WorldWideScience

Sample records for word knowledge growth

  1. Semantic–Syntactic Partial Word Knowledge Growth Through Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Petroski, Gregory F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Incidental reading provides a powerful opportunity for partial word knowledge growth in the school-age years. The extent to which children of differing language abilities can use reading experiences to glean partial knowledge of words is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to compare semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth of children with higher language skills (HL group; overall language standard scores of 85 or higher) to that of children with relatively lower language skills (LL group; overall receptive or expressive standard score below 85). Method Thirty-two children, 16 per group, silently read stories containing unfamiliar nouns and verbs 3 times over a 1-week period. Semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth was assessed after each reading and 2–3 days later to assess retention. Results Over time, both groups showed significant partial word knowledge growth, with the HL group showing significantly more growth. In addition, both groups retained knowledge several days later. Conclusion Regardless of language skill level, children benefit from multiple exposures to unfamiliar words in reading in their development and retention of semantic–syntactic partial word knowledge growth. PMID:25409978

  2. Sharing knowledge, sharing words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berner

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Translators might tell you that they know of knowledge management (KM as a term they translate – but many of them are doing precisely that on any of the kudos boards, e-cafes or blogging spaces, not just occasionally, but almost on a daily basis. Yet just over 50% of translators polled on the question are consciously aware that they are engaging in KM, and over 30% of those polled did not know what 'knowledge management' meant.

  3. Word Maturity: A New Metric for Word Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Kireyev, Kirill; Panaccione, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A new metric, Word Maturity, estimates the development by individual students of knowledge of every word in a large corpus. The metric is constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis modeling of word knowledge as a function of the reading that a simulated learner has done and is calibrated by its developing closeness in information content to that of a…

  4. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  5. Word knowledge in the crowd: Measuring vocabulary size and word prevalence in a massive online experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuleers, Emmanuel; Stevens, Michaël; Mandera, Paweł; Brysbaert, Marc

    2015-01-01

    We use the results of a large online experiment on word knowledge in Dutch to investigate variables influencing vocabulary size in a large population and to examine the effect of word prevalence-the percentage of a population knowing a word-as a measure of word occurrence. Nearly 300,000 participants were presented with about 70 word stimuli (selected from a list of 53,000 words) in an adapted lexical decision task. We identify age, education, and multilingualism as the most important factors influencing vocabulary size. The results suggest that the accumulation of vocabulary throughout life and in multiple languages mirrors the logarithmic growth of number of types with number of tokens observed in text corpora (Herdan's law). Moreover, the vocabulary that multilinguals acquire in related languages seems to increase their first language (L1) vocabulary size and outweighs the loss caused by decreased exposure to L1. In addition, we show that corpus word frequency and prevalence are complementary measures of word occurrence covering a broad range of language experiences. Prevalence is shown to be the strongest independent predictor of word processing times in the Dutch Lexicon Project, making it an important variable for psycholinguistic research.

  6. Incorporating linguistic knowledge for learning distributed word representations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    Full Text Available Combined with neural language models, distributed word representations achieve significant advantages in computational linguistics and text mining. Most existing models estimate distributed word vectors from large-scale data in an unsupervised fashion, which, however, do not take rich linguistic knowledge into consideration. Linguistic knowledge can be represented as either link-based knowledge or preference-based knowledge, and we propose knowledge regularized word representation models (KRWR to incorporate these prior knowledge for learning distributed word representations. Experiment results demonstrate that our estimated word representation achieves better performance in task of semantic relatedness ranking. This indicates that our methods can efficiently encode both prior knowledge from knowledge bases and statistical knowledge from large-scale text corpora into a unified word representation model, which will benefit many tasks in text mining.

  7. Direct and Indirect Cues to Knowledge States during Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Megan M.; Carroll, C. Brooke

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated three-year-olds' sensitivity to direct and indirect cues to others' knowledge states for word learning purposes. Children were given either direct, physical cues to knowledge or indirect, verbal cues to knowledge. Preschoolers revealed a better ability to learn words from a speaker following direct, physical cues to…

  8. Knowledge and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is centered around two empirical questions. The first question deals with the paradox that the ICT revolution does not pay off with higher productivity growth for the ICT- users. The interaction between production and knowledge accumulation and the ¿general- purpose' nature of the ICT

  9. Approximate number word knowledge before the cardinal principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Elizabeth A; Spaepen, Elizabet; Levine, Susan C

    2015-02-01

    Approximate number word knowledge-understanding the relation between the count words and the approximate magnitudes of sets-is a critical piece of knowledge that predicts later math achievement. However, researchers disagree about when children first show evidence of approximate number word knowledge-before, or only after, they have learned the cardinal principle. In two studies, children who had not yet learned the cardinal principle (subset-knowers) produced sets in response to number words (verbal comprehension task) and produced number words in response to set sizes (verbal production task). As evidence of approximate number word knowledge, we examined whether children's numerical responses increased with increasing numerosity of the stimulus. In Study 1, subset-knowers (ages 3.0-4.2 years) showed approximate number word knowledge above their knower-level on both tasks, but this effect did not extend to numbers above 4. In Study 2, we collected data from a broader age range of subset-knowers (ages 3.1-5.6 years). In this sample, children showed approximate number word knowledge on the verbal production task even when only examining set sizes above 4. Across studies, children's age predicted approximate number word knowledge (above 4) on the verbal production task when controlling for their knower-level, study (1 or 2), and parents' education, none of which predicted approximation ability. Thus, children can develop approximate knowledge of number words up to 10 before learning the cardinal principle. Furthermore, approximate number word knowledge increases with age and might not be closely related to the development of exact number word knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Deaf Child's Knowledge of Words: Volume I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Dresner, Toby; Guilfoyle, George R.

    To assess the reading vocabulary knowledge of deaf children, a vocabulary pool of 14,852 words was reduced to 7,300 words. These words were fed into a computer to produce 73 sets of 100 randomly selected words each. The 73 sets were converted into vocabulary tests which were randomly administered, two per child, to 13,207 deaf students, ages 7-17…

  11. Knowledge and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nahuis, R.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis is centered around two empirical questions. The first question deals with the paradox that the ICT revolution does not pay off with higher productivity growth for the ICT- users. The interaction between production and knowledge accumulation and the ¿general- purpose' nature of the ICT revolution is examined to explain the paradoxical finding. The second question ¿ what explains the increase in wage inequality between high-skilled and low-skilled workers over the last two decades ¿...

  12. Two Formats of Word Association Tasks: A Study of Depth of Word Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdam, Seddighe Jalili; Sadeghi, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development is an essential goal in any language teaching program, and considering the multidimensional nature of this construct, achieving this goal needs effective assessment of all dimensions of word knowledge, i.e. breadth, depth and accessibility of word knowledge. Most of the current vocabulary assessment tools measure the breadth…

  13. Processing Unfamiliar Words: Strategies, Knowledge Sources, and the Relationship to Text and Word Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, paralinguistics, etc.) that second language learners of English use to process unfamiliar words in listening comprehension and whether the use of strategies or knowledge sources relates to successful text comprehension or word comprehension.…

  14. The Gap between Spanish Speakers' Word Reading and Word Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled growth rates, from ages 4.5 to 11, in English and Spanish oral language and word reading skills among 173 Spanish-speaking children from low-income households. Individual growth modeling was employed using scores from standardized measures of word reading, expressive vocabulary, and verbal short-term language…

  15. Word Sense Disambiguation using Optimised Combinations of Knowledge Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, Y A; Wilks, Yorick; Stevenson, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Word sense disambiguation algorithms, with few exceptions, have made use of only one lexical knowledge source. We describe a system which performs unrestricted word sense disambiguation (on all content words in free text) by combining different knowledge sources: semantic preferences, dictionary definitions and subject/domain codes along with part-of-speech tags. The usefulness of these sources is optimised by means of a learning algorithm. We also describe the creation of a new sense tagged corpus by combining existing resources. Tested accuracy of our approach on this corpus exceeds 92%, demonstrating the viability of all-word disambiguation rather than restricting oneself to a small sample.

  16. The effect of vocabulary knowledge on novel word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Alison M; Brady, Susan A

    2013-10-01

    The study investigated the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and novel word reading. Fourth-grade students were assessed on standardized measures of word identification, decoding, and receptive vocabulary, as well as on an experimental word identification measure using words that students in the fourth grade are unlikely to have seen before in print. In the experimental measure, pairs of words were matched on printed frequency and orthographic pattern (with a variety of spelling patterns represented), but differed in terms of the frequency of expected oral exposure for children (i.e., higher vs. lower). Results showed that students' receptive vocabulary knowledge was significantly related to performance on both the standardized and experimental measures of word identification, even after accounting for the substantial amount of variance explained by decoding ability. Students performed better reading the words with higher expected oral frequencies on the experimental task than on those items with lower expected oral frequencies. The results point to the benefits, albeit modest, of oral word familiarity for reading words when they are first encountered in print and suggest that this top-down effect is not limited to exception words, as has been suggested, but has a wider scope.

  17. Vocabulary knowledge mediates the link between socioeconomic status and word learning in grade school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Mandy J; Schneider, Julie M; Middleton, Anna E; Ralph, Yvonne; Lopez, Michael; Ackerman, Robert A; Abel, Alyson D

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between children's slow vocabulary growth and the family's low socioeconomic status (SES) has been well documented. However, previous studies have often focused on infants or preschoolers and primarily used static measures of vocabulary at multiple time points. To date, there is no research investigating whether SES predicts a child's word learning abilities in grade school and, if so, what mediates this relationship. In this study, 68 children aged 8-15 years performed a written word learning from context task that required using the surrounding text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Results revealed that vocabulary knowledge significantly mediated the relationship between SES (as measured by maternal education) and word learning. This was true despite the fact that the words in the linguistic context surrounding the target word are typically acquired well before 8 years of age. When controlling for vocabulary, word learning from written context was not predicted by differences in reading comprehension, decoding, or working memory. These findings reveal that differences in vocabulary growth between grade school children from low and higher SES homes are likely related to differences in the process of word learning more than knowledge of surrounding words or reading skills. Specifically, children from lower SES homes are not as effective at using known vocabulary to build a robust semantic representation of incoming text to identify the meaning of an unknown word. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Document features selection using background knowledge and word clustering technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Farahmand

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By everyday development of storage and communicational and electronic media, there are significant amount of information being collected and stored in different forms such as electronic documents and document databases makes it difficult to process them, properly. To extract knowledge from this large volume of documental data, we require the use of documents organizing and indexing methods. Among these methods, we can consider clustering and classification methods where the objective is to organize documents and to increase the speed of accessing to required information. In most of document clustering methods, the clustering is mostly executed based on word frequency and considering document as a bag of words. In this essay, in order to decrease the number of features and to choose basic document feature, we use background knowledge and word clustering methods. In fact by using WordNet ontology, background knowledge and clustering method, the similar words of documents are clustered and the clusters with the number of words more than threshold are chosen and then their frequency of words is accepted as the effective features of document. The results of this proposed method simulation shows that the documents dimensions are decreased effectively and consequently the performance of documents clustering is increased.

  19. Examining Multiple Dimensions of Word Knowledge for Content Vocabulary Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Tilson, Jennifer L.; Castek, Jill; Bravo, Marco A.; Trainin, Guy

    2012-01-01

    This study traces the development of a vocabulary measure designed to assess multiple types of word knowledge. The assessment, which was administered in conjunction with a science unit about weather and the water cycle for third-and-fourth graders, included items for six knowledge types--recognition, definition, classification/example, context,…

  20. The role of partial knowledge in statistical word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Damian C.; Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    A critical question about the nature of human learning is whether it is an all-or-none or a gradual, accumulative process. Associative and statistical theories of word learning rely critically on the later assumption: that the process of learning a word's meaning unfolds over time. That is, learning the correct referent for a word involves the accumulation of partial knowledge across multiple instances. Some theories also make an even stronger claim: Partial knowledge of one word–object mapping can speed up the acquisition of other word–object mappings. We present three experiments that test and verify these claims by exposing learners to two consecutive blocks of cross-situational learning, in which half of the words and objects in the second block were those that participants failed to learn in Block 1. In line with an accumulative account, Re-exposure to these mis-mapped items accelerated the acquisition of both previously experienced mappings and wholly new word–object mappings. But how does partial knowledge of some words speed the acquisition of others? We consider two hypotheses. First, partial knowledge of a word could reduce the amount of information required for it to reach threshold, and the supra-threshold mapping could subsequently aid in the acquisition of new mappings. Alternatively, partial knowledge of a word's meaning could be useful for disambiguating the meanings of other words even before the threshold of learning is reached. We construct and compare computational models embodying each of these hypotheses and show that the latter provides a better explanation of the empirical data. PMID:23702980

  1. The Gap Between Spanish-speakers' Word Reading and Word Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal study modeled growth rates, from age 4.5 to 11, in English and Spanish oral language and word reading skills among 173 Spanish-speaking children from low-income households. Individual growth modeling was employed using scores from standardized measures of word reading, expressive vocabulary, and verbal short-term language memory. The trajectories demonstrate that students' rates of growth and overall ability in word reading were on par with national norms. In contrast, students' oral language skills started out below national norms and their rates of growth, although surpassing the national rates, were not sufficient to reach age-appropriate levels. The results underscore the need for increased and sustained attention to promoting this population's language development. PMID:21848955

  2. Depth of conceptual knowledge modulates visual processes during word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovsky, Milena; Sommer, Werner; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2012-04-01

    Recent evidence suggests that conceptual knowledge modulates early visual stages of object recognition. The present study investigated whether similar modulations can be observed also for the recognition of object names, that is, for symbolic representations with only arbitrary relationships between their visual features and the corresponding conceptual knowledge. In a learning paradigm, we manipulated the amount of information provided about initially unfamiliar visual objects while controlling for perceptual stimulus properties and exposure. In a subsequent test session with electroencephalographic recordings, participants performed several tasks on either the objects or their written names. For objects as well as names, knowledge effects were observed as early as about 120 msec in the P1 component of the ERP, reflecting perceptual processing in extrastriate visual cortex. These knowledge-dependent modulations of early stages of visual word recognition suggest that information about word meanings may modulate the perception of arbitrarily related visual features surprisingly early.

  3. Is vocabulary growth influenced by the relations among words in a language learner's vocabulary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailor, Kevin M

    2013-09-01

    Several recent studies have explored the applicability of the preferential attachment principle to account for vocabulary growth. According to this principle, network growth can be described by a process in which existing nodes recruit new nodes with a probability that is an increasing function of their connectivity within the existing network. The current study combined subjective estimates of the age of acquisition (AoA) and associations among words in a large corpus to estimate the organization of semantic knowledge at multiple points in vocabulary growth. Consistent with previous studies, the number of connections or relations among words followed a power law distribution in which relatively few words were highly connected with other words and most words were connected to relatively few words. In addition, the growth in the number of connections of a word was a linear function of its initial number of connections, and the ratio of connections to any two words was relatively constant over time. Finally, number of connections to known words was a reliable predictor of a word's AoA. All of these findings can be shown to be consistent with the preferential attachment principle. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Challenges of Testing Deep Word Knowledge of Vocabulary: Which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research explores the challenges of testing deep word knowledge of the vocabulary of students of English as a Foreign/Second Language (EFL/ESL) at higher education. A productive test modelled on the Lex30 test developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick (2000) was presented to the participants. Results indicate ...

  5. The assessment of deep word knowledge in young first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Verhallen-van Ling, M.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of so-called depth of word knowledge has been the focus of research for some years now. In this article the construct of deep word knowledge is further specified as the decontextualized knowledge of word meanings and word associations. Most studies so far have involved adolescent and

  6. Processing Unfamiliar Words: Strategies, Knowledge Sources, and the Relationship to Text and Word Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cai

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines strategies (inferencing and ignoring and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, paralinguistics, etc. that second language learners of English use to process unfamiliar words in listening comprehension and whether the use of strategies or knowledge sources relates to successful text comprehension or word comprehension. Data were collected using the procedures of immediate retrospection without recall support and of stimulated recall. Twenty participants with Chinese as their first language participated in the procedures. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses were made. The results indicate that inferencing is the primary strategy that learners use to process unfamiliar words in listening and that it relates to successful text comprehension. Among the different knowledge sources that learners use, the most frequently used knowledge sources are semantic knowledge of words in the local co-text combined with background knowledge and semantic knowledge of the overall co-text. The finding that the use of most knowledge sources does not relate to the comprehension of the word suggests that no particular knowledge source is universally effective or ineffective and that what is crucial is to use the various knowledge sources flexibly. Résumé Cette étude examine les stratégies (la déduction et l'omission de mots et les sources de connaissances (sémantique, morphologie, connaissance antérieure, etc. utilisées par les étudiants d’anglais langue seconde (ALS pour comprendre les mots inconnus à l'oral, et s'interroge sur les liens entre l’emploi des stratégies ou sources de connaissances et la bonne compréhension des textes et des mots. Les données ont été recueillies immédiatement après observation, sans rappel ni simulation ultérieure. Vingt locuteurs de langue maternelle chinoise ont participé à l’étude. Des approches qualitative et quantitative ont été utilisées. Les résultats indiquent

  7. Accessing word meaning: Semantic word knowledge and reading comprehension in Dutch monolingual and bilingual fifth-graders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.

    2013-01-01

    Word knowledge is one of the key elements in reading comprehension and by extension in school success. At the same time, it is not quite clear which components of lexical knowledge play a role in reading. Is it enough to recognize the words we read? Do we need an in-depth understanding of their

  8. Knowledge Spillovers and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); H.R. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of knowledge spillovers for achieving innovation and economic growth is widely recognized. It is not straightforward which type of spillovers is most effective: intra-sectoral spillovers or inter-sectoral spillovers. We investigate this controversy using a model of

  9. Collocation analysis for UMLS knowledge-based word sense disambiguation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Yepes, Antonio; McInnes, Bridget T; Aronson, Alan R

    2011-06-09

    The effectiveness of knowledge-based word sense disambiguation (WSD) approaches depends in part on the information available in the reference knowledge resource. Off the shelf, these resources are not optimized for WSD and might lack terms to model the context properly. In addition, they might include noisy terms which contribute to false positives in the disambiguation results. We analyzed some collocation types which could improve the performance of knowledge-based disambiguation methods. Collocations are obtained by extracting candidate collocations from MEDLINE and then assigning them to one of the senses of an ambiguous word. We performed this assignment either using semantic group profiles or a knowledge-based disambiguation method. In addition to collocations, we used second-order features from a previously implemented approach.Specifically, we measured the effect of these collocations in two knowledge-based WSD methods. The first method, AEC, uses the knowledge from the UMLS to collect examples from MEDLINE which are used to train a Naïve Bayes approach. The second method, MRD, builds a profile for each candidate sense based on the UMLS and compares the profile to the context of the ambiguous word.We have used two WSD test sets which contain disambiguation cases which are mapped to UMLS concepts. The first one, the NLM WSD set, was developed manually by several domain experts and contains words with high frequency occurrence in MEDLINE. The second one, the MSH WSD set, was developed automatically using the MeSH indexing in MEDLINE. It contains a larger set of words and covers a larger number of UMLS semantic types. The results indicate an improvement after the use of collocations, although the approaches have different performance depending on the data set. In the NLM WSD set, the improvement is larger for the MRD disambiguation method using second-order features. Assignment of collocations to a candidate sense based on UMLS semantic group profiles is more

  10. Children's level of word knowledge predicts their exclusion of familiar objects as referents of novel words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eGrassmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available When children are learning a novel object label, they tend to exclude as possible referents familiar objects for which they already have a name. In the current study, we wanted to know if children would behave in this same way regardless of how well they knew the name of potential referent objects, specifically, whether they could only comprehend it or they could both comprehend and produce it. Sixty-six monolingual German-speaking 2-, 3-, and 4-year-old children participated in two experimental sessions. In one session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were in the children's productive vocabularies, and in the other session the familiar objects were chosen such that their labels were only in the children's receptive vocabularies. Results indicated that children at all three ages were more likely to exclude a familiar object as the potential referent of the novel word if they could comprehend and produce its name rather than comprehend its name only. Indeed, level of word knowledge as operationalized in this way was a better predictor than was age. These results are discussed in the context of current theories of word learning by exclusion.

  11. Italians Use Abstract Knowledge about Lexical Stress during Spoken-Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; McQueen, James M.

    2012-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments in Italian, we investigated how acoustic information and stored knowledge about lexical stress are used during the recognition of tri-syllabic spoken words. Experiment 1 showed that Italians use acoustic cues to a word's stress pattern rapidly in word recognition, but only for words with antepenultimate stress.…

  12. Knowledge-based biomedical word sense disambiguation: comparison of approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aronson Alan R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Word sense disambiguation (WSD algorithms attempt to select the proper sense of ambiguous terms in text. Resources like the UMLS provide a reference thesaurus to be used to annotate the biomedical literature. Statistical learning approaches have produced good results, but the size of the UMLS makes the production of training data infeasible to cover all the domain. Methods We present research on existing WSD approaches based on knowledge bases, which complement the studies performed on statistical learning. We compare four approaches which rely on the UMLS Metathesaurus as the source of knowledge. The first approach compares the overlap of the context of the ambiguous word to the candidate senses based on a representation built out of the definitions, synonyms and related terms. The second approach collects training data for each of the candidate senses to perform WSD based on queries built using monosemous synonyms and related terms. These queries are used to retrieve MEDLINE citations. Then, a machine learning approach is trained on this corpus. The third approach is a graph-based method which exploits the structure of the Metathesaurus network of relations to perform unsupervised WSD. This approach ranks nodes in the graph according to their relative structural importance. The last approach uses the semantic types assigned to the concepts in the Metathesaurus to perform WSD. The context of the ambiguous word and semantic types of the candidate concepts are mapped to Journal Descriptors. These mappings are compared to decide among the candidate concepts. Results are provided estimating accuracy of the different methods on the WSD test collection available from the NLM. Conclusions We have found that the last approach achieves better results compared to the other methods. The graph-based approach, using the structure of the Metathesaurus network to estimate the relevance of the Metathesaurus concepts, does not perform well

  13. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Dingshoff, D.; de Beer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  14. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, Marjolein; Dingshoff, Daphne; de Beer, Meike; Schoonen, Rob

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  15. The role of accessibility of semantic word knowledge in monolingual and bilingual fifth-grade reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual (n=65) and bilingual children (n=70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to reading

  16. The role of accessibility of semantic word knowledge in monolingual and bilingual fifth-grade reading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2013-01-01

    The influences of word decoding, availability, and accessibility of semantic word knowledge on reading comprehension were investigated for monolingual (n = 65) and bilingual children (n = 70). Despite equal decoding abilities, monolingual children outperformed bilingual children with regard to

  17. Knowledge Growth: Applied Models of General and Individual Knowledge Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silkina, Galina Iu.; Bakanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers the mathematical models of the growth and accumulation of scientific and applied knowledge since it is seen as the main potential and key competence of modern companies. The problem is examined on two levels--the growth and evolution of objective knowledge and knowledge evolution of a particular individual. Both processes are…

  18. Word and World Knowledge Among Deaf Learners With and Without Cochlear Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, Carol; Borgna, Georgianna; Marschark, Marc; Durkin, Andreana

    2014-01-01

    Deaf learners frequently demonstrate significantly less vocabulary knowledge than hearing age-mates. Studies involving other domains of knowledge, and perhaps deaf learners’ academic performance, indicate similar lags with regard to world knowledge. Such gaps often are attributed to limitations on deaf children’s incidental learning by virtue of not having access to the conversations of others. Cochlear implants (CIs) have been described as providing such access, and rapid growth in vocabularies following pediatric cochlear implantation has suggested that, over time, children with implants might close the gap relative to hearing peers. Two experiments evaluated this possibility through the assessment of word and world knowledge among deaf college students with and without CIs and a hearing comparison group. Results across essentially all tasks indicated hearing students to outperform deaf students both with and without CIs with no significant differences between the latter two groups. Separate analyses of a subset of implant users who received their implants at a young age did not reveal any long-term advantages, nor was age of implantation related to enhanced performance on any of the tasks. Results are discussed in terms of incidental learning and the accessibility of word and world knowledge to deaf learners with and without CIs. PMID:25145461

  19. Lexical retuning of children's speech perception: Evidence for knowledge about words'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McQueen, J.M.; Tyler, M.D.; Cutler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Children hear new words from many different talkers; to learn words most efficiently, they should be able to represent them independently of talker-specific pronunciation detail. However, do children know what the component sounds of words should be, and can they use that knowledge to deal with

  20. Performance of younger and older adults on tests of word knowledge and word retrieval: independence or interdependence of skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavé, Gitit; Yafé, Ronit

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between vocabulary knowledge and word retrieval in younger and older adults. Three tests of word retrieval and 2 tests of word knowledge were administered to 140 Hebrew-speaking adults, half of whom were younger (M(age) = 24.20 years) and half of whom were older (M(age) = 74.83 years). Younger adults outperformed older adults on tests of retrieval, whereas older adults outperformed younger adults on tests of vocabulary, and no association was found between the 2 skills across the entire sample. Once age and education were taken into account, both skills contributed to the prediction of each other and were similarly related within each group. Older adults performed equally well when required to produce and recognize word meanings, whereas younger adults were better at recognition than at production. Older age is associated with better knowledge and with retrieval difficulties, yet individual differences in vocabulary within each age group affect level of retrieval, and variability in search skills affects performance on vocabulary tests. Although the assessment of vocabulary is not free of retrieval demands, older adults as a group are more successful than are younger adults at producing word definitions, most likely because their knowledge is more complete.

  1. Consolidating new words from repetitive versus multiple stories: Prior knowledge matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, L M; James, E

    2017-10-21

    Prior knowledge is proposed to support the consolidation of newly acquired material. The current study examined whether children with superior vocabulary knowledge show enhanced overnight consolidation, particularly when new words are encountered in varying stories. Children aged 10 and 11 years (N = 42) were exposed to two sets of eight spoken novel words (e.g., "crocodol"), with one set embedded in the same story presented twice and the other presented in two different stories. Children with superior vocabulary knowledge showed larger overnight gains in explicit phonological and semantic knowledge when novel words had been encountered in multiple stories. However, when novel words had been encountered in repetitive stories, existing knowledge exerted no influence on the consolidation of explicit phonological knowledge and had a negative impact on the consolidation of semantic knowledge. One full day (24 h) after story exposure, only very weak evidence of lexical integration (i.e., slower animacy decisions toward the basewords [e.g., "crocodile"] than toward the control words) was observed for novel words learned via repetitive (but not multiple) stories. These data suggest that although the consolidation of explicit new word knowledge learned through multiple contexts is supported by prior knowledge, lexical integration might benefit more from repetition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Curse of Knowledge: First Language Knowledge Impairs Adult Learners' Use of Novel Statistics for Word Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Amy S.; Hudson Kam, Carla L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether adult learners' knowledge of phonotactic restrictions on word forms from their first language impacts their ability to use statistical information to segment words in a novel language. Adults were exposed to a speech stream where English phonotactics and phoneme co-occurrence information conflicted. A control where these…

  3. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M; Patten, Hannah

    2017-03-01

    This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12 years), completed experimental assessments of word learning and norm-referenced assessments of receptive and expressive vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition skills. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses examined the variance in word learning that was explained by vocabulary knowledge and nonword repetition after controlling for chronological age. Together with chronological age, nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge explained up to 44% of the variance in children's word learning. Nonword repetition was the stronger predictor of phonological recall, phonological recognition, and semantic recognition, whereas vocabulary knowledge was the stronger predictor of verbal semantic recall. These findings extend the results of past studies indicating that both nonword repetition skill and existing vocabulary knowledge are important for new word learning, but the relative influence of each predictor depends on the way word learning is measured. Suggestions for further research involving typically developing children and children with language or reading impairments are discussed.

  4. Nonword Repetition and Vocabulary Knowledge as Predictors of Children's Phonological and Semantic Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlof, Suzanne M.; Patten, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the unique and shared variance that nonword repetition and vocabulary knowledge contribute to children's ability to learn new words. Multiple measures of word learning were used to assess recall and recognition of phonological and semantic information. Method: Fifty children, with a mean age of 8 years (range 5-12…

  5. Knowledge of Conditional Spelling Patterns Supports Word Spelling among Danish Fifth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber

    2017-01-01

    Graphotactic knowledge and word-specific orthographic knowledge have been shown to account for unique variance in concurrent spelling skills beyond phonological skills in the early school years.The present study examined whether knowledge of spelling patterns conditioned by phonological context would add to the concurrent prediction of spelling…

  6. Lexical leverage: Category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in two-year- olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M.; Evans, Julia L.; Elman, Jeffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that infants tend to add words to their vocabulary that are semantically related to other known words, though it is not clear why this pattern emerges. In this paper, we explore whether infants to leverage their existing vocabulary and semantic knowledge when interpreting novel label-object mappings in real-time. We initially identified categorical domains for which individual 24-month-old infants have relatively higher and lower levels of knowledge, irrespective of overall vocabulary size. Next, we taught infants novel words in these higher and lower knowledge domains and then asked if their subsequent real-time recognition of these items varied as a function of their category knowledge. While our participants successfully acquired the novel label -object mappings in our task, there were important differences in the way infants recognized these words in real time. Namely, infants showed more robust recognition of high (vs. low) domain knowledge words. These findings suggest that dense semantic structure facilitates early word learning and real-time novel word recognition. PMID:26452444

  7. Lexical leverage: category knowledge boosts real-time novel word recognition in 2-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovsky, Arielle; Ellis, Erica M; Evans, Julia L; Elman, Jeffrey L

    2016-11-01

    Recent research suggests that infants tend to add words to their vocabulary that are semantically related to other known words, though it is not clear why this pattern emerges. In this paper, we explore whether infants leverage their existing vocabulary and semantic knowledge when interpreting novel label-object mappings in real time. We initially identified categorical domains for which individual 24-month-old infants have relatively higher and lower levels of knowledge, irrespective of overall vocabulary size. Next, we taught infants novel words in these higher and lower knowledge domains and then asked if their subsequent real-time recognition of these items varied as a function of their category knowledge. While our participants successfully acquired the novel label-object mappings in our task, there were important differences in the way infants recognized these words in real time. Namely, infants showed more robust recognition of high (vs. low) domain knowledge words. These findings suggest that dense semantic structure facilitates early word learning and real-time novel word recognition. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Using affective knowledge to generate and validate a set of emotion-related, action words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Portch

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Emotion concepts are built through situated experience. Abstract word meaning is grounded in this affective knowledge, giving words the potential to evoke emotional feelings and reactions (e.g., Vigliocco et al., 2009. In the present work we explore whether words differ in the extent to which they evoke ‘specific’ emotional knowledge. Using a categorical approach, in which an affective ‘context’ is created, it is possible to assess whether words proportionally activate knowledge relevant to different emotional states (e.g., ‘sadness’, ‘anger’, Stevenson, Mikels & James, 2007a. We argue that this method may be particularly effective when assessing the emotional meaning of action words (e.g., Schacht & Sommer, 2009. In study 1 we use a constrained feature generation task to derive a set of action words that participants associated with six, basic emotional states (see full list in Appendix S1. Generation frequencies were taken to indicate the likelihood that the word would evoke emotional knowledge relevant to the state to which it had been paired. In study 2 a rating task was used to assess the strength of association between the six most frequently generated, or ‘typical’, action words and corresponding emotion labels. Participants were presented with a series of sentences, in which action words (typical and atypical and labels were paired e.g., “If you are feeling ‘sad’ how likely would you be to act in the following way?” … ‘cry.’ Findings suggest that typical associations were robust. Participants always gave higher ratings to typical vs. atypical action word and label pairings, even when (a rating direction was manipulated (the label or verb appeared first in the sentence, and (b the typical behaviours were to be performed by the rater themselves, or others. Our findings suggest that emotion-related action words vary in the extent to which they evoke knowledge relevant for different emotional states. When

  9. Finding patterns and learning words: Infant phonotactic knowledge is associated with vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge of morphologically complex words: a developmental study of older children and young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippold, Marilyn A; Sun, Lei

    2008-07-01

    This study examined knowledge of derived nominals (e.g., measurement, prediction) and derived adjectives (e.g., algebraic, molecular) in older children and young adolescents. Little was known about students' comprehension of these morphologically complex words that occur in textbooks that are used in public schools to teach challenging subjects such as science, mathematics, social studies, health, and literature. The Word Knowledge Task (WKT), designed for the present study, was used to examine participants' comprehension of 15 derived nominals and 15 derived adjectives that were selected from state-adopted textbooks. This written, multiple-choice task was administered to 10-year-old children and 13-year-old adolescents (N = 94) who were attending public schools. All participants spoke English and were typical achievers. The findings indicated that the adolescents outperformed the children on both types of derived words; the derived nominals were more difficult than the derived adjectives for both groups; and comprehension was associated with frequency of occurrence in print, with easier words generally more common than more difficult ones. Knowledge of morphologically complex words such as derived nominals and derived adjectives is a late linguistic attainment. Given the importance of these words for academic success, instructional programs are needed to ensure that children and adolescents are able to learn their meanings using appropriate strategies.

