • A night to my examination, ...

  17. Learning word meanings: Overnight integration and study modality effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, F. van der; Takashima, A.; Segers, P.C.J.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2015-01-01

    According to the complementary learning systems (CLS) account of word learning, novel words are rapidly acquired (learning system 1), but slowly integrated into the mental lexicon (learning system 2). This two-step learning process has been shown to apply to novel word forms. In this study, we

  18. Predicting Word Reading Ability: A Quantile Regression Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlraith, Autumn L.

    2018-01-01

    Predictors of early word reading are well established. However, it is unclear if these predictors hold for readers across a range of word reading abilities. This study used quantile regression to investigate predictive relationships at different points in the distribution of word reading. Quantile regression analyses used preschool and…

  19. A Qualitative Study from Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore medical practitioners' perceptions towards irrational malaria treatment practices in Pakistan. Methods: A qualitative study was designed to explore the perceptions of medical practitioners regarding antimalarial prescribing practices in two major cities of Pakistan, namely, Islamabad (national capital) and ...

  20. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  1. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5170738.

  2. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Benavides-Varela

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants’ ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1 and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2. We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth.

  3. Learning word order at birth: A NIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Gervain, Judit

    2017-06-01

    In language, the relative order of words in sentences carries important grammatical functions. However, the developmental origins and the neural correlates of the ability to track word order are to date poorly understood. The current study therefore investigates the origins of infants' ability to learn about the sequential order of words, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with newborn infants. We have conducted two experiments: one in which a word order change was implemented in 4-word sequences recorded with a list intonation (as if each word was a separate item in a list; list prosody condition, Experiment 1) and one in which the same 4-word sequences were recorded with a well-formed utterance-level prosodic contour (utterance prosody condition, Experiment 2). We found that newborns could detect the violation of the word order in the list prosody condition, but not in the utterance prosody condition. These results suggest that while newborns are already sensitive to word order in linguistic sequences, prosody appears to be a stronger cue than word order for the identification of linguistic units at birth. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. QUALITATIVE METHODS IN CREATIVITY STUDIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Frederik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we will focus on developing a qualitative research design suitable for conducting case study in creativity. The case is a team of workers (See Hertel, 2015) doing industrial cleaning in the Danish food industry. The hypothesis is that these workers are both participating in......-specific methods, involving a discussion of creativity test, divergent and convergent thinking, for studying creativity in this specific setting. Beside from that we will develop a research design involving a combination of methods necessary for conducting a case study in the setting mentioned....

  5. SAIL: A Framework for Promoting Next-Generation Word Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganske, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces SAIL, an instructional framework designed to help teachers optimize students' learning during small-group word study instruction. Small-group word study interactions afford opportunities for teachers to engage students in thinking, talking, advancing vocabulary knowledge (including general academic vocabulary), and making…

  6. Making Qualitative Studies Talk back

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wentzer, Helle

    2006-01-01

    care services. Visions of shared use of (electronic) data for administrative purposes, for research purposes and for performing daily health care services push the IT-development and challenges the understanding of what health care work actually is. The Achilles of ICT-mediated health care...... that qualitative studies of user-reception can inform system design and IT-development in health care. Method: The framework of analysing user-reception of IT-systems was developed on the background of an evaluation study of ICT-implementation in primary health care (Wentzer, Bygholm 2001). High standardisation...

  7. Qualitative Studies in Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarker, Suprateek; Xiao, Xiao; Beaulieu, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    The authors discuss a review of qualitative papers on information systems (IS) published in various journals between 2001 and 2012. They explain trends related to qualitative research in the chosen journals and the key anatomical components of a qualitative research manuscript, including...

  8. Orthographic Facilitation in Chinese Spoken Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lijuan; Desroches, Amy S.; Liu, Youyi; Xia, Zhichao; Shu, Hua

    2012-01-01

    Orthographic influences in spoken word recognition have been previously examined in alphabetic languages. However, it is unknown whether orthographic information affects spoken word recognition in Chinese, which has a clean dissociation between orthography (O) and phonology (P). The present study investigated orthographic effects using event…

  9. [A study on English loan words in French plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, E; Tegelberg, E

    2014-10-01

    The French language is less and less used as an international scientific language and many French researchers publish their work in English. Nowadays, Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique is the only international plastic surgical journal published completely in French. The use of English loan words in French plastic surgery has never been studied. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of English loan words in French plastic surgery. A corpus consisting of all the articles in a number of Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthethique, chosen by default, was created. The frequency of English loan words was calculated and the types of words were analysed. The corpus contains 367 (0.8%) English loan words. Most of them are non-integrated loan words and calques. The majority of the plastic surgical loan words describe surgical techniques. The French plastic surgical language seems to be influenced by English. The usage of loan words does not always follow the recommendations and the usage is sometimes ambiguous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Forgetting emotional and neutral words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Karen R; Nielsen, Maria Kragh; Holmes, Amanda

    2013-03-21

    Previous research has demonstrated that emotional material is more likely to be remembered than neutral material (Hamann, 2001). The present study employed the item-method of directed forgetting in order to examine whether emotionally negative words are not only easier to remember, but also harder to forget. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were additionally measured in order to investigate the processes of selective rehearsal and active inhibition in directed forgetting. The results demonstrated directed forgetting effects for both neutral and negative words, with a stronger effect for negative items. Late positive potentials (LPPs) for 'to-be-remembered' (TBR) relative to 'to-be-forgotten' (TBF) cues were enhanced when the cues followed negative in comparison to neutral words, indicating the greater selective rehearsal of TBR negative items. Frontal positivities to TBF relative to TBR cues were not modulated by word valence, indicating that inhibitory processes were unaffected by emotion. Taken together, the present research demonstrates for the first time that, not only are emotionally negative words prone to the same directed forgetting effects as neutral words, but that these effects are in fact enhanced for negative words and due to increased selective rehearsal of TBR negative items. The discrepancies between the present findings and those of previous studies are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. When Assessment Data Are Words: Validity Evidence for Qualitative Educational Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David A; Kuper, Ayelet; Hatala, Rose; Ginsburg, Shiphra

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative scores fail to capture all important features of learner performance. This awareness has led to increased use of qualitative data when assessing health professionals. Yet the use of qualitative assessments is hampered by incomplete understanding of their role in forming judgments, and lack of consensus in how to appraise the rigor of judgments therein derived. The authors articulate the role of qualitative assessment as part of a comprehensive program of assessment, and translate the concept of validity to apply to judgments arising from qualitative assessments. They first identify standards for rigor in qualitative research, and then use two contemporary assessment validity frameworks to reorganize these standards for application to qualitative assessment.Standards for rigor in qualitative research include responsiveness, reflexivity, purposive sampling, thick description, triangulation, transparency, and transferability. These standards can be reframed using Messick's five sources of validity evidence (content, response process, internal structure, relationships with other variables, and consequences) and Kane's four inferences in validation (scoring, generalization, extrapolation, and implications). Evidence can be collected and evaluated for each evidence source or inference. The authors illustrate this approach using published research on learning portfolios.The authors advocate a "methods-neutral" approach to assessment, in which a clearly stated purpose determines the nature of and approach to data collection and analysis. Increased use of qualitative assessments will necessitate more rigorous judgments of the defensibility (validity) of inferences and decisions. Evidence should be strategically sought to inform a coherent validity argument.

  12. Hantavirus Outbreak: The Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: In this study, it was aimed to research by means of qualitative research methods the contact of individuals living in the region with mice and wild animals during the examination of Hantavirus epidemic to produce. Materials and Methods: In the interviews, the contact of participants with mice and wild animals, their opinions about the climate change and their symptom history pertaining to Hantavirus infections in themselves or relatives were discussed. Results: The participants stated that they didn’t see any mouse or mouse excretion, however that they encountered such cases in areas such as woodbin, roof, terrace, forest, etc. all interviews, the increase in the number of wild boars and jackals was especially stated. In all interviews, it was stated that this year was more rainy and warmer compared to previous years. Conclusion: The findings of the study give the impression that the participant group is under the risk of Hantavirus infection. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 81-86

  13. Sample size in qualitative interview studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit Kristiane

    2016-01-01

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is “saturation.” Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose...... the concept “information power” to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power...... and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed....

  14. Qualitative Case Study Research as Empirical Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Andrea D.; McWhorter, Rochell

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of qualitative case study research as empirical inquiry. It defines and distinguishes what a case study is, the purposes, intentions, and types of case studies. It then describes how to determine if a qualitative case study is the preferred approach for conducting research. It overviews the essential steps in…

  15. Mathematical Tasks without Words and Word Problems: Perceptions of Reluctant Problem Solvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbert, Sydney Margaret

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative research study used a multiple, holistic case study approach (Yin, 2009) to explore the perceptions of reluctant problem solvers related to mathematical tasks without words and word problems. Participants were given a choice of working a mathematical task without words or a word problem during four problem-solving sessions. Data…

  16. Readers Theatre plus Comprehension and Word Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Chase; Stokes, Faida; Rasinski, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Readers Theatre has been used to introduce critical issues, promote fluency among English learners and non-English learners, teach vocabulary, and integrate content in the classroom. Previous studies of Readers Theatre application have demonstrated an increase in student reading fluency, motivation, and confidence. The focus of this systemic…

  17. Qualitative research in travel behavior studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mars Aicart, M.L.; Ruiz Sanchez, T.; Arroyo Lopez, M.R.

    2016-07-01

    Qualitative methodology is extensively used in a wide range of scientific areas, such as Sociology and Psychology, and it is been used to study individual and household decision making processes. However, in the Transportation Planning and Engineering domain it is still infrequent to find in the travel behavior literature studies using qualitative techniques to explore activity-travel decisions. The aim of this paper is first, to provide an overview of the types of qualitative techniques available and to explore how to correctly implement them. Secondly, to highlight the special characteristics of qualitative methods that make them appropriate to study activity-travel decision processes. Far from been an unempirical or intuitive methodology, using qualitative methods properly implies a strong foundation on theoretical frameworks, a careful design of data collection and a deep data analysis. For such a purpose, a review of the scarce activity-travel behavior literature using qualitative methods, or a combination of qualitative and quantitative approaches, is presented. The use of qualitative techniques can play a role of being a supplementary way of obtaining information related to activity-travel decisions which otherwise it would be extremely difficult to find. This work ends with some conclusions about how qualitative research could help in making progress on activity-travel behavior studies. (Author)

  18. Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorthe; Huniche, Lotte; Brixen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2012 Handling knowledge on osteoporosis - a qualitative study The aim of this qualitative study was to increase understanding of the importance of osteoporosis information and knowledge for patients' ways of handling osteoporosis in their everyday lives. Interviews were...

  19. Qualitative analysis in reliability and safety studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worrell, R.B.; Burdick, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    The qualitative evaluation of system logic models is described as it pertains to assessing the reliability and safety characteristics of nuclear systems. Qualitative analysis of system logic models, i.e., models couched in an event (Boolean) algebra, is defined, and the advantages inherent in qualitative analysis are explained. Certain qualitative procedures that were developed as a part of fault-tree analysis are presented for illustration. Five fault-tree analysis computer-programs that contain a qualitative procedure for determining minimal cut sets are surveyed. For each program the minimal cut-set algorithm and limitations on its use are described. The recently developed common-cause analysis for studying the effect of common-causes of failure on system behavior is explained. This qualitative procedure does not require altering the fault tree, but does use minimal cut sets from the fault tree as part of its input. The method is applied using two different computer programs. 25 refs

  20. Narrative-Based Intervention for Word-Finding Difficulties: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ian; Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Children with word-finding difficulties manifest a high frequency of word-finding characteristics in narrative, yet word-finding interventions have concentrated on single-word treatments and outcome measures. Aims: This study measured the effectiveness of a narrative-based intervention in improving single-word picture-naming and…

  1. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies and "unrelated" qualitative studies contributed to complex intervention reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jane; Hendry, Margaret; Lewin, Simon; Glenton, Claire; Chandler, Jackie; Rashidian, Arash

    2016-06-01

    To compare the contribution of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies in complex intervention reviews. Researchers are using qualitative "trial-sibling" studies undertaken alongside trials to provide explanations to understand complex interventions. In the absence of qualitative "trial-sibling" studies, it is not known if qualitative studies "unrelated" to trials are helpful. Trials, "trial-sibling," and "unrelated" qualitative studies looking at three health system interventions were identified. We looked for similarities and differences between the two types of qualitative studies, such as participants, intervention delivery, context, study quality and reporting, and contribution to understanding trial results. Reporting was generally poor in both qualitative study types. We detected no substantial differences in participant characteristics. Interventions in qualitative "trial-sibling" studies were delivered using standardized protocols, whereas interventions in "unrelated" qualitative studies were delivered in routine care. Qualitative "trial-sibling" studies alone provided insufficient data to develop meaningful transferrable explanations beyond the trial context, and their limited focus on immediate implementation did not address all phenomena of interest. Together, "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies provided larger, richer data sets across contexts to better understand the phenomena of interest. Findings support inclusion of "trial-sibling" and "unrelated" qualitative studies to explore complexity in complex intervention reviews. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Qualitative Parameters of Practice during University Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiunaitiene, Egle; Norkute, Odeta

    2011-01-01

    In this article, relevance of practice during university studies is highlighted, as well as the main stages of its organisation, qualitative parameters, as well as criteria and indicators that validate them are defined. Discussion on the idea that taking into consideration qualitative parameters of organising practice as a component of studies…

  3. Musical Cognition at Birth: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefer, Michal; Weintraub, Zalman; Cohen, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes research on newborns' responses to music. Video observation and electroencephalogram (EEG) were collected to see whether newborns' responses to random sounds differed from their responses to music. The data collected were subjected to both qualitative and quantitative analysis. This paper will focus on the qualitative study,…

  4. Study on the application of fuzzy words in advertising language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晋芳

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays,to impress and entice consumers more effectively,fuzzy words are naturally adopted by advertisers in language of advertising.1.Introduction In the contemporary society,advertising may be regarded as an indispensable element of our culture because it affects every aspect of our daily life.So,there is an urgent need for the systematical study

  5. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    The combined use of case study and systems theory is rarely discussed in the ... Scott, 2002), the main benefit of doing qualitative research is the patience ..... Teaching ICT to teacher candidates ... English Language Teachers. London: Arnold.

  6. Manipulating Objects and Telling Words: A Study on Concrete and Abstract Words Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M.; Flumini, Andrea; Cimatti, Felice; Marocco, Davide; Scorolli, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments (E1–E2–E3–E4) investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the words as tools (WAT) proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (Training 1). In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (Training 2); labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST 2). Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1); even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2). TEST 3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2–E3–E4, TEST 3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard–microphone) responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed. PMID:21716582

  7. In their own words: the value of qualitative research to improve the care of children with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Camilla S; Craig, Jonathan C; Tong, Allison

    2017-09-01

    Patient- and family-centered care is hailed as a hallmark of high-quality pediatric care. This partnership between patients, families and their healthcare providers is central to caring for children with chronic kidney disease (CKD), given the long-term and profound impact of the disease and its treatment on the development and quality of life of these children. This paradigm hinges on a comprehensive and detailed understanding of the needs, beliefs and values of children with CKD and their families. However, their perspectives may remain undisclosed during time-limited clinical consultations and because of beliefs that if they did disclose their concerns, their care would be jeopardized. Qualitative research provides an avenue for children and families to articulate their perspectives and experiences and thereby to generate relevant, in-depth and often compelling insights to inform care. Yet, qualitative studies remain sparse in biomedical journals. Increasing both our awareness of the role of qualitative research in improving care and outcomes for children and adolescents with CKD and our understanding of the conduct and rigor of qualitative studies is required. This article will outline how qualitative research can generate relevant evidence to inform practice and policy in children with CKD, provide an overview of qualitative methods and introduce a framework to appraise qualitative research. More evidence derived from qualitative research is needed to inform shared decision-making and the development of interventions and policies that address the preferences and priorities of children with CKD and their families. Ultimately, this strategy may help to improve the outcomes that they regard as critical to their care.

  8. Word segmentation in children’s literacy: a study about word awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Mattos Marques; Aline Lorandi

    2016-01-01

    The present research aimed to investigate how linguistic awareness regarding the concept of “word” may influence some mistakes on segmenting words in children’s writing in the Elementary School. The observed data comprised those of hyper and hyposegmentation which were then related to word awareness. For the analysis of linguistic awareness data, the Representational Redescription, proposed by Karmillof-Smith (1986-1992), has been used. It postulates four levels where knowledge is redescri...

  9. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  10. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  11. "What Do These Words Mean?": A Qualitative Approach to Explore Oral Health Literacy in Vietnamese Immigrant Mothers in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Amit; Nguyen, Deon; Do, Quang Vinh; Nguyen, Bao; Hilton, Glen; Do, Loc Giang; Bhole, Sameer

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study, nested within a large cohort study, sought to explore how well Vietnamese mothers with pre-school children understood the dental health education material commonly available in New South Wales, Australia. Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Home-based interviews. Method: Vietnamese-speaking mothers ("n" = 24)…

  12. Word segmentation in children’s literacy: a study about word awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Mattos Marques

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present research aimed to investigate how linguistic awareness regarding the concept of “word” may influence some mistakes on segmenting words in children’s writing in the Elementary School. The observed data comprised those of hyper and hyposegmentation which were then related to word awareness. For the analysis of linguistic awareness data, the Representational Redescription, proposed by Karmillof-Smith (1986-1992, has been used. It postulates four levels where knowledge is redescribed in the human mind, becoming accessible for awareness and verbalization along with the time. The research methodology consisted of six tests, out of which four were applied in order to verify word awareness, and, the other two tests, to obtain samples of writing data. Thus, it was noticed that a great part of the segmentation mistakes identified in the collected writings are related to the informants' ability to distinguish between different words until the moment they were observed. As a result, the uncommon segmentation mistakes found in the analyzed data evidenced that not only are they motivated by prosodic or phonological matters, but they are also influenced by linguistic awareness issues involving the informants’ understanding of word.

  13. More than Words in a Text: Learning to Conduct Qualitative Research in the Midst of a Major Life Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Victoria C.

    2016-01-01

    The process of becoming a qualitative researcher is fraught with challenges that are not always knowable prior to engaging in research. Coursework, reading, discussions, and writing about the process provide a foundation but cannot replace the experiential value of engaging in research. This autobiographical intrinsic case study describes the…

  14. The embodiment of emotional words in a second language: An eye-movement study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Naveed A; Titone, Debra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that word representations are emotionally impoverished in a second language (L2) has variable support. However, this hypothesis has only been tested using tasks that present words in isolation or that require laboratory-specific decisions. Here, we recorded eye movements for 34 bilinguals who read sentences in their L2 with no goal other than comprehension, and compared them to 43 first language readers taken from our prior study. Positive words were read more quickly than neutral words in the L2 across first-pass reading time measures. However, this emotional advantage was absent for negative words for the earliest measures. Moreover, negative words but not positive words were influenced by concreteness, frequency and L2 proficiency in a manner similar to neutral words. Taken together, the findings suggest that only negative words are at risk of emotional disembodiment during L2 reading, perhaps because a positivity bias in L2 experiences ensures that positive words are emotionally grounded.

  15. Doing Qualitative Studies, Using Statistical Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Tore; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative studies are associated with interviews, focus groups and observations. We introduce experiments as a way of dealing with such studies. In contrast to the common focus on how many respondents choose a particular behaviour we focus on how much a design affect the individual. This is often...

  16. A Qualitative Ethnographic Portrait of Women's Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, Julee L.

    2013-01-01

    In this research study, I sought to understand and describe the Women's and Gender Studies (WGS) Program at Berea College by exploring it through the experiences of students, faculty, administrators, and alumnae. I designed and implemented a feminist organizational ethnography. Organizational ethnography is a naturalistic, qualitative research…

  17. Object Permanence and Relational Words: A Lexical Training Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Farrar, Michael Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Describes a lexical training program developed to teach object, visible movement, and invisible movement words to children at stage 5 (N=7) and stage 6 (N=16) object permanence development. Stage 6 children learned all three types of words equally well, while stage 5 children learned object and visible movement but not invisible movement words.…

  18. a qualitative study of grandparents' experiences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grandparents are increasingly becoming the primary carers of children orphaned by the HIV epidemic in South Africa. Traditional family roles are being reversed as aging family members take responsibility for the physical and psychosocial needs of children. This study uses qualitative research to explore the experiences of ...

  19. a qualitative study of providers' perspectives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Glaucoma management is challenging to patients as well as to the eye care providers.The study is aimed at describing the challenges faced by providers using qualitative methods. Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with selected Ophthalmologists and resident doctors in ophthalmology at centres ...

  20. Comparison Study of the Stuttered Words Type in Stuttering Children and Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mokhlessin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Since knowing the mechanisms which evoke non-fluency is the first step in the treatment of stuttering, and there are very few researches in Persian which consider the role of the linguistic factors behind stuttering, this study is an attempt to provide answers to some of numerous questions about stuttering by comparing the stuttered words` type in stuttered children and adults. Materials and Methods: In this study stuttered people were divided into 5 age groups as follows: 3-6, 7-9, 10-12, 13-16, and older than 17 years old. Each group had ten participants. Forty-two of the 50 participants were male, and the youngest person was 3 years old and the eldest one was 32 years old. The study method involved recording at least 5 minuets of spontaneous speech of every one who was diagnosed of suffering from stuttering by two speech and language pathologists. The percent of non-fluency on every word's type was determined where a content word was followed or preceded by a function word (Function-Function-Content words and Function-Content words contexts. Then these findings were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: The results of this study show while function words are dominantly more stuttered than content words in children less than 13 years old in Function-Function-Content words context, we consider more disfluency on content words and second function word by getting old. We consider more stuttering on function words in children less that 13 years old in Function-Content words context too and increased non-fluency on content word by growing up. Results also show meaningful differences between the fifth group and others in the amount of stuttering on second function word in the Function-Function-Content words contexts and also between the first group and the others in amount of non-fluency both on function and content words in Function-Content words context. Conclusion: People who stutter from Farsi speakers

  1. Word-level prominence in Persian: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Vahid

    2017-12-01

    Previous literature on the phonetics of stress in Persian has reported that fundamental frequency is the only reliable acoustic correlate of stress, and that stressed and unstressed syllables are not differentiated from each other in the absence of accentuation. In this study, the effects of lexical stress on duration, overall intensity and spectral tilt were examined in Persian both in the accented and unaccented conditions. Results showed that syllable duration is consistently affected by stress in Persian in both the accented and unaccented conditions across all vowel types. Unlike duration, the results for overall intensity and spectral tilt were significant only in the accented condition, suggesting that measures of intensity are not a correlate of stress in Persian but they are mainly caused by the presence of a pitch movement. The findings are phonologically interpreted as suggesting that word-level prominence in Persian is typologically similar to 'stress accent' languages, in which multiple phonetic cues are used to signal the prominence contrast in the accented condition, and stressed and unstressed syllables are different from each other even when the word is not pitch-accented.

  2. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  3. Leadership and adolescent girls: a qualitative study of leadership development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Michael A; Kennedy, Cara L

    2008-12-01

    This research investigated youth leadership experiences of adolescent girls who participated in a comprehensive feminist-based leadership program. This qualitative study utilized a grounded theory approach to understand changes that occurred in 10 female adolescent participants. The words of the participants revealed that initially they viewed leadership in traditional terms and were hesitant to identify themselves as leaders or to see themselves included within their concepts of leadership. Following the program their view of leadership expanded and diversified in a manner that allowed for inclusion of themselves within it. They spoke with greater strength and confidence and felt better positioned and inspired to act as leaders. Participants identified having examples of women leaders, adopting multiple concepts of leadership, and participating in an environment of mutual respect and trust as factors that contributed to their expanded conceptualization.

  4. Rigour in qualitative case-study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Shaw, David; Murphy, Kathy

    2013-03-01

    To provide examples of a qualitative multiple case study to illustrate the specific strategies that can be used to ensure the credibility, dependability, confirmability and transferability of a study. There is increasing recognition of the valuable contribution qualitative research can make to nursing knowledge. However, it is important that the research is conducted in a rigorous manner and that this is demonstrated in the final research report. A multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Multiple sources of evidence were collected: semi-structured interviews (n=58), non-participant observations at five sites and documentary sources. Strategies to ensure the rigour of this research were prolonged engagement and persistent observation, triangulation, peer debriefing, member checking, audit trail, reflexivity, and thick descriptions. Practical examples of how these strategies can be implemented are provided to guide researchers interested in conducting rigorous case study research. While the flexible nature of qualitative research should be embraced, strategies to ensure rigour must be in place.

  5. The art of preceptorship. A qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina; Finderup, Jeanette; Brahe, Lotte

    2017-01-01

    was to investigate how preceptorship can be used in clinical practice to create learning and facilitate competence development. A qualitative study guided by a hermeneutic phenomenological approach and inspired by ethnographic fieldwork included 28 participant observations and 58 interviews. Data were analysed...... performed nursing together to obtain skills focusing on independence, practical skills and communication. Getting along together: Preceptee and preceptor together focused on the patient, relation, comfort and managing how to keep the balance between a professional and a personal relation. Precepetorship...

  6. Parenting Coordinators' Practices Recommendations: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Barbara Phyllis

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study used a phenomenological approach to understand the experiences of seven parenting coordinators in using parenting coordination practices that they have found to be effective and would recommend to other parenting coordinators to achieve the following goals: educating parents, increasing the quality of parenting and co-parenting, managing conflict, and involving children and other family members in the process of parenting coordination. Data were collected with semi-str...

  7. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  8. National Study of Word Processing Installations in Selected Business Organizations. A Report on the National Word Processing Research Study of Delta Pi Epsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene D.; And Others

    A study was conducted (1) to determine current practices in word processing installations in selected organizations throughout the United States, and (2) to ascertain anticipated future developments in word processing as well as to provide recommendations for educational institutions that prepare workers for business offices. Seven interview…

  9. A Systematic Review of Research Strategies Used in Qualitative Studies on School Bullying and Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Desmond Upton; Hong, Jun Sung; Patel, Sadiq; Kral, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    School bullying and victimization are serious social problems in schools. Most empirical studies on bullying and peer victimization are quantitative and examine the prevalence of bullying, associated risk and protective factors, and negative outcomes. Conversely, there is limited qualitative research on the experiences of children and adolescents related to school bullying and victimization. We review qualitative research on school bullying and victimization published between 2004 and 2014. Twenty-four empirical research studies using qualitative methods were reviewed. We organize the findings from these studies into (1) emic, (2) context specific, (3) iterative, (4) power relations, and (5) naturalistic inquiry. We find that qualitative researchers have focused on elaborating on and explicating the experiences of bully perpetrators, victims, and bystanders in their own words. Directions for research and practice are also discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. A Corpus-Based Lexical Study on Frequency and Distribution of Coxhead's Awl Word Families in Medical Research Articles (RAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Guang-Chun, Ge

    2007-01-01

    We conducted a lexical study on the word frequency and the text coverage of the 570 word families from Coxhead's Academic Word List (AWL) in medical research articles (RAs) based on a corpus of 50 medical RAs written in English with 190425 running words. By computer analysis, we found that the text coverage of the AWL words accounted for around…

  11. In their own words: a synthesis of the qualitative research on the experiences of adults seeking asylum. A systematic review of qualitative findings in forced migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Thomas; Vidgen, Andrew; Roberts, Neil

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative research indicates that some forced migrants have mental health needs. Asylum seekers are a group of forced migrants applying for asylum status in a host country, and are often subject to rights restrictions and threat of deportation, though little is known about subjective experiences of the asylum journey and process of claiming asylum. The current paper therefore describes a systematic review of the qualitative literature, examining asylum seekers experiences of asylum journey, from country of origin, to arrival and adaptation to host countries. A search of four databases yielded 122 studies. Inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied and 15 studies were retained and critically appraised. The country where research was conducted, study aims, sample characteristics and methodological approaches were all critically reviewed for included studies. Study aims fell into four themes; 'an aspect of the asylum seeker journey'; 'psychological distress and wellbeing'; 'cultural identity and adaptation to new environment' and 'social welfare, employment and housing'. Studies were generally high quality and indicate issues around choice of asylum destination, distress created by uncertainty around asylum decision and hostile reactions of host communities. However, few studies have examined the experiences of asylum seekers specifically, which is important given the unique circumstances of this population.

  12. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    in grammatical descriptions of some 50 languages, which together constitute a representative sample of the world’s languages (Hengeveld et al. 2004: 529). It appears that there are both quantitative and qualitative differences between word class systems of individual languages. Whereas some languages employ...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...... – Adverb, because they have properties that are strongly associated with at least two of these four traditional word classes (e.g. Adjective and Adverb). Finally, this article discusses some of the ways in which word class distinctions interact with other grammatical domains, such as syntax and morphology....

  13. Reasons for Whistleblowing: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali BALTACI

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Whistleblowing has become a commonly encountered concept in recent times. Negative behaviors and actions can be experienced in any organization, and whistleblowing, as a communication process, is a kind of ethical behavior. Whistleblowing is the transmission of an unfavorable situation discovered in the organization to either internal or external authorities. An examination of the reasons for the employee’s whistleblowing is important for a better understanding of this concept; hence, this research focuses on the reasons for whistleblowing. In addition, the reasons for avoiding whistleblowing were also investigated. This research, which is designed as a qualitative study, is based on the phenomenological approach. Interviews were conducted with open-ended, semi-structured interview form in the study. The research was conducted on 20 teachers, 12 administrators, and 7 inspectors. The data were analyzed using the content analysis method. As a result of the research, the individual, organizational and social reasons for whistleblowing have been differentiated. Among the individual reasons for whistleblowing are the considerations of protecting and gaining interests. Organizational reasons include business ethics and the expectation of subsequent promotion. Social reasons encompass social benefits, social justice, and religious belief. Reasons for avoiding whistleblowing vary based on retaliation and worry. This research is considered important because as it is believed to be the first qualitative research to approach the reasons for whistleblowing. The results of this research have revealed gaps in the understanding of this area for future studies.

  14. Recognition memory for Braille or spoken words: an fMRI study in early blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J; Agato, Alvin

    2012-02-15

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5years. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied ("old") compared to novel ("new") words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified "new" words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken "new" words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with "old"/"new" recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to "old" words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to "new" Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for "new" words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering "old" words. A larger response when identifying "new" words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of "old" words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a "sensory echo" that aids recollection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

    2012-01-01

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were larger in bilateral primary and accessory auditory cortex. Auditory cortex was unresponsive to Braille words and occipital cortex responded to spoken words but not differentially with “old”/“new” recognition. Left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex had larger responses to “old” words only with Braille. Larger occipital cortex responses to “new” Braille words suggested verbal memory based on the mechanism of recollection. A previous report in sighted noted larger responses for “new” words studied in association with pictures that created a distinctiveness heuristic source factor which enhanced recollection during remembering. Prior behavioral studies in early blind noted an exceptional ability to recall words. Utilization of this skill by participants in the current study possibly engendered recollection that augmented remembering “old” words. A larger response when identifying “new” words possibly resulted from exhaustive recollecting the sensory properties of “old” words in modality appropriate sensory cortices. The uniqueness of a memory role for occipital cortex is in its cross-modal responses to coding tactile properties of Braille. The latter possibly reflects a “sensory echo” that aids recollection. PMID:22251836

  16. Views of Nursing Students about Reflection: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrzieh Moattari

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The phenomenon of knowledge explosion has led teachers to feel the necessity of training students so that they become reflective thinkers. This issue is particularly important for nursing students who are responsible for providing care for patients. The purpose ofthis study is exploration of nursing students’ views on reflection on practice.Methods: Twenty senior nursing students participated in this study. They were asked to reflect on their clinical experiences for 10 weeks of their final clinical course. They were also asked to write their reflection in their weekly journals. The journals were studied by the researcher and appropriatefeedback was given to the student regarding their reflective writing. At the end of the clinical course, they were divided into 2 groups to participate in 2 separate focus group session and to discuss the issues regarding 9 proposed open – ended questions. The students’ responses were tape – recorded and a transcript was made and analyzed qualitatively. The data were coded and categorized. Then each category was named to elicit the related constructs.Results: Qualitative data analysis showed that refection as a learning strategy has impact on 5 different elements of teaching learning process: caring, thinking, theory practice integration, selfregulatory mechanisms and motivation.Conclusion: Nursing students evaluated their experience on reflection on practice as an effective and valuable strategy. They believe that reflection through 5 different but related elements make them to consolidate their learning and plan their future experiences. Four out of the five emergedconstructs in this study are very similar to elements of cyclic learning proposed by Kolb (1984 and are capable of being integrated into experiential learning cycle. Motivation can be integrated into this cycle. Based on the result of this study reflection is suggested to be integrated in Iranian nursing curriculum

  17. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. Methods A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Results Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In ‘the peripheral’ model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In ‘the add-on’ model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally ‘the integral’ model played out in two ways. In ‘integral-in-theory’ studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In ‘integral-in-practice’ studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due

  18. Getting added value from using qualitative research with randomized controlled trials: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Goode, Jackie; Drabble, Sarah J; Thomas, Kate J; Rudolph, Anne; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-09

    Qualitative research is undertaken with randomized controlled trials of health interventions. Our aim was to explore the perceptions of researchers with experience of this endeavour to understand the added value of qualitative research to the trial in practice. A telephone semi-structured interview study with 18 researchers with experience of undertaking the trial and/or the qualitative research. Interviewees described the added value of qualitative research for the trial, explaining how it solved problems at the pretrial stage, explained findings, and helped to increase the utility of the evidence generated by the trial. From the interviews, we identified three models of relationship of the qualitative research to the trial. In 'the peripheral' model, the trial was an opportunity to undertake qualitative research, with no intention that it would add value to the trial. In 'the add-on' model, the qualitative researcher understood the potential value of the qualitative research but it was viewed as a separate and complementary endeavour by the trial lead investigator and wider team. Interviewees described how this could limit the value of the qualitative research to the trial. Finally 'the integral' model played out in two ways. In 'integral-in-theory' studies, the lead investigator viewed the qualitative research as essential to the trial. However, in practice the qualitative research was under-resourced relative to the trial, potentially limiting its ability to add value to the trial. In 'integral-in-practice' studies, interviewees described how the qualitative research was planned from the beginning of the study, senior qualitative expertise was on the team from beginning to end, and staff and time were dedicated to the qualitative research. In these studies interviewees described the qualitative research adding value to the trial although this value was not necessarily visible beyond the original research team due to the challenges of publishing this research

  19. Motivate Students to Engage in Word Study Using Vocabulary Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Jenny C.; Narkon, Drue E.

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary instruction across the content areas aids reading comprehension, making it time well spent in the classroom. Although students with learning disabilities (LD) need many practice opportunities to learn new words, engaging them in vocabulary instruction may prove challenging. Due to their past difficulties in acquiring reading skills,…

  20. What makes one spread the word online - A study on electronic word of mouth motivations on social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan, Santhya

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management The main focus of the study is to understand what motivates a person to give electronic word of mouth (eWOM) on social networking sites. With the increasing popularity of social networking sites, lots of consumers check these sites for reviews of products and services. Based on the literature review, a scale of motives that lead to giving eWOM by means of writing comments on social networking sites was developed. The study used ...

  1. Mind-life continuity: A qualitative study of conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito, Inês; Martins, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    There are two fundamental models to understanding the phenomenon of natural life. One is the computational model, which is based on the symbolic thinking paradigm. The other is the biological organism model. The common difficulty attributed to these paradigms is that their reductive tools allow the phenomenological aspects of experience to remain hidden behind yes/no responses (behavioral tests), or brain 'pictures' (neuroimaging). Hence, one of the problems regards how to overcome methodological difficulties towards a non-reductive investigation of conscious experience. It is our aim in this paper to show how cooperation between Eastern and Western traditions may shed light for a non-reductive study of mind and life. This study focuses on the first-person experience associated with cognitive and mental events. We studied phenomenal data as a crucial fact for the domain of living beings, which, we expect, can provide the ground for a subsequent third-person study. The intervention with Jhana meditation, and its qualitative assessment, provided us with experiential profiles based upon subjects' evaluations of their own conscious experiences. The overall results should move towards an integrated or global perspective on mind where neither experience nor external mechanisms have the final word. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Healing through prayer: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helming, Mary Blaszko

    2011-01-01

    A qualitative study using a semistructured interview process explored the experience of being healed through prayer in 20 participants from several Protestant Christian faith traditions. Five cluster themes and their subthemes were identified, such as Spirituality and Suffering (subthemes of Purpose of Suffering and Spiritual Meaning of Suffering); The Healing Experience (subthemes of Problems that Were Healed, Incomplete Healings or Recurrences, and Healing of Friends and Family Members); The Connecting Network of Prayer (subthemes of Connection to God, Connection to Others, Meaning of Prayer, Methods of Prayer, and Unanswered Prayer); Spiritual Transformation of Prayer (subthemes of Changed Lives and Sense of Purpose); and Spiritual Phenomena (subthemes of Sense of God's Presence, Use of Complementary and Alternative Practices, and Mysterious Phenomena).

  3. Arts on prescription: a qualitative outcomes study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Eades, M

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, participatory community-based arts activities have become a recognized and regarded method for promoting mental health. In the UK, Arts on Prescription services have emerged as a prominent form of such social prescribing. This follow-up study reports on the findings from interviews conducted with participants in an Arts on Prescription programme two years after previous interviews to assess levels of 'distance travelled'. This follow-up study used a qualitative interview method amongst participants of an Arts on Prescription programme of work. Ten qualitative one-to-one interviews were conducted in community-based arts venues. Each participant was currently using or had used mental health services, and had been interviewed two years earlier. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed. For each of the 10 participants, a lengthy attendance of Arts on Prescription had acted as a catalyst for positive change. Participants reported increased self-confidence, improved social and communication skills, and increased motivation and aspiration. An analysis of each of the claims made by participants enabled them to be grouped according to emerging themes: education: practical and aspirational achievements; broadened horizons: accessing new worlds; assuming and sustaining new identities; and social and relational perceptions. Both hard and soft outcomes were identifiable, but most were soft outcomes. Follow-up data indicating progress varied between respondents. Whilst hard outcomes could be identified in individual cases, the unifying factors across the sample were found predominately in the realm of soft outcomes. These soft outcomes, such as raised confidence and self-esteem, facilitated the hard outcomes such as educational achievement and voluntary work. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recognition Memory for Braille or Spoken Words: An fMRI study in Early Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Burton, Harold; Sinclair, Robert J.; Agato, Alvin

    2011-01-01

    We examined cortical activity in early blind during word recognition memory. Nine participants were blind at birth and one by 1.5 yrs. In an event-related design, we studied blood oxygen level-dependent responses to studied (“old”) compared to novel (“new”) words. Presentation mode was in Braille or spoken. Responses were larger for identified “new” words read with Braille in bilateral lower and higher tier visual areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Responses to spoken “new” words were la...

  5. Increasing adolescents' depth of understanding of cross-curriculum words: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Lowe, Hilary; Stackhouse, Joy

    2017-09-01

    There is some evidence that vocabulary intervention is effective for children, although further research is needed to confirm the impact of intervention within contexts of social disadvantage. Very little is known about the effectiveness of interventions to increase adolescent knowledge of cross-curriculum words. To evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention programme designed to develop adolescents' knowledge of cross-curriculum words. Participants were 35 adolescents aged between 12 and 14 years who were at risk of educational underachievement with low scores on a range of assessments. Participants received a 10-week intervention programme in small groups, targeting 10 cross-curriculum words (e.g., 'summarize'). This was evaluated using a bespoke outcome measure (the Word Knowledge Profile). The study involved an AABA design, with a repeated baseline, delayed intervention cohort and blind assessment. Intervention included both semantic and phonological information about the target words and involved the adolescents using the words in multiple contexts. Results were promising and participants' knowledge of the targeted words significantly increased following intervention. Progress was demonstrated on the Word Knowledge Profile on the item requiring participants to define the word (for the summer intervention group only). This increase in depth of knowledge was seen on taught words but not on matched non-taught words. Cross-curriculum words are not consistently understood by adolescents at risk of low educational attainment within a low socio-economic context. A 10-week intervention programme resulted in some increases to the depth of knowledge of targeted cross-curriculum words. © 2017 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  6. Is orthographic information from multiple parafoveal words processed in parallel: An eye-tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Michael G; Drieghe, Denis; Liversedge, Simon P

    2017-08-01

    In the current study we investigated whether orthographic information available from 1 upcoming parafoveal word influences the processing of another parafoveal word. Across 2 experiments we used the boundary paradigm (Rayner, 1975) to present participants with an identity preview of the 2 words after the boundary (e.g., hot pan ), a preview in which 2 letters were transposed between these words (e.g., hop tan ), or a preview in which the same 2 letters were substituted (e.g., hob fan ). We hypothesized that if these 2 words were processed in parallel in the parafovea then we may observe significant preview benefits for the condition in which the letters were transposed between words relative to the condition in which the letters were substituted. However, no such effect was observed, with participants fixating the words for the same amount of time in both conditions. This was the case both when the transposition was made between the final and first letter of the 2 words (e.g., hop tan as a preview of hot pan ; Experiment 1) and when the transposition maintained within word letter position (e.g., pit hop as a preview of hit pop ; Experiment 2). The implications of these findings are considered in relation to serial and parallel lexical processing during reading. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Perceptions of childhood immunization in a minority community: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Lesley; Millett, Christopher; Thorogood, Nicki

    2008-05-01

    To assess reasons for low uptake of immunization amongst orthodox Jewish families. Qualitative interviews with 25 orthodox Jewish mothers and 10 local health care workers. The orthodox Jewish community in North East London. Identification of views on immunization in the orthodox Jewish community. In a community assumed to be relatively insulated from direct media influence, word of mouth is nevertheless a potent source of rumours about vaccination dangers. The origins of these may lie in media scares that contribute to anxieties about MMR. At the same time, close community cohesion leads to a sense of relative safety in relation to tuberculosis, with consequent low rates of BCG uptake. Thus low uptake of different immunizations arises from enhanced feelings of both safety and danger. Low uptake was not found to be due to the practical difficulties associated with large families, or to perceived insensitive cultural practices of health care providers. The views and practices of members of this community are not homogeneous and may change over time. It is important that assumptions concerning the role of religious beliefs do not act as an obstacle for providing clear messages concerning immunization, and community norms may be challenged by explicitly using its social networks to communicate more positive messages about immunization. The study provides a useful example of how social networks may reinforce or challenge misinformation about health and risk and the complex nature of decision making about children's health.

  8. Women's orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2017-08-01

    Woman's orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was "Multidimensionality of women's orgasm obstacles". Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife's or husband's boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband's hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children's bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman's life is necessary.

  9. Murder and Motivation: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Alavijeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Murder is considered as the worst crime in all societies. It might be accomplished suddenly based on previous resolution, effect of stimuli, or due to a mental condition. Objectives The present study aimed to determine the reasons and motivations to commit a murder from murderers’ point of view. Patients and Methods It is a qualitative research making use of content analysis, conducting on 17 male imprisoned murderers. Participants were selected through goal based sampling to gain data saturation among prisoners in central prison of Kermanshah. Deep individual and semi-structured interviews were conducted using general questions designed as interview guide. In the meantime, personal satisfaction, information privacy, liberty to leave the study, and moral commitment of the interviews were observed. Results In the end, five main contents were found: collective quarrel, honor killing, emotional dissatisfaction, lack of control on anger, and burglary. Conclusions It seems that prevention of collective quarrel and control on anger could be helpful to decrease the murder rate in society.

  10. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  11. Error Patterns in Word Reading among Primary School Children: A Cross-Orthographic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guron, Louise Miller; Lundberg, Ingvar

    2004-01-01

    A comparative investigation of word reading efficiency indicates that different strategies may be used by English and Swedish early readers. In a first study, 328 native English speakers from UK Years 3 and 6 completed a pen-and-paper word recognition task (the "Wordchains" test). Results were analysed for frequency and type of errors…

  12. Acquiring L2 Sentence Comprehension: A Longitudinal Study of Word Monitoring in Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Georgina; Gullberg, Marianne; Hellwig, Frauke; Mitterer, Holger; Indefrey, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the development of second language online auditory processing with ab initio German learners of Dutch. We assessed the influence of different levels of background noise and different levels of semantic and syntactic target word predictability on word-monitoring latencies. There was evidence of syntactic, but not…

  13. Modulation of brain activity by multiple lexical and word form variables in visual word recognition: A parametric fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauk, Olaf; Davis, Matthew H; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2008-09-01

    Psycholinguistic research has documented a range of variables that influence visual word recognition performance. Many of these variables are highly intercorrelated. Most previous studies have used factorial designs, which do not exploit the full range of values available for continuous variables, and are prone to skewed stimulus selection as well as to effects of the baseline (e.g. when contrasting words with pseudowords). In our study, we used a parametric approach to study the effects of several psycholinguistic variables on brain activation. We focussed on the variable word frequency, which has been used in numerous previous behavioural, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies, in order to investigate the neuronal network underlying visual word processing. Furthermore, we investigated the variable orthographic typicality as well as a combined variable for word length and orthographic neighbourhood size (N), for which neuroimaging results are still either scarce or inconsistent. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression analysis of event-related fMRI data acquired from 21 subjects in a silent reading paradigm. The frequency variable correlated negatively with activation in left fusiform gyrus, bilateral inferior frontal gyri and bilateral insulae, indicating that word frequency can affect multiple aspects of word processing. N correlated positively with brain activity in left and right middle temporal gyri as well as right inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, our analysis revealed multiple distinct brain areas involved in visual word processing within one data set.

