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Sample records for word associate test

  1. Motivating Students' Learning Using Word Association Test and Concept Maps

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    Z. Kostova

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the effect of a free word association test, content analysis and concept mapping on students’ achievements in human biology. The free word association test was used for revealing the scientific conceptual structures of 8th grade and 12th grade students, around a stimulus word – human being – and for motivating them to study human biology. The stimulus word retrieved a cluster of associations most of which were based on science education and experience. Associations with the stimulus word were analyzed and classified according to predetermined criteria and structured by means of a concept map. The stimulus word ‘human being’ was quantitatively assessed in order to find out the balance between the associations with its different aspects. On the basis of the results some connections between biology and other sciences studying the human being, were worked out. Each new topic in human biology was studied by using content analysis of the textbook and concept mapping as study tools and thus maintaining students’ motivation. Achievements of students were assessed by means of tests, observation and concept maps evaluation. The obtained data was also valuable in clarifying the complex nature of the human being, and confirming the statement that biology cannot answer all questions, concerning human nature. Inferences were made about the word association test combined with content analysis and concept map construction as an educational strategy.

  2. Testing the associative-link hypothesis in immediate serial recall: Evidence from word frequency and word imageability effects.

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    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2007-08-01

    Two immediate serial recall experiments were conducted to test the associative-link hypothesis (Stuart & Hulme, 2000). We manipulated interitem association by varying the intralist latent semantic analysis (LSA) cosines in our 7-item study word lists, each of which consists of high- or low-frequency words in Experiment 1 and high- or low-imageability words in Experiment 2. Whether item recall performance was scored by a serial-recall or free-recall criterion, we found main effects of interitem association, word imageability, and word frequency. The effect of interitem association also interacted with the word frequency effect, but not with the word imageability effect. The LSA-cosinexword frequency interaction occurred in the recency, but not primacy, portion of the serial position curve. The present findings set explanatory boundaries for the associative-link hypothesis and we argue that both item- and associative-based mechanisms are necessary to account for the word frequency effect in immediate serial recall.

  3. Word Association Test and psychosexual cues in assessing persons with eating disorders.

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    Berry, E M; Kelly, D; Canetti, L; Bachar, E

    1998-02-01

    The present study aimed to detect psychosexual conflicts in patients with eating disorders using the Word Association Test which tests the perceptual sensitivity of the subject to conflictual words. We also expected patients to show concern about food and eating. 19 anorexic patients, 21 bulimic patients, and 20 control subjects without eating disorders provided associations to four groups of words: psychosexual words, food words, emotionally loaded words, and neutral words. Reaction times were recorded. Analysis showed that anorexic patients were slower than controls in responding to food-related words but bulimic patients were not significantly different from controls. Anorexic patients reacted more slowly than controls to psychosexual words. Bulimic patients were also somewhat slower than controls but faster than anorexic patients; however, these differences were not statistically significant. Results are congruent with research that points to sexual problems and delays in the psychosexual development of anorexic patients and to a lesser extent of bulimic patients.

  4. Determining the cognitive structures of science teacher candidates on “evolution” through word association test

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    Arzu ÖNEL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to determine the conceptual comprehension of science teacher candidates on evolution. As part of this target, the Word Association Test was applied. This study was conducted with the participation of 146 teacher candidates studying in the Department of Science Education. Of the 146 teacher candidates, 89 mostly wrote the words; “evolution” (f=43, “Darwin” (f=36, and “ape” (f=10 as primary concepts in the word association test. This result illustrated that when the word “evolution” was pronounced, 61% of teacher candidates firstly remembered these three words as primary concepts. This study has demonstrated once more that there are misunderstandings and missing data on the evolutionary theory despite the past 156 years from the emergence of this theory.

  5. Impairment of Self-control and its manifestations in Continuous Word Association Test

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    Gabriela Marhevská

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of work is to find out how self–control influences word associations. The research presented herein provides new insight into manifestations of self–control. Experimental study is based on the Strength model (Baumeister, Bratslavsky, Muraven, & Tice, 1998, which assumes that self–control relies on limited resources of ego which become depleted with increased exercising of self–control (Ego depletion. The aim of this experiment was to verify in an empirical manner that the impairment of self–control can be manifested in word association tests. Continuous word association test (Kondáš, 1979 was used in this experiment. Distinct indicators of continuous word associations were divided into the following 4 categories; verbal dynamics, abnormalities in association, errors in the reproduction of association reactions and the overall number of mistakes. Parallel task and “e letter” crossing out exercises were used in order to impair ego resource.One–Way ANOVA was used in the analysis. The results of the study indicate that impaired self–control, induced by the “e letter” crossing out task, increased verbal dynamics. According to the obtained results, Continuous word association test provoke automatic processes. Further important indicators of impaired self–control were increased perseverations of potentially conflicting word ′control′, erroneous reproductions of potentially conflicting word ′explosions′ and the overall indicator of mistakes in conflict word‚ explosions and control‘. The experiment results show an increase in the number of mistakes of word association production when self–control is impaired.

  6. The Word Accentuation Test - Chicago.

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    Krueger, Kristin R; Lam, Chow S; Wilson, Robert S

    2006-10-01

    A reading test for Spanish speakers in the United States was developed called the Word Accentuation Test-Chicago. The construction and validation of this 40 item test was modeled after reading tests developed in Spain and Argentina, and is based on irregular accentuation of words. The Word Accentuation Test-Chicago was validated on 45 community participants using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in Spanish. Better reading performance was associated with higher intelligence test performance, with an additional 5% of the variation in intelligence score accounted for by reading performance after controlling for age and education. These results indicate that the Word Accentuation Test-Chicago is a psychometrically sound measure of Spanish reading ability that is robustly related to general cognitive ability.

  7. Associative vocabulary learning: development and testing of two paradigms for the (re-) acquisition of action- and object-related words.

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    Freundlieb, Nils; Ridder, Volker; Dobel, Christian; Enriquez-Geppert, Stefanie; Baumgaertner, Annette; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Gerloff, Christian; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2012-01-01

    Despite a growing number of studies, the neurophysiology of adult vocabulary acquisition is still poorly understood. One reason is that paradigms that can easily be combined with neuroscientfic methods are rare. Here, we tested the efficiency of two paradigms for vocabulary (re-) acquisition, and compared the learning of novel words for actions and objects. Cortical networks involved in adult native-language word processing are widespread, with differences postulated between words for objects and actions. Words and what they stand for are supposed to be grounded in perceptual and sensorimotor brain circuits depending on their meaning. If there are specific brain representations for different word categories, we hypothesized behavioural differences in the learning of action-related and object-related words. Paradigm A, with the learning of novel words for body-related actions spread out over a number of days, revealed fast learning of these new action words, and stable retention up to 4 weeks after training. The single-session Paradigm B employed objects and actions. Performance during acquisition did not differ between action-related and object-related words (time*word category: p = 0.01), but the translation rate was clearly better for object-related (79%) than for action-related words (53%, p = 0.002). Both paradigms yielded robust associative learning of novel action-related words, as previously demonstrated for object-related words. Translation success differed for action- and object-related words, which may indicate different neural mechanisms. The paradigms tested here are well suited to investigate such differences with neuroscientific means. Given the stable retention and minimal requirements for conscious effort, these learning paradigms are promising for vocabulary re-learning in brain-lesioned people. In combination with neuroimaging, neuro-stimulation or pharmacological intervention, they may well advance the understanding of language learning

  8. Factors Associated with Word Memory Test Performance in Persons with Medically Documented Traumatic Brain Injury.

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    Sherer, Mark; Davis, Lynne C; Sander, Angelle M; Nick, Todd G; Luo, Chunqiao; Pastorek, Nicholas; Hanks, Robin

    2015-01-01

    (1) To examine the rate of poor performance validity in a large, multicenter, prospectively accrued cohort of community dwelling persons with medically documented traumatic brain injury (TBI), (2) to identify factors associated with Word Memory Test (WMT) performance in persons with TBI. This was a prospective cohort, observational study of 491 persons with medically documented TBI. Participants were administered a battery of cognitive tests, questionnaires on emotional distress and post-concussive symptoms, and a performance validity test (WMT). Additional data were collected by interview and review of medical records. One hundred and seventeen participants showed poor performance validity using the standard cutoff. Variable cluster analysis was conducted as a data reduction strategy. Findings revealed that the 10 cognitive tests and questionnaires could be summarized as 4 indices of emotional distress, speed of cognitive processing, verbal memory, and verbal fluency. Regression models revealed that verbal memory, emotional distress, age, and injury severity (time to follow commands) made unique contribution to prediction of poor performance validity. Poor performance validity was common in a research sample of persons with medically documented TBI who were not evaluated in conjunction with litigation, compensation claims, or current report of symptoms. Poor performance validity was associated with poor performance on cognitive tests, greater emotional distress, lower injury severity, and greater age. Many participants expected to have residual deficits based on initial injury severity showed poor performance validity.