  11. Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Deaf Child's Knowledge of Words: Volume II, Alphabetical List of Test Items. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Dresner, Toby; Guilfoyle, George R.

    The document is the second volume of a report providing descriptive data on the reading vocabulary of deaf children ages 8-17 years, which resulted from a study assessing the reading vocabulary knowledge of 13,207 deaf students. Volume 2, continuing the appendix begun in Volume 1, contains an alphabetical list of the 7,300 words used on the 73…

  13. Structured Semantic Knowledge Can Emerge Automatically from Predicting Word Sequences in Child-Directed Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip A. Huebner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary “deep learning” approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge. We trained two types of recurrent neural networks (Simple Recurrent Network, and Long Short-Term Memory to predict word sequences in a 5-million-word corpus of speech directed to children ages 0–3 years old, and assessed what semantic knowledge they acquired. We found that learned internal representations are encoding various abstract grammatical and semantic features that are useful for predicting word sequences. Assessing the organization of semantic knowledge in terms of the similarity structure, we found evidence of emergent categorical and hierarchical structure in both models. We found that the Long Short-term Memory (LSTM and SRN are both learning very similar kinds of representations, but the LSTM achieved higher levels of performance on a quantitative evaluation. We also trained a non-recurrent neural network, Skip-gram, on the same input to compare our results to the state-of-the-art in machine learning. We found that Skip-gram achieves relatively similar performance to the LSTM, but is representing words more in terms of thematic compared to taxonomic relations, and we provide reasons why this might be the case. Our findings show that a learning system that derives abstract, distributed representations for the purpose of predicting sequential dependencies in naturalistic language may provide insight into emergence of many properties of the developing

  14. The Effect of Orthographic Knowledge on Word Identification and Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Khalili Sabet

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to employ orthographic knowledge enhancement as a tool in order to determine its efficiency in improving Iranian EFL learners’ reading comprehension. Orthographic knowledge can be defined as one’s familiarity with the general spelling rules of a language, or the ability to defer those letter combinations that are permissible form those that are not, which makes it an exceptional requirement for effective word identification and as a result successful reading comprehension skill. In doing so, 55 male and female students learning English at pre-intermediate level in a language institute in Astaneh, Guilan, Iran were randomly selected and were equally divided into an experimental and a control group. A researcher-made reading comprehension test followed by multiple-choice items as well as a word identification measure was given to both groups as a pre-test, and then the experimental group received the treatment in eighteen 30-minute sessions, in which the instructor taught skills to enhance students’ orthographic knowledge. Meanwhile, the control group did not receive any specific treatment. Finally the post-test, which was the same as the pre-test was administered. Their scores were calculated through computer softwares. The results indicated that raising orthographic knowledge results in significant improvement in both word identification and reading comprehension. The findings of this study can benefit EFL learners in improving their reading comprehension skill.

  15. Word sense disambiguation in the clinical domain: a comparison of knowledge-rich and knowledge-poor unsupervised methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasin, Rachel; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem; Szolovits, Peter

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate state-of-the-art unsupervised methods on the word sense disambiguation (WSD) task in the clinical domain. In particular, to compare graph-based approaches relying on a clinical knowledge base with bottom-up topic-modeling-based approaches. We investigate several enhancements to the topic-modeling techniques that use domain-specific knowledge sources. The graph-based methods use variations of PageRank and distance-based similarity metrics, operating over the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). Topic-modeling methods use unlabeled data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC II) database to derive models for each ambiguous word. We investigate the impact of using different linguistic features for topic models, including UMLS-based and syntactic features. We use a sense-tagged clinical dataset from the Mayo Clinic for evaluation. The topic-modeling methods achieve 66.9% accuracy on a subset of the Mayo Clinic's data, while the graph-based methods only reach the 40-50% range, with a most-frequent-sense baseline of 56.5%. Features derived from the UMLS semantic type and concept hierarchies do not produce a gain over bag-of-words features in the topic models, but identifying phrases from UMLS and using syntax does help. Although topic models outperform graph-based methods, semantic features derived from the UMLS prove too noisy to improve performance beyond bag-of-words. Topic modeling for WSD provides superior results in the clinical domain; however, integration of knowledge remains to be effectively exploited. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Learning to spell from reading: general knowledge about spelling patterns influences memory for specific words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacton, Sébastien; Borchardt, Gaëlle; Treiman, Rebecca; Lété, Bernard; Fayol, Michel

    2014-05-01

    Adults often learn to spell words during the course of reading for meaning, without intending to do so. We used an incidental learning task in order to study this process. Spellings that contained double n, r and t which are common doublets in French, were learned more readily by French university students than spellings that contained less common but still legal doublets. When recalling or recognizing the latter, the students sometimes made transposition errors, doubling a consonant that often doubles in French rather than the consonant that was originally doubled (e.g., tiddunar recalled as tidunnar). The results, found in three experiments using different nonwords and different types of instructions, show that people use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system together with word-specific knowledge to reconstruct spellings that they learn from reading. These processes contribute to failures and successes in memory for spellings, as in other domains.

  17. Incorporating domain knowledge in chemical and biomedical named entity recognition with word representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Chemical and biomedical Named Entity Recognition (NER) is an essential prerequisite task before effective text mining can begin for biochemical-text data. Exploiting unlabeled text data to leverage system performance has been an active and challenging research topic in text mining due to the recent growth in the amount of biomedical literature. We present a semi-supervised learning method that efficiently exploits unlabeled data in order to incorporate domain knowledge into a named entity recognition model and to leverage system performance. The proposed method includes Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks for text preprocessing, learning word representation features from a large amount of text data for feature extraction, and conditional random fields for token classification. Other than the free text in the domain, the proposed method does not rely on any lexicon nor any dictionary in order to keep the system applicable to other NER tasks in bio-text data. Results We extended BANNER, a biomedical NER system, with the proposed method. This yields an integrated system that can be applied to chemical and drug NER or biomedical NER. We call our branch of the BANNER system BANNER-CHEMDNER, which is scalable over millions of documents, processing about 530 documents per minute, is configurable via XML, and can be plugged into other systems by using the BANNER Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) interface. BANNER-CHEMDNER achieved an 85.68% and an 86.47% F-measure on the testing sets of CHEMDNER Chemical Entity Mention (CEM) and Chemical Document Indexing (CDI) subtasks, respectively, and achieved an 87.04% F-measure on the official testing set of the BioCreative II gene mention task, showing remarkable performance in both chemical and biomedical NER. BANNER-CHEMDNER system is available at: https://bitbucket.org/tsendeemts/banner-chemdner. PMID:25810780

  18. How is their word knowledge growing? Exploring Grade 3 vocabulary in South African township schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Pretorius

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report on a study that examined the active and receptive English vocabulary of two different groups of Grade 3 learners in South African township schools. The groups consisted of English Home Language (HL learners in the Western Cape and Xhosa HL and English First Additional Language (FAL learners in the Eastern Cape. The purpose was to document their different vocabulary trajectories during Grade 3. The Woodcock-Muñoz Language Survey was used to measure the active vocabulary levels of 118 learners at the beginning and the end of the school year. Another 284 learners from the same eight Grade 3 classes participated in a receptive vocabulary test at the end of the year. This test assessed their knowledge of the 60 most frequent words that occur in South Africa Grade 4 English textbooks. Results showed that although the HL learners knew almost double the number of words their English FAL peers did, both groups of learners increased their active word knowledge through the year by about 9%. Regarding their receptive vocabulary, the English FAL learners on average only knew 27% of the most frequent words at the end of their Grade 3. No significant gender differences were found. Learners in both language groups who were above their grade age had significantly lower scores than their younger peers. This confirms findings that children who start school with weak language skills tend to stay weak. Finally, initial active vocabulary knowledge was found to be a strong predictor of vocabulary development during the school year.

  19. Growth of Word and Pseudoword Reading Efficiency in Alphabetic Orthographies: Impact of Consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravolas, Markéta

    2017-07-01

    Word and pseudoword reading are related abilities fundamental to reading development in alphabetic orthographies. They are respectively assumed to index children's orthographic representations of words, which are in turn acquired through the underlying "self-teaching mechanism" of alphabetic pseudoword decoding. Little is known about concurrent growth trajectories of these skills in the early grades among children learning different alphabetic orthographies. In the present study, between- and within-group latent growth models of word and pseudoword reading efficiency were tested on data spanning Grades 1 and 2 from learners of the inconsistent English and consistent Czech and Slovak orthographies. Several language-general patterns emerged. Significant growth was observed for both skills in all languages. Growth was faster for word than pseudoword reading efficiency, and strong lexicality effects that increased over time were obtained across languages. Language-specific patterns were also found. In line with predictions about the costs of learning lower-consistency orthographies, readers of English experienced relatively slower growth on both reading skills. However, their lag was smaller, and evident only at the latter two time points for word reading. In contrast, on pseudoword reading, the English group performed considerably less well than their Czech and Slovak peers at every time point. Thus, weaker decoding skills were the main contributor to the larger lexicality effects of the English group. These findings are considered within the frame of recent theorizing about the effect of orthographic consistency on decoding as a self-teaching mechanism in alphabetic reading acquisition.

  20. Word Knowledge and Its Relation to Text Comprehension: A Comparative Study of Chinese- and Korean-Speaking L2 Learners and L1 Speakers of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, word knowledge and its relation to text comprehension was examined with 50 Chinese- and 20 Korean-speaking second language (L2) learners and 40 first language (L1) speakers of Japanese. Breadth and depth of word knowledge were assessed by a word-definition matching test and a word-associates selection test, respectively. Text…

  1. Effects of robust vocabulary instruction and multicultural text on the development of word knowledge among African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sherri; Stewart, Sharon R

    2009-05-01

    To examine the effect of a systematic vocabulary instructional technique in African American 2nd-grade children with below average vocabulary skills. An additional goal was to examine the role of book type in the retention of novel vocabulary words. Using an adapted alternating treatments design, storybooks were used as a source for contextualizing vocabulary words in the context of robust vocabulary training. Five children's productive definitions were used to assess developing word knowledge using a 4-stage continuum ranging from no knowledge to full concept knowledge. Superior word learning for instruction words in comparison with control words replicated across children provided evidence of behavior change that was attributable to robust vocabulary instruction. Gains in word learning were maintained 2 weeks following conclusion of the study. Use of storybooks that displayed sociocultural images and experiences that were similar to versus different from their own did not have a reliable effect on word learning among these African American children. The findings demonstrate the potential impact of robust vocabulary instruction for facilitating vocabulary development in children with below average vocabulary skills. Analysis of the results indicates that the use of the African American book was not a potent influence in facilitating retention of words.

  2. The Growth Dynamics of Words: How Historical Context Shapes the Competitive Linguistic Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenbaum, Joel; Petersen, Alexander; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    Using the massive Google n-gram database of over 10^11 word uses in English, Hebrew, and Spanish, we explore the connection between the growth rates of relative word use and the observed growth rates of disparate competing actors in a common environment such as businesses, scientific journals, and universities, supporting the concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition, evolving according to selection laws. We find aggregate-level anomalies in the collective statistics corresponding to the time of key historical events such as World War II and the Balfour Declaration.

  3. The Role of Word Decoding, Vocabulary Knowledge and Meta-Cognitive Knowledge in Monolingual and Bilingual Low-Achieving Adolescents' Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, Roel; Oostdam, Ron; van Gelderen, Amos; van Schooten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the relationships between word decoding, vocabulary knowledge, meta-cognitive knowledge and reading comprehension in low-achieving adolescents and examined whether the strength of these relationships differed between Grade 7 and 9 students and between monolingual and bilingual students. Tests were administered to 328…

  4. Knowledge based word-concept model estimation and refinement for biomedical text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno Yepes, Antonio; Berlanga, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    Text mining of scientific literature has been essential for setting up large public biomedical databases, which are being widely used by the research community. In the biomedical domain, the existence of a large number of terminological resources and knowledge bases (KB) has enabled a myriad of machine learning methods for different text mining related tasks. Unfortunately, KBs have not been devised for text mining tasks but for human interpretation, thus performance of KB-based methods is usually lower when compared to supervised machine learning methods. The disadvantage of supervised methods though is they require labeled training data and therefore not useful for large scale biomedical text mining systems. KB-based methods do not have this limitation. In this paper, we describe a novel method to generate word-concept probabilities from a KB, which can serve as a basis for several text mining tasks. This method not only takes into account the underlying patterns within the descriptions contained in the KB but also those in texts available from large unlabeled corpora such as MEDLINE. The parameters of the model have been estimated without training data. Patterns from MEDLINE have been built using MetaMap for entity recognition and related using co-occurrences. The word-concept probabilities were evaluated on the task of word sense disambiguation (WSD). The results showed that our method obtained a higher degree of accuracy than other state-of-the-art approaches when evaluated on the MSH WSD data set. We also evaluated our method on the task of document ranking using MEDLINE citations. These results also showed an increase in performance over existing baseline retrieval approaches. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  6. Phonological and Semantic Knowledge Are Causal Influences on Learning to Read Words in Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lulin; Duff, Fiona J.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We report a training study that assesses whether teaching the pronunciation and meaning of spoken words improves Chinese children's subsequent attempts to learn to read the words. Teaching the pronunciations of words helps children to learn to read those same words, and teaching the pronunciations and meanings improves learning still further.…

  7. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words 'some' and 'every…or…' in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with 'some', and they had delayed knowledge of the complex sentences with 'every…or…'. Interestingly, the children with ASD had pragmatic knowledge of the scalar implicatures of these logical words, parallel to those of the typical controls. Taken together, the interpretation of logical words may be a relative strength in children with ASD. It is possible that some aspects of semantics and pragmatics may be selectively spared in ASD, due to the contribution the language faculty makes to language acquisition in the ASD population.

  8. Practical Knowledge Growth in Communicative Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Communicative language teaching (CLT) is promoted in teacher education programmes around the world, although the appropriateness of this methodology in contexts outside the English-speaking West has been questioned, often from a theoretical perspective. In fact, very little empirical research has been conducted into the practical knowledge of CLT…

  9. Home Literacy Environment and Word Knowledge Development: A Study of Young Learners of Chinese as a Heritage Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo; Koda, Keiko

    2011-01-01

    This study examined young Heritage Language (HL) learners' home literacy environment and its impact on HL word-knowledge development, focusing on a group of Chinese-English bilingual children learning to read in Chinese as a Heritage Language in the United States. A home literacy survey revealed that parents mostly used HL to talk to children,…

  10. Building Foundational and Vocabulary Knowledge in the Common Core, K-8: Developmentally-Grounded Instruction about Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Shane

    2015-01-01

    How young children's and older students' knowledge of words develops--their structure, their meanings, how they work in context--is reflected in the Common Core English Language Arts expectations. Meeting these expectations for each learner requires that we teach in a developmentally-responsive manner. This includes our being familiar with the…

  11. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words "some" and "every…or…" in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with "some", and…

  12. Theory of mind selectively predicts preschoolers' knowledge-based selective word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosseau-Liard, Patricia; Penney, Danielle; Poulin-Dubois, Diane

    2015-11-01

    Children can selectively attend to various attributes of a model, such as past accuracy or physical strength, to guide their social learning. There is a debate regarding whether a relation exists between theory-of-mind skills and selective learning. We hypothesized that high performance on theory-of-mind tasks would predict preference for learning new words from accurate informants (an epistemic attribute), but not from physically strong informants (a non-epistemic attribute). Three- and 4-year-olds (N = 65) completed two selective learning tasks, and their theory-of-mind abilities were assessed. As expected, performance on a theory-of-mind battery predicted children's preference to learn from more accurate informants but not from physically stronger informants. Results thus suggest that preschoolers with more advanced theory of mind have a better understanding of knowledge and apply that understanding to guide their selection of informants. This work has important implications for research on children's developing social cognition and early learning. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  13. Balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model for knowledge growth

    KAUST Repository

    Burger, Martin

    2016-11-18

    In this paper we study balanced growth path solutions of a Boltzmann mean field game model proposed by Lucas and Moll [15] to model knowledge growth in an economy. Agents can either increase their knowledge level by exchanging ideas in learning events or by producing goods with the knowledge they already have. The existence of balanced growth path solutions implies exponential growth of the overall production in time. We prove existence of balanced growth path solutions if the initial distribution of individuals with respect to their knowledge level satisfies a Pareto-tail condition. Furthermore we give first insights into the existence of such solutions if in addition to production and knowledge exchange the knowledge level evolves by geometric Brownian motion.

  14. Processing complex pseudo-words in mild cognitive impairment: The interaction of preserved morphological rule knowledge with compromised cognitive ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manouilidou, Christina; Dolenc, Barbara; Marvin, Tatjana; Pirtošek, Zvezdan

    2016-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) affects the cognitive performance of elderly adults. However, the level of severity is not high enough to be diagnosed with dementia. Previous research reports subtle language impairments in individuals with MCI specifically in domains related to lexical meaning. The present study used both off-line (grammaticality judgment) and on-line (lexical decision) tasks to examine aspects of lexical processing and how they are affected by MCI. 21 healthy older adults and 23 individuals with MCI saw complex pseudo-words that violated various principles of word formation in Slovenian and decided if each letter string was an actual word of their language. The pseudo-words ranged in their degree of violability. A task effect was found, with MCI performance to be similar to that of healthy controls in the off-line task but different in the on-line task. Overall, the MCI group responded slower than the elderly controls. No significant differences were observed in the off-line task, while the on-line task revealed a main effect of Violation type, a main effect of Group and a significant Violation × Group interaction reflecting a difficulty for the MCI group to process pseudo-words in real time. That is, while individuals with MCI seem to preserve morphological rule knowledge, they experience additional difficulties while processing complex pseudo-words. This was attributed to an executive dysfunction associated with MCI that delays the recognition of ungrammatical formations.

  15. Attention Is Required for Knowledge-Based Sequential Grouping: Insights from the Integration of Syllables into Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Nai; Pan, Xunyi; Luo, Cheng; Su, Naifei; Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Jianfeng

    2018-01-31

    How the brain groups sequential sensory events into chunks is a fundamental question in cognitive neuroscience. This study investigates whether top-down attention or specific tasks are required for the brain to apply lexical knowledge to group syllables into words. Neural responses tracking the syllabic and word rhythms of a rhythmic speech sequence were concurrently monitored using electroencephalography (EEG). The participants performed different tasks, attending to either the rhythmic speech sequence or a distractor, which was another speech stream or a nonlinguistic auditory/visual stimulus. Attention to speech, but not a lexical-meaning-related task, was required for reliable neural tracking of words, even when the distractor was a nonlinguistic stimulus presented cross-modally. Neural tracking of syllables, however, was reliably observed in all tested conditions. These results strongly suggest that neural encoding of individual auditory events (i.e., syllables) is automatic, while knowledge-based construction of temporal chunks (i.e., words) crucially relies on top-down attention. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Why we cannot understand speech when not paying attention is an old question in psychology and cognitive neuroscience. Speech processing is a complex process that involves multiple stages, e.g., hearing and analyzing the speech sound, recognizing words, and combining words into phrases and sentences. The current study investigates which speech-processing stage is blocked when we do not listen carefully. We show that the brain can reliably encode syllables, basic units of speech sounds, even when we do not pay attention. Nevertheless, when distracted, the brain cannot group syllables into multisyllabic words, which are basic units for speech meaning. Therefore, the process of converting speech sound into meaning crucially relies on attention. Copyright © 2018 the authors 0270-6474/18/381178-11$15.00/0.

  16. Teaching new words to children with poor existing vocabulary knowledge: a controlled evaluation of the definition and context methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. To investigate the effects of two different methods of teaching vocabulary on both vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Twenty-four children (aged 7-8 years) with poor existing vocabulary knowledge took part in an intervention study. Half the children were taught new vocabulary items using definitions; the other half were taught a strategy for deriving meanings from written context. Tests of vocabulary knowledge were given before teaching, immediately after teaching and 3 months later. Immediately after teaching, both groups had improved equivalently in vocabulary knowledge for the taught words. However, 3 months later, the context group showed significantly better expressive vocabulary knowledge. The context group went on to show significantly better comprehension of text containing a number of the taught words and demonstrated that they could use the newly acquired strategy independently to derive meanings from written context. The context method developed is effective in increasing vocabulary knowledge and improving reading comprehension in children with poor existing vocabulary knowledge, and this is therefore recommended for use with children who require extra help developing vocabulary and comprehension skills.

  17. Knowledge intensive business services and long term growth

    OpenAIRE

    Desmarchelier, Benoit; Djellal, Faridah; Gallouj, Faïz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The goal of this paper is to (re)assess the relationship between knowledge intensive busi- ness services (KIBS) and the economic growth. Taking into account various conflicting relationships between KIBS and growth, we build a multi agent-based system involving industrial firms, consumer-services firms, consumers, KIBS firms and a banking system. Our main result is that KIBS can be regarded as an engine for the economic growth and that they operate as a substitute for ...

  18. Abstract Knowledge of Word Order by 19 Months: An Eye-Tracking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Julie; Millotte, Severine; Posada, Andres; Rizzi, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    Word order is one of the earliest aspects of grammar that the child acquires, because her early utterances already respect the basic word order of the target language. However, the question of the nature of early syntactic representations is subject to debate. Approaches inspired by formal syntax assume that the head-complement order,…

  19. Developmental and Cognitive Aspects of Learning to Spell: A Reflection of Word Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Edmund H., Ed.; Beers, James W., Ed.

    The emphasis of this book is on theory and research in spelling. It also includes practical information for the classroom teacher by noting teaching principles and generalizations that can guide spelling instruction. The book contains 12 chapters dealing with the following topics: (1) developmental concepts of word; (2) what a word is; (3)…

  20. Lexical Quality Matters: Effects of Word Knowledge Instruction on the Language and Literacy Skills of Third- and Fourth-Grade Poor Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinchmann, Ellen Irén; Hjetland, Hanne Naess; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the hypothesis that teaching students knowledge of word forms and meanings supports the development of decoding and linguistic comprehension, which are fundamental components of reading comprehension. We examined this hypothesis by investigating the effects of a comprehensive word knowledge intervention on…

  1. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  2. Webster's word power essential students' companion general knowledge of the English language

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkpatrick, Betty

    2014-01-01

    Helps the student with facts and resource on English grammar, specialist subjects from art to physics, with sections on world facts, Latin and Greek words; Chemical elements; Greek alphabet; the scientific classification of animal; help on essay writing and composition.

  3. Measuring incremental changes in word knowledge: experimental validation and implications for learning and assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishkoff, Gwen A; Collins-Thompson, Kevyn; Perfetti, Charles A; Callan, Jamie

    2008-11-01

    The goal of this study was to test a new technique for assessing vocabulary development. This technique is based on an algorithm for scoring the accuracy of word definitions using a continuous scale (Collins-Thompson & Callan, 2007). In an experiment with adult learners, target words were presented in six different sentence contexts, and the number of informative versus misleading contexts was systematically manipulated. Participants generated a target definition after each sentence, and the definition-scoring algorithm was used to assess the degree of accuracy on each trial. We observed incremental improvements in definition accuracy across trials. Moreover, learning curves were sensitive to the proportion of misleading contexts, the use of spaced versus massed practice, and individual differences, demonstrating the utility of this procedure for capturing specific experimental effects on the trajectory of word learning. We discuss the implications of these results for measurement of meaning, vocabulary assessment, and instructional design.

  4. Working with Multilingual Learners and Vocabulary Knowledge for Secondary Schools: Developing Word Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Robyn; O'Brien, Katherine; Walsh, Maureen; West, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a 10 week vocabulary focused intervention based on the Word Generation program (Snow, 2002, 2010; SERP, 2011) in primary and secondary schools, which demonstrated clear improvements, particularly with students who are EAL/D learners. Teachers across English, Science, Maths and Social Sciences developed professional learning…

  5. How Does Prior Word Knowledge Affect Vocabulary Learning Progress in an Extensive Reading Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stuart; Chang, Anna C.-S.

    2015-01-01

    Sixty English as a foreign language learners were divided into high-, intermediate-, and low-level groups based on their scores on pretests of target vocabulary and Vocabulary Levels Test scores. The participants read 10 Level 1 and 10 Level 2 graded readers over 37 weeks during two terms. Two sets of 100 target words were chosen from each set of…

  6. The Relationship Between TOEFL Vocabulary Items and Meaning, Association, Collocation, and Word-Class Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    One way of determining construct validity of vocabulary items in language tests is to interview subjects directly after taking the items to ascertain what is known about the target words in question. This approach was combined within the framework of lexical competency in a study of the behavior of lexical items on the Test of English as a Foreign…

  7. Building Phonological Knowledge into a Connectionist Model of the Development of Word Naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Charles; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Develops a psychologically plausible model of the development of word-naming skills in children in order to verify psychological evidence indicating the importance of children's underlying phonological skills as determinants of the ease with which they learn to read. This model is highly successful in learning the pronunciations of single-syllable…

  8. Number Words in Young Children's Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Addition, Subtraction and Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canobi, Katherine H.; Bethune, Narelle E.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies addressed children's arithmetic. First, 50 3- to 5-year-olds judged physical demonstrations of addition, subtraction and inversion, with and without number words. Second, 20 3- to 4-year-olds made equivalence judgments of additions and subtractions. Third, 60 4- to 6-year-olds solved addition, subtraction and inversion problems that…

  9. Phonetic richness can outweigh prosodically-driven phonological knowledge when learning words in an artificial language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, S.; Cho, T.; McQueen, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    How do Dutch and Korean listeners use acoustic–phonetic information when learning words in an artificial language? Dutch has a voiceless ‘unaspirated’ stop, produced with shortened Voice Onset Time (VOT) in prosodic strengthening environments (e.g., in domain-initial position and under prominence),

  10. Effects of Prior Phonotactic Knowledge on Infant Word Segmentation: The Case of Nonadjacent Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Nazzi, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors explored whether French-learning infants use nonadjacent phonotactic regularities in their native language, which they learn between the ages of 7 and 10 months, to segment words from fluent speech. Method: Two groups of 20 French-learning infants were tested using the head-turn preference procedure at 10 and 13…

  11. Paced Reading in Semantic Dementia: Word Knowledge Contributes to Phoneme Binding in Rapid Speech Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Grogan, John; Mapelli, Cristina; Isella, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia (SD) show deficits in phoneme binding in immediate serial recall: when attempting to reproduce a sequence of words that they no longer fully understand, they show frequent migrations of phonemes between items (e.g., cap, frog recalled as "frap, cog"). This suggests that verbal short-term memory emerges directly from…

  12. Near or far: The effect of spatial distance and vocabulary knowledge on word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Emma L; Perry, Lynn K; Scott, Emilly J; Horst, Jessica S

    2016-01-01

    The current study investigated the role of spatial distance in word learning. Two-year-old children saw three novel objects named while the objects were either in close proximity to each other or spatially separated. Children were then tested on their retention for the name-object associations. Keeping the objects spatially separated from each other during naming was associated with increased retention for children with larger vocabularies. Children with a lower vocabulary size demonstrated better retention if they saw objects in close proximity to each other during naming. This demonstrates that keeping a clear view of objects during naming improves word learning for children who have already learned many words, but keeping objects within close proximal range is better for children at earlier stages of vocabulary acquisition. The effect of distance is therefore not equal across varying vocabulary sizes. The influences of visual crowding, cognitive load, and vocabulary size on word learning are discussed. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Toddlers learn words in a foreign language: the role of native vocabulary knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Melissa; Woodward, Amanda L

    2012-03-01

    The current study examined monolingual English-speaking toddlers' (N=50) ability to learn word-referent links from native speakers of Dutch versus English, and second, whether children generalized or sequestered their extensions when terms were tested by a subsequent speaker of English. Overall, children performed better in the English than in the Dutch condition; however, children with high native vocabularies successfully selected the target object for terms trained in fluent Dutch. Furthermore, children with higher vocabularies did not indicate their comprehension of Dutch terms when subsequently tested by an English speaker whereas children with low vocabulary scores responded at chance levels to both the original Dutch speaker and the second English speaker. These findings demonstrate that monolingual toddlers with proficiency in their native language are capable of learning words outside of their conventional system and may be sensitive to the boundaries that exist between language systems.

  14. Predicting Growth in Word Level Reading Skills in Children With Developmental Dyslexia Using an Object Rhyming Functional Neuroimaging Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N

    2016-04-01

    An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.

  15. Knowledge as process: contextually-cued attention and early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Linda B; Colunga, Eliana; Yoshida, Hanako

    2010-09-01

    Learning depends on attention. The processes that cue attention in the moment dynamically integrate learned regularities and immediate contextual cues. This paper reviews the extensive literature on cued attention and attentional learning in the adult literature and proposes that these fundamental processes are likely significant mechanisms of change in cognitive development. The value of this idea is illustrated using phenomena in children novel word learning.

  16. KNOWLEDGE HUB: SPIRAL MATRIX THINKING AS A COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY FOR INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP LEARNING IN ONE DRIVE AND WORD ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Валерьевна Комиссарова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article represents the modification of the Knowledge Hub communicative technique of teaching English and other disciplines based on the OneDrive\\Word-online cloud service. Specific options for the organization of group work and individual activities are considered. The article highlights the advantage and the efficiency of teaching and learning by the BYOD (Bring Your Own Device mode. The paper includes examples of organizing of mass support of the study of the course of English for Business and Entrepreneurship (MOOC-Coursera and of information technology of the Humanities program in the computer class and relying on BYOD mobile Internet access of students.

  17. You Are Your Words: Modeling Students' Vocabulary Knowledge with Natural Language Processing Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Laura K.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigates the degree to which the lexical properties of students' essays can inform stealth assessments of their vocabulary knowledge. In particular, we used indices calculated with the natural language processing tool, TAALES, to predict students' performance on a measure of vocabulary knowledge. To this end, two corpora were…

  18. Pupils' Knowledge and Spoken Literary Response beyond Polite Meaningless Words: Studying Yeats's "Easter, 1916"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John

    2016-01-01

    This article presents research exploring the knowledge pupils bring to texts introduced to them for literary study, how they share knowledge through talk, and how it is elicited by the teacher in the course of an English lesson. It sets classroom discussion in a context where new examination requirements diminish the relevance of social, cultural…

  19. Building Word Knowledge: Opportunities for Direct Vocabulary Instruction in General Education for Students with Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanzek, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Direct vocabulary instruction is 1 critical component of reading instruction. Although most students in the elementary grades need to continue building their vocabulary knowledge, students with reading difficulties are at the greatest risk of falling further behind each year in vocabulary and concept knowledge without effective instruction. This…

  20. Knowledge Infrastructure, Service Sector, And Economic Growth In Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amon O. Okpala

    2011-01-01

    Economic theory and studies have theoretical and empirical evidence suggesting that countries which remain underdeveloped have consistently low levels of human capital, and a large agricultural sector. Of equal importance are the roles of the information technology and service sectors in improving economic growth and stability. This paper examined the extent to which non-industrial factors, such as information technology, knowledge infrastructure, and the service sectors activities helped con...