  14. Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Using Mind Maps to Facilitate Participant Recall in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Mind maps may provide a new means to gather unsolicited data through qualitative research designs. In this paper, I explore the utility of mind maps through a project designed to uncover the experiences of Latvians involved in a legal technical assistance project. Based on a sample of 19 respondents, the depth and detail of the responses between…

  15. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  16. Neuroimaging studies of word and pseudoword reading: consistencies, inconsistencies, and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechelli, Andrea; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa; Price, Cathy J

    2003-02-15

    Several functional neuroimaging studies have compared words and pseudowords to test different cognitive models of reading. There are difficulties with this approach, however, because cognitive models do not make clear-cut predictions at the neural level. Therefore, results can only be interpreted on the basis of prior knowledge of cognitive anatomy. Furthermore, studies comparing words and pseudowords have produced inconsistent results. The inconsistencies could reflect false-positive results due to the low statistical thresholds applied or confounds from nonlexical aspects of the stimuli. Alternatively, they may reflect true effects that are inconsistent across subjects; dependent on experimental parameters such as stimulus rate or duration; or not replicated across studies because of insufficient statistical power. In this fMRI study, we investigate consistent and inconsistent differences between word and pseudoword reading in 20 subjects, and distinguish between effects associated with increases and decreases in activity relative to fixation. In addition, the interaction of word type with stimulus duration is explored. We find that words and pseudowords activate the same set of regions relative to fixation, and within this system, there is greater activation for pseudowords than words in the left frontal operculum, left posterior inferior temporal gyrus, and the right cerebellum. The only effects of words relative to pseudowords consistent over subjects are due to decreases in activity for pseudowords relative to fixation; and there are no significant interactions between word type and stimulus duration. Finally, we observe inconsistent but highly significant effects of word type at the individual subject level. These results (i) illustrate that pseudowords place increased demands on areas that have previously been linked to lexical retrieval, and (ii) highlight the importance of including one or more baselines to qualify word type effects. Furthermore, (iii

  17. Imagining the truth and the moon: an electrophysiological study of abstract and concrete word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullick, Margaret M; Mitra, Priya; Coch, Donna

    2013-05-01

    Previous event-related potential studies have indicated that both a widespread N400 and an anterior N700 index differential processing of concrete and abstract words, but the nature of these components in relation to concreteness and imagery has been unclear. Here, we separated the effects of word concreteness and task demands on the N400 and N700 in a single word processing paradigm with a within-subjects, between-tasks design and carefully controlled word stimuli. The N400 was larger to concrete words than to abstract words, and larger in the visualization task condition than in the surface task condition, with no interaction. A marked anterior N700 was elicited only by concrete words in the visualization task condition, suggesting that this component indexes imagery. These findings are consistent with a revised or extended dual coding theory according to which concrete words benefit from greater activation in both verbal and imagistic systems. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Intentional forgetting of emotional words after trauma: a study with victims of sexual assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blix, Ines; Brennen, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Following exposure to a trauma, people tend to experience intrusive thoughts and memories about the event. In order to investigate whether intrusive memories in the aftermath of trauma might be accounted for by an impaired ability to intentionally forget disturbing material, the present study used a modified Directed Forgetting task to examine intentional forgetting and intrusive recall of words in sexual assault victims and controls. By including words related to the trauma in addition to neutral, positive, and threat-related stimuli it was possible to test for trauma-specific effects. No difference between the Trauma and the Control group was found for correct recall of to-be-forgotten (F) words or to-be-remembered (R) words. However, when recalling words from R-list, the Trauma group mistakenly recalled significantly more trauma-specific words from F-list. "Intrusive" recall of F-trauma words when asked to recall R-words was related to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder reported on the Impact of Event Scale and the Post-traumatic Diagnostic Scale. The results are discussed in term of a source-monitoring account.

  19. Task modulation of disyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Chang, Ruohan; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-05-16

    Using unimodal auditory tasks of word-matching and meaning-matching, this study investigated how the phonological and semantic processes in Chinese disyllabic spoken word recognition are modulated by top-down mechanism induced by experimental tasks. Both semantic similarity and word-initial phonological similarity between the primes and targets were manipulated. Results showed that at early stage of recognition (~150-250 ms), an enhanced P2 was elicited by the word-initial phonological mismatch in both tasks. In ~300-500 ms, a fronto-central negative component was elicited by word-initial phonological similarities in the word-matching task, while a parietal negativity was elicited by semantically unrelated primes in the meaning-matching task, indicating that both the semantic and phonological processes can be involved in this time window, depending on the task requirements. In the late stage (~500-700 ms), a centro-parietal Late N400 was elicited in both tasks, but with a larger effect in the meaning-matching task than in the word-matching task. This finding suggests that the semantic representation of the spoken words can be activated automatically in the late stage of recognition, even when semantic processing is not required. However, the magnitude of the semantic activation is modulated by task requirements.

  20. Stuttering on function words in bilingual children who stutter: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkalitsiou, Zoi; Byrd, Courtney T; Bedore, Lisa M; Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests young monolingual children who stutter (CWS) are more disfluent on function than content words, particularly when produced in the initial utterance position. The purpose of the present preliminary study was to investigate whether young bilingual CWS present with this same pattern. The narrative and conversational samples of four bilingual Spanish- and English-speaking CWS were analysed. All four bilingual participants produced significantly more stuttering on function words compared to content words, irrespective of their position in the utterance, in their Spanish narrative and conversational speech samples. Three of the four participants also demonstrated more stuttering on function compared to content words in their narrative speech samples in English, but only one participant produced more stuttering on function than content words in her English conversational sample. These preliminary findings are discussed relative to linguistic planning and language proficiency and their potential contribution to stuttered speech.

  1. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoé, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard, Laurence B

    2011-01-01

    Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three-and four-year-old children with typical language development. To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children's grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children's grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. © 2011 Royal College of Speech & Language Therapists.

  2. A cross-linguistic study of real-word and non-word repetition as predictors of grammatical competence in children with typical language development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispaldro, Marco; Deevy, Patricia; Altoe, Gianmarco; Benelli, Beatrice; Leonard Purdue, Laurence B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Although relationships among non-word repetition, real-word repetition and grammatical ability have been documented, it is important to study whether the specific nature of these relationships is tied to the characteristics of a given language. Aims The aim of this study is to explore the potential cross-linguistic differences (Italian and English) in the relationship among non-word repetition, real-word repetition, and grammatical ability in three- and four-year-old children with typical language development. Methods & Procedures To reach this goal, two repetition tasks (one real-word list and one non-word list for each language) were used. In Italian the grammatical categories were the third person plural inflection and the direct-object clitic pronouns, while in English they were the third person singular present tense inflection and the past tense in regular and irregular forms. Outcomes & Results A cross-linguistic comparison showed that in both Italian and English, non-word repetition was a significant predictor of grammatical ability. However, performance on real-word repetition explained children’s grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Conclusions & Implications Abilities underlying non-word repetition performance (e.g., the processing and/or storage of phonological material) play an important role in the development of children’s grammatical abilities in both languages. Lexical ability (indexed by real-word repetition) showed a close relationship to grammatical ability in Italian but not in English. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of cross-linguistic differences, genetic research, clinical intervention and methodological issues. PMID:21899673

  3. Encoding in the visual word form area: an fMRI adaptation study of words versus handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Jason J S; Fox, Christopher J; Sekunova, Alla; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    Written texts are not just words but complex multidimensional stimuli, including aspects such as case, font, and handwriting style, for example. Neuropsychological reports suggest that left fusiform lesions can impair the reading of text for word (lexical) content, being associated with alexia, whereas right-sided lesions may impair handwriting recognition. We used fMRI adaptation in 13 healthy participants to determine if repetition-suppression occurred for words but not handwriting in the left visual word form area (VWFA) and the reverse in the right fusiform gyrus. Contrary to these expectations, we found adaptation for handwriting but not for words in both the left VWFA and the right VWFA homologue. A trend to adaptation for words but not handwriting was seen only in the left middle temporal gyrus. An analysis of anterior and posterior subdivisions of the left VWFA also failed to show any adaptation for words. We conclude that the right and the left fusiform gyri show similar patterns of adaptation for handwriting, consistent with a predominantly perceptual contribution to text processing.

  4. Communicating Qualitative Research Study Designs to Research Ethics Review Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ells, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Researchers using qualitative methodologies appear to be particularly prone to having their study designs called into question by research ethics or funding agency review committees. In this paper, the author considers the issue of communicating qualitative research study designs in the context of institutional research ethics review and offers…

  5. A study on the qualitative and quantitative traits of barley (Hordeum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Key words: Qualitative and quantitative, barley, narbon vetch, weed, dry land. ... and biomass production (Baishya and Sharma, 1990; ..... pakistan. Digitalverlag gmbh, germany. 157: 1-5. Pisulewska E, Hanczowski P, Pisulewski P (2003).

  6. The impact of inverted text on visual word processing: An fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussman, Bethany L; Reddigari, Samir; Newman, Sharlene D

    2018-06-01

    Visual word recognition has been studied for decades. One question that has received limited attention is how different text presentation orientations disrupt word recognition. By examining how word recognition processes may be disrupted by different text orientations it is hoped that new insights can be gained concerning the process. Here, we examined the impact of rotating and inverting text on the neural network responsible for visual word recognition focusing primarily on a region of the occipto-temporal cortex referred to as the visual word form area (VWFA). A lexical decision task was employed in which words and pseudowords were presented in one of three orientations (upright, rotated or inverted). The results demonstrate that inversion caused the greatest disruption of visual word recognition processes. Both rotated and inverted text elicited increased activation in spatial attention regions within the right parietal cortex. However, inverted text recruited phonological and articulatory processing regions within the left inferior frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. Finally, the VWFA was found to not behave similarly to the fusiform face area in that unusual text orientations resulted in increased activation and not decreased activation. It is hypothesized here that the VWFA activation is modulated by feedback from linguistic processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The development of word recognition, sentence comprehension, word spelling, and vocabulary in children with deafness: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, S; Leybaert, J; Ecalle, J; Magnan, A

    2013-05-01

    Only a small number of longitudinal studies have been conducted to assess the literacy skills of children with hearing impairment. The results of these studies are inconsistent with regard to the importance of phonology in reading acquisition as is the case in studies with hearing children. Colin, Magnan, Ecalle, and Leybaert (2007) revealed the important role of early phonological skills and the contribution of the factor of age of exposure to Cued Speech (CS: a manual system intended to resolve the ambiguities inherent to speechreading) to subsequent reading acquisition (from kindergarten to first grade) in children with deafness. The aim of the present paper is twofold: (1) to confirm the role of early exposure to CS in the development of the linguistic skills necessary in order to learn reading and writing in second grade; (2) to reveal the possible existence of common factors other than CS that may influence literacy performances and explain the inter-individual difference within groups of children with hearing impairment. Eighteen 6-year-old hearing-impaired and 18 hearing children of the same chronological age were tested from kindergarten to second grade. The children with deafness had either been exposed to CS at an early age, at home and before kindergarten (early-CS group), or had first been exposed to it when they entered kindergarten (late-CS group) or first grade (beginner-CS group). Children were given implicit and explicit phonological tasks, silent reading tasks (word recognition and sentence comprehension), word spelling, and vocabulary tasks. Children in the early-CS group outperformed those of the late-CS and beginner-CS groups in phonological tasks from first grade to second grade. They became better readers and better spellers than those from the late-CS group and the beginner-CS group. Their performances did not differ from those of hearing children in any of the tasks except for the receptive vocabulary test. Thus early exposure to CS seems

  8. Unpacking smokers' beliefs about addiction and nicotine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sarah E; Coleman, Blair; Tessman, Greta K; Dickinson, Denise M

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that consumers correctly identify nicotine as addictive; however, many may also harbor misconceptions about its harmfulness. The majority of this evidence is based on survey data, however, which may be prone to some limitations. In the current study, we employed qualitative methods to examine, in their own words, smokers' beliefs about nicotine and addiction. Twelve 1-hr focus groups were conducted in 3 cities in the United States (Columbus, OH; New Orleans, LA; and Washington, DC) from October to November, 2014. Adult cigarette smokers (N = 108), defined as those who reported smoking cigarettes on every day or some days, were segmented by age group (18-25 years and ≥26 years) and tobacco-use behavior. Thematic, in-depth analysis of focus-group discussion transcripts was conducted. Participant demographic information was recorded. Results showed that smokers identify nicotine as a cause of addiction to cigarettes; however, they also attribute their addiction to other factors. When asked about nicotine's effects on the body, immediate physiological effects of smoking (e.g., stimulation, relaxation) were top of mind. Opinions varied in terms of whether nicotine itself was harmful or harmless; many were unsure and/or had not considered this question. Discussions revealed heterogeneity in smokers' beliefs as well as recognition of their own uncertainty and lack of knowledge. The current findings provide insight that smokers may not be as misinformed regarding the relative harms of nicotine and tobacco, as has been suggested by quantitative evidence. Implications for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Comprehension of concrete and abstract words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia and Alzheimer's disease: A behavioral and neuroimaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sven; Vallet, Guillaume T; Montembeault, Maxime; Boukadi, Mariem; Wilson, Maximiliano A; Laforce, Robert Jr; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona M

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the comprehension of concrete, abstract and abstract emotional words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and healthy elderly adults (HE) Three groups of participants (9 svPPA, 12 AD, 11 HE) underwent a general neuropsychological assessment, a similarity judgment task, and structural brain MRI. The three types of words were processed similarly in the group of AD participants. In contrast, patients in the svPPA group were significantly more impaired at processing concrete words than abstract words, while comprehension of abstract emotional words was in between. VBM analyses showed that comprehension of concrete words relative to abstract words was significantly correlated with atrophy in the left anterior temporal lobe. These results support the view that concrete words are disproportionately impaired in svPPA, and that concrete and abstract words may rely upon partly dissociable brain regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Guidelines for Qualitative Research in Organization Studies: Controversy and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Rios Cavalcanti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to tackle the controversy of establishing guidelines for qualitative research in Organization and Management Theory (OMT and to present a summary of suggestions on how to conduct good qualitative research given by methodologists on top-tier international publications. In order to do so, the article discusses: general guidelines for qualitative research; how to achieve coherence and transparency in a qualitative empirical study; the meaning and importance of the concept of reflexivity; and, finally how to establish a theoretical contribution and transferability of findings in such context. The work presents a valuable contribution because such guidelines, concepts, and approaches can be adopted by students and researchers when conducting a qualitative research proposal, and by periodic reviewers to evaluate the quality of existing empirical studies.

  11. Sample Size in Qualitative Interview Studies: Guided by Information Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malterud, Kirsti; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2015-11-27

    Sample sizes must be ascertained in qualitative studies like in quantitative studies but not by the same means. The prevailing concept for sample size in qualitative studies is "saturation." Saturation is closely tied to a specific methodology, and the term is inconsistently applied. We propose the concept "information power" to guide adequate sample size for qualitative studies. Information power indicates that the more information the sample holds, relevant for the actual study, the lower amount of participants is needed. We suggest that the size of a sample with sufficient information power depends on (a) the aim of the study, (b) sample specificity, (c) use of established theory, (d) quality of dialogue, and (e) analysis strategy. We present a model where these elements of information and their relevant dimensions are related to information power. Application of this model in the planning and during data collection of a qualitative study is discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Rapid L2 Word Learning through High Constraint Sentence Context: An Event-Related Potential Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoguo Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found quantity of exposure, i.e., frequency of exposure (Horst et al., 1998; Webb, 2008; Pellicer-Sánchez and Schmitt, 2010, is important for second language (L2 contextual word learning. Besides this factor, context constraint and L2 proficiency level have also been found to affect contextual word learning (Pulido, 2003; Tekmen and Daloglu, 2006; Elgort et al., 2015; Ma et al., 2015. In the present study, we adopted the event-related potential (ERP technique and chose high constraint sentences as reading materials to further explore the effects of quantity of exposure and proficiency on L2 contextual word learning. Participants were Chinese learners of English with different English proficiency levels. For each novel word, there were four high constraint sentences with the critical word at the end of the sentence. Learners read sentences and made semantic relatedness judgment afterwards, with ERPs recorded. Results showed that in the high constraint condition where each pseudoword was embedded in four sentences with consistent meaning, N400 amplitude upon this pseudoword decreased significantly as learners read the first two sentences. High proficiency learners responded faster in the semantic relatedness judgment task. These results suggest that in high quality sentence contexts, L2 learners could rapidly acquire word meaning without multiple exposures, and L2 proficiency facilitated this learning process.

  13. Artful terms: A study on aesthetic word usage for visual art versus film and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M Dorothee; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this problem by studying people's word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms: visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica 139 187–201). Focusing on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example, experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for different art forms. PMID:23145287

  14. The time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: a unimodal ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen; Zhang, Qin; Guo, Chunyan

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, two experiments were carried out to investigate the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using both event-related potentials (ERPs) and behavioral measures. To address the hypothesis that there is an early phonological processing stage independent of semantics during spoken word recognition, a unimodal word-matching paradigm was employed, in which both prime and target words were presented auditorily. Experiment 1 manipulated the phonological relations between disyllabic primes and targets, and found an enhanced P2 (200-270 ms post-target onset) as well as a smaller early N400 to word-initial phonological mismatches over fronto-central scalp sites. Experiment 2 manipulated both phonological and semantic relations between monosyllabic primes and targets, and replicated the phonological mismatch-associated P2, which was not modulated by semantic relations. Overall, these results suggest that P2 is a sensitive electrophysiological index of early phonological processing independent of semantics in Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Artful terms: A study on aesthetic word usage for visual art versus film and music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, M Dorothee; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Wagemans, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this problem by studying people's word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms: visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica139 187-201). Focusing on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example, experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for different art forms.

  16. Artful Terms: A Study on Aesthetic Word Usage for Visual Art versus Film and Music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dorothee Augustin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of the arts in human life, psychologists still know relatively little about what characterises their experience for the recipient. The current research approaches this problem by studying people's word usage in aesthetics, with a focus on three important art forms: visual art, film, and music. The starting point was a list of 77 words known to be useful to describe aesthetic impressions of visual art (Augustin et al 2012, Acta Psychologica 139 187–201. Focusing on ratings of likelihood of use, we examined to what extent word usage in aesthetic descriptions of visual art can be generalised to film and music. The results support the claim of an interplay of generality and specificity in aesthetic word usage. Terms with equal likelihood of use for all art forms included beautiful, wonderful, and terms denoting originality. Importantly, emotion-related words received higher ratings for film and music than for visual art. To our knowledge this is direct evidence that aesthetic experiences of visual art may be less affectively loaded than, for example, experiences of music. The results render important information about aesthetic word usage in the realm of the arts and may serve as a starting point to develop tailored measurement instruments for different art forms.

  17. Error Analysis for Arithmetic Word Problems--A Case Study of Primary Three Students in One Singapore School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lu Pien

    2015-01-01

    In this study, ways in which 9-year old students from one Singapore school solved 1-step and 2-step word problems based on the three semantic structures were examined. The students' work and diagrams provided insights into the range of errors in word problem solving for 1- step and 2-step word problems. In particular, the errors provided some…

  18. Phonological Contribution during Visual Word Recognition in Child Readers. An Intermodal Priming Study in Grades 3 and 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauval, Karinne; Casalis, Séverine; Perre, Laetitia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the phonological contribution during visual word recognition in child readers as a function of general reading expertise (third and fifth grades) and specific word exposure (frequent and less-frequent words). An intermodal priming in lexical decision task was performed. Auditory primes (identical and unrelated) were used in…

  19. Putting Words in Their Mouth: Writing Dialogue for Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2018-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This issue discusses dialogue writing guidelines most relevant to case writing.

  20. A qualitative study of vulnerability to HIV infection: Places and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unhcc

    Methods: A qualitative study employing Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and ... cope and are subjects to the threats for HIV infection. (2-4). In the era of HIV .... Table 1: Characteristics of participants in focus group discussions. Variable.

  1. Implicit and explicit processing of kanji and kana words and non-words studied with fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuy, Dinh Ha Duy; Matsuo, Kayako; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Toma, Keiichiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakai, Toshiharu; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-11-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated the implicit language processing of kanji and kana words (i.e., hiragana transcriptions of normally written kanji words) and non-words. Twelve right-handed native Japanese speakers performed size judgments for character stimuli (implicit language task for linguistic stimuli), size judgments for scrambled-character stimuli (implicit language task for non-linguistic stimuli), and lexical decisions (explicit language task). The size judgments for scrambled-kanji stimuli and scrambled-kana stimuli produced activations on the bilateral lingual gyri (BA 18), the bilateral occipitotemporal regions (BA 19/37), and the bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices (BA 7/40). Interestingly, besides these areas, activations of the left inferior frontal region (Broca's area, BA 44/45) and the left posterior inferior temporal cortex (PITC, BA 37), which have been considered as language areas, were additionally activated during size judgment for kanji character stimuli. Size judgment for kana character stimuli also activated Broca's area, the left PITC, and the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG, BA 40). The activations of these language areas were replicated in the lexical decisions for both kanji and kana. These findings suggest that language processing of both kanji and kana scripts is obligatory to literate Japanese subjects. Moreover, comparison between the scrambled kanji and the scrambled kana showed no activation in the language areas, while greater activation in the bilateral fusiform gyri (left-side predominant) was found in kanji vs. kana comparison during the size judgment and the lexical decision. Kana minus kanji activated the left SMG during the size judgment, and Broca's area and the left middle/superior temporal junction during the lexical decision. These results probably reflect that in implicit or explicit reading of kanji words and kana words (i.e., hiragana transcriptions of kanji words

  2. Hemispheric asymmetry of emotion words in a non-native mind: a divided visual field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jończyk, Rafał

    2015-05-01

    This study investigates hemispheric specialization for emotional words among proficient non-native speakers of English by means of the divided visual field paradigm. The motivation behind the study is to extend the monolingual hemifield research to the non-native context and see how emotion words are processed in a non-native mind. Sixty eight females participated in the study, all highly proficient in English. The stimuli comprised 12 positive nouns, 12 negative nouns, 12 non-emotional nouns and 36 pseudo-words. To examine the lateralization of emotion, stimuli were presented unilaterally in a random fashion for 180 ms in a go/no-go lexical decision task. The perceptual data showed a right hemispheric advantage for processing speed of negative words and a complementary role of the two hemispheres in the recognition accuracy of experimental stimuli. The data indicate that processing of emotion words in non-native language may require greater interhemispheric communication, but at the same time demonstrates a specific role of the right hemisphere in the processing of negative relative to positive valence. The results of the study are discussed in light of the methodological inconsistencies in the hemifield research as well as the non-native context in which the study was conducted.

  3. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  4. Getting the Words Out: Case Studies in Facilitated Communication Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, Rosemary

    1992-01-01

    Case studies are presented of three individuals with severe communication impairments who had been judged to be intellectually impaired but revealed unexpected achievements after training in nonspeech communication. The communication training used facilitation to circumvent hand function impairments. (JDD)

  5. Recurrent Partial Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine Blanchet-Sadri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Partial words are sequences over a finite alphabet that may contain wildcard symbols, called holes, which match or are compatible with all letters; partial words without holes are said to be full words (or simply words. Given an infinite partial word w, the number of distinct full words over the alphabet that are compatible with factors of w of length n, called subwords of w, refers to a measure of complexity of infinite partial words so-called subword complexity. This measure is of particular interest because we can construct partial words with subword complexities not achievable by full words. In this paper, we consider the notion of recurrence over infinite partial words, that is, we study whether all of the finite subwords of a given infinite partial word appear infinitely often, and we establish connections between subword complexity and recurrence in this more general framework.

  6. Words and things: a note about contemporary labor studies terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcelino

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible go through the literature on the issues of work without encountering the terms «flexibilization» and «precarization» and two others associated with them: «atypical work» and «deregulation». Our objective is to ponderwhich of these terms we consider suitable for the analysis of employment relations and work under contemporary capitalism and explain which processes we are talking about when we use them. This text is based on bibliographical studies in the field of labor.

  7. An fMRI study of concreteness effects in spoken word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxbury, Tracy; McMahon, Katie; Copland, David A

    2014-09-30

    Evidence for the brain mechanisms recruited when processing concrete versus abstract concepts has been largely derived from studies employing visual stimuli. The tasks and baseline contrasts used have also involved varying degrees of lexical processing. This study investigated the neural basis of the concreteness effect during spoken word recognition and employed a lexical decision task with a novel pseudoword condition. The participants were seventeen healthy young adults (9 females). The stimuli consisted of (a) concrete, high imageability nouns, (b) abstract, low imageability nouns and (c) opaque legal pseudowords presented in a pseudorandomised, event-related design. Activation for the concrete, abstract and pseudoword conditions was analysed using anatomical regions of interest derived from previous findings of concrete and abstract word processing. Behaviourally, lexical decision reaction times for the concrete condition were significantly faster than both abstract and pseudoword conditions and the abstract condition was significantly faster than the pseudoword condition (p word recognition. Significant activity was also elicited by concrete words relative to pseudowords in the left fusiform and left anterior middle temporal gyrus. These findings confirm the involvement of a widely distributed network of brain regions that are activated in response to the spoken recognition of concrete but not abstract words. Our findings are consistent with the proposal that distinct brain regions are engaged as convergence zones and enable the binding of supramodal input.

  8. False recognition depends on depth of prior word processing: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Hufnagl, B; Lindinger, G; Deecke, L; Imhof, H; Lang, W

    2001-04-01

    Brain activity was measured with a whole head magnetoencephalograph (MEG) during the test phases of word recognition experiments. Healthy young subjects had to discriminate between previously presented and new words. During prior study phases two different levels of word processing were provided according to two different kinds of instructions (shallow and deep encoding). Event-related fields (ERFs) associated with falsely recognized words (false alarms) were found to depend on the depth of processing during the prior study phase. False alarms elicited higher brain activity (as reflected by dipole strength) in case of prior deep encoding as compared to shallow encoding between 300 and 500 ms after stimulus onset at temporal brain areas. Between 500 and 700 ms we found evidence for differences in the involvement of neural structures related to both conditions of false alarms. Furthermore, the number of false alarms was found to depend on depth of processing. Shallow encoding led to a higher number of false alarms than deep encoding. All data are discussed as strong support for the ideas that a certain level of word processing is performed by a distinct set of neural systems and that the same neural systems which encode information are reactivated during the retrieval.

  9. The interaction of lexical semantics and cohort competition in spoken word recognition: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Randall, Billi; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2011-12-01

    Spoken word recognition involves the activation of multiple word candidates on the basis of the initial speech input--the "cohort"--and selection among these competitors. Selection may be driven primarily by bottom-up acoustic-phonetic inputs or it may be modulated by other aspects of lexical representation, such as a word's meaning [Marslen-Wilson, W. D. Functional parallelism in spoken word-recognition. Cognition, 25, 71-102, 1987]. We examined these potential interactions in an fMRI study by presenting participants with words and pseudowords for lexical decision. In a factorial design, we manipulated (a) cohort competition (high/low competitive cohorts which vary the number of competing word candidates) and (b) the word's semantic properties (high/low imageability). A previous behavioral study [Tyler, L. K., Voice, J. K., & Moss, H. E. The interaction of meaning and sound in spoken word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7, 320-326, 2000] showed that imageability facilitated word recognition but only for words in high competition cohorts. Here we found greater activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45, 47) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 47) with increased cohort competition, an imageability effect in the left posterior middle temporal gyrus/angular gyrus (BA 39), and a significant interaction between imageability and cohort competition in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus/middle temporal gyrus (BA 21, 22). In words with high competition cohorts, high imageability words generated stronger activity than low imageability words, indicating a facilitatory role of imageability in a highly competitive cohort context. For words in low competition cohorts, there was no effect of imageability. These results support the behavioral data in showing that selection processes do not rely solely on bottom-up acoustic-phonetic cues but rather that the semantic properties of candidate words facilitate discrimination between competitors.

  10. Brain processing of task-relevant and task-irrelevant emotional words: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Villar, Alberto J; Triñanes, Yolanda; Zurrón, Montserrat; Carrillo-de-la-Peña, María T

    2014-09-01

    Although there is evidence for preferential perceptual processing of written emotional information, the effects of attentional manipulations and the time course of affective processing require further clarification. In this study, we attempted to investigate how the emotional content of words modulates cerebral functioning (event-related potentials, ERPs) and behavior (reaction times, RTs) when the content is task-irrelevant (emotional Stroop Task, EST) or task-relevant (emotional categorization task, ECT), in a sample of healthy middle-aged women. In the EST, the RTs were longer for emotional words than for neutral words, and in the ECT, they were longer for neutral and negative words than for positive words. A principal components analysis of the ERPs identified various temporospatial factors that were differentially modified by emotional content. P2 was the first emotion-sensitive component, with enhanced factor scores for negative nouns across tasks. The N2 and late positive complex had enhanced factor scores for emotional relative to neutral information only in the ECT. The results reinforce the idea that written emotional information has a preferential processing route, both when it is task-irrelevant (producing behavioral interference) and when it is task-relevant (facilitating the categorization). After early automatic processing of the emotional content, late ERPs become more emotionally modulated as the level of attention to the valence increases.

  11. Context affects L1 but not L2 during bilingual word recognition: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellikka, Janne; Helenius, Päivi; Mäkelä, Jyrki P; Lehtonen, Minna

    2015-03-01

    How do bilinguals manage the activation levels of the two languages and prevent interference from the irrelevant language? Using magnetoencephalography, we studied the effect of context on the activation levels of languages by manipulating the composition of word lists (the probability of the languages) presented auditorily to late Finnish-English bilinguals. We first determined the upper limit time-window for semantic access, and then focused on the preceding responses during which the actual word recognition processes were assumedly ongoing. Between 300 and 500 ms in the temporal cortices (in the N400 m response) we found an asymmetric language switching effect: the responses to L1 Finnish words were affected by the presentation context unlike the responses to L2 English words. This finding suggests that the stronger language is suppressed in an L2 context, supporting models that allow auditory word recognition to be affected by contextual factors and the language system to be subject to inhibitory influence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of prosody teaching on developing word recognition skills for interpreter trainees. An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the explicit teaching of prosodic features on developing word recognition skills with interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were composed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA

  13. The effect of prosody teaching on developing word recognition skills for interpreter trainees : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yenkimaleki, M.; V.J., van Heuven

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effect of the explicit teaching of prosodic features on developing word recognition skills with interpreter trainees. Two groups of student interpreters were composed. All were native speakers of Farsi who studied English translation and interpreting at the BA

  14. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  15. Eponymous Adjectives in the Russian Language: Corpus-Based Approach to Studying One Word-Formation Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Yu. Norman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses morphological, semantic and pragmatic characteristics of Russian adjectives derived from surnames (pushkinsky, chekhovsky, leninsky, and others. The authors analyze types of suffixal morphs used to form adjectives from Russian and foreign surnames; characterize intralingual obstacles to adjectives formation and explain extralingual factors affecting the usage of surname derivatives. Popularity of a politician or a public fi gure, such as an actor or sportsman, directly provides for a wider circulation not only of their surnames, but also of their surname derivatives. The corpus-based approach to studying adjectives derived from surnames of political leaders and writers reveals specific sets of linguistic units called semantic clusters. These clusters are based on categorial meanings of adjectives, and provided that the collocating nouns belong to the same ideographic class. Adjectives derived from surnames do not belong to one specific grammar sub-class; on the contrary, they combine characteristics of qualitative, relative, and possessive adjectives. Precedent names determine connotations of such adjectives, although the semantic structure of a derivative does not necessarily copy that of the source word. Eponymous words are a convenient means for accommodating complex information whereas understanding their meaning requires certain background knowledge and builds on the principles of compositional semantics.

  16. Older and Wiser: Older Adults’ Episodic Word Memory Benefits from Sentence Study Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Laura E.; Benjamin, Aaron S.

    2013-01-01

    A hallmark of adaptive cognition is the ability to modulate learning in response to the demands posed by different types of tests and different types of materials. Here we evaluate how older adults process words and sentences differently by examining patterns of memory errors. In two experiments, we explored younger and older adults’ sensitivity to lures on a recognition test following study of words in these two types of contexts. Among the studied words were compound words such as “blackmail” and “jailbird” that were related to conjunction lures (e.g. “blackbird”) and semantic lures (e.g. “criminal”). Participants engaged in a recognition test that included old items, conjunction lures, semantic lures, and unrelated new items. In both experiments, younger and older adults had the same general pattern of memory errors: more incorrect endorsements of semantic than conjunction lures following sentence study and more incorrect endorsements of conjunction than semantic lures following list study. The similar pattern reveals that older and younger adults responded to the constraints of the two different study contexts in similar ways. However, while younger and older adults showed similar levels of memory performance for the list study context, the sentence study context elicited superior memory performance in the older participants. It appears as though memory tasks that take advantage of greater expertise in older adults--in this case, greater experience with sentence processing--can reveal superior memory performance in the elderly. PMID:23834493

  17. Iranian Parents' Supportive Umbrella during their Children Surgery: a Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Valizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being in a position of vulnerability, distress and uncertainty reduces the ability of the parents to protect their children and makes them need support from others. The first step to aid clients more is to identify their supportive sources. This study aimed to determine parents' experiences of supportive sources during their children surgery. Materials and Methods This is a descriptive qualitative research. Purposive and maximum variation sampling applied to select 21 parents of operated children in Ahvaz hospitals, Iran. Semi structured interviews, with open question were used to data collection. Audio recording interviews put into written form word by word and finally analyzed with qualitative content analysis approach.  Results Parents considered the personnel's beyond-task-orientation performance, family comprehensive support, mutual facilitating of peers and the elixir of connection to God as the sources that supported them as an umbrella during their children surgery.     Conclusion It is essential for the health service providers to check each family thoroughly in terms of other supportive sources while providing professional support, and to use the sources in an organized way for the successful transition of parents from the stress of their children surgery.

  18. Recovering the Power Inside: A Qualitative Study of Critical Reading in an Iranian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-san Ghahremani Ghajar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental goal of critical literacy approaches is to bring a change and empower students as critical agents and subjects of decision making. Students are expected to do more than simply accumulate information; they are encouraged to challenge their ‘taken for granted’ belief structures and transform themselves as well as their immediate social environment. In this article, we present a qualitative enquiry in a university reading course based on critical literacy. We explored how learners reflected on their individual/community and word/world concerns through critical understanding of texts and how they challenged and shattered their ‘taken for granted’ beliefs and started to transform into critical agents of voice and position. The data consists of 400 concept maps, called webs, and personal journals by fifty undergraduate English literature students at an Iranian University, as well as oral and written interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed in search of themes that could illustrate students’ early thinking structures and their empowerment and transformations into subjects of decisions. The study revealed that, through webbing words/worlds and critically challenging texts, students took the opportunity to approach the knowledge and information presented to them analytically and critically. On this basis, we discuss how students were able to gain the power of critiquing, freeing their thoughts, finding and expressing their voice and position, discovering personal meanings in texts and contexts, cooperating and participating, and understanding learning for meaning through the critical act of reading.

  19. Online Counseling Using Email: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Amla; Hamzah, Ramlan; Nordin, Norazah; Ghavifekr, Simin; Joorabchi, Toktam Namyandeh

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies in increasingly popular online mental health service, the nature of the relationship between online counselors and their clients, particularly in the email modality, deserves more attention. To enhance the knowledge in this area, this study was conducted to explore whether the online counseling relationship could be…

  20. From Words to Concepts: Focusing on Word Knowledge When Teaching for Conceptual Understanding within an Inquiry-Based Science Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.; Ødegaard, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative video study explores how two elementary school teachers taught for conceptual understanding throughout different phases of science inquiry. The teachers implemented teaching materials with a focus on learning science key concepts through the development of word knowledge. A framework for word knowledge was applied to examine the…

  1. Incorporating Translation in Qualitative Studies: Two Case Studies in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agustian; Nguyen, Nga Thanh; Tangen, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Cross-language qualitative research in education continues to increase. However, there has been inadequate discussion in the literature concerning the translation process that ensures research trustworthiness applicable for bilingual researchers. Informed by the literature on evaluation criteria for qualitative data translation, this paper…

  2. Electronic word-of-mouth in consumer fashion blogs. A netnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    KULMALA, MARIANNE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in consumer fashion blogs. The phenomenon of fashion blogs has become very popular among fashion consumers and companies within recent years. Fashion consumers buy clothes and shoes online, are active in social media pages, and produce electronic word-of-mouth in online communities. Fashion companies have noticed this change and want to be present in the Internet in different ways. In fashion blogs, there ar...

  3. The Study Of Properties Of The Word Of Mouth Marketing Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Styczeń Agnieszka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of using cellular automata, to study the properties of word of mouth (w-o-m marketing. Cellular automata allow to analyze the dynamics of changes in views and attitudes in social groups based on local interactions between people in small groups of friends, family members etc. The proposed paper shows the possibility of modelling the dynamics of word of mouth mechanism, if the basic assumptions of this process are: different size groups where this phenomenon occurs, and varied access to information. On the competing firms market, the dependence of the w-o-m mechanism dynamics on the model parameters is shown

  4. Universal Lyndon Words

    OpenAIRE

    Carpi, Arturo; Fici, Gabriele; Holub, Stepan; Oprsal, Jakub; Sciortino, Marinella

    2014-01-01

    A word $w$ over an alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a Lyndon word if there exists an order defined on $\\Sigma$ for which $w$ is lexicographically smaller than all of its conjugates (other than itself). We introduce and study \\emph{universal Lyndon words}, which are words over an $n$-letter alphabet that have length $n!$ and such that all the conjugates are Lyndon words. We show that universal Lyndon words exist for every $n$ and exhibit combinatorial and structural properties of these words. We then defi...

  5. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  6. Qualitative methods for the study of policy diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starke, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challen...... closes with some suggestions for further methodological development in the study of policy diffusion, including the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods.......This article deals with the question whether and how processes of policy diffusion can be examined with qualitative methods. More specifically, how can qualitative methods address the “twin challenge of interdependence,” namely the challenge to identify diffusion, on the one hand, and the challenge...... to discriminate between mechanisms of diffusion, on the other? I argue, first, that there are three distinct qualitative techniques that can be used, namely cross-case analysis (often based on systematic case selection), within-case process tracing, and counterfactual reasoning. I demonstrate how these techniques...

  7. Positive aspects of menopause: a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, L

    2001-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences.......As a part of a larger study, "Menopause described from the woman's perspective", it has been the aim to explore whether women have any positive experiences in relation to menopause, and if so, the nature of these experiences....

  8. Parents’ Perspectives on Radicalization: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Sikkens (Elga); M.R.P.J.R.S. van San (Marion); S. Sieckelinck (Stijn); M. de Winter (Micha)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Radicalization of young people might be influenced by the way parents react towards the development of political or religious ideals. However, these reactions have hardly been explored. This study aimed to discover how parents reacted to the development of extreme ideals, and

  9. Leading with integrity: a qualitative research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storr, Loma

    2004-01-01

    This research paper gives an account of a study into the relationship between leadership and integrity. There is a critical analysis of the current literature for effective, successful and ethical leadership particularly, integrity. The purpose and aim of this paper is to build on the current notions of leadership within the literature, debate contemporary approaches, focussing specifically on practices within the UK National Health Service in the early 21st century. This leads to a discussion of the literature on ethical leadership theory, which includes public service values, ethical relationships and leading with integrity. A small study was undertaken consisting of 18 interviews with leaders and managers within a District General HospitaL Using the Repertory Grid technique and analysis 15 themes emerged from the constructs elicited, which were compared to the literature for leadership and integrity and other studies. As well as finding areas of overlap, a number of additional constructs were elicited which suggested that effective leadership correlates with integrity and the presence of integrity will improve organisational effectiveness. The study identified that perceptions of leadership character and behaviour are used to judge the effectiveness and integrity of a leader. However, the ethical implications and consequences of leaders' scope of power and influence such as policy and strategy are somewhat neglected and lacking in debate. The findings suggest that leaders are not judged according to the ethical nature of decision making, and leading and managing complex change but that the importance of integrity and ethical leadership correlated with higher levels of hierarchical status and that it is assumed by virtue of status and success that leaders lead with integrity. Finally, the findings of this study seem to suggest that nurse leadership capability is developing as a consequence of recent national investment.

  10. Teachers' Views about Educational Research: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Gökhan; Kivilcim, Zafer Savas

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to examine the views of teachers' about educational research. The present research is designed as a qualitative case study. The group of this study is consisted of teachers (n = 27), working in primary, middle, and high schools in the province of Nigde in Turkey. An extensive literature review was made on…

  11. The Impact of Orthographic Connectivity on Visual Word Recognition in Arabic: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khateb, Asaid; Khateb-Abdelgani, Manal; Taha, Haitham Y.; Ibrahim, Raphiq

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the effects of letters' connectivity in Arabic on visual word recognition. For this purpose, reaction times (RTs) and accuracy scores were collected from ninety-third, sixth and ninth grade native Arabic speakers during a lexical decision task, using fully connected (Cw), partially connected (PCw) and…

  12. Parent-Implemented Hanen Program "More than Words" in Angelman Syndrome: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carlos Isla, Mercedes; Fortea, Inmaculada Baixauli

    2016-01-01

    Children with Angelman syndrome (AS) exhibit significant social, communicative and cognitive difficulties. The aim of this case study was to describe the profile of communicative abilities of a child with AS, before and after the implementation of the Hanen program "More than Words" (MTW). Additionally, changes on the language directed…

  13. ASL Handshape Stories, Word Recognition and Signing Deaf Readers: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietz, Merrilee R.

    2013-01-01

    The effectiveness of using American Sign Language (ASL) handshape stories to teach word recognition in whole stories using a descriptive case study approach was explored. Four profoundly deaf children ages 7 to 8, enrolled in a self-contained deaf education classroom in a public school in the south participated in the story time five-week…

  14. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More often than not, when grammatical words such as determiners, pronouns, conjunctions, auxiliary verbs and prepositions occur in Standard English sentences, they are produced in their weak forms. The concern of this study is whether educated Yoruba English speakers appropriately use the weak forms of English ...

  15. Effective factors in providing holistic care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanzadeh, Vahid; Jasemi, Madineh; Valizadeh, Leila; Keogh, Brian; Taleghani, Fariba

    2015-01-01

    Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses' provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis) software. Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  16. Word Definitional Skills in School age Persian Speaking Children: A Developmental Study on Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talieh Zarifian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Word definitional skills (WDSs were classified according to the quality of both semantic content and syntactic form. The aim of the present study was to investigate the syntactic development in WDSs in typically developing school- age children. Methods: In this cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study,  150 of typically developing school-age children participated by the  multistage sampling method in the second to sixth grade from primary schools in 1, 7 and 17 municipal  districts of Tehran. The definition skill was assessed with word definition task. The reliability was assessed by two independent values and the validity was determined by the content. The results were  analyzed by the SPSS (22th version  statistical software and with the method of independent- samples T test, univariate analysis of variance and Tukey test. Results: The form analysis revealed that all children use phrase/clause  or simple sentence, transitional form and Aristotelian form frequently, but by increasing the age, definitions were developed from simple syntactic structure into Aristotelian form, in fact mean score of the form in word definition was significantly increased by age (P<0.001. Discussion: Owing to the findings of this study, the development of word definitional skills in terms of form was developed from phrase/clause or simple sentence and transitional form responses into Aristotelian form. Also WDSs are closely related to academic success and the development of literacy.

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (79th, Anaheim, CA, August 10-13, 1996). Qualitative Studies Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Qualitative Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Writing as Theater: The Marketing of the Digital Word" (Sally McMillan); "Rethinking Ideology: Polysemy, Pleasure and Hegemony in Television Culture" (Luis Rivera-Perez); "Low Power FM: A Small History" (Gregory J. Adamo); "The…

  18. The time course of lexical competition during spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianjun; Yang, Jin-Chen

    2016-01-20

    The present study investigated the effect of lexical competition on the time course of spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese using a unimodal auditory priming paradigm. Two kinds of competitive environments were designed. In one session (session 1), only the unrelated and the identical primes were presented before the target words. In the other session (session 2), besides the two conditions in session 1, the target words were also preceded by the cohort primes that have the same initial syllables as the targets. Behavioral results showed an inhibitory effect of the cohort competitors (primes) on target word recognition. The event-related potential results showed that the spoken word recognition processing in the middle and late latency windows is modulated by whether the phonologically related competitors are presented or not. Specifically, preceding activation of the competitors can induce direct competitions between multiple candidate words and lead to increased processing difficulties, primarily at the word disambiguation and selection stage during Mandarin Chinese spoken word recognition. The current study provided both behavioral and electrophysiological evidences for the lexical competition effect among the candidate words during spoken word recognition.

  19. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in te...

  20. A Qualitative Study: Integrating Art and Science in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Deborah N.

    2013-01-01

    The study was used to develop an understanding of the nature of a creative learning experience that incorporated the foundational elements of Reggio Emilia, place-based education, and experience design. The study took place in an urban high school with eight students in an advanced placement art class. The qualitative research project revolved…

  1. Diabetes Education Needs of Chinese Australians: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Tammie S. T.; Walker, Karen Z.; Ralston, Robin A.; Palermo, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a type 2 diabetes education programme for Chinese Australians, based on the experience of participants and by exploring the unique needs of Chinese patients, their health beliefs and their cultural behaviours. Design and setting: A qualitative ethnographic study was undertaken in a community health…

  2. THE MEANING OF FOOD FOR OBESE MEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    qualitative study used the theoretical per- spectives ... METHOD. Research design. This phenomenological study seeks to explore, ... way their story was unfolding. .... many cases, they had to adapt to new food ..... Choosing among five trade- ... ethnography and phenomenology. .... discourse analysis, and grounded theory.

  3. Challenges in implementing clinical governance: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Design: A qualitative study. Setting: Hospitals affiliated to Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences in Yazd, Iran. Subjects: Thirteen participants selected among clinical governance executives of under study hospitals and members of clinical governance office in curative deputy of the University. Results: Eight major ...

  4. Student Teachers' Management Practices in Elementary Classrooms: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Susan M.; Arndt, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of four student teachers completing certification in elementary and special education investigated the classroom management practices of the student teachers. This is an important area of study because management practices are essential for an effective classroom, and student teachers often lack confidence and skill in the…

  5. Qualitative methodology in a psychoanalytic single case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Liselotte

    features and breaks in psychotherapy investigated. One aim of the study was to contribute to the development of a transparent and systematic methodology for the psychoanalytic case study by application of rigorous qualitative research methodology. To this end, inductive-deductive principles in line...

  6. adherence to antiretroviral treatment in Zambia: a qualitative study

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients\\' adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is important for effective medical treatment of HIV/AIDS. We conducted a qualitative interview study in the Copperbelt Province of Zambia in 2006. The aim of the study was to explore patients\\' and health care professionals\\' perceived barriers and facilitators to patients\\' ...

  7. A qualitative exploratory study: Using medical students' experiences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-23

    Aug 23, 2012 ... There is recognition of the importance of qualitative research on incentives ... an attribute, such as personality type; and secondly does ... Method. Study site. The study site was a rural district-level hospital in KwaZulu-. Natal.

  8. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  9. PULSAR: A Qualitative Study of a Substance Abuse Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino-McAllister, Jeanne M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the risk, protective factors, and resiliency characteristics of students selected to participate in the Police, Public Educators and Peers Utilizing the Leadership Skills of Students At Risk/As Resources (PULSAR) program. The study is significant as it employed qualitative methods and a resiliency-focused…

  10. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  11. Journal of Clipped Words in Reader's Digest Magazine

    OpenAIRE

    Simanjuntak, Lestari

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with Clipped Words in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest. The objectives of the study are to find out the types of clipped words which are used in the “Laughter, the Best Medicine” of Reader's Digest, to find out sthe dominantly used in the whole story and to reason the dominant clipped word use in the text. The study use descriptive qualitative method. The data were collected from seventeen selected Reader's Digest which contains the clipped word by applie...

  12. Value of qualitative research in the study of massage therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania, Ania; Porcino, Antony; Vehoef, Marja J

    2008-12-15

    Qualitative inquiry is increasingly used in health research because it is particularly suited to the study of complex topics or issues about which little is known and concerning which quantification cannot easily create or effectively convey understanding. By exploring the lived experience of people providing and receiving massage therapy and the meaning that those people ascribe to those experiences, in-depth understanding of the nature of massage therapy and of how it affects people's lives is possible. Qualitative research may also provide insights into the outcomes, process and context of massage therapy that cannot be fully achieved through quantification alone.The purpose of the present article is to describe qualitative research and to discuss its value to the massage therapy profession. The target audience is massage therapists who want to be able to better understand the research literature, novice massage therapy researchers who are unfamiliar with qualitative research, and teachers of research methods courses in massage therapy training programs who want to include qualitative research methods in their curriculum.