  9. The reliability and validity of qualitative scores for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test.

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    Ross, Thomas P; Calhoun, Emily; Cox, Tara; Wenner, Carolyn; Kono, Whitney; Pleasant, Morgan

    2007-05-01

    The reliability and validity of two qualitative scoring systems for the Controlled Oral Word Association Test [Benton, A. L., Hamsher, de S. K., & Sivan, A. B. (1983). Multilingual aplasia examination (2nd ed.). Iowa City, IA: AJA Associates] were examined in 108 healthy young adults. The scoring systems developed by Troyer et al. [Troyer, A. K., Moscovich, M., & Winocur, G. (1997). Clustering and switching as two components of verbal fluency: Evidence from younger and older healthy adults. Neuropsychology, 11, 138-146] and by Abwender et al. [Abwender, D. A., Swan, J. G., Bowerman, J. T., & Connolly, S. W. (2001a). Qualitative analysis of verbal fluency output: Review and comparison of several scoring methods. Assessment, 8, 323-336] each demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (all indices at or above r(icc)=.9). Consistent with previous research [e.g., Ross, T. P. (2003). The reliability of cluster and switch scores for the COWAT. Archives of Clinical Psychology, 18, 153-164), test-retest reliability coefficients (N=53; M interval 44.6 days) for the qualitative scores were modest to poor (r(icc)=.6 to .4 range). Correlations among COWAT scores, measures of executive functioning, verbal learning, working memory, and vocabulary were examined. The idea that qualitative scores represent distinct executive functions such as cognitive flexibility or strategy utilization was not supported. We offer the interpretation that COWAT performance may require the ability to retrieve words in a non-routine manner while suppressing habitual responses and associated processing interference, presumably due to a spread of activation across semantic or lexical networks. This interpretation, though speculative at present, implies that clustering and switching on the COWAT may not be entirely deliberate, but rather an artifact of a passive (i.e., state-dependent) process. Ideas for future research, most noticeably experimental studies using cognitive methods (e.g., priming), are

  10. Examining word association networks: A cross-country comparison of women's perceptions of HPV testing and vaccination.

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    Bernd C Schmid

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the perceptual associations women hold with regard to cervical cancer testing and vaccination across two countries, the U.S. and Australia. In a large-scale online survey, we presented participants with 'trigger' words, and asked them to state sequentially other words that came to mind. We used this data to construct detailed term co-occurrence network graphs, which we analyzed using basic topological ranking techniques. The results showed that women hold divergent perceptual associations regarding trigger words relating to cervical cancer screening tools, i.e. human papillomavirus (HPV testing and vaccination, which indicate health knowledge deficiencies with non-HPV related associations emerging from the data. This result was found to be consistent across the country groups studied. Our findings are critical in optimizing consumer education and public service announcements to minimize misperceptions relating to HPV testing and vaccination in order to maximize adoption of cervical cancer prevention tools.

  11. Word Associations of Schizophrenic Children

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    Johnston, Mary Hollis

    1974-01-01

    A study of word associations in normal and disturbed children integrated two methods of word association research: pathological features of adult schizophrenic language and psycholinguistic features of developmental changes in children's associations. (Author/KM)

  12. A word association response approach toward lexical relationships within the mental lexicon of second language learners: pedagogic ideas from testing McCarthy's theories on Japanese students.

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    Murphy, Robert S; Post, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    Through use of word association as detailed in McCarthy (1990) this paper will explore pedagogic implications derived from the following three points in relation to the lexical development of Japanese learners of English: 1) the ability of word association tests to examine the mental links between words in learners' developing mental lexicon, 2) the importance of phonological similarities for lower level students and 3) the correlation between the results from a word association test with the characteristic types of word association patterns discussed in McCarthy (1990). It will be argued that while lexical development within the mental lexicon is difficult to delineate due to overlap of organizational categories, the patterns of syntactic, semantic and conceptual relations between learned words is apparent within the retrieval process for word association and that additionally, context may play a vital role in how words are construed along the links within the mental lexicon. Pedagogic ideas and future research ideas are detailed.

  13. The effect of Trier Social Stress Test (TSST on item and associative recognition of words and pictures in healthy participants

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    Jonathan eGuez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress, induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, has repeatedly been shown to alter memory performance. Although factors influencing memory performance such as stimulus nature (verbal /pictorial and emotional valence have been extensively studied, results whether stress impairs or improves memory are still inconsistent. This study aimed at exploring the effect of TSST on item versus associative memory for neutral, verbal, and pictorial stimuli. 48 healthy subjects were recruited, 24 participants were randomly assigned to the TSST group and the remaining 24 participants were assigned to the control group. Stress reactivity was measured by psychological (subjective state anxiety ratings and physiological (Galvanic skin response recording measurements. Subjects performed an item-association memory task for both stimulus types (words, pictures simultaneously, before, and after the stress/non-stress manipulation. The results showed that memory recognition for pictorial stimuli was higher than for verbal stimuli. Memory for both words and pictures was impaired following TSST; while the source for this impairment was specific to associative recognition in pictures, a more general deficit was observed for verbal material, as expressed in decreased recognition for both items and associations following TSST. Response latency analysis indicated that the TSST manipulation decreased response time but at the cost of memory accuracy. We conclude that stress does not uniformly affect memory; rather it interacts with the task’s cognitive load and stimulus type. Applying the current study results to patients diagnosed with disorders associated with traumatic stress, our findings in healthy subjects under acute stress provide further support for our assertion that patients’ impaired memory originates in poor recollection processing following depletion of attentional resources.

  14. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

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    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  15. Stimulus affectivity of the Danish Word Association Test as measured by response heterogeneity and Rasch scaled number of prolonged reaction times.

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    Ivanouw, Jan

    2006-02-01

    With the purpose of increasing the knowledge of the psychometric properties of the 70-item Danish Word Association Test, data from three samples of non-patients and psychiatric patients (N = 326) were used to provide two measures of affectivity of the stimulus words, response heterogeneity and reaction time prolongation. It was possible to fit an item response theory one-parameter measurement (Rasch) model to the number of reaction time prolongations (> or =3 seconds) for 54 of the stimulus words. Correlation between Rasch-model item parameters and response heterogeneity was high (r = 0.86), while no correlation was found between either of these measures and frequency of the stimulus words in the Danish language. Both measures of stimulus affectivity supported a theoretically based classification of stimulus words as emotional or neutral. Response heterogeneity measures and Rasch measurement item and person parameters for reaction time prolongations are provided.

  16. Word priming in schizophrenia: Associational and semantic influences

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    Nestor, Paul Gerard; Valdman, Olga; Niznikiewicz, Margaret A.; Spencer, Kevin M.; McCarley, Robert William; Shenton, Martha Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    We examined semantic vs. associational influences on word priming in schizophrenia. Tested on three occasions, subjects made speeded lexical decisions to three kinds of prime-word relationships: semantic-only (e.g., Deer-Pony), associated-only (e.g., Bee-Honey), or semantic-and-associated (e.g., Doctor-Nurse). Controls showed greater priming of words related via two relationships (semantic-and-associated) than for words related only semantically.. However, patients showed greater priming for ...

  17. Determining Biology Student Teachers' Cognitive Structure on the Concept of "Diffusion" through the Free Word-Association Test and the Drawing-Writing Technique

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    Kurt, Hakan; Ekici, Gülay; Aktas, Murat; Aksu, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to investigate student biology teachers' cognitive structures related to "diffusion" through the free word-association test and the drawing-writing technique. As the research design of the study, the qualitative research method was applied. The data were collected from 44 student biology teachers. The free…

  18. Estimating affective word covariates using word association data.

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    Van Rensbergen, Bram; De Deyne, Simon; Storms, Gert

    2016-12-01

    Word ratings on affective dimensions are an important tool in psycholinguistic research. Traditionally, they are obtained by asking participants to rate words on each dimension, a time-consuming procedure. As such, there has been some interest in computationally generating norms, by extrapolating words' affective ratings using their semantic similarity to words for which these values are already known. So far, most attempts have derived similarity from word co-occurrence in text corpora. In the current paper, we obtain similarity from word association data. We use these similarity ratings to predict the valence, arousal, and dominance of 14,000 Dutch words with the help of two extrapolation methods: Orientation towards Paradigm Words and k-Nearest Neighbors. The resulting estimates show very high correlations with human ratings when using Orientation towards Paradigm Words, and even higher correlations when using k-Nearest Neighbors. We discuss possible theoretical accounts of our results and compare our findings with previous attempts at computationally generating affective norms.