  1. Identify Web-page Content meaning using Knowledge based System for Dual Meaning Words

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Sukanta; Dattagupta, Rana; Mukhopadhyay, Debajyoti

    2012-01-01

    Meaning of Web-page content plays a big role while produced a search result from a search engine. Most of the cases Web-page meaning stored in title or meta-tag area but those meanings do not always match with Web-page content. To overcome this situation we need to go through the Web-page content to identify the Web-page meaning. In such cases, where Webpage content holds dual meaning words that time it is really difficult to identify the meaning of the Web-page. In this paper, we are introdu...

  2. KNOWLEDGE-INTENSIVE SERVICES AND THEIR EFFECT ON ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIOBAN GABRIELA-LILIANA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper starts from the idea that the key determinants for economic growth can be: smart growth (promoting knowledge, innovation, education and the digital society, sustainable growth (a more competitive production, with a better use of resources and an economic growth that promotes togetherness (higher workforce participation, acquiring skills and the fight against poverty. I have also considered the fact that economic growth cannot be made at random, but has to consider the characteristics, as well as strong and weak points of the counties that are being analyzed. Notes so far are complemented by the analysis of some benchmarks for the economy of the EU countries (GDP, employment rate of labor, employment rate of dropping school, amount of GDP allocated to Research&Development, human poverty index. EU interest in obtaining long-term prosperity lies in analyzing the factors that contribute to this objective. Evaluation of the benchmarks and factors impacting economic growth highlights the purpose of this paper and its importance for the XXI century society. Proposed strategies involve a thorough research on the current situation in Romania and in the EU and in this case I consider that the economies are intrinsically linked and no member state can effectively address global challenges in an isolated action.

  3. Extracting product features and opinion words using pattern knowledge in customer reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htay, Su Su; Lynn, Khin Thidar

    2013-01-01

    Due to the development of e-commerce and web technology, most of online Merchant sites are able to write comments about purchasing products for customer. Customer reviews expressed opinion about products or services which are collectively referred to as customer feedback data. Opinion extraction about products from customer reviews is becoming an interesting area of research and it is motivated to develop an automatic opinion mining application for users. Therefore, efficient method and techniques are needed to extract opinions from reviews. In this paper, we proposed a novel idea to find opinion words or phrases for each feature from customer reviews in an efficient way. Our focus in this paper is to get the patterns of opinion words/phrases about the feature of product from the review text through adjective, adverb, verb, and noun. The extracted features and opinions are useful for generating a meaningful summary that can provide significant informative resource to help the user as well as merchants to track the most suitable choice of product.

  4. Extracting Product Features and Opinion Words Using Pattern Knowledge in Customer Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Su Htay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of e-commerce and web technology, most of online Merchant sites are able to write comments about purchasing products for customer. Customer reviews expressed opinion about products or services which are collectively referred to as customer feedback data. Opinion extraction about products from customer reviews is becoming an interesting area of research and it is motivated to develop an automatic opinion mining application for users. Therefore, efficient method and techniques are needed to extract opinions from reviews. In this paper, we proposed a novel idea to find opinion words or phrases for each feature from customer reviews in an efficient way. Our focus in this paper is to get the patterns of opinion words/phrases about the feature of product from the review text through adjective, adverb, verb, and noun. The extracted features and opinions are useful for generating a meaningful summary that can provide significant informative resource to help the user as well as merchants to track the most suitable choice of product.

  5. [Key words, essential tools for bibliographic research: analysis of usage in Archivos de Bronconeumología for respiratory system knowledge areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Granda Orive, J I; García Río, F; Roig Vázquez, F; Escobar Sacristán, J; Gutiérrez Jiménez, T; Callol Sánchez, L

    2005-02-01

    To analyze key word usage in Archivos de Bronconeumología, by comparing words used in the journal to those used in the Index Medicus database within various respiratory system knowledge areas, and to determine whether usage has changed over time. Original articles published in Archivos de Bronconeumología from 1994 through 2001 were reviewed manually to gather the key words used. The list was translated to English and then compared to the medical subject heading (MeSH) terms used in the PubMed Browser. Seven hundred six original articles published in the study period used a total of 1163 key words. Matches with MeSH terms were found for 62% (n=46) of the key words in smoking research, 48% (n=52) in asthma, 39% (n=82) in respiratory insufficiency and sleep disorders, 60% (n=49) in diagnostic and treatment techniques, 61% (n=35) in tuberculosis, 65% (n=87) in nontuberculous infections, 61% (n=121) in oncology, 60% (n=37) in circulation, 55% (n=47) in pleural diseases, 48% (n=21) in pathophysiology, and 64% (n=68) in interstitial diseases. We did not see a clear tendency in the evolution of the journal's key word usage for the knowledge areas analyzed during the study period. The percentage of matching key words held steady around 50% over the last 3 years. Respiratory system key words in the knowledge areas we investigated are used correctly in Archivos de Bronconeumología only about 50% of the time.

  6. Knowledge Sharing Barriers of Acquisitioned Growth: A Case Study from a Software Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Kukko

    2013-03-01

    challenging task of managing such growth. The paper also contributes to the literature on knowledge management by defining knowledge sharing barriers in the context of acquisitioned growth in the software business. A contribution to growth literature is made by touching on the issue of the management of acquisitions from the perspective of knowledge management, and especially knowledge sharing.

  7. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  8. What's in a Word? Australian Experts' Knowledge, Views and Experiences Using the Term Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serry, Tanya Anne; Hammond, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine Australian learning difficulties specialists' knowledge about, and the use of, the term dyslexia. An online survey was constructed based on a current definition of, and evidence about, dyslexia and distributed to members of relevant professional associations. A total of 179 participants responded to the…

  9. When action turns into words. Activation of motor-based knowledge during categorization of manipulable objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlach, Christian; Law, Ian; Paulson, Olaf B

    2002-01-01

    for the processing of man-made objects per se, but rather for the processing of manipulable objects in general, whether natural or man-made. These findings both support psycholinguistic theories suggesting that certain lexical categories may evolve from, and the act of categorization rely upon, motor-based knowledge...

  10. Educational Effects of a Vocabulary Intervention on Preschoolers' Word Knowledge and Conceptual Development: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Susan B.; Newman, Ellen H.; Dwyer, Julie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that helping preschoolers learn words through categorization may enhance their ability to retain words and their conceptual properties, acting as a bootstrap for self-learning. We examined this hypothesis by investigating the effects of the World of Words instructional program, a supplemental…

  11. Pre-linguistic children with cleft palate: growth of gesture, vocalization, and word use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Nancy J; Boyce, Sarah; Martin, Gerri

    2013-12-01

    Children with cleft lip and/or palate show early delays in speech and vocabulary development that may have an impact on later communication and social development. While delays in the complexity of babbling may put children at risk for later delays in speech and language development, there is considerable variability in development. This study focused on the rate of children's communication acts, canonical vocalizations, and word use as they made the transition from the pre-linguistic to linguistic development. The study included 15 children with non-syndromic cleft lip and/or palate who were seen at three time points between 17-34 months age. Communication rates were calculated from parent-child language samples collected during play activities. Assignment to linguistic stages was based on the children's expressive vocabulary, as reported on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Words and Sentences. From the pre-linguistic to linguistic level, the children's average rate per minute of: communicative acts overall increased significantly from 1.49 to 3.07 per minute; canonical vocalizations from 0.21 to 0.90 per minute; and word use from 0.16 to 3.61 per minute. Rates of communicative acts were associated with later word use. It appears that children with clefts rely on non-verbal communicative acts when verbal development is delayed.

  12. Letter Name Knowledge and the Ability To Learn To Read by Processing Letter-Phoneme Relations in Words: Evidence from Brazilian Portuguese-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Resende, Selmara Mamede; Rodrigues, Larissa Assuncao

    2002-01-01

    Investigates whether Brazilian Portuguese-speaking prereaders who have mastered letter names are capable of processing letter-sound relations to learn to read words in which the letters correspond to phonemes contained in the names of the letters. Suggests they can use their knowledge of the names of the letters to learn to read by processing and…

  13. The Effects of Task-Induced Involvement Load on Word Learning and Confidence Judgments Mediated by Knowledge and Regulation of Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The relationships between knowledge and regulation of cognition and how they interact to mediate the effects of task-induced involvement load on word learning and confidence judgments were investigated. The participants were 77 undergraduate English majors. They were required to complete a checklist on metacognition. Subsequently, they were…

  14. The role of cognitive processes, foundational math skill, and calculation accuracy and fluency in word-problem solving versus prealgebraic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M; Tolar, Tammy D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of Grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of Grade 2; and prealgebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of Grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than prealgebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students' foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Morphological Awareness in Chinese: Unique Associations of Homophone Awareness and Lexical Compounding to Word Reading and Vocabulary Knowledge in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the associations of two aspects of morphological awareness in Chinese--homophone awareness and lexical compounding awareness--to Chinese word reading and vocabulary knowledge was the primary focus of the present study. Among 154 9-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children, both lexical compounding and homophone awareness were…

  16. Growth of new firms and spatially bounded knowledge externalities.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raspe, O.; Oort, F.G. van

    2011-01-01

    If localized knowledge spillovers are important, new firms will tend to locate in proximity of one another, as well as other knowledge sources, in order to capitalize on external knowledge stocks. Although theories that emphasize knowledge spillovers thus present the urban and regional character

  17. Does Set for Variability Mediate the Influence of Vocabulary Knowledge on the Development of Word Recognition Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that vocabulary influences word recognition skills indirectly through "set for variability", the ability to determine the correct pronunciation of approximations to spoken English words. One hundred forty children participating in a 3-year longitudinal study were administered reading and…

  18. Investigating TPACK: Knowledge Growth in Teaching with Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niess, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) presents a dynamic framework for describing teachers' knowledge required for designing, implementing, and evaluating curriculum and instruction with technology. TPACK strategic thinking includes knowing when, where, and how to use domain-specific knowledge and strategies for guiding students'…

  19. Multiple Aspects of Self-Regulation Uniquely Predict Mathematics but Not Letter–Word Knowledge in the Early Elementary Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children’s effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter–word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. PMID:25688999

  20. Multiple aspects of self-regulation uniquely predict mathematics but not letter-word knowledge in the early elementary grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Clancy; Ursache, Alexandra; Greenberg, Mark; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2015-04-01

    The relation of self-regulation measured prior to school entry to developing math and reading ability in prekindergarten through the second grade was examined in a prospective longitudinal sample of 1,292 children and families in predominantly rural and low-income communities in 2 regions of high poverty in the United States. Direct assessments of executive function, effortful control, and stress response physiology (indexed by resting levels of cortisol and alpha amylase obtained from saliva) were measured at child age 48 months and parents and teachers reported on children's effortful control using temperament rating scales at child age approximately 60 months. Math and reading ability, as measured by the Woodcock-Johnson III applied problems and letter-word subtests, respectively, were measured at prekindergarten through the second grade. Effects for self-regulation measures were seen primarily for initial level and to some extent growth in both mathematics and reading, even when controlling for family demographic characteristics that represent relevant selection factors into higher levels of both self-regulation and academic achievement. These effects persisted for mathematics but not for reading with the inclusion of child cognitive abilities, vocabulary, and speed of processing measured in prekindergarten, concurrent with the first time point for the academic measures. Results are interpreted as indicating a role for self-regulation in learning ability generally, likely through support for attention and reasoning abilities that are most specific to the assessment of mathematics in this analysis. Implications for instruction and for assessment and the best ways to support the development of early math and reading ability for children at risk for school failure are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Knowledge Cannot Explain the Developmental Growth of Working Memory Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Nelson; Ricker, Timothy J.; Clark, Katherine M.; Hinrichs, Garrett A.; Glass, Bret A.

    2015-01-01

    According to some views of cognitive growth, the development of working memory capacity can account for increases in the complexity of cognition. It has been difficult to ascertain, though, that there actually is developmental growth in capacity that cannot be attributed to other developing factors. Here we assess the role of item familiarity. We…

  2. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  3. Word Learning during Reading: Effects of Language Ability in School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Margaret S.; Wagovich, Stacy A.; Manfra, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Most vocabulary growth during the school-age years occurs incidentally. However, little is understood about the influence of language skills on word knowledge growth during reading. Using a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental design, we examined incidental word learning through reading, considering the presence/absence of supportive context and…

  4. What We do Know and What We Need to Know About Knowledge in the Growth Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caiazza, Rosa; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Volpe, Tiziana

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – There is evidence for major positive effects of knowledge transfer and innovation diffusion on economic growth. Much research has addressed schooling, training, and other aspects of human capital accumulation, but less emphasis has been placed on the interaction between firms and other...... organizations as a key driver of the development of new knowledge and its economic use. There is an extensive body of literature that discusses various aspects of knowledge transfer and innovation diffusion between firms, and this literature may serve as a microfoundation for understanding the role of knowledge...... in the growth process. However, we need to understand the role of the entrepreneur as a missing link between knowledge and innovation. The purpose of this paper is to outline some foundations of endogenous (externally driven) growth models, and uses the knowledge spillover theory of entrepreneurship to propose...

  5. Parental knowledge and impact on growth in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Objectives: Parental knowledge of a child's heart disease, treatment and prevention of complications may promote a better health related behavior towards the care of the child. Most of these children often present with failure to thrive which the parents may not associate with the disease. This study is aimed at ...

  6. Parental knowledge and impact on growth in children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teaching Hospital. Accepted: 8th August 2015. Asani MO. Aliyu I, Gambo S. Department of Paediatrics,. Cardiology unit. Aminu Kano Teaching. Hospital, Kano. Nigeria. ... the Pediatric Cardiology Clinic of. Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. ... Good nutritional practice is also important in improving their growth.7 This is ...

  7. Infrastructure, Knowledge and Economic Growth in China: 1953–2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangaralingam Ramesh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the economic development of China using the New Economic Geography (NEG as a framework of analysis. The NEG addresses the formation of agglomeration economies accruing to physical linkages in one location leading to the formation of a coreperiphery pattern between the regions of a country. However, the NEG cannot account for the role of knowledge creation linkages which are location independent in the formation of the core-periphery pattern. The main findings of this paper are that the formation of the coreperiphery pattern predicted by the NEG depends upon government economic and development policy at a point in time. Furthermore, while the NEG does not allow for knowledge creationto be involved in the formation of the core-periphery pattern, this paper shows that once the core-periphery pattern is formed, the knowledge creation process sustains it. This paper also supports the hypothesis that investment in infrastructure and fixed assets, which has been concentrated in China due to the nature of the Special Economic Zones in the Coastal regions, and the interdependence between different types of infrastructure leads to the formation of the core-periphery pattern.

  8. The Study of the Entrepreneur’s Values and Knowledge: Influence in Growth Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Campos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines how entrepreneur’s values and knowledge can influence growth expectations in new technology-ventures. The study analyses six Spanish cases with different level of growth expectations in their first years and with different characteristics in the entrepreneurial team. Our research reveals that entrepreneur’s knowledge is not a factor that helps to differentiate the level of growth in this specific sector. However, we found certain values present in those new ventures with a higher growth expectations, mainly independence and wealth. The values that were not related are the need of exploitation and security. Finally, we draw a model to understand the relationship between entrepreneur’s values and knowledge and their impact on new technology venture growth expectations.

  9. Knowing More than Words Can Say: Using Multimodal Assessment Tools to Excavate and Construct Knowledge about Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Byrne, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how multimodal assessment tools enabled Grade 2 students to show knowledge and understanding of wolves. The research design was a case study across three years employing descriptive statistics to portray student knowledge and understanding associated with the use of each tool. The findings indicate that…

  10. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  11. Becoming a written word: eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Holly S S L; Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Forbes, Paul; Nation, Kate

    2014-10-01

    We know that from mid-childhood onwards most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposure phase. At test adults read the novel words in semantically neutral sentences. Participants' eye movements were monitored throughout exposure and test. Adults also completed a surprise memory test in which they had to match each novel word with its definition. Results showed a decrease in reading times for all novel words over exposure, and significantly shorter [corrected] total reading times at test for early than late novel words. Early-presented novel words were also remembered better in the offline test. Our results show that order of presentation influences processing time early in the course of acquiring a new word, consistent with partial and incremental growth in knowledge occurring as a function of an individual's experience with each word. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Teaching New Words to Children with Poor Existing Vocabulary Knowledge: A Controlled Evaluation of the Definition and Context Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Hannah; Snowling, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    Background: Children who have poor vocabulary knowledge are at risk of wider language weaknesses and reading comprehension difficulties, which will impact upon their educational achievement. The central question addressed in this paper is how best to teach new vocabulary items to these children. Aims: To investigate the effects of two different…

  13. The Differential Impact of Reading and Listening on L2 Incidental Acquisition of Different Dimensions of Word Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatami, Sarvenaz

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the impact of second language (L2) reading and listening on the incidental acquisition and retention of five dimensions of vocabulary knowledge--spoken form, written form, part of speech, syntagmatic association, and form-meaning connection--at the level of recognition (form-meaning connection was measured also at the level of…

  14. Phonological awareness, vocabulary, and word reading in children who use cochlear implants: does age of implantation explain individual variability in performance outcomes and growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Deborah; Rajput, Kaukab; Brinton, Julie; Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    The phonological awareness (PA), vocabulary, and word reading abilities of 19 children with cochlear implants (CI) were assessed. Nine children had an implant early (between 2 and 3.6 years) and 10 had an implant later (between 5 and 7 years). Participants were tested twice over a 12-month period on syllable, rhyme, and phoneme awareness (see James et al., 2005). Performance of CI users was compared against younger hearing children matched for reading level. Two standardized assessments of vocabulary and single word reading were administered. As a group, the children fitted early had better performance outcomes on PA, vocabulary, and reading compared to hearing benchmark groups. The early group had significant growth on rhyme awareness, whereas the late group showed no significant gains in PA over time. There was wide individual variation in performance and growth in the CI users. Two participants with the best overall development were both fitted with an implant late in childhood.

  15. Word Spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, James

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the use of word-spotting in psycholinguistic research. Notes that listeners hear a list of nonsense words, some of which contain embedded real words, and they detect those embedded words, a task designed to study the segmentation of continuous speech. Describes the task and summarizes its advantages and disadvantages. (12 references)…

  16. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge. PMID:25926807

  17. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahua eCheng

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with nonverbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children’s initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children’s compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

  18. The reciprocal relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge in Chinese: a latent growth model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yahua; Li, Liping; Wu, Xinchun

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the developmental relationship between compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from grades 1 to 2 in Chinese children. In this study, 149 Chinese children were tested on compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge from Time 1 to Time 4, with non-verbal IQ, working memory, phonological awareness, orthographical awareness, and rapid automatized naming at Time 1 as control variables. Latent growth modeling was conducted to analyze the data. Univariate models separately calculated children's initial levels and growth rates in compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge. Bivariate model was used to examine the direction of the developmental relationships between the two variables with other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression controlled. The results demonstrated that the initial level of compounding awareness predicted the growth rate of vocabulary knowledge, and the reverse relation was also found, after controlling for other cognitive and linguistic variables and the autoregression. The results suggested a reciprocal developmental relationship between children's compounding awareness and vocabulary knowledge for Chinese children, a finding that informs current models of the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge.

  19. On the Growth of Scientific Knowledge: Yeast Biology as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xionglei; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2009-01-01

    The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration. PMID:19300476

  20. On the growth of scientific knowledge: yeast biology as a case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xionglei He

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The tempo and mode of human knowledge expansion is an enduring yet poorly understood topic. Through a temporal network analysis of three decades of discoveries of protein interactions and genetic interactions in baker's yeast, we show that the growth of scientific knowledge is exponential over time and that important subjects tend to be studied earlier. However, expansions of different domains of knowledge are highly heterogeneous and episodic such that the temporal turnover of knowledge hubs is much greater than expected by chance. Familiar subjects are preferentially studied over new subjects, leading to a reduced pace of innovation. While research is increasingly done in teams, the number of discoveries per researcher is greater in smaller teams. These findings reveal collective human behaviors in scientific research and help design better strategies in future knowledge exploration.

  1. A Longitudinal Study of Receptive Vocabulary Breadth Knowledge Growth and Vocabulary Fluency Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Lu, Xiaofei

    2014-01-01

    This article reports results of a longitudinal study of vocabulary breadth knowledge growth, vocabulary fluency development, and the relationship between the two. We administered two versions of the Vocabulary Levels Test (VLT; Nation 1983; Nation 1990; Schmitt et al. 2001) to 300 students at a Chinese university at three different time points…

  2. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  3. A review of the actual knowledge of the processes governing growth and development of long bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo Ernesto; Beluffi, Giampiero; Benetti, Anna; Bondioni, Maria Pia; Zarattini, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Autoptic samples of human bones (from 8 weeks of gestation to 12 years of age) and a second group of serial, skeletal x-rays (required for pathologies not related to bone dysplasia in children from 4 months to 17 years of age) provided the material for the analysis of the physes normal growth mechanism presented in this review. Before the appearance of the ossification centers epiphyseal growth rests exclusively on chondrocytes proliferation (interstitial growth), without any detectable differentiated cellular organization. When endochondral ossification starts a defined spatial disposition of chondrocytes and a corresponding organization of the intercellular matrix is set up, so that it is possible to identify a growth vector corresponding to the columns of piled chondrocytes with direction from hypertrophic toward the proliferative cell layers. The complexity of the tubular bones growth process is well represented by the spatial arrangement of the growth vectors. In the late epiphyseal growth another mechanism is active in addition to endochondral ossification, namely, articular cartilage interstitial growth and subchondral remodelling. The knowledge of the normal mode of organization of the physis and its temporal sequence can help to better understand of the deviaton from the normal development of metaphyseal and epiphyseal dysplasias.

  4. RESOURCE DEPENDENCE, KNOWLEDGE CREATION, AND GROWTH: REVISITING THE NATURAL RESOURCE CURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Welsch

    2008-01-01

    Several explanations have been put forward for the phenomenon - referred to as ¡®curse of natural resources¡¯ - that resource-rich countries tend to display low rates of economic growth. This paper studies an R&D-related explanation, using an endogenous growth model with natural resources and R&D-based technological change. For suitable values of preference parameters, the model predicts that knowledge creation as well as capital formation are inversely related to natural-resource intensity, ...

  5. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  6. Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge. PMID:22709398

  7. Infant word segmentation and childhood vocabulary development: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Steven Reznick, J; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-07-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzLi5oLZQ8. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  9. Knowledge, Economic Growth And The Role Of Policy On The Role Of "Public-Private Partnerships" In The New "Knowledge-Driven" Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Blankenburg

    2000-01-01

    The paper examines the economic rationale for "public-private partnerships" to promote technological progress and growth in the new "knowledge-driven" economy. Three main arguments are advanced: First, the present policy agenda is caught up in a mismatch between micro-economic science and technology policies, on the one hand, and macroeconomic growth policies, on the other. While the former rely on an essentially evolutionary understanding of innovative processes which emphasise the need for ...

  10. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...... on the interrelationship between theory and practice in specific domains, while at the same time foregrounding the own position of the researcher. The transformation of European security in the 1990s is taken as an example of how an IR analysis changes focus when seeing knowledge as Bourdieu....

  11. POSITIONING KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT AS KEY SUCCESS FACTOR IN THE GROWTH OF COOPERATIVES IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeop Hussin Bidin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic and business challenges in the new millennium have shaped the manner cooperative movement in Malaysia charts its future outlook. After almost 82 years, a national policy was launched by the Government on January 2004 to assist in the comprehensive development of the cooperative movement. The National CooperativePolicy (NCP will ensure that the huge resources of the cooperatives can be harnessed to generate and contribute to the economic growth of the country. However, in the light of many issues such as weak structure and the absence of good corporate governance in some cooperatives, the present Cooperative Act 1993 is being reviewed and several new provisions would be added to increase supervision, monitoring and enforcement against existing cooperatives in alaysia. It is quite imperative that by regulating the operation of cooperatives will require also the managing of intellectual and human capital assets that exist in the movement. Through establishing a framework and terms of reference such that fundamental elements of knowledge management can be instilled areprerequisites to developing innovativeness in this growing economic sector. The sharing of knowledge among the cooperatives will eventually produce better and more educated human resources that are able to experience greater control over the works and the administration of their quality working life. Structural analysis of the cooperative movement indicates the significant influence of knowledge management in sustaining its future growth given the timely introduction of the NCP. Thus, measures taken to underline this influence will also be addressed to represent the cooperative movement's readiness to face economic and business challenges in Malaysia.

  12. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  13. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  14. Deterioration of word meaning: implications for reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, K; Hodges, J R

    1992-12-01

    We investigated six patients with progressive focal dementia or progressive aphasia, who showed impairments in knowledge of word meaning ranging from moderate to very severe. In all cases, a test of oral word reading demonstrated preserved reading of words with regular spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g. MINT), but impaired reading of words with atypical correspondences (e.g. PINT). The level of success on these "exception" words was significantly related to word frequency, and the most common error was the assignment of a more typical spelling-sound correspondence. Various explanations are considered for this common association between loss of word meaning and a surface alexic pattern of reading performance.

  15. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  16. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  17. Pedagogic Content Knowledge (PCK in university Biotechnology teaching. The microbial specific growth rate (μ case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Ruberto, Lucas Adolfo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a study based on the university student’s conception about microbial specific growth rate (μ is presented. The study was focused on last year students of the Biochemist career (Buenos Aires University, Argentina. It was developed considering the answers given anonymously by the students when they were spontaneously asked about the meaning of μ. The analysis was focused in the identification of factors which could be related with the students´ ideas about μ, such as the previous work with the subject, the tendency to the functional reduction, the pragmatisms and the possibility of alternative conceptions, but related with a specific field of applied sciences, such as biotechnology. Strategies aiming to the reconstruction of the μ concept were proposed considering these factors. The experiences presented in this work will contribute to the development of the Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK in applied sciences, particularly in biotechnology.

  18. Furthering knowledge of seaweed growth and development to facilitate sustainable aquaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrier, Bénédicte; Abreu, Maria Helena; Araujo, Rita; Bruhn, Annette; Coates, Juliet C; De Clerck, Olivier; Katsaros, Christos; Robaina, Rafael R; Wichard, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Macroalgae (seaweeds) are the subject of increasing interest for their potential as a source of valuable, sustainable biomass in the food, feed, chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Compared with microalgae, the pace of knowledge acquisition in seaweeds is slower despite the availability of whole-genome sequences and model organisms for the major seaweed groups. This is partly a consequence of specific hurdles related to the large size of these organisms and their slow growth. As a result, this basic scientific field is falling behind, despite the societal and economic importance of these organisms. Here, we argue that sustainable management of seaweed aquaculture requires fundamental understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms controlling macroalgal life cycles - from the production of germ cells to the growth and fertility of the adult organisms - using diverse approaches requiring a broad range of technological tools. This Viewpoint highlights several examples of basic research on macroalgal developmental biology that could enable the step-changes which are required to adequately meet the demands of the aquaculture sector. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  20. Sarbalap! Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  1. Word-to-Word Models of Translational Equivalence

    CERN Document Server

    Melamed, I D

    1998-01-01

    Parallel texts (bitexts) have properties that distinguish them from other kinds of parallel data. First, most words translate to only one other word. Second, bitext correspondence is noisy. This article presents methods for biasing statistical translation models to reflect these properties. Analysis of the expected behavior of these biases in the presence of sparse data predicts that they will result in more accurate models. The prediction is confirmed by evaluation with respect to a gold standard -- translation models that are biased in this fashion are significantly more accurate than a baseline knowledge-poor model. This article also shows how a statistical translation model can take advantage of various kinds of pre-existing knowledge that might be available about particular language pairs. Even the simplest kinds of language-specific knowledge, such as the distinction between content words and function words, is shown to reliably boost translation model performance on some tasks. Statistical models that ...

  2. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  3. Coordinating procedural and conceptual knowledge to make sense of word equations: understanding the complexity of a ‘simple’ chemical task at the learner’s resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Keith Stephen; Bricheno, Pat

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This paper discusses the conceptual demands of an apparently straightforward task set to secondary level students ? completing chemical word equations with a single omitted term. Chemical equations are of considerable importance in chemistry, and school students are expected to learn to be able to write and interpret them. However, it is recognized that many students find them challenging. The present paper explores students? accounts of their attempts to identify the miss...

  4. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  5. Human capital development, knowledge spillovers and local growth: Is there a quality effect of university efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Zotti, Roberto; Barra, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether economic growth depends on human capital development using data disaggregated at territorial level and propose the use of efficiency estimates, measured using a non-parametric technique, as an alternative quality measure of higher education institutions (HEIs). The nature of knowledge spillovers is also taken into account to examine the existence of geographically localized spillovers, from the presence of efficient universities, on local growth. Results show th...

  6. Comparing Children with ASD and Their Peers' Growth in Print Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Brock, Matthew E.; Logan, Jessica A.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2016-01-01

    Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) struggle with reading. An increased focus on emergent literacy skills--particularly print knowledge--might improve later reading outcomes. We analyzed longitudinal measures of print knowledge (i.e., alphabet knowledge and print-concept knowledge) for 35 preschoolers with ASD relative to a sample of…

  7. The KnownLeaf literature curation system captures knowledge about Arabidopsis leaf growth and development and facilitates integrated data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szakonyi, D.; Landeghem, van S.; Baerenfaller, K.; Baeyens, L.; Blomme, J.; Casanova-Saéz, R.; Bodt, De S.; Esteve-Bruna, D.; Fiorani, F.; Gonzalez, N.; Grønlund, J.; Immink, R.G.H.; Jover-Gil, S.; Kuwabara, A.; Muñoz-Nortes, T.; Dijk, van A.D.J.; Wilson-Sánchez, D.; Buchanan-Wollaston, V.; Angenent, G.C.; Peer, Van de Y.; Inzé, D.; Micol, J.L.; Gruissem, W.; Walsh, S.; Hilson, P.

    2015-01-01

    The information that connects genotypes and phenotypes is essentially embedded in research articles written in natural language. To facilitate access to this knowledge, we constructed a framework for the curation of the scientific literature studying the molecular mechanisms that control leaf growth

  8. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  9. Mathematical Knowledge: Its Growth through Teaching. Mathematics Education Library, Volume 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Alan J., Ed.; And Others

    This book presents issues concerning relationships between mathematical knowledge and the teaching and learning processes, focusing especially on the genesis of mathematical knowledge in the classroom. The chapter titles are: (1) The Fragility of Knowledge (Guy Brousseau and Michael Otte); (2) The Double Bind as a Didactical Trap (Stieg…

  10. Words and possible words in early language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L

    2013-11-01

    In order to acquire language, infants must extract its building blocks-words-and master the rules governing their legal combinations from speech. These two problems are not independent, however: words also have internal structure. Thus, infants must extract two kinds of information from the same speech input. They must find the actual words of their language. Furthermore, they must identify its possible words, that is, the sequences of sounds that, being morphologically well formed, could be words. Here, we show that infants' sensitivity to possible words appears to be more primitive and fundamental than their ability to find actual words. We expose 12- and 18-month-old infants to an artificial language containing a conflict between statistically coherent and structurally coherent items. We show that 18-month-olds can extract possible words when the familiarization stream contains marks of segmentation, but cannot do so when the stream is continuous. Yet, they can find actual words from a continuous stream by computing statistical relationships among syllables. By contrast, 12-month-olds can find possible words when familiarized with a segmented stream, but seem unable to extract statistically coherent items from a continuous stream that contains minimal conflicts between statistical and structural information. These results suggest that sensitivity to word structure is in place earlier than the ability to analyze distributional information. The ability to compute nontrivial statistical relationships becomes fully effective relatively late in development, when infants have already acquired a considerable amount of linguistic knowledge. Thus, mechanisms for structure extraction that do not rely on extensive sampling of the input are likely to have a much larger role in language acquisition than general-purpose statistical abilities. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Evaluation of conidia production and mycelial growth in solid culture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FATIMAYALBERTO

    2012-10-02

    Oct 2, 2012 ... cm on average. Key words: Entomopathogenic fungi, esporulation, conidia, mycelial growth. ... This detailed knowledge of the nutritional demands for growth and ..... Effect of surface aminoacids on the growth of Peltaster fructicola fungus associated with sooty blotch complex. J. Plant Protect. Res. 45:273-278.