  13. Building qualitative study design using nursing's disciplinary epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally; Stephens, Jennifer; Truant, Tracy

    2016-02-01

    To discuss the implications of drawing on core nursing knowledge as theoretical scaffolding for qualitative nursing enquiry. Although nurse scholars have been using qualitative methods for decades, much of their methodological direction derives from conventional approaches developed for answering questions in the social sciences. The quality of available knowledge to inform practice can be enhanced through the selection of study design options informed by an appreciation for the nature of nursing knowledge. Discussion paper. Drawing on the body of extant literature dealing with nursing's theoretical and qualitative research traditions, we consider contextual factors that have shaped the application of qualitative research approaches in nursing, including prior attempts to align method with the structure and form of disciplinary knowledge. On this basis, we critically reflect on design considerations that would follow logically from core features associated with a nursing epistemology. The substantive knowledge used by nurses to inform their practice includes both aspects developed at the level of the general and also that which pertains to application in the unique context of the particular. It must be contextually relevant to a fluid and dynamic healthcare environment and adaptable to distinctive patient conditions. Finally, it must align with nursing's moral mandate and action imperative. Qualitative research design components informed by nursing's disciplinary epistemology will help ensure a logical line of reasoning in our enquiries that remains true to the nature and structure of practice knowledge. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. An acoustical study of English word stress produced by Americans and Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2002-05-01

    Acoustical correlates of stress can be divided into duration, intensity, and fundamental frequency. This study examined the acoustical difference in the first two syllables of stressed English words produced by ten American and Korean speakers. The Korean subjects scored very high in TOEFL. They read, at a normal speed, a fable from which the acoustical parameters of eight words were analyzed. In order to make the data comparison meaningful, each parameter was collected at 100 dynamic time points proportional to the total duration of the two syllables. Then, the ratio of the parameter sum of the first rime to that of the second rime was calculated to determine the relative prominence of the syllables. Results showed that the durations of the first two syllables were almost comparable between the Americans and Koreans. However, statistically significant differences showed up in the diphthong pronunciations and in the words with the second syllable stressed. Also, remarkably high r-squared values were found between pairs of the three acoustical parameters, which suggests that either one or a combination of two or more parameters may account for the prominence of a syllable within a word. [Work supported by Korea Science Foundation R01-1999-00229.

  15. Functional anatomic studies of memory retrieval for auditory words and visual pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, R L; Raichle, M E; Miezin, F M; Petersen, S E

    1996-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging with positron emission tomography was used to study brain areas activated during memory retrieval. Subjects (n = 15) recalled items from a recent study episode (episodic memory) during two paired-associate recall tasks. The tasks differed in that PICTURE RECALL required pictorial retrieval, whereas AUDITORY WORD RECALL required word retrieval. Word REPETITION and REST served as two reference tasks. Comparing recall with repetition revealed the following observations. (1) Right anterior prefrontal activation (similar to that seen in several previous experiments), in addition to bilateral frontal-opercular and anterior cingulate activations. (2) An anterior subdivision of medial frontal cortex [pre-supplementary motor area (SMA)] was activated, which could be dissociated from a more posterior area (SMA proper). (3) Parietal areas were activated, including a posterior medial area near precuneus, that could be dissociated from an anterior parietal area that was deactivated. (4) Multiple medial and lateral cerebellar areas were activated. Comparing recall with rest revealed similar activations, except right prefrontal activation was minimal and activations related to motor and auditory demands became apparent (e.g., bilateral motor and temporal cortex). Directly comparing picture recall with auditory word recall revealed few notable activations. Taken together, these findings suggest a pathway that is commonly used during the episodic retrieval of picture and word stimuli under these conditions. Many areas in this pathway overlap with areas previously activated by a different set of retrieval tasks using stem-cued recall, demonstrating their generality. Examination of activations within individual subjects in relation to structural magnetic resonance images provided an-atomic information about the location of these activations. Such data, when combined with the dissociations between functional areas, provide an increasingly detailed picture of

  16. A descriptive review of qualitative studies in first episode psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Volpe, Tiziana; Gladstone, Brenda

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a descriptive review of published qualitative research studies on first episode psychosis (FEP). A review was undertaken to describe the findings of qualitative studies in early psychosis. Keyword searches in Medline, CINAHL, ASSIA, PsychINFO databases, as well as manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary papers, were conducted. Thirty-one qualitative papers (representing 27 discrete studies) were identified. The majority reported research concerning young people based in community settings. The research studies were organized according to the following generic social processes: (i) achieving identity; (ii) acquiring perspectives; (iii) doing activity; and, (iv) experiencing relationships. The papers reviewed are based on first-person accounts obtained from individuals who have experienced FEP, their family members and service providers. This descriptive review contributes to our understanding of the complex social processes of achieving identity, acquiring perspectives, doing activities and developing relationships as experienced by young people and the significant others in their world. The cumulative findings highlight the contextually rich and detailed information made possible through qualitative studies of FEP. They begin to account for the active engagement of individuals affected by psychosis in making sense of their experience and suggest that this experience should be understood from within young people's own framework of meaning.

  17. Service Quality in Alcohol Treatment: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Sheilagh M.; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to qualitatively evaluate the managerial and organisational issues associated with service quality in a privately funded alcohol treatment centre in the UK. Two different groups of participants at a private treatment clinic were interviewed. The first group comprised 25 of its patients. The second group comprised 15…

  18. A Qualitative Self-Study of Retinitis Pigmentosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Robert James

    2007-01-01

    Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a retinal degenerative disease causing progressive blindness. Most research on RP is biomedical, and mostly from an observer perspective, therefore poorly reflecting the lived experience of having RP. Accordingly, the researcher conducted a retrospective qualitative self-study, to analyze reflections on his own…

  19. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M.; de Kruif, J. Th C.M.; Comijs, H. C.; van Mierlo, S.; Semeijn, E. J.; Beekman, A. T.F.; Deeg, D. J.H.; Kooij, J. J.S.

    Objective: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. Method: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  20. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults : A Qualitative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. METHOD: A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch

  1. A qualitative study of alcohol risk perceptions among drinkers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is evidence in the scientific literature linking alcohol-related deaths and morbidities with excessive alcohol consumption, yet individuals are often undeterred by their experiences of negative alcohol-related outcomes. In seeking to understand this behavior, this exploratory qualitative study was undertaken among ...

  2. Racing risk, gendering responsibility: a qualitative study of how ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals' perceptions of risk have implications for whether and how they engage with protective strategies. This study investigated how sexual risk, specifically HIV and pregnancy and responsibility for these risks were constructed in discussions across five groups of youth in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The qualitative ...

  3. Late Career Decision-Making: A Qualitative Panel Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilmar Schaufeli; Annet de Lange; Juhani Ilmarinen; Per Erik Solem; Trude Furunes; Reidar Mykletun; Astri Syse

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this longitudinal qualitative interview study (3 waves of interviews) was to examine the nature of older workers’ late career decision-making processes, including the main drivers and obstacles for prolonging working life or retiring. Late career decision-making is regarded as a process

  4. Qualitative and numerical study of Bianchi IX Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco, G.; Matsas, G.E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The qualitative behaviour of trajectories in the Mixmaster universe is studied. The Lyapunov exponents computed directly from the differential equations and from the Poincare map are shown to be different. A detailed discussion of the role of these exponents in analysing the effect of chaos on trajectories is presented. (Author) [pt

  5. Exploring Innovation: A Qualitative Study of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beninghove, Linda Scanlon

    2016-01-01

    As academic libraries evolve to affirm their place as key partners in research, teaching, and learning in university communities, the process of innovation is one of great importance in the intentional design of library services, resources, and staffing. This dissertation was a qualitative, exploratory research study in which the conceptual…

  6. Intensive care medicine trainees' perception of professionalism: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mook, W.N. van; Grave, W.S. De; Gorter, S.L.; Zwaveling, J.H.; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The Competency-Based Training program in Intensive Care Medicine in Europe identified 12 competency domains. Professionalism was given a prominence equal to technical ability. However, little information pertaining to fellows' views on professionalism is available. A nationwide qualitative study was

  7. A Qualitative Study of the Dislocated Working Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Nadya A.; Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Carter, Laura; Bernfeld, Steven; Gray, India; Liu, Jane P.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examines factors that influence the career decisions of dislocated workers. The research focuses on individuals identified as working class, as this group has been relatively ignored in past research compared to individuals from higher socioeconomic statuses. Participants include 13 individuals (10 females and 3 males)…

  8. Children's experiences of dialysis: a systematic review of qualitative studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjaden, Lidwien; Tong, Allison; Henning, Paul; Groothoff, Jaap; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To describe the experiences and perspectives of children and adolescents on dialysis. Design A systematic review of qualitative studies was conducted that explored the experiences of children on dialysis. Electronic databases and reference lists of relevant articles were searched to

  9. A qualitative study exploring attitudes and perceptions of HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim The study explored knowledge, attitudes and practices of HIV positive women who were instructed to stop breastfeeding at 6 months to prevent the transmission of HIV to their children. Methods We used qualitative methods consisting of key informant interviews (KII), critical incidence narratives (CINs), focus group ...

  10. A Qualitative Study on Primary School Mathematics Lesson Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongchen; Ma, Yunpeng

    2009-01-01

    Through the qualitative interviews of five implementers of primary school mathematics curriculum, this study addresses the ways in which mathematics lessons are evaluated. Results show that each evaluator recognizes different aspects of a "good lesson," however, among all criteria, the design of the lesson plan, realization of the lesson…

  11. Consonant and Vowel Processing in Word Form Segmentation: An Infant ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Von Holzen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation skill and the preferential processing of consonants (C-bias develop during the second half of the first year of life and it has been proposed that these facilitate language acquisition. We used Event-related brain potentials (ERPs to investigate the neural bases of early word form segmentation, and of the early processing of onset consonants, medial vowels, and coda consonants, exploring how differences in these early skills might be related to later language outcomes. Our results with French-learning eight-month-old infants primarily support previous studies that found that the word familiarity effect in segmentation is developing from a positive to a negative polarity at this age. Although as a group infants exhibited an anterior-localized negative effect, inspection of individual results revealed that a majority of infants showed a negative-going response (Negative Responders, while a minority showed a positive-going response (Positive Responders. Furthermore, all infants demonstrated sensitivity to onset consonant mispronunciations, while Negative Responders demonstrated a lack of sensitivity to vowel mispronunciations, a developmental pattern similar to previous literature. Responses to coda consonant mispronunciations revealed neither sensitivity nor lack of sensitivity. We found that infants showing a more mature, negative response to newly segmented words compared to control words (evaluating segmentation skill and mispronunciations (evaluating phonological processing at test also had greater growth in word production over the second year of life than infants showing a more positive response. These results establish a relationship between early segmentation skills and phonological processing (not modulated by the type of mispronunciation and later lexical skills.

  12. A word expressing affective pain activates the anterior cingulate cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki; Osaka, Mariko; Morishita, Masanao; Kondo, Hirohito; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2004-08-12

    We present an fMRI study demonstrating that an onomatopoeia word highly suggestive of subjective pain, heard by the ear, significantly activates the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) while hearing non-sense words that did not imply affective pain under the same task does not activate this area in humans. We concluded that the ACC would be a pivotal locus for perceiving affective pain evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied affective pain closely associated with the unpleasantness of pain. We suggest that the pain affect sustained by pain unpleasantness may depend on ACC-prefrontal cortical interactions that modify cognitive evaluation of emotions associated with word-induced pain.

  13. An fMRI study of concreteness effects during spoken word recognition in aging. Preservation or attenuation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy eRoxbury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether healthy aging influences concreteness effects (ie. the processing advantage seen for concrete over abstract words and its associated neural mechanisms. We conducted an fMRI study on young and older healthy adults performing auditory lexical decisions on concrete versus abstract words. We found that spoken comprehension of concrete and abstract words appears relatively preserved for healthy older individuals, including the concreteness effect. This preserved performance was supported by altered activity in left hemisphere regions including the inferior and middle frontal gyri, angular gyrus, and fusiform gyrus. This pattern is consistent with age-related compensatory mechanisms supporting spoken word processing.

  14. The Words First Attested in Shakespeare and Their Later Obsolescence : A Study Based on the Oxford English Dictionary

    OpenAIRE

    鉄村, 明美

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to classify the words that first attested in Shakespeare’s works and to investigate the characteristics of ‘obsolete’ words in the texts with reference to the Oxford English Dictionary. The words first attested in Shakespeare’s works were selected using the Oxford English Dictionary Online. Next, these words were divided into two groups: ‘obsolete lexical items’ and ‘current lexical items’. The results for each of Shakespeare’s works and for sources of neologisms(der...

  15. On universal partial words

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Herman Z. Q.; Kitaev, Sergey; Mütze, Torsten; Sun, Brian Y.

    2016-01-01

    A universal word for a finite alphabet $A$ and some integer $n\\geq 1$ is a word over $A$ such that every word in $A^n$ appears exactly once as a subword (cyclically or linearly). It is well-known and easy to prove that universal words exist for any $A$ and $n$. In this work we initiate the systematic study of universal partial words. These are words that in addition to the letters from $A$ may contain an arbitrary number of occurrences of a special `joker' symbol $\\Diamond\

  16. Effects of semantic context on access to words of low imageability in deep-phonological dysphasia: a treatment case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Laura Mary; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Kohen, Francine; Martin, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    Deep dysphasia is a relatively rare subcategory of aphasia, characterised by word repetition impairment and a profound auditory-verbal short-term memory (STM) limitation. Repetition of words is better than nonwords (lexicality effect) and better for high-image than low-image words (imageability effect). Another related language impairment profile is phonological dysphasia, which includes all of the characteristics of deep dysphasia except for the occurrence of semantic errors in single word repetition. The overlap in symptoms of deep and phonological dysphasia has led to the hypothesis that they share the same root cause, impaired maintenance of activated representation of words, but that they differ in severity of that impairment, with deep dysphasia being more severe. We report a single-subject multiple baseline, multiple probe treatment study of a person who presented with a pattern of repetition that was consistent with the continuum of deep-phonological dysphasia: imageability and lexicality effects in repetition of single and multiple words and semantic errors in repetition of multiple-word utterances. The aim of this treatment study was to improve access to and repetition of low-imageability words by embedding them in modifier-noun phrases that enhanced their imageability. The treatment involved repetition of abstract noun pairs. We created modifier-abstract noun phrases that increased the semantic and syntactic cohesiveness of the words in the pair. For example, the phrases "long distance" and "social exclusion" were developed to improve repetition of the abstract pair "distance-exclusion". The goal of this manipulation was to increase the probability of accessing lexical and semantic representations of abstract words in repetition by enriching their semantic -syntactic context. We predicted that this increase in accessibility would be maintained when the words were repeated as pairs, but without the contextual phrase. Treatment outcomes indicated that

  17. Summary Report of National Study of Word Processing Installations in Selected Business Organizations. A Summary of a Report on the National Word Processing Research Study of Delta Pi Epsilon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven, Jolene D.; And Others

    A study sought to determine current practices in word processing installations located in selected organizations throughout the United States. A related problem was to ascertain anticipated future developments in word processing to provide information for educational institutions preparing workers for the business office. Six interview instruments…

  18. Novice Nurses’ Perception of Working Night Shifts: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing is always accompanied by shift working and nurses in Iran have to work night shifts in some stages of their professional life. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted on 20 novice nurses working in two university hospitals of Jahrom, Iran. The study data were collected through focus group interviews. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using constant comparative analysis and qualitative content analysis. Results: The study findings revealed five major themes of value system, physical and psychological problems, social relationships, organizational problems, and appropriate opportunity. Conclusion: The study presented a deep understanding of the novice nurses’ perception of working night shifts, which can be used by the managers as a basis for organizing health and treatment systems.

  19. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T.

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms. PMID:26733895

  20. Implicit and explicit attention to pictures and words: An fMRI-study of concurrent emotional stimulus processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eFlaisch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms.

  1. Implicit and Explicit Attention to Pictures and Words: An fMRI-Study of Concurrent Emotional Stimulus Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaisch, Tobias; Imhof, Martin; Schmälzle, Ralf; Wentz, Klaus-Ulrich; Ibach, Bernd; Schupp, Harald T

    2015-01-01

    The present study utilized functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural processing of concurrently presented emotional stimuli under varying explicit and implicit attention demands. Specifically, in separate trials, participants indicated the category of either pictures or words. The words were placed over the center of the pictures and the picture-word compound-stimuli were presented for 1500 ms in a rapid event-related design. The results reveal pronounced main effects of task and emotion: the picture categorization task prompted strong activations in visual, parietal, temporal, frontal, and subcortical regions; the word categorization task evoked increased activation only in left extrastriate cortex. Furthermore, beyond replicating key findings regarding emotional picture and word processing, the results point to a dissociation of semantic-affective and sensory-perceptual processes for words: while emotional words engaged semantic-affective networks of the left hemisphere regardless of task, the increased activity in left extrastriate cortex associated with explicitly attending to words was diminished when the word was overlaid over an erotic image. Finally, we observed a significant interaction between Picture Category and Task within dorsal visual-associative regions, inferior parietal, and dorsolateral, and medial prefrontal cortices: during the word categorization task, activation was increased in these regions when the words were overlaid over erotic as compared to romantic pictures. During the picture categorization task, activity in these areas was relatively decreased when categorizing erotic as compared to romantic pictures. Thus, the emotional intensity of the pictures strongly affected brain regions devoted to the control of task-related word or picture processing. These findings are discussed with respect to the interplay of obligatory stimulus processing with task-related attentional control mechanisms.

  2. Emotional Picture and Word Processing: An fMRI Study on Effects of Stimulus Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlochtermeier, Lorna H.; Kuchinke, Lars; Pehrs, Corinna; Urton, Karolina; Kappelhoff, Hermann; Jacobs, Arthur M.

    2013-01-01

    Neuroscientific investigations regarding aspects of emotional experiences usually focus on one stimulus modality (e.g., pictorial or verbal). Similarities and differences in the processing between the different modalities have rarely been studied directly. The comparison of verbal and pictorial emotional stimuli often reveals a processing advantage of emotional pictures in terms of larger or more pronounced emotion effects evoked by pictorial stimuli. In this study, we examined whether this picture advantage refers to general processing differences or whether it might partly be attributed to differences in visual complexity between pictures and words. We first developed a new stimulus database comprising valence and arousal ratings for more than 200 concrete objects representable in different modalities including different levels of complexity: words, phrases, pictograms, and photographs. Using fMRI we then studied the neural correlates of the processing of these emotional stimuli in a valence judgment task, in which the stimulus material was controlled for differences in emotional arousal. No superiority for the pictorial stimuli was found in terms of emotional information processing with differences between modalities being revealed mainly in perceptual processing regions. While visual complexity might partly account for previously found differences in emotional stimulus processing, the main existing processing differences are probably due to enhanced processing in modality specific perceptual regions. We would suggest that both pictures and words elicit emotional responses with no general superiority for either stimulus modality, while emotional responses to pictures are modulated by perceptual stimulus features, such as picture complexity. PMID:23409009

  3. Spiritual Health through Pilgrimage Therapy: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Moaven; Majid Movahed; Mohammad Taghi Iman Iman; Mansour Tabiee

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Going on a pilgrimage for spiritual and religious purposes is not a new phenomenon and can be considered one of the oldest tourism typologies. This form of travel is related to the task social perception, which is stronger than leisure or pleasure. The purpose of this ethnographic study was to study how spiritual well-being is achieved through pilgrimages trips. Methods: This qualitative research was carried out using ethnographic methodology. Data collection was...

  4. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. Methods: This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013. The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The partic...

  5. Factors influencing patients’ satisfaction with complete dentures: a qualitative study.

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jessica de Cassia Motta; Departamento de Odontologia – Univ de Taubaté – Taubaté – SP – Brazil.; dos Santos, Jarbas Francisco Fernandes; Departamento de Odontologia – Univ de Taubaté – Taubaté – SP – Brazil.; Marchini, Leonardo; College of Dentistry – University of Iowa – Iowa City – IA – USA.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The treatment most used worldwide for edentulism is conventional complete dentures, and the most important factor for the success of denture treatment seems to be patient satisfaction. The present study aims to use a qualitative approach to investigate factors that were previously associated with patient satisfaction with dentures by quantitative techniques (correlational studies). Material and methods: Twenty patients (12 women and 8 men, age 59-87) participated in open and semi-s...

  6. Definition and management of hypertension among Haitian immigrants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Marie-Anne; Mohammed, Selina A; McCullagh, Marjorie C

    2014-08-01

    Hypertension is a major health concern among Haitian immigrants, one of the largest Caribbean immigrant groups in the United States. Yet, little is known about how Hatian immigrants define and manage hypertension. For this qualitative study, face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 Haitian immigrants in Miami Dade County, Florida. Results indicated that most Haitian immigrants used the Haitian Creole word tansyon to represent hypertension. Tansyon was considered as either a normal condition of the human body or a maladi (illness). Both traditional biomedical and alternative approaches were used to manage hypertension. The findings show that how Haitian immigrants defined hypertension shaped their beliefs about its occurrence and the resulting management strategies used. Those who believed tansyon was a normal body condition did not take any management measures. Awareness and understanding of Haitian immigrants' beliefs about and approaches to hypertension management can enhance culturally sensitive care and improve health outcomes.

  7. Word and Number Reading in the Brain: Evidence from a Voxel-Based Lesion-Symptom Mapping Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piras, Fabrizio; Marangolo, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The high incidence of number transcoding deficits in aphasic subjects suggests there is a strong similarity between language and number domains. However, recent single case studies of subjects who showed a dissociation between word and number word transcoding led us to hypothesize that the two types of stimuli are represented independently in the…

  8. The Influence of Visual Word Form in Reading: Single Case Study of an Arabic Patient with Deep Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaraf, Assia; Macoir, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Deep dyslexia is a written language disorder characterized by poor reading of non-words, and advantage for concrete over abstract words with production of semantic, visual and morphological errors. In this single case study of an Arabic patient with input deep dyslexia, we investigated the impact of graphic features of Arabic on manifestations of…

  9. Qualitative case study data analysis: an example from practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Murphy, Kathy; Shaw, David; Casey, Dympna

    2015-05-01

    To illustrate an approach to data analysis in qualitative case study methodology. There is often little detail in case study research about how data were analysed. However, it is important that comprehensive analysis procedures are used because there are often large sets of data from multiple sources of evidence. Furthermore, the ability to describe in detail how the analysis was conducted ensures rigour in reporting qualitative research. The research example used is a multiple case study that explored the role of the clinical skills laboratory in preparing students for the real world of practice. Data analysis was conducted using a framework guided by the four stages of analysis outlined by Morse ( 1994 ): comprehending, synthesising, theorising and recontextualising. The specific strategies for analysis in these stages centred on the work of Miles and Huberman ( 1994 ), which has been successfully used in case study research. The data were managed using NVivo software. Literature examining qualitative data analysis was reviewed and strategies illustrated by the case study example provided. Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. By providing an example of how each stage of the analysis was conducted, it is hoped that researchers will be able to consider the benefits of such an approach to their own case study analysis. This paper illustrates specific strategies that can be employed when conducting data analysis in case study research and other qualitative research designs.

  10. Information behaviour of graduate students: a qualitative user study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorazd Vodeb

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a qualitative user study exploring information behaviour of graduate students. The study is conceptually based on Brenda Dervin’s Sense-Making Methodology. The information behaviour is conceptualised as a process. The author conducted 13 interviews using the time-line micro moment interview technique. Data were transcribed and then condensed using the ATLAS/ti program for qualitative analysis. The basic approach to the analysis was to compare the moments of sense making instances within the situation of the same actor and also a comparison of moments across situations of different actors. The characteristics of actors’ situations was described. The most intensive information activity of graduate students was found during the completion of their studies. The proposed model consisted of three successive types of gaps: topic selection gap, topic ignorance gap and literature collecting gap. The article also presents findings about the process of writing and information habits.

  11. Postpartum smoking relapse--a thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Caitlin; Blyth, Annie; Craig, Jean; Edwards, Alice; Holland, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Many women quit smoking during pregnancy, but relapse after the baby is born. To understand why and identify ways of preventing this, this study reviewed the qualitative literature on women's experience of postpartum smoking relapse. A systematic review of qualitative studies and process evaluations of trials. We undertook a thematic synthesis of published qualitative data. We screened 1336 papers. Twenty-two papers reporting on 16 studies were included, reporting on the views of 1031 postpartum women. Factors affecting relapse and barriers and facilitators to relapse prevention were identified around the key themes of beliefs, social influences, motivation, physiological factors and identity. Women's beliefs about smoking as a means of coping with stress and the need for social support, especially from a partner, emerged as important. Extrinsic motivation to quit during the pregnancy (for the health of the fetus) appeared to be a factor in prompting relapse after the baby was born. During the immediate postpartum period women believed that physiological changes influence cigarette cravings. The stress of caring for a newborn, sleeplessness and adjusting to a new mothering identity were also reported to be important. Among women who quit smoking during pregnancy, those who relapse postpartum talk commonly about no longer needing to protect the baby and the effects of stress. Partner support and a sense of changed identity are cited as factors preventing relapse. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Processing of word stress related acoustic information: A multi-feature MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honbolygó, Ferenc; Kolozsvári, Orsolya; Csépe, Valéria

    2017-08-01

    In the present study, we investigated the processing of word stress related acoustic features in a word context. In a passive oddball multi-feature MMN experiment, we presented a disyllabic pseudo-word with two acoustically similar syllables as standard stimulus, and five contrasting deviants that differed from the standard in that they were either stressed on the first syllable or contained a vowel change. Stress was realized by an increase of f0, intensity, vowel duration or consonant duration. The vowel change was used to investigate if phonemic and prosodic changes elicit different MMN components. As a control condition, we presented non-speech counterparts of the speech stimuli. Results showed all but one feature (non-speech intensity deviant) eliciting the MMN component, which was larger for speech compared to non-speech stimuli. Two other components showed stimulus related effects: the N350 and the LDN (Late Discriminative Negativity). The N350 appeared to the vowel duration and consonant duration deviants, specifically to features related to the temporal characteristics of stimuli, while the LDN was present for all features, and it was larger for speech than for non-speech stimuli. We also found that the f0 and consonant duration features elicited a larger MMN than other features. These results suggest that stress as a phonological feature is processed based on long-term representations, and listeners show a specific sensitivity to segmental and suprasegmental cues signaling the prosodic boundaries of words. These findings support a two-stage model in the perception of stress and phoneme related acoustical information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Design Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Participants Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assau...

  14. Nutrition, training and recovery : A qualitative study of athletes’ perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Large components for athletes are nutrition, training and recovery. These components are subjects all by them selves in all kind of media. That woke my interest to find out more about the connections between nutrition, training and recovery and how much knowledge athletes have of them together. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to investigate how athletes feelings and experience of nutrition, training and recovery. Method: A qualitative approach was used to investigate athl...

  15. Weaving leadership longitudinally: a qualitative study on faculty development

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Pauline

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if faculty who undertake teacher preparation, which has a leadership intervention across each module, are better prepared to take on educational leadership roles. Methods A cross sectional qualitative approach was used as part of a longitudinal evaluation of a program. The aim was to explore the perceptions of a purposive sample across three cohorts of students. Data was collected via semi-structured interviews and were analyzed by thema...

  16. A qualitative single case study of parallel processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Claus Haugaard

    2007-01-01

    Parallel process in psychotherapy and supervision is a phenomenon manifest in relationships and interactions, that originates in one setting and is reflected in another. This article presents an explorative single case study of parallel processes based on qualitative analyses of two successive...... randomly chosen psychotherapy sessions with a schizophrenic patient and the supervision session given in between. The author's analysis is verified by an independent examiner's analysis. Parallel processes are identified and described. Reflections on the dynamics of parallel processes and supervisory...

  17. Qualitative Data Collection and Interpretation: A Turkish Social Studies Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilman Grammes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The classroom with its teaching-learning dynamics creates a kind of “embryonic society” in which the micro-policies of collective social knowledge construction and meaning can be re-constructed; therefore, it can be considered as a kind of “mirror” of political culture. Thus, comparative lesson research, which requires indepth classroom observation, has been getting much attention among educational community. On the other hand, there have not been done many studies that represent social studies and civics in particular, in this research tradition. Naturally, this research tradition is based on qualitative research paradigm. Likewise, qualitative research tradition has been getting increasing attention among educational community. Thus, the first purpose of this article is to explain all documentation and pre-interpretation process of this lesson so that it can provide an example for qualitative researchers. The second purpose of this article is to provide an example lesson of political education from Turkey so that educators worldwide can compare one example of social studies education practice in Turkey and with their countries.

  18. Effective factors in providing holistic care: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Zamanzadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Holistic care is a comprehensive model of caring. Previous studies have shown that most nurses do not apply this method. Examining the effective factors in nurses′ provision of holistic care can help with enhancing it. Studying these factors from the point of view of nurses will generate real and meaningful concepts and can help to extend this method of caring. Materials and Methods: A qualitative study was used to identify effective factors in holistic care provision. Data gathered by interviewing 14 nurses from university hospitals in Iran were analyzed with a conventional qualitative content analysis method and by using MAXQDA (professional software for qualitative and mixed methods data analysis software. Results: Analysis of data revealed three main themes as effective factors in providing holistic care: The structure of educational system, professional environment, and personality traits. Conclusion: Establishing appropriate educational, management systems, and promoting religiousness and encouragement will induce nurses to provide holistic care and ultimately improve the quality of their caring.

  19. The effect of encoding manipulation on word-stem cued recall: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Séverine; Isingrini, Michel; Ragot, Richard; Pouthas, Viviane

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to find out whether the neural correlates of explicit retrieval from episodic memory would vary according to conditions at encoding when the words were presented in separate study/test blocks. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants performed a word-stem cued-recall task. Deeply (semantically) studied words were associated with higher levels of recall and faster response times than shallowly (lexically) studied words. Robust ERP old/new effects were observed for each encoding condition. They varied in magnitude, being largest in the semantic condition. As expected, scalp distributions also differed: for deeply studied words, the old/new effect resembled that found in previous ERP studies of word-stem cued-recall tasks (parietal and right frontal effects, between 400-800 and 800-1100 ms post-stimulus), whereas for shallowly studied words, the parietal old/new effect was absent in the latter latency window. These results can be interpreted as reflecting access to different kinds of memory representation depending on the nature of the processing engaged during encoding. Furthermore, differences in the ERPs elicited by new items indicate that subjects adopted different processing strategies in the test blocks following each encoding condition.

  20. Qualitative case study methodology in nursing research: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Susan; Jack, Susan

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to critically analyse the contemporary use of qualitative case study methodology in nursing research. Increasing complexity in health care and increasing use of case study in nursing research support the need for current examination of this methodology. In 2007, a search for case study research (published 2005-2007) indexed in the CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, Sociological Abstracts and SCOPUS databases was conducted. A sample of 42 case study research papers met the inclusion criteria. Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided the analysis. Confusion exists about the name, nature and use of case study. This methodology, including terminology and concepts, is often invisible in qualitative study titles and abstracts. Case study is an exclusive methodology and an adjunct to exploring particular aspects of phenomena under investigation in larger or mixed-methods studies. A high quality of case study exists in nursing research. Judicious selection and diligent application of literature review methods promote the development of nursing science. Case study is becoming entrenched in the nursing research lexicon as a well-accepted methodology for studying phenomena in health and social care, and its growing use warrants continued appraisal to promote nursing knowledge development. Attention to all case study elements, process and publication is important in promoting authenticity, methodological quality and visibility.

  1. Spirituality, Religion, and Suicidality Among Veterans: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Jaimie; Dobscha, Steven K; Kopacz, Marek; Ritchie, Mary Frances; Ono, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the relationship between veterans' spirituality/religion and suicide ideation and attempts. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 veterans who either endorsed chronic suicidal ideation or had made suicide attempt(s). Interviews explored the bi-directional relationship between spirituality/religion (e.g., beliefs, practices, and experiences), and suicide ideation and behaviors. Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis. Veterans' responses indicate that spirituality/religion can discourage or permit suicidal ideation, help in coping with ideation, and facilitate meaning making and coping in the presence of self-perceived suffering. Veterans who survived a suicide attempt explored the impact of their spirituality/religion on their recovery. Findings highlight a complex and diverse relationship between spirituality/religion and suicidality. These findings may inform further research on treatment strategies that assess the function of spirituality/religion, and incorporate protective aspects of spirituality/religion into mental health treatment.

  2. Effective International Medical Disaster Relief: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broby, Nicolette; Lassetter, Jane H; Williams, Mary; Winters, Blaine A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to assist organizations seeking to develop or improve their medical disaster relief effort by identifying fundamental elements and processes that permeate high-quality, international, medical disaster relief organizations and the teams they deploy. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data were gathered from interviews with key personnel at five international medical response organizations, as well as during field observations conducted at multiple sites in Jordan and Greece, including three refugee camps. Data were then reviewed by the research team and coded to identify patterns, categories, and themes. The results from this qualitative, descriptive design identified three themes which were key characteristics of success found in effective, well-established, international medical disaster relief organizations. These characteristics were first, ensuring an official invitation had been extended and the need for assistance had been identified. Second, the response to that need was done in an effective and sustainable manner. Third, effective organizations strived to obtain high-quality volunteers. By following the three key characteristics outlined in this research, organizations are more likely to improve the efficiency and quality of their work. In addition, they will be less likely to impede the overall recovery process. Broby N , Lassetter JH , Williams M , Winters BA . Effective international medical disaster relief: a qualitative descriptive study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):119-126.

  3. The Functions Of Taboo Words And Their Translation In Subtitling: A Case Study In “The Help”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Darma Yoga Pratama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Translating taboo words in subtitling especially translating them into Indonesian is quite difficult since most of the Indonesian people are not used to uttering taboo or offensive words publicly. In addition, watching movie is more of social activity compared to reading and that is why reading taboo expressions while watching might be embarrassing. This study tries to explore the functions of taboo words found in “The Help” movie and tries to find out how the translator translate the taboo words into the target language in order to produce the closest functions to the source language without ignoring the technical aspects of subtitling. This study also deals with the strategy used by the translator to translate the taboo words. The main theories applied here in are from Karamitroglou (1998, Ljung (2011, Toury (1995, and Gottlieb (1992. There are 70 taboo words found in the raw data and the functions of those taboo words are to express sympathy, surprise, disappointment, disbelief, fear, annoyance, metaphorical interpretation, reaction to mishap, to emphasize the associated item, function as adjectival intensifier, name-calling, anaphoric use of epithet, oath, curse, unfriendly suggestion, and four of the taboo words show non-swearing word or in dysphemism form. The strategies applied are omission (16, transfer (27, and euphemism (26. In terms of the technical aspect in subtitling, all of the subtitles in the target language are presented at the maximum of two lines at once. However, there are three lines of the subtitles which exceed the maximum numbers of characters being proposed. Since taboo word is not only used to offend someone, it is important for the translator to get the closest equivalence in the target language in order to maintain its function. The translator may choose whether he/she wants to follow the source language norms to produce adequate target text or follow the target language norms in order to produce acceptable

  4. Important considerations in lesion-symptom mapping: Illustrations from studies of word comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Hinna; Sebastian, Rajani; Schnur, Tatiana T; Hanayik, Taylor; Wright, Amy; Tippett, Donna C; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Hillis, Argye E

    2017-06-01

    Lesion-symptom mapping is an important method of identifying networks of brain regions critical for functions. However, results might be influenced substantially by the imaging modality and timing of assessment. We tested the hypothesis that brain regions found to be associated with acute language deficits depend on (1) timing of behavioral measurement, (2) imaging sequences utilized to define the "lesion" (structural abnormality only or structural plus perfusion abnormality), and (3) power of the study. We studied 191 individuals with acute left hemisphere stroke with MRI and language testing to identify areas critical for spoken word comprehension. We use the data from this study to examine the potential impact of these three variables on lesion-symptom mapping. We found that only the combination of structural and perfusion imaging within 48 h of onset identified areas where more abnormal voxels was associated with more severe acute deficits, after controlling for lesion volume and multiple comparisons. The critical area identified with this methodology was the left posterior superior temporal gyrus, consistent with other methods that have identified an important role of this area in spoken word comprehension. Results have implications for interpretation of other lesion-symptom mapping studies, as well as for understanding areas critical for auditory word comprehension in the healthy brain. We propose that lesion-symptom mapping at the acute stage of stroke addresses a different sort of question about brain-behavior relationships than lesion-symptom mapping at the chronic stage, but that timing of behavioral measurement and imaging modalities should be considered in either case. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2990-3000, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Modeling code-interactions in bilingual word recognition: Recent empirical studies and simulations with BIA+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, K.J.Y.; Dijkstra, A.F.J.

    2010-01-01

    Daily conversations contain many repetitions of identical and similar word forms. For bilinguals, the words can even come from the same or different languages. How do such repetitions affect the human word recognition system? The Bilingual Interactive Activation Plus (BIA+) model provides a

  6. Aye, Aye, Aye, Aye: Orthography Enhances Rapid Word Reading in an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Graham F.; Post, Yolanda

    2003-01-01

    Uses a novel word-reading efficiency measure to determine if articulations or processing times associated with reading the word "aye" were enhanced through the phonological or orthographic qualities contained in the preceding word. Documents the importance of separating phonological and orthographic information in English homophones. (SG)

  7. What's in a word? What's a word in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Line Brink

    2011-01-01

    Integrationaltheory isadiverse fieldofresearchthat dealswithlanguage andthe socialact of communication on the premise that ‘‘language presupposes communication’’ and the field conceptualizes communication as embedded in situations of people, time and space andtherefore highly dependent oncontextual...... and social psychology to create new insights to the communicational studies of new words. My study will rely on examples from three diverse qualitative data sets involving youngsters in social networks in and outside the Internet, analyzed according to integrational principles. Through these integrational...

  8. Content analysis and thematic analysis: Implications for conducting a qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Turunen, Hannele; Bondas, Terese

    2013-09-01

    Qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis are two commonly used approaches in data analysis of nursing research, but boundaries between the two have not been clearly specified. In other words, they are being used interchangeably and it seems difficult for the researcher to choose between them. In this respect, this paper describes and discusses the boundaries between qualitative content analysis and thematic analysis and presents implications to improve the consistency between the purpose of related studies and the method of data analyses. This is a discussion paper, comprising an analytical overview and discussion of the definitions, aims, philosophical background, data gathering, and analysis of content analysis and thematic analysis, and addressing their methodological subtleties. It is concluded that in spite of many similarities between the approaches, including cutting across data and searching for patterns and themes, their main difference lies in the opportunity for quantification of data. It means that measuring the frequency of different categories and themes is possible in content analysis with caution as a proxy for significance. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Ongoing Semantic Change in Seven Swedish Words : A questionnaire-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Luzhkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    The lexical semantics of a language is an area of linguistics that has many important implications for the life of modern society. It is important to understand how language change works and why this change occurs. Thus the aim of the work described in the thesis was to examine how six Swedish words, fett, fräsch, fräck, grym, häftig, and tajt are used by five different age groups of Swedish people in Uppsala region. To accomplish the aim of the study an appropriate questionnaire was compiled...

  10. Stigma, abortion, and disclosure--findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury-Ward, Edna; Parry, Odette; Carnwell, Ros

    2012-12-01

    This study qualitatively explores perceptions of women who have experienced abortion care. It explores women's journey through abortion from confirmation of pregnancy to post-abortion. The study seeks to understand the implications of these perceptions for policy and practice. A qualitative study involving in-depth semi-structured interviews with 17 women, aged between 22 and 57 years, who had undergone legal induced abortion in the UK when they were 16 years or older. Participants were not recruited under the age of 16 because of the ethical and legal complexities of interviewing minors. Additionally, 16 years was deemed to be the most appropriate age as this is the legal age of consent in the UK. Participants were recruited from 12 community contraception and sexual health clinics in two NHS trusts, one in England and one in Wales. Participant recruitment was set at a minimum of 12 and participants were recruited on a "first come first served basis" (i.e., the first 12 who contacted the researcher). The number of participants was raised to seventeen as this was the number deemed to be the most suitable for data saturation in this particular qualitative research. Women in this study understood abortion as highly taboo and a potentially personally stigmatizing event. These perceptions continued to affect disclosure to others, long after the abortion, and affected women's perceptions of the response of others, including society in general, significant others, and health professionals. Women's experiences of abortion may be influenced by perceived negative social attitudes. Health professionals and abortion service providers might combat the perceived isolation of women undergoing abortion by attending not only to clinical/technical aspects of the procedure but also to women's psychological/emotional sensitivities surrounding the event. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  11. Walk-related mimic word activates the extrastriate visual cortex in the human brain: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaka, Naoyuki

    2009-03-02

    I present an fMRI study demonstrating that a mimic word highly suggestive of human walking, heard by the ear with eyes closed, significantly activates the visual cortex located in extrastriate occipital region (BA19, 18) and superior temporal sulcus (STS) while hearing non-sense words that do not imply walk under the same task does not activate these areas in humans. I concluded that BA19 and 18 would be a critical region for generating visual images of walking and related intentional stance, respectively, evoked by an onomatopoeia word that implied walking.

  12. Early Prefrontal Brain Responses to the Hedonic Quality of Emotional Words – A Simultaneous EEG and MEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A.; Eden, Annuschka S.; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80–120 ms), P2 (150–190 ms) and EPN component (200–300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an “emotional tagging” of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological. PMID:23940642

  13. Early prefrontal brain responses to the Hedonic quality of emotional words--a simultaneous EEG and MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuper, Kati; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Rehbein, Maimu A; Eden, Annuschka S; Laeger, Inga; Junghöfer, Markus; Zwanzger, Peter; Dobel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The hedonic meaning of words affects word recognition, as shown by behavioral, functional imaging, and event-related potential (ERP) studies. However, the spatiotemporal dynamics and cognitive functions behind are elusive, partly due to methodological limitations of previous studies. Here, we account for these difficulties by computing combined electro-magnetoencephalographic (EEG/MEG) source localization techniques. Participants covertly read emotionally high-arousing positive and negative nouns, while EEG and MEG were recorded simultaneously. Combined EEG/MEG current-density reconstructions for the P1 (80-120 ms), P2 (150-190 ms) and EPN component (200-300 ms) were computed using realistic individual head models, with a cortical constraint. Relative to negative words, the P1 to positive words predominantly involved language-related structures (left middle temporal and inferior frontal regions), and posterior structures related to directed attention (occipital and parietal regions). Effects shifted to the right hemisphere in the P2 component. By contrast, negative words received more activation in the P1 time-range only, recruiting prefrontal regions, including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Effects in the EPN were not statistically significant. These findings show that different neuronal networks are active when positive versus negative words are processed. We account for these effects in terms of an "emotional tagging" of word forms during language acquisition. These tags then give rise to different processing strategies, including enhanced lexical processing of positive words and a very fast language-independent alert response to negative words. The valence-specific recruitment of different networks might underlie fast adaptive responses to both approach- and withdrawal-related stimuli, be they acquired or biological.

  14. Recent trends in user studies: action research and qualitative methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Wilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper was commissioned by Professor Gernot Wersig of the Freie Universität, Berlin in 1980, as part of his Project, Methodeninstrumentarium zur Benutzforschung in Information und Dokumentation. It attempted to set out what was, for the time, a novel perspective on appropriate methodologies for the study of human information seeking behaviour, focusing on qualitative methods and action research, arguing that the application of information research depended up its adoption into the managerial processes of organizations, rather than its self-evident relationship to any body of theory.

  15. Primary phonological planning units in spoken word production are language-specific: Evidence from an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Wang, Suiping; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2017-07-19

    It is widely acknowledged in Germanic languages that segments are the primary planning units at the phonological encoding stage of spoken word production. Mixed results, however, have been found in Chinese, and it is still unclear what roles syllables and segments play in planning Chinese spoken word production. In the current study, participants were asked to first prepare and later produce disyllabic Mandarin words upon picture prompts and a response cue while electroencephalogram (EEG) signals were recorded. Each two consecutive pictures implicitly formed a pair of prime and target, whose names shared the same word-initial atonal syllable or the same word-initial segments, or were unrelated in the control conditions. Only syllable repetition induced significant effects on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) after target onset: a widely distributed positivity in the 200- to 400-ms interval and an anterior positivity in the 400- to 600-ms interval. We interpret these to reflect syllable-size representations at the phonological encoding and phonetic encoding stages. Our results provide the first electrophysiological evidence for the distinct role of syllables in producing Mandarin spoken words, supporting a language specificity hypothesis about the primary phonological units in spoken word production.

  16. Word and picture matching: a PET study of semantic category effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perani, D; Schnur, T; Tettamanti, M; Gorno-Tempini, M; Cappa, S F; Fazio, F

    1999-03-01

    We report two positron emission tomography (PET) studies of cerebral activation during picture and word matching tasks, in which we compared directly the processing of stimuli belonging to different semantic categories (animate and inanimate) in the visual (pictures) and verbal (words) modality. In the first experiment, brain activation was measured in eleven healthy adults during a same/different matching task for textures, meaningless shapes and pictures of animals and artefacts (tools). Activations for meaningless shapes when compared to visual texture discrimination were localized in the left occipital and inferior temporal cortex. Animal picture identification, either in the comparison with meaningless shapes and in the direct comparison with non-living pictures, involved primarily activation of occipital regions, namely the lingual gyrus bilaterally and the left fusiform gyrus. For artefact picture identification, in the same comparison with meaningless shape-baseline and in the direct comparison with living pictures, all activations were left hemispheric, through the dorsolateral frontal (Ba 44/6 and 45) and temporal (Ba 21, 20) cortex. In the second experiment, brain activation was measured in eight healthy adults during a same/different matching task for visually presented words referring to animals and manipulable objects (tools); the baseline was a pseudoword discrimination task. When compared with the tool condition, the animal condition activated posterior left hemispheric areas, namely the fusiform (Ba 37) and the inferior occipital gyrus (Ba 18). The right superior parietal lobule (Ba 7) and the left thalamus were also activated. The reverse comparison (tools vs animals) showed left hemispheric activations in the middle temporal gyrus (Ba 21) and precuneus (Ba 7), as well as bilateral activation in the occipital regions. These results are compatible with different brain networks subserving the identification of living and non-living entities; in

  17. Locum physicians' professional ethos: a qualitative interview study from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloch, Sabine; Apitzsch, Birgit; Wilkesmann, Maximiliane; Ruiner, Caroline

    2018-05-08

    In contrast to other countries, the appearance of locum physicians as independent contractors constitutes a rather new phenomenon in the German health care system and emerged out of a growing economization and shortage of medical staff in the hospital sector. Locums are a special type of self-employed professionals who are only temporally embedded in organisational contexts of hospitals, and this might have consequences for their professional practice. Therefore, questions arise regarding how locums perceive their ethical duties as medical professionals. In this first qualitative study on German locum physicians, the locums' own perspective is complemented by the viewpoint of permanently employed physician colleagues. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 to explore the professional practice of locum physicians from both groups' perspectives with respect to doctor-patient-relationship, cooperation with colleagues and physicians' role in society. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis, including a deductive application and an inductive development of codes. The results were related to key tenets of medical professionalism with respect to the question: how far do locums fulfil their ethical duties towards patients, colleagues and the society? The study indicates that although ethical requirements are met broadly, difficulties remain with respect to close doctor-patient contact and the sustainability of hiring locums as a remedy in times of staff shortage. Further qualitative and quantitative research on locum physicians' professional practice, including patient perspectives and economic health care system analyses, is needed to better understand the ethical impact of hiring independent contractors in the hospital sector.