  19. "Test" is a Four Letter Word

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    Pope, G M

    2005-05-03

    For a number of years I had the pleasure of teaching Testing Seminars all over the world and meeting and learning from others in our field. Over a twelve year period, I always asked the following questions to Software Developers, Test Engineers, and Managers who took my two or three day seminar on Software Testing: 'When was the first time you heard the word test'? 'Where were you when you first heard the word test'? 'Who said the word test'? 'How did the word test make you feel'? Most of the thousands of responses were similar to 'It was my third grade teacher at school, and I felt nervous and afraid'. Now there were a few exceptions like 'It was my third grade teacher, and I was happy and excited to show how smart I was'. But by and large, my informal survey found that 'testing' is a word to which most people attach negative meanings, based on its historical context. So why is this important to those of us in the software development business? Because I have found that a preponderance of software developers do not get real excited about hearing that the software they just wrote is going to be 'tested' by the Test Group. Typical reactions I have heard over the years run from: 'I'm sure there is nothing wrong with the software, so go ahead and test it, better you find defects than our customers'. to these extremes: 'There is no need to test my software because there is nothing wrong with it'. 'You are not qualified to test my software because you don't know as much as I do about it'. 'If any Test Engineers come into our office again to test our software we will throw them through the third floor window'. So why is there such a strong negative reaction to testing? It is primitive. It goes back to grade school for many of us. It is a negative word that congers up negative emotions. In other words, 'test' is a four letter word

  20. Comparing different kinds of words and word-word relations to test an habituation model of priming.

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    Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E

    2017-06-01

    Huber and O'Reilly (2003) proposed that neural habituation exists to solve a temporal parsing problem, minimizing blending between one word and the next when words are visually presented in rapid succession. They developed a neural dynamics habituation model, explaining the finding that short duration primes produce positive priming whereas long duration primes produce negative repetition priming. The model contains three layers of processing, including a visual input layer, an orthographic layer, and a lexical-semantic layer. The predicted effect of prime duration depends both on this assumed representational hierarchy and the assumption that synaptic depression underlies habituation. The current study tested these assumptions by comparing different kinds of words (e.g., words versus non-words) and different kinds of word-word relations (e.g., associative versus repetition). For each experiment, the predictions of the original model were compared to an alternative model with different representational assumptions. Experiment 1 confirmed the prediction that non-words and inverted words require longer prime durations to eliminate positive repetition priming (i.e., a slower transition from positive to negative priming). Experiment 2 confirmed the prediction that associative priming increases and then decreases with increasing prime duration, but remains positive even with long duration primes. Experiment 3 replicated the effects of repetition and associative priming using a within-subjects design and combined these effects by examining target words that were expected to repeat (e.g., viewing the target word 'BACK' after the prime phrase 'back to'). These results support the originally assumed representational hierarchy and more generally the role of habituation in temporal parsing and priming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

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    Cremer, M.; Dingshoff, D.; de Beer, M.; Schoonen, R.

    2011-01-01

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  2. Do word associations assess word knowledge? A comparison of L1 and L2, child and adult word associations

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    Cremer, Marjolein; Dingshoff, Daphne; de Beer, Meike; Schoonen, Rob

    Differences in word associations between monolingual and bilingual speakers of Dutch can reflect differences in how well seemingly familiar words are known. In this (exploratory) study mono-and bilingual, child and adult free word associations were compared. Responses of children and of monolingual

  3. The acoustic signature for intelligibility test words.

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    Weismer, G; Kent, R D; Hodge, M; Martin, R

    1988-10-01

    As part of a research program that aims to develop an explicit acoustic basis for a single-word intelligibility test, an initial attempt to characterize the formant trajectories and segment durations of seven test words produced by 30 normal speakers is described. These characterizations are referred to as "acoustic signatures." The data indicate that: (1) formant trajectories show two sex effects, namely, that females are more variable as a group than males and tend to have greater slopes for the transitional segment of the second-formant trajectories and that these effects are consistent across words; (2) Bark transformations of the frequency data do not seem to eliminate the interspeaker differences in formant trajectories, nor do they eliminate either of the sex effects described above; and (3) segment durations have different variabilities depending on the syllabic structure of the word; no sex effect was noted here. The discussion focuses on the appropriate form for the acoustic signatures, as well as factors that should be considered in selecting words for signature development. To demonstrate the potential application of these data, formant trajectory and segment duration data from 18 speakers with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and varying degrees of dysarthria are compared to the acoustic signature for the word wax.

  4. Investigation of Pre-Service English Language Teachers' Cognitive Structures about Some Key Concepts in Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching Course through Word Association Test

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    Ersanli, Ceylan Yangin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to map the cognitive structure of pre-service English language (EL) teachers about three key concepts related to approaches and methods in language teaching so as to discover their learning process and misconceptions. The study involves both qualitative and quantitative data. The researcher administrated a Word Association Test…

  5. Staggered spondaic word test in epileptic patients

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    Karin Zazo Ortiz

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Auditory processing during childhood may be altered if there is any predisposing factor during the course of development. Neurological disorders are among the risk factors for auditory processing impairment. From this perspective, epileptic children present such a risk factor and could present auditory processing dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate central auditory processing in epileptic patients using the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW in order to verify whether these patients presented auditory disorders and whether the type of crisis partial or generalized played a role in the occurrence and type of disorder. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital. SAMPLE: Thirty-eight children and adolescents, ranging from 7 to 16 years old, with a diagnosis of epilepsy divided into two groups: 23 patients with partial crisis and 15 patients with generalized crisis. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Performance in the Staggered Spondaic Word Test versus epileptic crisis type (partial or generalized. RESULTS: The majority of epileptic patients showed central auditory processing disorders. There were no differences in relation to crisis type. Both groups showed similar performance, although the results observed for these patients differ from what is obtained with normal populations. With regard to response bias, there were also no differences in performance between subjects with partial or generalized seizures. All possible disorders were found in both groups, without the prevalence of one specific disorder over the other. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a high prevalence of disorders among epileptic patients in relation to processing partially overlapped verbal sounds in a dichotic paradigm.

  6. The filtered words test and the influence of lexicality.

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    Arnott, Wendy; Goli, Tara; Bradley, Andrew; Smith, Andrew; Wilson, Wayne

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the authors aimed to investigate the language confounds of filtered words tests by examining the repetition of real words versus nonsense words as a function of level of filtering. Fifty-five young, native-English-speaking women with normal hearing were required to repeat 80 real-word and 80 nonsense-word monosyllables that were matched for phonemic content and low-pass filtered. Thirty participants were tested using a harsher filter range of 2000 to 500 Hz, and 25 participants were tested using a milder filter range of 3000 to 1500 Hz. Paired-sample t tests compared accuracy (percentage of phonemes correct) for word and nonsense-word stimuli at each filter level. At filter levels between 3000 and 1750 Hz, performance for word stimuli was significantly better than for nonsense-word stimuli. Conversely, at filter levels between 500 and 1250 Hz, performance was significantly better for nonsense words. The linguistic content of real-word stimuli benefits performance on low-pass filtered speech tests at filter levels above 1500 Hz. Caution must be taken when using real-word stimuli in low-pass filtered speech tests as part of an auditory processing diagnostic test battery, because language ability will impact on performance.

  7. Adapting the Freiburg monosyllabic word test for Slovenian

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    Tatjana Marvin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Speech audiometry is one of the standard methods used to diagnose the type of hearing loss and to assess the communication function of the patient by determining the level of the patient’s ability to understand and repeat words presented to him or her in a hearing test. For this purpose, the Slovenian adaptation of the German tests developed by Hahlbrock (1953, 1960 – the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test and the Freiburg Number Test – are used in Slovenia (adapted in 1968 by Pompe. In this paper we focus on the Freiburg Monosyllabic Word Test for Slovenian, which has been criticized by patients as well as in the literature for the unequal difficulty and frequency of the words, with many of these being extremely rare or even obsolete. As part of the patient’s communication function is retrieving the meaning of individual words by guessing, the less frequent and consequently less familiar words do not contribute to reliable testing results. We therefore adapt the test by identifying and removing such words and supplement them with phonetically similar words to preserve the phonetic balance of the list. The words used for replacement are extracted from the written corpus of Slovenian Gigafida and the spoken corpus of Slovenian GOS, while the optimal combinations of words are established by using computational algorithms.

  8. Performance of younger and older adults on tests of word knowledge and word retrieval: independence or interdependence of skills?

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    Kavé, Gitit; Yafé, Ronit

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between vocabulary knowledge and word retrieval in younger and older adults. Three tests of word retrieval and 2 tests of word knowledge were administered to 140 Hebrew-speaking adults, half of whom were younger (M(age) = 24.20 years) and half of whom were older (M(age) = 74.83 years). Younger adults outperformed older adults on tests of retrieval, whereas older adults outperformed younger adults on tests of vocabulary, and no association was found between the 2 skills across the entire sample. Once age and education were taken into account, both skills contributed to the prediction of each other and were similarly related within each group. Older adults performed equally well when required to produce and recognize word meanings, whereas younger adults were better at recognition than at production. Older age is associated with better knowledge and with retrieval difficulties, yet individual differences in vocabulary within each age group affect level of retrieval, and variability in search skills affects performance on vocabulary tests. Although the assessment of vocabulary is not free of retrieval demands, older adults as a group are more successful than are younger adults at producing word definitions, most likely because their knowledge is more complete.