  12. External Knowledge Sourcing and Green Innovation Growth with Environmental and Energy Regulations: Evidence from Manufacturing in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper adopts the slacks-based measure-directional distance function (SBM-DDF, 2009 method for deriving the “Green Innovation Growth” rates of 28 manufacturing industries in China. The results indicate that the overall level of green innovation growth in China’s manufacturing is relatively low, with a declining trend. The tradeoffs among energy, environment and economy are rather sharp, and the “Porter Effect (1995” (environmental regulation will promote green technology innovation is not currently realized quickly in manufacturing. These evaluations imply an unsustainable development model in China, with significant differences among industries. By using a dynamic panel threshold model and employing an industry-level panel dataset for 2008–2014, we show that external knowledge sourcing has a significant negative impact on green innovation growth but with different constraints on R&D levels among industries. With the strengthening of R&D levels, gradually surpassing “critical mass”, the negative role of external knowledge sourcing in driving this mechanism becomes smaller and smaller; it has a non-linear relationship with the “threshold effect”. Consequently, we provide insights into the relationship among energy consumption, environmental pollution and technology innovation, and show how the heterogeneity of the R&D threshold affects differences in external knowledge sourcing and green innovation growth. These insights lead to a better understanding of the driving force, realizing path and policy design for green innovation growth.

  13. PEDIATRIC NURSING MODELLING APPROACH ON MOTHER'S KNOWLEDGE, PRACTICE ABILITY AND MATERNAL CONFIDENCE OF INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariyanti Saleh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first five years of age of a child is a critical time that will affect the child growth development process. Any untreated disorders may impair the process that subsequently influences quality of life of the child in the future. Therefore, it is imperative for a mother to optimize the growth development process. This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of health education with modelling approach on mother's knowledge, practice ability and maternal confidence of infant (0-6 months growth and development. Method: A quasy eksperimental pre-post with control group design was used. The intervention given was health education with modelling approach related to lactation management and infant growth development stimulation. The research was conducted in Maros Regency wiht 81 samples (41 in the treatment group and 40 in the control group. Result: The wilcoxon test reveals that there was a signi fi cant difference between treatment and control group, accordingly, knowledge (p = 0.00, p = 0.01, practice ability (p = 0.00, p = 0,006 and maternal confidence (p = 0.03, p = 0.03. In addition, from mann whitney test, between the two group, the data obtained are: knowledge (p = 0,950, practice ability (p = 0.00 and maternal con fi dence (p = 0,061. Discussion: Health education with modelling approach conducting by nurse was effective in increasing knowledge, practice ability, maternal confidence breastfeeding and baby stimulation, which was in turn can optimize baby growth and development. That is why, community health nurses role should be increase by making community health nursing program as one of primary public health centre program.

  14. Organic Growth Improvement of Indonesian Logistics Companies (A Conceptual Model: Contribution of Strategic Management, Transformational Leadership, and Knowledge Management to Corporate Entrepreneurship and Its Impact on Organic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darjat Sudrajat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian logistics companies needed performance improvement (particularly in organic growth for increasing their competitiveness. Based on previous researches that in order to increase organic growth, it could be conducted through developing corporate entrepreneurship, namely the activities that enhance company’s ability to innovate, take risk and seize market opportunities. The purpose of this paper tried to explore the relationships among variables, namely organic growth (OG, corporate entrepreneurship (CE, transformational leadership (TL, knowledge management (KM, and strategic management (SM. Therefore, this research used causal-explanatory study to explain relationships among the variables. The results of this research were concluded that TL, KM, and SM have contributions to corporate entrepreneurship and organicgrowth. The relationships could be constructed in a conceptual model that could be verified through further research.

  15. Beyond Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Design research often concentrates on the translation process from the knowledge gathered to the final design. Methodological dilemmas can arise on how to undertake participatory or other forms of ‘progressive design’ so that the end results will be beneficial for those involved. Seldom are the v...

  16. Putting TPACK on the Radar: A Visual Quantitative Model for Tracking Growth of Essential Teacher Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Julien C.; Tomayko, Ming C.

    2015-01-01

    Since Mishra and Koehler's (2006) description of technological pedagogical content knowledge (also known as TPACK), scholars have analyzed the various paths preservice and in-service teachers can take to develop their knowledge in each of the subdomains. However, the model of the overall framework can be confusing to teachers, as Venn diagrams are…

  17. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    , assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words......: Internationalization, knowledge gap, absorptive capacity, learning box....

  18. Factors That Influence the Difficulty of Science Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervetti, Gina N.; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Pearson, P. David; McClung, Nicola A.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines, within the domain of science, the characteristics of words that predict word knowledge and word learning. The authors identified a set of word characteristics--length, part of speech, polysemy, frequency, morphological frequency, domain specificity, and concreteness--that, based on earlier research, were prime candidates to…

  19. The influence of an intensive in-service workshop on pedagogical content knowledge growth among novice chemical demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clermont, Christian P.; Krajcik, Joseph S.; Borko, Hilda

    This study examined the influence of an intensive chemical demonstration workshop on fostering pedagogical content knowledge growth among science teachers identified as novice chemical demonstrators. The two-week summer workshop was designed around four training elements considered important to effective teacher in-servicing: theory, modeling, practice, and feedback. Clinical interviews served to probe various aspects of novice demonstrators' pedagogical content knowledge prior to and after the workshop. The interview protocols were analyzed using the methods of taxonomic, componential, and theme analysis. Differences in pre- and postworkshop clinical interview responses suggested growth in novices' representational and adaptational repertoires for demonstrating fundamental topics in chemistry. This growth was reflected in the increased number of chemical demonstrations and demonstration variations on each of the target chemical concepts that the novice demonstrators discussed after the in-service intervention. Their interview responses also suggested an increased awareness of the complexity of several chemical demonstrations, how these complexities could interfere with learning, and how simplified variations of the chemical demonstrations could promote science concept understanding. The research findings suggest that science teachers' pedagogical content knowledge in chemistry can be enhanced through intensive, short-term in-service programs.

  20. Relationship between mothers' nutritional knowledge in childcare practices and the growth of children living in impoverished rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saaka, Mahama

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the relationship between maternal nutritional knowledge in childcare practices and growth of children living in impoverished rural communities. This was an analytical cross-sectional study which covered a random sample of 991 children aged 0-36 month(s). Multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, there was a significant positive association between the childcare knowledge index and mean HAZ (beta = 0.10, p = 0.005) but was not associated with mean WHZ. The strength of association increased among women of high socioeconomic status (beta = 0.15, p = 0.014) but there was no significant association among women of low socioeconomic status. Increase in maternal childcare knowledge may contribute significantly to child's nutritional status in Ghana if there is concurrent improvement in socioeconomic circumstances of women living in deprived rural communities.

  1. Relationship between Mothers’ Nutritional Knowledge in Childcare Practices and the Growth of Children Living in Impoverished Rural Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study assessed the relationship between maternal nutritional knowledge in childcare practices and growth of children living in impoverished rural communities. This was an analytical cross-sectional study which covered a random sample of 991 children aged 0-36 month(s). Multivariate analysis showed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, there was a significant positive association between the childcare knowledge index and mean HAZ (β=0.10, p=0.005) but was not associated with mean WHZ. The strength of association increased among women of high socioeconomic status (β=0.15, p=0.014) but there was no significant association among women of low socioeconomic status. Increase in maternal childcare knowledge may contribute significantly to child's nutritional status in Ghana if there is concurrent improvement in socioeconomic circumstances of women living in deprived rural communities. PMID:25076661

  2. Theory of mind and emotion recognition skills in children with specific language impairment, autism spectrum disorder and typical development: group differences and connection to knowledge of grammatical morphology, word-finding abilities and verbal working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social perception abilities. To compare the performance of children with SLI, ASD and typical development (TD) in social perception tasks measuring Theory of Mind (ToM) and emotion recognition. In addition, to evaluate the association between social perception tasks and language tests measuring word-finding abilities, knowledge of grammatical morphology and verbal working memory. Children with SLI (n = 18), ASD (n = 14) and TD (n = 25) completed two NEPSY-II subtests measuring social perception abilities: (1) Affect Recognition and (2) ToM (includes Verbal and non-verbal Contextual tasks). In addition, children's word-finding abilities were measured with the TWF-2, grammatical morphology by using the Grammatical Closure subtest of ITPA, and verbal working memory by using subtests of Sentence Repetition or Word List Interference (chosen according the child's age) of the NEPSY-II. Children with ASD scored significantly lower than children with SLI or TD on the NEPSY-II Affect Recognition subtest. Both SLI and ASD groups scored significantly lower than TD children on Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest of NEPSY-II. However, there were no significant group differences on non-verbal Contextual tasks of the ToM subtest of the NEPSY-II. Verbal tasks of the ToM subtest were correlated with the Grammatical Closure subtest and TWF-2 in children with SLI. In children with ASD correlation between TWF-2 and ToM: Verbal tasks was moderate, almost achieving statistical significance, but no other correlations were found. Both SLI and ASD groups showed difficulties in tasks measuring verbal ToM but differences were not found in tasks measuring non-verbal Contextual ToM. The

  3. Growth and Welfare Effects of Health Care in Knowledge Based Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Michael; Prettner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We consider an endogenous growth model with Blanchard-Yaari-type overlapping generations that is built around four sectors: final and intermediate goods production, an R&D sector and a health care sector. Health care serves to lower mortality and morbidity, the latter being related to participation/productivity in the labor market. We show that, regardless of its finance, the impact of health care on economic growth crucially depends on whether or not it increases employment in the R&D sector...

  4. Growth in Career Academy Students' Experience, Knowledge, and Self- Confidence Related to Health Care Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loera, Gustavo,; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Boal, Ashley L.; Wendt, Staci J.; Beck, Cindy; Cherry, Carla

    2016-01-01

    A survey measure was developed to assess high school students' experience, knowledge, and self-confidence related to health care careers. In the fall and spring of one school year, the measure was administered to a diverse sample of 2,309 students participating in career academies focused on the health care industry. Confirmatory factor analyses…

  5. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We continue in this issue of Echo with the contribution of Franco Francia. Franco Francia During my term as President of the Staff Association (January 1978 – June 1980) a major topic was the Review of Social and Economic Conditions (RESCO). It was the first major revision of the CERN Staff Rules and Regulations. The salary scale at the time, before the revision, had a parabolic shape. For an organization like CERN, which already had a third of its staff with a university level education, this proportion hinted at a too important growth of the total salary bill, compared to the cost of investment and maintenance of the CERN facilities. We thus flattened the curve by stopping the automatic advancement in grades 12 to 14 for three years. This measure, although restrictive for senior staff, made the CERN budget more acceptable in the long term to the Membe...

  6. Selecting Academic Vocabulary Words Worth Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Dianna; Kiernan, Darl

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching tip is to share a new tool for identifying high-utility academic words from instructional texts. The Word and Phrase Tool, when paired with teacher knowledge about students and objectives, can help teachers promote the academic vocabulary development of their students.

  7. Color Word Acquisition: Conceptual or Linguistic Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Nancy N.

    A study investigated children's difficulty in learning color words and attempted to determine whether the difficulty was perceptual, conceptual, or linguistic. The subjects were 24 two-year-olds, half with knowledge of color words and half without, and a similar control group. The experimental subjects were given conceptual and comprehension tasks…

  8. Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

  9. Bidirectional Relations between Phonological Awareness and Letter Knowledge in Preschool Revisited: A Growth Curve Analysis of the Relation between Two Code-Related Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age = 48.60 months, SD = 7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bi-directionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. PMID:26745710

  10. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60 months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. WordPress 3 Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shreves, Ric

    2011-01-01

    This is a Packt Cookbook, which means it contains step-by-step instructions to achieve a particular goal or solve a particular problem. There are plenty of screenshots and explained practical tasks to make comprehension quick and easy. This book is not specifically for developers or programmers; rather it can be used by anyone who wants to get more out of their WordPress blog by following step-by-step instructions. A basic knowledge of PHP/XHTML/CSS/WordPress is desirable but not necessary.

  12. The Colour of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Bernice Lever

    Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can…

  13. Examining the Acquisition of Vocabulary Knowledge Depth among Preschool Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Elizabeth B.; Dickinson, David K.; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Nesbitt, Kimberly T.

    2016-01-01

    Well-developed lexical representations are important for reading comprehension, but there have been no prior attempts to track growth in the depth of knowledge of particular words. This article examines increases in depth of vocabulary knowledge in 4-5-year-old preschool students (n = 240) who participated in a vocabulary intervention that taught…

  14. WordPress web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Ratnayake, Rakhitha Nimesh

    2013-01-01

    An extensive, practical guide that explains how to adapt WordPress features, both conventional and trending, for web applications.This book is intended for WordPress developers and designers who have the desire to go beyond conventional website development to develop quality web applications within a limited time frame and for maximum profit. Experienced web developers who are looking for a framework for rapid application development will also find this to be a useful resource. Prior knowledge with of WordPress is preferable as the main focus will be on explaining methods for adapting WordPres

  15. WordPress 3.7 complete

    CERN Document Server

    Król, Karol

    2013-01-01

    WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition is a comprehensive and step-by-step tutorial packed with screenshots and examples to make it easy and quick to pick it up.This WordPress book is a guide to WordPress for online publishers and web developers. If you are new to blogging and want to create your own blog or website from scratch, then ""WordPress 3.5 Complete: Third Edition"" is for you. No prior knowledge of HTML/CSS or PHP is required.

  16. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  17. Emotion Words Shape Emotion Percepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendron, Maria; Lindquist, Kristen A.; Barsalou, Lawrence; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2015-01-01

    People believe they see emotion written on the faces of other people. In an instant, simple facial actions are transformed into information about another's emotional state. The present research examined whether a perceiver unknowingly contributes to emotion perception with emotion word knowledge. We present 2 studies that together support a role for emotion concepts in the formation of visual percepts of emotion. As predicted, we found that perceptual priming of emotional faces (e.g., a scowling face) was disrupted when the accessibility of a relevant emotion word (e.g., anger) was temporarily reduced, demonstrating that the exact same face was encoded differently when a word was accessible versus when it was not. The implications of these findings for a linguistically relative view of emotion perception are discussed. PMID:22309717

  18. Development of a knowledge assessment tool for dermatotoxicity caused by inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Dimitrios Konstantinos; Konstantinidis, Theocharis; Konsatntinidis, Theocharis; Skandalaki, Nektaria; Papadouri, Anna; Pappa, Theodora; Poulopoulou, Stavroula

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was the development of a knowledge assessment tool for dermatotoxicity caused by inhibitors of EGFR (intravenous regimens). Five nurses with experience in oncology created a 25-item questionnaire. The questionnaire was presented to six experts for assessment of face and content validity. Item analysis and reliability testing were evaluated on the test results of 76 nurses. Face and content validity was achieved for 25 items. Two items with low biserial correlations were deleted. The values for item difficulty range from 0.2 to 0.7. The values for item discrimination ranged from 0.25 to 0.64. The complete post-tested 23-item questionnaire showed excellent internal consistency with Kuder-Richardson 20 score of 0.909. The Cohen κ tests showed that the questionnaire has very good test-retest reliability. The specific tool can be used in several studies, leading to the development of educational interventions.

  19. Word Vectorization Using Relations among Words for Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Hajime; Kittaka, Masanobu; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    In this paper, we propose a new vectorization method for a new generation of computational intelligence including neural networks and natural language processing. In recent years, various techniques of word vectorization have been proposed, many of which rely on the preparation of dictionaries. However, these techniques don't consider the symbol grounding problem for unknown types of data, which is one of the most fundamental issues on artificial intelligence. In order to avoid the symbol-grounding problem, pattern processing based methods, such as neural networks, are often used in various studies on self-directive systems and algorithms, and the merit of neural network is not exception in the natural language processing. The proposed method is a converter from one word input to one real-valued vector, whose algorithm is inspired by neural network architecture. The merits of the method are as follows: (1) the method requires no specific knowledge of linguistics e.g. word classes or grammatical one; (2) the method is a sequence learning technique and it can learn additional knowledge. The experiment showed the efficiency of word vectorization in terms of similarity measurement.

  20. The relationship between knowing a word and reading it aloud in children's word reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne

    2009-07-01

    This experiment examined the item-level relationship between 7-year-olds' ability to read words aloud and their knowledge of the same words in the oral domain. Two types of knowledge were contrasted: familiarity with the phonological form of the word (lexical phonology), measured by auditory lexical decision, and semantic knowledge, measured by a definitions task. Overall, there was a robust relationship between word knowledge and reading aloud success. The association was stronger when words contained irregular spelling-sound correspondences. There was no evidence that a deeper or more semantic knowledge of words was more closely related to reading aloud success beyond the association between reading success and familiarity with the phonological form of the same words. This finding is not compatible with models that see semantics as contributing directly to the reading aloud process, at least during the relatively early stages of reading development. More critical was whether or not a word was considered a lexical item, as indexed by auditory lexical decision performance.

  1. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  2. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  3. Productive knowledge of collocations may predict academic literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dyk, Tobie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the relationship between productive knowledge of collocations and academic literacy among first year students at North-West University. Participants were administered a collocation test, the items of which were selected from Nation’s (2006 word frequency bands, i.e. the 2000-word, 3000-word, 5000-word bands; and the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000. The scores from the collocation test were compared to those from the Test of Academic Literacy Levels (version administered in 2012. The results of this study indicate that, overall, knowledge of collocations is significantly correlated with academic literacy, which is also observed at each of the frequency bands from which the items were selected. These results support Nizonkiza’s (2014 findings that a significant correlation between mastery of collocations of words from the Academic Word List and academic literacy exists; which is extended here to words from other frequency bands. They also confirm previous findings that productive knowledge of collocations increases alongside overall proficiency (cf. Gitsaki, 1999; Bonk, 2001; Eyckmans et al., 2004; Boers et al., 2006; Nizonkiza, 2011; among others. This study therefore concludes that growth in productive knowledge of collocations may entail growth in academic literacy; suggesting that productive use of collocations is linked to academic literacy to a considerable extent. In light of these findings, teaching strategies aimed to assist first year students meet academic demands posed by higher education and avenues to explore for further research are discussed. Especially, we suggest adopting a productive oriented approach to teaching collocations, which we believe may prove useful.

  4. Word Sense Disambiguation using Aggregated Similarity based on WordNet Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina ZURINI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term of word sense disambiguation, WSD, is introduced in the context of text document processing. A knowledge based approach is conducted using WordNet lexical ontology, describing its structure and components used for the process of identification of context related senses of each polysemy words. The principal distance measures using the graph associated to WordNet are presented, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages. A general model for aggregation of distances and probabilities is proposed and implemented in an application in order to detect the context senses of each word. For the non-existing words from WordNet, a similarity measure is used based on probabilities of co-occurrences. The module of WSD is proposed for integration in the step of processing documents such as supervised and unsupervised classification in order to maximize the correctness of the classification. Future work is related to the implementation of different domain oriented ontologies.

  5. The data harvest how sharing research data can yield knowledge, jobs and growth : an RDA Europe report

    CERN Document Server

    Moran, Nuala

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, the High Level Group on Scientific Data presented the "Riding the Wave,” report to the European Commission outlining a series of policy recommendations on how Europe could gain from the rising tide of scientific data. Over 4 years later, a team of European experts have generated a new report "The Data Harvest: How sharing research data can yield knowledge, jobs and growth" with an update on the landscape described in the previous report aiming to sound a warning on how Europe must act now to secure its standing in future data markets. In this report, we outline the benefits and challenges, and offer recommendations to European policy makers. The seeds have been sown. Now is the time to plan the harvest.

  6. Teaching the Meaning of Words to Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Loijens, Nancy E. A.; Waller, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    In the report presented here, the authors describe a pilot intervention study that was intended to teach children with visual impairments the meaning of far-away words, and that used their mothers as mediators. The aim was to teach both labels and deep word knowledge, which is the comprehension of the full meaning of words, illustrated through…

  7. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  8. Training Mispronunciation Correction and Word Meanings Improves Children's Ability to Learn to Read Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Hannah; Best, Wendy; Solity, Jonathan; Hulme, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that learning to read irregular words depends upon knowledge of a word's meaning and the ability to correct imperfect decoding attempts by reference to the known pronunciations of a word. In an experimental training study, 84 children ages 5-7 years were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group.…

  9. Representations of Circular Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Hegedüs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give two different ways of representations of circular words. Representations with tuples are intended as a compact notation, while representations with trees give a way to easily process all conjugates of a word. The latter form can also be used as a graphical representation of periodic properties of finite (in some cases, infinite words. We also define iterative representations which can be seen as an encoding utilizing the flexible properties of circular words. Every word over the two letter alphabet can be constructed starting from ab by applying the fractional power and the cyclic shift operators one after the other, iteratively.

  10. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  11. The Utility and Ubiquity of Taboo Words

    OpenAIRE

    Jay, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT—Taboo words are defined and sanctioned by institutions of power (e.g., religion, media), and prohibitions are reiterated in child-rearing practices. Native speakers acquire folk knowledge of taboo words, but it lacks the complexity that psychological science requires for an understanding of swearing. Misperceptions persist in psychological science and in society at large about how frequently people swear or what it means when they do. Public recordings of tabo...

  12. WordPress web design for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Updated, full-color guide to creating dynamic websites with WordPress 3.6 In this updated new edition, bestselling For Dummies author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson makes it easy for anyone with a basic knowledge of the WordPress software to create a custom site using complementary technologies such as CSS, HTML, PHP, and MySQL. You'll not only get up to speed on essential tools and technologies and further advance your own design skills, this book also gives you pages of great case studies, so you can see just how other companies and individuals are creating compelling, customized, a

  13. Gender differences in adult word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Marian, Viorica; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-05-01

    In prior work, women were found to outperform men on short-term verbal memory tasks. The goal of the present work was to examine whether gender differences on short-term memory tasks are tied to the involvement of long-term memory in the learning process. In Experiment 1, men and women were compared on their ability to remember phonologically-familiar novel words and phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. Learning of phonologically-familiar novel words (but not of phonologically-unfamiliar novel words) can be supported by long-term phonological knowledge. Results revealed that women outperformed men on phonologically-familiar novel words, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar novel words. In Experiment 2, we replicated Experiment 1 using a within-subjects design, and confirmed gender differences on phonologically-familiar, but not on phonologically-unfamiliar stimuli. These findings are interpreted to suggest that women are more likely than men to recruit native-language phonological knowledge during novel word-learning. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  15. Examining assortativity in the mental lexicon: Evidence from word associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Words are characterized by a variety of lexical and psychological properties, such as their part of speech, word-frequency, concreteness, or affectivity. In this study, we examine how these properties relate to a word's connectivity in the mental lexicon, the structure containing a person's knowledge of words. In particular, we examine the extent to which these properties display assortative mixing, that is, the extent to which words in the lexicon are more likely to be connected to words that share these properties. We investigated three types of word properties: 1) subjective word covariates: valence, dominance, arousal, and concreteness; 2) lexical information: part of speech; and 3) distributional word properties: age-of-acquisition, word frequency, and contextual diversity. We assessed which of these factors exhibit assortativity using a word association task, where the probability of producing a certain response to a cue is a measure of the associative strength between the cue and response in the mental lexicon. Our results show that the extent to which these aspects exhibit assortativity varies considerably, with a high cue-response correspondence on valence, dominance, arousal, concreteness, and part of speech, indicating that these factors correspond to the words people deem as related. In contrast, we find that cues and responses show only little correspondence on word frequency, contextual diversity, and age-of-acquisition, indicating that, compared to subjective and lexical word covariates, distributional properties exhibit only little assortativity in the mental lexicon. Possible theoretical accounts and implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Word 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Herb

    2010-01-01

    In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

  17. Suffix Knowledge: Acquisition and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeremy; Chuenjundaeng, Jitlada

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate L2 learners' knowledge of complex word part analysis ("word-building"), with particular reference to two issues: suffix acquisition and to the use of word families as a counting tool. Subjects were two groups of EAP students in a Thai university. Results suggest that (1) the use of word…

  18. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  19. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...

  20. Words That Encourage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  1. Words: Religious Language Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hemel, E.; Szafraniec, Asja

    It is said that words are like people: One can encounter them daily yet never come to know their true selves. This volume examines what words are how they exist in religious phenomena. Going beyond the common idea that language merely describes states of mind, beliefs, and intentions, the book looks

  2. Baby's First 10 Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers…

  3. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  4. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  5. Semantic Change Type in Old Javanese Word and Sanskrit Loan Word to Modern Javanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendy Yuniarto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to describe type classifier of semantic change and to explain the factors causing semantic change. This research was conducted with a qualitative-descriptive approach. The research method is conducted by comparing the meaning of words from the Old Javanese and Sanskrit loan wordto Modern Javanese. The collection data is done by looking for words that the meaning suspected change in Old Javanese dictionary. Words meaning determined precisely by tracing to the Old Javanese text. Furthermore, words meaning are compared to present time meaning through Modern Javanese dictionary. In addition, searching Modern Javanese meaning are also using Javanese news on the internet pages. The analysis of this research is to classify Old Javanese words and Sanskrit loan words meaning that undergo change to Modern Javanese. It’s also explained why the change in the word meaning can occur. The result shows that, semantic change of Old Javanese words and Sanskrit loan words to Modern Javanese can be classified into seven types, involving widening, narrowing, shifting, metaphor, metonymy, pejoration, and euphemism. In addition, the result shows that semantic change can occur because of some factors. Psychological factor concerning emotive and taboo, and polysemy. religion spreading, the growth of science and technology, the socio-political development, and the needs of a new name.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2013.160101

  6. The Utility and Ubiquity of Taboo Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    Taboo words are defined and sanctioned by institutions of power (e.g., religion, media), and prohibitions are reiterated in child-rearing practices. Native speakers acquire folk knowledge of taboo words, but it lacks the complexity that psychological science requires for an understanding of swearing. Misperceptions persist in psychological science and in society at large about how frequently people swear or what it means when they do. Public recordings of taboo words establish the commonplace occurrence of swearing (ubiquity), although frequency data are not always appreciated in laboratory research. A set of 10 words that has remained stable over the past 20 years accounts for 80% of public swearing. Swearing is positively correlated with extraversion and Type A hostility but negatively correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, religiosity, and sexual anxiety. The uniquely human facility for swearing evolved and persists because taboo words can communicate emotion information (anger, frustration) more readily than nontaboo words, allowing speakers to achieve a variety of personal and social goals with them (utility). A neuro-psycho-social framework is offered to unify taboo word research. Suggestions for future research are offered. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  7. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-10-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning.

  8. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-01-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377

  9. A Dynamic Systems Account of Learning a Word: From Ecology to Form Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Eton

    2008-01-01

    This paper responds to calls for studies that investigate multiple types of word knowledge and the processes of word learning. Focusing on a single word, this three-month diary study describes the micro-development of an adult male's Japanese L2 lexical knowledge. In contrast to most L2 vocabulary acquisition studies, this study posits a dynamic…

  10. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  11. Processing lexically embedded spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, P A; Lyons, E A

    1999-02-01

    A large number of multisyllabic words contain syllables that are themselves words. Previous research using cross-modal priming and word-spotting tasks suggests that embedded words may be activated when the carrier word is heard. To determine the effects of an embedded word on processing of the larger word, processing times for matched pairs of bisyllabic words were examined to contrast the effects of the presence or absence of embedded words in both 1st- and 2nd-syllable positions. Results from auditory lexical decision and single-word shadowing demonstrate that the presence of an embedded word in the 1st-syllable position speeds processing times for the carrier word. The presence of an embedded word in the 2nd syllable has no demonstrable effect.

  12. Measuring Explicit Word Learning of Preschool Children: A Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Elizabeth Spencer

    2017-08-15

    The purpose of this article is to present preliminary results related to the development of a new measure of explicit word learning. The measure incorporated elements of explicit vocabulary instruction and dynamic assessment and was designed to be sensitive to differences in word learning skill and to be feasible for use in clinical settings. The explicit word learning measure included brief teaching trials and repeated fine-grained measurement of semantic knowledge and production of 3 novel words (2 verbs and 1 adjective). Preschool children (N = 23) completed the measure of explicit word learning; standardized, norm-referenced measures of expressive and receptive vocabulary; and an incidental word learning task. The measure of explicit word learning provided meaningful information about word learning. Performance on the explicit measure was related to existing vocabulary knowledge and incidental word learning. Findings from this development study indicate that further examination of the measure of explicit word learning is warranted. The measure may have the potential to identify children who are poor word learners. https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5170738.

  13. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujii, A

    1998-01-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the simi...

  14. Knowledge Management Design Using Collaborative Knowledge Retrieval Function

    OpenAIRE

    Suryadi, Kadarsah; Sigit Pramudyo, Cahyono

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge is a key word in the information age. Organizational knowledge provides businesses with a way to compete effectively and efficiently in the market. The performance of many organizations is determined more by their knowledge than their physical assets. Capturing and representing knowledge is critical in knowledge management. The spread of organizational knowledge has made a difficulty in sharing knowledge. This problem creates a longer learning cycle. This research proposes a web bas...

  15. Disambiguating bilingual nominal entries against WordNet

    CERN Document Server

    Rigau, G; Rigau, German; Agirre, Eneko

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of conceptual knowledge from bilingual dictionaries (French/English, Spanish/English and English/Spanish) using a pre-existing broad coverage Lexical Knowledge Base (LKB) WordNet. Bilingual nominal entries are disambiguated agains WordNet, therefore linking the bilingual dictionaries to WordNet yielding a multilingual LKB (MLKB). The resulting MLKB has the same structure as WordNet, but some nodes are attached additionally to disambiguated vocabulary of other languages. Two different, complementary approaches are explored. In one of the approaches each entry of the dictionary is taken in turn, exploiting the information in the entry itself. The inferential capability for disambiguating the translation is given by Semantic Density over WordNet. In the other approach, the bilingual dictionary was merged with WordNet, exploiting mainly synonymy relations. Each of the approaches was used in a different dictionary. Both approaches attain high levels of precision on their own, sh...

  16. Children Monitor Individuals' Expertise for Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, David M.; Corriveau, Kathleen H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined preschoolers' ability to learn novel words using others' expertise about objects' nonobvious properties. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds (n = 24) endorsed individuals' labels for objects based on their differing causal knowledge about those objects. Experiment 2 examined the robustness of this inference and its development.…

  17. What Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge Do Textbooks Give Attention to?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dale

    2011-01-01

    Vocabulary researchers have established that multiple aspects of word knowledge need to be mastered in order for a learner to truly know a word. Teachers, however, seem to follow the commonsense view that equates learning words with learning meanings, and to mostly ignore other aspects of word knowledge. This study seeks to discover whether the…

  18. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  19. [The effect of taboo word on language processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszár, Tamás; Makra, Emese; Hallgató, Emese; Janacsek, Karolina; Németh, Dezsö

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge about how we process taboo words brings us closer to the and emotional processes, and broadens the interpretative framework in psychiatry and psychotherapy. In this study the lexical decision paradigm was used. Subjects were presented neutral words, taboo words and pseudowords in a random order, and they had to indicate whether the presented word was meaningful (neutral and taboo words) or meaningless (pseudowords). Each target word was preceded by a prime word (either taboo or neutral). SOA differed in the two experimental conditions (it was 250 msec in the experimental group, and 500 msec in the control group). In the experimental group, response latencies increased for target words that were preceded by taboo prime words, as compared to those that were preceded by neutral prime words. In the control group prime had no such differential effects on response latencies. Results indicate that emotional processing of taboo words occur very early and the negative effect of taboo words on the following lexical decision fades away in 500 msec. Our experiment and other empirical data are presented in this paper.