  18. Practices in Human Dignity in Palliative Care: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akin Korhan, Esra; Üstün, Çağatay; Uzelli Yilmaz, Derya

    Respecting and valuing an individual's existential dignity forms the basis of nursing and medical practice and of nursing care. The objective of the study was to determine the approach to human dignity that nurses and physicians have while providing palliative care. This qualitative study was performed using a phenomenological research design. In-depth semistructured interviews were conducted in 9 nurses and 5 physicians with human dignity approach in palliative care. Following the qualitative Colaizzi method of analyzing the data, the statements made by the nurses and physicians during the interviews were grouped under 8 categories. Consistent with the questionnaire format, 8 themes and 43 subthemes of responses were determined describing the human dignity of the nurse and the physicians. The results of the study showed that in some of the decisions and practices of the nurses giving nursing care and physicians giving medical care to palliative care patients, while they displayed ethically sensitive behavior, on some points, they showed approaches that violated human dignity and showed lack of awareness of ethical, medical, and social responsibilities.

  19. Characteristics of Qualitative Descriptive Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyejin; Sefcik, Justine S; Bradway, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Qualitative description (QD) is a term that is widely used to describe qualitative studies of health care and nursing-related phenomena. However, limited discussions regarding QD are found in the existing literature. In this systematic review, we identified characteristics of methods and findings reported in research articles published in 2014 whose authors identified the work as QD. After searching and screening, data were extracted from the sample of 55 QD articles and examined to characterize research objectives, design justification, theoretical/philosophical frameworks, sampling and sample size, data collection and sources, data analysis, and presentation of findings. In this review, three primary findings were identified. First, although there were some inconsistencies, most articles included characteristics consistent with the limited available QD definitions and descriptions. Next, flexibility or variability of methods was common and effective for obtaining rich data and achieving understanding of a phenomenon. Finally, justification for how a QD approach was chosen and why it would be an appropriate fit for a particular study was limited in the sample and, therefore, in need of increased attention. Based on these findings, recommendations include encouragement to researchers to provide as many details as possible regarding the methods of their QD studies so that readers can determine whether the methods used were reasonable and effective in producing useful findings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Quality of life in ostomy patients: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazam Dabirian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aazam Dabirian, Farideh Yaghmaei, Maryam Rassouli, Mansoureh Zagheri TafreshiNursing and Midwifery School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IranPurpose: Therapeutic procedures may not only treat disease but also affect patient quality of life. Therefore, quality of life should be measured in order to assess the impact of disease and therapeutic procedures. To identify clients' problems, it is necessary to assess several dimensions of quality of life, including physical, spiritual, economic, and social aspects. In this regard, we conducted a qualitative study to explore quality of life and its dimensions in ostomy patients referred to the Iranian Ostomy Association.Methods: Fourteen patients were interviewed about their quality of life dimensions by purposeful sampling. Data were gathered by semistructured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method.Results: Nine main themes emerged using this approach, including physical problems related to colostomy, impact of colostomy on psychological functioning, social and family relationships, travel, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual function, as well as religious and economic issues.Conclusion: The findings of the study identified a number of challenges in quality of life for patients with ostomy. The results can be used by health care providers to create a supportive environment that promotes better quality of life for their ostomy patients.Keywords: ostomy, colostomy, qualitative study, quality of life

  1. Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18 on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.

  2. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokaie, Mahshid; Simbar, Masoumeh; Yassini Ardekani, Seyed Mojtaba

    2015-10-01

    Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  3. Journey to vaccination: a protocol for a multinational qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelock, Ana; Miraldo, Marisa; Parand, Anam; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-31

    In the past two decades, childhood vaccination coverage has increased dramatically, averting an estimated 2-3 million deaths per year. Adult vaccination coverage, however, remains inconsistently recorded and substandard. Although structural barriers are known to limit coverage, social and psychological factors can also affect vaccine uptake. Previous qualitative studies have explored beliefs, attitudes and preferences associated with seasonal influenza (flu) vaccination uptake, yet little research has investigated how participants' context and experiences influence their vaccination decision-making process over time. This paper aims to provide a detailed account of a mixed methods approach designed to understand the wider constellation of social and psychological factors likely to influence adult vaccination decisions, as well as the context in which these decisions take place, in the USA, the UK, France, India, China and Brazil. We employ a combination of qualitative interviewing approaches to reach a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing vaccination decisions, specifically seasonal flu and tetanus. To elicit these factors, we developed the journey to vaccination, a new qualitative approach anchored on the heuristics and biases tradition and the customer journey mapping approach. A purposive sampling strategy is used to select participants who represent a range of key sociodemographic characteristics. Thematic analysis will be used to analyse the data. Typical journeys to vaccination will be proposed. Vaccination uptake is significantly influenced by social and psychological factors, some of which are under-reported and poorly understood. This research will provide a deeper understanding of the barriers and drivers to adult vaccination. Our findings will be published in relevant peer-reviewed journals and presented at academic conferences. They will also be presented as practical recommendations at policy and industry meetings and healthcare

  4. Maximising the value of combining qualitative research and randomised controlled trials in health research: the QUAlitative Research in Trials (QUART) study--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Cathain, Alicia; Thomas, Kate J; Drabble, Sarah J; Rudolph, Anne; Goode, Jackie; Hewison, Jenny

    2014-06-01

    Researchers sometimes undertake qualitative research with randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of health interventions. To systematically explore how qualitative research is being used with trials and identify ways of maximising its value to the trial aim of providing evidence of effectiveness of health interventions. A sequential mixed methods study with four components. (1) Database search of peer-reviewed journals between January 2008 and September 2010 for articles reporting the qualitative research undertaken with specific trials, (2) systematic search of database of registered trials to identify studies combining qualitative research and trials, (3) survey of 200 lead investigators of trials with no apparent qualitative research and (4) semistructured telephone interviews with 18 researchers purposively sampled from the first three methods. Qualitative research was undertaken with at least 12% of trials. A large number of articles reporting qualitative research undertaken with trials (n=296) were published between 2008 and 2010. A total of 28% (82/296) of articles reported qualitative research undertaken at the pre-trial stage and around one-quarter concerned drugs or devices. The articles focused on 22 aspects of the trial within five broad categories. Some focused on more than one aspect of the trial, totalling 356 examples. The qualitative research focused on the intervention being trialled (71%, 254/356), the design and conduct of the trial (15%, 54/356), the outcomes of the trial (1%, 5/356), the measures used in the trial (3%, 10/356), and the health condition in the trial (9%, 33/356). The potential value of the qualitative research to the trial endeavour included improving the external validity of trials and facilitating interpretation of trial findings. This value could be maximised by using qualitative research more at the pre-trial stage and reporting findings with explicit attention to the implications for the trial endeavour. During interviews

  5. Understanding physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Anna; Littlewood, Chris; McLean, Sionnadh

    2018-06-01

    Physical inactivity is a major public health issue and healthcare professionals are encouraged to promote physical activity during routine patient contacts in order to reduce non-communicable diseases and enhance individuals' quality of life. Little is known about physical activity promotion in physiotherapy practice in the UK. The aim of this study was to better understand physiotherapists' experience of physical activity promotion in clinical practice. A qualitative study was undertaken comprising 12 telephone interviews with participants using a quota sampling approach. The qualitative data was analysed using a thematic analysis approach and written up according to COREQ guidelines. Four themes were identified (1) Current physiotherapy practice (2) Barriers to, and facilitators of physical activity promotion, (3) Exercise or physical activity? and (4) Functional restoration versus general wellbeing. Physiotherapists use routine clinical contacts to discuss physical activity. However, brief interventions are not consistently used and no common framework to guide physical activity promotion was identified. Approaches appear to be inconsistent and informal and focus largely on short-term restoration of function rather than health promotion. There is scope to improve practice in line with current guidance to maximise potential impact on inactivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The emotional sequelae of whistleblowing: findings from a qualitative study.

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    Peters, Kath; Luck, Lauretta; Hutchinson, Marie; Wilkes, Lesley; Andrew, Sharon; Jackson, Debra

    2011-10-01

    To highlight and illuminate the emotional sequelae of whistleblowing from whistleblowers and subjects of whistleblowing complaints. Whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on individuals' physical and emotional well-being. However, few empirical studies have been conducted using qualitative methods to provide an in-depth exploration of the emotional consequences for those involved in whistleblowing incidents. Qualitative narrative inquiry design. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants who had been involved in whistleblowing incidents. During interviews participants' accounts were digitally recorded and then transcribed verbatim. Data were then analysed by two researchers until consensus was reached. Findings revealed that participants' emotional health was considerably compromised as a result of the whistleblowing incident. Analysis of the data revealed the following dominant themes: 'I felt sad and depressed': overwhelming and persistent distress; 'I was having panic attacks and hyperventilating': acute anxiety; and, 'I had all this playing on my mind': nightmares, flashbacks and intrusive thoughts. While it has been previously acknowledged that whistleblowing has the potential to have a negative impact on all aspects of an individual's life, this study notably highlights the intensity of emotional symptoms suffered by participants as well as the extended duration of time these symptoms were apparent. As professionals, nurses, as well as organisations, have a responsibility to identify those who may be suffering the emotional trauma of whistleblowing and ensure they have access to appropriate resources. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Exploring infertile women's experiences about sexual life: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Shahnaz; Ghasemi, Zahra; Beigi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Infertility is a serious problem in a couple's life that affects their marriage relationships. So, dissatisfaction with sexual function resulting from interpersonal problems is common among these couples. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of infertile women in their sexual life. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach. The participants were 20 infertile women referring to the health care centers and infertility clinics of Isfahan and were selected through purposive sampling. Data were collected by tape recording of deep interviews and analyzed by Colaizzi's method. Analysis of the participants' experiences led to five main concepts: "Disturbed in femininity-body image," "discouragement of sexual relations," "sacrifice of sexual pleasure for the sake of getting pregnant," "confusion in sexual relation during infertility treatment," and "striving to protect their marriage." Findings revealed that infertility affects women's different aspects of sexual life, especially disturbance in femininity-body image and sexual reluctance. With regard to women's willingness to protect their matrimonial life and prevent sexual trauma as a destroying factor for their family's mental health, it seems sexual counseling is necessary for infertile couples.

  8. Leisure activities among older Germans - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Leisure activities contribute to well-being and health in old age. Community nurses should consequently promote such activities among older persons. To do so they need an understanding of older persons' interest in leisure activities. Social contacts, volunteering and pursuit of hobbies and interests constitute the main aspects of leisure. This study aimed to determine the attitudes of older Germans to these aspects to identify user types of leisure time facilities. A qualitative study was conducted within a community-based project in an industrial town in West Germany. Data were collected with semi-structured guideline interviews and evaluated with qualitative content analysis according to Mayring. With regard to social contacts attitudes ranged from limited need for contacts to being a reliable member in an older persons' club. Social engagement is only found among the latter. Pursuit of hobbies and interest ranged from being a minimal user of leisure time facilities to refined expectations. Inflexible group structures may prevent potential users from participation despite having a programme in accordance with target group needs. Attitudes to leisure activities can be described as a combination of two dimensions: the degree of social involvement and the desired refinement of hobbies and interest. Community nurses who organise social afternoons need to assess these attitudes and should steer social dynamics of in a way that facilitates access for newcomers. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

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    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Parental behaviour in paediatric chronic pain: a qualitative observational study.

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    Dunford, Emma; Thompson, Miles; Gauntlett-Gilbert, Jeremy

    2014-10-01

    Parental behaviour appears to influence the adjustment of children with chronic pain. However, research in this area has failed to produce consistent evidence. Studies have tended to rely on self-report measures derived from adult pain populations. This qualitative, observational research provides descriptive data of parental behaviour in a clinical environment. A qualitative observational study was made of parents and adolescents in a physically stressful setting. Modified grounded theory was used to analyse verbal and non-verbal behaviours. Eight parent-adolescent dyads seeking treatment for chronic pain were videoed during physical exercise sessions. Verbal and non-verbal behaviours were recorded and transcribed. Four overarching categories emerged: 'monitoring', 'protecting', 'encouraging' and 'instructing'. These often had both verbal and non-verbal aspects. Within these categories, more precise behavioural groups were also identified. This research identifies categories of parental behaviour that were derived directly from observation, rather than imposed on the basis of results from different populations. Four categories of behaviour were derived, which clarify and extend dimensions used in existing self-report instruments. Careful description of parental behaviours showed features that past research has neglected, and highlighted potential drawbacks of apparently positive parental actions. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Kurdish women's preference for mode of birth: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahoei, Roonak; Rezaei, Masomeh; Ranaei, Fariba; Khosravy, Farangis; Zaheri, Farzaneh

    2014-06-01

    Choosing between a normal delivery and Caesarean section is a matter of critical importance for a pregnant woman. The third trimester is the time for her to think about methods of delivery. The study aims to gain insight into Kurdish pregnant women's birth preference and their perception of factors influencing this choice. In this qualitative study, 22 pregnant Kurdish women were interviewed during the third trimester of their pregnancies. The setting for the study included three public health-care centres of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences in Sanandaj, a centre of the Kurdistan province at the western part of Iran. Study participants were recruited from maternity units of health-care centres. A purposive sample was used initially and then theoretical sampling was used towards the end of the data analysis. Sample size was not predetermined but was determined when interviewing reached saturation, that is, when no new data emerged about categories. The sample size was restricted to 22, as no new data were generated after the 20th interview. The criteria required for inclusion in the study were being Kurdish women, being in the third trimester of pregnancy, no physical disability, no history of Caesarean section and interest in the study. A qualitative design was chosen, as it is particularly suited to studying complex phenomena or processes that are less understood. This study revealed that of the 22 participants, 18 preferred vaginal delivery and only four preferred Caesarean section. The reasons for choosing the vaginal delivery method were grouped into four categories: safety of baby, fear, previous experience and social support. This finding does not support the rate of Caesarean section among Kurdish women in Sanandaj. It might reflect the effect of other factors such as social, institutional, professional and quality of care on women's choice for delivery method. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The effect of recall, reproduction, and restudy on word learning: a pre-registered study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Saloni; Watkins, Kate E; Bishop, Dorothy V M

    2017-08-04

    Certain manipulations, such as testing oneself on newly learned word associations (recall), or the act of repeating a word during training (reproduction), can lead to better learning and retention relative to simply providing more exposure to the word (restudy). Such benefit has been observed for written words. Here, we test how these training manipulations affect learning of words presented aurally, when participants are required to produce these novel phonological forms in a recall task. Participants (36 English-speaking adults) learned 27 pseudowords, which were paired with 27 unfamiliar pictures. They were given cued recall practice for 9 of the words, reproduction practice for another set of 9 words, and the remaining 9 words were restudied. Participants were tested on their recognition (3-alternative forced choice) and recall (saying the pseudoword in response to a picture) of these items immediately after training, and a week after training. Our hypotheses were that reproduction and restudy practice would lead to better learning immediately after training, but that cued recall practice would lead to better retention in the long term. In all three conditions, recognition performance was extremely high immediately after training, and a week following training, indicating that participants had acquired associations between the novel pictures and novel words. In addition, recognition and cued recall performance was better immediately after training relative to a week later, confirming that participants forgot some words over time. However, results in the cued recall task did not support our hypotheses. Immediately after training, participants showed an advantage for cued Recall over the Restudy condition, but not over the Reproduce condition. Furthermore, there was no boost for the cued Recall condition over time relative to the other two conditions. Results from a Bayesian analysis also supported this null finding. Nonetheless, we found a clear effect of word

  13. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses' career advancement. A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses' career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies.

  14. Men of Mexican Origin Who Abuse Women: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Liendo, Nora; Matthews, Debra W; Gilroy, Heidi; Nava, Angeles; Gangialla, Christyn

    2018-03-01

    Current literature indicates that intimate partner violence is a complex phenomenon that exists worldwide. However, little is known about why some men of Mexican origin abuse women. This descriptive study was conducted to understand the experiences of men of Mexican origin who abuse their intimate partners. A qualitative research design was used to conduct this study in a south Texas border community adjacent to the United States-Mexico border. This study builds on existing research and furthers the knowledge related to the factors contributing to intimate partner violence, including cultural factors. The results also reinforce the negative impacts of intimate partner violence on children and the family structure. Further research is needed to support the development of a culturally appropriate prevention and intervention program for men of Mexican origin who abuse women and their families.

  15. Skills Required for Nursing Career Advancement: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi-Khoshnab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Nurses require certain skills for progression in their field. Identifying these skills can provide the context for nursing career advancement. Objectives This study aimed to identify the skills needed for nurses’ career advancement. Materials and Methods A qualitative approach using content analysis was adopted to study a purposive sample of eighteen nurses working in teaching hospitals affiliated with the Qazvin, Shahid Beheshti, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews, and analyzed using conventional content analysis. Results The three themes extracted from the data included interpersonal capabilities, competency for career success, and personal capacities. The results showed that acquiring a variety of skills is essential for career advancement. Conclusions The findings showed that personal, interpersonal, and functional skills can facilitate nurses’ career advancement. The effects of these skills on career advancement depend on a variety of conditions that require further studies. PMID:27556054

  16. Qualitative study on maintenance management in Moroccan industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Amal; El Oumami, Mohamed; Bouksour, Otmane; Beidouri, Zitouni

    2018-05-01

    Maintenance management is, and has been studied in depth, especially for strategies to be implemented in industry, even though, authors note that there is a gap between literature and management adopted by industries. In this paper, we present a qualitative study in five Moroccan industries to investigate “how maintenance is managed” rather than “how it should be”. The questionnaire utilized for the study consists on semi-structured and open-ended questions. We consider factors and variables related to maintenance management and we explore the relationships between those factors. The original contribution of this paper is to provide a «real view »about maintenance management in Moroccan industries, which could help to improve understanding of barriers to implementing maintenance strategy.

  17. The Burden of ADHD in Older Adults: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michielsen, M; de Kruif, J Th C M; Comijs, H C; van Mierlo, S; Semeijn, E J; Beekman, A T F; Deeg, D J H; Kooij, J J S

    2018-04-01

    To explore how ADHD may have affected the lives of older adults who meet the diagnostic criteria of ADHD, but are unaware of their diagnosis. Our second aim was to examine whether the reported symptoms change over the life span. A qualitative study was conducted. Seventeen Dutch older people (>65 years) diagnosed in this study with ADHD participated in in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed according to techniques of thematic approach. Seven themes emerged from the analyses. Four themes correspond to ADHD symptoms: "being active," "being impulsive," "attention problems," and "mental restlessness." In addition, the themes "low self-esteem," "overstepping boundaries," and "feeling misunderstood" emerged. The impact of ADHD symptoms seems to have declined with age. ADHD has a negative impact on late life, and older adults with the disorder may benefit from treatment. Moreover, this study's findings call for early detection and treatment of ADHD in children and adults.

  18. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Wei; Kanthawala, Shaheen; Yuan, Shupei; Hussain, Syed Ali

    2016-11-14

    Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users' perceptive. In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1) barriers to adoption of health apps, 2) barriers to continued use of health apps, 3) motivators, 4) information and personalized guidance, 5) tracking for awareness and progress, 6) credibility, 7) goal setting, 8) reminders, and 9) sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users' perspective.

  19. Understanding "revolving door" patients in general practice: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Andrea E; Mullen, Kenneth; Wilson, Philip

    2014-02-13

    'Revolving door' patients in general practice are repeatedly removed from general practitioners' (GP) lists. This paper reports a qualitative portion of the first mixed methods study of these marginalised patients. We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with six practitioner services staff and six GPs in Scotland, utilizing Charmazian grounded theory to characterise 'revolving door' patients and their impact from professionals' perspectives. 'Revolving door' patients were reported as having three necessary characteristics; they had unreasonable expectations, exhibited inappropriate behaviours and had unmet health needs. A range of boundary breaches were reported too when 'revolving door' patients interacted with NHS staff. We utilise the 'sensitising concepts' of legitimacy by drawing on literature about 'good and bad' patients and 'dirty work designations.' We relate these to the core work of general practice and explore the role that medical and moral schemas have in how health service professionals understand and work with 'revolving door' patients. We suggest this may have wider relevance for the problem doctor patient relationship literature.

  20. Challenges for Infants’ Home Care: a Qualitative Study

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    Zeinab Hemati

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Home care is an acceptable strategy for the relationship between family and healthcare team and implementation of healthcare interventions, and infants’ nurses could play an important role in enhancing the capability of families and promoting child health in this area. This study examined challenges facing infants’ home care from nurses’ viewpoints in Iranian culture.Materials and MethodsA qualitative design was used to explain challenges facing infants’ home care from nurses’ viewpoints. Participants included 20 nurses’ working in the neonatal units of University hospitals in Isfahan, Iran in 2015. Data collection was done by interviewing nurses working in neonatal units of Shahid Beheshti and Alzahra hospitals. All the data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis.ResultsFour main categories of “The need to warn the community ", “culture",” need for security " and ” legal support" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of Challenges for Infants’ Home Care.Conclusion Nursing policy makers and managers are able to help to facilitate home care and improve the infants’ health through correcting the infrastructure and eliminating current obstacles.

  1. Mastectomy, body deconstruction, and impact on identity: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piot-Ziegler, C; Sassi, M-L; Raffoul, W; Delaloye, J-F

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study aims at understanding the consequences of body deconstruction through mastectomy on corporality and identity in women with breast cancer. Nineteen women were contacted through the hospital. All had to undergo mastectomy. Some were offered immediate breast reconstruction, others, because of cancer treatments, had no planned reconstruction. A qualitative reflexive methodological background was chosen. Women were invited to participate in three semi-structured interviews, one shortly before or after mastectomy, and the other interviews later in their illness courses, after surgery. All interviews were transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was performed. The analysis of the first interview of each woman is presented in this article. Mastectomy provokes a painful experience of body deconstruction. Even when immediate reconstruction is proposed, contrasted feelings and dissonance are expressed when comparing the former healthy body to the present challenged body entity. Body transformations are accompanied with experiences of mutilation, strangeness, and modify the physical, emotional social, symbolic and relational dimensions of the woman's gendered identity. Although the opportunity of breast reconstruction is seen as a possible recovery of a lost physical symmetry and body integrity, grieving the past body and integrating a new corporality leads to a painful identity crisis. With mastectomy, the roots of the woman's identity are challenged, leading to a re-evaluation of her existential values. The consequences of mastectomy transform the woman's corporality and embodiment, and question her identity. Psychological support is discussed in the perspective of our results.

  2. Health promotion among older adults in Austria: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggatz, Thomas; Meinhart, Christoph Matthias

    2017-04-01

    To determine the types of attitudes to health promotion among older Austrians. Health promotion in old age becomes increasingly important in the current period of demographic transition. Interventions are likely to be successful if they take the attitude of older persons into consideration. There may be several types of attitudes to health promotion among older adults. Cross-sectional qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in a purposive sample consisting of 36 home-dwelling older persons from local communities in the federal province of Salzburg, Austria. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis according to Mayring and subsequent construction of types. There are three main types of attitudes to health promotion. 'Health promoters through everyday activities' considered domestic work and walks to be sufficient in keeping up their health. Fitness-oriented persons practised sports of some type. Users of complementary methods practised such methods to some degree. These types of attitudes could be further differentiated according to their outcome expectations. In addition to benefits for health, socialising was also an important outcome. Physical decline may reduce a fitness-oriented attitude, whereas encouragement by others may trigger it. Older adults have various attitudes to health promotion, but these are not immutable. Health promotion programmes that are not restricted to a narrow focus on health but provide the opportunity to socialise may support older adults in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Exploring the situational motivation of medical specialists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burgt, Stéphanie M E; Kusurkar, Rashmi A; Croiset, Gerda; Peerdeman, Saskia M

    2018-02-26

    The aim was to obtain insight into the factors in the work environment that motivate or demotivate a medical specialist during his/her working day. A qualitative ethnographic design was used, and a constructivist approach was adopted with the Self-Determination theory of motivation as a framework. Six medical specialists from VU University Medical Center in the Netherlands, recruited through convenience, snowball, and purposive sampling, were shadowed for one day each. Data were transcribed and open-coded. Themes were finalized through discussion and consensus. Sixty hours of observation data identified motivating and demotivating factors categorized into four themes that are important for specialists' motivation. Informational technology issues are demotivating factors. Working with colleagues can be both a motivating and demotivating factor, e.g., filling in for each other through feelings of relatedness was motivating. Being in control of one's planning through feelings of autonomy was motivating. Furthermore, patient care and teaching, especially in combination, stimulated specialists' motivation. Regarding the design of the study, we found that situational motivation is indeed observable. The basic psychological needs autonomy, competence, and relatedness are important for specialists' motivation. Investing in a more motivating, open, transparent, and basic-needs- supportive work environment for medical specialists is necessary. Keywords: Continuing professional development, motivation, medical specialists, self-determination theory, qualitative research.

  4. Maternity in Spanish elite sportswomen: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-De-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of maternity among Spanish elite sportswomen. Twenty (n = 20) Spanish elite sportswomen with the following criteria were included: (a) aged 18-65 years; (b) had been pregnant during their sporting professional career; and (c) after the end of their pregnancy they had returned to their professional sporting career for at least one year. A qualitative analysis was conducted. Data were collected using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (a) a new identity, with two sub-themes ("mother role" and "being visible"); (b) going back to sport, with three subthemes ("guilt appears," "justifying going back to sport," and "rediscovering sport"); and, (c) reaching a goal, with two subthemes ("balancing mother-sportswoman" and "the challenge of maternity"). Understanding the meaning of maternity for elite Spanish sportswomen might help gain deeper insight into their expectations and develop training systems focused on elite sports women after pregnancy.

  5. Shifting accountability: a longitudinal qualitative study of diabetes causation accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Julia; Peel, Elizabeth; Parry, Odette; Douglas, Margaret

    2008-07-01

    We undertook a longitudinal qualitative study involving of 20 patients from Scotland who had type 2 diabetes. We looked at their perceptions and understandings of why they had developed diabetes and how, and why, their causation accounts had changed or remained stable over time. Respondents, all of whom were white, were interviewed four times over a 4-year period (at baseline, 6, 12 and 48 months). Their causation accounts often shifted, sometimes subtly, sometimes radically, over the 4 years. The experiential dimensions of living with, observing, and managing their disease over time were central to understanding the continuities and changes we observed. We also highlight how, through a process of removing, adding and/or de-emphasising explanatory factors, causation accounts could be used as "resources" to justify or enable present treatment choices. We use our work to support critiques of social cognition theories, with their emphasis upon beliefs being antecedent to behaviours. We also provide reflections upon the implications of our findings for qualitative research designs and sampling strategies.

  6. Cancer patients' needs during hospitalisation: a quantitative and qualitative study

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    Greco Margherita

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evaluation of cancer patients needs, especially during that delicate period when they are hospitalized, allows the identification of those areas of care that require to be improved. Aims of the study were to evaluate the needs in cancer inpatients and to improve the understanding of the meanings of the needs expressed. Methods The study was conducted during a "sample day", with all the cancer patients involved having been hospitalized at the Istituto Nazionale Tumori of Milan (INT for at least 48 hours beforehand. The study was carried out using quantitative and qualitative methodologies. The quantitative part of the study consisted in making use of the Needs Evaluation Questionnaire (NEQ, a standardized questionnaire administered by the INT Psychology Unit members, supported by a group of volunteers from the Milan section of the Italian League Against Cancer. The aim of the qualitative part of the study, by semi-structured interviews conducted with a small sample of 8 hospitalized patients, was to improve our understanding of the meanings, implications of the needs directly described from the point of view of the patients. Such an approach determines the reasons and conditions of the dissatisfaction in the patient, and provides additional information for the planning of improvement interventions. Results Of the 224 eligible patients, 182 (81% completed the questionnaire. Four of the top five needs expressed by 40% or more of the responders concerned information needs (diagnosis, future conditions, dialogue with doctors, economic-insurance solutions related to the disease. Only one of the 5 was concerned with improved "hotel" services (bathrooms, meals, cleanliness. Qualitative analysis showed that the most expressed need (to receive more information on their future conditions has the meaning to know how their future life will be affected more than to know his/her actual prognosis. Conclusions Some of the needs which

  7. Reduplication Facilitates Early Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Mitsuhiko; Skarabela, Barbora

    2018-01-01

    This study explores the possibility that early word segmentation is aided by infants' tendency to segment words with repeated syllables ("reduplication"). Twenty-four nine-month-olds were familiarized with passages containing one novel reduplicated word and one novel non-reduplicated word. Their central fixation times in response to…

  8. Discrete versus multiple word displays: A re-analysis of studies comparing dyslexic and typically developing children

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    Pierluigi eZoccolotti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The study examines whether impairments in reading a text can be explained by a deficit in word decoding or an additional deficit in the processes governing the integration of reading subcomponents (including eye movement programming and pronunciation should also be postulated. We report a re-analysis of data from eleven previous experiments conducted in our lab where the reading performance on single, discrete word displays as well multiple displays (texts, and in few cases also word lists was investigated in groups of dyslexic children and typically developing readers. The analysis focuses on measures of time and not accuracy.Across experiments, dyslexic children are slower and more variable than typically developing readers in reading texts as well as vocal RTs to singly presented words; the dis-homogeneity in variability between groups points to the inappropriateness of standard measures of size effect (such as Cohen’s d, and suggests the use of the ratio between groups’ performance. The mean ratio for text reading is 1.95 across experiments. Mean ratio for vocal RTs for singly presented words is considerably smaller (1.52. Furthermore, this latter value is probably an overestimation as considering total reading times (i.e., a measure including also the pronunciation component considerably reduces the group difference in vocal RTs (1.19 according to Martelli et al., 2014. The ratio difference between single and multiple displays does not depend upon the presence of a semantic context in the case of texts as large ratios are also observed with lists of unrelated words (though studies testing this aspect were few.We conclude that, if care is taken in using appropriate comparisons, the deficit in reading texts or lists of words is appreciably greater than that revealed with discrete word presentations. Thus, reading multiple stimuli present a specific, additional challenge to dyslexic children indicating that models of reading should

  9. Expression of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians: a qualitative pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wazaify, Mayyada; Khalil, Susan S; Silverman, Henry J

    2009-06-30

    Studies have shown that research participants fail to appreciate the difference between research and medical care, labeling such phenomenon as a "therapeutic misconception" (TM). Since research activity involving human participants is increasing in the Middle East, qualitative research investigating aspects of TM is warranted. Our objective was to assess for the existence of therapeutic misconception amongst Egyptians. Study Tool: We developed a semi-structured interview guide to elicit the knowledge, attitudes, and perspectives of Egyptians regarding medical research. We recruited individuals from the outpatient settings (public and private) at Ain Shams University in Cairo, Egypt. Interviews were taped, transcribed, and translated. We analyzed the content of the transcribed text to identify the presence of a TM, defined in one of two ways: TM1 = inaccurate beliefs about how individualized care can be compromised by the procedures in the research and TM2 = inaccurate appraisal of benefit obtained from the research study. Our findings showed that a majority of participants (11/15) expressed inaccurate beliefs regarding the degree with which individualized care will be maintained in the research setting (TM1) and a smaller number of participants (5/15) manifested an unreasonable belief in the likelihood of benefits to be obtained from a research study (TM2). A total of 12 of the 15 participants were judged to have expressed a TM on either one of these bases. The presence of TM is not uncommon amongst Egyptian individuals. We recommend further qualitative studies investigating aspects of TM involving a larger sample size distinguished by different types of illnesses and socio-economic variables, as well as those who have and have not participated in clinical research.

  10. Children's understanding of maternal breast cancer: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoyan; O'Connor, Margaret; Hu, Yan; Gao, Hongyun; Lee, Susan

    2018-06-01

    To explore how children understand their mother's diagnosis of and treatment for breast cancer. Interpretive description was adopted as the methodology in this study. Eight children aged 8-18 years old, whose mother has been diagnosed with non-terminal breast cancer, were interviewed individually and six of them drew a picture to express their understanding of maternal breast cancer. Four themes were identified in this study: "the cancer word is scary" - children's understanding of cancer; "scars and tubes" - children's understanding of surgery; "hair loss" - children's understanding of chemotherapy, and "I can't explain it" - children's understanding of other treatments. Children's understanding of maternal breast cancer and its treatment was relatively realistic, although sometimes inaccurate. Individual evaluation and appropriate explanation is significant to further children's understanding of their mother's illness. Future studies with larger sample size are needed to explore the understanding for children of different ages, in order to provide specific help for these children. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Dutch pediatricians' views on the use of neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates: a qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, K.; van de Vathorst, S.

    2015-01-01

    To assess Dutch pediatricians' views on neuromuscular blockers for dying neonates. Qualitative study involving in-depth interviews with 10 Dutch pediatricians working with severely ill neonates. Data were analyzed using appropriate qualitative research techniques. Participants explained their view

  12. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Jun, Soo-Koung; Park, Ie Byung

    2016-09-01

    There has been limited research on physicians' perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory) in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  13. A Qualitative Study of Televideo Consultations for COPD Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathar, Helle; Fastholm, Pernille; Sandholm Larsen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    . The patients’ assessments of the service must be understood in relation to the routines and strategies developed to handle the array of problems related to a life affected by chronic illness. Keywords: COPD patients, televideo consultations, telemedicine, coping strategies, security, control.......This article presents results from a small qualitative study investigating COPD patients' experiences with televideo consultations at home as a supplement to conventional control and treatment. The research question is: what are the experiences and preferences of COPD patients related to discharge...... from hospital with televideo consultations? The study shows that the patients' assessments of the effectiveness and value of the televideo consultations in their everyday lives are based on tough cost-benefit calculation of the extent to which the intervention makes their lives easier or more difficult...

  14. Expert interpretation of bitemark injuries--a contemporary qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Mark; Taylor, Jane; Blenkin, Matt

    2013-05-01

    This study attempts to characterize the nature of disagreement among odontologists in determining the fundamental properties of suspected bitemark injuries. Fifteen odontologists were asked to freely comment on six images of supposed bitemarks. Qualitative analysis using a grounded theory approach revealed that practitioner agreement was at best fair, with wide-ranging opinions on the origin, circumstance, and characteristics of the wound given for all six images. More experienced practitioners (>10 years) tended to agree with each other less than those who had 10 years or less experience in forensic odontology. The differences in opinions can be at least partly accounted for by the inconsistent nature of approaches used by different practitioners in assessing bitemark evidence. The results of this study indicate that more definitive guidelines as to the assessment of bitemarks as patterned injuries should be developed to ensure the highest possible level of practitioner agreement. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. A qualitative study on physicians' perceptions of specialty characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwi Hwa Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There has been limited research on physicians’ perceptions of the specialty characteristics that are needed to sustain a successful career in medical specialties in Korea. Medical Specialty Preference Inventory in the United States or SCI59 (specialty choice inventory in the United Kingdom are implemented to help medical students plan their careers. The purpose of this study was to explore the characteristics of the major specialties in Korea. Methods: Twelve physicians from different specialties participated in an exploratory study consisting of qualitative interviews about the personal ability and emotional characteristics and job attributes of each specialty. The collected data were analysed with content analysis methods. Results: Twelve codes were extracted for ability & skill attributes, 23 codes for emotion & attitude attributes, and 12 codes for job attributes. Each specialty shows a different profile in terms of its characteristic attributes. Conclusion: The findings have implications for the design of career planning programs for medical students.

  16. Experiences of adolescents living with cancer: A descriptive qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Sin Hui; Koh, Serena Siew Lin; Lee, Xiu Hua Hideka Tamamura; Shorey, Shefaly

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of adolescents from Singapore, aged 10-18 years old, living with cancer and their perceptions on how their psychosocial outcomes can be improved. A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 10 participants from a pediatric oncology ward in a Singapore hospital. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. Five major themes emerged: (1) experience of physical symptoms, (2) emotional response to their condition, (3) changes in social dynamics, and (4) falling behind in academics. The psychosocial outcomes of Singaporean adolescents with cancer could be improved by thorough pain assessments and creating a more conducive hospital environment.

  17. A Qualitative Study of Job Interviewers’ Implicit Person Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundmann, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Job interviewers’ implicit person theories (i.e., beliefs that personalities are adaptable or fixed) were examined through a qualitative analysis of interviews with job interviewers. The study demonstrates that job interviewers tend to use generalized trait descriptions of applicants when...... the job interview are easily transferrable to the job they are seeking to fill. Thus, job interviewers appear to view applicants as persons with fixed personality traits, despite human adaptability. This is not necessarily because the job interviewer has a stable implicit entity theory of persons; instead...... determining their selection. This is problematic because it neglects the context’s interference with the applicant—for example, the effect of a new manager, colleagues, or company culture. The study demonstrates that job interviewers implicitly assume that the impressions they form of an applicant during...

  18. Health management in past disasters in Iran: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2014-06-01

    Background: Disaster management is relied on prediction of problems and providing necessary preparations in right time and place. In this study researchers intended to explore passed experiences of health disaster management. Method: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis methods. Participants were selected purposefully and data were collected through interviews, observation, and other documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18interviews, field notes and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis reactive management was emerged as main theme. It was included some categories such as ‘exposure shock’, ‘non deliberative relief’, ‘lack of comprehensive health disaster plan’, ‘lack of preparedness’, and ‘poor coordination in health service delivery’ and contextual factors. Discussion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals' and non-professionals' emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services, and aggravates the damages.

  19. The Use of Qualitative Content Analysis in Case Study Research

    OpenAIRE

    Kohlbacher, Florian

    2006-01-01

    Dieser Beitrag hat zum Ziel, Möglichkeiten zu untersuchen und zu diskutieren, wie qualitative Inhaltsanalyse als (Text-) Interpretationsmethode in der Fallstudienforschung angewendet werden kann. Zunächst wird die Fallstudienforschung als eine Forschungsstrategie innerhalb der qualitativen Sozialforschung kurz dargestellt. Danach folgt eine Einführung in die (qualitative) Inhaltsanalyse als Interpretationsmethode für qualitative Interviews und anderes Datenmaterial. Abschließend wird der Eins...

  20. Multilayered Word Structure Model for Assessing Spelling of Finnish Children in Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulju, Pirjo; Mäkinen, Marita

    2017-01-01

    This study explores Finnish children's word-level spelling by applying a linguistically based multilayered word structure model for assessing spelling performance. The model contributes to the analytical qualitative assessment approach in order to identify children's spelling performance for enhancing writing skills. The children (N = 105)…

  1. The role of short-term memory impairment in nonword repetition, real word repetition, and nonword decoding: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Beate

    2018-01-01

    In a companion study, adults with dyslexia and adults with a probable history of childhood apraxia of speech showed evidence of difficulty with processing sequential information during nonword repetition, multisyllabic real word repetition and nonword decoding. Results suggested that some errors arose in visual encoding during nonword reading, all levels of processing but especially short-term memory storage/retrieval during nonword repetition, and motor planning and programming during complex real word repetition. To further investigate the role of short-term memory, a participant with short-term memory impairment (MI) was recruited. MI was confirmed with poor performance during a sentence repetition and three nonword repetition tasks, all of which have a high short-term memory load, whereas typical performance was observed during tests of reading, spelling, and static verbal knowledge, all with low short-term memory loads. Experimental results show error-free performance during multisyllabic real word repetition but high counts of sequence errors, especially migrations and assimilations, during nonword repetition, supporting short-term memory as a locus of sequential processing deficit during nonword repetition. Results are also consistent with the hypothesis that during complex real word repetition, short-term memory is bypassed as the word is recognized and retrieved from long-term memory prior to producing the word.

  2. Morphological Effects in Children Word Reading: A Priming Study in Fourth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Severine; Dusautoir, Marion; Cole, Pascale; Ducrot, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    A growing corpus of evidence suggests that morphology could play a role in reading acquisition, and that young readers could be sensitive to the morphemic structure of written words. In the present experiment, we examined whether and when morphological information is activated in word recognition. French fourth graders made visual lexical…

  3. Emotional Facilitation Effect in the Picture-Word Interference Task: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baolin; Xin, Shuai; Jin, Zhixing; Hu, Yu; Li, Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we aimed to verify the emotional facilitation effect in the picture-word interference task using event-related potentials. Twenty-one healthy subjects were asked to categorize the emotional valences of pictures accompanied by emotionally congruent, either centrally or laterally positioned Chinese words. For both the foveal and…

  4. A Study of the Use of the Weak Forms of English Grammatical Words ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    than not, strong vowels from the mother tongue were substituted for the weak sound / ə / which is the commonest vowel found in the weak forms of English grammatical words. Elision, which often occurs to English grammatical words, was also found not to manifest remarkably in this 'geo-tribal' variety of Nigerian English.

  5. P2-13: Location word Cues' Effect on Location Discrimination Task: Cross-Modal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Ohtsuka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As is well known, participants are slower and make more errors in responding to the display color of an incongruent color word than a congruent one. This traditional stroop effect is often accounted for with relatively automatic and dominant word processing. Although the word dominance account has been widely supported, it is not clear in what extent of perceptual tasks it is valid. Here we aimed to examine whether the word dominance effect is observed in location stroop tasks and in audio-visual situations. The participants were required to press a key according to the location of visual (Experiment 1 and audio (Experiment 2 targets, left or right, as soon as possible. A cue of written (Experiments 1a and 2a or spoken (Experiments 1b and 2b location words, “left” or “right”, was presented on the left or right side of the fixation with cue lead times (CLT of 200 ms and 1200 ms. Reaction time from target presentation to key press was recorded as a dependent variable. The results were that the location validity effect was marked in within-modality but less so in cross-modality trials. The word validity effect was strong in within- but not in cross-modality trials. The CLT gave some effect of inhibition of return. So the word dominance could be less effective in location tasks and in cross-modal situations. The spatial correspondence seems to overcome the word effect.

  6. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  7. Stakeholder experiences with general practice pharmacist services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Edwin C K; Stewart, Kay; Elliott, Rohan A; George, Johnson

    2013-09-11

    To explore general practice staff, pharmacist and patient experiences with pharmacist services in Australian general practice clinics within the Pharmacists in Practice Study. Qualitative study. Two general practice clinics in Melbourne, Australia, in which pharmacists provided medication reviews, patient and staff education, medicines information and quality assurance services over a 6-month period. Patients, practice staff and pharmacists. Semi-structured telephone interviews with patients, focus groups with practice staff and semi-structured interviews and periodic narrative reports with practice pharmacists. Data were analysed thematically and theoretical frameworks used to explain the findings. 34 participants were recruited: 18 patients, 14 practice staff (9 general practitioners, 4 practice nurses, 1 practice manager) and 2 practice pharmacists. Five main themes emerged: environment; professional relationships and integration; pharmacist attributes; staff and patient benefits and logistical challenges. Participants reported that colocation and the interdisciplinary environment of general practice enabled better communication and collaboration compared to traditional community and consultant pharmacy services. Participants felt that pharmacists needed to possess certain attributes to ensure successful integration, including being personable and proactive. Attitudinal, professional and logistical barriers were identified but were able to be overcome. The findings were explained using D'Amour's structuration model of collaboration and Roger's diffusion of innovation theory. This is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of general practice staff, pharmacists and patients on their interactions within the Australian general practice environment. Participants were receptive of colocated pharmacist services, and various barriers and facilitators to integration were identified. Future research should investigate the feasibility and sustainability of

  8. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingmar Schäfer

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. RESULTS: The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1 Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2 Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3 Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4 Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. CONCLUSIONS: First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if

  9. Strategies for improving participation in diabetes education. A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Ingmar; Pawels, Marc; Küver, Claudia; Pohontsch, Nadine Janis; Scherer, Martin; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is highly prevalent and can lead to serious complications and mortality. Patient education can help to avoid negative outcomes, but up to half of the patients do not participate. The aim of this study was to analyze patients' attitudes towards diabetes education in order to identify barriers to participation and develop strategies for better patient education. We conducted a qualitative study. Seven GP practices were purposively selected based on socio-demographic data of city districts in Hamburg, Germany. Study participants were selected by their GPs in order to increase participation. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 14 patients. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The sample size was determined by data saturation. Data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Categories were determined deductively and inductively. The interviews yielded four types of barriers: 1) Statements and behaviour of the attending physician influence the patients' decisions about diabetes education. 2) Both, a good state of health related to diabetes and physical/psychosocial comorbidity can be reasons for non-participation. 3) Manifold motivational factors were discussed. They ranged from giving low priority to diabetes to avoidance of implications of diabetes education as being confronted with illness narratives of others. 4) Barriers also include aspects of the patients' knowledge and activity. First, physicians should encourage patients to participate in diabetes education and argue that they can profit even if actual treatment and examination results are promising. Second, patients with other priorities, psychic comorbidity or functional limitations might profit more from continuous individualized education adapted to their specific situation instead of group education. Third, it might be justified that patients do not participate in diabetes education if they have slightly increased blood sugar values only and no

  10. Experiences and perceptions of people with headache: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliott Alison M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few qualitative studies of headache have been conducted and as a result we have little in-depth understanding of the experiences and perceptions of people with headache. The aim of this paper was to explore the perceptions and experiences of individuals with headache and their experiences of associated healthcare and treatment. Methods A qualitative study of individuals with headache, sampled from a population-based study of chronic pain was conducted in the North-East of Scotland, UK. Seventeen semi-structured interviews were conducted with adults aged 65 or less. Interviews were analysed using the Framework approach utilising thematic analysis. Results Almost every participant reported that they were unable to function fully as a result of the nature and unpredictability of their headaches and this had caused disruption to their work, family life and social activities. Many also reported a negative impact on mood including feeling depressed, aggressive or embarrassed. Most participants had formed their own ideas about different aspects of their headache and several had searched for, or were seeking, increased understanding of their headache from a variety of sources. Many participants reported that their headaches caused them constant worry and anguish, and they were concerned that there was a serious underlying cause. A variety of methods were being used to manage headaches including conventional medication, complementary therapies and self-developed management techniques. Problems associated with all of these management strategies emerged. Conclusion Headache has wide-ranging adverse effects on individuals and is often accompanied by considerable worry. The development of new interventions or educational strategies aimed at reducing the burden of the disorder and associated anxiety are needed.