  9. Examining assortativity in the mental lexicon: Evidence from word associations.

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    Van Rensbergen, Bram; Storms, Gert; De Deyne, Simon

    2015-12-01

    Words are characterized by a variety of lexical and psychological properties, such as their part of speech, word-frequency, concreteness, or affectivity. In this study, we examine how these properties relate to a word's connectivity in the mental lexicon, the structure containing a person's knowledge of words. In particular, we examine the extent to which these properties display assortative mixing, that is, the extent to which words in the lexicon are more likely to be connected to words that share these properties. We investigated three types of word properties: 1) subjective word covariates: valence, dominance, arousal, and concreteness; 2) lexical information: part of speech; and 3) distributional word properties: age-of-acquisition, word frequency, and contextual diversity. We assessed which of these factors exhibit assortativity using a word association task, where the probability of producing a certain response to a cue is a measure of the associative strength between the cue and response in the mental lexicon. Our results show that the extent to which these aspects exhibit assortativity varies considerably, with a high cue-response correspondence on valence, dominance, arousal, concreteness, and part of speech, indicating that these factors correspond to the words people deem as related. In contrast, we find that cues and responses show only little correspondence on word frequency, contextual diversity, and age-of-acquisition, indicating that, compared to subjective and lexical word covariates, distributional properties exhibit only little assortativity in the mental lexicon. Possible theoretical accounts and implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. The Effect of Language Exposure and Word Characteristics on the Arab EFL Learners' Word Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dakhs, Dina Abdel

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigates the patterns of word associations among Arab EFL learners and compares these patterns with those of native speakers of English. The study also examines the influence of increased language exposure and word characteristics on the learners' association patterns. To this end, 45 native speakers of English and 421 Arab…

  11. Bi-syllabic, modern Greek word lists for use in word recognition tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliadou, Vassiliki; Fourakis, Marios; Vakalos, Angelos; Hawks, John W; Kaprinis, George

    2006-02-01

    The development of a word recognition test for Modern Greek, which is comprised of three fifty-word lists, is described herein. The development was guided by four principles: (1) use of the shortest words possible (two syllables for Greek) (2) use of highly frequent words (3) phonetic balance and (4) appropriate balance of first and second syllable stress. The lists were recorded by one male and one female native speakers. Thirty-seven native speakers of Greek listened to all words by both speakers. Across lists, the mean correct identification score was 97.9% for the female voice (95% confidence interval 96.97 to 98.84) and 96.5% (95% confidence interval 95.31 to 97.77) for the male voice. This small difference was statistically significant (p < .01) and concentrated on words with first syllable stress. In future work, these recordings can be used in adult tests of speech perception and can be modified for tests of central auditory processing.

  12. Challenges of Testing Deep Word Knowledge of Vocabulary: Which ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research explores the challenges of testing deep word knowledge of the vocabulary of students of English as a Foreign/Second Language (EFL/ESL) at higher education. A productive test modelled on the Lex30 test developed by Meara and Fitzpatrick (2000) was presented to the participants. Results indicate ...

  13. The role of backward associative strength in false recognition of DRM lists with multiple critical words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, María S; Arndt, Jason

    2017-08-01

    Memory is a reconstruction of the past and is prone to errors. One of the most widely-used paradigms to examine false memory is the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In this paradigm, participants studied words associatively related to a non-presented critical word. In a subsequent memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and/or recognized. In the present study, we examined the influence of backward associative strength (BAS) on false recognition using DRM lists with multiple critical words. In forty-eight English DRM lists, we manipulated BAS while controlling forward associative strength (FAS). Lists included four words (e.g., prison, convict, suspect, fugitive) simultaneously associated with two critical words (e.g., CRIMINAL, JAIL). The results indicated that true recognition was similar in high-BAS and low-BAS lists, while false recognition was greater in high-BAS lists than in low-BAS lists. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between false recognition and the probability of a resonant connection between the studied words and their associates. These findings suggest that BAS and resonant connections influence false recognition, and extend prior research using DRM lists associated with a single critical word to studies of DRM lists associated with multiple critical words.

  14. The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test: Pictures vs. Words

    OpenAIRE

    Pettit, Annabel

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested a group of young (18-25) and old (>60) healthy adults to examine whether a pictorial superiority effect influences performance in the free and cued selective reminding test (FCSRT). 81 participants were recruited and performed the ACE-R, TOPF and FCSRT. Stimulus items for the FCSRT consisted of either 16 line drawings (in the picture form) or 16 written words (in the word form). The design was completely-between subjects and the form of test was fully counterbalanced...

  15. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Schultheiss, Oliver C.

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., non-conscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in the frequencies of specific words. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achi...

  16. The role of association in early word-learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott P Johnson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Word-learning likely involves a multiplicity of components, some domain-general, others domain-specific. Against the background of recent studies that suggest that word-learning is domain-specific, we investigated the associative component of word-learning. Seven- and 14-month-old infants viewed a pair of events in which a monkey or a truck moved back and forth, accompanied by a sung syllable or a tone, matched for pitch. Following habituation, infants were presented with displays in which the visual-auditory pairings were preserved or switched, and looked longer at the switch events when exposure time was sufficient to learn the intermodal association. At 7 months, performance on speech and tones conditions was statistically identical; at 14 months, infants had begun to favor speech. Thus, the associative component of word-learning does not appear (in contrast to rule-learning, Marcus et al., 2007 to initially privilege speech.

  17. An Initial Facet Analysis of the FYCSP Word Attack Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besel, Ronald

    The concepts "facet analysis,""facet design," and "facet structure" are defined. The FYCSP (First Year Communication Skills Program) Word Attack Test is analyzed in terms of two related facet structures. Stepwise linear regression is used to predict distractor attractiveness. Hypotheses suggested by Guttman relating…

  18. Untangling Word Webs: Graph Theory and the Notion of Density in Second Language Word Association Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, Clarissa; Meara, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Examines the implications of the metaphor of the vocabulary network. Takes a formal approach to the exploration of this metaphor by applying the principles of graph theory to word association data to compare the relative densities of the first language and second language lexical networks. (Author/VWL)

  19. Scale-invariant transition probabilities in free word association trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Elias Costa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Free-word association has been used as a vehicle to understand the organization of human thoughts. The original studies relied mainly on qualitative assertions, yielding the widely intuitive notion that trajectories of word associations are structured, yet considerably more random than organized linguistic text. Here we set to determine a precise characterization of this space, generating a large number of word association trajectories in a web implemented game. We embedded the trajectories in the graph of word co-occurrences from a linguistic corpus. To constrain possible transport models we measured the memory loss and the cycling probability. These two measures could not be reconciled by a bounded diffusive model since the cycling probability was very high (16 % of order-2 cycles implying a majority of short-range associations whereas the memory loss was very rapid (converging to the asymptotic value in ∼ 7 steps which, in turn, forced a high fraction of long-range associations. We show that memory loss and cycling probabilities of free word association trajectories can be simultaneously accounted by a model in which transitions are determined by a scale invariant probability distribution.

  20. Establishing student perceptions of an entrepreneur using word associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine E. Goliath

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: To understand entrepreneurial behaviour, it is important to understand the image or perceptions associated with entrepreneurship.Research purpose: To identify the image or perceptions that students have of an entrepreneur.Motivation for study: By establishing the image or perceptions that students have of an entrepreneur, insights could be provided into the factors influencing them to become entrepreneurs or not.Research approach, design and method: A qualitative projective technique, namely continuous word association, was adopted. Convenience sampling was used and 163 students participated. The words generated were coded into categories by searching for themes and words of a similar nature. The total words generated, the frequencies of recurring words, the number of different types of words, first words recalled and the average number of words recalled were established.Main findings: The students participating in the study have a good understanding of the general nature of an entrepreneur and entrepreneurship; an entrepreneur is perceived as someone who is a creative and innovative risk-taker, who owns a business involved in the selling of goods and services.Practical/managerial implications: Future entrepreneurs need to be aware that, in addition to several innate attributes, successful entrepreneurs have learned skills and competencies. It is also important that educators of entrepreneurship create a realistic image of what it is like to be an entrepreneur, and that both positive and negative aspects are highlighted.Contribution/value-add: By identifying the image or perceptions of an entrepreneur held by students, the marketing of entrepreneurship as a desirable career choice can be enhanced.

  1. Correlations for the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverett, J Patrick; Lassiter, Kerry S; Buchanan, Gray M

    2002-04-01

    The present investigation examined the relationships for scores on the Stroop Color and Word Test with measures of reading and language achievement within an adult population. The Stroop Color and Word Test, Nelson-Denny Reading Test, Woodcock-Johnson Psycho-Educational Battery-Revised, and Wide Range Achievement Test-3 were administered to 99 men ranging in age from 18 to 27 years. Pearson product-moment correlations indicated that the Stroop Word task was positively associated with scores on the WRAT-3 Spelling task, the Woodcock-Johnson Basic and Broad Reading tasks, and the Nelson-Denny Rcading Rate and Comprehension tasks. These and other significant relationships were discussed in terms of possible implications regarding the assessment of reading achievement.

  2. Word Association Data and the Assessment of Bilingual Education Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capco, Clemencia S.; Tucker, G. Richard

    1971-01-01

    Manuscript supported, in part, by grants from the Canada Council and the Defense Research Board of Canada to Mr. Tucker. More complete version was prepared by Miss Capco as A Study of the Verbal Behavior of Bilingual Children Using a Word Association Technique", M.A. thesis, Philippine Normal College, Manila, 1969. (VM)

  3. False recognition production indexes in forward associative strength (FAS) lists with three critical words

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beato, María Soledad; Arndt, Jason

    2014-01-01

    .... In a memory test critical words are often falsely recalled and recognized. The present study was conducted to measure the levels of false recognition for seventy-five Spanish DRM word lists that have multiple critical words per list...