  20. Impact of type of child growth intervention program on caregivers' child feeding knowledge and practices: a comparative study in Ga West Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma

    2016-07-01

    Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding. Nutrition education on optimum complementary feeding and birth spacing strategies should intensify.

  1. Novel word retention in bilingual and monolingual speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pui Fong eKan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to examine word retention in bilinguals and monolinguals. Long-term word retention is an essential part of vocabulary learning. Previous studies have documented that bilinguals outperform monolinguals in terms of retrieving newly-exposed words. Yet, little is known about whether or to what extent bilinguals are different from monolinguals in word retention. Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual adults and 30 bilingual adults who speak Spanish as a home language and learned English as a second language during childhood. In a previous study (Kan, Sadagopan, Janich, & Andrade, 2014, the participants were exposed to the target novel words in English, Spanish, and Cantonese. In this current study, word retention was measured a week after the fast mapping task. No exposures were given during the one-week interval. Results showed that bilinguals and monolinguals retain a similar number of words. However, participants produced more words in English than in either Spanish or Cantonese. Correlation analyses revealed that language knowledge plays a role in the relationships between fast mapping and word retention. Specifically, within- and across-language relationships between bilinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in Spanish and English, by contrast, within-language relationships between monolinguals’ fast mapping and word retention were found in English and across-language relationships between their fast mapping and word retention performance in English and Cantonese. Similarly, bilinguals differed from monolinguals in the relationships among the word retention scores in three languages. Significant correlations were found among bilinguals’ retention scores. However, no such correlations were found among monolinguals’ retention scores. The overall findings suggest that bilinguals’ language experience and language knowledge most likely contribute to how they learn and retain new words.

  2. Pattern 1^j0^i avoiding binary words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Bilotta

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the enumeration and the construction, according to the number of ones, of particular binary words avoiding a fixed pattern. The growth of such words can be described by particular jumping and marked succession rules. This approach enables us to obtain an algorithm which constructs all binary words having a fixed number of ones and then kills those containing the forbidden pattern.

  3. Bilingual College Writers' Collaborative Writing of Word Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinca, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Numerous researchers have studied bilingual students' performance on word problems given that reading and writing these requires that they draw on linguistic and mathematical knowledge (Barwell, 2009a, 2009b). Some researchers have studied how bilinguals write word problems in the second language, but few have considered how bilinguals use their…

  4. Visual content of words delays negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  6. Loan Words versus Indigenous Words in Northern Sotho — A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (2) Loan word survey — Translation of the questionnaire (with in Columns A and B: L = loan word, and I = (more) indigenous word; and in Column C: the English translation). Hello! Choose from A and B those words which, according to you, should be included in a Northern So- tho dictionary. You may choose either A or B, ...

  7. The mechanism of word crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deyue; Akau, Melanie M U; Chung, Susana T L

    2012-01-01

    Word reading speed in peripheral vision is slower when words are in close proximity of other words (Chung, 2004). This word crowding effect could arise as a consequence of interaction of low-level letter features between words, or the interaction between high-level holistic representations of words. We evaluated these two hypotheses by examining how word crowding changes for five configurations of flanking words: the control condition - flanking words were oriented upright; scrambled - letters in each flanking word were scrambled in order; horizontal-flip - each flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; letter-flip - each letter of the flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; and vertical-flip - each flanking word was the up-down mirror-image of the original. The low-level letter feature interaction hypothesis predicts similar word crowding effect for all the different flanker configurations, while the high-level holistic representation hypothesis predicts less word crowding effect for all the alternative flanker conditions, compared with the control condition. We found that oral reading speed for words flanked above and below by other words, measured at 10° eccentricity in the nasal field, showed the same dependence on the vertical separation between the target and its flanking words, for the various flanker configurations. The result was also similar when we rotated the flanking words by 90° to disrupt the periodic vertical pattern, which presumably is the main structure in words. The remarkably similar word crowding effect irrespective of the flanker configurations suggests that word crowding arises as a consequence of interactions of low-level letter features. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Internet Marketing with WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Mercer, David

    2011-01-01

    The book's accompanying Interactive learning environment on siteprebuilder.com gives you an online place to enhance and extend your practical experience through exercises, consolidate your learning and theoretical knowledge with marked quizzes, interaction with your WordPress marketing community, and fun and exciting extras such as challenges and competitions. This book is for people already using WordPress, who want more visitors, better visitors, and to convert more of them into paying customers. No prior marketing experience is required, although a basic understanding of either hosted or se

  9. Vocabulary knowledge is a critical determinant of the difference in reading comprehension growth between first and second language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lervåg, Arne; Aukrust, Vibeke Grøver

    2010-05-01

    This study examines the role of decoding and vocabulary skills as longitudinal predictors of reading comprehension in young first (L1) and second (L2) language learners. Two-group latent growth models were used to assess differences in growth and predictions of growth between the 198 L1 and 90 L2 language learners. L1 learners had better initial reading comprehension skills and faster growth in these skills over time. Individual differences in decoding and vocabulary predicted initial reading comprehension skills, but only vocabulary predicted the subsequent growth of reading comprehension skills. Vocabulary seemed to be a stronger predictor of growth in reading comprehension among the L2 learners than among the L1 learners. Vocabulary appears to be a critical predictor of the early development of reading comprehension skills in both L1 and L2 learners. The limitations in vocabulary skills in the L2 learners seemed sufficient to explain their lag in developing reading comprehension skills, and this suggests that oral vocabulary training should be given a high priority in this group.

  10. Berge, word lug! Werklikheid, word water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Viljoen

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Breyten Breytenbach is vandag erg omstrede; sy werk ook. Omstrede in die eerste instansie om sy politieke betrokkenheid. Hy skryf iramers (of haal aan "The duty of the artist is to overthrow his government" (Boom p 119. Sy digbundel Skrytj om 'n sinkende skip blou te verf (1972 is om politieke redes verbied - twee jaar nadat dit verskyn het. Sy jongste prosaboek, 'n Seisoen in die paradys (ironiese sinspeling op Rimbaud se Une Saison en enfer, sal - uit vrees vir sensuur om politieke redes - waarskynlik nooit verskyn nie (Anon 1975a kol 1. 'n Paar hoofstukke daarvan het darem al in Rapport verskyn (Breytenbach 1974c. By sy verhoor in Pretoria het Breytenbach onder andere om verskoning gevra vir die dinge wat hy in Skryt geskryf het, maar dit het sy omstredenheid eerder vererger. Hierdie dinge mag nie uit die oog verloor word nie, omdat dit neig om die oordeel oor sy werk te vertroebel.

  11. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  12. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  13. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  14. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  15. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  16. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  17. Microsoft Word 2007 - Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, Vítor; Silva, Inês; Marques, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    O Microsoft Word 2007 é um processador de texto, que constitui uma poderosa ferramenta de auxílio à elaboração de documentos. Com este software, o utilizador pode criar uma grande diversidade de documentos, recorrendo a funcionalidades como o uso de tabelas, gráficos, índices, imagens, som, vídeo, texto em colunas, entre muitas outras. O Word 2007 pode também constituir uma alternativa válida para a elaboração de páginas Web, permitindo criar páginas atractivas e dinâmicas com ...

  18. WordPress all-in-one for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa; Palmer, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    A convenient how-to guide for maximizing your WordPress experience. WordPress is a state-of-the-art blog publishing platform with nearly ten million active installations. Eight minibooks provide you with expanded coverage of the most important topics to the WordPress community, such as WordPress basics, theme designs, plug-in development, social media integration, SEO, customization, and running multiple sites. Veteran author Lisa Sabin-Wilson leads an authoritative team of authors who offer their unique knowledge and skillset while sharing invaluable advice for maximizing your site's potentia

  19. Homotopy invariants of Gauss words

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    By defining combinatorial moves, we can define an equivalence relation on Gauss words called homotopy. In this paper we define a homotopy invariant of Gauss words. We use this to show that there exist Gauss words that are not homotopically equivalent to the empty Gauss word, disproving a conjecture by Turaev. In fact, we show that there are an infinite number of equivalence classes of Gauss words under homotopy.

  20. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  1. EPS Prize Lecture. Learning to read words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2008-08-01

    The ease with which we process the written word belies its complexities and makes it easy to forget that it is a highly skilled behaviour and one that takes time to master. In this paper, I argue that our ability to read words has its roots in our capacity for language. Good progress has been made towards understanding how children discover the systematic relationship between speech sounds and the letters used to represents those sounds, very early in reading development. However, we understand much less about how beginning readers become skilled readers. To understand this, I argue that it is important to view the visual word recognition system within the context of a broader language system, one that incorporates a rich network of semantic and episodic knowledge.

  2. Automatic Word Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Cited OTHER PUBLICATIONS Wu, Hua, etal., “Boosting Statistical Word Alignment Using Labeled and Unlabeled Data” Toshiba (China) research and...Labeled and Unlabeled Data” Toshiba {China) Research and Development Center (Jul. 1, 2006) pp. 913-920. * cited by examiner U .S. Patent F eb.18, 2014

  3. Have Words, Will Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  4. The "N" Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    In a lawsuit involving classroom and literary racial epithets, the Ninth Circuit Court remanded the racial-harassment claim, not the book-removal claim. The ultimate outcome awaits trial; the court's Solomonic decision needs further testing. Meanwhile, the "N" word is a no-no for teachers and students, but not necessarily for books. (MLH)

  5. A Life in Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  6. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  7. Entrepreneurship in the knowledge-intensive sector: Influential factors at the start-up and early growth phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Neergaard, Helle; Fisker, Sannie

    The importance of SMEs for economic growth and employment has long been recognised, although the entrepreneurial activity in SMEs has not been understood all that well. In the light of this, a better understanding of entrepreneurs and their local environment might be helpful, since these are usua......The importance of SMEs for economic growth and employment has long been recognised, although the entrepreneurial activity in SMEs has not been understood all that well. In the light of this, a better understanding of entrepreneurs and their local environment might be helpful, since...... these are usually key factors in the discovery and exploitation of new opportunities. In order to research this situation into more details, a framework taking into account aspects of social, human and financial capita has been developed. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to address the influence...

  8. Predictors of response to intervention of word reading fluency in Dutch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheltinga, Femke; van der Leij, Aryan; Struiksma, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the contribution of rapid digit naming, phonological memory, letter sound naming, and orthographic knowledge to the prediction of responsiveness to a school-based, individual intervention of word reading fluency problems of 122 Dutch second and third graders whose reading scores were below the 10th percentile in comparison with the normative group. Degree of responsiveness was determined by comparison of a pre- and posttest measure of word reading fluency with a 6-month interval. At posttest, 38% of the children had improved their reading scores above the 10th percentile. Maintenance scores revealed no significant growth on average, confirming that word reading fluency skills of poor readers are hard to remediate. Except rapid digit naming, none of the measures predicted responsiveness after controlling for the autoregressive effect of initial performance on fluency of word reading. A large part of the variance remained unexplained, supporting the advantage of a response-to-intervention approach above traditional psychometric testing to identify severe reading disabilities.

  9. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  10. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service.......In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e...

  11. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  12. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  13. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  14. Theory of Mind and Emotion Recognition Skills in Children with Specific Language Impairment, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Typical Development: Group Differences and Connection to Knowledge of Grammatical Morphology, Word-Finding Abilities and Verbal Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukusa, Soile; Mäkinen, Leena; Kuusikko-Gauffin, Sanna; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Background: Social perception skills, such as understanding the mind and emotions of others, affect children's communication abilities in real-life situations. In addition to autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is increasing knowledge that children with specific language impairment (SLI) also demonstrate difficulties in their social…

  15. What's in a word? What's a word in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Line Brink

    2011-01-01

    factors. Mystudyconcentrates onneologism (i.e. the study of new words) and grammaticalization (i.e. the study of word change). From an integrationist’s framework, words do not obtain meaning outside the situational context. The results can include difficulties on how one can explain conventions, norms...

  16. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  17. Semantic Context and Word Frequency Effects in Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Curtis A.

    1979-01-01

    Schuberth and Eimas (EJ 159 939) reported that context and frequency effects added to determine reaction times in a lexical decision (word v nonword) task. The present reexamination shows that context and frequency do interact, with semantic context facilitating the processing of low-frequency words more than high-frequency words. (Author/CP)

  18. Get Your Head into the Clouds: Using Word Clouds for Analyzing Qualitative Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePaolo, Concetta A.; Wilkinson, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    Word clouds (or tag clouds) are popular, fun ways to display text data in graphical form; however, we contend that they can also be useful tools in assessment. Using word clouds, instructors can quickly and easily produce graphical depictions of text representing student knowledge. By investigating the patterns of words or phrases, or lack…

  19. Statistical Word Learning in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haebig, Eileen; Saffran, Jenny R.; Ellis Weismer, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Word learning is an important component of language development that influences child outcomes across multiple domains. Despite the importance of word knowledge, word-learning mechanisms are poorly understood in children with specific language impairment (SLI) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined…

  20. Examining the Role of Syllable Awareness in a Model of Concept of Word: Findings from Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesmer, Heidi Anne E.; Williams, Thomas O.

    2015-01-01

    Concept of word in print is the development of an understanding of how monosyllabic and multisyllabic words operate in print. Young children show evidence of this understanding when they are able to repeat a line of text while accurately pointing to each word as it is said. A small but robust line of work has examined the knowledge, skills, and…

  1. Prosodic Structure in Early Word Segmentation: ERP Evidence From Dutch Ten-Month-Olds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooijman, V.M.; Hagoort, P.; Cutler, A.

    2009-01-01

    Recognizing word boundaries in continuous speech requires detailed knowledge of the native language. In the first year of life, infants acquire considerable word segmentation abilities. Infants at this early stage in word segmentation rely to a large extent on the metrical pattern of their native

  2. The Interplay of Cross-Situational Word Learning and Sentence-Level Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehne, Judith; Crocker, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of mechanisms contribute to word learning. Learners can track co-occurring words and referents across situations in a bottom-up manner (cross-situational word learning, CSWL). Equally, they can exploit sentential contexts, relying on top-down information such as verb-argument relations and world knowledge, offering immediate constraints…

  3. Investigating the Effect of Contextual Clues on the Processing of Unfamiliar Words in Second Language Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Lee, Benny P. H.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the effect of contextual clues on the use of strategies (inferencing and ignoring) and knowledge sources (semantics, morphology, world knowledge, and others) for processing unfamiliar words in listening comprehension. Three types of words were investigated: words with local co-text clues, global co-text clues and extra-textual…

  4. Word Associations of Schizophrenic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mary Hollis

    1974-01-01

    A study of word associations in normal and disturbed children integrated two methods of word association research: pathological features of adult schizophrenic language and psycholinguistic features of developmental changes in children's associations. (Author/KM)

  5. Dirty Words in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Beatrice

    1971-01-01

    Describes method of teaching the thesaurus to children with a low vocabulary. Lists of words pertaining to the word dirty was made by children who were inadvertently compiling their own thesaurus and building a vocabulary. (AF)

  6. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  7. Typing speed, spelling accuracy, and the use of word-prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Herold

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with spelling difficulties are limited in their participation in all written school activities. We aimed to investigate the influence of word-prediction as a tool on spelling accuracy and typing speed. To this end, we selected 80 Grade 4 - 6 children with spelling difficulties in a school for special needs to participate in a research project involving a cross-over within-subject design. The research task took the form of entering 30 words through an on-screen keyboard, with and without the use of word-prediction software. The Graded Word Spelling Test served to investigate whether there was a relationship between the children's current spelling knowledge and word-prediction efficacy. The results indicated an increase in spelling accuracy with the use of word-prediction, but at the cost of time and the tendency to use word approximations, and no significant relationship between spelling knowledge and word-prediction efficacy.

  8. The ontogeny of lexical networks: toddlers encode the relationships among referents when learning novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Erica H; Saffran, Jenny R

    2013-10-01

    Although the semantic relationships among words have long been acknowledged as a crucial component of adult lexical knowledge, the ontogeny of lexical networks remains largely unstudied. To determine whether learners encode relationships among novel words, we trained 2-year-olds on four novel words that referred to four novel objects, which were grouped into two visually similar pairs. Participants then listened to repetitions of word pairs (in the absence of visual referents) that referred to objects that were either similar or dissimilar to each other. Toddlers listened significantly longer to word pairs referring to similar objects, which suggests that their representations of the novel words included knowledge about the similarity of the referents. A second experiment confirmed that toddlers can learn all four distinct words from the training regime, which suggests that the results from Experiment 1 reflected the successful encoding of referents. Together, these results show that toddlers encode the similarities among referents from their earliest exposures to new words.

  9. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  10. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias).

  11. Executive Functioning Skills Uniquely Predict Chinese Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-five Hong Kong Chinese children were tested across both the 2nd and 3rd years of kindergarten (ages 4-5 years) on tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and word reading. With age, vocabulary knowledge, and metalinguistic skills statistically controlled, the…

  12. Plagiarism: words and ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' label should not be used for deeds which are very different in nature and importance.

  13. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  14. Knowledge Sharing, Absorptive Capacity and Innovation Capabilities: An Empirical Study on Small and Medium Enterprises in North Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Fajar Wuryaningrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The capability of a firm to instill innovation depends on its knowledge resources. This capability can be utilized by facilitating knowledge sharing and absorptive capacity in the context of small and medium enterprises. The purpose of this research is to examine how knowledge sharing can be transformed into innovation capabilities. Research suggests that knowledge sharing will first influence absorptive capacity before knowledge can be transformed to innovation capabilities. This research was conducted in North Sulawesi which has excellent economic growth by involving small and medium enterprises. The results show that knowledge donating and knowledge collecting positively influence SME’s innovation capabilities if absorptive capacity is also developed. In other words, the result of the research gives us empirical evidence that new knowledge created from knowledge sharing can be transformed into innovation capabilities if it is supported by higher absorptive capacity.

  15. Selection of Korean Proper Translation Words Using Bi-Gram-Based Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanmin Jung

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a proper translation-selecting and translation-clustering algorithm for Korean translation of words automatically extracted from newspapers. As about 80% of the English words in Korean newspapers appear in abbreviated form, it is necessary to make clusters of translation words to construct easily bilingual knowledge bases such as dictionaries and translation patterns. As a seed to acquiring a translation cluster, we selected a proper translation word from a given translation set using bi-gram-based histograms. Translation words that share bi-grams with the chosen proper translation word are assigned to the cluster for the proper word. The given translation set then picks out the translation words of the cluster. These processes continue until the translation set becomes empty. Experimental results show that our algorithms are superior to bi-gram-based binary vectors including Dice coefficient and Jaccard coefficient in selecting the proper translation word for each translation cluster.

  16. Word regularity affects orthographic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2012-01-01

    Share's self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic representations are acquired via phonological decoding. A key, yet untested, prediction of this theory is that there should be an effect of word regularity on the number and quality of word-specific orthographic representations that children acquire. Thirty-four Grade 2 children were exposed to the sound and meaning of eight novel words and were then presented with those words in written form in short stories. Half the words were assigned regular pronunciations and half irregular pronunciations. Lexical decision and spelling tasks conducted 10 days later revealed that the children's orthographic representations of the regular words appeared to be stronger and more extensive than those of the irregular words.

  17. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  18. Speed and automaticity of word recognition - inseparable twins?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mads; Asmussen, Vibeke; Elbro, Carsten

    'Speed and automaticity' of word recognition is a standard collocation. However, it is not clear whether speed and automaticity (i.e., effortlessness) make independent contributions to reading comprehension. In theory, both speed and automaticity may save cognitive resources for comprehension...... processes. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the unique contributions of word recognition speed and automaticity to reading comprehension while controlling for decoding speed and accuracy. Method: 139 Grade 5 students completed tests of reading comprehension and computer-based tests of speed...... developmental sources. However, multiple regression analyses indicated that both automaticity (effortlessness) and speed of word recognition (word-specific orthographic knowledge) contributed unique variance to reading comprehension when word decoding accuracy and speed was controlled. Conclusion: The results...

  19. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian

    1998-01-01

    subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...... dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... recognition were observed: the latter task evoked considerably more prefrontal activity and stronger cerebellar activation. Stimulus degradation was associated with focal increases in bilateral fusiform regions within the occipital lobe. No task, degradation, or item repetition effects were demonstrated...

  20. Word Learning and Individual Differences in Word Learning Reflected in Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Wlotko, Edward W.; Hart, Lesley A.

    2005-01-01

    Adults learned the meanings of rare words (e.g., gloaming) and then made meaning judgments on pairs of words. The 1st word was a trained rare word, an untrained rare word, or an untrained familiar word. Event-related potentials distinguished trained rare words from both untrained rare and familiar words, first at 140 ms and again at 400-600 ms…

  1. Grounding word learning in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Smith, Linda B; Perry, Lynn K; Spencer, John P

    2011-01-01

    Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  2. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.

  3. Estimating affective word covariates using word association data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensbergen, Bram; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert

    2016-12-01

    Word ratings on affective dimensions are an important tool in psycholinguistic research. Traditionally, they are obtained by asking participants to rate words on each dimension, a time-consuming procedure. As such, there has been some interest in computationally generating norms, by extrapolating words' affective ratings using their semantic similarity to words for which these values are already known. So far, most attempts have derived similarity from word co-occurrence in text corpora. In the current paper, we obtain similarity from word association data. We use these similarity ratings to predict the valence, arousal, and dominance of 14,000 Dutch words with the help of two extrapolation methods: Orientation towards Paradigm Words and k-Nearest Neighbors. The resulting estimates show very high correlations with human ratings when using Orientation towards Paradigm Words, and even higher correlations when using k-Nearest Neighbors. We discuss possible theoretical accounts of our results and compare our findings with previous attempts at computationally generating affective norms.

  4. Do preschool children learn to read words from environmental prints?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    Full Text Available Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4.

  5. Do preschool children learn to read words from environmental prints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Pei; Weng, Xuchu; Li, Su

    2014-01-01

    Parents and teachers worldwide believe that a visual environment rich with print can contribute to young children's literacy. Children seem to recognize words in familiar logos at an early age. However, most of previous studies were carried out with alphabetic scripts. Alphabetic letters regularly correspond to phonological segments in a word and provide strong cues about the identity of the whole word. Thus it was not clear whether children can learn to read words by extracting visual word form information from environmental prints. To exclude the phonological-cue confound, this study tested children's knowledge of Chinese words embedded in familiar logos. The four environmental logos were employed and transformed into four versions with the contextual cues (i.e., something apart from the presentation of the words themselves in logo format like the color, logo and font type cues) gradually minimized. Children aged from 3 to 5 were tested. We observed that children of different ages all performed better when words were presented in highly familiar logos compared to when they were presented in a plain fashion, devoid of context. This advantage for familiar logos was also present when the contextual information was only partial. However, the role of various cues in learning words changed with age. The color and logo cues had a larger effect in 3- and 4- year-olds than in 5-year-olds, while the font type cue played a greater role in 5-year-olds than in the other two groups. Our findings demonstrated that young children did not easily learn words by extracting their visual form information even from familiar environmental prints. However, children aged 5 begin to pay more attention to the visual form information of words in highly familiar logos than those aged 3 and 4.

  6. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  7. Chinese Unknown Word Recognition for PCFG-LA Parsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuping Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the recognition of unknown words in Chinese parsing. Two methods are proposed to handle this problem. One is the modification of a character-based model. We model the emission probability of an unknown word using the first and last characters in the word. It aims to reduce the POS tag ambiguities of unknown words to improve the parsing performance. In addition, a novel method, using graph-based semisupervised learning (SSL, is proposed to improve the syntax parsing of unknown words. Its goal is to discover additional lexical knowledge from a large amount of unlabeled data to help the syntax parsing. The method is mainly to propagate lexical emission probabilities to unknown words by building the similarity graphs over the words of labeled and unlabeled data. The derived distributions are incorporated into the parsing process. The proposed methods are effective in dealing with the unknown words to improve the parsing. Empirical results for Penn Chinese Treebank and TCT Treebank revealed its effectiveness.

  8. A Teacher's Guide to Sexist Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mary W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents tables of sexist words (those which apply to one sex only) and words generally used for one particular sex. Teaching suggestions involve students in researching etymology and current uses of the words. Words include job titles (patrolman), words of disapproval (roughneck), and words derived from names (pollyanna). (AV)

  9. WordPress Top Plugins

    CERN Document Server

    Corbin, Brandon

    2010-01-01

    Time flies when you're having fun. This is the right way to describe this WordPress Top Plugins book by Brandon Corbin. With real world examples and by showing you the perks of having these plugins installed on your websites, the author is all set to captivate your interest from start to end. Regardless of whether this is your first time working with WordPress, or you're a seasoned WordPress coding ninja, WordPress Top Plugins will walk you through finding and installing the best plugins for generating and sharing content, building communities and reader base, and generating real advertising r

  10. Holistic word processing in dyslexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling Conway

    Full Text Available People with dyslexia have difficulty learning to read and many lack fluent word recognition as adults. In a novel task that borrows elements of the 'word superiority' and 'word inversion' paradigms, we investigate whether holistic word recognition is impaired in dyslexia. In Experiment 1 students with dyslexia and controls judged the similarity of pairs of 6- and 7-letter words or pairs of words whose letters had been partially jumbled. The stimuli were presented in both upright and inverted form with orthographic regularity and orientation randomized from trial to trial. While both groups showed sensitivity to orthographic regularity, both word inversion and letter jumbling were more detrimental to skilled than dyslexic readers supporting the idea that the latter may read in a more analytic fashion. Experiment 2 employed the same task but using shorter, 4- and 5-letter words and a design where orthographic regularity and stimuli orientation was held constant within experimental blocks to encourage the use of either holistic or analytic processing. While there was no difference in reaction time between the dyslexic and control groups for inverted stimuli, the students with dyslexia were significantly slower than controls for upright stimuli. These findings suggest that holistic word recognition, which is largely based on the detection of orthographic regularity, is impaired in dyslexia.

  11. Word learning under infinite uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Richard A; Smith, Andrew D M; Smith, Kenny

    2016-06-01

    Language learners must learn the meanings of many thousands of words, despite those words occurring in complex environments in which infinitely many meanings might be inferred by the learner as a word's true meaning. This problem of infinite referential uncertainty is often attributed to Willard Van Orman Quine. We provide a mathematical formalisation of an ideal cross-situational learner attempting to learn under infinite referential uncertainty, and identify conditions under which word learning is possible. As Quine's intuitions suggest, learning under infinite uncertainty is in fact possible, provided that learners have some means of ranking candidate word meanings in terms of their plausibility; furthermore, our analysis shows that this ranking could in fact be exceedingly weak, implying that constraints which allow learners to infer the plausibility of candidate word meanings could themselves be weak. This approach lifts the burden of explanation from 'smart' word learning constraints in learners, and suggests a programme of research into weak, unreliable, probabilistic constraints on the inference of word meaning in real word learners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Beginning WordPress 3

    CERN Document Server

    Leary, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular open source blogging and content management systems, WordPress lets you create a website to promote yourself or your business quickly and easilyi' "and better yet, it's free. WordPress is a flexible, user-friendly system, and it can be extended with a variety of themes and plugins. Beginning WordPress 3 is a complete guide for the beginning developer who wants to start using WordPress. You'll learn how to publish and manage online content, add media, create widgets and plugins, and much more. What you'll learn * How to get started with Wordpress, create new content

  13. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  14. A Word Sense Disambiguation Model for Amharic Words using Semi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this research was to design a WSD (word sense disambiguation) prototype model for Amharic words using semi-supervised learning method to extract training sets which minimizes the amount of the required human intervention and it can produce considerable improvement in learning accuracy.

  15. Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  17. Presidents' words - Gianni Deroma

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Gianni Deroma This week we publish the last contributions in the 'Words of presidents' series by giving the floor to Gianni Deroma (2007-2010) and Michel Goossens (2011-2015). "Tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti" This Latin adage has marked my years with the Staff Association (SA). For someone like me, coming from the technical world, the discovery of the importance of the role played by legal matters in the defence of the staff illustrates a new reality and incarnates my years spent with the SA. We, members of personnel, as citizens have as reference the democratic societies in which we live. CERN is not a democracy. The Member States, the Director-General have full powers, or almost. Contrary to citizens of states, we do not elect our leaders. So in that context is it useful to have a Staff Association? Or does it only serve as a necessary alibi for those who have the power? This is where a legal approach makes sense, in counterbalancing the power of our governing ...

  18. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard; Balling, Laura Winther

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied. In p...

  19. Never Trust Your Word Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the auto correction mode of word processors that leads to a number of problems and describes an example in biochemistry exams that shows how word processors can lead to mistakes in databases and in papers. The author contends that, where this system is applied, spell checking should not be left to a word…

  20. Words Do Come Easy (Sometimes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    multiple stimuli are presented simultaneously: Are words treated as units or wholes in visual short term memory? Using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we measured perceptual threshold, visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity for words and letters, in two simple...

  1. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  2. Bilingual beginnings to learning words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werker, Janet F; Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Fennell, Christopher T

    2009-12-27

    At the macrostructure level of language milestones, language acquisition follows a nearly identical course whether children grow up with one or with two languages. However, at the microstructure level, experimental research is revealing that the same proclivities and learning mechanisms that support language acquisition unfold somewhat differently in bilingual versus monolingual environments. This paper synthesizes recent findings in the area of early bilingualism by focusing on the question of how bilingual infants come to apply their phonetic sensitivities to word learning, as they must to learn minimal pair words (e.g. 'cat' and 'mat'). To this end, the paper reviews antecedent achievements by bilinguals throughout infancy and early childhood in the following areas: language discrimination and separation, speech perception, phonetic and phonotactic development, word recognition, word learning and aspects of conceptual development that underlie word learning. Special consideration is given to the role of language dominance, and to the unique challenges to language acquisition posed by a bilingual environment.

  3. Head First WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Siarto, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    Whether you're promoting your business or writing about your travel adventures, Head First WordPress will teach you not only how to make your blog look unique and attention-grabbing, but also how to dig into the more complex features of WordPress 3.0 to make your website work well, too. You'll learn how to move beyond the standard WordPress look and feel by customizing your blog with your own URL, templates, plugin functionality, and more. As you learn, you'll be working with real WordPress files: The book's website provides pre-fab WordPress themes to download and work with as you follow al

  4. LEARNING FOR THE KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    OpenAIRE

    Ticha, Ivana

    2007-01-01

    With sustained use and creation of knowledge in the centre of the economic development process, an economy essentially becomes a Knowledge Economy. A Knowledge Economy (KE) is one that utilizes knowledge as the key engine of economic growth. It is an economy where knowledge is acquired, created, disseminated and used effectively to enhance economic development.