  11. Motivation of health surveillance assistants in Malawi: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikaphupha, Kingsley R; Kok, Maryse C; Nyirenda, Lot; Namakhoma, Ireen; Theobald, Sally

    2016-06-01

    Motivation of health workers is a critical component of performance and is shaped by multiple factors. This study explored factors that influence motivation of health surveillance assistants (HSAs) in Malawi, with the aim of identifying interventions that can be applied to enhance motivation and performance of HSAs. A qualitative study capturing the perspectives of purposively selected participants was conducted in two districts: Salima and Mchinji. Participants included HSAs, health managers, and various community members. Data were collected through focus group discussions (n = 16) and in-depth interviews (n = 44). The study sample was comprised of 112 women and 65 men. Qualitative data analysis was informed by existing frameworks on factors influencing health worker motivation. Our analysis identified five key themes shaping HSA motivation: salary, accommodation, human resource management, supplies and logistics, and community links. Each of these played out at different levels-individual, family, community, and organisational-with either positive or negative effects. Demotivating factors related primarily to the organisational level, while motivating factors were more often related to individual, family, and community levels. A lack of financial incentives and shortages of basic supplies and materials were key factors demotivating HSAs. Supervision was generally perceived as unsupportive, uncoordinated, and top-down. Most HSAs complained of heavy workload. Many HSAs felt further recognition and support from the Ministry of Health, and the development of a clear career pathway would improve their motivation. Factors shaping motivation of HSAs are complex and multilayered; experiences at one level will impact other levels. Interventions are required to enhance HSA motivation, including strengthening the supervision system, developing career progression pathways, and ensuring clear and transparent incentives. HSAs have unique experiences, and there is need to hear

  12. Sexual behavior of infertile women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bokaie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility makes an essential challenge to the sexual life of couples, especially infertile women. When pregnancy does not happen, infertile women think that sexual intercourse is not fruitful and sexual desire became reduce gradually. Infertile women progressively forget that their sexual relationship is also a response to their natural need. Objective: This qualitative study was conducted to explore the infertility consequences in the sexual behavior of infertile women. Materials and Methods: This was a qualitative content analysis study; and it was part of a widespread study, used a sequential mixed-method and conducted from August 2014 until February 2015. A purposeful sampling was used to recruit infertile women who had referred to Yazd Research and Clinical Center for Infertility. Data gathering techniques employed in this research included in-depth semi structured open face-to-face interviews and field notes. Credibility, transferability, confirm ability, and dependability were assessed for the rigor of the data collection. Results: Totally, 15 infertile women and 8 key informants were interviewed. Data analysis showed four themes about impact of infertility on female sexual behavior: 1/ Impact of infertility drugs on couple sexual behavior, 2/ Impact of assisted reproductive technologies on female sexual behavior, 3/ Timed intercourse during infertility and 4/ The psychological impact of infertility on sexual behavior. Conclusion: Some of Iranian infertile women could cope with their problems, but some of them were very affected by infertility drugs and assisted reproductive technologies procedures. Psychosexual counseling before medical treatment could help them to have a better sexual life.

  13. A qualitative numerical study of high dimensional dynamical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, David James

    Since Poincare, the father of modern mathematical dynamical systems, much effort has been exerted to achieve a qualitative understanding of the physical world via a qualitative understanding of the functions we use to model the physical world. In this thesis, we construct a numerical framework suitable for a qualitative, statistical study of dynamical systems using the space of artificial neural networks. We analyze the dynamics along intervals in parameter space, separating the set of neural networks into roughly four regions: the fixed point to the first bifurcation; the route to chaos; the chaotic region; and a transition region between chaos and finite-state neural networks. The study is primarily with respect to high-dimensional dynamical systems. We make the following general conclusions as the dimension of the dynamical system is increased: the probability of the first bifurcation being of type Neimark-Sacker is greater than ninety-percent; the most probable route to chaos is via a cascade of bifurcations of high-period periodic orbits, quasi-periodic orbits, and 2-tori; there exists an interval of parameter space such that hyperbolicity is violated on a countable, Lebesgue measure 0, "increasingly dense" subset; chaos is much more likely to persist with respect to parameter perturbation in the chaotic region of parameter space as the dimension is increased; moreover, as the number of positive Lyapunov exponents is increased, the likelihood that any significant portion of these positive exponents can be perturbed away decreases with increasing dimension. The maximum Kaplan-Yorke dimension and the maximum number of positive Lyapunov exponents increases linearly with dimension. The probability of a dynamical system being chaotic increases exponentially with dimension. The results with respect to the first bifurcation and the route to chaos comment on previous results of Newhouse, Ruelle, Takens, Broer, Chenciner, and Iooss. Moreover, results regarding the high

  14.   Information and acceptance of prenatal examinations - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleron, Stina Lou; Dahl, Katja; Risør, Mette Bech

    by the health care system offering it. By prenatal examinations the pregnant women want to be giving the choice of future management should there be something wrong with their child. Conclusions:Participation in prenatal examinations is not based on a thorough knowledge of pros and contra of the screening tests......  Background:In 2004 The Danish National Board of Health issued new guidelines on prenatal examinations. The importance of informed decision making is strongly emphasised and any acceptance of the screenings tests offered should be based on thorough and adequate information. Objective...... and hypothesis:To explore the influence of information in the decision-making process of prenatal screenings tests offered, the relation between information, knowledge and up-take rates and reasons for accepting or declining the screenings tests offered.  Methods:The study is based on a qualitative approach...

  15. Health, ethics and environment: a qualitative study of vegetarian motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Nick; Ward, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the motivations of vegetarians by means of online ethnographic research with participants in an international message board. The researcher participated in discussions on the board, gathered responses to questions from 33 participants, and conducted follow-up e-mail interviews with 18 of these participants. Respondents were predominantly from the US, Canada and the UK. Seventy per cent were females, and ages ranged from 14 to 53, with a median of 26 years. Data were analysed using a thematic approach. While this research found that health and the ethical treatment of animals were the main motivators for participants' vegetarianism, participants reported a range of commitments to environmental concerns, although in only one case was environmentalism a primary motivator for becoming a vegetarian. The data indicate that vegetarians may follow a trajectory, in which initial motivations are augmented over time by other reasons for sustaining or further restricting their diet.

  16. Family-focused dementia care - a qualitative interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohrsen Busted, Laila; Nielsen, Dorthe; Birkelund, Regner

    to decrease the experienced burden that relatives to persons with dementia experience. The qualitative research project consists of three parts; 1) An interview study to investigate the problem area as experienced by 24 relatives. 2) Initiate family intervention, conducted by professional caregivers......Relatives to persons with dementia are in the literature described as the "invisible second patients." They get a more burdensome responsibility to the family’s everyday life and relation within the family. Furthermore, relatives as caregivers provide most of the assistance and supervision...... to fulfill the basic needs of the person with dementia. The experience of being close to a person with dementia may seem as a burden that involves emotional chaos and uncertainty which can lead to stress and depressions. Family health therapeutic conversations may be an intervention to relieve the suffering...

  17. Assessing maternal healthcare inequities among migrants: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Moreira Almeida

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering pregnancy and motherhood as periods of increased vulnerability in migrant women, to characterize the healthcare provided to this collective, we sought to identify and understand patterns of satisfaction and demand of maternal and child healthcare, assessing women’s perceptions about its quality. The study followed a qualitative methodology (semi-structured interviews for collecting and analysing data (content analysis and was conducted in Porto, the second largest city of Portugal. Participants were 25 recent immigrant mothers from Eastern European countries, Brazil, Portuguese-speaking African countries and six native Portuguese recent mothers (for comparison, contacted through social associations and institutions. Data suggests that healthcare depends not only on accessibility but especially on social opportunities. Equitable public health action must provide individuals and groups the equal opportunity to meet their needs, which may not be achieved by providing the same standard if care to all.

  18. Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Easa; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Many women, throughout their life cycle, experience unintended pregnancy and its subsequent induced abortion. Nonetheless, women's perceptions of this phenomenon - particularly in countries prohibiting elective abortion - are poorly known. The aim of this study was to explore Iranian Azeri women's perceptions of unintended pregnancy. This was a conventional content analysis study conducted in Tabriz, Iran. The data were collected through 31 semi-structured interviews with 23 women who had recently experienced an unintended pregnancy. The study participants were recruited using the purposive sampling method. Sampling started in March 2013 and continued until reaching data saturation, i.e. till August 2013. Data analysis was carried out concurrently with data collection. MAXQDA 10.0 software was employed for managing the study data. The study data analysis process yielded the formation of three main themes including negative effects of unintended pregnancy on daily life, fear of being stigmatized with violating social norms, and abortion panic, which in turn constituted the broader overarching theme of "threat supposition." In other words, following an unintended pregnancy, the study participants had experienced different levels of fear and threat depending on their personal, family, and socio-cultural backgrounds. Women perceive unintended pregnancy as a challenging and threatening situation. An unintended pregnancy can threaten women's lives through social deprivations, growing instability, and putting both mother and baby at risk for physical and psychosocial problems. On the other hand, an unsafe illegal abortion could have potentially life-threatening complications. To cope with such a situation, women need strong social support. Healthcare providers can fulfill such women's need for support by developing pre-abortion counseling services and providing them with professional counseling. Also, strengthening women's support system by policy-makers is recommended.

  19. Adolescent Perceptions of Dating Violence: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sarah; Calkins, Carrie A; Xia, Yan; Dalla, Rochelle L

    2017-08-01

    Scholars have identified dating violence as a public health issue among adolescents. Yet, minimal research has detailed adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, specifically gender differences in perceptions. Research suggests that in order for dating violence prevention and intervention to be effective, services need to be delivered in a manner that is understood by adolescents. Therefore, this study used a qualitative phenomenology study to investigate adolescents' perceptions of dating violence, including gender differences in adolescents' perceptions. Thirty adolescents between the ages of 14 and 19 from a Midwest public high school participated in focus groups. Focus group participants were asked semistructured interview questions regarding the definition of dating violence, risk and protective factors for dating violence, support for victims and perpetrators, and prevention efforts. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis methods, and common themes were identified. Adolescents' language revealed gender differences in perceptions toward dating violence. Males perceive dating violence through action, perpetration, and physical consequences. Females discuss dating violence by relating to the victim and the victim's emotions. Although gender differences existed in participants' perceptions, both males and females explained that dating violence is more often perpetrated by females, despite the view from society that males are more likely to perpetrate dating violence. Findings suggest that schools, practitioners, and policy makers are not meeting the needs of adolescents in regard to dating violence prevention and intervention. Prevention and intervention efforts could be improved by delivering education and services using language that adolescents find relevant. Findings also suggest that adolescents may benefit from prevention and intervention with gender specific components.

  20. Women's experiences of postnatal distress: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Rose; Ayers, Susan; de Visser, Richard

    2014-10-14

    Women can experience a range of psychological problems after birth, including anxiety, depression and adjustment disorders. However, research has predominantly focused on depression. Qualitative work on women's experiences of postnatal mental health problems has sampled women within particular diagnostic categories so not looked at the range of potential psychological problems. The aims of this study were to explore how women experienced and made sense of the range of emotional distress states in the first postnatal year. A qualitative study of 17 women who experienced psychological problems in the first year after having a baby. Semi-structured interviews took place in person (n =15) or on the telephone (n =2). Topics included women's experiences of becoming distressed and their recovery. Data were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Themes were developed within each interview before identifying similar themes for multiple participants across interviews, in order to retain an idiographic approach. Psychological processes such as guilt, avoidance and adjustment difficulties were experienced across different types of distress. Women placed these in the context of defining moments of becoming a mother; giving birth and breastfeeding. Four superordinate themes were identified. Two concerned women's unwanted negative emotions and difficulties adjusting to their new role. "Living with an unwelcome beginning" describes the way mothers' new lives with their babies started out with unwelcome emotions, often in the context of birth and breastfeeding difficulties. All women spoke about the importance of their postnatal healthcare experiences in "Relationships in the healthcare system". "The shock of the new" describes women's difficulties adjusting to the demands of motherhood and women emphasised the importance of social support in "Meeting new support needs". These findings emphasise the need for exploration of psychological processes such as

  1. The concept of care complexity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Guarinoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hospital organisations based on the level of care intensity have clearly revealed a concept, that of care complexity, which has been widely used for decades in the healthcare field. Despite its wide use, this concept is still poorly defined and it is often confused with and replaced by similar concepts such as care intensity or workload. This study aims to describe the meaning of care complexity as perceived by nurses in their day-to-day experience of hospital clinical care, rehabilitation, home care, and organisation. Design and methods: Fifteen interviews were conducted with nurses belonging to clinical-care areas and to heterogeneous organisational areas. The interview was of an unstructured type. The participants were selected using a propositional methodology. Colaizzi’s descriptive phenomenological method was chosen for the analysis of the interviews. Results: The nurses who were interviewed predominantly perceive the definition of care complexity as coinciding with that of workload. Nevertheless, the managerial perspective does not appear to be exclusive, as from the in-depth interviews three fundamental themes emerge that are associated with the concept of care complexity: the patient, the nurse and the organisation. Conclusions: The study highlights that care complexity consists of both quantitative and qualitative aspects that do not refer only to the organisational dimension. The use of the terminology employed today should be reconsidered: it appears to be inappropriate to talk of measurement of care complexity, as this concept also consists of qualitative – thus not entirely quantifiable – aspects referring to the person being cared for. In this sense, reference should instead be made to the evaluation of care complexity, which would also constitute a better and more complete basis for defining the nursing skills required in professional nursing practice.

  2. Public perceptions of dental implants: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guihua; Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward C M

    2015-07-01

    Dental implants have become a popular option for treating partially dentate or edentulous patients. Information on dental implants is widely available in the public domain and is disseminated through industries and dental practitioners at various levels/disciplines. This qualitative study aimed to evaluate the public's information acquisition and their perceptions of dental implants and the effects of these on their care-seeking and decision making. A purposive sample of 28 adults were recruited to join six focus groups. To be eligible, one must be 35-64 years of age, had never been engaged in dentally related jobs, had at least one missing tooth, and had heard about dental implant but never received dental implant or entered into any dental consultation regarding dental implants. All of the focus groups discussions were transcribed verbatim and subjected to thematic content analysis following a grounded theory approach. Participants acquired information on dental implants through various means, such as patient information boards, printed advertisements, social media, and personal connections. They expected dental implants to restore the patients' appearance, functions, and quality of life to absolute normality. They regarded dental implants as a panacea for all cases of missing teeth, overestimated their functions and longevity, and underestimated the expertise needed to carry out the clinical procedures. They were deterred from seeking dental implant treatment by the high price, invasive procedures, risks, and complications. Members of the public were exposed to information of varying quality and had some unrealistic expectations regarding dental implants. Such perceptions may shape their care-seeking behaviours and decision-making processes in one way or another. The views and experiences gathered in this qualitative study could assist clinicians to better understand the public's perspectives, facilitate constructive patient-dentist communication, and contribute

  3. Stress 'deafness' in a language with fixed word stress: an ERP study on Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eDomahs

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present contribution was to examine the factors influencing the prosodic processing in a language with predictable word stress. For Polish, a language with fixed penultimate stress but several well-defined exceptions, difficulties in the processing and representation of prosodic information have been reported (e.g., Peperkamp & Dupoux, 2002. The present study utilized event-related potentials (ERPs to investigate the factors influencing prosodic processing in Polish. These factors are i the predictability of stress and ii the prosodic structure in terms of metrical feet. Polish native speakers were presented with correctly and incorrectly stressed Polish words and instructed to judge the correctness of the perceived stress patterns. For each stress violation an early negativity was found which was interpreted as reflection of an error-detection mechanism, and in addition exceptional stress patterns (= antepenultimate stress and post-lexical (= initial stress evoked a task-related positivity effect (P300 whose amplitude and latency is correlated with the degree of anomaly and deviation from an expectation. Violations involving the default (= penultimate stress in contrast did not produce such an effect. This asymmetrical result is interpreted to reflect that Polish native speakers are less sensitive to the default pattern than to the exceptional or post-lexical patterns. Behavioral results are orthogonal to the electrophysiological results showing that Polish speakers had difficulties to reject any kind of stress violation. Thus, on a meta-linguistic level Polish speakers appeared to be stress-‘deaf’ for any kind of stress manipulation, whereas the neural reactions differentiate between the default and lexicalized patterns.

  4. The Power of Graphic Organizers: Effects on Students' Word-Learning and Achievement Emotions in Social Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilter, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of three graphic organizers for teaching vocabulary and the development of the emotions-related to achievement. The study focused on the effects of different types of graphic organizers on word-learning and various emotions in social studies. This study was designed as a…

  5. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  6. Space-Based Space Surveillance Logistics Case Study: A Qualitative Product Support Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Joint applied project 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SPACE-BASED SPACE SURVEILLANCE LOGISTICS CASE STUDY: A QUALITATIVE ...INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK v ABSTRACT This research provides a qualitative analysis of the logistics impacts, effects, and sustainment challenges...provides a qualitative product support element-by-element review for both research questions. Chapters IV and V present the findings, results

  7. A qualitative study of user perceptions of mobile health apps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mobile apps for health exist in large numbers today, but oftentimes, consumers do not continue to use them after a brief period of initial usage, are averse toward using them at all, or are unaware that such apps even exist. The purpose of our study was to examine and qualitatively determine the design and content elements of health apps that facilitate or impede usage from the users’ perceptive. Methods In 2014, six focus groups and five individual interviews were conducted in the Midwest region of the U.S. with a mixture of 44 smartphone owners of various social economic status. The participants were asked about their general and health specific mobile app usage. They were then shown specific features of exemplar health apps and prompted to discuss their perceptions. The focus groups and interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using the software NVivo. Results Inductive thematic analysis was adopted to analyze the data and nine themes were identified: 1 barriers to adoption of health apps, 2 barriers to continued use of health apps, 3 motivators, 4 information and personalized guidance, 5 tracking for awareness and progress, 6 credibility, 7 goal setting, 8 reminders, and 9 sharing personal information. The themes were mapped to theories for interpretation of the results. Conclusions This qualitative research with a diverse pool of participants extended previous research on challenges and opportunities of health apps. The findings provide researchers, app designers, and health care providers insights on how to develop and evaluate health apps from the users’ perspective.

  8. Factors Affecting Surgical Decision-making—A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Gunaratnam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Guidelines and Class 1 evidence are strong factors that help guide surgeons’ decision-making, but dilemmas exist in selecting the best surgical option, usually without the benefit of guidelines or Class 1 evidence. A few studies have discussed the variability of surgical treatment options that are currently available, but no study has examined surgeons’ views on the influential factors that encourage them to choose one surgical treatment over another. This study examines the influential factors and the thought process that encourage surgeons to make these decisions in such circumstances. Methods Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 32 senior consultant surgeons, surgical fellows, and senior surgical residents at the University of Toronto teaching hospitals. An e-mail was sent out for volunteers, and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Results Broadly speaking there are five groups of factors affecting surgeons’ decision-making: medical condition, information, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors. When information factors such as guidelines and Class 1 evidence are lacking, the other four groups of factors—medical condition, institutional, patient, and surgeon factors (the last-mentioned likely being the most powerful—play a significant role in guiding surgical decision-making. Conclusions This study is the first qualitative study on surgeons’ perspectives on the influential factors that help them choose one surgical treatment option over another for their patients.

  9. Iranian nurses' perceptions of social responsibility: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faseleh-Jahromi, Mohsen; Moattari, Marzieh; Peyrovi, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Social responsibility is intertwined with nursing; however, perceptions of Iranian nurses about social responsibility has not been explored yet. This study, as part of a larger qualitative grounded theory approach study, aims to explore Iranian nurses' perception of social responsibility. The study participants included 10 nurses with different job levels. The study data were generated through semi-structured interviews. The participants were selected through purposeful sampling approach, which was then followed by theoretical sampling until reaching the point of data saturation. All the interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through constant comparative analysis. Positive human characteristics, professional competencies, professional values, solution-focused nursing care, and deployment of professional performance are five categories obtained from the study. The participants believed socially responsible nurses to have positive personality characteristics as well as the necessary skills to do their duties accurately. Such nurses also respect the values, observe the professional principles, and take major steps toward promotion and deployment of the nursing profession in the society.

  10. Combining qualitative with quantitative approaches to study contraceptive pill use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, D; Yu, M Y; Zhang, Y M; Zhu, X L; Chen, W H; Yao, L

    1999-03-01

    According to large-scale studies, oral contraceptive users become pregnant at rates that exceed ideal use failure rates. It is thought that a major cause is missed pills, but current research on consistent contraceptive pill taking is characterized by inadequate measures and a failure to investigate women's thinking about their own patterns of use. The purpose of this study was to gain some understanding about women's interpretations of consistency in their own pill taking through combining qualitative with quantitative data. The study was conducted in China, where contraception is free and widely available. Five urban and five rural oral contraceptive users were followed for up to three pill-taking cycles during 1996 for a total of 759 person-days. Consistency of pill taking was measured with electronic data obtained from a new blister package made by Anderson Clinical Technologies (Elmhurst, IL). Data from these devices were reviewed and interpreted by the study participants during in-depth private interviews. The users' reasons for missing pills included disruptions in their daily routines, their husband's absence, spotting, and trouble implementing the family planning program's instructions to take one pill per day for 22 days and start the next cycle on the fifth day of menses. One user gave these reasons for two cycles but denied missing numerous pills in her third cycle. Data from a series of four questionnaires showed that most demographic, psychosocial, and service system characteristics were not related to missed pills. However, results suggested that the daily routines of rural living may make consistent use more likely and that instructions for taking the pill may be associated with prolonged pill-free intervals and skipping pills during episodes of spotting. Three of the 10 women were at increased risk of pregnancy during the study period because of their pill-taking pattern. We concluded that the combination of qualitative with quantitative data

  11. A Qualitative Study Exploring Moral Distress Among Pediatric Resuscitation Team Clinicians: Challenges to Professional Integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Tessy A; Thammasitboon, Satid; Balmer, Dorene F; Roy, Kevin; McCullough, Laurence B

    2016-07-01

    Our study objectives were to explore moral distress among pediatric team clinicians within the context of resuscitation experiences, and determine whether there were any distinctively ethical perspectives on moral distress that could be conceptualized as challenges to professional integrity, rather than to previously described psychological responses of clinicians. Descriptive, exploratory qualitative study. A large tertiary pediatric academic hospital in Houston, TX. Twenty-five PICU resuscitation team clinicians were interviewed from December 2012 to April 2013. None. All clinicians reported experiencing moral distress during certain resuscitations. Twenty-one of 25 clinicians reflected and acknowledged that their sense of professional integrity had been challenged during those resuscitation events. Four main components of resuscitation experience that induced moral distress were identified: 1) experiences where there was lack of understanding of the big picture; 2) experiences where there was suboptimal team leadership; 3) experiences where there was variable meanings to the word "resuscitation"; and 4) experiences were there was uncertainty of role responsibility. The perception of moral distress exists among pediatric clinicians during resuscitations and could be conceptualized as challenges to professional integrity. This ethical framework offers an alternative approach to understanding and investigating the complex layers of moral distress.

  12. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  13. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster ) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham ). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham ) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster ), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  14. The Aircraft Electric Taxi System: A Qualitative Multi Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Thomas Frank

    The problem this research addresses is the airline industry, and the seemingly unwillingness attitude towards adopting ways to taxi aircraft without utilizing thrust from the main engines. The purpose of the study was to get a better understanding of the decision-making process of airline executives, in respect to investing in cost saving technology. A qualitative research method is used from personal interviews with 24 airline executives from two major U.S. airlines, related industry journal articles, and aircraft performance data. The following three research questions are addressed. RQ1. Does the cost of jet fuel influence airline executives' decision of adopting the aircraft electric taxi system technology? RQ2 Does the measurable payback period for a return on investment influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? RQ3. Does the amount of government assistance influence airline executives' decision of adopting ETS technology? A multi case research study design is used with a triangulation technique. The participant perceptions indicate the need to reduce operating costs, they have concerns about investment risk, and they are in favor of future government sponsored performance improvement projects. Based on the framework, findings and implications of this study, a future research paper could focus on the positive environmental effects of the ETS application. A study could be conducted on current airport area air quality and the effects that aircraft main engine thrust taxiing has on the surrounding air quality.

  15. Caregiver coping with the mentally ill: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Azlinda; Jamir Singh, Paramjit Singh; Sulaiman, Jamalludin

    2017-04-01

    Mental illness is a disease that affects millions of people every year. It not only causes stress to the mentally ill patients, but also for the family members who provide them the care. The family caregivers, therefore need some form of coping strategies in dealing with their mentally ill family members. This qualitative study aims at identifying and analysing the coping strategies adopted by the family caregivers in dealing with their mentally ill family members. A total of 15 family caregivers from the state of Kedah, Malaysia participated in the face-to-face semi structured interview. The study findings identified an array of coping strategies used by the family caregivers, including religious coping, emotional coping, acceptance, becoming engaged in leisure activities, and the use of traditional healing to help them cope with their mentally ill members. Suggestions and conclusions: Study suggests that the family caregivers should engage themselves in social support groups to learn about and obtain the positive coping strategies used by other caregivers who have similar experiences in caring for the mentally ill. Study also suggests that they should get appropriate training from the mental health professionals in order to enhance the caregivers' coping skills.

  16. Does online learning click with rural nurses? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Kim; Schmidt, David

    2016-08-01

    To explore the factors that influence rural nurses engagement with online learning within a rural health district in New Sound Wales (NSW), Australia. This qualitative study based on appreciative inquiry methodology used semi-structured interviews with managers and nurses. Purposive sampling methods were used to recruit facility managers, whereas convenience sampling was used to recruit nurses in 2012-2013. Three public health facilities in rural NSW. Fourteen nurses were involved in the study, including Health Service Managers (n = 3), Nurse Unit Manager (n = 1), Clinical Nurse Specialists (n = 3), Registered Nurses (n = 2), Enrolled Nurses (n = 2) and Assistant in Nursing (n = 3). The research found that online learning works well when there is accountability for education being undertaken by linking to organisational goals and protected time. Nurses in this study valued the ability to access and revisit online learning at any time. However, systems that are hard to access or navigate and module design that did not provide a mechanism for users to seek feedback negatively affected their use and engagement. This study demonstrates that rural nurses' engagement with online learning would be enhanced by a whole of system redesign in order to deliver a learning environment that will increase satisfaction, engagement and learning outcomes. © 2015 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.

  17. Baby's first 10 words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A

    2008-07-01

    Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers completed MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories and reported them to produce between 1 and 10 words. Analyses of individual words indicated striking commonalities in the first words that children learn. However, substantive cross-linguistic differences appeared in the relative prevalence of common nouns, people terms, and verbs as well as in the probability that children produced even one of these word types when they had a total of 1-3, 4-6, or 7-10 words in their vocabularies. These data document cross-linguistic differences in the types of words produced even at the earliest stages of vocabulary learning and underscore the importance of parental input and cross-linguistic/cross-cultural variations in children's early word-learning.

  18. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  19. Differential activity in left inferior frontal gyrus for pseudo and real words: an event-related functional MRI study on auditory lexical decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhuangwei; Xu Weixiong; Zhang Xuexin; Wang Xiaoyi; Weng Xuchu; Wu Renhua; Wu Xiaoping

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study lexical processing of pseudo words and real words by using a fast event-related functional MRI (ER-fMRI) design. Methods: Participants did an auditory lexical decision task on a list of pseudo-randomly intermixed real and pseudo Chinese two-character (or two-syllable) words. Pseudo words were constructed by recombining constituent characters of the real words to control for sublexical codes properties. Results: The behavioral performance of fourteen participants indicated that response to pseudowords was significantly slower and less accurate than to real words (mean error rate: 9.9% versus 3.9%, mean reaction time: 1618 ms versus 1143 ms). Processing of pseudo words and real words activated a highly comparable network of brain regions, including bilateral inferior frontal gyrus, superior, middle temporal gyrus, calcarine and lingual gyrus, and left supramarginal gyrus. Mirroring a behavioral lexical effect, left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was significantly more activated for pseudo words than for real words. Conclusion: The results indicate that the processing of left inferior frontal gyrus in judging pseudo words and real words is not related to grapheme-to-phoneme conversion, but rather to making positive versus negative responses in decision making. (authors)

  20. MATERNAL PERCEPTIONS OF PARENTING FOLLOWING AN EVIDENCE-BASED PARENTING PROGRAM: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF LEGACY FOR CHILDRENTM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Sophie A; Robinson, Lara R; Comeau, Dawn L; Claussen, Angelika H; Perou, Ruth

    2017-07-01

    This article presents the findings of a qualitative study of maternal perceptions of parenting following participation in Legacy for Children TM (Legacy), an evidence-based parenting program for low-income mothers of young children and infants. To further examine previous findings and better understand participant experiences, we analyzed semistructured focus-group discussions with predominantly Hispanic and Black, non-Hispanic Legacy mothers at two sites (n = 166) using thematic analysis and grounded theory techniques. The qualitative study presented here investigated how mothers view their parenting following participation in Legacy, allowing participants to describe their experience with the program in their own words, thus capturing an "insider" perspective. Mothers at both sites communicated knowledge and use of positive parenting practices targeted by the goals of Legacy; some site-specific differences emerged related to these parenting practices. These findings align with the interpretation of quantitative results from the randomized controlled trials and further demonstrate the significance of the Legacy program in promoting positive parenting for mothers living in poverty. This study emphasizes the importance of understanding real-world context regarding program efficacy and the benefit of using qualitative research to understand participant experiences. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of negative and positive words: a divided field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgraves, Thomas; Felton, Adam

    2011-06-01

    Research on the lateralisation of brain functions for emotion has yielded different results as a function of whether it is the experience, expression, or perceptual processing of emotion that is examined. Further, for the perception of emotion there appear to be differences between the processing of verbal and nonverbal stimuli. The present research examined the hemispheric asymmetry in the processing of verbal stimuli varying in emotional valence. Participants performed a lexical decision task for words varying in affective valence (but equated in terms of arousal) that were presented briefly to the right or left visual field. Participants were significantly faster at recognising positive words presented to the right visual field/left hemisphere. This pattern did not occur for negative words (and was reversed for high arousal negative words). These results suggest that the processing of verbal stimuli varying in emotional valence tends to parallel hemispheric asymmetry in the experience of emotion.

  3. Distrust and patients in intercultural healthcare: A qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Lise-Merete

    2018-05-01

    The importance of trust between patients and healthcare personnel is emphasised in nurses' and physicians' ethical codes. Trust is crucial for an effective healthcare personnel-patient relationship and thus for treatment and treatment outcomes. Cultural and linguistic differences may make building a trusting and positive relationship with ethnic minority patients particularly challenging. Although there is a great deal of research on cultural competence, there is a conspicuous lack of focus on the concepts of trust and distrust concerning ethnic minority patients, particularly in relation to the concept of 'othering'. To study which factors help build trust or create distrust in encounters between healthcare professionals and hospitalised ethnic minority patients, as well as study the dynamic complexities inherent within the process of 'othering'. Qualitative design, in-depth interviews and hermeneutic analysis. Participants and research context: The interviewees were 10 immigrant patients (six women and four men - eight Asians, two Africans - ages 32-85 years) recruited from a south-eastern Norwegian hospital. Ethical considerations: Study approval was obtained from the hospital's Privacy Ombudsman for Research and the hospital's leadership. Participation was voluntary and participants signed an informed consent form. Distrust and othering may be caused by differences in belief systems, values, perceptions, expectations, and style of expression and behaviour. Othering is a reciprocal phenomenon in minority ethnic patient-healthcare personnel encounters, and it influences trust building negatively. Besides demonstrating general professional skill and competence, healthcare personnel require cultural competence to create trust.

  4. Informed consent and medical ordeal: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M; Jordens, C F C; McGrath, C; Montgomery, K; Lipworth, W; Kerridge, I

    2008-08-01

    Informed consent is a mainstay of clinical practice, with both moral and legal forces. Material disclosure about extreme treatments, however, is unlikely to convey the full impact of the experience of treatment. Informed consent may be flawed under such circumstances. The aims of this study were to compare expressed satisfaction with pretreatment information to satisfaction after experiencing autologous stem cell transplantation for recurrent lymphoma. A qualitative, narrative-based cohort study was conducted in a bone-marrow transplant unit of a teaching hospital at Westmead Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The cohort consisted of 10 transplant recipients and 9 of their nominated lay carers. The outcome measure was satisfaction expressed in narrative interviews at the time of transplantation and 3 months later. We used discourse-analytic techniques to examine the narratives. Both patients and carers expressed high satisfaction with the information given by individual clinicians and by speakers at a formal Information Day held before transplantation. At the first interview, neither patients nor carers commented much on the forthcoming ordeal of chemotherapy and bone marrow ablation, although all patients had undergone previous chemotherapy. At the second interview, the ordeal dominated the narratives and retrospective dissatisfaction with information was common. This study suggests that information about treatment theories and protocols can be satisfactorily communicated, but personal experience of suffering defies communication. This finding has serious implications for the practices involved in obtaining informed consent and for the very notion of informed consent.

  5. Ethical competency of nurse leaders: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkhordari-Sharifabad, Maasoumeh; Ashktorab, Tahereh; Atashzadeh-Shoorideh, Foroozan

    2018-02-01

    Ethics play an important role in activating the manpower and achieving the organizational goals. The nurse leaders' ethical behavior can promote the care quality by affecting the nurses' performance and bringing up several positive consequences for the organization. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical competency of nurse leaders in cultural domains and the working conditions of the Iranian healthcare setting to arrive at a more comprehensive and specific perspective. This was a qualitative conventional content analysis study conducted with the participation of 14 nurse leaders at various levels. The participants were selected using the purposive sampling method, and the required data were collected using deep interview and also semi-structured interview. A deductive method of content analysis was applied in data analysis. Ethical considerations: This study was conducted in accord with the principles of research ethics and national rules and regulations relating to informed consent and confidentiality. Data analysis resulted in 17 subcategories that were subsequently grouped into three major categories including empathetic interactions, ethical behavior, and exalted manners. Our findings are consistent with previous ones, yet presenting a more complete knowledge about aspects of ethical competency of nurse leaders. The nurse leaders can provide a proper behavioral model for the work environment through the use of new information. The nurse leaders introduced various aspects of ethical competency, so the leaders' ethical competency could be promoted via planning and managing some ethical development programs. More future research is needed regarding the experiences of the subordinates and other related parties.

  6. Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses' perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity.

  7. SAUDI TEACHERS’ PRACTICES OF FORMATIVE ASSESSMENT: A QUALITATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Almuntasheri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Shifting from teacher-centred to student-centred practices requires teachers to understand strategies to interact with students in science classes. Formative assessment strategies are very critical component of classroom interaction where teachers obtain information about student learning wherever possible. Traditionally, however, teachers ask questions and evaluate student responses but without investigating student contributions to the classroom interaction. This qualitative study aimed at developing teachers’ knowledge of formative assessment strategies when teaching science-based inquiry in Saudi Arabia. 12 teachers were observed when teaching science and details of one teachers’ practices of formative assessment is presented in this study. Formative assessment framework that describes assessment conversations is used and modified to observe teachers’ assessment practices. Assessment conversation consists of four-step cycles, where the teacher elicits information from students through questioning, the student responds, the teacher recognizes the student’s response, and then uses the information to develop further inquiry. Findings indicate that teachers ask questions and receive responses but rarely allow students to share their own ideas or discuss their own thinking. The study underlines the importance of integrating formative assessment strategies during scientific inquiry teaching for professional development as a way to increase student participation and allow opportunities for students’ inquiry in science classes.

  8. A qualitative study of male dental hygienists' experiences after graduation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, C C

    1999-01-01

    This report is part of a larger study undertaken in 1996 and 1997 for the author's doctoral dissertation. The study's purpose was to explore the experiences of male dental hygienists--focusing on their experiences before, during, and after graduation. The researcher interviewed 14 practicing male dental hygienists from east of the Mississippi River and one participant from the Midwest. Because of the length of the study, only their experiences following graduation from a dental hygiene program are discussed. Qualitative research methods were used to evaluate the information gained from the interviews, which entails analyzing interview transcripts and developing themes from the data. Four post-graduation themes emerged: participants experienced (1) no job-search difficulties, although some participants experienced minor problems with securing a position, most had little trouble in finding a job; (2) societal gender discrimination, mainly in relation to societal stereotypes about what men and women should do; (3) mixed feelings of acceptance by the profession, although most felt the profession accepting, there were some feelings of not belonging; and (4) career satisfaction, all but one of the participants felt satisfied with his career choice.

  9. Emotional experiences in surrogate mothers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari Tehran, Hoda; Tashi, Shohreh; Mehran, Nahid; Eskandari, Narges; Dadkhah Tehrani, Tahmineh

    2014-07-01

    Surrogacy is one of the new techniques of assisted reproduction technology in which a woman carries and bears a child for another woman. In Iran, many Shia clerics and jurists considered it permissible so there is no religious prohibition for it. In addition to the risk of physical complications for complete surrogate mothers, the possibility of psychological complications resulted from emotional attachment to a living creature in the surrogate mother as another injury requires counseling and assessment prior to acceptance by infertile couples and complete surrogate mothers. The purpose of this study was to assess the emotional experiences of surrogate mothers. This was a qualitative, phenomenological study. We selected eight complete surrogate mothers in Isfahan. We used convenient sampling method and in-depth interview to collect the information. The data analysis was fulfilled via Colaizzi's seven-stage method. Reliability and validity study of the roots in the four-axis was done. The findings of these interviews were classified into two main themes and four sub themes: acquired experiences in pregnancy (feelings toward pregnancy, relationship with family, relatives and commissioning couple) and consequences of surrogacy (complications of pregnancy, religious and financial problems of surrogacy). Surrogacy pregnancy should be considered as high-risk emotional experience because many of surrogate mothers may face negative experiences. Therefore, it is recommended that surrogates should receive professional counseling prior to, during and following pregnancy.

  10. Body image in gay and straight men: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John F; Arcelus, Jon

    2009-11-01

    Recent research has emphasized vulnerability to eating disorders in gay men, with calls for research on causality, cultural factors and focus on a younger age cohort. This study aimed to examine body image and related eating behaviours in younger gay and straight men. Qualitative study using a sample of gay and straight male university students, applying audiotaped and transcribed depth interview subjected to interpretative phenomenological analysis. Fifteen young men (18-24) with a spectrum of sexual orientation (gay, straight and bisexual) agreed to participate. Five dominant categories emerged: body image ideal, external influences, perception of body image, dieting, mechanisms for modification (diet, exercise, cosmetics) and sexual orientation. Health and aesthetic ideals appear less divorced for young men than women, offering some degree of protection from eating disorders. Nonetheless there is widespread body dissatisfaction. Media and social influences are powerful, particularly for single gay men, but the study suggests fewer differences than similarities between gay and straight men. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  11. Inside the fitness for work consultation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, D A; Aylward, M; Rollnick, S

    2009-08-01

    Evidence now suggests that work is generally good for physical and mental health and well-being. Worklessness for whatever reason can lead to poorer physical and mental health. The role of the general practitioner (GP) in the management of fitness for work is pivotal. To understand the interaction between GP and patient in the fitness for work consultation. This study forms part of a larger research project to develop a learning programme for GPs around the fitness for work consultation based on behaviour change methodology. A qualitative study set in South Wales. Structured discussion groups with seven GPs. Two sessions each lasting 3 h were conducted to explore the GP and patient interaction around the fitness for work consultation. Multiple methods were used to enhance engagement. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Four major themes emerged from the meetings: role legitimacy, negotiation, managing the patient and managing the systems. Within these, subthemes emerged around role legitimacy. 'It's not my job', 'It's not what I trained for' and the 'shifting agenda' Negotiation was likened to 'A polite tug of war' and subthemes around decision making, managing the agenda and dealing with uncertainty emerged. This study starts to unravel the complexity of the fitness for work consultation. It illustrates how GPs struggle with the 'importance' of their role and 'confidence' in managing the fitness for work consultation. It addresses the skillful negotiation that is required to manage the consultation effectively.

  12. Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahani, Simin; Abedi, Heidarali; Elahi, Nasrin; Fallahi-Khoshknab, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: To respond efficiently to the increasing and new needs of people in health issues, it is necessary for nurses to develop their knowledge from hospital to society and to be equipped to play entrepreneur role in different levels of care. The present study was conducted to describe Iranian entrepreneur nurses’ perceived barriers to entrepreneurship, in order to identify the existing barriers. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study in which Graneheim and Lundman's content analysis method was employed. Thirteen entrepreneur nurses were chosen purposively, and data were gathered by unstructured interviews. Results: As a result of the data analysis, five major themes were extracted: Traditional nursing structure, legal limitations, traditional attitudes of governmental managers, unprofessional behaviors of colleagues, and immoral business. Conclusions: The findings of the present study show that Iranian nurses are confronted with various problems and barriers to enter entrepreneur nursing and keep going in this area. By focusing on such barriers and applying appropriate changes, policymakers and planners in health can facilitate nurses entering into this activity. PMID:26985222

  13. Maintaining patients' dignity during clinical care: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yea-Pyng; Tsai, Yun-Fang

    2011-02-01

    This article is a report of a study undertaken to understand how nurses maintain patients' dignity in clinical practice. Dignity is a core concept in nursing care and maintaining patients' dignity is critical to their recovery. In Western countries, measures to maintain dignity in patients' care include maintaining privacy of the body, providing spatial privacy, giving sufficient time, treating patients as a whole person and allowing patients to have autonomy. However, this is an under-studied topic in Asian countries. For this qualitative descriptive study, data were collected in Taiwan in 2009 using in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 30 nurses from a teaching hospital in eastern Taiwan. The audiotaped interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Nurses' measures to maintain dignity in patient care were captured in five themes: respect, protecting privacy, emotional support, treating all patients alike and maintaining body image. Participants did not mention beneficence, a crucial element achieved through the professional care of nurses that can enhance the recovery of patients. In-service education to help nurses enhance dignity in patient care should emphasize emotional support, maintaining body image and treating all patients alike. Our model for maintaining dignity in patient care could be used to develop a clinical care protocol for nurses to use in clinical practice. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Determining School Administrators’ Perceptions on Institutional Culture: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secil Eda Kartal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Schools, the where educational activities are carried out, are among the major institutions society considers as important. Schools undertake strategic responsibilities in maintaining cultural values and conveying them to future generations. The primary responsibility in achieving these missions is assigned to the school administrators. The purpose of this study is to determine the perceptions of school administrators on institutional culture. This is a qualitative study conducted on school administrators who were selected based on the volunteering principle. Perceptions of school administrators concerning their institutions’ culture and the differences between their institutional culture and other institution’s cultures were determined and analyzed. Findings of this study suggest that school administrators have both positive and negative opinions regarding their institutional culture and cultural difference. While love-respect, collaboration-solidarity and common history were prominent positive opinions; lack of communication, lack of shared values and low expectation were prominent negative opinions. In addition, participants stated the environment as a crucial factor when defining culture.

  15. Patients' expectations of osteopathic care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Vinette; Leach, C M Janine; Fawkes, Carol A; Moore, Ann P

    2015-10-01

    Research has shown that patients' expectations of health care and health-care practitioners are complex and may have a significant impact on outcomes of care. Little is known about the expectations of osteopathic patients. To explore osteopathic patients' expectations of private sector care. Focus groups and individual interviews with purposively selected patients; this was the qualitative phase of a mixed methods study, the final phase being a patient survey. A total of 34 adult patients currently attending for treatment at private osteopathic practices across the United Kingdom. Focus group discussions and individual interviews around expectations before, during and after osteopathic care. Thematic analysis of text data to identify topics raised by patients and to group these into broad themes. Many components of expectation were identified. A preliminary conceptual framework describing the way the therapeutic encounter is approached in osteopathy comprised five themes: individual agency, professional expertise, customer experience, therapeutic process and interpersonal relationship. The components of expectation identified in this phase of the study provided potential question topics for the survey questionnaire in the subsequent phase of the investigation. The model developed in this study may add a new perspective to existing evidence on expectations. Further research is recommended to test the findings both within private practice and the National Health Service. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A qualitative study of the organizational consequences of telemedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    The organizational consequences of telemedicine have frequently been mentioned in the telemedicine community, but there are few empirical studies. A study was therefore carried out of what happens in organizations when telemedicine is implemented. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. Almost all respondents reported numerous organizational changes, some important. Changes in work processes were the most common. Examples of the organizational consequences of telemedicine were organizational restructuring, new organizational units, changed mechanisms for internal coordination, different flows of patients through the health-care system, improved coordination of care, new job descriptions, relocation of the place of work, employment of personnel living far away from the workplace, effects on employees not directly involved in telemedicine, sharing of experiences, minor staffing changes, clinical teamwork independent of co-location, administrative meetings arranged by telemedicine, merger of organizations independent of location, less travel by staff (and patients), a possible beneficial effect on the quality of care, and limited opposition to the adoption of the technology. Telemedicine may be important in the future organization of the disciplines studied and in health-care generally. The infrastructure of electronic networks may play an important role for organizations as the volume of telemedicine activity increases and economies of scale are realized.

  17. Patient-Centered Outcomes and Treatment Preferences Regarding Sexual Problems: A Qualitative Study Among Midlife Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Holly N; Hamm, Megan; Hess, Rachel; Borrero, Sonya; Thurston, Rebecca C

    2017-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is common in midlife women and can have a significant negative impact on quality of life. Although treatments exist, there is little research on which sexual function outcomes and treatments midlife women prefer. To better understand the sexual function outcomes that were most important to sexually active women 45 to 60 years old and the types of treatments they would prefer from individual interviews and focus groups. Twenty individual interviews and three focus groups (N = 39) were led by a trained facilitator, audio recorded, and transcribed. Two investigators developed a codebook, and the primary investigator coded all data. A second investigator coded five randomly selected interviews to ensure intercoder reliability. Codes relating to outcomes and treatment preferences were examined to identify central themes. The mean age was 52.8 years (range = 45-59). When asked what they would want a sexual dysfunction treatment to do, women sought solutions to specific sexual problems: low desire, vaginal pain and dryness, and decreased arousal or ability to achieve orgasm. However, when asked about the most important aspect of their sex life, most women indicated emotional outcomes, such as enhanced intimacy with their partner, were most important to them. Most women preferred behavioral over pharmaceutical treatments, citing concerns about side effects. These women felt that behavioral treatments might be better equipped to address physical and psychological aspects of sexual problems. This study highlights the importance of considering not only physical but also emotional outcomes when evaluating and treating sexual dysfunction in midlife women. It also emphasizes the importance of developing behavioral treatments in addition to pharmaceutical treatments. By using a qualitative approach, this study allowed women the time and space to speak their own words about their experiences with sexuality at midlife. In addition, different racial and ethnic

  18. The use of theory in qualitative approaches to research: application in end-of-life studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hung-Lan; Volker, Deborah L

    2009-12-01

    This paper is a report of an analysis of the use of theory in qualitative approaches to research as exemplified in qualitative end-of-life studies. Nurses researchers turn to theory to conceptualize research problems and guide investigations. However, researchers using qualitative approaches do not consistently articulate how theory has been applied, and no clear consensus exists regarding the appropriate application of theory in qualitative studies. A review of qualitative, end-of-life studies is used to illustrate application of theory to study design and findings. A review of theoretical literature was carried out, focusing on definitions and use of theory in qualitative end-of-life studies published in English between 1990 and 2008. The term 'theory' continues to be used in a variety of ways by theorists and researchers. Within the reviewed end-of-life studies, the use of theory included theory creation or provision of a comparative framework for data analysis and interpretation. Implications for nursing. Nurses who conduct qualitative studies should examine the philosophical and theoretical bases of their selected methodological approach, articulate a theoretical framework that fits the phenomenon being studied, and adopt a critical, flexible and creative attitude when applying theory to a study. Theory can be put to several uses in qualitative inquiry and should guide nurse researchers as they develop and implement their studies. Nurse educators who teach qualitative approaches to research should emphasize a variety of ways to incorporate theory in qualitative designs.