  4. tDCS Over the Motor Cortex Shows Differential Effects on Action and Object Words in Associative Word Learning in Healthy Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscheidt, Meret; Hoppe, Julia; Freundlieb, Nils; Zwitserlood, Pienie; Liuzzi, Gianpiero

    2017-01-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants. We applied tDCS to the motor cortex (MC) and hypothesized an involvement of the MC in learning action-related words. To test this, a cohort of 18 healthy, older participants (mean age 71) engaged in a computer-assisted associative word-learning paradigm, while tDCS stimulation (anodal, cathodal, sham) was applied to the left MC. Participants' task performance was quantified in a randomized, cross-over experimental design. Participants successfully learned novel words, correctly translating 39.22% of the words after 1 h of training under sham stimulation. Task performance correlated with scores for declarative verbal learning and logical reasoning. Overall, tDCS did not influence associative word learning, but a specific influence was observed of cathodal tDCS on learning of action-related words during the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. Successful learning of a novel lexicon with associative learning in older participants can only be achieved when the learning procedure is changed in several aspects, relative to young subjects. Learning success showed large inter-individual variance which was dependent on non-linguistic as well as linguistic cognitive functions. Intriguingly, cathodal tDCS influenced the acquisition of action-related words in the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. However, the effect was not specific for the associative learning principle

  5. tDCS Over the Motor Cortex Shows Differential Effects on Action and Object Words in Associative Word Learning in Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meret Branscheidt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Healthy aging is accompanied by a continuous decline in cognitive functions. For example, the ability to learn languages decreases with age, while the neurobiological underpinnings for the decline in learning abilities are not known exactly. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, in combination with appropriate experimental paradigms, is a well-established technique to investigate the mechanisms of learning. Based on previous results in young adults, we tested the suitability of an associative learning paradigm for the acquisition of action- and object-related words in a cohort of older participants. We applied tDCS to the motor cortex (MC and hypothesized an involvement of the MC in learning action-related words. To test this, a cohort of 18 healthy, older participants (mean age 71 engaged in a computer-assisted associative word-learning paradigm, while tDCS stimulation (anodal, cathodal, sham was applied to the left MC. Participants’ task performance was quantified in a randomized, cross-over experimental design. Participants successfully learned novel words, correctly translating 39.22% of the words after 1 h of training under sham stimulation. Task performance correlated with scores for declarative verbal learning and logical reasoning. Overall, tDCS did not influence associative word learning, but a specific influence was observed of cathodal tDCS on learning of action-related words during the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. Successful learning of a novel lexicon with associative learning in older participants can only be achieved when the learning procedure is changed in several aspects, relative to young subjects. Learning success showed large inter-individual variance which was dependent on non-linguistic as well as linguistic cognitive functions. Intriguingly, cathodal tDCS influenced the acquisition of action-related words in the NMDA-dependent stimulation period. However, the effect was not specific for the associative

  6. Speech audiometry in Estonia: Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veispak, Anneli; Jansen, Sofie; Ghesquière, Pol; Wouters, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Currently, there is no up-to-date speech perception test available in the Estonian language that may be used to diagnose hearing loss and quantify speech intelligibility. Therefore, based on the example of the Nederlandse Vereniging voor Audiologie (NVA)-lists ( Bosman, 1989 ; Wouters et al, 1994 ) an Estonian words in noise (EWIN) test has been developed. Two experimental steps were carried out: (1) selection and perceptual optimization of the monosyllables, and (2) construction of 14 lists and an evaluation in normal hearing (NH) subjects both in noise and in quiet. Thirty-six normal-hearing (NH) native speakers of Estonia (age range from 17 to 46 years). The reference psychometric curve for NH subjects was determined, with the slope and speech reception threshold being well in accordance with the respective values of the NVA lists. The 14 lists in noise yielded equivalent scores with high precision. The EWIN test is a reliable and valid speech intelligibility test, and is the first of its kind in the Estonian language.

  7. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver C Schultheiss

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., nonconscious preferences for specific classes of incentives are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in word frequencies. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker, Francis, & Booth, 2001, Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being. Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores’ causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal.

  8. Are implicit motives revealed in mere words? Testing the marker-word hypothesis with computer-based text analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Oliver C

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, implicit motives (i.e., non-conscious preferences for specific classes of incentives) are assessed through semantic coding of imaginative stories. The present research tested the marker-word hypothesis, which states that implicit motives are reflected in the frequencies of specific words. Using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC; Pennebaker et al., 2001), Study 1 identified word categories that converged with a content-coding measure of the implicit motives for power, achievement, and affiliation in picture stories collected in German and US student samples, showed discriminant validity with self-reported motives, and predicted well-validated criteria of implicit motives (gender difference for the affiliation motive; in interaction with personal-goal progress: emotional well-being). Study 2 demonstrated LIWC-based motive scores' causal validity by documenting their sensitivity to motive arousal.

  9. Two Formats of Word Association Tasks: A Study of Depth of Word Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agdam, Seddighe Jalili; Sadeghi, Karim

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary development is an essential goal in any language teaching program, and considering the multidimensional nature of this construct, achieving this goal needs effective assessment of all dimensions of word knowledge, i.e. breadth, depth and accessibility of word knowledge. Most of the current vocabulary assessment tools measure the breadth…

  10. Language use statistics and prototypical grapheme colours predict synaesthetes' and non-synaesthetes' word-colour associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Stephanie C; Kidd, Evan

    2017-02-01

    Synaesthesia is the neuropsychological phenomenon in which individuals experience unusual sensory associations, such as experiencing particular colours in response to particular words. While it was once thought the particular pairings between stimuli were arbitrary and idiosyncratic to particular synaesthetes, there is now growing evidence for a systematic psycholinguistic basis to the associations. Here we sought to assess the explanatory value of quantifiable lexical association measures (via latent semantic analysis; LSA) in the pairings observed between words and colours in synaesthesia. To test this, we had synaesthetes report the particular colours they experienced in response to given concept words, and found that language association between the concept and colour words provided highly reliable predictors of the reported pairings. These results provide convergent evidence for a psycholinguistic basis to synaesthesia, but in a novel way, showing that exposure to particular patterns of associations in language can predict the formation of particular synaesthetic lexical-colour associations. Consistent with previous research, the prototypical synaesthetic colour for the first letter of the word also played a role in shaping the colour for the whole word, and this effect also interacted with language association, such that the effect of the colour for the first letter was stronger as the association between the concept word and the colour word in language increased. Moreover, when a group of non-synaesthetes were asked what colours they associated with the concept words, they produced very similar reports to the synaesthetes that were predicted by both language association and prototypical synaesthetic colour for the first letter of the word. This points to a shared linguistic experience generating the associations for both groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. How Are Pronunciation Variants of Spoken Words Recognized? A Test of Generalization to Newly Learned Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    One account of how pronunciation variants of spoken words (center-> "senner" or "sennah") are recognized is that sublexical processes use information about variation in the same phonological environments to recover the intended segments [Gaskell, G., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1998). Mechanisms of phonological inference in speech perception.…

  12. Distinguishing familiarity from fluency for the compound word pair effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Fahad N; Hockley, William E

    2017-09-01

    We examined whether processing fluency contributes to associative recognition of unitized pre-experimental associations. In Experiments 1A and 1B, we minimized perceptual fluency by presenting each word of pairs on separate screens at both study and test, yet the compound word (CW) effect (i.e., hit and false-alarm rates greater for CW pairs with no difference in discrimination) did not reduce. In Experiments 2A and 2B, conceptual fluency was examined by comparing transparent (e.g., hand bag) and opaque (e.g., rag time) CW pairs in lexical decision and associative recognition tasks. Lexical decision was faster for transparent CWs (Experiment 2A) but in associative recognition, the CW effect did not differ by CW pair type (Experiment 2B). In Experiments 3A and 3B, we examined whether priming that increases processing fluency would influence the CW effect. In Experiment 3A, CW and non-compound word pairs were preceded with matched and mismatched primes at test in an associative recognition task. In Experiment 3B, only transparent and opaque CW pairs were presented. Results showed that presenting matched versus mismatched primes at test did not influence the CW effect. The CW effect in yes-no associative recognition is due to reliance on enhanced familiarity of unitized CW pairs.

  13. Cloze tests and word reading tests: Enabling teachers to measure learners' reading-related abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klapwijk, Nanda M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ‘How can I measure my learners’ reading ability in order to manage my instruction more effectively?’ This seems to be the refrain of many teachers these days. However, while teachers are taught new methods of instruction and new reading methods, they do not seem to be taught about reliable ways to measure their learners’ reading-related ability independently. In this article, a recommendation is made for the use of two measurements by teachers: a word reading test (which measures word recognition and Cloze tests (which measure a reader’s ability to comprehend at more than word level. While acknowledging the difficulties related to measuring reading ability, in particular comprehension, the author of this article provides evidence that, when combined, a word reading test and a Cloze test can provide teachers with a reliable indicator of their learners’ reading-related abilities. The article concludes with a list of benefits that can be gained from obtaining such measurements.

  14. Word Learning in the Developing Brain : ERP Dynamics of Learning Word-Object Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Borgström, Kristina

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigated electrophysiological measures of individual differences in toddlers’ ability to learn novel object labels and process familiar object words and their referents. The studies measured both visual and auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to pictures of objects and words in a longitudinal sample of 20- to 24-month-olds, an age of dynamic vocabulary development. These ERP measures were related to the children’s productive vocabulary siz...

  15. Compound words prompt arbitrary semantic associations in conceptual memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien eBoutonnet

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Linguistic relativity theory has received empirical support in domains such as colour perception and object categorisation. It is unknown however, whether relations between words idiosyncratic to language impact nonverbal representations and conceptualisations. For instance, would one consider the concepts of horse and sea as related were it not for the existence of the compound seahorse? Here, we investigated such arbitrary conceptual relationships using a non-linguistic picture relatedness task in participants undergoing event-related brain potential recordings. Picture pairs arbitrarily related because of a compound and presented in the compound order elicited N400 amplitudes similar to unrelated pairs. Surprisingly, however, pictures presented in the reverse order (as in the sequence horse – sea reduced N400 amplitudes significantly, demonstrating the existence of a link in memory between these two concepts otherwise unrelated. These results break new ground in the domain of linguistic relativity by revealing predicted semantic associations driven by lexical relations intrinsic to language.