  5. Word accents and morphology--ERPs of Swedish word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-05-12

    Results indicating that high stem tones realizing word accents activate a certain class of suffixes in online processing of Central Swedish are presented. This supports the view that high Swedish word accent tones are induced onto word stems by particular suffixes rather than being associated with words in the mental lexicon. Using event-related potentials, effects of mismatch between word accents and inflectional suffixes were compared with mismatches between stem and suffix in terms of declension class. Declensionally incorrect suffixes yielded an increase in the N400, indicating problems in lexical retrieval, as well as a P600 effect, showing reanalysis. Both declensionally correct and incorrect high tone-inducing (Accent 2) suffixes combined with a mismatching low tone (Accent 1) on the stems produced P600 effects, but did not increase the N400. Suffixes usually co-occurring with Accent 1 did not yield any effects in words realized with the nonmatching Accent 2, suggesting that Accent 1 is a default accent, lacking association with any particular suffix. High tones on Accent 2 words also produced an early anterior positivity, interpreted as a P200 effect reflecting preattentive processing of the tone. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Influence of Prosodic Input in the Second Language Classroom: Does It Stimulate Child Acquisition of Word Order and Function Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, Dorota E.; Murphy, Victoria A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on an intervention study with young Polish beginners (mean age: 8 years, 3 months) learning English at school. It seeks to identify whether exposure to rhythmic input improves knowledge of word order and function words. The "prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis", relevant in developmental psycholinguistics, provided the…

  7. The x-word and its usage : Taboo words and swearwords in general, and x-words in newspapers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Katarina

    2008-01-01

    All languages have words that are considered taboo – words that are not supposed to be said or used. Taboo words, or swearwords, can be used in many different ways and they can have different meanings depending on what context they appear in. Another aspect of taboo words is the euphemisms that are used in order to avoid obscene speech. This paper will focus on x-words, words like the f-word or the c-word, which replace the words fuck or cunt, but as the study will show they also have other m...

  8. Words don't come easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    of reading, and with the use of functional imaging techniques. Extant evidence for (and against) cerebral specialization for visual word recognition is briefly reviewed and found inconclusive.                       Study I is a case study of a patient with a very selective alexia and agraphia affecting...... and object processing, may explain the pattern of activations found in our and other functional imaging studies of the visual word form area.                       Study III reports a patient (NN) with pure alexia. NN is not impaired in object recognition, but his deficit(s) affects processing speed...... reading and writing of letters and words but not numbers. This study raised questions of "where" in the cognitive system such a deficit may arise, and whether it can be attributed to a deficit in a system specialized for reading or letter knowledge. The following studies investigated these questions...

  9. Word Variant Identification in Old French

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Willett

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of historical texts are available in machine-readable form, which retain the original spelling, which can be very different from the modern-day equivalents due to the natural evolution of a language, and because the concept of standardisation in spelling is comparatively modern. Among medieval vernacular writers, the same word could be spelled in different ways and the same author (or scribe might even use several alternative spellings in the same passage. Thus, we do not know,a priori, how many variant forms of a particular word there are in such texts, let alone what these variants might be. Searching on the modern equivalent, or even the commonest historical variant, of a particular word may thus fail to retrieve an appreciable number of occurrences unless the searcher already has an extensive knowledge of the language of the documents. Moreover, even specialist scholars may be unaware of some idiosyncratic variants. Here, we consider the use of computer methods to retrieve variant historical spellings.

  10. Graphic Organizer in Action: Solving Secondary Mathematics Word Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoo Jia Sian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics word problems are one of the most challenging topics to learn and teach in secondary schools. This is especially the case in countries where English is not the first language for the majority of the people, such as in Brunei Darussalam. Researchers proclaimed that limited language proficiency and limited Mathematics strategies are the possible causes to this problem. However, whatever the reason is behind difficulties students face in solving Mathematical word problems, it is perhaps the teaching and learning of the Mathematics that need to be modified. For example, the use of four-square-and-a-diamond graphic organizer that infuses model drawing skill; and Polya’s problem solving principles, to solve Mathematical word problems may be some of the strategies that can help in improving students’ word problem solving skills. This study, through quantitative analysis found that the use of graphic organizer improved students’ performance in terms of Mathematical knowledge, Mathematical strategy and Mathematical explanation in solving word problems. Further qualitative analysis revealed that the use of graphic organizer boosted students’ confidence level and positive attitudes towards solving word problems.Keywords: Word Problems, Graphic Organizer, Algebra, Action Research, Secondary School Mathematics DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3546.83-90

  11. Wording the Wound Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Hartnell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the image of the Wound Man, a graphic drawing of a violently wounded figure repeated across a series of European surgical treatises from 1400 onwards. Focusing on the only known English example, preserved in the back of a late fifteenth-century medical miscellany now in the Wellcome Collection, London, this article seeks to unravel the origins and scope of this picture. Considering both the image’s diagrammatic and metaphorical qualities, it presents the Wound Man as a particularly potent site not just of surgical knowledge but of a broader medico-artistic entanglement.

  12. Indicators for Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena BATAGAN

    2007-01-01

    The Lisbon European Council conclusion was that in 2010 Europe will become 'the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustained economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion'. The knowledge economy concept is a part of modern society. This paper examines the knowledge economy concept and indicators for measuring the performance of the knowledge economy

  13. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal. PMID:26321783

  14. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; LaBar, Kevin S

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal.

  15. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  16. Smashing WordPress Themes Making WordPress Beautiful

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress Themes - one of the hottest topics on the web today WordPress is so much more than a blogging platform, and Smashing WordPress Themes teaches readers how to make it look any way they like - from a corporate site, to a photography gallery and moreWordPress is one of the hottest tools on the web today and is used by sites including The New York Times, Rolling Stone, flickr, CNN, NASA and of course Smashing MagazineBeautiful full colour throughout - web designers expect nothing lessSmashing Magazine will fully support this book by by promoting it through their webs

  17. Loan Words versus Indigenous Words in Northern Sotho — A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    primary language" and "home language" for "mother tongue". 2. We are aware of the fact that a great deal of linguistic research has been devoted to what linguists variously call 'loan words', 'borrowings', 'adoptives', 'transliterations', etc. In this.

  18. Thematic Journeys. Words that I Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingher, Gary

    2005-01-01

    Children may feel a sense of ownership when they learn a new vocabulary word that genuinely excites them--a dynamic word, a poetic word, a word with a delicious sound or interesting meaning. Right away, they like to try out these words, experiment with them, incorporate them into the speaking and writing, and impress others with their mastery.…

  19. BioWord: A sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzaldi Laura J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. Results BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. Conclusions BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  20. Equivalence of Deterministic Nested Word to Word Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staworko, Sławomir; Laurence, Grégoire; Lemay, Aurélien; Niehren, Joachim

    We study the equivalence problem of deterministic nested word to word transducers and show it to be surprisingly robust. Modulo polynomial time reductions, it can be identified with 4 equivalence problems for diverse classes of deterministic non-copying order-preserving transducers. In particular, we present polynomial time back and fourth reductions to the morphism equivalence problem on context free languages, which is known to be solvable in polynomial time.

  1. BioWord: a sequence manipulation suite for Microsoft Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldi, Laura J; Muñoz-Fernández, Daniel; Erill, Ivan

    2012-06-07

    The ability to manipulate, edit and process DNA and protein sequences has rapidly become a necessary skill for practicing biologists across a wide swath of disciplines. In spite of this, most everyday sequence manipulation tools are distributed across several programs and web servers, sometimes requiring installation and typically involving frequent switching between applications. To address this problem, here we have developed BioWord, a macro-enabled self-installing template for Microsoft Word documents that integrates an extensive suite of DNA and protein sequence manipulation tools. BioWord is distributed as a single macro-enabled template that self-installs with a single click. After installation, BioWord will open as a tab in the Office ribbon. Biologists can then easily manipulate DNA and protein sequences using a familiar interface and minimize the need to switch between applications. Beyond simple sequence manipulation, BioWord integrates functionality ranging from dyad search and consensus logos to motif discovery and pair-wise alignment. Written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) as an open source, object-oriented project, BioWord allows users with varying programming experience to expand and customize the program to better meet their own needs. BioWord integrates a powerful set of tools for biological sequence manipulation within a handy, user-friendly tab in a widely used word processing software package. The use of a simple scripting language and an object-oriented scheme facilitates customization by users and provides a very accessible educational platform for introducing students to basic bioinformatics algorithms.

  2. Teach yourself visually Word 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Marmel, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Get up to speed on the newest version of Word with visual instruction Microsoft Word is the standard for word processing programs, and the newest version offers additional functionality you'll want to use. Get up to speed quickly and easily with the step-by-step instructions and full-color screen shots in this popular guide! You'll see how to perform dozens of tasks, including how to set up and format documents and text; work with diagrams, charts, and pictures; use Mail Merge; post documents online; and much more. Easy-to-follow, two-page lessons make learning a snap.Full-

  3. From Word Alignment to Word Senses, via Multilingual Wordnets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Tufis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Most of the successful commercial applications in language processing (text and/or speech dispense with any explicit concern on semantics, with the usual motivations stemming from the computational high costs required for dealing with semantics, in case of large volumes of data. With recent advances in corpus linguistics and statistical-based methods in NLP, revealing useful semantic features of linguistic data is becoming cheaper and cheaper and the accuracy of this process is steadily improving. Lately, there seems to be a growing acceptance of the idea that multilingual lexical ontologisms might be the key towards aligning different views on the semantic atomic units to be used in characterizing the general meaning of various and multilingual documents. Depending on the granularity at which semantic distinctions are necessary, the accuracy of the basic semantic processing (such as word sense disambiguation can be very high with relatively low complexity computing. The paper substantiates this statement by presenting a statistical/based system for word alignment and word sense disambiguation in parallel corpora. We describe a word alignment platform which ensures text pre-processing (tokenization, POS-tagging, lemmatization, chunking, sentence and word alignment as required by an accurate word sense disambiguation.

  4. Corpus-Based Word Sense Disambiguation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Atsushi

    1998-04-01

    Resolution of lexical ambiguity, commonly termed ``word sense disambiguation'', is expected to improve the analytical accuracy for tasks which are sensitive to lexical semantics. Such tasks include machine translation, information retrieval, parsing, natural language understanding and lexicography. Reflecting the growth in utilization of machine readable texts, word sense disambiguation techniques have been explored variously in the context of corpus-based approaches. Within one corpus-based framework, that is the similarity-based method, systems use a database, in which example sentences are manually annotated with correct word senses. Given an input, systems search the database for the most similar example to the input. The lexical ambiguity of a word contained in the input is resolved by selecting the sense annotation of the retrieved example. In this research, we apply this method of resolution of verbal polysemy, in which the similarity between two examples is computed as the weighted average of the similarity between complements governed by a target polysemous verb. We explore similarity-based verb sense disambiguation focusing on the following three methods. First, we propose a weighting schema for each verb complement in the similarity computation. Second, in similarity-based techniques, the overhead for manual supervision and searching the large-sized database can be prohibitive. To resolve this problem, we propose a method to select a small number of effective examples, for system usage. Finally, the efficiency of our system is highly dependent on the similarity computation used. To maximize efficiency, we propose a method which integrates the advantages of previous methods for similarity computation.

  5. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    The work-in-progress that I would like to present and discuss in the workshop focuses on the management of knowledge management and its socio-material implications. More specifically, my work focuses on how epistemic objects and objectives are managed in professional health care organisations. One...... of knowledge in health care relate to managerial techniques in knowledge management and, thus, form complex epistemic practices in health care organizations. The theoretical approach in this paper draws on perspectives form Social Studies of Science, in particular from Karin Knorr Cetina (2006, 2007......) and colleagues, who stresses that to understand knowledge management practices we need to magnify the space of knowledge in action and consider the presentation and circulation of epistemic objects in extended contexts. In other words, we need to consider that the routes from research to practice...

  6. Managing knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    2016-01-01

    This work-in-progress focuses on the management of knowledge management and its socio-material implications. More specifically, it focuses on the management of epistemic objects and objectives in professional health care organisations. One of the main characteristics of professional health care...... today is that knowledge about health and health care is generated from a multitude of sources and circulated rapidly across professional and Karin Knorr Cetina (2006, 2007) stresses that to understand knowledge management practices we need to magnify the space of knowledge in action and consider...... the presentation and circulation of epistemic objects in extended contexts. In other words, we need to consider that the routes from research to practice – and the relation between knowledge and management – is not straightforward. First epistemic objects and objectives may lead to contrasting results...

  7. Knowledge Yearning for Freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Gavrilović

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with the restriction of access to knowledge/books in the contemporary digitalized global world, in which the access to knowledge has to be paid for, and wherein definitions of modes of payment control who has or doesn’t have the right to knowledge. The second part of the article deals with the struggle for the freedom of words/knowledge, and actions through which the authors/producers of knowledge and art fight the restrictions not only to the freedom of speech, but also creativity and innovation, which should be the aim of all copyright and intellectual right laws, the contemporary application of which has become its own opposite.

  8. Henry Darcy in his own words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Patricia

    2006-09-01

    A recently published English translation of the Les Fontaines publiques de la ville de Dijon1 provides access to Henry Darcy's own words on the importance of water for public sanitation and on questions engineers face in building water supply systems. Written near the end of Darcy's life, the book is a compendium of the water knowledge he had gained over decades and his opinions on these topics reveal his personality. In the 1840s, Darcy built a water supply system to provide water to 120 street fountains for domestic purposes, street washing and firefighting. Surrounded by poverty, Darcy insisted on free water for the poor and on sharing the spring water with towns located along the aqueduct that brought it to Dijon. In the preface to the book, Darcy introduces his experiment on water flow through sand with the modest words “to my knowledge, no one has experimentally demonstrated the laws of water flow through sand.” This article provides a sampling of the book's insights into the personality of this remarkable man.

  9. Orthographic learning, fast and slow: Lexical competition effects reveal the time course of word learning in developing readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Niina; Castles, Anne; Nation, Kate

    2017-06-01

    Children learn new words via their everyday reading experience but little is known about how this learning happens. We addressed this by focusing on the conditions needed for new words to become familiar to children, drawing a distinction between lexical configuration (the acquisition of word knowledge) and lexical engagement (the emergence of interactive processes between newly learned words and existing words). In Experiment 1, 9-11-year-olds saw unfamiliar words in one of two storybook conditions, differing in degree of focus on the new words but matched for frequency of exposure. Children showed good learning of the novel words in terms of both configuration (form and meaning) and engagement (lexical competition). A frequency manipulation under incidental learning conditions in Experiment 2 revealed different time-courses of learning: a fast lexical configuration process, indexed by explicit knowledge, and a slower lexicalization process, indexed by lexical competition. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A first approach towards an Urdu WordNet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Tafseer; Hautli, Annette

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on a first experiment with developing a lexical knowledge resource for Urdu on the basis of Hindi WordNet. Due to the structural similarity of Urdu and Hindi, we can focus on overcoming the differences in the scriptual systems of the two languages by using transliterators. Various natural language processing tools, among them a computational semantics based on the Urdu ParGram grammar, can use the resulting basic lexical knowledge base for Urdu.

  11. Stress Judgment and Production in English Derivation, and Word Reading in Adult Mandarin-Speaking English Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2017-01-01

    For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., "-ity"), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of…

  12. Word Meaning Selection in Multiprocess Language Understanding Programs,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    powerful knowledge sources use "semantic," "contextual" and " pragmat - ic" features. Surface semantics exploits the constraints which certain words...Report No. 74, Yale Univer- sity, New Haven, Cr. [Nash78] Nash-Webber, B. L., "Syntax beyond the Sentence: Anaphora ," in Spiro, Bruce & Brewer (eds

  13. Auditory Word Serial Recall Benefits from Orthographic Dissimilarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Lafontaine, Helene; Morais, Jose; Kolinsky, Regine

    2010-01-01

    The influence of orthographic knowledge has been consistently observed in speech recognition and metaphonological tasks. The present study provides data suggesting that such influence also pervades other cognitive domains related to language abilities, such as verbal working memory. Using serial recall of auditory seven-word lists, we observed…

  14. 1001 most useful French words

    CERN Document Server

    McCoy, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Up-to-date entries cover technology terms, and sections on vocabulary and grammar offer helpful tips. Each word is accompanied by a brief definition, a sentence demonstrating proper usage, and a translation.

  15. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  16. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  17. The Word Accentuation Test - Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Kristin R; Lam, Chow S; Wilson, Robert S

    2006-10-01

    A reading test for Spanish speakers in the United States was developed called the Word Accentuation Test-Chicago. The construction and validation of this 40 item test was modeled after reading tests developed in Spain and Argentina, and is based on irregular accentuation of words. The Word Accentuation Test-Chicago was validated on 45 community participants using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Spanish. Better reading performance was associated with higher intelligence test performance, with an additional 5% of the variation in intelligence score accounted for by reading performance after controlling for age and education. These results indicate that the Word Accentuation Test-Chicago is a psychometrically sound measure of Spanish reading ability that is robustly related to general cognitive ability.

  18. Gesture en route to words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen de López, Kristine M.

    2010-01-01

    -word stage as well as interaction between children and their respective caretakers' use of gestural communication. Consitent with previous studies the results showed that all children used the gestural modality extensively across the two cultures. Two subgroups of children were identified regarding whetjer...... the children showed an early preference for the gestural or vocal modality. Through Analyzes of two-element combinations of words and/or gestures, we observd a relative increase in cross-modal (gesture-word and two-word) combinations. The results are discussed in terms understanding gestures as a transition...... period and in relation to the degredd to which gestures can be understood as a universal communicative device applied by children....

  19. Word translation entropy in translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  20. What Type of Vocabulary Knowledge Predicts Reading Comprehension: Word Meaning Recall or Word Meaning Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Batia; Aviad-Levitzky, Tami

    2017-01-01

    This study examined how well second language (L2) recall and recognition vocabulary tests correlated with a reading test, how well each vocabulary test discriminated between reading proficiency levels, and how accurate each test was in predicting reading proficiency when compared with corpus studies. A total of 116 college-level learners of…

  1. [Gogi (word-meaning) aphasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamadori, Atsushi

    2011-08-01

    Gogi (word meaning) aphasia is an aphasic syndrome originally described by Tsuneo Imura in 1943. According to Imura, this syndrome is characterized by 4 symptoms: (1) difficulty in comprehending the meaning of a word despite perfect perception of the sound of the word; (2) presence of word amnesia and verbal paraphasia; (3) preservation of the ability to repeat spoken words; and (4) characteristic disturbances in reading and writing, in which Kana (Japanese syllabogram) can be correctly read and written, but Kanji (Japanese logogram) is read and transcribed in a peculiar way without comprehension, resulting in strange paragraphia. Gogi aphasia occupies a unique seat in the category of transcortical sensory aphasia. While the latter is grossly defined as fluent sensory aphasia with good repetition and without any specification about the linguistic level of deficit, the former is defined more specifically as fluent sensory aphasia with the deficit limited to the level of words. The characteristic Kana-Kanji dissociation aids in the diagnosis of this syndrome. Recently, it has been repeatedly confirmed that the temporal lobe type of Pick disease (known as semantic dementia in recent English literature) often presents the clinical picture of Gogi aphasia in its early course. Many Japanese physicians have contributed to the elucidation of this clinicopathological correlation. This is mainly because many neurologists and psychiatrists in Japan have long been familiar with the concept of Gogi aphasia and the nosology of Pick disease.

  2. When does word meaning affect immediate serial recall in semantic dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Jefferies, Elizabeth; Jones, Roy; Bateman, David; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2004-01-01

    Patients with semantic dementia can show superior immediate recall of words that they still understand relatively well, as compared with more semantically degraded words, suggesting that conceptual knowledge makes a major contribution to phonological short-term memory. However, a number of studies have failed to show such a recall difference, challenging this view. We examined the effect of several methodological factors on the recall of known and degraded words in 4 patients with semantic de...

  3. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  4. Learning new words from storybooks: an efficacy study with at-risk kindergartners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Laura M; Meier, Joanne; Walpole, Sharon

    2005-01-01

    The extant literature suggests that exposure to novel vocabulary words through repeated readings of storybooks influences children's word learning, and that adult elaboration of words in context can accelerate vocabulary growth. This study examined the influence of small-group storybook reading sessions on the acquisition of vocabulary words for at-risk kindergartners, and the impact of word elaboration on learning. An additional goal was to study differential responses to treatment for children with high versus low vocabulary skill. Using a pretest-posttest comparison group research design, 57 kindergartners were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 29) or comparison (n = 28) group. Children were also differentiated into high (n = 31) versus low (n = 26) vocabulary skill groups using scores on a standardized receptive vocabulary test. Children in the treatment group completed 20 small-group storybook reading sessions during which they were exposed to 60 novel words randomly assigned to non-elaborated and elaborated conditions. Pre- and posttest examined the quality of children's definitions for the 60 novel words. Overall, word-learning gains were modest. Children in the treatment group made significantly greater gains in elaborated words relative to children in the comparison group; no influence of storybook reading exposure was seen for non-elaborated words. Children with low vocabulary scores made the greatest gains on elaborated words. Suggestions are offered for using storybooks as a clinical tool for fostering vocabulary development. As an efficacy study, results should inform future applied research on word learning for at-risk children.

  5. Repetition of Words and Non-Words in Typically Developing Children: The Role of Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Simon; Samuelsson, Christina; Lyxell, Björn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, segmental and prosodic aspects of word repetition and non-word repetition in typically developing children aged four to six years were investigated. Focus was on developmental differences, and on how tonal word accent and word length affect segment production accuracy. Prosodically controlled words and non-words were repeated by 44…

  6. Role of gender and linguistic diversity in word decoding development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Leeuwe, J.F.J. van

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of gender and linguistic diversity in the growth of Dutch word decoding skills throughout elementary school for a representative sample of children living in the Netherlands. Following a longitudinal design, the children's decoding

  7. Palavra de coca e de tabaco como "conhecimento tradicional": cultura, política e desenvolvimento entre os uitoto-murui do rio Caraparaná (CO The word of coca and tobacco as 'traditional knowledge': culture, politics and development among the uitoto-murui of the Cara Paraná River (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Pereira

    2011-04-01

    San Rafael village- led by cacique Don Ángel Ortiz and the local cabildo or council- proposed a project based on the 'knowledge' acquired from nightly rounds of dialogue and ritual consumption of coca and tobacco, culminating in a corpus of symbolic, ethico-moral and material knowledge denominated 'The Word of Coca and Tobacco' (jiibina uai diona uai. This body of knowledge (spanning from the mytho-cosmological to the medicinal-therapeutic and including forms of governance can be traced to the sociocultural configurations lived through by indigenous peoples from the region between the Caquetá and Putumayo rivers (whose symbolic epicentres are coca and tobacco, especially after the 1930s with the end of the Colombia-Peru War and the debt-bondage system associated with the rubber trade. In the heat of the debates, the notion of 'development' therefore acquired 'indigenous' contours, becoming read and articulated on the basis of local 'uses and customs,' as indeed required by Colombia's 1991 Constitution. Likewise, in response to the demands made from the development area, a concise outline of 'The Word of Coca and Tobacco' was also presented.

  8. Early words, multiword utterances and maternal reading strategies as predictors of mastering word inflections in Finnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvén, Maarit; Ahtola, Annarilla; Niemi, Pekka

    2003-05-01

    This is the first study to report how children's language skills and mothers' book-reading strategies, measured at 2;0, predict mastery of word inflections at 3;0 and 5;0 in a sample of 66 Finnish children. Three theoretical models were tested on the longitudinal data using path analyses. The testing of the models suggests direct developmental continuity from producing words and multiword utterances on later inflectional growth, but indirect effects of maternal strategies on language outcomes. Moreover, mothers' complex expansions and questions are positively related, whereas labellings and corrections are negatively related, to children's concurrent and subsequent language skills. Finally, vocabulary size relates negatively to maternal attention regulation. When joint attention is easily built up in the dyad, mothers concentrate more on direct reading, which, together with the child's vocabulary, predicts mastery of inflections. In conclusion, the results can be viewed as support for a child-driven view on the future course of language acquisition.

  9. Aspects of Vocabulary Knowledge in German Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neary-Sundquist, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on second language vocabulary acquisition has shown that learning to use a new word is not a simple matter of making a form-meaning connection. Knowing a word instead requires mastery of as many as nine different aspects of vocabulary knowledge (Nation, 2001). The current study uses data from five beginning-level textbooks of…

  10. iWordNet: A New Approach to Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main challenges in artificial intelligence or computational linguistics is understanding the meaning of a word or concept. We argue that the connotation of the term “understanding,” or the meaning of the word “meaning,” is merely a word mapping game due to unavoidable circular definitions. These circular definitions arise when an individual defines a concept, the concepts in its definition, and so on, eventually forming a personalized network of concepts, which we call an iWordNet. Such an iWordNet serves as an external representation of an individual’s knowledge and state of mind at the time of the network construction. As a result, “understanding” and knowledge can be regarded as a calculable statistical property of iWordNet topology. We will discuss the construction and analysis of the iWordNet, as well as the proposed “Path of Understanding” in an iWordNet that characterizes an individual’s understanding of a complex concept such as a written passage. In our pilot study of 20 subjects we used a regression model to demonstrate that the topological properties of an individual’s iWordNet are related to his IQ score, a relationship that suggests iWordNets as a potential new methodology to studying cognitive science and artificial intelligence.

  11. Typing speed, spelling accuracy, and the use of word-prediction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    relationship between spelling knowledge and word»prediction efficacy. Keywords: spelling difficulties; word approximations; word—prediction; writing support. Introduction .... as helping students to correct errors as they occur, the language development .... use of grammar prediction, space savers and auditory feedback.

  12. Cognitive Strategy Instruction for Teaching Word Problems to Primary-Level Struggling Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannenstiel, Kathleen Hughes; Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Porterfield, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Students with mathematics difficulties and learning disabilities (LD) typically struggle with solving word problems. These students often lack knowledge about efficient, cognitive strategies to utilize when solving word problems. Cognitive strategy instruction has been shown to be effective in teaching struggling students how to solve word…

  13. Procedural versus Content-Related Hints for Word Problem Solving: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, W. D.; Harskamp, E. G.

    2016-01-01

    For primary school students, mathematical word problems are often more difficult to solve than straightforward number problems. Word problems require reading and analysis skills, and in order to explain their situational contexts, the proper mathematical knowledge and number operations have to be selected. To improve students' ability in solving…

  14. Effectiveness of Semantic Therapy for Word-Finding Difficulties in Pupils with Persistent Language Impairments: A Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbels, Susan H.; Nicoll, Hilary; Clark, Becky; Eachus, Beth; Gallagher, Aoife L.; Horniman, Karen; Jennings, Mary; McEvoy, Kate; Nimmo, Liz; Turner, Gail

    2012-01-01

    Background: Word-finding difficulties (WFDs) in children have been hypothesized to be caused at least partly by poor semantic knowledge. Therefore, improving semantic knowledge should decrease word-finding errors. Previous studies of semantic therapy for WFDs are inconclusive. Aims: To investigate the effectiveness of semantic therapy for…

  15. Words can slow down category learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brojde, Chandra L; Porter, Chelsea; Colunga, Eliana

    2011-08-01

    Words have been shown to influence many cognitive tasks, including category learning. Most demonstrations of these effects have focused on instances in which words facilitate performance. One possibility is that words augment representations, predicting an across the-board benefit of words during category learning. We propose that words shift attention to dimensions that have been historically predictive in similar contexts. Under this account, there should be cases in which words are detrimental to performance. The results from two experiments show that words impair learning of object categories under some conditions. Experiment 1 shows that words hurt performance when learning to categorize by texture. Experiment 2 shows that words also hurt when learning to categorize by brightness, leading to selectively attending to shape when both shape and hue could be used to correctly categorize stimuli. We suggest that both the positive and negative effects of words have developmental origins in the history of word usage while learning categories. [corrected

  16. The Influence of Reading on Vocabulary Growth: A Case for a Matthew Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Dawna; Tomblin, J Bruce; Catts, Hugh

    2015-06-01

    Individual differences in vocabulary development may affect academic or social opportunities. It has been proposed that individual differences in word reading could affect the rate of vocabulary growth, mediated by the amount of reading experience, a process referred to as a Matthew effect (Stanovich, 1986). In the current study, assessments of written word-reading skills in the 4th grade and oral vocabulary knowledge collected in kindergarten and in the 4th, 8th, and 10th grades from a large epidemiologically based sample (n = 485) allowed a test of the relationship of early word-reading skills and the subsequent rate of vocabulary growth. Consistent with the hypothesis, multilevel modeling revealed the rate of vocabulary growth after the 4th grade to be significantly related to 4th-grade word reading after controlling for kindergarten vocabulary level, that is, above average readers experienced a higher rate of vocabulary growth than did average readers. Vocabulary growth rate differences accumulated over time such that the effect on vocabulary size was large.

  17. Extracting phonological patterns for L2 word learning: the effect of poor phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2014-10-01

    An implicit word learning paradigm was designed to test the hypothesis that children who came to the task of L2 vocabulary acquisition with poorer L1 phonological awareness (PA) are less capable of extracting phonological patterns from L2 and thus have difficulties capitalizing on this knowledge to support L2 vocabulary learning. A group of Chinese-speaking six-grade students took a multi-trial L2 (English) word learning task after being exposed to a set of familiar words that rhymed with the target words. Children's PA was measured at grade 3. Children with relatively poorer L1 PA and those with better L1 PA did not differ in identifying the forms of the new words. However, children with poorer L1 PA demonstrated reduced performance in naming pictures with labels that rhymed with the pre-exposure words than with labels that did not rhyme with the pre-exposure words. Children with better L1 PA were not affected by the recurring rime shared by the pre-exposure words and the target words. These findings suggest that poor L1 PA may impede L2 word learning via difficulty in abstracting phonological patterns away from L2 input to scaffold word learning.

  18. Math word problems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sterling, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    Covers percentages, probability, proportions, and moreGet a grip on all types of word problems by applying them to real lifeAre you mystified by math word problems? This easy-to-understand guide shows you how to conquer these tricky questions with a step-by-step plan for finding the right solution each and every time, no matter the kind or level of problem. From learning math lingo and performing operations to calculating formulas and writing equations, you''ll get all the skills you need to succeed!Discover how to: * Translate word problems into plain English* Brush up on basic math skills* Plug in the right operation or formula* Tackle algebraic and geometric problems* Check your answers to see if they work

  19. Word Learning Deficits in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Method: Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets…

  20. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  1. Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Continuous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positional probability of syllables played in recognition of spoken word in continuous Cantonese speech. Because some sounds occur more frequently at the beginning position or ending position of Cantonese syllables than the others, so these kinds of probabilistic information of syllables may cue the locations…

  2. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Predicting word sense annotation agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Alonso, Hector; Johannsen, Anders Trærup; Lopez de Lacalle, Oier

    2015-01-01

    High agreement is a common objective when annotating data for word senses. However, a number of factors make perfect agreement impossible, e.g. the limitations of the sense inventories, the difficulty of the examples or the interpretation preferences of the annotations. Estimating potential...... agreement is thus a relevant task to supplement the evaluation of sense annotations. In this article we propose two methods to predict agreement on word-annotation instances. We experiment with a continuous representation and a three-way discretization of observed agreement. In spite of the difficulty...

  4. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  5. Sparing of number words in oral production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Semenza

    2014-04-01

    In sentences only number words were spared; free standing function words and bound morphemes were as affected as other word categories. Discussion. These findings seem to set cardinal number words apart in the phonological output buffer from other possible building blocks of preassembled phonological units (like function words and bound morphemes. Building blocks constituted by numbers are more cohesive than the blocks constituted by function words and bound morphemes. Bencini et al. (2011 argued that numbers are recursive and consist of basic lexical units which are then combined following syntactic rules. This property would make number words resistant to damage in the phonological buffer.

  6. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    side if necessary and identify by block number) WORD FLUENCY MEASUREMENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY DIVING NAVSEA TASK NO. 86-54 SATURATION NEDU TEST...WORDS: <II Word Fluency--,, Neuropsychology’-" Diving Saturation Measurement Pyschology NAVSEA Task #86-54 NEDU Test Plan #86-10 v N. .,#7V REPEATED...function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word

  7. Analysing the Methods of Dzongkha Word Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhungyel Parshu Ram; Grundspeņķis Jānis

    2017-01-01

    In both Chinese and Dzongkha languages, the greatest challenge is to identify the word boundaries because there are no word delimiters as it is in English and other Western languages. Therefore, preprocessing and word segmentation is the first step in Dzongkha language processing, such as translation, spell-checking, and information retrieval. Research on Chinese word segmentation was conducted long time ago. Therefore, it is relatively mature, but the Dzongkha word segmentation has been less...