  19. Effects of prosody on spoken Thai word perception in pre-attentive brain processing: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipun Arunphalungsanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the unfamiliar stressed prosody on spoken Thai word perception in the pre-attentive processing of the brain evaluated by the N2a and brain wave oscillatory activity. EEG recording was obtained from eleven participants, who were instructed to ignore the sound stimuli while watching silent movies. Results showed that prosody of unfamiliar stress word perception elicited N2a component and the quantitative EEG analysis found that theta and delta wave powers were principally generated in the frontal area. It was possible that the unfamiliar prosody with different frequencies, duration and intensity of the sound of Thai words induced highly selective attention and retrieval of information from the episodic memory of the pre-attentive stage of speech perception. This brain electrical activity evidence could be used for further study in the development of valuable clinical tests to evaluate the frontal lobe function in speech perception.

  20. Electronic word of mouth on twitter about physical activity in the United States: exploratory infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-11-20

    Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users' past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04) were more likely to talk positively about

  1. Theory and interpretation in qualitative studies from general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this article, I want to promote theoretical awareness and commitment among qualitative researchers in general practice and suggest adequate and feasible theoretical approaches.  Approach: I discuss different theoretical aspects of qualitative research and present the basic foundations...... theory is a consistent and soundly based set of assumptions about a specific aspect of the world, predicting or explaining a phenomenon. Qualitative research is situated in an interpretative paradigm where notions about particular human experiences in context are recognized from different subject...... in qualitative analysis are presented, emphasizing substantive theories to sharpen the interpretative focus. Such approaches are clearly within reach for a general practice researcher contributing to clinical practice by doing more than summarizing what the participants talked about, without trying to become...

  2. The impact of documentation on communication during patient-physiotherapist interactions: A qualitative observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeb, Veronika; Hiller, Amy

    2018-01-31

    Documentation is an essential component of physiotherapy practice for clinical, legal, and ethical reasons. Research in other healthcare contexts suggests that documentation impacts upon communication in patient-practitioner interactions. Thus, the objective of this qualitative study was to examine how physiotherapists and their patients communicate during episodes of documentation. The research was informed by ethnomethodology and ethnography. In total, 113 patient-physiotherapist interactions were observed in Switzerland and Australia with video-recordings, audio-recordings, and field notes collected as data. Episodes of documentation within these interactions were transcribed, and both verbal and non-verbal communication were analyzed inductively. Analysis identified that communication during documentation was characterized by: pauses in conversation, pre-established order of questioning, minimal eye contact, use of direct communication, and an emphasis on objectivity. The use of documentation was observed to alter the wording of questioning as well as the sequence and flow of conversation between patient and physiotherapist. In addition, the observed communicative features seemed to restrict patient participation, and may hinder the achievement of a patient-centered approach. Recognizing the importance of documentation, we address the challenges that our research highlighted by proposing strategies to assist educators and clinicians to optimize communication with patients when incorporating documentation into practice.

  3. Women’s orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekoolaltak, Maryam; Keshavarz, Zohreh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Nazari, Ali Mohammad; Baghestani, Ahmad Reza

    2017-01-01

    Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication), psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems), relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse) and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home). Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary. PMID:29082366

  4. Acculturation Needs of Pediatric International Medical Graduates: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osta, Amanda D; Barnes, Michelle M; Pessagno, Regina; Schwartz, Alan; Hirshfield, Laura E

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: International medical graduates (IMGs) play a key role in host countries' health systems but face unique challenges, which makes effective, tailored support for IMGs essential. Prior literature describing the acculturation needs of IMGs focused primarily on communication content and style. We conducted a qualitative study to explore acculturation that might be specific to IMG residents who care for children. In a study conducted from November 2011 to April 2012, we performed four 90-minute semistructured focus groups with 26 pediatric IMG residents from 12 countries. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using open and focused coding methodology. The focus groups and subsequent analysis demonstrated that pediatric IMG residents' socialization to their home culture impacts their transition to practice in the United States; they must adjust not only to a U.S. culture, different from their own, but also to the culture of medicine in the United States. We identified the following new acculturation themes: understanding the education system and family structure, social determinants of health, communication with African American parents, contraception, physician handoffs, physicians' role in prevention, adolescent health, and physicians' role in child advocacy. We further highlight the acculturation challenges faced by pediatric IMG residents and offer brief recommendations for the creation of a deliberate acculturation curriculum for pediatric IMG residents. Insight: Residency training is a unique period in physicians' personal and professional development and can be particularly challenging for IMGs. There is a significant gap in the identified acculturation needs and the current curricula available to IMG residents who care for children.

  5. Connecting Refugees to Substance Use Treatment: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleary, Jennifer S; Shannon, Patricia J; Cook, Tonya L

    2016-01-01

    An emerging body of literature identifies substance use as a growing concern among refugees resettling in the United States. Like immigrants, refugees may face cultural, linguistic, or systems barriers to connecting with mainstream substance use treatment programs, which may be compounded by refugees' unique experiences with exposure to trauma, displacement in refugee camps, and resettlement. This qualitative study explores factors that support and prevent refugees from connecting with chemical health treatment. Fifteen participants who identified as social service or public health professionals who work with refugees responded to an online, semistructured survey about their experiences referring refugees to substance use treatment. Resulting data was analyzed using thematic analysis. Themes emerged identifying a lack of culturally informed treatment models, policy issues, and client characteristics such as motivation and past trauma as barriers to engaging with treatment. Ongoing case management and coordination were identified as important to successful linkage. Findings from this study contribute to a better understanding of how to support refugees seeking substance use treatment and suggest that developing trauma informed, culturally relevant models of treatment that are integrated with primary health care and geographically accessible may enhance treatment linkage.

  6. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAMADBEIK, Mahnaz; ASADI, Heshmatollah; MOHSENI, Mohammad; TAKBIRI, Afsaneh; MOOSAVI, Ahmad; GARAVAND, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran’s ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Results: Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). Conclusion: This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website. PMID:28451562

  7. HIV infection in male adolescents: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taquette, Stella Regina; Rodrigues, Adriana de Oliveira; Bortolotti, Livia Rocha

    2015-07-01

    `The gradual reduction in the incidence of AIDS among men who have sex with men has not occurred in the youngest age group; on the contrary, it is growing. This paper examines the vulnerabilities of adolescent males at risk of HIV infection. This is a qualitative study conducted through interviews with HIV positive young men undergoing treatment, whose diagnosis was made during adolescence. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full. They were analyzed by intensive reading, classified by issues, and interpreted from a hermeneutic-dialectic perspective in dialogue with the literature. We interviewed 16 young men whose diagnosis occurred between the ages of 11 and 19 and for all of them the method of HIV transmission was sexual; 12 of the men were homosexual and 4 were heterosexual. It was evident that vulnerable situations included disbelief in the possibility of contamination, subjection to sex, homophobia and commercial sexual exploitation. This study demonstrates the importance of the formulation of public policies on sexual and reproductive health, which include adolescents and young men. These policies should embody the perspective of masculinity in all its widest aspects, as well as actions in favor of sexual diversity.

  8. Advanced maternal age and risk perception: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Advanced maternal age (AMA) is associated with several adverse pregnancy outcomes, hence these pregnancies are considered to be “high risk.” A review of the empirical literature suggests that it is not clear how women of AMA evaluate their pregnancy risk. This study aimed to address this gap by exploring the risk perception of pregnant women of AMA. Methods A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken to obtain a rich and detailed source of explanatory data regarding perceived pregnancy risk of 15 women of AMA. The sample was recruited from a variety of settings in Winnipeg, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with nulliparous women aged 35 years or older, in their third trimester, and with singleton pregnancies. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim, and content analysis was used to identify themes and categories. Results Four main themes emerged: definition of pregnancy risk, factors influencing risk perception, risk alleviation strategies, and risk communication with health professionals. Conclusions Several factors may influence women's perception of pregnancy risk including medical risk, psychological elements, characteristics of the risk, stage of pregnancy, and health care provider’s opinion. Understanding these influential factors may help health professionals who care for pregnant women of AMA to gain insight into their perspectives on pregnancy risk and improve the effectiveness of risk communication strategies with this group. PMID:22988825

  9. Newsmaking on drugs: a qualitative study with journalism professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastroianni, Fabio C; Noto, Ana Regina

    2008-09-01

    Drugs are a frequent subject in the news media. Despite the existence of an important dynamic interplay between the print media, public opinion, and public policies, studies on these relationships are still scarce regarding the drug issue. The objective of this study is to understand the newsmaking process regarding drugs from the vantage point of Brazilian journalism professionals. Using qualitative research, semistructured interviews were conducted among an intentional sample of 22 professionals who write news stories and articles about drugs in nationwide news media. Interviewees mentioned illegality and crime as the main factors leading to the production of stories and articles. They claimed that by instilling fear among readers, newspapers and magazines tend to increase their audiences and/or sales. Most interviewees considered the coverage of drugs in Brazil as weak. Main problems reported include lack of knowledge on the subject, and not enough time to prepare the stories. It was concluded that the newsmaking process regarding drugs undergoes a series of interferences that compromise the content of the stories, therefore social strategies are needed in order to improve the quality of the material published in Brazil.

  10. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1) recognizing the dilemma; 2) identifying context; 3) determining choices; 4) strategies used; 5) results and choices the mother made; and 6) follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation. PMID:22824376

  11. Designing a Medical Tourism Website: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Asadi, Heshmatollah; Mohseni, Mohammad; Takbiri, Afsaneh; Moosavi, Ahmad; Garavand, Ali

    2017-02-01

    Informing plays a prominent role in attracting medical tourists. The enjoyment of proper medical information systems is one of the most important tools for the attraction of medical tourists. Iran's ability in designing and implementing information networks has remained largely unknown. The current study aimed to explore information needs for designing a medical tourism website. This qualitative study was conducted in 2015 for designing Hospital Medical-Tourism Website (HMTW). A purposive sampling method was used and data were gathered using a semi-structured questionnaire. Totally, 12 faculty members and experts in the field of medical tourism were interviewed. Data were analyzed using the MAXQDA10 software. Totally 41 sub-themes and 10 themes were identified. The themes included the introduction of hospital, general guide for patients, tourism information, information related to physicians in hospital, costs, treatment follow-up, online hospital appointment scheduling in website, statistics and news of hospital medical tourism, photo gallery and contacts. Among the themes, the participants highly emphasized four themes including costs (100%), tourism information (91.6%), information related to physicians in hospital, (83.3%) and treatment follow-up (83.3%). This profitable industry can be developed through considering information requirements for hospital medical tourism website.

  12. Qualitative study of eating habits in Bruneian primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talip, Tajidah; Serudin, Rajiah; Noor, Salmah; Tuah, Nik

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious public health issue globally and poor eating habits are an important contributing factor. This study aimed to explore the perceptions, practices and attitudes towards healthy eating in Bruneian primary school children. A qualitative study was conducted among 40 subjects involving 18 children (aged 9-10 years old), 12 parents and 10 teachers, who were recruited from two primary schools using convenience sampling. Five focus group discussion sessions were conducted, and recorded discussions were translated. The transcripts were entered into NVivo10 and thematic analysis was conducted. All participants had differing perceptions of the term 'healthy eating'. Children reported 'healthy eating' by identifying foods or food groups they perceived as healthy and unhealthy. Only a few mentioned fruits and vegetables as essential to a healthy diet. Parents mainly perceived 'healthy eating' as consuming 'any quality food' that contains 'vitamins and minerals'. Teachers described a healthy diet as including balanced and varied dietary practices, having breakfast and eating regularly at the right, set times. They also associated eating healthily with traditional, home-grown and home-cooked food. All participants had positive attitudes towards healthy eating, however most children demonstrated unhealthy eating habits and frequently consumed unhealthy foods. The Bruneian primary school children reported favourable knowledge despite having poor healthy eating habits. The factors influencing participants eating behavior included food preferences, familial factors (parental style and parenting knowledge), food accessibility and availability, time constraints, as well as convenience. These factors hindered them from adopting healthy eating practices.

  13. Exploring how IBCLCs manage ethical dilemmas: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel-Weiss Joy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Professional health care practice should be based on ethical decisions and actions. When there are competing ethical standards or principles, one must choose between two or more competing options. This study explores ethical dilemmas experienced by International Board Certified Lactation Consultants. Methods The investigator interviewed seven International Board Certified Lactation Consultants and analyzed the interviews using qualitative research methods. Results "Staying Mother-Centred" emerged as the overall theme. It encompassed six categories that emerged as steps in managing ethical dilemmas: 1 recognizing the dilemma; 2 identifying context; 3 determining choices; 4 strategies used; 5 results and choices the mother made; and 6 follow-up. The category, "Strategies used", was further analyzed and six sub-themes emerged: building trust; diffusing situations; empowering mothers; finding balance; providing information; and setting priorities. Conclusions This study provides a framework for understanding how International Board Certified Lactation Consultants manage ethical dilemmas. Although the details of their stories changed, the essence of the experience remained quite constant with the participants making choices and acting to support the mothers. The framework could be the used for further research or to develop tools to support IBCLCs as they manage ethical dilemmas and to strengthen the profession with a firm ethics foundation.

  14. Organizational Trust Levels of Elementary Teachers: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukadder BOYDAK ÖZAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, the main feature of a well-functioning organization is trust in the organization. In the research, it is researched which conceptions are needed to ensue organizational trust by the teachers who work in the primary schools and that the effects of the factors of organizational trust formation on the organizational atmosphere. The research is designed qualitatively. The study group of the research consists of 50 teachers working in Elazığ and the centrum of the city boundries. The interview form was prepared by studying on the subject of the research. The validity of the interview forms, content and appearance are provided thanks to be taken the expert opinions of faculty members (n=3. The interview forms are used as a unique data source. In the research , it is evaluated how organizational trust affects on the importantresults in terms of the organization such as organizational commitment, organizational burnout, organizational citizenship, organizational cynicism, identification with the organization, productivity according to the perception of the teachers. As a result, it is observed that organizational trust affects organizational commitment, the organizational burnout and organizational communication levels significantly

  15. Core attitudes of professionals in palliative care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Steffen T; Ramsenthaler, Christina; Bausewein, Claudia; Krischke, Norbert; Geiss, Gerlinde

    2009-08-01

    Self-awareness of one's own reactions towards patients and their relatives is of paramount importance for all professionals in palliative care. 'Core attitude' describes the way in which a person perceives himself and the world, and forms the basis for his actions and thoughts. The aim of this study is to explore what core attitude means for palliative care professionals and whether there is a specific core attitude in palliative care. Qualitative study with 10 face-to-face in-depth interviews with experts in palliative care (nurses, physicians, social workers, psychologists, chaplain) in Germany. Core attitude in palliative care can be best described with the following three domains: 1) personal characteristics; 2) experience of care; and 3) competence in care. Authenticity is the most important characteristic of professionals, along with honesty and mindfulness. Core attitude primarily becomes apparent in the relationship with the patient. Perception and listening are key competences. The experts emphasized the universality of the core attitude in the care of ill people. They stressed the importance and relevance of teaching core attitudes in palliative care education. In the field of palliative care, core attitude consists predominately of authenticity, manifests itself in relationships, and requires a high degree of perceptiveness.

  16. Internalized homophobia in homosexual men: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Campo-Arias

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence about linguistic expressions used that show internalized homophobia by homosexual individuals. The objective of this research was to explore suggestive internalized homophobic language used by web page users for homosocialization purposes among homosexual men living in Bogotá and Cartagena, Colombia. A qualitative study was designed with the purpose of analyzing content of 40 profiles, 20 from Bogota, and in the same proportion in Cartagena. This was based on account profiles from a website which contained contact inquiries between people who were not heterosexual and described homophobic characteristics when referring to their ideal partner. It was observed that in 19 out of 20 profiles in Bogotá and the same proportion in Cartagena people used suggestive and direct qualifiers that showed internalized explicit homophobia and implicit language, for instance, “I am looking for serious people”. The internalized homophobia is expressed by looking for that “macho” man who is professional and lives a heterosexual lifestyle. Authors conclude that homosexual men who requested contact with other men by Internet often expressed internalized homophobia in explicit and implicit ways, which suggests accepting hegemonic model of masculine men. Quantitative studies are needed in Colombian non-heterosexual populations.

  17. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  18. Women’s orgasm obstacles: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nekoolaltak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Woman’s orgasm plays a vital role in sexual compatibility and marital satisfaction. Orgasm in women is a learnable phenomenon that is influenced by several factors. Objective: The aim of this study is exploring obstacles to orgasm in Iranian married women. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study with directed content analysis approach was conducted in 2015-2016, on 20 Iranian married women who were individually interviewed at two medical clinics in Tehran, Iran. Results: Orgasm obstacles were explored in one category, 4 subcategories, and 25 codes. The main category was “Multidimensionality of women’s orgasm obstacles”. Subcategories and some codes included: Physical obstacles (wife’s or husband’s boredom, vaginal infection, insufficient vaginal lubrication, psychological obstacles (lack of sexual knowledge, shame, lack of concentration on sex due to household and children problems, relational obstacles (husband’s hurry, having a dispute and annoyance with spouse and contextual obstacles (Irregular sleep hours, lack of privacy and inability to separate children’s bedroom from their parents, lack of peace at home. Conclusion: For prevention or treatment of female orgasm disorders, attention to physical factors is not enough. Obtaining a comprehensive history about physical, psychological, relational and contextual dimensions of woman’s life is necessary.

  19. Patient Involvement in Safe Delivery: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olfati, Forozun; Asefzadeh, Saeid; Changizi, Nasrin; Keramat, Afsaneh; Yunesian, Masud

    2015-09-28

    Patient involvement in safe delivery planning is considered important yet not widely practiced. The present study aimed at identifythe factors that affect patient involvementin safe delivery, as recommended by parturient women. This study was part of a qualitative research conducted by content analysis method and purposive sampling in 2013.The data were collected through 63 semi-structured interviews in4 hospitalsand analyzed using thematic content analysis. The participants in this research were women before discharge and after delivery. Findings were analyzed using Colaizzi's method. Four categories of factors that could affect patient involvement in safe delivery emerged from our analysis: patient-related (true and false beliefs, literacy, privacy, respect for patient), illness-related (pain, type of delivery, patient safety incidents), health care professional-relatedand task-related factors (behavior, monitoring &training), health care setting-related (financial aspects, facilities). More research is needed to explore the factors affecting the participation of mothers. It is therefore, recommended to: 1) take notice of mother education, their husbands, midwives and specialists; 2) provide pregnant women with insurance coverage from the outset of pregnancy, especially during prenatal period; 3) form a labor pain committee consisting of midwives, obstetricians, and anesthesiologists in order to identify the preferred painless labor methods based on the existing facilities and conditions, 4) carry out research on observing patients' privacy and dignity; 5) pay more attention on the factors affecting cesarean.

  20. Spiritual needs of cancer patients: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadijeh Hatamipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diagnosis of cancer can cause huge spiritual crisis in a person and affect different aspects of life. At this stage, patients have certain spiritual needs. Aim: This study was conducted to explain spiritual needs of cancer patients in Iran. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, 18 cancer patients, referred to the Cancer Institute of Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran were selected using purposive sampling method, and their spiritual needs emerged out of conventional content analysis of interviews conducted with them. Results: From 1850 initial codes, 4 themes (connection, peace, meaning and purpose, and transcendence were identified that contained categories of social support, normal behavior, inner peace, seeking forgiveness, hope, acceptance of reality, seeking meaning, ending well, change of life meaning, strengthening spiritual belief, communication with God, and prayer. Conclusions: Spiritual needs of cancer patients should be recognized, realized, and considered in care of patients by the medical team. An all-out support of health system policy makers to meet patients′ spiritual needs is particularly important.

  1. Quality of life in ostomy patients: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabirian, Aazam; Yaghmaei, Farideh; Rassouli, Maryam; Tafreshi, Mansoureh Zagheri

    2010-12-21

    Therapeutic procedures may not only treat disease but also affect patient quality of life. Therefore, quality of life should be measured in order to assess the impact of disease and therapeutic procedures. To identify clients' problems, it is necessary to assess several dimensions of quality of life, including physical, spiritual, economic, and social aspects. In this regard, we conducted a qualitative study to explore quality of life and its dimensions in ostomy patients referred to the Iranian Ostomy Association. Fourteen patients were interviewed about their quality of life dimensions by purposeful sampling. Data were gathered by semistructured interviews and analyzed using the content analysis method. Nine main themes emerged using this approach, including physical problems related to colostomy, impact of colostomy on psychological functioning, social and family relationships, travel, nutrition, physical activity, and sexual function, as well as religious and economic issues. The findings of the study identified a number of challenges in quality of life for patients with ostomy. The results can be used by health care providers to create a supportive environment that promotes better quality of life for their ostomy patients.

  2. Work-related stress among correctional officers: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viotti, Sara

    2016-01-25

    Correctional officers (COs) are exposed to various factors likely to jeopardize their health and safety. Even if numerous studies have been focused on work-related stress among COs, few studies have been carried out in Italy. Indentify the work-related factors and comprehend how they negatively affect the COs' psychological health in the Italian penal system. A qualitative approach was employed. Twenty-eight COs employed in a detention block of an Italian jail were interviewed face-to-face. For the analyses of the text, Template Analysis technique was followed. The analyses of the text highlighted six macro-categories and thirteen categories hierarchically linked to them: A) Intrinsic work-related factors with six categories: demanding contact with prisoners, high level of responsibility, health risks, critical events, lack of intellectual and social stimulation, and conflict value; B) Factors related to the type of contract and work organization: challenging working hours contrasted with social time, and relocation; C) Social factors: relationships with colleagues and hierarchy; D) Organizational factors: organizational injustice, E) External factors: negative social image; F) Physical environmental factors: physical structure of the prison building. The results indicated that COs are at high risk of stress. More specifically, the analyses highlighted that the most stressful part of the COs' job concerns their relationship with the inmates.

  3. Health Management in Disasters in Iran: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Nakhaei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Disaster  management  relies  on  the  prediction  of  problems  and  providing necessary preparations at the right time and place. In this study, researchers intended to explore previous experiences of health disaster management. Materials and Methods: This study conducted using qualitative content analysis method. Participants  were  selected  purposefully  and  data  were  collected  through  interviews, observation, and relevant documents. Results: Transcribed data from 18 interviews, field notes, and other documents were analyzed. In data analysis, “reactive management” was emerged as the main theme. It included some categories such as “exposure shock,” “nondeliberative relief,” “lack of comprehensive health disaster plan,” “lack of preparedness,” and “poor coordination in health service delivery” as well as contextual factors. Conclusion: The results clarified deep perception of participants’ experiences about health management in disasters. The professionals and nonprofessionals’ emotion-based reactions and behaviors, if accompanied with deficiencies in planning and preparedness, can lead to ineffective services and aggravate the damages

  4. Using lecture capture: a qualitative study of nursing faculty's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freed, Patricia E; Bertram, Julie E; McLaughlin, Dorcas E

    2014-04-01

    As lecture capture technology becomes widely available in schools of nursing, faculty will need to master new technological skills and make decisions about recording their classroom lectures or other activities. This study sought to understand faculty's experience of using a new lecture capture system. This qualitative study used Kruger's systematic approach to explore undergraduate nursing faculty's first-time experience using a lecture capture system purchased by the university. Four focus groups were conducted with a total of fourteen undergraduate faculty using lecture capture for the first-time. The interviews were recorded and transcribed and then analyzed by the researchers. Four themes were identified from the faculty interviews. Two of the themes expressed faculty's concerns about the teaching role, and two themes expressed the faculty's concerns about student learning. Participants experienced stress when learning to use the new lecture capture technology and struggled to resolve it with their own beliefs and teaching values. The impact of lecture capture on student learning, impact on class attendance, and the promotion of a culture of lecturing were revealed as important issues to consider when lecture capture becomes available. © 2013.

  5. Cardiovascular patients’ experiences of living with pacemaker: Qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A pacemaker implantation is considered major life event for cardiovascular patients, so they will probably have very interesting experiences of living with this device. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of cardiovascular patients living with the pacemaker. METHODS: In this qualitative study, 27 patients were chosen through purposive sampling to achieve data saturation, and their experiences were examined using semi-structured interviews. The patients’ statements were recorded with their consent and analyzed using content analysis method. RESULTS: Participants’ experiences included three main themes: “Problems and limitations,” “feeling and dealing with pacemaker”, and “sources of comfort” and 10 sub-themes including: physical problems, financial problems, social problems, the first encounter, the feeling of living with the pacemaker, how to cope with pacemaker, satisfaction with pacemaker, good family support, hospital and hospital staff performance, and role of religious beliefs. CONCLUSION: Planning to solve social problems, identifying and changing feelings of patients using pacemakers, reinforcing the resources of comfort especially family support seem to be necessary steps for improving quality of life and impact of using pacemaker. 

  6. The social well-being of nurses shows a thirst for a holistic support: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Naser; Peyrovi, Hamid; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan

    2015-01-01

    Social well-being is one of the important aspects of health. In fact, this is a reflection of experience in a social environment, indicating how social challenges are determined. In other words, social well-being is an explanation of people's perception and experience of being in a good situation, satisfaction with the structure, and social interaction. This qualitative study intended to explore nurses' experience of social well-being. Qualitative content analysis was used to conduct the study. Through purposive sampling, a total of 18 nurses with various clinical experiences participated in semi-structured interviews. The data were analysed using the five-step, qualitative content analysis introduced by Graneheim and Lundman. The main theme extracted from the data analysis was "thirst for a holistic support" in nurses. It consisted of two subthemes including internal support (family's support, colleague's support, and organizational support) and external support (society's support and media's support). Nurses' experiences in shaping their social well-being show that nurses need support in order to rebuild their social well-being. It is supported in partnership with the media, the community, health-related organizations, and by nurses and family. This improves job satisfaction, hope, motivation, commitment, and confidence so as to ultimately facilitate improvement of social well-being of nurses.

  7. What Spelling Tells Us about the Orthographic Development and Word Study Instruction with Emergent Bilingual Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Darl; Bear, Donald R.

    2018-01-01

    Educators need ways to assess orthographic knowledge and differentiate word study instruction for secondary, emergent bilingual learners. In this study, the spelling of 199 students in grades 7-12 across eight features and four spelling stages was examined to understand students' orthographic development; all but two were learning Spanish and…

  8. STUDY ON THE WORDS AND MUSICAL PATTERNS OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF THE MIDDLE EASTERN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Filiz ONAL

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthems are poetic verses sung in a melodic harmony expressing a nation’s feelings, enthusiasm, hopes, joy of coexistence and determination to survive. Thanks to anthems, people reflect their national values, historical background of their countries, and their way of thinking. In this direction national anthems have a unifying power creating a common ground for individuals that sustain continuity and the sense of belonging to a country. This study deals with the national anthems of the Middle Eastern countries where major conflicts have taken place for years in terms of music and lyrics. The random method was used to form the sample group. The sample group is composed of the United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria and Turkey. Some basic musical elements of the national anthems of the countries involved in the study have been investigated (tone, tempo, meter signatures and rhythm patterns. It has been found that four of them are composed in major tones, while two of them are composed in minor tones. All of these anthems are in 4/4 meter with walking pace tempo. As for the rhythm patterns; 3 different patterns are used in one anthem, while 4 different patterns are used in two, 5 different patterns in one, and 6 different patterns in two. The words of these anthems as literary verses focus on many topics, mainly soldiers, flags, and homelands as well as political developments, national heroes...

  9. Idiosyncratic gesture use in atypical language development, and its interaction with speech rhythm, word juncture, syntax, pragmatics and discourse: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Sara J; Perkins, Michael R; Sowden, Hannah

    2012-10-01

    Very little is known about the use of gesture by children with developmental language disorders (DLDs). This case study of 'Lucy', a child aged 4;10 with a DLD, expands on what is known and in particular focuses on a type of idiosyncratic "rhythmic gesture" (RG) not previously reported. A fine-grained qualitative analysis was carried out of video recordings of Lucy in conversation with the first author. This revealed that Lucy's RG was closely integrated in complex ways with her use of other gesture types, speech rhythm, word juncture, syntax, pragmatics, discourse, visual processing and processing demands generally. Indeed, the only satisfactory way to explain it was as a partial byproduct of such interactions. These findings support the theoretical accounts of gesture which see it as just one component of a multimodal, integrated signalling system (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, S. (2000). Beyond words: The importance of gesture to researchers and learners. Child Development, 71(1), 231-239), and emergentist accounts of communication impairment which regard compensatory adaptation as integral (e.g. Perkins, M. R. (2007). Pragmatic Impairment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.).

  10. Job satisfaction of Malaysian registered nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atefi, Narges; Abdullah, Khatijah L; Wong, Li P

    2016-01-01

    Job satisfaction is an important factor in health care settings. Strong empirical evidence supports a causal relationship between job satisfaction, patient safety and quality of care. However, there have not been any studies exploring the job satisfaction of Malaysian nurses. The main purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to explore the factors related to feelings of job satisfaction as well as job dissatisfaction experienced by registered nurses in Malaysia. A convenient sample of 46 Malaysian nurses recruited from a large hospital (number of beds = 895) participated in the study. A total of seven focus group discussions were conducted with nurses from surgical, medical and critical care wards. A semi-structured interview guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked. The transcripts were used as data and were analysed using a thematic approach. The study identified three main themes that influenced job satisfaction: (1) nurses' personal values and beliefs; (2) work environment factors and (3) motivation factors. Concerning the nurses' personal values and beliefs, the ability to help people made the nurses felt honoured and happy, which indirectly contributed to job satisfaction. For work environment factors, team cohesion, benefit and reward, working conditions play an important role in the nurses' job satisfaction. Motivation factors, namely, professional development and clinical autonomy contributed to job satisfaction. It is important for nurse leaders to provide more rewards, comfortable work environments and to understand issues that affect nurses' job satisfaction. Our findings highlight the importance of factors that can improve nurses' job satisfaction. The study provides basic information for hospital administrators in planning effective and efficient policies to improve nursing job satisfaction in order to increase the quality of patient care and decrease nursing turnover. © 2014

  11. Patients' views on priority setting in neurosurgery: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratnam, Caroline; Bernstein, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Accountability for Reasonableness is an ethical framework which has been implemented in various health care systems to improve and evaluate the fairness of priority setting. This framework is grounded on four mandatory conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement. There have been few studies which have evaluated the patient stakeholders' acceptance of this framework; certainly no studies have been done on patients' views on the prioritization system for allocating patients for operating time in a system with pressure on the resource of inpatient beds. The aim of this study is to examine neurosurgical patients' views on the prioritization of patients for operating theater (OT) time on a daily basis at a tertiary and quaternary referral neurosurgery center. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with thirty-seven patients, recruited from the neurosurgery clinic at Toronto Western Hospital. Family members and friends who accompanied the patient to their clinic visit were encouraged to contribute to the discussion. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and subjected to thematic analysis using open and axial coding. Overall, patients are supportive of the concept of a priority-setting system based on fairness, but felt that a few changes would help to improve the fairness of the current system. These changes include lowering the level of priority given to volume-funded cases and providing scheduled surgeries that were previously canceled a higher level of prioritization. Good communication, early notification, and rescheduling canceled surgeries as soon as possible were important factors that directly reflected the patients' confidence level in their doctor, the hospital, and the health care system. This study is the first clinical qualitative study of patients' perspective on a prioritization system used for allocating neurosurgical patients for OT time on a daily basis in a socialized not-for-profit health care system with

  12. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  13. Information search in health care decision-making: a study of word-of-mouth and internet information users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Robin L; Ingram, Rhea; Jiang, Pingjun

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how individual consumers may differ in their information search behavior in health care decision-making. Results indicate that most consumers still use word-of-mouth as a primary information source for health care decisions. However, usage of the Internet is increasing. The results of this study indicate that consumers who are most likely to use the Internet for health care information are single, younger, and less educated, whereas consumers who are most likely to use word-of-mouth are middle-aged, married, with higher income and higher education. Surprisingly, no significant gender difference was found in information search behavior for health care decision-making. The results also suggest that consumers with the highest tendency to use word-of-mouth are also the lowest users of the Internet in health care decision-making. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Depth of word processing in Alzheimer patients and normal controls: a magnetoencephalographic (MEG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, P; Püregger, E; Lehrner, J; Mayer, D; Deecke, L; Dal Bianco, P

    2005-05-01

    Effects related to depth of verbal information processing were investigated in probable Alzheimer's disease patients (AD) and age matched controls. During word encoding sessions 10 patients and 10 controls had either to decide whether the letter "s" appeared in visually presented words (alphabetical decision, shallow encoding), or whether the meaning of each presented word was animate or inanimate (lexical decision, deep encoding). These encoding sessions were followed by test sessions during which all previously encoded words were presented again together with the same number of new words. The task was then to discriminate between repeated and new words. Magnetic field changes related to brain activity were recorded with a whole cortex MEG.5 probable AD patients showed recognition performances above chance level related to both depths of information processing. Those patients and 5 age matched controls were then further analysed. Recognition performance was poorer in probable AD patients compared to controls for both levels of processing. However, in both groups deep encoding led to a higher recognition performance than shallow encoding. We therefore conclude that the performance reduction in the patient group was independent of depth of processing. Reaction times related to false alarms differed between patients and controls after deep encoding which perhaps could already be used for supporting an early diagnosis. The analysis of the physiological data revealed significant differences between correctly recognised repetitions and correctly classified new words (old/new-effect) in the control group which were missing in the patient group after deep encoding. The lack of such an effect in the patient group is interpreted as being due to the respective neuropathology related to probable AD. The present results demonstrate that magnetic field recordings represent a useful tool to physiologically distinguish between probable AD and age matched controls.

  15. Factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fang; Bai, Yangjing; Bai, Yangjuan; Ma, Weiguang; Yang, Xiangyu; Li, Jiping

    2018-03-20

    There is a growing recognition that training is not translated into performance and the 'transfer problem' exists in organization training today. Although factors contributing to training transfer have been identified in business and industry, the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession remain less clear. A qualitative descriptive study was undertaken in two tertiary referral hospitals in China from February 2013 to September 2013. Purposeful sampling of 24 nursing staffs were interviewed about the factors influencing training transfer. Seven themes evolved from the analysis, categorized in 4 main domains, which described the factors influencing training transfer in nursing profession in trainee characteristics, training design, work environment and profession domain. The trainee characteristics domain included attitude and ability. The training design domain included training content and instruction method. The work environment domain included supports as facilitators and opposition as hindrance. The theme pertaining to the profession domain was professional development. Health care managers need to understand the factors influencing training transfer for maximizing the benefits of training. The right beliefs and values about training, the rigorous employee selection for training, the relevance of training content, training instructions facilitating learning and transfer, supports from peer, supervisors and the organization, organizational culture such as change, sharing, learning and support, and professional development are key to successful training transfer. Furthermore, managers should be aware of the opposition from co-workers and find ways to prevent it.

  16. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  17. Barriers to first time parent groups: A qualitative descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Norma; Hanna, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Owen Vincent

    2018-06-19

    First-time parents' groups are offered to new parents in Australia to support their transition to parenthood. Not all parents avail of the service, some cease attendance, and fathers are under-represented. In the present descriptive, qualitative study, we examined first-time mothers' perspectives on the barriers to parental participation in the groups. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a sample of eight first-time mothers in a regional city in Victoria, Australia. Interviews revealed groups were perceived as sites strongly reinforcing traditional social norms of parenting. From this central theme, six gendered subthemes emerged as barriers to attendance. Barriers to mothers included non-normative mothering narratives, such as experiencing stillbirth or having a disabled child, perceived dissonance in parenting ethos, and group size. Barriers to fathers, as perceived by mothers, included groups as female spaces, dads as a minority, and female gatekeeping. A multi-faceted approach is required to change the common perception that groups are for mothers only. Groups need to be more inclusive of different parenting experiences and philosophies. Segregated groups might better address the needs of both parents. Further research is required to capture fathers' perspectives. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Skills and compensation strategies in adult ADHD - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canela, Carlos; Buadze, Anna; Dube, Anish; Eich, Dominique; Liebrenz, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to investigate how adult patients with ADHD coped with their symptoms prior to diagnosis and treatment, what skills and compensation strategies they had developed and what their self-perceptions of these strategies were. We used a qualitative approach to analyze interviews with 32 outpatients of a specialty care unit at a university hospital. Patients reported frequent use of diverse compensatory strategies with varying degrees of effectiveness. These were classified into five categories (organizational, motoric, attentional, social, psychopharmacological). In certain circumstances, ADHD symptoms were even perceived as useful. Before diagnosis and treatment, patients with ADHD may develop a variety of skills to cope with their symptoms. Several of these skills are perceived as helpful. Knowledge of self-generated coping strategies may help better understand patients and their histories and thus facilitate patient cooperation. Moreover, knowing ways in which such patients cope with their symptoms may help elucidate reasons for late or under-diagnosing of the disorder.

  19. A qualitative study of uptake of free vitamins in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessiman, Tricia; Cameron, Ailsa; Wiggins, Meg; Lucas, Patricia J

    2013-08-01

    To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free 'Healthy Start' vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. 13 primary care trusts in England. Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children's professionals and 107 parents. Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

  20. GPs' perceptions of resilience training: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshire, Anna; Hughes, John; Lewith, George; Panagioti, Maria; Peters, David; Simon, Chantal; Ridge, Damien

    2017-10-01

    GPs are reporting increasing levels of burnout, stress, and job dissatisfaction, and there is a looming GP shortage. Promoting resilience is a key strategy for enhancing the sustainability of the healthcare workforce and improving patient care. To explore GPs' perspectives on the content, context, and acceptability of resilience training programmes in general practice, in order to build more effective GP resilience programmes. This was a qualitative study of the perspectives of GPs currently practising in England. GPs were recruited through convenience sampling, and data were collected from two focus groups ( n = 15) and one-to-one telephone interviews ( n = 7). A semi-structured interview approach was used and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Participants perceived resilience training to be potentially of value in ameliorating workplace stresses. Nevertheless, uncertainty was expressed regarding how best to provide training for stressed GPs who have limited time. Participants suspected that GPs most likely to benefit from resilience training were the least likely to engage, as stress and being busy worked against engagement. Conflicting views were expressed about the most suitable training delivery method for promoting better engagement. Participants also emphasised that training should not only place the focus on the individual, but also focus on organisation issues. A multimodal, flexible approach based on individual needs and learning aims, including resilience workshops within undergraduate training and in individual practices, is likely to be the optimal way to promote resilience. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  1. Occupational balance of women with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Tanja; Wright, Jon; Machold, Klaus; Sadlo, Gaynor; Smolen, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Occupational balance has been shown to be an important factor in maintaining health. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) reduces functional ability and quality of life and may thus reduce occupational balance. The aim of this qualitative pilot study was to explore occupational balance in women who have RA. Nine women with RA with past, but not current, paid work experience, no other confounding neuro-motor disease and with disease duration of 0.75-31 years were selected from an Austrian rheumatology outpatient clinic. Age range of the participants was 28-68 years. A semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed by the constant comparative method from an occupational perspective. Three main categories emerged: (1) The participants experienced a process of change that affected their occupational balance. (2) This new state of occupational balance was characterized by changed levels of involvement in physical, mental, social and rest occupations and by a certain level of unpredictability of symptoms. (3) Overall, the new state of occupational balance was valued differently: positively, indifferently or negatively. RA was found to have a considerable impact on occupational balance. The experience is not invariably seen as negative as previous literature would suggest. Further research should explore the longitudinal dimension of occupational balance in people with RA. Copyright (c) 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd.

  2. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Doctors' experience with handheld computers in clinical practice: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Schweikhart, Sharon B; Medow, Mitchell A

    2004-05-15

    To examine doctors' perspectives about their experiences with handheld computers in clinical practice. Qualitative study of eight focus groups consisting of doctors with diverse training and practice patterns. Six practice settings across the United States and two additional focus group sessions held at a national meeting of general internists. 54 doctors who did or did not use handheld computers. Doctors who used handheld computers in clinical practice seemed generally satisfied with them and reported diverse patterns of use. Users perceived that the devices helped them increase productivity and improve patient care. Barriers to use concerned the device itself and personal and perceptual constraints, with perceptual factors such as comfort with technology, preference for paper, and the impression that the devices are not easy to use somewhat difficult to overcome. Participants suggested that organisations can help promote handheld computers by providing advice on purchase, usage, training, and user support. Participants expressed concern about reliability and security of the device but were particularly concerned about dependency on the device and over-reliance as a substitute for clinical thinking. Doctors expect handheld computers to become more useful, and most seem interested in leveraging (getting the most value from) their use. Key opportunities with handheld computers included their use as a stepping stone to build doctors' comfort with other information technology and ehealth initiatives and providing point of care support that helps improve patient care.

  4. Adolescents’ Interpretation of the Concept of Wellness: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezihe Loretta Ahanonu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study sought to explore and describe the interpretation which adolescents ascribe to the term wellness at a selected high school in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. Methods: A qualitative research design was utilized. Nine focus-group discussions were conducted among 58 adolescents. Sample was selected purposefully and collected data was analyzed using open coding. Results: Findings reflected adolescents’ interpretations of the term wellness in the realm of holistic well-being transcending the nonexistence of illness or sickness in the body. The interpretations given include: healthy living which embrace eating enough nutritious foods, exercising regularly and being actively involved in physical activities; practicing self-care habits such as personal hygiene and grooming; well-being of the mind (psychological, emotional; having a balanced personality and interpersonal processes; being focused and goal directed and spiritual well-being. Conclusion: It is imperative to consider adolescents’ understandings of wellness when planning, designing, implementing and evaluating adolescent wellness programs.

  5. Conflict escalation in paediatric services: findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Teuten, Bea; Barclay, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    To explore clinician and family experiences of conflict in paediatric services, in order to map the trajectory of conflict escalation. Qualitative interview study, employing extreme-case sampling. Interviews were analysed using an iterative thematic approach to identify common themes regarding the experience and escalation of conflict. Thirty-eight health professionals and eight parents. All participants had direct experience of conflict, including physical assault and court proceedings, at the interface of acute and palliative care. Two teaching hospitals, one district general hospital and two paediatric hospices in England, in 2011. Conflicts escalate in a predictable manner. Clearly identifiable behaviours by both clinicians and parents are defined as mild, moderate and severe. Mild describes features like the insensitive use of language and a history of unresolved conflict. Moderate involves a deterioration of trust, and a breakdown of communication and relationships. Severe marks disintegration of working relationships, characterised by behavioural changes including aggression, and a shift in focus from the child's best interests to the conflict itself. Though conflicts may remain at one level, those which escalated tended to move sequentially from one level to the next. Understanding how conflicts escalate provides clinicians with a practical, evidence-based framework to identify the warning signs of conflict in paediatrics. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Women's mental health during pregnancy: A participatory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Wendy L M; Crozier, Kenda E; Penhale, Bridget L M

    2017-08-01

    British public health and academic policy and guidance promotes service user involvement in health care and research, however collaborative research remains underrepresented in literature relating to pregnant women's mental health. The aim of this participatory research was to explore mothers' and professionals' perspectives on the factors that influence pregnant women's mental health. This qualitative research was undertaken in England with the involvement of three community members who had firsthand experience of mental health problems during pregnancy. All members of the team were involved in study design, recruitment, data generation and different stages of thematic analysis. Data were transcribed for individual and group discussions with 17 women who self-identified as experiencing mental health problems during pregnancy and 15 professionals who work with this group. Means of establishing trustworthiness included triangulation, researcher reflexivity, peer debriefing and comprehensive data analysis. Significant areas of commonality were identified between mothers' and professionals' perspectives on factors that undermine women's mental health during pregnancy and what is needed to support women's mental health. Analysis of data is provided with particular reference to contexts of relational, systemic and ecological conditions in women's lives. Women's mental health is predominantly undermined or supported by relational, experiential and material factors. The local context of socio-economic deprivation is a significant influence on women's mental health and service requirements. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Qualitative Study of Motivating Factors for Pharmacy Student Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R Joel; Ginsburg, Diane B

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To understand what motivates student pharmacists to seek a leadership position while in the professional pharmacy program and why these students choose to lead in a particular organization. Methods. A qualitative study was used to answer the research questions. Current student leaders were recruited to participate, and each completed a pre-interview questionnaire and a one-hour interview. All interviews were transcribed, and an interpretive phenomenological approach was used to describe, code, and analyze the experiences. Results. Student leaders were motivated to serve in a leadership position for four reasons: networking opportunities, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy. Additionally, prior leadership experience and influence played major roles in these student leaders' pursuit of a position. Conclusion. Networking, belief in an organization's mission, ability to affect change, and legacy are the four primary motivating factors for student leadership while in the professional pharmacy program. Knowing these factors should help direct resources in organizational and college efforts to produce qualified and impactful pharmacist leaders.

  8. Pregnancy in Spanish elite sportswomen: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Pascual, Beatriz; Alvarez-Harris, Sara; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy and motherhood have been historically considered as reasons why elite sportswomen may end their sport careers. During pregnancy, the safety of both mother and baby has been identified as a key reason for ceasing sport participation. Recent "official" statistics on how many elite athletes are mothers suggest that pregnancy, motherhood, and sport could be no longer mutually exclusive. The aim of this qualitative phenomenological study was to describe the lived pregnancy of Spanish elite sportswomen. Spanish elite sportswomen (n = 20) aged between 18 and 65 years that had been pregnant during their sporting professional career and after the end of their pregnancy had taken up again their professional sporting career for at least one year were included. Data were collected from May 2010 to April 2012 using in-depth personal interviews, investigator's field notes, and extracts from the participants' personal letters. Identified themes included: (1) choosing the right moment; (2) fears and doubts; and (3) justifying physical exercise. By giving voice to these elite Spanish sportswomen, their pregnancy experiences are made visible, which might help to gain a better understanding into their expectations and develop policies and practices focused on elite sportswomen during and after pregnancy.

  9. Palliative care team visits. Qualitative study through participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaya Góngora, Maria Del Mar; Bueno Pernias, Maria José; Hueso Montoro, César; Guardia Mancilla, Plácido; Montoya Juárez, Rafael; García Caro, Maria Paz

    2016-03-30

    To describe the clinical encounters that occur when a palliative care team provides patient care and the features that influence these encounters and indicate whether they are favorable or unfavorable depending on the expectations and feelings of the various participants. A qualitative case study conducted via participant observation. A total of 12 observations of the meetings of palliative care teams with patients and families in different settings (home, hospital and consultation room) were performed. The visits were follow-up or first visits, either scheduled or on demand. Content analysis of the observation was performed. The analysis showed the normal follow-up activity of the palliative care unit that was focused on controlling symptoms, sharing information and providing advice on therapeutic regimens and care. The environment appeared to condition the patients' expressions and the type of patient relationship. Favorable clinical encounter conditions included kindness and gratitude. Unfavorable conditions were deterioration caused by approaching death, unrealistic family objectives and limited resources. Home visits from basic palliative care teams play an important role in patient and family well-being. The visits seem to focus on controlling symptoms and are conditioned by available resources.