  16. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respec...

  17. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  18. A Heavy Heart: The Association between Weight and Emotional Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xueru; He, Xianyou; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    People often express emotion in language using weight (e.g., a heavy heart, light-hearted, light humor, or heavy-handed), but the question remains whether these expressions of emotion are rooted in the body. Six experiments used a priming paradigm to explore the metaphoric relation between weight perception and emotional words. Experiments 1 and 2 investigated the influence of weight perception on judgments of emotional words and the influence of emotional words on judgments of weight, respectively. A significant difference between the consistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to positive words and heaviness corresponds to negative words) and the inconsistent condition (e.g., lightness corresponds to negative words and heaviness corresponds to positive words) was found in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 were conducted to exclude potential confounds. Experiment 6 was a repeated-measures study that was conducted to verify the weight-emotion effect. The study confirmed that weight perception affected judgments of emotional words. The results contribute to the growing literature on conceptual metaphor theory and embodied cognition theory.

  19. Corpus-based estimates of word association predict biases in judgment of word co-occurrence likelihood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paperno, Denis; Marelli, Marco; Tentori, Katya; Baroni, Marco

    2014-11-01

    This paper draws a connection between statistical word association measures used in linguistics and confirmation measures from epistemology. Having theoretically established the connection, we replicate, in the new context of the judgments of word co-occurrence, an intriguing finding from the psychology of reasoning, namely that confirmation values affect intuitions about likelihood. We show that the effect, despite being based in this case on very subtle statistical insights about thousands of words, is stable across three different experimental settings. Our theoretical and empirical results suggest that factors affecting traditional reasoning tasks are also at play when linguistic knowledge is probed, and they provide further evidence for the importance of confirmation in a new domain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Word Families and Frequency Bands in Vocabulary Tests: Challenging Conventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremmel, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary test development often appears to be based on the design principles of previous tests, without questioning or empirically examining the assumptions underlying those principles. Given the current proliferation of vocabulary tests, it seems timely for the field of vocabulary testing to problematize some of those traditionalised…

  1. The acquisition of simple associations as observed in color-word contingency learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Olivia Y-H; MacLeod, Colin M

    2018-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the learning of simple associations in a color-word contingency task. Participants responded manually to the print colors of 3 words, with each word associated strongly to 1 of the 3 colors and weakly to the other 2 colors. Despite the words being irrelevant, response times to high-contingency stimuli and to low-contingency stimuli quickly diverged. This high-low difference remained quite constant over successive blocks of trials, evidence of stable contingency learning. Inclusion of a baseline condition-an item having no color-word contingency-permitted separation of the contingency learning effect into 2 components: a cost due to low contingency and a benefit due to high contingency. Both cost and benefit were quick to acquire, quick to extinguish, and quick to reacquire. The color-word contingency task provides a simple way to directly study the learning of associations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Neuroanatomical Comparison of the "Word" and "Picture" Versions of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slachevsky, Andrea; Barraza, Paulo; Hornberger, Michael; Muñoz-Neira, Carlos; Flanagan, Emma; Henríquez, Fernando; Bravo, Eduardo; Farías, Mauricio; Delgado, Carolina

    2018-01-01

    Episodic memory tests with cued recall, such as the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT), allow for the delineation of hippocampal and prefrontal atrophy contributions to memory performance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Both Word and Picture versions of the test exist but show different profiles, with the Picture version usually scoring higher across different cohorts. One possible explanation for this divergent performance between the different modality versions of the test might be that they rely on different sets of neural correlates. The current study explores this by contrasting the neural correlates of the Word and Picture versions of the FCSRT with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in AD and healthy subjects. We predicted that the Picture version would be associated with different cortical regions than the Word version, which might be more hippocampal-centric. When comparing 35 AD patients and 34 controls, AD patients exhibited impairments on both versions of the FCSRT and both groups performed higher in the Picture version. A region of interest analysis based on prior work revealed significant correlations between free recall of either version with atrophy of the temporal pole and hippocampal regions. Thus, contrary to expectations, performance on both the Word and the Picture version of the FCSRT is associated with largely overlapping networks. Free recall is associated with hippocampal volume and might be properly considered as an indicator of hippocampal structural integrity.

  3. Comparison of "Word" vs. "Picture" Version of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Molly E; Katz, Mindy J; Wang, Cuiling; Burns, Leah C; Berman, Robert M; Derby, Carol A; L'Italien, Gilbert; Budd, David; Lipton, Richard B

    2015-03-01

    This study examined the psychometric relationship between the Word and Picture versions of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) and developed an equation for score conversion. 187 participants were administered the FCSRT-Picture and FCSRT-Word on two visits using a randomized counterbalanced design. Participants had a mean age of 82.1 (sd=5.4) and mean education of 14.5 (sd=3.3) years. Mean FCSRT-Picture Free Recall score (mean 33.0, range: 17-44) was 7.9 points higher than the Word score (mean 25.1, range: 3-43). The Picture and Word FCSRT correlations for Free Recall and Total Recall were r=0.56, pPicture and Word versions of the FCSRT were moderately associated in a sample of cognitively normal older adults. The score mean differences and variability between FCSRT-Picture and FCSRT-Word indicate that their scores should not be considered equivalent.

  4. Convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX, a word and pseudoword spelling test for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Per; Backlund, Charlotte; Lindström, Emma

    2016-10-01

    Few comprehensive spelling tests are available in Swedish, and none have been validated in adults with reading and writing disorders. The recently developed STAVUX test includes word and pseudoword spelling subtests with high internal consistency and adult norms stratified by education. This study evaluated the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX in adults with dyslexia. Forty-six adults, 23 with dyslexia and 23 controls, took STAVUX together with a standard word-decoding test and a self-rated measure of spelling skills. STAVUX subtest scores showed moderate to strong correlations with word-decoding scores and predicted self-rated spelling skills. Word and pseudoword subtest scores both predicted dyslexia status. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis showed excellent diagnostic discriminability. Sensitivity was 91% and specificity 96%. In conclusion, the results of this study support the convergent and diagnostic validity of STAVUX.

  5. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  6. Compound words prompt arbitrary semantic associations in conceptual memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bastien eBoutonnet; Rhonda eMcclain; Guillaume eThierry

    2014-01-01

    Linguistic relativity theory has received empirical support in domains such as colour perception and object categorisation. It is unknown however, whether relations between words idiosyncratic to language impact nonverbal representations and conceptualisations. For instance, would one consider the concepts of horse and sea as related were it not for the existence of the compound seahorse? Here, we investigated such arbitrary conceptual relationships using a non-linguistic picture relatedness ...

  7. Phoneme Error Pattern by Heritage Speakers of Spanish on an English Word Recognition Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lu-Feng

    2017-04-01

    Heritage speakers acquire their native language from home use in their early childhood. As the native language is typically a minority language in the society, these individuals receive their formal education in the majority language and eventually develop greater competency with the majority than their native language. To date, there have not been specific research attempts to understand word recognition by heritage speakers. It is not clear if and to what degree we may infer from evidence based on bilingual listeners in general. This preliminary study investigated how heritage speakers of Spanish perform on an English word recognition test and analyzed their phoneme errors. A prospective, cross-sectional, observational design was employed. Twelve normal-hearing adult Spanish heritage speakers (four men, eight women, 20-38 yr old) participated in the study. Their language background was obtained through the Language Experience and Proficiency Questionnaire. Nine English monolingual listeners (three men, six women, 20-41 yr old) were also included for comparison purposes. Listeners were presented with 200 Northwestern University Auditory Test No. 6 words in quiet. They repeated each word orally and in writing. Their responses were scored by word, word-initial consonant, vowel, and word-final consonant. Performance was compared between groups with Student's t test or analysis of variance. Group-specific error patterns were primarily descriptive, but intergroup comparisons were made using 95% or 99% confidence intervals for proportional data. The two groups of listeners yielded comparable scores when their responses were examined by word, vowel, and final consonant. However, heritage speakers of Spanish misidentified significantly more word-initial consonants and had significantly more difficulty with initial /p, b, h/ than their monolingual peers. The two groups yielded similar patterns for vowel and word-final consonants, but heritage speakers made significantly

  8. Acquired Affective Associations Induce Emotion Effects in Word Recognition: An ERP Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Nathalie; Kuchinke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined how contextual learning and in particular emotionality conditioning impacts the neural processing of words, as possible key factors for the acquisition of words' emotional connotation. 21 participants learned on five consecutive days associations between meaningless pseudowords and unpleasant or neutral pictures using an…

  9. Associative Learning of Pictures and Words by Low-Functioning Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preissler, Melissa Allen

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates whether children with autism learn picture, word and object relations as associative pairs or whether they understand such relations as referential. In Experiment 1, children were taught a new word (e.g. "whisk") repeatedly paired with a novel picture. When given the picture and a previously unseen real whisk and asked…

  10. A computational model associating learning process, word attributes, and age of acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Shohei

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new model-based approach linking word learning to the age of acquisition (AoA) of words; a new computational tool for understanding the relationships among word learning processes, psychological attributes, and word AoAs as measures of vocabulary growth. The computational model developed describes the distinct statistical relationships between three theoretical factors underpinning word learning and AoA distributions. Simply put, this model formulates how different learning processes, characterized by change in learning rate over time and/or by the number of exposures required to acquire a word, likely result in different AoA distributions depending on word type. We tested the model in three respects. The first analysis showed that the proposed model accounts for empirical AoA distributions better than a standard alternative. The second analysis demonstrated that the estimated learning parameters well predicted the psychological attributes, such as frequency and imageability, of words. The third analysis illustrated that the developmental trend predicted by our estimated learning parameters was consistent with relevant findings in the developmental literature on word learning in children. We further discuss the theoretical implications of our model-based approach.