  8. Morphological analysis in school-age children: dynamic assessment of a word learning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jennifer A; Nippold, Marilyn A

    2007-07-01

    Morphological analysis is the ability to use knowledge of root words and affixes to determine the meanings of unfamiliar, morphologically complex words. Beginning in the early elementary grades and continuing into the college years, it is a primary strategy that is used to increase one's knowledge of difficult vocabulary. The purpose of this study was to investigate how well school-age children could use morphological analysis to explain word meanings. The study was also designed to examine individual differences in this domain in relation to children's broader literacy skills. The ability of 50 typically developing sixth-grade children to explain the meanings of 15 low-frequency morphologically complex words was measured using a dynamic assessment procedure. Children were individually interviewed and were asked to define each word. As needed, varying degrees of adult scaffolding were provided. Children were also assessed for their word knowledge and reading comprehension. Performance on the dynamic assessment task revealed a wide range of skill levels in these children and was positively related to the children's literacy levels. Although some children readily used morphological analysis to explain the meanings of unfamiliar words, others required greater amounts of adult scaffolding to be successful. Suggestions are offered for ways to employ dynamic assessment to examine children's ability to use morphological analysis as a word learning strategy.

  9. Knowledge Utility: From Social Relevance to Knowledge Mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidorf, Judith

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a more sophisticated vocabulary has emerged in the field of higher education. Categories such as" socially relevant research"; "knowledge mobilization"; "research impact"; "innovation"; and "university priorities" have appeared. At first glance, these words may appear neutral,…

  10. What does it take to learn a word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; McMurray, Bob

    2017-01-01

    Vocabulary learning is deceptively hard, but toddlers often make it look easy. Prior theories proposed that children's rapid acquisition of words is based on language-specific knowledge and constraints. In contrast, more recent work converges on the view that word learning proceeds via domain-general processes that are tuned to richly structured-not impoverished-input. We argue that new theoretical insights, coupled with methodological tools, have pushed the field toward an appreciation of simple, content-free processes working together as a system to support the acquisition of words. We illustrate this by considering three central phenomena of early language development: referential ambiguity, fast-mapping, and the vocabulary spurt. WIREs Cogn Sci 2017, 8:e1421. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1421 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Formulation of Word Problems in Geometry by Gifted Pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana LEVENBERG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the ability level of talented and gifted pupils to define selected geometry terms and formulate a word problem for each of them. In order to perform this task correctly, pupils should be acquainted with the geometry term. Moreover, they must have at last experience in solving word problems. The research population consisted of 58 pupils from the 4th-6th grades who learn mathematics in a course which is adjusted to their high ability level. The research findings illustrate a medium level of mastery of the term definition knowledge. The formulated word problems were mainly taken from the pupils' previous experience and they are at the first level according to van Hiele. Only few pupils demonstrated creativity and write problems which were not similar to the ones they knew from the textbooks.

  12. Arbitrary symbolism in natural language revisited: when word forms carry meaning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Reilly

    Full Text Available Cognitive science has a rich history of interest in the ways that languages represent abstract and concrete concepts (e.g., idea vs. dog. Until recently, this focus has centered largely on aspects of word meaning and semantic representation. However, recent corpora analyses have demonstrated that abstract and concrete words are also marked by phonological, orthographic, and morphological differences. These regularities in sound-meaning correspondence potentially allow listeners to infer certain aspects of semantics directly from word form. We investigated this relationship between form and meaning in a series of four experiments. In Experiments 1-2 we examined the role of metalinguistic knowledge in semantic decision by asking participants to make semantic judgments for aurally presented nonwords selectively varied by specific acoustic and phonetic parameters. Participants consistently associated increased word length and diminished wordlikeness with abstract concepts. In Experiment 3, participants completed a semantic decision task (i.e., abstract or concrete for real words varied by length and concreteness. Participants were more likely to misclassify longer, inflected words (e.g., "apartment" as abstract and shorter uninflected abstract words (e.g., "fate" as concrete. In Experiment 4, we used a multiple regression to predict trial level naming data from a large corpus of nouns which revealed significant interaction effects between concreteness and word form. Together these results provide converging evidence for the hypothesis that listeners map sound to meaning through a non-arbitrary process using prior knowledge about statistical regularities in the surface forms of words.

  13. Scientific Writing = Thinking in Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensuring that research results are reported accurately and effectively is an eternal challenge for scientists. The book Science Writing = Thinking in Words (David Lindsay, 2011. CSIRO Publishing) is a primer for researchers who seek to improve their impact through better written (and oral) presentat...

  14. More than a Word Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Word cloud generating applications were originally designed to add visual attractiveness to posters, websites, slide show presentations, and the like. They can also be an effective tool in reading and writing classes in English as a second language (ESL) for all levels of English proficiency. They can reduce reading time and help to improve…

  15. Plans, words and their meanings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The discipline of urbanism has its own notions; words with specific meanings, which are used by designers, policymakers and laymen to designate the concrete objects in the world around them: the parts of the city and the urban landscape, and their designs. These plans are always accompanied by

  16. On colorings of variable words

    OpenAIRE

    Tyros, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    In this note, we prove that the base case of the Graham--Rothschild Theorem, i.e., the one that considers colorings of the ($1$-dimensional) variable words, admits bounds in the class $\\mathcal{E}^5$ of Grzegorczyk's hierarchy.

  17. "Swallowing Her Words Like Water."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchelor, Elise

    2002-01-01

    Describes the author's incorporation of compassion into her teaching as an English teacher. Describes herself as an interminable idealist who is driven by the idea that her English students will learn to love words for the brilliance of articulation they offer. (SG)

  18. Proofs without Words in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirode, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the Mathematical Association of America's (MAA) journals "Mathematics Magazine" and "College Mathematics Journal" have published "Proofs without Words" (PWWs) (Nelsen 1993). "PWWs are pictures or diagrams that help the reader see why a particular mathematical statement may be true and how one…

  19. Biodiversity in Word and Meaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, David

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that we need to abandon the word "biodiversity", to rediscover the biology that it obscures and to rethink how to introduce this biology to young people. We cannot go back to the systematics that once made up a large part of a biology A-level course (ages 16-18), so we need to find alternative ways of introducing the…

  20. Word Processing: Coordination without Centralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Sandra K.; Stoneking, Cheryl A.

    1981-01-01

    In February 1980, Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center in Chicago appointed a task force to study word processing/office automation and to make recommendations for acquisition, implementation, and administration. The group's working approach, findings, and conclusions are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  1. Very Long Instruction Word Processors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 12. Very Long Instruction Word Processors. S Balakrishnan. General Article Volume 6 Issue 12 December 2001 pp 61-68. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/12/0061-0068 ...

  2. Position list word aligned hybrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deliege, Francois; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    of storage space. This paper presents the Position List Word Aligned Hybrid (PLWAH) compression scheme that improves significantly over WAH compression by better utilizing the available bits and new CPU instructions. For typical bit distributions, PLWAH compressed bitmaps are often half the size of WAH...

  3. Learning Words through Multimedia Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chun

    2007-01-01

      This study explores the relevance of multimedia application in relation to vocabulary acquisition in the classroom of Chinese as a foreign language. The herein depicted application refers to the computer-assisted implicit word-learning, wherein the Danish students built hypertexts to acquire...

  4. The Academic Spoken Word List

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thi Ngoc Yen; Coxhead, Averil; Webb, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The linguistic features of academic spoken English are different from those of academic written English. Therefore, for this study, an Academic Spoken Word List (ASWL) was developed and validated to help second language (L2) learners enhance their comprehension of academic speech in English-medium universities. The ASWL contains 1,741 word…

  5. The Inclusion of Word Formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The Inclusion of Word Formation in OALD8: The Case of. Undefined Run-ons. Alenka Vrbinc (alenka.vrbinc@ef.uni-lj.si), Faculty of Economics, and. Marjeta Vrbinc (marjeta.vrbinc@ff.uni-lj.si), Faculty of Arts. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia. Abstract: The study presented in this contribution aims to investigate ...

  6. My Words of an Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, George L.

    1988-01-01

    Considers the conventions of quotation marks--or "perverted commas"--and identifies seven uses, including shudder quotes (slang or inappropriate words) and scare quotes (used for attention or emphasis). Notes that quotation marks influence meaning and that finding a personal voice entails using language without quotes. (MM)

  7. Distal prosody affects learning of novel words in an artificial language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Tuuli H; McAuley, J Devin; Dilley, Laura C; Zdziarska, Patrycja A; Jones, Katherine B; Sanders, Lisa D

    2015-06-01

    The distal prosodic patterning established at the beginning of an utterance has been shown to influence downstream word segmentation and lexical access. In this study, we investigated whether distal prosody also affects word learning in a novel (artificial) language. Listeners were exposed to syllable sequences in which the embedded words were either congruent or incongruent with the distal prosody of a carrier phrase. Local segmentation cues, including the transitional probabilities between syllables, were held constant. During a test phase, listeners rated the items as either words or nonwords. Consistent with the perceptual grouping of syllables being predicted by distal prosody, congruent items were more likely to be judged as words than were incongruent items. The results provide the first evidence that perceptual grouping affects word learning in an unknown language, demonstrating that distal prosodic effects may be independent of lexical or other language-specific knowledge.

  8. Evidence for the use of assembled phonology in accessing the meaning of printed words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, M F; Pollatsek, A

    1998-05-01

    The role of assembled phonology in visual word recognition was investigated using a task in which participants judged whether 2 words (e.g., PILLOW-BEAD) were semantically related. Of primary interest was whether it would be more difficult to respond "no" to "false homophones" (e.g., BEAD) of words (BED) that are semantically related to target words than to orthographic controls (BEND). (BEAD is a false homophone of BED because-EAD can be pronounced /epsilon d/.) In Experiment 1, there was an interference effect in the response time data, but not in the error data. These results were replicated in a 2nd experiment in which a parafoveal preview was provided for the 2nd word of the pair. A 3rd experiment ruled out explanations of the false homophone effect in terms of inconsistency in spelling-to-sound mappings or inadequate spelling knowledge. It is argued that assembled phonological representations activate meaning in visual word recognition.

  9. Group word terms in the terminology of the theory of mechanics in Albanian and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GANI PLLANA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As it is known, the terminology of any knowledge field as an independent system, as well as the terminology of mechanics consisting of nominating one-word and group word units (among which, particularly the latter phrase terms make up nearly 70-80% of the overall terminological vocabulary. Looking at it from this point of view, all monosyllabic (one word terms (word terms would also be accepted as a basic vocabulary in the terminology of mechanics. This can be justified more so by the fact that almost every word term serves as the foundation for the construction of numerous group word terms that mark concepts which have spread out into numerous branches. These having been introduced through a variety of many different interrelations, like gender / type, whole / part etc.

  10. Model of the Dynamic Construction Process of Texts and Scaling Laws of Words Organization in Language Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Li

    Full Text Available Scaling laws characterize diverse complex systems in a broad range of fields, including physics, biology, finance, and social science. The human language is another example of a complex system of words organization. Studies on written texts have shown that scaling laws characterize the occurrence frequency of words, words rank, and the growth of distinct words with increasing text length. However, these studies have mainly concentrated on the western linguistic systems, and the laws that govern the lexical organization, structure and dynamics of the Chinese language remain not well understood. Here we study a database of Chinese and English language books. We report that three distinct scaling laws characterize words organization in the Chinese language. We find that these scaling laws have different exponents and crossover behaviors compared to English texts, indicating different words organization and dynamics of words in the process of text growth. We propose a stochastic feedback model of words organization and text growth, which successfully accounts for the empirically observed scaling laws with their corresponding scaling exponents and characteristic crossover regimes. Further, by varying key model parameters, we reproduce differences in the organization and scaling laws of words between the Chinese and English language. We also identify functional relationships between model parameters and the empirically observed scaling exponents, thus providing new insights into the words organization and growth dynamics in the Chinese and English language.

  11. Corpus-based estimates of word association predict biases in judgment of word co-occurrence likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperno, Denis; Marelli, Marco; Tentori, Katya; Baroni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This paper draws a connection between statistical word association measures used in linguistics and confirmation measures from epistemology. Having theoretically established the connection, we replicate, in the new context of the judgments of word co-occurrence, an intriguing finding from the psychology of reasoning, namely that confirmation values affect intuitions about likelihood. We show that the effect, despite being based in this case on very subtle statistical insights about thousands of words, is stable across three different experimental settings. Our theoretical and empirical results suggest that factors affecting traditional reasoning tasks are also at play when linguistic knowledge is probed, and they provide further evidence for the importance of confirmation in a new domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Investigating Arabic Academic Vocabulary Knowledge among Middle School Pupils: Receptive versus Productive Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhoul, Baha

    2017-01-01

    The current study attempted to investigate the development of Arabic academic vocabulary knowledge among middle-school Arabic native speakers, taking into account the socioeconomic status of the Arab population in Israel. For this purpose, Arabic academic word list was developed, mapping the required academic words that are needed for adequate…

  13. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis.

  14. The realization of the word in church cathechism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J.H. Venter

    1988-03-01

    Full Text Available The issue that is investigated concerns the dynamic realization processes which occur on the basis of the preaching of the Word of God in church catechism. The study is undertaken by means of a survey and evaluation of relevant data from Dutch, German, American and South African literature. Following that, with the Bible as the primary source, data with regard to the realization of the Bible in the concrete life of the congregation are surveyed and collated. From the analysis of relevant Biblical data the conclusion is reached that the realization, the making real, of the Word in everyday life and existence follows on the act of preaching. This brings us to the awareness that catechetical teaching (that is, preaching of the Word should not stop at the dissemination of knowledge only, but the child should be guided to realise the Word in practical terms in everyday life. Lastly, attention is directed to methods of catechetical teaching, to demands for the construction of the lesson and to the person and the actions of the catechist, and how all these combine to serve the child in the process of realization of the Word in his life.

  15. Languages cool as they expand: Allometric scaling and the decreasing need for new words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel N.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene; Perc, Matjaž

    2012-12-01

    We analyze the occurrence frequencies of over 15 million words recorded in millions of books published during the past two centuries in seven different languages. For all languages and chronological subsets of the data we confirm that two scaling regimes characterize the word frequency distributions, with only the more common words obeying the classic Zipf law. Using corpora of unprecedented size, we test the allometric scaling relation between the corpus size and the vocabulary size of growing languages to demonstrate a decreasing marginal need for new words, a feature that is likely related to the underlying correlations between words. We calculate the annual growth fluctuations of word use which has a decreasing trend as the corpus size increases, indicating a slowdown in linguistic evolution following language expansion. This ``cooling pattern'' forms the basis of a third statistical regularity, which unlike the Zipf and the Heaps law, is dynamical in nature.

  16. [The influence of semantic richness on the visual recognition of emotional words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syssau, Arielle; Laxén, Jannika

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to expand our knowledge of the influence of emotional valence on visual word recognition by answering two questions. The first was to examine whether the emotional valence effect is sensitive to different types of task requirements, and the second was to examine whether words polysemy can modulate the effect of emotional valence. For this purpose, we manipulated orthogonally emotional valence (negative, positive and neutral words) and polysemy (polysemous vs. non polysemous words) in two versions of the lexical-decision task (one with legal nonwords and one with illegal nonwords). Results showed an effect of task: emotional valence and polysemy influenced lexical decision latencies only in the legal version of the lexical-decision task. Furthermore, results showed that the effect of polysemy was dependant on emotional valence. We observed a facilitation of polysemy for neutral words but not for emotional ones. Finally this experiment also showed that polysemy modulates the emotional valence effect. The facilitation observed for non polysemous emotional words compared to non polysemous neutral words disappeared for polysemous words. These findings fit with other studies showing facilitation for emotional word recognition and allow conclusions concerning the role of semantics on emotional word recognition.

  17. Nurturing a lexical legacy: reading experience is critical for the development of word reading skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate

    2017-01-01

    The scientific study of reading has taught us much about the beginnings of reading in childhood, with clear evidence that the gateway to reading opens when children are able to decode, or `sound out' written words. Similarly, there is a large evidence base charting the cognitive processes that characterise skilled word recognition in adults. Less understood is how children develop word reading expertise. Once basic reading skills are in place, what factors are critical for children to move from novice to expert? This paper outlines the role of reading experience in this transition. Encountering individual words in text provides opportunities for children to refine their knowledge about how spelling represents spoken language. Alongside this, however, reading experience provides much more than repeated exposure to individual words in isolation. According to the lexical legacy perspective, outlined in this paper, experiencing words in diverse and meaningful language environments is critical for the development of word reading skill. At its heart is the idea that reading provides exposure to words in many different contexts, episodes and experiences which, over time, sum to a rich and nuanced database about their lexical history within an individual's experience. These rich and diverse encounters bring about local variation at the word level: a lexical legacy that is measurable during word reading behaviour, even in skilled adults.

  18. Culture-Bound Words of the Danube Basin Countries: Translation into English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chetverikova Olena

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Any course in linguistic country study or popular text translation is impossible without adequate understanding and presentation of culture-bound elements, which present one of the most difficult topics to deal with, especially in multicultural countries. Our investigation aims to show the problems, which appear when we deal with equivalent-lacking words related to culture. Sometimes equivalent-lacking words are associated with culture-bound words, the Ukrainian equivalent for them is “реалії” (derived from Latin realis, pl. realia. However, the term “culture-bound word” is of narrower meaning than the term “equivalent-lacking word”. A culture-bound word names an object peculiar to this or that ethnic culture. Equivalent-lacking words include, along with culture-bound words, neologisms, i.e. newly coined forms, dialect words, slang, taboo-words, foreign (third language terms, proper names, misspellings, archaisms. Comparison of languages and cultures reveals the various types of culture-bound words. Reasons for using them can be extralinguistic, lexical or stylistic. When translating culture-bound words a translator should be aware of the receptor’s potential problems, take into account his background knowledge and choose the best means of translation.

  19. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  20. Teach yourself visually WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Majure, Janet

    2012-01-01

    Get your blog up and running with the latest version of WordPress WordPress is one of the most popular, easy-to-use blogging platforms and allows you to create a dynamic and engaging blog, even if you have no programming skills or experience. Ideal for the visual learner, Teach Yourself VISUALLY WordPress, Second Edition introduces you to the exciting possibilities of the newest version of WordPress and helps you get started, step by step, with creating and setting up a WordPress site. Author and experienced WordPress user Janet Majure shares advice, insight, and best practices for taking full

  1. Smashing WordPress Beyond the Blog

    CERN Document Server

    Hedengren, Thord Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate guide to WordPress, from the world's most popular resource for web designers and developers As one of the hottest tools on the web today for creating a blog, WordPress has evolved to be much more that just a blogging platform and has been pushed beyond its original purpose. With this new edition of a perennially popular WordPress resource, Smashing Magazine offers you the information you need so you can maximize the potential and power of WordPress. WordPress expert Thord Daniel Hedengren takes you beyond the basic blog to show you how to leverage the capabilities of WordPress to

  2. A cascaded neuro-computational model for spoken word recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoya, Tetsuya; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2010-03-01

    In human speech recognition, words are analysed at both pre-lexical (i.e., sub-word) and lexical (word) levels. The aim of this paper is to propose a constructive neuro-computational model that incorporates both these levels as cascaded layers of pre-lexical and lexical units. The layered structure enables the system to handle the variability of real speech input. Within the model, receptive fields of the pre-lexical layer consist of radial basis functions; the lexical layer is composed of units that perform pattern matching between their internal template and a series of labels, corresponding to the winning receptive fields in the pre-lexical layer. The model adapts through self-tuning of all units, in combination with the formation of a connectivity structure through unsupervised (first layer) and supervised (higher layers) network growth. Simulation studies show that the model can achieve a level of performance in spoken word recognition similar to that of a benchmark approach using hidden Markov models, while enabling parallel access to word candidates in lexical decision making.

  3. Don't words come easy? A psychophysical exploration of word superiority

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Petersen, Anders; Vangkilde, Signe Allerup

    2013-01-01

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. We compare performance with letters and words in three experiments, ...... and visual short term memory capacity. So, even if single words come easy, there is a limit to the word superiority effect....

  4. Knowledge management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tayfun Gülle

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The book includes detailed information concerning knowledge and knowledge management with current resources in seven chapters uder the titles of “organizational effects of knowlegde management, knowledge management systems, new knowledge discovery: data mining, computer as an information sharing platform, technologies as knowledge management: artificial intelligence and knowledge based systems, future of knowlegde management”. Concepts of knowledge and knowledge management becomes phenomenon for all disciplinaries so global companies, other companies, state sector, epistemologists, experts of innovation and governance, information professionals etc may find informative to it. The book also includes three prefaces which are well-informed and so all of them is summarized in the text.

  5. Word diffusion and climate science.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available As public and political debates often demonstrate, a substantial disjoint can exist between the findings of science and the impact it has on the public. Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow "boom and bust" fashion cycles in public usage. Representing this public usage through extraordinary new data on word frequencies in books published up to the year 2008, we show that a classic two-parameter social-diffusion model closely fits the comings and goings of many keywords over generational or longer time scales. We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society.

  6. Syllabic Length Effect in Visual Word Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Ranjbar Mohammadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies on visual word recognition have resulted in different and sometimes contradictory proposals as Multi-Trace Memory Model (MTM, Dual-Route Cascaded Model (DRC, and Parallel Distribution Processing Model (PDP. The role of the number of syllables in word recognition was examined by the use of five groups of English words and non-words. The reaction time of the participants to these words was measured using reaction time measuring software. The results indicated that there was syllabic effect on recognition of both high and low frequency words. The pattern was incremental in terms of syllable number. This pattern prevailed in high and low frequency words and non-words except in one syllable words. In general, the results are in line with the PDP model which claims that a single processing mechanism is used in both words and non-words recognition. In other words, the findings suggest that lexical items are mainly processed via a lexical route.  A pedagogical implication of the findings would be that reading in English as a foreign language involves analytical processing of the syllable of the words.

  7. Selecting tense, aspect, and connecting words in language generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaasterland, T. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Dorr, B. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1995-12-31

    Generating language that reflects the temporal organization of represented knowledge requires a language generation model that integrates contemporary theories of tense and aspect, temporal representations, and methods to plan text. This paper presents a model that produces complex sentences that reflect temporal relations present in underlying temporal concepts. The main result of this work is the successful application of constrained linguistic theories of tense and aspect to a generator which produces meaningful event combinations and selects appropriate connecting words that relate them.

  8. Word familiarity, syllabic stress pattern, and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, C P; Prins, D

    1994-06-01

    The correspondence of stuttering and linguistic characteristics of utterances has led to speculations that a source factor for stutter events is a speaker's inadequate formulation of the speech code. In this study, the effects of word frequency and syllabic stress pattern on stuttering frequency were evaluated using specially designed sentences read orally by 10 adult stutterers and 10 adult nonstutterers. Results revealed statistically significant differences in stuttering frequency between sentences with low and high frequency words, but not between sentences with regular and irregular syllabic stress patterns. The significant rank order correlation between stutterers' word recognition vocabulary scores and amount of stuttering on sentences with high versus low frequency words affirmed that word familiarity, not simply word prominence, is an important factor contributing to the word frequency effect. The outcomes are discussed in relation to current psycholinguistic theories of stuttering, proposing that word access and phonological encoding difficulties could be a source factor that underlies the occurrence of stutter events.

  9. Word Processing Through the Looking Glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Lee R.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the two worlds of word processing: a theoretical world found in textbooks and magazines, and a "real" world found in offices where some form of word processing has been introduced. Suggestions for business teachers are included. (CT)

  10. Japanese Word Sketches: Advances and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena SRDANOVIĆ

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present results of an evaluation of Japanese word sketches and address in detail issues that were observed by the evaluators. A word sketch presents a list of salient collocates of a word, organized by the grammatical relations holding between the word and its collocate. The word sketch functionality is incorporated into the Sketch Engine corpus query system and has been created for more than twenty languages so far, including Japanese. The issues that have been discovered in the evaluation of word sketches in Japanese are to be addressed for further enhancement of the word sketch functionality. Other tools and resources which are combined for use and influence the performance of the word sketches should also be looked over. We divide the issues into the following: 1 the lemmatizer and tagger in use, 2 the sketch grammar that is specifically written for Japanese, and 3 the corpus and statistical methods.

  11. Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/medwords/medicalwordsdownload.html Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions To use the sharing features ... no Internet connection is available. Download: Understanding Medical Words [16MB zip file] Download instructions : Click on the ...

  12. Gender Context Effects on Homophone Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Elsa; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether context marked for grammatical gender can constrain the processing of homphone words in French. Homophones whose different meaning are associated with words of different genders were used in two cross-modal semantic priming experiments. (Author/VWL)

  13. Word-learning performance in beginning readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elizabeth; Bourassa, Derrick

    2008-06-01

    This investigation examined word-learning performance in beginning readers. The children learned to read words with regular spelling-sound mappings (e.g., snake) more easily than words with irregular spelling-sound mappings (e.g., sword). In addition, there was an effect of semantics: Children learned to read concrete words (e.g., elbow) more successfully than abstract words (e.g., temper). Trial-by-trial learning indicated that children made greater use of the regularity and semantic properties at later trials as compared with early trials. The influence of cognitive skills (paired associate learning and phonological awareness) on word-learning performance was also examined. Regression analyses revealed that whereas paired associate learning skills accounted for unique variance in the children's learning of both regular and irregular words, phonological awareness accounted for unique variance only in the acquisition of regular words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Word Problems: A "Meme" for Our Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamnson, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses a novel approach to word problems that involves linear relationships between variables. Argues that working stepwise through intermediates is the way our minds actually work and therefore this should be used in solving word problems. (JRH)

  15. Cluster analysis of word frequency dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslennikova, Yu S.; Bochkarev, V. V.; Belashova, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis and modelling of word usage frequency time series. During one of previous studies, an assumption was put forward that all word usage frequencies have uniform dynamics approaching the shape of a Gaussian function. This assumption can be checked using the frequency dictionaries of the Google Books Ngram database. This database includes 5.2 million books published between 1500 and 2008. The corpus contains over 500 billion words in American English, British English, French, German, Spanish, Russian, Hebrew, and Chinese. We clustered time series of word usage frequencies using a Kohonen neural network. The similarity between input vectors was estimated using several algorithms. As a result of the neural network training procedure, more than ten different forms of time series were found. They describe the dynamics of word usage frequencies from birth to death of individual words. Different groups of word forms were found to have different dynamics of word usage frequency variations.

  16. Exploring the word superiority effect using TVA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi

    Words are made of letters, and yet sometimes it is easier to identify a word than a single letter. This word superiority effect (WSE) has been observed when written stimuli are presented very briefly or degraded by visual noise. It is unclear, however, if this is due to a lower threshold...... for perception of words, or a higher speed of processing for words than letters. We have investigated the WSE using methods based on a Theory of Visual Attention. In an experiment using single stimuli (words or letters) presented centrally, we show that the classical WSE is specifically reflected in perceptual...... processing speed: words are simply processed faster than single letters. It is also clear from this experiment, that the word superiority effect can be observed at a large range of exposure durations, from the perceptual threshold to ceiling performance. Intriguingly, when multiple stimuli are presented...

  17. Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec Word Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lucien Serapio

    This dissertation presents a phonological description and acoustic analysis of the word prosody of Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec, which involves both a complex tone system and a default stress system. The analysis of Nieves Mixtec word prosody is complicated by a close association between morphological structure and prosodic structure, and by the interactions between word prosody and phonation type, which has both contrastive and non-contrastive roles in the phonology. I contextualize these systems within the phonology of Nieves Mixtec as a whole, within the literature on other Mixtec varieties, and within the literature on cross-linguistic prosodic typology. The literature on prosodic typology indicates that stress is necessarily defined abstractly, as structured prominence realized differently in each language. Descriptions of stress in other Mixtec varieties widely report default stress on the initial syllable of the canonical bimoraic root, though some descriptions suggest final stress or mobile stress. I first present phonological evidence---from distributional restrictions, phonological processes, and loanword adaptation---that Nieves Mixtec word prosody does involve a stress system, based on trochaic feet aligned to the root. I then present an acoustic study comparing stressed syllables to unstressed syllables, for ten potential acoustic correlates of stress. The results indicate that the acoustic correlates of stress in Nieves Mixtec include segmental duration, intensity and periodicity. Building on analyses of other Mixtec tone systems, I show that the distribution of tone and the tone processes in Nieves Mixtec support an analysis in which morae may bear H, M or L tone, where M tone is underlyingly unspecified, and each morpheme may sponsor a final +H or +L floating tone. Bimoraic roots thus host up to two linked tones and one floating tone, while monomoraic clitics host just one linked tone and one floating tone, and tonal morphemes are limited to a single

  18. Multisyllabic Word Reading as a Moderator of Morphological Awareness and Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Goodwin, Amanda P.; Compton, Donald L.; Kearns, Devin M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007), it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words), but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis (Perfetti, 2007). Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers. PMID:24219914

  19. Multisyllabic word reading as a moderator of morphological awareness and reading comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jennifer K; Goodwin, Amanda P; Compton, Donald L; Kearns, Devin M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the relation between morphological awareness on reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability in fifth-grade students (N = 169, 53.7% female, 65.2% minority status, 69.2% free/reduced lunch status), oversampled for poor reading skill, when controlling for general knowledge and vocabulary. Based on the lexical quality hypothesis, it was expected that morphological awareness would have a stronger effect on comprehension for children with poor word reading skills, suggesting possible use of morphological awareness for word identification support. Results indicated that neither morphological awareness nor word reading was uniquely associated with reading comprehension when both were included in the model along with vocabulary and general knowledge. Instead, the interaction between word reading and morphological awareness explained significant additional variance in reading comprehension. By probing this interaction, it was determined that the effect of morphological awareness on reading comprehension was significant for the 39% of the sample that had more difficulty reading multisyllabic words but not for students at the higher end of the multisyllabic word reading continuum. We conclude from these results that the relation between morphological awareness and reading comprehension is moderated by multisyllabic word reading ability, providing support for the lexical quality hypothesis. Although we have only correlational data, we suggest tentative instructional practices for improving the reading skill of upper elementary struggling readers.

  20. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  1. Properties of the extremal infinite smooth words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srecko Brlek

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Smooth words are connected to the Kolakoski sequence. We construct the maximal and the minimal infinite smooth words, with respect to the lexicographical order. The naive algorithm generating them is improved by using a reduction of the De Bruijn graph of their factors. We also study their Lyndon factorizations. Finally, we show that the minimal smooth word over the alphabet {1,3} belongs to the orbit of the Fibonacci word.

  2. Audience design: embedded versus word search priming

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie, Tomlin

    2010-01-01

    The present study looks at manipulating audience design using different priming techniques. We were trying to test the effectiveness of different priming techniques (priming words embedded in a story versus priming words embedded in a word search) on audience design by making people more or less helpful in a story retelling task. A time constraint was also introduced to see if the effect of word search priming would be cancelled out. In order to answer these questions two experiments were ru...

  3. Blending Words Found In Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giyatmi Giyatmi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many new words from the social media such as Netizen, Trentop, and Delcon. Those words include in blending. Blending is one of word formations combining two clipped words to form a brand new word. The researchers are interested in analyzing blend words used in the social media such as Instagram, Twitter, Facebook, and Blackberry Messenger. This research aims at (1 finding blend words used in the social media (2 describing kinds of blend words used in social media (3 describing the process of blend word formation used in the social media. This research uses some theories dealing with definition of blending and kinds of blending. This research belongs to descriptive qualitative research. Data of the research are English blend words used in social media. Data sources of this research are websites consisting of some English words used in social media and some social media users as the informant. Techniques of data collecting in this research are observation and simak catat. Observation is by observing some websites consisting of some English words used in social media. Simak catat is done by taking some notes on the data and encoding in symbols such as No/Blend words/Kinds of Blending. The researchers use source triangulation to check the data from the researchers with the informant and theory triangulation to determine kinds of blending and blend word formation in social media. There are115 data of blend words. Those data consists of 65 data of Instagram, 47 data of Twitter, 1 datum of Facebook, and 2 data of Blackberry Messenger. There are 2 types of blending used in social media;108 data of blending with clipping and 7 data of blending with overlapping. There are 10 ways of blend word formation found in this research.