  10. Integrating postgraduate and undergraduate general practice education: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Regan, Andrew; Culhane, Aidan; Dunne, Colum; Griffin, Michael; McGrath, Deirdre; Meagher, David; O'Dwyer, Pat; Cullen, Walter

    2013-05-01

    Educational activity in general practice has increased considerably in the past 20 years. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' capacity to fulfil this role. To explore the potential for vertical integration in undergraduate and postgraduate education in general practice, by describing the experience of (and attitudes towards) 'vertical integration in general practice education' among key stakeholder groups. Qualitative study of GPs, practice staff, GPs-in-training and medical students involving focus groups which were thematically analysed. We identified four overarching themes: (1) Important practical features of vertical integration are interaction between learners at different stages, active involvement in clinical teams and interagency collaboration; (2) Vertical integration may benefit GPs/practices, students and patients through improved practice systems, exposure to team-working and multi-morbidity and opportunistic health promotion, respectively; (3) Capacity issues may challenge its implementation; (4) Strategies such as recognising and addressing diverse learner needs and inter-agency collaboration can promote vertical integration. Vertical integration, whereby practices support students and trainees at different stages, may enhance general practices' teaching capacity. Recognising the diverse educational needs of learners at different stages and collaboration between agencies responsible for the planning and delivery of specialist training and medical degree programmes would appear to be important.

  11. Men's experiences of living with ankylosing spondylitis: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Mette; Jensen, Kim Vilbek; Esbensen, Bente Appel

    2015-03-01

    The majority of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are male, although potential gender differences have not been investigated in relation to disease management. Moreover, men's perceptions of experiencing AS have not been reported in the literature. This study sought to develop an understanding of how men experience AS and the challenges related to living with AS as a chronic disease. A purposive sample of 13 men diagnosed with AS, with a median age of 44 years (range 32-58) was recruited from a rheumatology outpatient clinic. The median duration of disease was 12 years (range 0.3-28 years), and the median time from the first symptom to final diagnosis was seven years (range 2-20 years). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide, and the interviews were analysed using content analysis inspired by Graneheim qualitative methodology. The analysis revealed four categories: (1) 'Approaching a diagnosis'; (2) 'Ill in a social context'; (3) 'Challenged as a man'; and (4) 'The importance of remaining physically well'. Based on these categories, the overall category of 'An invisible companion for life' emerged, which captures the experience of living with an invisible, life-long disease. These findings demonstrate that AS impacts men's perceptions of themselves as men, relationships as a partner and father, social lives, and masculine identity. Physical activity was highlighted as an important part of being a man, and not being able to exercise challenged the men's masculine identity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-11-01

    Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician-patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Qualitative study using interviews. Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist.

  13. Treatment of hemophilia: A qualitative study of mothers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von der Lippe, Charlotte; Frich, Jan C; Harris, Anna; Solbraekke, Kari Nyheim

    2017-01-01

    In Norway, boys with hemophilia usually begin treatment after their first bleeding episode. Boys with severe hemophilia usually start prophylactic treatment around 18-24 months. Health professionals administer factor concentrate initially, but when boys are around 4 years old most parents start treating their children at home. There is a lack of research on how parents, and especially how carrier mothers, experience the medical treatment for their sons' hemophilia. Our aim was to investigate how carrier mothers experience this treatment in the hospital setting and at home. In this qualitative study, we interviewed 16 mothers of boys or men with hemophilia A or B. Data were collected via semistructured interviews and analyzed using an inductive thematic analytical approach. Mothers experienced both practical and emotional challenges in relation to their sons' treatment, and repeated venipuncture was especially difficult emotionally. Parents preferred home treatment to hospital treatment because it was less time-consuming, less disruptive to family life, and provided a greater sense of control. Encountering healthcare professionals who were unfamiliar with hemophilia was a second major stress factor, especially when parents felt that health professionals lacked competence and were unwilling to seek advice. While home treatment for hemophilia enables freedom, flexibility, and autonomy for the boys as well as for the family, mothers may experience treatment of hemophilia as a burden. Health professionals should provide tailored practical and emotional support to parents by probing into their experiences with treating their sons' hemophilia. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Self-knowledge of health teachers: A qualitative exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canever, Bruna Pedroso; do Prado, Marta Lenise; Gomes, Diana Coelho; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert; de Jesus, Bruna Helena

    2018-06-01

    Specific pedagogical training for teaching in the area of health emerges with the goal of creating critical and reflective professionals and as a necessary challenge to university teaching, where there is reflection on self-awareness, consciousness, and the incompleteness of being. This study aims to understand how Freire's critical consciousness is expressed in the pedagogical practice of health teachers. This study is a qualitative study that is descriptive, exploratory, and analytical. Twenty-one teachers from a public university in southern Brazil participated. Data were collected using open-ended, in-person interviews held from May to December 2013. Data systematization was based on Minayo's operative proposal. The analysis yielded 2 main categories, including the naïve critical consciousness of health teachers, i.e., education as a practice of oppression, and the epistemological critical consciousness of health teachers, i.e., education as a practice of freedom. The results revealed the teachers' self-knowledge, including the reasoning and motivations that made them become teachers, the characteristics considered necessary to be a teacher, the teachers' feelings in their teaching practice, and the teaching preparation required for being in the classroom from the perspective of naïve and epistemological critical consciousness. The study shows that the self-knowledge that emerged from the teachers' reports encourages new perspectives in the construction of the teacher, raising the challenge of development and transformation from naïve consciousness to epistemological consciousness, and thus contributing to a breakthrough with respect to critical and creative teacher training. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Paige Hall

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have

  16. Identifying early indicators in bipolar disorder: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benti, Liliane; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Proudfoot, Judy; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    The identification of early markers has become a focus for early intervention in bipolar disorder. Using a retrospective, qualitative methodology, the present study compares the early experiences of participants with bipolar disorder to those with unipolar depression up until their first diagnosed episode. The study focuses on differences in early home and school environments as well as putative differences in personality characteristics between the two groups. Finally we a compare and contrast prodromal symptoms in these two populations. Thirty-nine participants, 20 diagnosed with unipolar depression and 19 diagnosed with bipolar disorder, took part in the study. A semi-structured interview was developed to elicit information about participants' experiences prior to their first episode. Participants with bipolar disorder reported disruptive home environments, driven personality features, greater emotion dysregulation and adverse experiences during the school years, whereas participants with depression tended to describe more supportive home environments, and more compliant and introvert personality traits. Retrospective data collection and no corroborative evidence from other family members. No distinction was made between bipolar I and bipolar II disorder nor between melancholic and non-melancholic depression in the sample. Finally the study spanned over a 12-month period which does not allow for the possibility of diagnostic reassignment of some of the bipolar participants to the unipolar condition. These findings indicate that there may be benefits in combining both proximal and distal indicators in identifying a bipolar disorder phenotype which, in turn, may be relevant to the development of early intervention programs for young people with bipolar disorder.

  17. The effect of age on word-stem cued recall: a behavioral and electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Alexandra; Ballesteros, Soledad; Fay, Séverine; Pouthas, Viviane

    2009-09-15

    The present study investigated the effects of aging on behavioral cued-recall performance and on the neural correlates of explicit memory using event-related potentials (ERPs) under shallow and deep encoding conditions. At test, participants were required to complete old and new three-letter word stems using the letters as retrieval cues. The main results were as follows: (1) older participants exhibited the same level of explicit memory as young adults with the same high level of education. Moreover older adults benefited as much as young ones from deep processing at encoding; (2) brain activity at frontal sites showed that the shallow old/new effect developed and ended earlier for older than young adults. In contrast, the deep old/new effect started later for older than for young adults and was sustained up to 1000 ms in both age groups. Moreover, the results suggest that the frontal old/new effect was bilateral but greater over the right than the left electrode sites from 600 ms onward; (3) there were no differences at parietal sites between age groups: the old/new effect developed from 400 ms under both encoding conditions and was sustained up to 1000 ms under the deep condition but ended earlier (800 ms) under the shallow condition. These ERP results indicate significant age-related changes in brain activity associated with the voluntary retrieval of previously encoded information, in spite of similar behavioral performance of young and older adults.

  18. Exploring factors affecting undergraduate medical students' study strategies in the clinical years: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Kadri, H.M.; Al-Moamary, M.S.; Elzubair, M.; Magzoub, M.E.; AlMutairi, A.; Roberts, C.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effects of clinical supervision, and assessment characteristics on the study strategies used by undergraduate medical students during their clinical rotations. We conducted a qualitative phenomenological study at King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health

  19. Understanding delayed access to antenatal care: a qualitative interview study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Delayed access to antenatal care ('late booking’) has been linked to increased maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand why some women are late to access antenatal care. Methods 27 women presenting after 19 completed weeks gestation for their first hospital booking appointment were interviewed, using a semi-structured format, in community and maternity hospital settings in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and entered onto NVivo 8 software. An interdisciplinary, iterative, thematic analysis was undertaken. Results The late booking women were diverse in terms of: age (15–37 years); parity (0–4); socioeconomic status; educational attainment and ethnicity. Three key themes relating to late booking were identified from our data: 1) 'not knowing’: realisation (absence of classic symptoms, misinterpretation); belief (age, subfertility, using contraception, lay hindrance); 2) 'knowing’: avoidance (ambivalence, fear, self-care); postponement (fear, location, not valuing care, self-care); and 3) 'delayed’ (professional and system failures, knowledge/empowerment issues). Conclusions Whilst vulnerable groups are strongly represented in this study, women do not always fit a socio-cultural stereotype of a 'late booker’. We report a new taxonomy of more complex reasons for late antenatal booking than the prevalent concepts of denial, concealment and disadvantage. Explanatory sub-themes are also discussed, which relate to psychological, empowerment and socio-cultural factors. These include poor reproductive health knowledge and delayed recognition of pregnancy, the influence of a pregnancy 'mindset’ and previous pregnancy experience, and the perceived value of antenatal care. The study also highlights deficiencies in early pregnancy diagnosis and service organisation. These issues should be considered by practitioners and service commissioners in order to promote

  20. Parental views on otitis media: systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chando, Shingisai; Young, Christian; Craig, Jonathan C; Gunasekera, Hasantha; Tong, Allison

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to describe parental experiences and perspectives of caring for a child with otitis media. We conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies on parental perspectives on caring for a child with otitis media. We searched electronic databases to July 2015. Seventeen studies involving 284 participants from six countries were included. We identified seven themes: diminishing competency (guilt over failure to identify symptoms, helpless and despairing, fear of complications, disempowered and dismissed); disrupting life schedules (disturbing sleep, interfering with work, burden on family); social isolation (stigma and judgement, sick consciousness); threatening normal development (delaying growth milestones, impairing interpersonal skills, impeding education); taking ownership (recognising symptoms, diagnostic closure, working the system, protecting against physical trauma, contingency planning); valuing support (needing respite, depending on community, clinician validation); and cherishing health (relief with treatment success, inspiring resilience). The additional medical responsibilities and anxieties of parents caring for a child with otitis media, often discounted by clinicians, can be disempowering and disruptive. Chronicity can raise doubt about treatment efficacy and parental competency, and fears regarding their child's development. Care that fosters parental confidence and addresses their concerns about the child's development may improve treatment outcomes for children with otitis media. • Otitis media is a leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. • Parental perception of the treatment burden of otitis media can potentially affect their confidence and ability to care for their child. What is New: • We identified five themes to reflect parental perspectives: diminishing competency, disrupting life schedules, social isolation, threatening normal development, taking ownership, valuing support, and cherishing health.

  1. Exploration of Infertile Couples’ Support Requirements: A Qualitative Study

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    Fatemeh Jafarzadeh-Kenarsari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to high prevalence of infertility, increasing demand for infertility treatment, and provision of high quality of fertility care, it is necessary for healthcare professionals to explore infertile couples’ expectations and needs. Identification of these needs can be a prerequisite to plan the effective supportive interventions. The current study was, therefore, conducted in an attempt to explore and to understand infertile couples’ experiences and needs. Materials and Methods: This is a qualitative study based on a content analysis approach. The participants included 26 infertile couples (17 men and 26 women and 7 members of medical personnel (3 gynecologists and 4 midwives as the key informants. The infertile couples were selected from patients attending public and private infertility treatment centers and private offices of infertility specialists in Isfahan and Rasht, Iran, during 2012-2013. They were selected through purposive sampling method with maximum variation. In-depth unstructured interviews and field notes were used for data gathering among infertile couples. The data from medical personnel was collected through semi-structured interviews. The interview data were analyzed using conventional content analysis method. Results: Data analysis revealed four main categories of infertile couples’ needs, including: i. Infertility and social support, ii. Infertility and financial support, iii. Infertility and spiritual support and iv. Infertility and informational support. The main theme of all these categories was assistance and support. Conclusion: The study showed that in addition to treatment and medical needs, infertile couples encounter various challenges in different emotional, psychosocial, communicative, cognitive, spiritual, and economic aspects that can affect various areas of their life and lead to new concerns, problems, and demands. Thus, addressing infertile couples’ needs and expectations alongside their

  2. Nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues: a qualitative study.

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    Anåker, Anna; Nilsson, Maria; Holmner, Åsa; Elf, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' perceptions of climate and environmental issues and examine how nurses perceive their role in contributing to the process of sustainable development. Climate change and its implications for human health represent an increasingly important issue for the healthcare sector. According to the International Council of Nurses Code of Ethics, nurses have a responsibility to be involved and support climate change mitigation and adaptation to protect human health. This is a descriptive, explorative qualitative study. Nurses (n = 18) were recruited from hospitals, primary care and emergency medical services; eight participated in semi-structured, in-depth individual interviews and 10 participated in two focus groups. Data were collected from April-October 2013 in Sweden; interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Two main themes were identified from the interviews: (i) an incongruence between climate and environmental issues and nurses' daily work; and (ii) public health work is regarded as a health co-benefit of climate change mitigation. While being green is not the primary task in a lifesaving, hectic and economically challenging context, nurses' perceived their profession as entailing responsibility, opportunities and a sense of individual commitment to influence the environment in a positive direction. This study argues there is a need for increased awareness of issues and methods that are crucial for the healthcare sector to respond to climate change. Efforts to develop interventions should explore how nurses should be able to contribute to the healthcare sector's preparedness for and contributions to sustainable development. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Concreteness of positive word contributions to affective priming: an ERP study.

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    Yao, Zhao; Wang, Zhenhong

    2014-09-01

    Recent behavioral data suggest that the concreteness of positive words modulates subsequent cognitive processing; however, the underlying physiological processes of this influence are not well understood. To explore this process, positive-abstract words or positive-concrete words were used as primes when participants performed a lexical decision task during the measurement of event-related potentials (ERPs). The behavioral data revealed a significant affective priming effect (i.e., incongruent>congruent) only for abstract word pairs. The N400 amplitude was larger for affectively incongruent pairs compared to affectively congruent pairs, independent of the prime concreteness. The amplitude of the late positive component (LPC) was modulated by prime concreteness. The processing of positive-abstract targets was facilitated by previous exposure to a congruent prime, as reflected by the reduced LPC, which has been thought to reflect attentional and memory processes. However, no differences in the LPC amplitude were found between congruent and incongruent-concrete pairs. These findings suggest that the influence of the concreteness of positive words mainly occurs during the decision-making processing and memory-related stages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

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    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  5. Therapy interventions for children with neurodisabilities: a qualitative scoping study.

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    Beresford, Bryony; Clarke, Susan; Maddison, Jane

    2018-01-01

    Therapy interventions emerged four times in the top 10 research priorities in a James Lind Alliance research prioritisation exercise for children with neurodisabilities (Morris C, Simkiss D, Busk M, Morris M, Allard A, Denness J, et al. Setting research priorities to improve the health of children and young people with neurodisability: a British Academy of Childhood Disability-James Lind Alliance Research Priority Setting Partnership. BMJ Open 2015; 5 :e006233). The National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) commissioned this study as part of an information-gathering exercise in response to this. The objectives were to (1) describe the current practice, approaches and schools of thought in relation to physiotherapy, occupational therapy and speech and language therapy for children with neurodisability; (2) explore clinical decision-making; (3) investigate views on outcomes and their measurement, particularly participation as an outcome, that is, the child's ability to have the opportunity to be involved in life situations and activities (e.g. communication, mobility, interpersonal interactions, self-care, learning and applying knowledge); (4) seek views on the aspects of therapy interventions that have an impact on outcomes; and (5) elicit stakeholder views on research needs and priorities. More than 70 professionals (therapists, service leads, paediatricians and education staff) and 25 parents participated in a qualitative interview (either individually or as part of a focus group). Professional thinking and models of service delivery are in a state of flux and development. There is a move towards goals-focused, family-centred approaches. Work tends to be highly individualised, with few protocols. Parents are certain of the value of therapies, although they may experience difficulties with provision and may seek (additional) private provision. Therapy interventions are conceived as three components: the therapist, the procedures/equipment, etc., and the wider

  6. Qualitative Study on the Identity of the Manager in Romania

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    FLORENTINA SCÂRNECI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of a qualitative research project carried out in 2008, which aimed at identifying the identity condition of managers in Romania. The article presents part of the grounded theory on the identity of managers: the day to day circumstances in which they live - issues related to childhood and maturity (material situation, relationships, family, etc.. Also, it describes in brief the methodology applied: qualitative collection of data, theoretical sampling, theoretical saturation and the analysis of qualitative data obtained.The article presents, also in brief, the larger research framework wherefrom the presented part was extracted. The conclusion is that there are life-related issues specific to managers (and, more precisely, specific reactions to the environment and that their identification can form the basis for designing methods of managerial diagnosis and prognosis.

  7. Using combined eye tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars

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    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Salgado, A.; Spence, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized the techniques of eye tracking and word association in order to collect attentional information and freely-elicited associations from consumers in response to changing specific attributes of the product packaging (jam jars). We assessed the relationship between the data

  8. Negativity is the main cause of reaction-time delay in an emotional Stroop study with picture/word stimuli.

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    Sutmuller, A.D.; Brokken, D.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find out if the emotion triggered by viewing a picture can be determined by measuring reaction times. We investigated this by using the emotional Stroop task. Emotional Stroop entails presenting two stimuli, in our case pictures and superimposed words, with different

  9. Surgeons' Emotional Experience of Their Everyday Practice - A Qualitative Study.

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    Massimiliano Orri

    Full Text Available Physicians' emotions affect both patient care and personal well-being. Surgeons appear at particularly high risk, as evidenced by the high rate of burnout and the alarming consequences in both their personal lives and professional behavior. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the emotional experiences of surgeons and their impact on their surgical practice.27 purposively selected liver and pancreatic surgeons from 10 teaching hospitals (23 men, 4 women participated. Inclusion took place until data saturation was reached. Data were collected through individual interviews and thematically analyzed independently by 3 researchers (a psychologist, a psychiatrist, and a surgeon. 7 themes emerged from the analysis, categorized in 3 main or superordinate themes, which described surgeons' emotional experience before, during, and after surgery. Burdensome emotions are present throughout all 3 periods (and invade life outside the hospital-surgeons' own emotions, their perception of patients' emotions, and their entwinement. The interviewees described the range of emotional situations they face (with patients, families, colleagues, the influence of the institutional framework (time pressure and fatigue, cultural pressure to satisfy the ideal image of a surgeon, as well as the emotions they feel (including especially anxiety, fear, distress, guilt, and accountability.Emotions are ubiquitous in surgeons' experience, and their exposure to stress is chronic rather than acute. Considering emotions only in terms of their relations to operative errors (as previous studies have done is limiting. Although complications are quite rare events, the concern for possible complications is an oppressive experience, regardless of whether or not they actually occur.

  10. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study

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    Player, Michael J.; Proudfoot, Judy; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Spurrier, Michael; Shand, Fiona; Christensen, Helen; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Wilhelm, Kay

    2015-01-01

    Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men’s specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1) development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors), (2) men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3) understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4) distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5) suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals’ preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk. PMID:26090794

  11. What Interrupts Suicide Attempts in Men: A Qualitative Study.

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    Michael J Player

    Full Text Available Despite higher rates of suicide in men, there is a dearth of research examining the perspectives and experiences of males at risk of suicide, particularly in terms of understanding how interventions can be tailored to men's specific needs. The current study aimed to examine factors assisting, complicating or inhibiting interventions for men at risk, as well as outlining the roles of family, friends and others in male suicide prevention. Thirty-five male suicide survivors completed one-to-one interviews, and forty-seven family and friends of male suicide survivors participated in eight focus groups. Thematic analysis revealed five major themes: (1 development of suicidal behaviours tends to follow a common path associated with specific types of risk factors (disrupted mood, unhelpful stoic beliefs and values, avoidant coping strategies, stressors, (2 men at risk of suicide tend to systematically misinterpret changes in their behaviour and thinking, (3 understanding mood and behavioural changes in men enables identification of opportunities to interrupt suicide progression, (4 distraction, provision of practical and emotional supports, along with professional intervention may effectively interrupt acute risk of harm, and (5 suicidal ideation may be reduced through provision of practical help to manage crises, and helping men to focus on obligations and their role within families. Findings suggest that interventions for men at risk of suicidal behaviours need to be tailored to specific risk indicators, developmental factors, care needs and individuals' preferences. To our knowledge this is the first qualitative study to explore the experiences of both suicidal men and their family/friends after a suicide attempt, with the view to improve understanding of the processes which are effective in interrupting suicide and better inform interventions for men at risk.

  12. Giving birth with rape in one's past: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Lotta; Nerum, Hilde; Oian, Pål; Sørlie, Tore

    2013-09-01

    Rape is one of the most traumatizing violations a woman can be subjected to, and leads to extensive health problems, predominantly psychological ones. A large proportion of women develop a form of posttraumatic stress termed Rape Trauma Syndrome. A previous study by our research group has shown that women with a history of rape far more often had an operative delivery in their first birth and those who gave birth vaginally had second stages twice as long as women with no history of sexual assault. The aim of this study is to examine and illuminate how women previously subjected to rape experience giving birth for the first time and their advice on the kind of birth care they regard as good for women with a history of rape. A semi-structured interview with 10 women, who had been exposed to rape before their first childbirth. Data on the birth experience were analyzed by qualitative content analysis. The main theme was "being back in the rape" with two categories: "reactivation of the rape during labor," with subcategories "struggle," "surrender," and "escape" and "re-traumatization after birth," with the subcategories "objectified," "dirtied," and "alienated body." A rape trauma can be reactivated during the first childbirth regardless of mode of delivery. After birth, the women found themselves re-traumatized with the feeling of being dirtied, alienated, and reduced to just a body that another body is to come out of. Birth attendants should acknowledge that the common measures and procedures used during normal birth or cesarean section can contribute to a reactivation of the rape trauma. © 2013, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2013, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Characteristics of outdoor falls among older people: a qualitative study.

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    Nyman, Samuel R; Ballinger, Claire; Phillips, Judith E; Newton, Rita

    2013-11-18

    Falls are a major threat to older people's health and wellbeing. Approximately half of falls occur in outdoor environments but little is known about the circumstances in which they occur. We conducted a qualitative study to explore older people's experiences of outdoor falls to develop understanding of how they may be prevented. We conducted nine focus groups across the UK (England, Wales, and Scotland). Our sample was from urban and rural settings and different environmental landscapes. Participants were aged 65+ and had at least one outdoor fall in the past year. We analysed the data using framework and content analyses. Forty-four adults aged 65 - 92 took part and reported their experience of 88 outdoor falls. Outdoor falls occurred in a variety of contexts, though reports suggested the following scenarios may have been more frequent: when crossing a road, in a familiar area, when bystanders were around, and with an unreported or unknown attribution. Most frequently, falls resulted in either minor or moderate injury, feeling embarrassed at the time of the fall, and anxiety about falling again. Ten falls resulted in fracture, but no strong pattern emerged in regard to the contexts of these falls. Anxiety about falling again appeared more prevalent among those that fell in urban settings and who made more visits into their neighbourhood in a typical week. This exploratory study has highlighted several aspects of the outdoor environment that may represent risk factors for outdoor falls and associated fear of falling. Health professionals are recommended to consider outdoor environments as well as the home setting when working to prevent falls and increase mobility among older people.

  14. Barriers to partnership working in public health: a qualitative study.

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    David Carlton Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Public health provision in England is undergoing dramatic changes. Currently established partnerships are thus likely to be significantly disrupted by the radical reforms outlined in the Public Health White Paper. We therefore explored the process of partnership working in public health, in order to better understand the potential opportunities and threats associated with the proposed changes.70 participants took part in an in-depth qualitative study involving 40 semi-structured interviews and three focus group discussions. Participants were senior and middle grade public health decision makers working in Primary Care Trusts, Local Authorities, Department of Health, academia, General Practice and Hospital Trusts and the third sector in England. Despite mature arrangements for partnership working in many areas, and much support for joint working in principle, many important barriers exist. These include cultural issues such as a lack of shared values and language, the inherent complexity of intersectoral collaboration for public health, and macro issues including political and resource constraints. There is particular uncertainty and anxiety about the future of joint working relating to the availability and distribution of scarce and diminishing financial resources. There is also the concern that existing effective collaborative networks may be completely disrupted as the proposed changes unfold. The extent to which the proposed reforms might mitigate or potentiate these issues remains unclear. However the threats currently remain more salient than opportunities.The current re-organisation of public health offers real opportunity to address some of the barriers to partnership working identified in this study. However, significant threats exist. These include the breakup of established networks, and the risk of cost cutting on effective public health interventions.

  15. GPs' perceptions of workload in England: a qualitative interview study.

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    Croxson, Caroline Hd; Ashdown, Helen F; Hobbs, Fd Richard

    2017-02-01

    GPs report the lowest levels of morale among doctors, job satisfaction is low, and the GP workforce is diminishing. Workload is frequently cited as negatively impacting on commitment to a career in general practice, and many GPs report that their workload is unmanageable. To gather an in-depth understanding of GPs' perceptions and attitudes towards workload. All GPs working within NHS England were eligible. Advertisements were circulated via regional GP e-mail lists and national social media networks in June 2015. Of those GPs who responded, a maximum-variation sample was selected until data saturation was reached. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted. Data were analysed thematically. In total, 171 GPs responded, and 34 were included in this study. GPs described an increase in workload over recent years, with current working days being long and intense, raising concerns over the wellbeing of GPs and patients. Full-time partnership was generally not considered to be possible, and many participants felt workload was unsustainable, particularly given the diminishing workforce. Four major themes emerged to explain increased workload: increased patient needs and expectations; a changing relationship between primary and secondary care; bureaucracy and resources; and the balance of workload within a practice. Continuity of care was perceived as being eroded by changes in contracts and working patterns to deal with workload. This study highlights the urgent need to address perceived lack of investment and clinical capacity in general practice, and suggests that managing patient expectations around what primary care can deliver, and reducing bureaucracy, have become key issues, at least until capacity issues are resolved. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  16. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

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    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  17. Parents' concerns about future pregnancy after stillbirth: a qualitative study.

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    Meaney, Sarah; Everard, Claire M; Gallagher, Stephen; O'Donoghue, Keelin

    2017-08-01

    As stillbirth has a devastating impact, it is imperative to understand the importance of clinical and emotional care after stillbirth and how it influences subsequent pregnancies. The aim of the study was to gain insight into the consideration and planning of a subsequent pregnancy by parents in the weeks following stillbirth. A qualitative semi-structured interview format was utilized. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed as the analytic strategy. The recruitment strategy focused on couples whereby the parents of ten stillborn babies were contacted; however, five men declined to participate in the study. The final sample of 15 parents were all Irish: ten of whom were female and five of whom were male. Findings revealed two superordinate themes relating to a subsequent pregnancy after stillbirth: aspirations for future pregnancy and expectations of future care. Parents disclosed how the prospect of a subsequent pregnancy was daunting with fears about the potential loss of another child. Despite these fears, parents' aspirations differed in the days following stillbirth; mothers wished to plan a future pregnancy while fathers were reluctant to consider any pregnancies. Parents were unsure of what to expect in terms of the level of care that would be provided to them in a subsequent pregnancy. Additional appointments at the maternity hospital were considered crucial to provide reassurance during a subsequent pregnancy. These findings underscore the far-reaching and contrasting effects of stillbirth on parents. These complex needs highlight the importance of the multidisciplinary team approach. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Facilitators for Empowering Women in Breastfeeding: a Qualitative Study

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    Shahnaz Kohan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background  Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months and continued breastfeeding up to 2 years or more is a desirable approach for infant’s nutrition. A mother's breastfeeding empowerment is considered an important factor in promoting breastfeeding and identifying its facilitating factors can contribute to the development of effective policies and intervention. This study with a qualitative approach carried out aiming to exploring the facilitators for women’s empowerment in breastfeeding. Material and Methods This study conducted by content analysis method. Thirty-four semi-structured individual interviews with 20 mothers having breastfeeding experience, 4 key family members, and 10 personnel involved in breastfeeding services were carried out. Data analysis was simultaneously performed with data collection. Results Three main categories of "Health system factors", "Family and personal factors" and "Social and cultural factors" were extracted from the participants' explanations, indicating the dimensions of facilitators for empowering women in breastfeeding. Conclusion Participants regarded the acquisition of breastfeeding skills in hospitals and breastfeeding counseling in health centers as important factors in facilitating their empowerment to early initiation of breastfeeding and its continuity. Further analysis showed "a mother's decision to breastfeed" along with her understanding of "positive attitude and her husband and family's participation in breastfeeding" boosts the breastfeeding ability and the support of the community through "positive cultural belief in breastfeeding" and" public education and information" provides an appropriate ground for the continuity of breastfeeding. In order to improve breastfeeding, a comprehensive planning with regard to women's empowerment in breastfeeding should be considered.

  19. Hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: a qualitative study

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    Holtrop Jodi S

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Publication of results from the Women's Health Initiative study in July 2002 was a landmark event in biomedical science related to postmenopausal women. The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of new hormone therapy recommendations on patients' attitudes and decision-making in a primary care practice. Methods A questionnaire including structured and open-ended questions was administered in a family practice office waiting room from August through October 2003. Rationale for taking or not taking hormone therapy was specifically sought. Women 50–70 years old attending for office visits were invited to participate. Data were analyzed qualitatively and with descriptive statistics. Chart review provided medication use rates for the entire practice cohort of which the sample was a subset. Results Respondents (n = 127 were predominantly white and well educated, and were taking hormone therapy at a higher rate (38% than the overall rate (26% for women of the same age range in this practice. Belief patterns about hormone therapy were, in order of frequency, 'use is risky', 'vindication or prior beliefs', 'benefit to me outweighs risk', and 'unaware of new recommendations'. Twenty-eight out of 78 women continued hormones use after July 2002. Of 50 women who initially stopped hormone therapy after July 2002, 12 resumed use. Women who had stopped hormone therapy were a highly symptomatic group. Responses with emotional overtones such as worry, confusion, anger, and grief were common. Conclusion Strategies for decision support about hormone therapy should explicitly take into account women's preferences about symptom relief and the trade-offs among relevant risks. Some women may need emotional support during transitions in hormone therapy use.

  20. Clinicians' experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spehar, Ivan; Frich, Jan C; Kjekshus, Lars Erik

    2012-11-22

    There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals' decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians' journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. We found that there were three phases in clinicians' journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants' experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management "on the fly". Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians' decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary support functions are available locally, especially

  1. Intimate partner violence and pregnancy intentions: a qualitative study.

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    Baird, Kathleen; Creedy, Debra; Mitchell, Theresa

    2017-08-01

    In this qualitative study, we explored women's pregnancy intentions and experiences of intimate partner violence before, during and after pregnancy. Unintended pregnancies in the context of intimate partner violence can have serious health, social and economic consequences for women and their children. Feminist and phenomenological philosophies underpinned the study to gain a richer understanding of women's experiences. Eleven women who had been pregnant in the previous two years were recruited from community-based women's refuges in one region of the UK. Of the 11 women, eight had unplanned pregnancies, two reported being coerced into early motherhood, and only one woman had purposively planned her pregnancy. Multiple in-depth interviews focused on participants' accounts of living with intimate partner violence. Experiential data analysis was used to identify, analyse and highlight themes. Three major themes were identified: men's control of contraception, partner's indiscriminate response to the pregnancy and women's mixed feelings about the pregnancy. Participants reported limited influence over their sexual relationship and birth control. Feelings of vulnerability about themselves and fear for their unborn babies' safety were intensified by their partners' continued violence during pregnancy. Women experiencing intimate partner violence were more likely to have an unintended pregnancy. This could be attributed to male dominance and fear, which impacts on a woman's ability to manage her birth control options. The women's initial excitement about their pregnancy diminished in the face of uncertainty and ongoing violence within their relationship. Women experiencing violence lack choice in relation to birth control options leading to unintended pregnancies. Interpreting the findings from the victim-perpetrator interactive spin theory of intimate partner violence provides a possible framework for midwives and nurses to better understand and respond to women

  2. Scottish young people's perceptions of standardised packs - a qualitative study

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    Andy Macgregor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Standardised cigarette packs were introduced into the UK in May 2016. Retailers could sell old stock until May 2017 after which only the sale of cigarettes and tobacco in standardised packs was allowed. As in Australia, pack shape, colour, opening mechanism and font are regulated, together with the size and position of health warnings and number of cigarettes in a pack. This paper explores Scottish young people's awareness of and views about standardised packs in Spring 2017. Methods The DISPLAY study is a five year study established to evaluate the national tobacco point-of sale (POS promotions ban in four communities in Scotland. This paper is based on the qualitative component, annual focus groups carried out with Secondary 2 (13 year olds and Secondary 4 (15 year olds students in four secondary schools. 16 groups (82 students convened in February - March 2017 explored students' perceptions of standardised packaging. Results There was a high level of awareness of standardised packs prior to their full implementation. Smokers had bought them, and they and other participants had seen them in possession of friends and family members, and in litter. Participants' views of the new packaging were generally negative, described as unappealing and depressing, particularly the pictorial health warnings. Packs were compared unfavourably with previous non-standardised versions. However, there was no consensus on their likely impact. Some participants argued that their impact would be widespread, while others thought that any impact would be confined to young non/occasional smokers and that established smokers would be unaffected. Conclusions In early 2017 young people in Scotland had high awareness and knowledge of standardised tobacco packs before their full implementation. Despite differing views about their likely impact on youth smoking, participants irrespective of smoking status overwhelmingly regarded them as unattractive and less

  3. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers should make sure that necessary

  4. Transgender men's experiences of fertility preservation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuand, G; Dhejne, C; Olofsson, J I; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

    2017-02-01

    How do transgender men experience fertility preservation (FP) by cryopreservation of oocytes? The procedures required prior to oocyte cryopreservation, such as hormonal ovarian stimulation and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), have a negative impact on gender dysphoria as they are closely linked to the men's female assigned sex at birth, which is incompatible with their current status. Transgender persons often have high dissatisfaction with assigned sex-specific body features, such as the genital organs and androgen/oestrogen-responsive features. Thus, undergoing FP that requires genital-specific examinations, aimed at obtaining oocytes to cryopreserve, could be distressing. As no previous studies have investigated transgender men's experiences of FP involving cryopreservation of oocytes, little is known about their experience of the procedures. This is a prospective study among adult transgender men referred for FP between March 2014 and December 2015. Individual in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted shortly after FP treatment. The interviews lasted between 62 and 111 min (mean 81 min) and were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Participants were recruited on their first visit to the assisted reproduction clinic for reproductive counseling. There were 15 men, scheduled for FP, who chose to participate in the study (age 19-35); none had given birth and eight had a partner. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in three main categories: the journey to FP, reactions to the FP proceedings and strategies for coping. The referral for FP was an important part of the assessment and diagnosis and sometimes lined with frustrating waits and doubts. The reaction to the FP proceedings revealed that the genital examinations and the physical changes associated with discontinuation of testosterone or hormonal stimulation treatment triggered gender incongruence and dysphoria. However, for some, the negative expectations were not

  5. Automatic evaluation of body-related words among young women: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cranney Jacquelyn

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to images depicting the thin female ideal has negative effects on some females' levels of body dissatisfaction. Much of this research, however, has utilised relatively long stimulus exposure times; thereby focusing on effortful and conscious processing of body-related stimuli. Relatively little is known about the nature of females' affective responses to the textual components of body-related stimuli, especially when these stimuli are only briefly encountered. The primary aim of the current research was to determine whether young women automatically evaluate body-related words and whether these responses are associated with body image concerns, including self-reported levels of appearance schematicity, thin internalisation, body dissatisfaction, and dietary restraint. Methods An affective priming task was used to investigate whether females automatically evaluate body-related words, and whether this is associated with self-reported body image concerns. In a within-participants experimental design, the valence congruence of the prime and target pairs was manipulated. Participants selected body words as primes in Experiment 1 (N = 27, while normatively selected body words were primes in Experiment 2 (N = 50. Each prime was presented briefly, followed by a target word which participants judged as "good" or "bad". The dependent variable was response latency to the target. Results Automatic evaluation was evident: responding to congruent pairs was faster than responding to incongruent pairs. Body image concerns were unrelated to automaticity. Conclusions The findings suggest that brief encounters with body words are likely to prompt automatic evaluation in all young women, and that this process proceeds unintentionally and efficiently, without conscious guidance.

  6. Establishing student perceptions of an entrepreneur using word associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine E. Goliath

    2014-05-01

    Research purpose: To identify the image or perceptions that students have of an entrepreneur. Motivation for study: By establishing the image or perceptions that students have of an entrepreneur, insights could be provided into the factors influencing them to become entrepreneurs or not. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative projective technique, namely continuous word association, was adopted. Convenience sampling was used and 163 students participated. The words generated were coded into categories by searching for themes and words of a similar nature. The total words generated, the frequencies of recurring words, the number of different types of words, first words recalled and the average number of words recalled were established. Main findings: The students participating in the study have a good understanding of the general nature of an entrepreneur and entrepreneurship; an entrepreneur is perceived as someone who is a creative and innovative risk-taker, who owns a business involved in the selling of goods and services. Practical/managerial implications: Future entrepreneurs need to be aware that, in addition to several innate attributes, successful entrepreneurs have learned skills and competencies. It is also important that educators of entrepreneurship create a realistic image of what it is like to be an entrepreneur, and that both positive and negative aspects are highlighted. Contribution/value-add: By identifying the image or perceptions of an entrepreneur held by students, the marketing of entrepreneurship as a desirable career choice can be enhanced.

  7. Children with Facial Morphea Managing Everyday Life: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiulis, E; Gladstone, B; Boydell, K; O'Brien, C; Pope, E; Laxer, R

    2018-02-16

    This study explores the everyday experiences of children with facial morphea by examining the psychosocial impact of living with facial morphea and how children and their families manage its impact. We used a qualitative, social constructionist approach involving focus groups, in-depth interviews and drawing activities with 10 children with facial morphea 8-17 years of age and 13 parents. Interpretive thematic analysis was utilized to examine the data. Children and parents reported on the stress of living with facial morphea, which was related to the lack of knowledge about facial morphea and the extent to which they perceived themselves as different from others. Self-perceptions were based on the visibility of the lesion, different phases of life transitions and reactions of others, (e.g. intrusive questioning and bullying). Medication routines and side effects, such as weight gain added to participants' stress. To manage the impact of facial morphea, children and their parents used strategies to normalize the experience by hiding physical signs of the illness, constructing explanations about what 'it' is, and by connecting with their peers. Understanding what it is like to live with facial morphea from the perspectives of children and parents is important for devising ways to support children with facial morphea to achieve a better quality of life. Health care providers can help families access resources to manage anxiety, deal with bullying and construct adequate explanations of facial morphea, as well as providing opportunities for peer support. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Surgeons’ views on preoperative medical evaluation: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin R. Riggs

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is substantial variation in the practice of preoperative medical evaluation (PME and limited evidence for its benefit, which raises concerns about overuse. Surgeons have a unique role in this multidisciplinary practice. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore surgeons’ practices and their beliefs about PME. Methods We conducted of semi-structured interviews with 18 surgeons in Baltimore, Maryland. Surgeons were purposively sampled to maximize diversity in terms of practice type (academic vs. private practice, surgical specialty, gender, and experience level. General topics included surgeons’ current PME practices, perceived benefits and harms of PME, the surgical risk assessment, and potential improvements and barriers to change. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis to identify themes, which are presented as assertions. Transcripts were re-analyzed to identify supporting and opposing instances of each assertion. Results A total of 15 themes emerged. There was wide variation in surgeons’ described PME practices. Surgeons believed that PME improves surgical outcomes, but not all patients benefit. Surgeons were cognizant of the financial cost of the current system and the potential inconvenience that additional tests and office visits pose to patients. Surgeons believed that PME has minimal to no risk and that a normal PME is reassuring to them and patients. Surgeons were confident in their ability to assess surgical risk, and risk assessment by non-surgeons rarely affected their surgical decision-making. Hospital and anesthesiology requirements were a major driver of surgeons’ PME practices. Surgeons did not receive much training on PME but perceived their practices to be similar to their colleagues. Surgeons believed that PME provides malpractice protection, welcomed standardization, and perceived there to be inadequate evidence to

  9. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabulsi, Mona

    2011-08-30

    Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  10. Women's Views About Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Kianfard, Leila; Parhizkar, Saadat; Mousavizadeh, Ali

    2017-05-01

    Violence against women is an urgent health priority in Iran. Designing effective programs for preventing and controlling the problem necessitates a thorough understanding of Iranian women and their perspectives regarding domestic violence. This study was aimed at exploring the domestic violence-related views of married women who were referred to health care facilities in Ahvaz, Iran. In this qualitative research, data were collected through four focus group discussions with 30 married women. All the discussions were recorded and transcribed, after which the data were classified separately. The main themes and subthemes were then manually derived from the data and analyzed. The five main themes identified were domestic violence against women in Ahvaz, behavioral influencing factors, nonbehavioral influencing factors, the necessity to empower women to prevent domestic violence, and recommendations for developing special training programs for Ahvazi women. Most of the participants were aware that domestic violence against women is a common occurrence in Iran. They were well aware of the definition of violence and expressed a belief that behavioral factors exert an important effect on the occurrence of the problem. They recommended the development of appropriate training programs that empower women to prevent the problem, the use of mass media to educate citizens about domestic violence, and the involvement of opinion leaders in eliminating the taboo against considering such violence a crime against Iranian women. Considering the views and ideas of women as consumers of educational services is a principle used to develop effective programs for preventing and controlling domestic violence. As indicated by the findings, the participants believe that empowering women must be treated as a priority in the Iranian health care system. However, they recommended differing approaches and methods of empowerment on the basis of their individual views and concerns.

  11. Hospital information system utilization in Iran: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Abbasi Moghadam

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hospital information system (HIS should ideally allow different forms of data to be stored and used for decision making by clinicians and managers alike. This system has been developed since the early 1980's, and many hospitals gradually converted from an unrelated system into an integrated one. In successful implementation of HIS plans, the role of human factors, either individually or as a group, is expected to be very important and decisive. In this phenomenological qualitative research, in-depth personal interviews were conducted with the hospital's senior managers, and discussions were conducted in six to eight member focus groups. To include participants for interviews, purposive sampling was used in an Iranian hospital among doctors, nurses and other healthcare providers who had experience in using HIS. Data collection continued until saturation stage. The meetings took about 90 to 120 minutes, in which the participants were asked about discovering needs as well as facilitating and inhibiting factors regarding HIS application. Two members of the research team independently analyzed the interview transcripts.  As a result, problems in HIS isolation were reported to be related to the following: software, hardware, manpower, management and training. About the last point, it was stated that adequate continuing professional development programs did not exist for proper use of computers in the hospital. To achieve the ultimate goal of HISs (e.g. increasing patient satisfaction and decreasing hospital costs, it is necessary to create basic changes in the training system, and to get feedback from hospital personnel. Other steps include addressing software and hardware shortcomings as well as moving towards reinforcing the facilitating factors and refraining from inhibiting ones discovered in this study.

  12. Prophylactic treatment of migraine; the patient's view, a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Frans

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prophylactic treatment is an important but under-utilised option for the management of migraine. Patients and physicians appear to have reservations about initiating this treatment option. This paper explores the opinions, motives and expectations of patients regarding prophylactic migraine therapy. Methods A qualitative focus group study in general practice in the Netherlands with twenty patients recruited from urban and rural general practices. Three focus group meetings were held with 6-7 migraine patients per group (2 female and 1 male group. All participants were migraine patients according to the IHS (International Headache Society; 9 had experience with prophylactic medication. The focus group meetings were analysed using a general thematic analysis. Results For patients several distinguished factors count when making a decision on prophylactic treatment. The decision of a patient on prophylactic medication is depending on experience and perspectives, grouped into five categories, namely the context of being active or passive in taking the initiative to start prophylaxis; assessing the advantages and disadvantages of prophylaxis; satisfaction with current migraine treatment; the relationship with the physician and the feeling to be heard; and previous steps taken to prevent migraine. Conclusion In addition to the functional impact of migraine, the decision to start prophylaxis is based on a complex of considerations from the patient's perspective (e.g. perceived burden of migraine, expected benefits or disadvantages, interaction with relatives, colleagues and physician. Therefore, when advising migraine patients about prophylaxis, their opinions should be taken into account. Patients need to be open to advice and information and intervention have to be offered at an appropriate moment in the course of migraine.

  13. Why are breastfeeding rates low in Lebanon? a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabulsi Mona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breastfeeding is a cost-effective public health intervention that reduces infant morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In Lebanon, breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates are disappointingly low. This qualitative study aims at identifying barriers and promoters of breastfeeding in the Lebanese context by exploring mothers' perceptions and experiences in breastfeeding over a one year period. Methods We conducted focus group discussions in three hospitals in Beirut, Lebanon, and followed up 36 breastfeeding mothers with serial in-depth interviews for one year post-partum or until breastfeeding discontinuation. Results Themes generated from baseline interviews revealed several positive and negative perceptions of breastfeeding. Longitudinal follow up identified insufficient milk, fear of weight gain or breast sagging, pain, sleep deprivation, exhaustion, or maternal employment, as reasons for early breastfeeding discontinuation. Women who continued breastfeeding for one year were more determined to succeed and overcome any barrier, relying mostly on family support and proper time management. Conclusions Increasing awareness of future mothers about breast feeding difficulties, its benefits to children, mothers, and society at large may further promote breastfeeding, and improve exclusivity and continuation rates in Lebanon. A national strategy for early intervention during school years to increase young women's awareness may improve their self-confidence and determination to succeed in breastfeeding later. Moreover, prolonging maternity leave, having day-care facilities at work, creation of lactation peer support groups and hotlines, and training of doctors and nurses in proper lactation support may positively impact breastfeeding exclusivity and continuation rates. Further research is needed to assess the effectiveness of proposed interventions in the Lebanese context.