  11. Testing an Associative Account of Semantic Satiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Huber, David E.

    2010-01-01

    How is the meaning of a word retrieved without interference from recently viewed words? The ROUSE theory of priming assumes a discounting process to reduce source confusion between subsequently presented words. As applied to semantic satiation, this theory predicted a loss of association between the lexical item and meaning. Four experiments…

  12. Fracture Testing of Large-Scale Thin-Sheet Aluminum Alloy (MS Word file)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-02-01

    Word Document; A series of fracture tests on large-scale, precracked, aluminum alloy panels were carried out to examine and characterize the process by which cracks propagate and link up in this material. Extended grips and test fixtures were special...

  13. Setting Specific Criteria for Scoring Word Problems in Mathematics: Effects on Test Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibe, Milagros D.

    1983-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of specific criteria for marking a test on its reliability and validity. Eight algebra word problems were administered to grade 10 students. The objectivity of scoring criteria improved the reliability of the test, but did not affect its validity. (MNS)

  14. Frequency of normative word associations in the speech of individuals at familial high-risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manschreck, T C; Merrill, A M; Jabbar, G; Chun, J; Delisi, L E

    2012-09-01

    The intrusion of associations into speech in schizophrenia disrupts coherence and comprehensibility, a feature of formal thought disorder referred to as loosened associations. We have previously proposed that loosened associations may result from hyperactivity in semantic association networks, leading to an increased frequency of associated words appearing in speech. Using Computed Associations in Sequential Text (CAST) software to quantify the frequency of such associations in speech, we have reported more frequent normative associations in language samples from patients with schizophrenia and in individuals with schizotypal characteristics. The present study further examined this deviance in schizophrenia by studying normative associations in those who share genes with an individual with schizophrenia, (i.e. first-degree relatives of probands with schizophrenia; HR) but who do not have an illness. Familial high-risk participants (n=22), and controls (n=24) provided verbal responses to cards from the Thematic Apperception Test. CAST analysis revealed that HR used more associated words in their speech compared to controls. Furthermore, the frequency of normative word associations was positively correlated with dimensional and total scores of schizotypy derived from ratings of the structured interview for schizotypy, which confirms past research showing a relationship between schizotypy and hyperassociations. Our results suggest that some language disturbances in schizophrenia likely arise from an underlying psychopathological mechanism, hyperactivity of semantic associations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Web-based depression treatment: associations of clients' word use with adherence and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Zanden, Rianne; Curie, Keshia; Van Londen, Monique; Kramer, Jeannet; Steen, Gerard; Cuijpers, Pim

    2014-05-01

    The growing number of web-based psychological treatments, based on textual communication, generates a wealth of data that can contribute to knowledge of online and face-to-face treatments. We investigated whether clients' language use predicted treatment outcomes and adherence in Master Your Mood (MYM), an online group course for young adults with depressive symptoms. Among 234 participants from a randomised controlled trial of MYM, we tested whether their word use on course application forms predicted baseline levels of depression, anxiety and mastery, or subsequent treatment adherence. We then analysed chat session transcripts of course completers (n=67) to investigate whether word use changes predicted changes in treatment outcomes. Depression improvement was predicted by increasing use of 'discrepancy words' during treatment (e.g. should). At baseline, more discrepancy words predicted higher mastery level. Adherence was predicted by more words used at application, more social words and fewer discrepancy words. Many variables were included, increasing the chance of coincidental results. This risk was constrained by examining only those word categories that have been investigated in relation to depression or adherence. This is the first study to link word use during treatment to outcomes of treatment that has proven to be effective in an RCT. The results suggest that paying attention to the length of problem articulation at application and to 'discrepancy words' may be wise, as these seem to be psychological markers. To expand knowledge of word use as psychological marker, research on web-based treatment should include text analysis. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development of the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure: A Working Memory Test for Use in Rehabilitative Audiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sherri L; Pichora-Fuller, M Kathleen; Alexander, Genevieve

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Word Auditory Recognition and Recall Measure (WARRM) and to conduct the inaugural evaluation of the performance of younger adults with normal hearing, older adults with normal to near-normal hearing, and older adults with pure-tone hearing loss on the WARRM. The WARRM is a new test designed for concurrently assessing word recognition and auditory working memory performance in adults who may have pure-tone hearing loss. The test consists of 100 monosyllabic words based on widely used speech-recognition test materials. The 100 words are presented in recall set sizes of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 items, with 5 trials in each set size. The WARRM yields a word-recognition score and a recall score. The WARRM was administered to all participants in three listener groups under two processing conditions in a mixed model (between-subjects, repeated measures) design. The between-subjects factor was group, with 48 younger listeners with normal audiometric thresholds (younger listeners with normal hearing [YNH]), 48 older listeners with normal thresholds through 3000 Hz (older listeners with normal hearing [ONH]), and 48 older listeners with sensorineural hearing loss (older listeners with hearing loss [OHL]). The within-subjects factor was WARRM processing condition (no additional task or with an alphabet judgment task). The associations between results on the WARRM test and results on a battery of other auditory and memory measures were examined. Word-recognition performance on the WARRM was not affected by processing condition or set size and was near ceiling for the YNH and ONH listeners (99 and 98%, respectively) with both groups performing significantly better than the OHL listeners (83%). The recall results were significantly better for the YNH, ONH, and OHL groups with no processing (93, 84, and 75%, respectively) than with the alphabet processing (86, 77, and 70%). In both processing conditions, recall was best for YNH, followed by

  17. Neural Pattern Similarity in the Left IFG and Fusiform Is Associated with Novel Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Qu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have revealed that greater neural pattern similarity across repetitions is associated with better subsequent memory. In this study, we used an artificial language training paradigm and representational similarity analysis to examine whether neural pattern similarity across repetitions before training was associated with post-training behavioral performance. Twenty-four native Chinese speakers were trained to learn a logographic artificial language for 12 days and behavioral performance was recorded using the word naming and picture naming tasks. Participants were scanned while performing a passive viewing task before training, after 4-day training and after 12-day training. Results showed that pattern similarity in the left pars opercularis (PO and fusiform gyrus (FG before training was negatively associated with reaction time (RT in both word naming and picture naming tasks after training. These results suggest that neural pattern similarity is an effective neurofunctional predictor of novel word learning in addition to word memory.

  18. Successful Word Recognition by 10-Month-Olds Given Continuous Speech Both at Initial Exposure and Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    Most words that infants hear occur within fluent speech. To compile a vocabulary, infants therefore need to segment words from speech contexts. This study is the first to investigate whether infants (here: 10-month-olds) can recognize words when both initial exposure and test presentation are in

  19. If You Don't Have Valence, Ask Your Neighbor: Evaluation of Neutral Words as a Function of Affective Semantic Associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Michael; Hofmann, Markus J; Jacobs, Arthur M

    2017-01-01

    How do humans perform difficult forced-choice evaluations, e.g., of words that have been previously rated as being neutral? Here we tested the hypothesis that in this case, the valence of semantic associates is of significant influence. From corpus based co-occurrence statistics as a measure of association strength we computed individual neighborhoods for single neutral words comprised of the 10 words with the largest association strength. We then selected neutral words according to the valence of the associated words included in the neighborhoods, which were either mostly positive, mostly negative, mostly neutral or mixed positive and negative, and tested them using a valence decision task (VDT). The data showed that the valence of semantic neighbors can predict valence judgments to neutral words. However, all but the positive neighborhood items revealed a high tendency to elicit negative responses. For the positive and negative neighborhood categories responses congruent with the neighborhood's valence were faster than incongruent responses. We interpret this effect as a semantic network process that supports the evaluation of neutral words by assessing the valence of the associative semantic neighborhood. In this perspective, valence is considered a semantic super-feature, at least partially represented in associative activation patterns of semantic networks.

  20. Re: A Word of Caution on New and Revolutionary Diagnostic Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, Myron G.; Sol, Nik; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Wesseling, Pieter; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In his letter “A word of caution on new and revolutionary diagnostic tests,” Dr. Diamandis argues that discoveries and progress in the field of biomarker discovery for the early detection of cancer are hampered by multiple factors, including pre- and post-analytical and bioinformatics artifacts. He

  1. Performance-intensity functions of Mandarin word recognition tests in noise: test dialect and listener language effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danzheng; Shi, Lu-Feng

    2013-06-01

    This study established the performance-intensity function for Beijing and Taiwan Mandarin bisyllabic word recognition tests in noise in native speakers of Wu Chinese. Effects of the test dialect and listeners' first language on psychometric variables (i.e., slope and 50%-correct threshold) were analyzed. Thirty-two normal-hearing Wu-speaking adults who used Mandarin since early childhood were compared to 16 native Mandarin-speaking adults. Both Beijing and Taiwan bisyllabic word recognition tests were presented at 8 signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) in 4-dB steps (-12 dB to +16 dB). At each SNR, a half list (25 words) was presented in speech-spectrum noise to listeners' right ear. The order of the test, SNR, and half list was randomized across listeners. Listeners responded orally and in writing. Overall, the Wu-speaking listeners performed comparably to the Mandarin-speaking listeners on both tests. Compared to the Taiwan test, the Beijing test yielded a significantly lower threshold for both the Mandarin- and Wu-speaking listeners, as well as a significantly steeper slope for the Wu-speaking listeners. Both Mandarin tests can be used to evaluate Wu-speaking listeners. Of the 2, the Taiwan Mandarin test results in more comparable functions across listener groups. Differences in the performance-intensity function between listener groups and between tests indicate a first language and dialectal effect, respectively.