  4. Scientific word, Version 1.0

    OpenAIRE

    Köksal, Semen

    1993-01-01

    Scientific Word is the first fully integrated mathematical word processor in the Windows 3.1 environment, which uses the TEX typesetting language for output. It runs as a Microsoft Windows application program and has two-way interface to TEX. The Scientific Word is an object-oriented WYSIWYG word processor for virtually all users who need typesetting scientific books, manuals and papers. It includes automatic equation numbering, spell checking, and LATEX and DVI previewer.

  5. Scientific word, Version 1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen Köksal

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific Word is the first fully integrated mathematical word processor in the Windows 3.1 environment, which uses the TEX typesetting language for output. It runs as a Microsoft Windows application program and has two-way interface to TEX. The Scientific Word is an object-oriented WYSIWYG word processor for virtually all users who need typesetting scientific books, manuals and papers. It includes automatic equation numbering, spell checking, and LATEX and DVI previewer.

  6. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  7. Towards new information resources for public health--from WordNet to MedicalWordNet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellbaum, Christiane; Hahn, Udo; Smith, Barry

    2006-06-01

    In the last two decades, WordNet has evolved as the most comprehensive computational lexicon of general English. In this article, we discuss its potential for supporting the creation of an entirely new kind of information resource for public health, viz. MedicalWordNet. This resource is not to be conceived merely as a lexical extension of the original WordNet to medical terminology; indeed, there is already a considerable degree of overlap between WordNet and the vocabulary of medicine. Instead, we propose a new type of repository, consisting of three large collections of (1) medically relevant word forms, structured along the lines of the existing Princeton WordNet; (2) medically validated propositions, referred to here as medical facts, which will constitute what we shall call MedicalFactNet; and (3) propositions reflecting laypersons' medical beliefs, which will constitute what we shall call the MedicalBeliefNet. We introduce a methodology for setting up the MedicalWordNet. We then turn to the discussion of research challenges that have to be met to build this new type of information resource. We build a database of sentences relevant to the medical domain. The sentences are generated from WordNet via its relations as well as from medical statements broken down into elementary propositions. Two subcorpora of sentences are distinguished, MedicalBeliefNet and MedicalFactNet. The former is rated for assent by laypersons; the latter for correctness by medical experts. The sentence corpora will be valuable for a variety of applications in information retrieval as well as in research in linguistics and psychology with respect to the study of expert and non-expert beliefs and their linguistic expressions. Our work has to meet several considerable challenges. These include accounting for the distinction between medical experts and laypersons, the social issues of expert-layperson communication in different media, the linguistic aspects of encoding medical knowledge, and

  8. Web-based depression treatment: associations of clients' word use with adherence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zanden, Rianne; Curie, Keshia; Van Londen, Monique; Kramer, Jeannet; Steen, Gerard; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-05-01

    The growing number of web-based psychological treatments, based on textual communication, generates a wealth of data that can contribute to knowledge of online and face-to-face treatments. We investigated whether clients' language use predicted treatment outcomes and adherence in Master Your Mood (MYM), an online group course for young adults with depressive symptoms. Among 234 participants from a randomised controlled trial of MYM, we tested whether their word use on course application forms predicted baseline levels of depression, anxiety and mastery, or subsequent treatment adherence. We then analysed chat session transcripts of course completers (n=67) to investigate whether word use changes predicted changes in treatment outcomes. Depression improvement was predicted by increasing use of 'discrepancy words' during treatment (e.g. should). At baseline, more discrepancy words predicted higher mastery level. Adherence was predicted by more words used at application, more social words and fewer discrepancy words. Many variables were included, increasing the chance of coincidental results. This risk was constrained by examining only those word categories that have been investigated in relation to depression or adherence. This is the first study to link word use during treatment to outcomes of treatment that has proven to be effective in an RCT. The results suggest that paying attention to the length of problem articulation at application and to 'discrepancy words' may be wise, as these seem to be psychological markers. To expand knowledge of word use as psychological marker, research on web-based treatment should include text analysis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Segmentation of Written Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetail, Fabienne; Content, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Syllabification of spoken words has been largely used to define syllabic properties of written words, such as the number of syllables or syllabic boundaries. By contrast, some authors proposed that the functional structure of written words stems from visuo-orthographic features rather than from the transposition of phonological structure into the…

  10. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, C.M.M.; Cutler, A.; Hagoort, P.

    2012-01-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture–word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture–word pairings per semantic category,

  11. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category,

  12. Children's Use of Information in Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kit-Fong Au, Terry

    1990-01-01

    Examines how children's beliefs about word meanings may affect their use of contrastive linguistic information in the input of word learning. Two separate studies are discussed that involve how three- and four-year-old children handled new word meanings after exposure to novel terms. (58 references) (GLR)

  13. Adult Word Recognition and Visual Sequential Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted investigating the role of visual sequential memory skill in the word recognition efficiency of undergraduate university students. Word recognition was assessed in a lexical decision task using regularly and strangely spelt words, and nonwords that were either standard orthographically legal strings or items made from…

  14. Constraints on the Meanings of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, N.; And Others

    Between their second and fifth years, young children learn approximately 15 new words a day. For every word the child hears, he or she must choose the correct referent out of an infinite set of candidates. An important problem for developmental psychologists is to understand the principles that limit the child's hypotheses about word meanings. A…

  15. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  16. Generating and ranking of Dyck words

    CERN Document Server

    Kasa, Zoltan

    2010-01-01

    A new algorithm to generate all Dyck words is presented, which is used in ranking and unranking Dyck words. We emphasize the importance of using Dyck words in encoding objects related to Catalan numbers. As a consequence of formulas used in the ranking algorithm we can obtain a recursive formula for the nth Catalan number.

  17. Learning to Spell from Word Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Marianne K.

    Research was conducted to explore questions relating to the nature of spelling word lists. Word lists from 248 spelling books from 32 publishers' series, grades one through eight, were analyzed. Of the spellers, 17 series were published between 1930 and 1940 and 15 are published currently. A total of 8,645 words from the 1940 era programs and…

  18. Rehearsal Effects in Adult Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the effects of phonological familiarity and rehearsal method (vocal vs. subvocal) on novel word learning. In Experiment 1, English-speaking adults learned phonologically familiar novel words that followed English phonological structure. Participants learned half the words via vocal rehearsal (saying the…

  19. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co......-creation strategies. Confronted with the results, the group completely altered their approach to knowledge sharing and let it become knowledge co-creation. The conclusions are, that knowledge is and can only be a diverse and differentiated concept, and that groups are able to embrace this complexity. Thus rather than...

  20. Numbers and prior knowledge in sentence comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Macizo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated whether the comprehension of sentences that contained numerical information could benefit from presenting numbers in Arabic format and from using prior knowledge. Participants read sentences including numbers (Arabic digits or number words while the comprehension accuracy was evaluated. In addition, the sentences were biased or unbiased by people's prior knowledge about quantities. The results showed better comprehension for sentences that contained Arabic digits as compared to number words. Moreover, biased sentences were understood more accurately than unbiased sentences. These results indicate that information about magnitude in sentence context is comprehended better when quantities are presented in Arabic format and when they are associated with participants' world knowledge.

  1. The Contributions of Vocabulary and Letter Writing Automaticity to Word Reading and Spelling for Kindergartners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet…

  2. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Cruz, Vivian M; Di Nuovo, Alessandro; Di Nuovo, Santo; Cangelosi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags) to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting) and linguistic skills (using number words). The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  3. Making fingers and words count in a cognitive robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Milagros De La Cruz

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from developmental as well as neuroscientific studies suggest that finger counting activity plays an important role in the acquisition of numerical skills in children. It has been claimed that this skill helps in building motor-based representations of number that continue to influence number processing well into adulthood, facilitating the emergence of number concepts from sensorimotor experience through a bottom-up process. The act of counting also involves the acquisition and use of a verbal number system of which number words are the basic building blocks. Using a Cognitive Developmental Robotics paradigm we present results of a modeling experiment on whether finger counting and the association of number words (or tags to fingers, could serve to bootstrap the representation of number in a cognitive robot, enabling it to perform basic numerical operations such as addition. The cognitive architecture of the robot is based on artificial neural networks, which enable the robot to learn both sensorimotor skills (finger counting and linguistic skills (using number words. The results obtained in our experiments show that learning the number words in sequence along with finger configurations helps the fast building of the initial representation of number in the robot. Number knowledge, is instead, not as efficiently developed when number words are learned out of sequence without finger counting. Furthermore, the internal representations of the finger configurations themselves, developed by the robot as a result of the experiments, sustain the execution of basic arithmetic operations, something consistent with evidence coming from developmental research with children. The model and experiments demonstrate the importance of sensorimotor skill learning in robots for the acquisition of abstract knowledge such as numbers.

  4. Separating the influences of prereading skills on early word and nonword reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Laura R; Carroll, Julia M; Solity, Jonathan E

    2013-10-01

    The essential first step for a beginning reader is to learn to match printed forms to phonological representations. For a new word, this is an effortful process where each grapheme must be translated individually (serial decoding). The role of phonological awareness in developing a decoding strategy is well known. We examined whether beginning readers recruit different skills depending on the nature of the words being read (familiar words vs. nonwords). Print knowledge, phoneme and rhyme awareness, rapid automatized naming (RAN), phonological short-term memory (STM), nonverbal reasoning, vocabulary, auditory skills, and visual attention were measured in 392 prereaders 4 and 5 years of age. Word and nonword reading were measured 9 months later. We used structural equation modeling to examine the skills-reading relationship and modeled correlations between our two reading outcomes and among all prereading skills. We found that a broad range of skills were associated with reading outcomes: early print knowledge, phonological STM, phoneme awareness and RAN. Whereas all of these skills were directly predictive of nonword reading, early print knowledge was the only direct predictor of word reading. Our findings suggest that beginning readers draw most heavily on their existing print knowledge to read familiar words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrophysiological assessment of the time course of bilingual visual word recognition: Early access to language membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Loretta K; Pitts, Michael A; Canseco-Gonzalez, Enriqueta

    2015-08-01

    Previous research examining the time course of lexical access during word recognition suggests that phonological processing precedes access to semantic information, which in turn precedes access to syntactic information. Bilingual word recognition likely requires an additional level: knowledge of which language a specific word belongs to. Using the recording of event-related potentials, we investigated the time course of access to language membership information relative to semantic (Experiment 1) and syntactic (Experiment 2) encoding during visual word recognition. In Experiment 1, Spanish-English bilinguals viewed a series of printed words while making dual-choice go/nogo and left/right hand decisions based on semantic (whether the word referred to an animal or an object) and language membership information (whether the word was in English or in Spanish). Experiment 2 used a similar paradigm but with syntactic information (whether the word was a noun or a verb) as one of the response contingencies. The onset and peak latency of the N200, a component related to response inhibition, indicated that language information is accessed earlier than semantic information. Similarly, language information was also accessed earlier than syntactic information (but only based on peak latency). We discuss these findings with respect to models of bilingual word recognition and language comprehension in general. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Word processing during reading sentences in patients with schizophrenia: evidences from the eyetracking technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gerardo; Sapognikoff, Marcelo; Guinjoan, Salvador; Orozco, David; Agamennoni, Osvaldo

    2016-07-01

    The current study analyze the effect of word properties (i.e., word length, word frequency and word predictability) on the eye movement behavior of patients with schizophrenia (SZ) compared to age-matched controls. 18 SZ patients and 40 age matched controls participated in the study. Eye movements were recorded during reading regular sentences by using the eyetracking technique. Eye movement analyses were performed using linear mixed models. Analysis of eye movements revealed that patients with SZ decreased the amount of single fixations, increased their total number of second pass fixations compared with healthy individuals (Controls). In addition, SZ patients showed an increase in gaze duration, compared to Controls. Interestingly, the effects of current word frequency and current word length processing were similar in Controls and SZ patients. The high rate of second pass fixations and its low rate in single fixation might reveal impairments in working memory when integrating neighbor words. In contrast, word frequency and length processing might require less complex mechanisms, which were functioning in SZ patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study measuring how patients with SZ process dynamically well-defined words embedded in regular sentences. The findings suggest that evaluation of the resulting changes in eye movement behavior may supplement current symptom-based diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Deconstructing and Assessing Knowledge and Awareness in Public Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Trevethan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    When people’s knowledge and awareness are the subject of public health research, the meanings applied to the words knowledge and awareness are often unclear. Although frequently used interchangeably without that being problematic, these words sometimes appear to have different intended meanings but those meanings are not made explicit or, despite the meanings having been made explicit, they are not adhered to. It is necessary to overcome obscurities when knowledge and awareness are intended t...

  8. Tracking word semantic change in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Zhu, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes. We find that for the selected words in PubMed, overall, meanings are becoming more stable in the 2000s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. At the topic level, the global distance of most topics (19 out of 20 tested) is declining, suggesting that the words used to discuss these topics are stabilizing semantically. Similarly, the local distance of most topics (19 out of 20) is also declining, showing that the meanings of words from these topics are becoming more consistent with those of their semantic neighbors. At the word level, this paper identifies two different trends in word semantics, as measured by the aforementioned distance metrics: on the one hand, words can form clusters with their semantic neighbors, and these words, as a cluster, coevolve semantically; on the other hand, words can drift apart from their semantic neighbors while nonetheless stabilizing in the global context. In relating our work to language laws on semantic change, we find no overwhelming evidence to support either the law of parallel change or the law of conformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. L2 Word Recognition: Influence of L1 Orthography on Multi-Syllabic Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Megumi

    2017-01-01

    L2 reading research suggests that L1 orthographic experience influences L2 word recognition. Nevertheless, the findings on multi-syllabic words in English are still limited despite the fact that a vast majority of words are multi-syllabic. The study investigated whether L1 orthography influences the recognition of multi-syllabic words, focusing on…

  10. Phonotactics Constraints and the Spoken Word Recognition of Chinese Words in Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Two word-spotting experiments were conducted to examine the question of whether native Cantonese listeners are constrained by phonotactics information in spoken word recognition of Chinese words in speech. Because no legal consonant clusters occurred within an individual Chinese word, this kind of categorical phonotactics information of Chinese…

  11. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  12. Patterns in Permutations and Words

    CERN Document Server

    Kitaev, Sergey

    2011-01-01

    There has been considerable interest recently in the subject of patterns in permutations and words, a new branch of combinatorics with its roots in the works of Rotem, Rogers, and Knuth in the 1970s. Consideration of the patterns in question has been extremely interesting from the combinatorial point of view, and it has proved to be a useful language in a variety of seemingly unrelated problems, including the theory of Kazhdan--Lusztig polynomials, singularities of Schubert varieties, interval orders, Chebyshev polynomials, models in statistical mechanics, and various sorting algorithms, inclu

  13. word2vec Parameter Learning Explained

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Xin

    2014-01-01

    The word2vec model and application by Mikolov et al. have attracted a great amount of attention in recent two years. The vector representations of words learned by word2vec models have been shown to carry semantic meanings and are useful in various NLP tasks. As an increasing number of researchers would like to experiment with word2vec or similar techniques, I notice that there lacks a material that comprehensively explains the parameter learning process of word embedding models in details, t...

  14. Professional WordPress design and development

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Brad; Stern, Hal

    2014-01-01

    The highest rated WordPress development and design book on the market is back with an all new third edition. Professional WordPress is the only WordPress book targeted to developers, with advanced content that exploits the full functionality of the most popular CMS in the world. Fully updated to align with WordPress 4.1, this edition has updated examples with all new screenshots, and full exploration of additional tasks made possible by the latest tools and features. You will gain insight into real projects that currently use WordPress as an application framework, as well as the basic usage a

  15. Analysing the Methods of Dzongkha Word Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhungyel Parshu Ram

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In both Chinese and Dzongkha languages, the greatest challenge is to identify the word boundaries because there are no word delimiters as it is in English and other Western languages. Therefore, preprocessing and word segmentation is the first step in Dzongkha language processing, such as translation, spell-checking, and information retrieval. Research on Chinese word segmentation was conducted long time ago. Therefore, it is relatively mature, but the Dzongkha word segmentation has been less studied by researchers. In the paper, we have investigated this major problem in Dzongkha language processing using a probabilistic approach for selecting valid segments with probability being computed on the basis of the corpus.

  16. A computational model associating learning process, word attributes, and age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach.

  17. Knowledge Acquisition, Knowledge Programming, and Knowledge Refinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Roth, Frederick; And Others

    This report describes the principal findings and recommendations of a 2-year Rand research project on machine-aided knowledge acquisition and discusses the transfer of expertise from humans to machines, as well as the functions of planning, debugging, knowledge refinement, and autonomous machine learning. The relative advantages of humans and…

  18. Help me if I can't: Social interaction effects in adult contextual word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verga, Laura; Kotz, Sonja A

    2017-11-01

    A major challenge in second language acquisition is to build up new vocabulary. How is it possible to identify the meaning of a new word among several possible referents? Adult learners typically use contextual information, which reduces the number of possible referents a new word can have. Alternatively, a social partner may facilitate word learning by directing the learner's attention toward the correct new word meaning. While much is known about the role of this form of 'joint attention' in first language acquisition, little is known about its efficacy in second language acquisition. Consequently, we introduce and validate a novel visual word learning game to evaluate how joint attention affects the contextual learning of new words in a second language. Adult learners either acquired new words in a constant or variable sentence context by playing the game with a knowledgeable partner, or by playing the game alone on a computer. Results clearly show that participants who learned new words in social interaction (i) are faster in identifying a correct new word referent in variable sentence contexts, and (ii) temporally coordinate their behavior with a social partner. Testing the learned words in a post-learning recall or recognition task showed that participants, who learned interactively, better recognized words originally learned in a variable context. While this result may suggest that interactive learning facilitates the allocation of attention to a target referent, the differences in the performance during recognition and recall call for further studies investigating the effect of social interaction on learning performance. In summary, we provide first evidence on the role joint attention in second language learning. Furthermore, the new interactive learning game offers itself to further testing in complex neuroimaging research, where the lack of appropriate experimental set-ups has so far limited the investigation of the neural basis of adult word learning in

  19. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  20. WORD FORMATION ON DRAGON NEST CHAT LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shavitri Cecillia Harsono

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Word formation is creation of new words, which sometimes changes a word’s meaning. Words can be formed from multi word phrases as well. In many cases vocabularies in language are formed from combination of words (Haspelmath 2010: 102. Word formation does not only involve changing physical form of the word itself, but also changing the meaning of said word. There are also instances where the physical form retain its original form while the meaning changes. The phenomenon is called semantic change (Stockwell-Minkova 2001:149. In this thesis the research proposed that the said phenomenon occur in virtual environment, such as in MMORPG. Multiplayer online games that feature fantasy setting virtual environment. For the purpose of this research, Dragon Nest South East Asia server was chosen as data source. The samples are taken from players perusing [World] communication channel. The result of the data analysis has shown that the phenomenon of word formation could occur in a virtual environment of MMORPG, specifcally in Dragon Nest SEA. There are two word formation processes found: processes that involve physical changes and processes that do not involve physical changes but rather innate meaning. It is done by both processing daily language vocabulary both physically and changing its innate meaning to create new words that suits the said virtual environment context. This fnding may influence future research on a fresh perspective and untilled feld.

  1. Semantic effects in single-word naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, E; Patterson, K; Seidenberg, M S

    1995-09-01

    Three experiments demonstrated that, for lower frequency words, reading aloud is affected not only by spelling-sound typicality but also by a semantic variable, imageability. Participants were slower and more error prone when naming exception words with abstract meanings (e.g., scarce) than when naming either abstract regular words (e.g., scribe) or imageable exception words (e.g., soot). It is proposed that semantic representations of words have the largest impact on translating orthography to phonology when this translation process is slow or noisy (i.e., for low-frequency exceptions) and that words with rich semantic representations (i.e., high-imageability words) are most likely to benefit from this interaction.

  2. Anticipatory coarticulation facilitates word recognition in toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahr, Tristan; McMillan, Brianna T. M.; Saffran, Jenny R.; Weismer, Susan Ellis; Edwards, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Children learn from their environments and their caregivers. To capitalize on learning opportunities, young children have to recognize familiar words efficiently by integrating contextual cues across word boundaries. Previous research has shown that adults can use phonetic cues from anticipatory coarticulation during word recognition. We asked whether 18–24 month-olds (n = 29) used coarticulatory cues on the word “the” when recognizing the following noun. We performed a looking-while-listening eyetracking experiment to examine word recognition in neutral versus facilitating coarticulatory conditions. Participants looked to the target image significantly sooner when the determiner contained facilitating coarticulatory cues. These results provide the first evidence that novice word-learners can take advantage of anticipatory sub-phonemic cues during word recognition. PMID:26072992

  3. Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Erik D.; Erickson, Lucy C.

    2013-01-01

    To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once infants have identified a set of lexical forms, they can learn from the distribution of acoustic features across those word forms. The current experiments demonstrate both processes are available to 5-month-old infants. This demonstration of sensitivity to statistical structure in speech, weighted more heavily than phonological cues to segmentation at an early age, is consistent with theoretical accounts that claim statistical learning plays a role in helping infants to adapt to the structure of their native language from very early in life. PMID:23335903

  4. Tapping the grapevine: a closer look at word-of-mouth as a recruitment source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip

    2009-03-01

    To advance knowledge of word-of-mouth as a company-independent recruitment source, this study draws on conceptualizations of word-of-mouth in the marketing literature. The sample consisted of 612 potential applicants targeted by the Belgian Defense. Consistent with the recipient-source framework, time spent receiving positive word-of-mouth was determined by the traits of the recipient (extraversion and conscientiousness), the characteristics of the source (perceived expertise), and their mutual relationship (tie strength). Only conscientiousness and source expertise were determinants of receiving negative word-of-mouth. In line with the accessibility-diagnosticity model, receiving positive employment information through word-of-mouth early in the recruitment process was positively associated with perceptual (organizational attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions), beyond potential applicants' exposure to other recruitment sources. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Discovering Words in Fluent Speech: The Contribution of Two Kinds of Statistical Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik D Thiessen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To efficiently segment fluent speech, infants must discover the predominant phonological form of words in the native language. In English, for example, content words typically begin with a stressed syllable. To discover this regularity, infants need to identify a set of words. We propose that statistical learning plays two roles in this process. First, it provides a cue that allows infants to segment words from fluent speech, even without language-specific phonological knowledge. Second, once infants have identified a set of lexical forms, they can learn from the distribution of acoustic features across those word forms. The current experiments demonstrate both processes are available to 5-month-old infants. This is an earlier age than prior demonstration of sensitivity to statistical structure in speech, and consistent with theoretical accounts that claim statistical learning plays a role in helping infants to adapt to the structure of their native language from very early in life.

  6. New words in human mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexeevski Andrei V

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The substitution rates within different nucleotide contexts are subject to varying levels of bias. The most well known example of such bias is the excess of C to T (C > T mutations in CpG (CG dinucleotides. The molecular mechanisms underlying this bias are important factors in human genome evolution and cancer development. The discovery of other nucleotide contexts that have profound effects on substitution rates can improve our understanding of how mutations are acquired, and why mutation hotspots exist. Results We compared rates of inherited mutations in 1-4 bp nucleotide contexts using reconstructed ancestral states of human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from intergenic regions. Chimp and orangutan genomic sequences were used as outgroups. We uncovered 3.5 and 3.3-fold excesses of T > C mutations in the second position of ATTG and ATAG words, respectively, and a 3.4-fold excess of A > C mutations in the first position of the ACAA word. Conclusions Although all the observed biases are less pronounced than the 5.1-fold excess of C > T mutations in CG dinucleotides, the three 4 bp mutation contexts mentioned above (and their complementary contexts are well distinguished from all other mutation contexts. This provides a challenge to discover the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed excesses of mutations.

  7. Learning new meanings for old words: effects of semantic relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M; Berriman, Richard; Landau, Matt; Lee, Theresa; Ho, Carol; Gaskell, M Gareth; Davis, Matthew H

    2012-10-01

    Changes to our everyday activities mean that adult language users need to learn new meanings for previously unambiguous words. For example, we need to learn that a "tweet" is not only the sound a bird makes, but also a short message on a social networking site. In these experiments, adult participants learned new fictional meanings for words with a single dominant meaning (e.g., "ant") by reading paragraphs that described these novel meanings. Explicit recall of these meanings was significantly better when there was a strong semantic relationship between the novel meaning and the existing meaning. This relatedness effect emerged after relatively brief exposure to the meanings (experiment 1), but it persisted when training was extended across 7 days (experiment 2) and when semantically demanding tasks were used during this extended training (experiment 3). A lexical decision task was used to assess the impact of learning on online recognition. In Experiment 3, participants responded more quickly to words whose new meaning was semantically related than to those with an unrelated meaning. This result is consistent with earlier studies showing an effect of meaning relatedness on lexical decision, and it indicates that these newly acquired meanings become integrated with participants' preexisting knowledge about the meanings of words.

  8. Is Second Language Lexical Access Prosodically Constrained? Processing of Word Stress by French Canadian Second Language Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Annie

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study are (a) to determine if native speakers of Canadian French at different English proficiencies can use primary stress for recognizing English words and (b) to specify how the second language (L2) learners' (surface-level) knowledge of L2 stress placement influences their use of primary stress in L2 word recognition. Two…

  9. The Development of Vocabulary in English as a Second Language Children and Its Role in Predicting Word Recognition Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, Maureen; Geva, Esther

    2009-01-01

    Do older English as a second language (ESL) children have the same knowledge of word meanings as English as a first language (EL1) children? How important is vocabulary's role in predicting word recognition in these groups? This study sought to answer these questions by examining the profiles of ESL and EL1 upper elementary aged children, for a…

  10. The Effects of Multiple Script Priming on Word Recognition by the Two Cerebral Hemispheres: Implications for Discourse Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Miriam; Barak, Ofra; Chiarello, Christine

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined left (LH) and right (RH) hemisphere involvement in discourse processing by testing the ability of each hemisphere to use world knowledge in the form of script contexts for word recognition. Participants made lexical decisions to laterally presented target words preceded by centrally presented script primes (four…

  11. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  12. Regarding the presence of European foreign words in the Dictionary of Americanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milagros Aleza-Izquierdo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the study of European foreign words in Latin-American Spanish using as a corpus a selection of entries from the Diccionario de Americanismos (ASALE 2010. More specifically, this paper provides an analysis of the foreign words with no interlanguage adaptation which are registered in the academic dictionary, thus contributing to the knowledge about the influence of other languages on the development of the current Latin American lexicon.

  13. The 5000 most frequent words in the official textbooks of mexican basic education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Agustín Varela Barraza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper briefly describes the importance of the word's frequency lists used in school textbooks on the regulation of vocabulary. In addition its frequent use in various fields of knowledge is indicated. According with the classical definition of the Royal Spanish Language Academy, our aim is show the 2,000 mostly used words found in the official texts of basic education in Mexico are presented.

  14. Ukufundisa izicuku zeziqhakancu emagameni (Teaching click clusters in words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gxowa-Dlayedwa, Ntombizodwa Cynthia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Some teachers find it uninteresting and difficult to teach isiXhosa phonemes and syllables to grade one to three learners. This has a negative impact as the literacy results are low because learners’ reading and writing skills are poor. The linguistics terms featuring in the title, namely; consonants, vowels and syllables as found in words facilitate reading, and thus improve literacy standards in every language. IsiXhosa is one of the eleven official languages in South Africa. Phonemes include clicks and/or click cluster and vowels. On the other hand, there are people who are interested in learning to speak isiXhosa, but the difficulties encountered during the pronunciation of clicks discourage many of them. This study believes that the knowledge of phonemes and syllables will boost the literacy standard in isiXhosa. Therefore, the purposes of this study are to show that clicks and click clusters are found in major word categories which are in life circles. Secondly, if words are divided into segments, it becomes easy to produce them in print and reading skills. Thirdly, reading is possible in every language, and most importantly, skills are transferable. The current study therefore, argues that the knowledge of phonemes and syllables facilitates reading and creative writing skills. The data used in this study were taken from a novel written by Sidlayi (2009. Few examples have been given by the researchers themselves with an objective to clarify some ideas.

  15. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  16. Predicting Children's Reading and Mathematics Achievement from Early Quantitative Knowledge and Domain-General Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Felicia W.; vanMarle, Kristy; Geary, David C.

    2016-01-01

    One hundred children (44 boys) participated in a 3-year longitudinal study of the development of basic quantitative competencies and the relation between these competencies and later mathematics and reading achievement. The children's preliteracy knowledge, intelligence, executive functions, and parental educational background were also assessed. The quantitative tasks assessed a broad range of symbolic and nonsymbolic knowledge and were administered four times across 2 years of preschool. Mathematics achievement was assessed at the end of each of 2 years of preschool, and mathematics and word reading achievement were assessed at the end of kindergarten. Our goals were to determine how domain-general abilities contribute to growth in children's quantitative knowledge and to determine how domain-general and domain-specific abilities contribute to children's preschool mathematics achievement and kindergarten mathematics and reading achievement. We first identified four core quantitative competencies (e.g., knowledge of the cardinal value of number words) that predict later mathematics achievement. The domain-general abilities were then used to predict growth in these competencies across 2 years of preschool, and the combination of domain-general abilities, preliteracy skills, and core quantitative competencies were used to predict mathematics achievement across preschool and mathematics and word reading achievement at the end of kindergarten. Both intelligence and executive functions predicted growth in the four quantitative competencies, especially across the first year of preschool. A combination of domain-general and domain-specific competencies predicted preschoolers' mathematics achievement, with a trend for domain-specific skills to be more strongly related to achievement at the beginning of preschool than at the end of preschool. Preschool preliteracy skills, sensitivity to the relative quantities of collections of objects, and cardinal knowledge predicted

  17. The contributions of vocabulary and letter writing automaticity to word reading and spelling for kindergartners

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young-Suk; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Puranik, Cynthia; Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Gruelich, Luana

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we examined the relation between alphabet knowledge fluency (letter names and sounds) and letter writing automaticity, and unique relations of letter writing automaticity and semantic knowledge (i.e., vocabulary) to word reading and spelling over and above code-related skills such as phonological awareness and alphabet knowledge. These questions were addressed using data from 242 English-speaking kindergartners and employing structural equation modeling. Results showed le...

  18. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a picture-word matching paradigm. ERPs time-locked to pictures elicited a modulation of the negative central (Nc) component, associated with visual attention and recognition. It was attenuated by category repetition as well as by the type-token ratio of picture context. ERPs time-locked to words in the training phase became more negative with repetition (N300-600), but there was no influence of picture type-token ratio, suggesting that infants have identified the concept of each picture before a word was presented. Results from the test phase provided clear support that infants integrated word meanings with (novel) picture context. Here, infants showed different ERP responses for words that did or did not align with the picture context: a phonological mismatch (N200) and a semantic mismatch (N400). Together, results were informative of visual categorization, word recognition and word-to-world-mappings, all three crucial processes for vocabulary construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. New Perspectives on Computational and Cognitive Strategies for Word Sense Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Kwong, Oi Yee

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive and Computational Strategies for Word Sense Disambiguation examines cognitive strategies by humans and computational strategies by machines, for WSD in parallel.  Focusing on a psychologically valid property of words and senses, author Oi Yee Kwong discusses their concreteness or abstractness and draws on psycholinguistic data to examine the extent to which existing lexical resources resemble the mental lexicon as far as the concreteness distinction is concerned. The text also investigates the contribution of different knowledge sources to WSD in relation to this very intrinsic nature of words and senses. 

  20. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.