  14. The construction of professional identity by physiotherapists: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Ralph; Cross, Vinette; Moore, Ann

    2016-03-01

    The U.K. Frances Report and increasing societal expectations of healthcare have challenged physiotherapists to reconsider professionalism. Physiotherapy has viewed identity as a fixed entity emphasising coherence, continuity and distinctiveness. Socialisation has required the acquisition of a professional identity as one necessary 'asset' for novices. Yet how do physiotherapists come to be the physiotherapists they are? Qualitative study using Collective Memory Work. Eight physiotherapists in South West England met for two hours, once a fortnight, for six months. Seventeen hours of group discussions were recorded and transcribed. Data were managed via the creation of crafted dialogues and analysed using narrative analysis. Participants shared ethical dilemmas: successes and unresolved anxiety about the limits of personal actions in social situations. These included matters of authenticity, role strain, morality, diversity. Participants made claims about their identity; claims made to support an attitude, belief, motivation or value. Professional identity in physiotherapy is more complex than traditionally thought; fluid across time and place, co-constructed within changing communities of practice. An ongoing and dynamic process, physiotherapists make sense and (re)interpret their professional self-concept based on evolving attributes, beliefs, values, and motives. Participants co-constructed the meaning of being a physiotherapist within intra-professional and inter-professional communities of practice. Patients informed this, and it was mediated by workplace and institutional discourses, boundaries and hierarchies, through an unfolding career and the contingencies of a life story. More empirical data are required to understand how physiotherapists negotiate the dilemmas they face and enact the values the profession espouses. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other m...

  16. The Impact of Misspelled Words on Automated Computer Scoring: A Case Study of Scientific Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minsu; Nehm, Ross H.

    2016-06-01

    Automated computerized scoring systems (ACSSs) are being increasingly used to analyze text in many educational settings. Nevertheless, the impact of misspelled words (MSW) on scoring accuracy remains to be investigated in many domains, particularly jargon-rich disciplines such as the life sciences. Empirical studies confirm that MSW are a pervasive feature of human-generated text and that despite improvements, spell-check and auto-replace programs continue to be characterized by significant errors. Our study explored four research questions relating to MSW and text-based computer assessments: (1) Do English language learners (ELLs) produce equivalent magnitudes and types of spelling errors as non-ELLs? (2) To what degree do MSW impact concept-specific computer scoring rules? (3) What impact do MSW have on computer scoring accuracy? and (4) Are MSW more likely to impact false-positive or false-negative feedback to students? We found that although ELLs produced twice as many MSW as non-ELLs, MSW were relatively uncommon in our corpora. The MSW in the corpora were found to be important features of the computer scoring models. Although MSW did not significantly or meaningfully impact computer scoring efficacy across nine different computer scoring models, MSW had a greater impact on the scoring algorithms for naïve ideas than key concepts. Linguistic and concept redundancy in student responses explains the weak connection between MSW and scoring accuracy. Lastly, we found that MSW tend to have a greater impact on false-positive feedback. We discuss the implications of these findings for the development of next-generation science assessments.

  17. Opportunity NYC--Family Rewards: Qualitative Study of Family Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraker, Carolyn A.; Greenberg, David

    2011-01-01

    Aimed at low-income families in six of New York City's highest-poverty communities, the Family Rewards program ties cash rewards to a pre-specified set of activities. This paper presents the qualitative findings from interviews with 77 families. It examines how families incorporated the program into their households, and specifically the…

  18. Dilemmas of Justification in the Qualitative Study of Intimate Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski

    2010-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the special obligation researchers have to consider carefully the ethical and moral aspects of their work when undertaking qualitative field research on intimate matters. The chapter argues that the term "justification" is central to a discussion of several dimensions...

  19. A Qualitative Study of Participants in a Family Law Course

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJM Venter

    2017-12-08

    Dec 8, 2017 ... period 2009-2012. This research sets out to examine the change ... adopted a mixed methods approach with a primarily qualitative focus, and was ..... An example of the type of assessment in the family law course would be to ...

  20. First Aid and Transportation Course Contents Based on Experience gained in the Iran-Iraq War: a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarhangi, Forogh; Gholami, Hamid Reza; Khaghanizade, Morteza; Najafi Mehri, Soheil

    2015-02-01

    Effective first aid and transportation influences injury-induced mortality. But few qualitative studies have been conducted so far in this area. The aim of this study was to identify the content of the first aid and patient transportation course based on experience gained from the Iran-Iraq war. This was a conventional qualitative content analysis study; a purposeful sample of 14 first aid and transportation experts who had worked during the Iran-Iraq war was recruited. We collected and analyzed the study data by using the semi-structured interview method and the conventional content analysis approach respectively. Each interview transcript was reviewed several times. Words, sentences, and paragraphs were labeled with codes. Codes were compared with each other and categorized according to their similarities. Similar sub-categories and categories were also grouped together and formed themes. Study participants' experiences of wartime first aid and transportation (FAT) education fell into two main themes including 'the congruence of education and educational needs' and 'managers' engagement in FAT education. The four main categories of these two themes were use of appropriate educational facilities, adopting effective teaching strategies, universal FAT education and specialized training skills. The two key requirements of the first aid and transportation courses are practicality and managerial engagement. We developed and provided specific guidance of FAT curriculum by using the study findings. This curriculum is recommended for educating FAT staffs, paramedics, emergency technicians, and military nurses.

  1. Solicited Diary Studies of Psychotherapy in Qualitative Research - Pros and Cons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Diary studies are scarce within the field of qualitative psychotherapy research. In this article arguments for and against the employment of solicited diaries studies in qualitative psychotherapy research are investigated. The strengths of diary studies are presented along with arguments concerning...

  2. Effects of providing word sounds during printed word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, P.; Dongen, van A.J.N.; Custers, E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of the availability of the spoken sound of words along with the printed forms during reading practice. Firstgrade children from two normal elementary schools practised reading several unfamiliar words in print. For half of the printed words the

  3. English Words and Phrases in Croatian: A Small-Scale Study of Language Awareness and Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Perić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on language attitudes towards English words and phrases in the Croatian language. In order to prevent loanwords, linguistic purism has arisen as a theory about what languages should be like. The tradition of linguistic purism in Croatia has been shaped by various socio-historical factors. English may be viewed as a language of opportunity, or as a threat to the survival of other, usually minority and endangered, languages. In order to provide an insight into the use of English words and phrases in the Croatian context, a questionnaire about language attitudes and awareness was conducted on 534 participants. The aim of the questionnaire was to determine participants’ language attitudes and familiarity with English words and phrases. The results show that although people in Croatia generally like English, many of them are not familiar with English words, especially older participants and those with little or no knowledge of the English language. Moreover, the results indicate that the younger generation is more inclined towards English than the older generation; however, they are not as familiar with Croatian equivalents as they claim.

  4. The influence of context on word order processing - an fMRI study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Line Burholt; Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth; Nielsen, Andreas Højlund

    2013-01-01

    In languages that have subject-before-object as their canonical word order, e.g. German, English and Danish, behavioral experiments have shown more processing difficulties for object-initial clauses (OCs) than for subject-initial clauses (SCs). For processing of OCs in such languages, neuroimagin...

  5. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  6. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mirgissa Kaba,1 Tesfaye Bulto,2 Zergu Tafesse,2 Wassie Lingerh,2 Ismael Ali2 1Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, 2Integrated Family Health Program, John Snow, Inc., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Background: Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government’s measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women.Objective: The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia.Methods: A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples’ Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11.Results: Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited

  7. Sociocultural determinants of home delivery in Ethiopia: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Mirgissa; Bulto, Tesfaye; Tafesse, Zergu; Lingerh, Wassie; Ali, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    Maternal health remains a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Despite the government's measures to ensure institutional delivery assisted by skilled attendants, home delivery remains high, estimated at over 80% of all pregnant women. The study aims to identify determinants that sustain home delivery in Ethiopia. A total of 48 women who delivered their most recent child at home, 56 women who delivered their most recent child in a health facility, 55 husbands of women who delivered within 1 year preceding the study, and 23 opinion leaders in selected districts of Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region, and Tigray regions were involved in the study. Key informant interview, in-depth interviews, and focus group discussions were conducted to collect data using checklists developed for this purpose. Data reduction and analysis were facilitated by Maxqda qualitative data analysis software version 11. Findings show that pregnancy and delivery is a normal and natural life event. Research participants unanimously argue that such a life event should not be linked with health problems. Home is considered a natural space for delivery and most women aspire to deliver at home where rituals during labor and after delivery are considered enjoyable. Even those who delivered in health facilities appreciate events in connection to home delivery. Efforts are underway to create home-like environments in health facilities, but health facilities are not yet recognized as a natural place of delivery. The positive tendency to deliver at home is further facilitated by poor service delivery at the facility level. Perceived poor competence of providers and limited availability of supplies and equipment were found to maintain the preference to deliver at home. The government's endeavor to improve maternal health has generated positive results with more women now attending antenatal care. Yet over 80% of women deliver at home and this was found to be the

  8. Visual processing of words in a patient with visual form agnosia: a behavioural and fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavina-Pratesi, Cristiana; Large, Mary-Ellen; Milner, A David

    2015-03-01

    Patient D.F. has a profound and enduring visual form agnosia due to a carbon monoxide poisoning episode suffered in 1988. Her inability to distinguish simple geometric shapes or single alphanumeric characters can be attributed to a bilateral loss of cortical area LO, a loss that has been well established through structural and functional fMRI. Yet despite this severe perceptual deficit, D.F. is able to "guess" remarkably well the identity of whole words. This paradoxical finding, which we were able to replicate more than 20 years following her initial testing, raises the question as to whether D.F. has retained specialized brain circuitry for word recognition that is able to function to some degree without the benefit of inputs from area LO. We used fMRI to investigate this, and found regions in the left fusiform gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, and left middle temporal cortex that responded selectively to words. A group of healthy control subjects showed similar activations. The left fusiform activations appear to coincide with the area commonly named the visual word form area (VWFA) in studies of healthy individuals, and appear to be quite separate from the fusiform face area (FFA). We hypothesize that there is a route to this area that lies outside area LO, and which remains relatively unscathed in D.F. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of semantic and phonological factors in word recognition: an ERP cross-modal priming study of derivational morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2011-01-01

    Theories of morphological processing differ on the issue of how lexical and grammatical information are stored and accessed. A key point of contention is whether complex forms are decomposed during recognition (e.g., establish+ment), compared to forms that cannot be analyzed into constituent morphemes (e.g., apartment). In the present study, we examined these issues with respect to English derivational morphology by measuring ERP responses during a cross-modal priming lexical decision task. ERP priming effects for semantically and phonologically transparent derived words (government-govern) were compared to those of semantically opaque derived words (apartment-apart) as well as "quasi-regular" items that represent intermediate cases of morphological transparency (dresser-dress). Additional conditions independently manipulated semantic and phonological relatedness in non-derived words (semantics: couch-sofa; phonology: panel-pan). The degree of N400 ERP priming to morphological forms varied depending on the amount of semantic and phonological overlap between word types, rather than respecting a bivariate distinction between derived and opaque forms. Moreover, these effects could not be accounted for by semantic or phonological relatedness alone. The findings support the theory that morphological relatedness is graded rather than absolute, and depend on the joint contribution of form and meaning overlap. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inflated medicine prices in Vietnam: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Mant, Andrea; Razee, Husna; Brooks, Geoffrey; Dang, Thu Ha; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen

    2017-06-01

    One third of the world's population lacks regular access to essential medicines partly because of the high cost of medicines. In Vietnam, the cost to patients of medicines was 47 times the international reference price for originator brands and 11 times the price for generic equivalents in the public sector. In this article, we report the results of a qualitative study conducted to identify the principal reasons for inflated medicine prices in Vietnam.Between April 2008 and December 2009, 29 semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff from pharmaceutical companies, private pharmacies, the Ministry of Health, and the Ministry of Finance of Vietnam. Study participants were recruited using a combination of purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and coded using NVivo8® software and analyzed using a framework of structure-conduct-performance (SCP).Participants attributed high prices of originator medicines to a monopoly of supply. The prices of generic medicines were also considered to be excessive, reportedly due to the need to recoup the cost of financial inducements paid to prescribers and procurement officers. These inducements constituted a dominant cost component of the end price of generic medicines. Poor market intelligence about current world prices, as well as failure to achieve economies of scale because of unwarranted duplication in pharmaceutical production and distribution system were also factors contributing to high prices. This was reported to be further compounded by multiple layers in the supply chain and unregulated retail mark-ups.To address these problems a multifaceted approach is needed encompassing policy and legislative responses. Policy options include establishing effective monitoring of medicine quality assurance, procurement, distribution and use. Rationalization of the domestic pharmaceutical production and distribution system to achieve economies of scale is also required. Appropriate

  11. Swiss Armed Forces Organizational Level Leader Development: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Merriam, defines a case study as “an in-depth description and analysis of a bounded system.”79 Among the six different qualitative types of research ...80 John W. Creswell, Research Design: Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches (Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2014), 201. 81 Ibid...Publishing Group, 1996. Creswell, John W. Research Design: Qualitative , Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2014. Curphy

  12. Transforming Verbal Counts in Reports of Qualitative Descriptive Studies Into Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, YunKyung; Voils, Corrine I.; Sandelowski, Margarete; Hasselblad, Vic; Crandell, Jamie L.

    2009-01-01

    Reports of qualitative studies typically do not offer much information on the numbers of respondents linked to any one finding. This information may be especially useful in reports of basic, or minimally interpretive, qualitative descriptive studies focused on surveying a range of experiences in a target domain, and its lack may limit the ability to synthesize the results of such studies with quantitative results in systematic reviews. Accordingly, the authors illustrate strategies for deriving plausible ranges of respondents expressing a finding in a set of reports of basic qualitative descriptive studies on antiretroviral adherence and suggest how the results might be used. These strategies have limitations and are never appropriate for use with findings from interpretive qualitative studies. Yet they offer a temporary workaround for preserving and maximizing the value of information from basic qualitative descriptive studies for systematic reviews. They show also why quantitizing is never simply quantitative. PMID:19448052

  13. Interactions among Knowledge, Beliefs, and Goals in Framing a Qualitative Study in Statistics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    In the recent past, qualitative research methods have become more prevalent in the field of statistics education. This paper offers thoughts on the process of framing a qualitative study by means of an illustrative example. The decisions that influenced the framing of a study of pre-service teachers' understanding of the concept of statistical…

  14. Benefits and challenges of qualitative methodologies in cross-cultural psychology studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Quadros Rigoni, R.

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research has been considered increasingly valuable for cross-cultural psychology studies, but its contributions and challenges to the field remain under discussed. This chapter does that by analysing a qualitative study which compares interpretive beliefs and behaviour of street-level

  15. Using Generic Inductive Approach in Qualitative Educational Research: A Case Study Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lisha

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research strategy has been widely adopted by educational researchers in order to improve the quality of their empirical studies. This paper aims to introduce a generic inductive approach, pragmatic and flexible in qualitative theoretical support, by describing its application in a study of non-English major undergraduates' English…

  16. Identifying nurses' rewards: a qualitative categorization study in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Bois Cindy

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rewards are important in attracting, motivating and retaining the most qualified employees, and nurses are no exception to this rule. This makes the establishment of an efficient reward system for nurses a true challenge for every hospital manager. A reward does not necessarily have a financial connotation: non-financial rewards may matter too, or may even be more important. Therefore, the present study examines nurses' reward perceptions, in order to identify potential reward options. Methods To answer the research question "What do nurses consider a reward and how can these rewards be categorized?", 20 in-depth semi-structured interviews with nurses were conducted and analysed using discourse and content analyses. In addition, the respondents received a list of 34 rewards (derived from the literature and were asked to indicate the extent to which they perceived each of them to be rewarding. Results Discourse analysis revealed three major reward categories: financial, non-financial and psychological, each containing different subcategories. In general, nurses more often mentioned financial rewards spontaneously in the interview, compared to non-financial and psychological rewards. The questionnaire results did not, however, indicate a significant difference in the rewarding potential of these three categories. Both the qualitative and quantitative data revealed that a number of psychological and non-financial rewards were important for nurses in addition to their monthly pay and other remunerations. In particular, appreciation for their work by others, compliments from others, presents from others and contact with patients were highly valued. Moreover, some demographical variables influenced the reward perceptions. Younger and less experienced nurses considered promotion possibilities as more rewarding than the older and more senior ones. The latter valued job security and working for a hospital with a good reputation higher

  17. Characteristics of Effective Simulation (Preclinical) Teachers as Identified by Dental Students: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Maureen; Mucciolo, Thomas W; Jahangiri, Leila

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this qualitative research study was to identify and categorize criteria for simulation teacher quality preferences as reported by dental students. Second-year dental students at New York University College of Dentistry in 2015 were given a two-question, open-ended survey asking what qualities they liked most and least in a simulation or preclinical teacher. Responses were collected until data saturation was reached. Key words in the responses were identified and coded based on similar relationships and then were grouped into defined categories. A total of 168 respondents out of the target group of 363 students (46.3%) provided 1,062 written comments. Three core themes-character, competence, and communication-emerged from 16 defined categories, which were validated using references from the educational literature. The theme of character encompassed eight of the defined categories (motivation, available, caring, patience, professionalism, empathy, fairness, and happiness) and accounted for 50% of the total student responses. The theme of competence comprised five categories (expertise, knowledgeable, efficient, skillful, and effective) and represented 34% of all responses. The communication theme covered the remaining three categories (feedback, approachable, and interpersonal communication) and contained 17% of the responses. Positive and negative comments in the category of motivation accounted for 11.2% of all student responses. Expertise was the next highest category with 9.3% of the responses, followed closely by 9.1% in the category of available. Among these students, the top five attributes of simulation teachers were motivation, expertise, available, caring, and feedback. While the study did not attempt to correlate these findings with improved student performance, the results can be used in the development of assessment tools for faculty and targeted faculty development programs.

  18. General practitioners learning qualitative research: A case study of postgraduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepworth, Julie; Kay, Margaret

    2015-10-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly being recognised as a vital aspect of primary healthcare research. Teaching and learning how to conduct qualitative research is especially important for general practitioners and other clinicians in the professional educational setting. This article examines a case study of postgraduate professional education in qualitative research for clinicians, for the purpose of enabling a robust discussion around teaching and learning in medicine and the health sciences. A series of three workshops was delivered for primary healthcare academics. The workshops were evaluated using a quantitative survey and qualitative free-text responses to enable descriptive analyses. Participants found qualitative philosophy and theory the most difficult areas to engage with, and learning qualitative coding and analysis was considered the easiest to learn. Key elements for successful teaching were identified, including the use of adult learning principles, the value of an experienced facilitator and an awareness of the impact of clinical subcultures on learning.

  19. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  20. Retrieving Semantic and Syntactic Word Properties: ERP Studies on the Time Course in Language Comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, O.

    2006-01-01

    The present doctoral thesis investigates the temporal characteristics of the retrieval of semantic and syntactic word properties in language comprehension. In particular, an attempt is made to assess the retrieval order of semantic category and grammatical gender information, using the lateralized readiness potential and the inhibition-related N2 effect. Chapter 1 contains a general introduction. Chapter 2 reports an experiment that employs the two-choice go/nogo task in combination with EEG ...

  1. Investigation of Physics Teacher Candidates' Cognitive Structures about "Electric Field": A Free Word Association Test Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türkkan, Ercan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the cognitive structures of physics teacher candidates about "electric field." Phenomenographic research method, one of the qualitative research patterns, was used in the study. The data of the study was collected from 91 physics teacher candidates who had taken General Physics II course at…

  2. Victims of educator-targeted bullying: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corene de Wet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I report on findings emanating from in-depth personal interviews with victims of educator-targeted bullying (ETB. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the narratives. The findings indicate that the victims of ETB were exposed repeatedly over time to verbal, non-verbal, psychological, and physical abuse during and after school hours. ETB had a negative influence on the victims' private lives, as well as on teaching and on learning. Lastly, I found that ETB may lead to a breakdown of relations between victims and the bullies' parents and the members of the community in which schools are situated.

  3. Menstruation during a lifespan: A qualitative study of women's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantelid, Ida Emilie; Nilvér, Helena; Alehagen, Siw

    2014-01-01

    Menstruation is a natural phenomenon for women during their reproductive years. Our aim was to describe women's experiences of menstruation across the lifespan. Qualitative interviews with a narrative approach were conducted with 12 women between 18 and 48 years of age in Sweden. Using thematic analysis, we found menstruation to be a complex phenomenon that binds women together. It is perceived as an intimate and private matter, which makes women want to conceal the occurrence of menstrual bleeding. Over time, menstruation becomes a natural part of women's lives and gender identity. Health professionals play a central role supporting women to deal with menstruation.

  4. A Coding System for Qualitative Studies of the Information-Seeking Process in Computer Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, Cristian; de Antonio, Angelica; Ferre, Xavier; Lara, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In this article we propose a qualitative analysis tool--a coding system--that can support the formalisation of the information-seeking process in a specific field: research in computer science. Method: In order to elaborate the coding system, we have conducted a set of qualitative studies, more specifically a focus group and some…

  5. A qualitative pilot study of food insecurity among Maasai women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to pilot a qualitative method to understand food insecurity based on the lived experience of women of the Maasai population in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area of Tanzania. Methods: Short semi-structured qualitative interviews with 4 Maasai women. Results: Food insecurity was present in ...

  6. Client Experiences of Counselling and Treatment Interventions: A Qualitative Study of Family Views of Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, David

    1996-01-01

    Argues that personal experience and social life are inherently meaningful and that qualitative research designs can contribute to theory-building in counseling and psychotherapy. To illustrate the use of qualitative research designs and methods of analysis, a study of family members' views of family therapy is described. (RJM)

  7. Exploring Perceptions of the Mental Health of Youth in Mexico: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Lisa; Varjas, Kris; Cadenhead, Catherine; Morillas, Catalina; Morris, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the mental health of children and adolescents in Mexico (Paula, Duarte, & Bordin, 2007). The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to examine the construct of mental health of children and adolescents from the emic perspective of key informants in Mexico. Utilizing qualitative methods of…

  8. Rethinking a Case Study Method in Educational Research: A Comparative Analysis Method in Qualitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yusuke

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of qualitative research that analyze a small number of cases or a single case: idiographic differentiation and nomothetic/generalization. There are few case studies of generalization. This is because theoretical inclination is weak in the field of education, and the binary framework of quantitative versus qualitative research…

  9. What Can Qualitative Studies Offer in a World Where Evidence Drives Decisions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Sally

    2018-01-01

    In an environment in which evidence-based practice is the espoused norm, nurses have understandably sought to frame the knowledge they deem relevant to practice decisions, including the findings of their qualitative studies, as a form of evidence. However, since cancer patients face a significant challenge interpreting various evidence claims, it is important to recognize that the results of our qualitative studies reflect a different form of knowledge from that which an evidence-based practice definition of evidence presumes. Thus, we need to rethink our relationship to what qualitative studies offer to the evidentiary dialog. An approach to qualitative inquiry that derives from a nursing disciplinary logic model is, therefore, presented as an alternative means by which to generate the kinds of knowledge nurses need to practice and to gain expertise in clinical wisdom. Drawing on cancer communications research as an example, a nursing angle of vision on how best to use qualitative approaches to interpret evidence and inform practice emerges.

  10. Meta-Study as Diagnostic: Toward Content Over Form in Qualitative Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Julia; Garside, Ruth; Cooper, Chris; Britten, Nicky

    2016-02-01

    Having previously conducted qualitative syntheses of the diabetes literature, we wanted to explore the changes in theoretical approaches, methodological practices, and the construction of substantive knowledge which have recently been presented in the qualitative diabetes literature. The aim of this research was to explore the feasibility of synthesizing existing qualitative syntheses of patient perspectives of diabetes using meta-study methodology. A systematic review of qualitative literature, published between 2000 and 2013, was conducted. Six articles were identified as qualitative syntheses. The meta-study methodology was used to compare the theoretical, methodological, analytic, and synthetic processes across the six studies, exploring the potential for an overarching synthesis. We identified that while research questions have increasingly concentrated on specific aspects of diabetes, the focus on systematic review processes has led to the neglect of qualitative theory and methods. This can inhibit the production of compelling results with meaningful clinical applications. Although unable to produce a synthesis of syntheses, we recommend that researchers who conduct qualitative syntheses pay equal attention to qualitative traditions and systematic review processes, to produce research products that are both credible and applicable. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The study on the core personality trait words of Chinese medical university students based on social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Xue, Yunzhen; Xue, Zhanling

    2017-09-01

    The medical university students in China whose school work is relatively heavy and educational system is long are a special professional group. Many students have psychological problems more or less. So, to understand their personality characteristics will provide a scientific basis for the intervention of psychological health.We selected top 30 personality trait words according to the order of frequency. Additionally, some methods such as social network analysis (SNA) and visualization technology of mapping knowledge domain were used in this study.Among these core personality trait words Family conscious had the 3 highest centralities and possessed the largest core status and influence. From the analysis of core-peripheral structure, we can see polarized core-perpheral structure was quite obvious. From the analysis of K-plex, there were in total 588 "K-2"K-plexs. From the analysis of Principal Components, we selected the 11 principal components.This study of personality not only can prevent disease, but also provide a scientific basis for students' psychological healthy education. In addition, we have adopted SNA to pay more attention to the relationship between personality trait words and the connection among personality dimensions. This study may provide the new ideas and methods for the research of personality structure.

  12. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the communicative production of gestrural and vocal modalities by 8 normally developing children in two different cultures (Danish and Zapotec: Mexican indigenous) 16 to 20 months). We analyzed spontaneous production of gestrures and words in children's transition to the two-word...... the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a transition...

  13. Effects of three types of retirement preparation program : A qualitative study of civil servants in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leandro-Franca, Cristineide; Van Solinge, Hanna; Henkens, Kene; Murta, Sheila Giardini

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of retirement planning programs are relatively scarce. Retirement preparation and planning programs may assist individuals to smooth the transition to retirement and subsequent adjustment. This qualitative study examines the effects of three retirement preparation

  14. Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects on Spelling among First- To Fifth-Grade French Children: A Regression-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lete, Bernard; Peereman, Ronald; Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We describe a large-scale regression study that examines the influence of lexical (word frequency, lexical neighborhood) and sublexical (feedforward and feedback consistency) variables on spelling accuracy among first, second, and third- to fifth-graders. The wordset analyzed contained 3430 French words. Predictors in the stepwise regression…

  15. A quick behavioral dichotic word test is prognostic for clinical response to cognitive therapy for depression: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Haggerty, Agnes; Siegle, Greg J

    2017-02-01

    There are no commonly used clinical indicators of whether an individual will benefit from cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. A prior study found right ear (left hemisphere) advantage for perceiving dichotic words predicted CT response. This study replicates this finding at a different research center in clinical trials that included clinically representative samples and community therapists. Right-handed individuals with unipolar major depressive disorder who subsequently received 12-14 weeks of CT at the University of Pittsburgh were tested on dichotic fused words and complex tones tests. Responders to CT showed twice the mean right ear advantage in dichotic fused words performance than non-responders. Patients with a right ear advantage greater than the mean for healthy controls had an 81% response rate to CT, whereas those with performance lower than the mean for controls had a 46% response rate. Individuals with a right ear advantage, indicative of strong left hemisphere language dominance, may be better at utilizing cognitive processes and left frontotemporal cortical regions critical for success of CT for depression. Findings at two clinical research centers suggest that verbal dichotic listening may be a clinically disseminative brief, inexpensive and easily automated test prognostic for response to CT across diverse clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Coping with interruptions in clinical nursing - a qualitative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Sussie; Brahe, Liselotte

    2018-01-01

    phenomenological approach. METHODS: Observations were performed combined with semi-structured qualitative interviews. RESULTS: Managing interruptions depend on level of competence, working environment, dialogue and matching of expectations, collegial roles and implicit rules. Working procedures impact on how......AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain knowledge on how nurses' cope with interruptions in clinical practice. BACKGROUND: Interruptions may delay work routines and result in wasted time, disorganised planning and ineffective working procedures, affecting nurses' focus and overview in different ways. Research......: Culture work and matching of expectations are important to reflect on and discuss personal- and group behaviour caused by interruptions. We need to focus on the role of each nurse in the professional team, types of personality and unspoken rules. Professional competencies for example prioritising, keeping...

  17. Perianesthesia Nurses Are My Second Family: A Qualitative Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Julanne; Wood, Stacey; Bolton, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Tara; Stegenga, Kristin; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-12-01

    Identify the perceptions of perianesthesia nurses regarding behaviors that promote or detract from sustaining a safe, efficient, and satisfying work environment. Two focus groups and seven individual interviews (n=14) were conducted exploring the perceptions regarding team behavior of registered nurses in one pediatric perianesthesia unit. Qualitative descriptive data collection, inductive content analysis. Nurses described a responsive, engaged health care team whose leadership is available and directive when needed, as creating an effective, satisfying work environment. Primary themes that emerged were Leadership Sets the Tone, Playing Fair, No One Gets Hurt, and Why We Stay. This nursing team acknowledged that inattentive, distracted team members cause frustration, work inequities, and care delays, potentially undermining patient safety. Results demonstrate the need to create and sustain consistently respectful perianesthesia work cultures. Research focusing on unit specific approaches to work distribution, communication, leadership, and technology use is needed. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Qualitative Study on Education of Philosophy for Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihan Akkocaoğlu Çayır

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy for children (P4C is that children discuss the philosophical concepts such as knowledge, trueness, reality, and justice in an adult guidance by starting from a text, a story or a case study. This study was carried out in order to determine how education of philosophy for children has affected the 3rd grade students in the primary schools in the cognitive, affective and social areas by being used the qualitative research method for a total of 28 hours and 14 weeks.  At the end of the process, in the cognitive domain, it has been observed some changes in students, such as understanding the philosophy, the questions of philosophy and the features of philosophers, establishing relations between concepts, associating the concepts with everyday life, cognizing the thinking errors, orientation to think, and thinking from different angles. Enjoying the philosophy and awareness of the concepts have been also mentioned by the philosophers in the affective domain. Also, in the social domain, some changes occurred in students’ problem-solving and knowing each other. Philosophy for children can be integrated with the programs of many courses at different age levels from pre-school to high school or be taught as a separate course.Keywords: Philosophy for children, primary school students, thinking skills.Çocuklar İçin Felsefe Eğitimi Üzerine Nitel Bir AraştırmaÖzÇocuklar için felsefe çocukların, bir metin, öykü ya da örnek olaydan yola çıkarak bilgi, doğru, gerçek, güzel, adalet gibi felsefi kavramları bir yetişkin rehberliğinde tartışmalarıdır. Bu araştırma çocuklar için felsefe eğitiminin, ilkokul üçüncü sınıf öğrencilerini bilişsel, duyuşsal ve sosyal alanlarda nasıl etkilediğini tespit etmek amacıyla on dört hafta toplam yirmi sekiz saat sürecinde nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılarak yürütülmüştür. Çocuklarla felsefe yapmak üzere hazırlanan ders planları iki ayrı sınıfta, k

  19. Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Jia Sian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90

  20. Proactive and reactive control depends on emotional valence: a Stroop study with emotional expressions and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Bhoomika Rastogi; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Nehabala, Yagyima; Nigam, Richa

    2018-03-01

    We examined proactive and reactive control effects in the context of task-relevant happy, sad, and angry facial expressions on a face-word Stroop task. Participants identified the emotion expressed by a face that contained a congruent or incongruent emotional word (happy/sad/angry). Proactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference (difference between incongruent and congruent trials) as a function of previous trial emotion and previous trial congruence. Reactive control effects were measured in terms of the reduction in Stroop interference as a function of current trial emotion and previous trial congruence. Previous trial negative emotions exert greater influence on proactive control than the positive emotion. Sad faces in the previous trial resulted in greater reduction in the Stroop interference for happy faces in the current trial. However, current trial angry faces showed stronger adaptation effects compared to happy faces. Thus, both proactive and reactive control mechanisms are dependent on emotional valence of task-relevant stimuli.

  1. The emotion potential of words and passages in reading Harry Potter--an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chun-Ting; Jacobs, Arthur M; Citron, Francesca M M; Conrad, Markus

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies suggested that the emotional connotation of single words automatically recruits attention. We investigated the potential of words to induce emotional engagement when reading texts. In an fMRI experiment, we presented 120 text passages from the Harry Potter book series. Results showed significant correlations between affective word (lexical) ratings and passage ratings. Furthermore, affective lexical ratings correlated with activity in regions associated with emotion, situation model building, multi-modal semantic integration, and Theory of Mind. We distinguished differential influences of affective lexical, inter-lexical, and supra-lexical variables: differential effects of lexical valence were significant in the left amygdala, while effects of arousal-span (the dynamic range of arousal across a passage) were significant in the left amygdala and insula. However, we found no differential effect of passage ratings in emotion-associated regions. Our results support the hypothesis that the emotion potential of short texts can be predicted by lexical and inter-lexical affective variables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Semantic, syntactic, and phonological processing of written words in adult developmental dyslexic readers: an event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Sönke

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The present study used event-related brain potentials to investigate semantic, phonological and syntactic processes in adult German dyslexic and normal readers in a word reading task. Pairs of German words were presented one word at a time. Subjects had to perform a semantic judgment task (house – window; are they semantically related?, a rhyme judgment task (house – mouse; do they rhyme? and a gender judgment task (das – Haus [the – house]; is the gender correct? [in German, house has a neutral gender: das Haus]. Results Normal readers responded faster compared to dyslexic readers in all three tasks. Onset latencies of the N400 component were delayed in dyslexic readers in the rhyme judgment and in the gender judgment task, but not in the semantic judgment task. N400 and the anterior negativity peak amplitudes did not differ between the two groups. However, the N400 persisted longer in the dyslexic group in the rhyme judgment and in the semantic judgment tasks. Conclusion These findings indicate that dyslexics are phonologically impaired (delayed N400 in the rhyme judgment task but that they also have difficulties in other, non-phonological aspects of reading (longer response times, longer persistence of the N400. Specifically, semantic and syntactic integration seem to require more effort for dyslexic readers and take longer irrespective of the reading task that has to be performed.

  3. Reader, Word, and Character Attributes Contributing to Chinese Children's Concept of Word

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Lin, Tzu-Jung; Ku, Yu-Min; Zhang, Jie; O'Connell, Ann

    2018-01-01

    Concept of word--the awareness of how words differ from nonwords or other linguistic properties--is important to learning to read Chinese because words in Chinese texts are not separated by space, and most characters can be productively compounded with other characters to form new words. The current study examined the effects of reader, word, and…

  4. The problem of polysemy in the first thousand words of the General Service List: A corpus study of secondary chemistry texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemmons, Karina

    Vocabulary in a second language is an indispensable building block of all comprehension (Folse, 2006; Nation, 2006). Teachers in content area classes such as science, math, and social studies frequently teach content specific vocabulary, but are not aware of the obstacles that can occur when students do not know the basic words. Word lists such as the General Service List (GSL) were created to assist students and teachers (West, 1953). The GSL does not adequately take into account the high level of polysemy of many common English words, nor has it been updated by genre to reflect specific content domains encountered by secondary science students in today's high stakes classes such as chemistry. This study examines how many words of the first 1000 words of the GSL occurred in the secondary chemistry textbooks sampled, how often the first 1000 words of the GSL were polysemous, and specifically which multiple meanings occurred. A discussion of results includes word tables that list multiple meanings present, example phrases that illustrate the context surrounding the target words, suggestions for a GSL that is genre specific to secondary chemistry textbooks and that is ranked by meaning as well as type, and implications for both vocabulary materials and classroom instruction for ELLs in secondary chemistry classes. Findings are essential to second language (L2) researchers, materials developers, publishers, and teachers.

  5. Emotion Words: Adding Face Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-06-12

    Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  7. The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the roles of word concreteness and word valence in the immediate serial recall task. Emotion words (e.g. happy) were used to investigate these effects. Participants completed study-test trials with seven-item study lists consisting of positive or negative words with either high or low concreteness (Experiments 1 and 2) and neutral (i.e. non-emotion) words with either high or low concreteness (Experiment 2). For neutral words, the typical word concreteness effect (concrete words are better recalled than abstract words) was replicated. For emotion words, the effect occurred for positive words, but not for negative words. While the word concreteness effect was stronger for neutral words than for negative words, it was not different for the neutral words and the positive words. We conclude that both word valence and word concreteness simultaneously contribute to the item and order retention of emotion words and discuss how Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration account can be modified to explain these findings.

  8. A study of a science-based peer reading assignment and its effects on first grade student understanding and use of describing words in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Meghan Jeanne

    The first grade curriculum for science in Colorado requires students be able to use describing words to depict and compare objects and people; however, first graders struggle with using specific enough language to create strong descriptions. With science education research encouraging teachers to use alternative teaching methods to approach these challenging topics, it is important to provide teachers with resources appropriate to their students. One such alternative learning method is a reading partner. Reading partners have been shown to increase vocabulary, boost school performance, and improve self-esteem in children. This study analyzed the effectiveness of using a science-based peer reading assignment about describing words on increasing a first grader's understanding of the topic. The book required the class to work together to help the characters describe different images and characters in the book with the intent that students were engaged during the reading. In pre-interview and post-interview, students described pictures, and their responses were analyzed for quality of the describing words provided and the number of strong (specific and not opinion) describing words provided. In the post-interview, students had an overall increase in the number of strong describing words provided. The quantitative data was analyzed by comparing strong describing words used pre-reading and post-reading, and the effect size was very large. The results indicate reading the book explaining describing words that asked for student participation did increase students understanding and use of describing words.

  9. Electronic portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective: A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokhsareh Mobarhan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Electronic portfolio (e-Portfolio is known as an electronic learning record which collects the learning evidences, reflections and accomplishments. In fact, it tells the story of learning achievements. It is an important tool for students, lecturers, administrators and faculties to monitor the learning outcomes. Similarly to other technologies, e-Portfolio is also considered successful, if it is used by students continuously. Previous researches showed the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in using any technologies. However, lack of motivation has been a major concern for developing any successful online learning environments. The aim of this paper is to explain the e-Portfolio motivational factors from students’ perspective. Interviews are conducted with students from one university in Malaysia in order to get better understanding of the phenomena. The target interviewees are bachelor students chosen from different faculties. Based on the qualitative content analysis of the interviews, the motivational factors affecting the continuous use of e-portfolio are coded in eight themes and then they categorized in four main groups of individual, system, social and environmental characteristics. Finally they are classified into intrinsic or extrinsic motivations.

  10. Engagement of nurses in their profession. Qualitative study on engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sierra, Rosa; Fernández-Castro, Jordi; Martínez-Zaragoza, Fermín

    To identify common issues of nurses with high engagement to enable us to develop the construct as it applies to nursing in more depth. Based on the constructivist paradigm and with a phenomenological approach, a qualitative content analysis was conducted using an inductive approach. Participants were nurses working in direct care in different healthcare areas. The sample size was determined by data saturation and 15 participants were interviewed. The units of meaning were grouped into 11 subcategories, and then into 7 categories termed vigour, dedication, reward, autonomy, social support, conciliation and attributes of nurses. Then these categories were grouped into 3 major themes: job characteristics, characteristics of organizations, and individual characteristics. Having high engagement does not mean ignoring the negative aspects of work and organizations. Nurses who maintain high engagement are also affected by the negative aspects, however the assessment of positive aspects such as enjoying the work, the meaning of being a nurse, reward and autonomy enable the process of depletion of engagement to be overcome. In view of the findings, we propose reconceptualising the construct, taking the features of nursing into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Social Work's Role in Medicaid Reform: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Sara S; Wachman, Madeline; Manning, Leticia; Cohen, Alexander M; Seifert, Robert W; Jones, David K; Fitzgerald, Therese; Nuzum, Rachel; Riley, Patricia

    2017-12-01

    To critically analyze social work's role in Medicaid reform. We conducted semistructured interviews with 46 stakeholders from 10 US states that use a range of Medicaid reform approaches. We identified participants using snowball and purposive sampling. We gathered data in 2016 and analyzed them using qualitative methods. Multiple themes emerged: (1) social work participates in Medicaid reform through clinical practice, including care coordination and case management; (2) there is a gap between social work's practice-level and systems-level involvement in Medicaid innovations; (3) factors hindering social work's involvement in systems-level practice include lack of visibility, insufficient clarity on social work's role and impact, and too few resources within professional organizations; and (4) social workers need more training in health transformation payment models and policy. Social workers have unique skills that are valuable to building health systems that promote population health and reduce health inequities. Although there is considerable opportunity for social work to increase its role in Medicaid reform, there is little social work involvement at the systems level.

  12. Patient expectations of emergency dental services: a qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R

    2004-09-25

    To describe the expectations of walk-in patients seeking emergency dental care out-of-hours. Consecutive patients attending two emergency dental clinics at weekends were interviewed prior to seeing the dentist. The audio-recorded interview transcripts were analysed using the "framework" method of applied qualitative data analysis. Forty-four walk-in emergency dental patients at a community-based dental clinic and a dental hospital emergency clinic at the weekend. In addition to symptom relief, the main desired outcome for emergency dental patients may be informational and psychological--especially reassurance that the problem is not serious, and reduced uncertainty about the cause of the pain. In general, patients' stated expectations for specific treatments (such as antibiotics, or tooth extraction) were not absolute: rather, they implied these expectations were conditional upon the dentist deciding they were necessary. Emergency dental services, some of which are still dominantly treatment-focused, should reflect that many emergency dental attenders want advice and reassurance as much as relief from symptoms. This reinforces the importance of effective and sympathetic dentist-patient communication within emergency or out-of-hours consultations. It also implies that dentists' skills in listening, explaining and reassuring should be captured in any patient satisfaction or outcome measure designed for this patient group.

  13. Patients' perceptions on losing access to FPs: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Tom; Brown, Judith Belle; Reid, Graham; Stewart, Moira; Thind, Amardeep; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2013-04-01

    To examine the health care-related experiences of individuals who have lost their FPs. A qualitative design using phenomenology. Southwestern Ontario. Eighteen participants (9 women and 9 men, with a mean age of 48.9 years) from urban or rural areas who had lost their FPs. Semistructured interviews were conducted, which were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. An iterative approach using immersion and crystallization was employed for analysis. Participants reported having lost their FPs because of reasons specific to their physicians (eg, illness, retirement, career change) or system issues (eg, poor remuneration for FPs, cutbacks in health care leading to physician emigration). Participants described feelings of loss, abandonment, frustration, and anger related to losing their physicians. They expressed concerns about the difficulty of getting prescription medications, lack of continuity of care related to medical records, and preventive care. They faced considerable hurdles in accessing primary health care, turning to walk-in clinics and emergency departments despite concerns about quality and fragmentation of care. Some of those with chronic medical conditions prevailed upon specialists to help meet primary health care needs. Losing access to FPs evoked a variety of strong feelings among these participants. They engaged in a number of strategies to meet their primary care needs but not without reservations. In a health care system appropriately built on primary health care, the lack of access to FPs is regarded as the loss of a basic right to care.

  14. Negotiating refusal in primary care consultations: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Alex; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Harrison, Stephen

    2012-08-01

    How GPs negotiate patient requests is vital to their gatekeeper role but also a source of potential conflict, practitioner stress and patient dissatisfaction. Difficulties may arise when demands of shared decision-making conflict with resource allocation, which may be exacerbated by new commissioning arrangements, with GPs responsible for available services. To explore GPs' accounts of negotiating refusal of patient requests and their negotiation strategies. A qualitative design was employed with two focus groups of GPs and GP registrars followed by 20 semi-structured interviews. Participants were sampled by gender, experience, training/non-training, principal versus salaried or locum. Thematic content analysis proceeded in parallel with interviews and further sampling. The setting was GP practices within an English urban primary care trust. Sickness certification, antibiotics and benzodiazepines were cited most frequently as problematic patient requests. GP trainees reported more conflict within interactions than experienced GPs. Negotiation strategies, such as blaming distant third parties such as the primary care organization, were designed to prevent conflict and preserve the doctor-patient relationship. GPs reported patients' expectations being strongly influenced by previous encounters with other health care professionals. The findings reiterate the prominence of the doctor-patient relationship in GPs' accounts. GPs' relationships with colleagues and the wider National Health Service (NHS) are particular of relevance in light of provisions in the Health and Social Care Bill for clinical commissioning consortia. The ability of GPs to offset blame for rationing decisions to third parties will be undermined if the same GPs commission services.

  15. Challenges of clinical translation in nanomedicine: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satalkar, Priya; Elger, Bernice Simon; Hunziker, Patrick; Shaw, David

    2016-05-01

    Clinical translation of breakthroughs in nanotechnology and nanomedicine is expected to significantly improve diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities for various diseases. This will not only improve human health and well-being, but is also likely to reduce health care costs in the long run. However, clinical translation is a long, arduous, resource intensive process that requires priority setting, resource mobilization, successful national and international collaboration, and effective coordination between key stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to describe various challenges faced by the stakeholders involved in translational nanomedicine while planning and conducting first in human clinical trials. We draw on insights obtained from 46 in-depth qualitative interviews with key stakeholders from Europe and North America. Translational research is a crucial step in bringing basic research into clinical reality. This is particularly important in a new field like nanomedicine. Clinical translation is a long and resource intensive process with difficulties along the way. In this article, the authors looked at the challenges faced by various parties in order to help identify ways to overcome these challenges. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Information in mental health: qualitative study of mental health service users

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, John; Clarke, Aileen

    2006-01-01

    Background  Despite the widespread proliferation of consumer health information provision, little is known about information needs or information‐seeking behaviour in mental health. A qualitative study was therefore undertaken to explore these issues for mental health service users.

  17. Qualitative study on software application usage and user behaviour at South African Digital Doorway sites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gush, K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available -methods research approach provides a more comprehensive picture. Qualitative studies hold utility in complementing quantitative research, by providing data on the site environment, user interactions and perceptions, and stated requirements. This paper presents...

  18. Study on solitary word based on HMM model and Baum-Welch algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia CHEN

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the principle of Hidden Markov Model, which is used to describe the Markov process with unknown parameters, is a probability model to describe the statistical properties of the random process. On this basis, designed a solitary word detection experiment based on HMM model, by optimizing the experimental model, Using Baum-Welch algorithm for training the problem of solving the HMM model, HMM model to estimate the parameters of the λ value is found, in this view of mathematics equivalent to other linear prediction coefficient. This experiment in reducing unnecessary HMM training at the same time, reduced the algorithm complexity. In order to test the effectiveness of the Baum-Welch algorithm, The simulation of experimental data, the results show that the algorithm is effective.

  19. A qualitative study on the motivation of Turkish EFL teachers working at state universities

    OpenAIRE

    Ölmezer Öztürk, Elçin

    2015-01-01

    Following a qualitative research design, this study examines the motivation of Turkish EFL teachers working at state universities in Turkey. Purposeful sampling was used in the selection of participants and 20 teachers working at different universities participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and daily reflection entries. In the analysis of data, qualitative content analysis scheme of Creswell (2011) was used. The results revealed that ...

  20. In their own words: A qualitative study of the psychosocial concerns of posttreatment and long-term lung cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Boehm, Jennifer; Allen, Kristine Gabuten; Poehlman, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Although lung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer, survival rates are improving. To address the dearth of literature about the concerns of lung cancer survivors, the authors conducted 21 in-depth interviews with lung cancer survivors that focused on experiences during diagnosis, treatment, and long-term survivorship. Emergent themes included feeling blamed for having caused their cancer, being stigmatized as throwaways, and long-term survivors? experiencing surprise that they are still ali...