  2. Markers of automaticity in sleep-associated consolidation of novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elaine K H; Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M Gareth

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments investigated effects of sleep on consolidation and integration of novel form-meaning mappings using size congruity and semantic distance paradigms. Both paradigms have been used in previous studies to measure automatic access to word meanings. When participants compare semantic or physical font size of written word-pairs (e.g. BEE-COW), judgments are typically faster if relative sizes are congruent across both dimensions. Semantic distance effects are also found for wellestablished words, with semantic size judgements faster for pairs that differ substantially on this dimension. English-speaking participants learned novel form-meaning mappings with Mandarin (Experiment 1) or Malay (Experiment 2) words and were tested following overnight sleep or a similar duration awake. Judgements on English words controlled for circadian effects. The sleep group demonstrated selective stronger size congruity and semantic distance effects for novel word-pairs. This benefit occurred in Experiment 1 for semantic size comparisons of novel words, and in Experiment 2 on comparisons where novel pairs had large distances and font differences (for congruity effects) or in congruent trials (for semantic distance effects). Conversely, these effects were equivalent across sleep and wake for English words. Experiment 2 included polysomnography data and revealed that changes in the strength of semantic distance and congruity effects were positively correlated with slow-wave sleep and sleep spindles respectively. These findings support systems consolidation accounts of declarative learning and suggest that sleep plays an active role in integrating new words with existing knowledge, resulting in increased automatic access of the acquired knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship Between TOEFL Vocabulary Items and Meaning, Association, Collocation, and Word-Class Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Norbert

    1999-01-01

    One way of determining construct validity of vocabulary items in language tests is to interview subjects directly after taking the items to ascertain what is known about the target words in question. This approach was combined within the framework of lexical competency in a study of the behavior of lexical items on the Test of English as a Foreign…

  4. Word, nonword and visual paired associate learning in Dutch dyslexic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Messbauer, V.C.S.; de Jong, P.F.

    2003-01-01

    Verbal and non-verbal learning were investigated in 21 8-11-year-old dyslexic children and chronological-age controls, and in 21 7-9-year-old reading-age controls. Tasks involved the paired associate learning of words, nonwords, or symbols with pictures. Both learning and retention of associations

  5. Word associations with “organic” : what do consumers think of?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilverda, Femke; Jurgens, Manon; Kuttschreuter, Margot

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the word associations that consumers have with organic food, organic meat or organic vegetables, and how these associations differ between food type and consumer groups. Construal-level theory was used as a theoretical framework to interpret the

  6. Word associations with “Organic”: What do consumers think of?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilverda, Marie-Susanne Dieudonnée; Jurgens, M.; Kuttschreuter, Margôt

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the word associations that consumers have with organic food, organic meat or organic vegetables, and how these associations differ between food type and consumer groups. Construal-level theory was used as a theoretical framework to interpret the

  7. Further Investigating Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items on Self-Report Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2006-01-01

    This article used multitrait-multimethod methodology and covariance modeling for an investigation of the presence and correlates of method effects associated with negatively worded items on the Rosenberg Self-Esteem (RSE) scale (Rosenberg, 1989) using a sample of 757 adults. Results showed that method effects associated with negative item phrasing…

  8. The Origins of Word Learning: Brain Responses of 3-Month-Olds Indicate Their Rapid Association of Objects and Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Manuela; Friederici, Angela D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the origins of word learning in early infancy. Using event-related potentials (ERP) we monitored the brain activity of 3-month-old infants when they were repeatedly exposed to several initially novel words paired consistently with each the same initially novel objects or inconsistently with different objects. Our results…

  9. The Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT): Initial psychometric, validation, and physiological evidence in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeare, Christopher A; Freund, Sabrina; Kaploun, Kristen; McAuley, Tara; Dumitrescu, Claudiu

    2017-10-01

    The clinical assessment of affective functioning has been slow to incorporate findings from affective neuroscience. Of particular interest in the current study is the assessment of affective word production. In a series of four studies, we examined test-retest and interrater reliability for the Emotion Word Fluency Test (EWFT), basic construct validity with existing verbal fluency measures, physiological responses across verbal fluency tasks, and a novel scoring method to examine qualitative aspects of participant response sets. Results demonstrated interrater and test-retest reliability values that were comparable to those of other commonly used verbal fluency tests. Construct validity was demonstrated by relations between the EWFT and other verbal fluency tests as well as through physiological evidence that performance on the EWFT is related to greater sympathetic activity than traditional verbal fluency tasks. Lastly, some of the novel scoring metrics related to two self-report measures of emotional functioning. Taken together, our findings provide initial support for the use of the EWFT as a measure of emotion word generation ability in young adults. This measure may prove to be useful in the assessment of affective language production in patient populations.

  10. Finding patterns and learning words: Infant phonotactic knowledge is associated with vocabulary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Gluck, Stephanie Chen-Wu; Grimm, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Native language statistical regularities about allowable phoneme combinations (i.e., phonotactic patterns) may provide learners with cues to support word learning. The current research investigated the association between infants' native language phonotactic knowledge and their word learning progress, as measured by vocabulary size. In the experiment, 19-month-old infants listened to a corpus of nonce words that contained novel phonotactic patterns. All words began with "illegal" consonant clusters that cannot occur in native (English) words. The rationale for the task was that infants with fragile phonotactic knowledge should exhibit stronger learning of the novel illegal phonotactic patterns than infants with robust phonotactic knowledge. We found that infants with smaller vocabularies showed stronger phonotactic learning than infants with larger vocabularies even after accounting for general cognition. We propose that learning about native language structure may promote vocabulary development by providing a foundation for word learning; infants with smaller vocabularies may have weaker support from phonotactics than infants with larger vocabularies. Furthermore, stored vocabulary knowledge may promote the detection of phonotactic patterns even during infancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Word learning emerges from the interaction of online referent selection and slow associative learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurray, Bob; Horst, Jessica S.; Samuelson, Larissa K.

    2013-01-01

    Classic approaches to word learning emphasize the problem of referential ambiguity: in any naming situation the referent of a novel word must be selected from many possible objects, properties, actions, etc. To solve this problem, researchers have posited numerous constraints, and inference strategies, but assume that determining the referent of a novel word is isomorphic to learning. We present an alternative model in which referent selection is an online process that is independent of long-term learning. This two timescale approach creates significant power in the developing system. We illustrate this with a dynamic associative model in which referent selection is simulated as dynamic competition between competing referents, and learning is simulated using associative (Hebbian) learning. This model can account for a range of findings including the delay in expressive vocabulary relative to receptive vocabulary, learning under high degrees of referential ambiguity using cross-situational statistics, accelerating (vocabulary explosion) and decelerating (power-law) learning rates, fast-mapping by mutual exclusivity (and differences in bilinguals), improvements in familiar word recognition with development, and correlations between individual differences in speed of processing and learning. Five theoretical points are illustrated. 1) Word learning does not require specialized processes – general association learning buttressed by dynamic competition can account for much of the literature. 2) The processes of recognizing familiar words are not different than those that support novel words (e.g., fast-mapping). 3) Online competition may allow the network (or child) to leverage information available in the task to augment performance or behavior despite what might be relatively slow learning or poor representations. 4) Even associative learning is more complex than previously thought – a major contributor to performance is the pruning of incorrect associations

  12. Reading words and pseudowords in dyslexia: ERP and behavioural tests in English-speaking adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taroyan, Naira A; Nicolson, Roderick I

    2009-12-01

    The study reports neurophysiological and behavioural correlates of lexical decision processes in English speaking dyslexic and non-dyslexic readers. Nine dyslexic adolescents (ages 15.6-17.8) and 9 control (ages 15.4-19.3) adolescents were tested, and the event related potentials (ERPs) to words and pseudowords were recorded simultaneously with behavioural measures. As expected, both groups showed significantly lower accuracy and longer response times for the pseudowords. Furthermore, overall performance (in terms of lower accuracy and longer response times) was significantly worse for the dyslexic group. The ERP analysis indicated that the later positive peaks, P4 (around 400 ms from stimulus onset) and P5 (around 500 ms), were significantly delayed and attenuated for the dyslexic group. Analysis of the early ERP peaks recorded in the occipitotemporal region led to an interesting dissociation. The controls showed a left lateralised Condition effect, with the amplitude of P1 significantly smaller to words than pseudowords. By contrast, there was no such lexical effect for the dyslexic group, with equal P1 amplitudes for words and pseudowords, at the control level for pseudowords. The deviations in the early ERP components of dyslexics support the evidence of deficits in pre-lexical visual word form recognition within the first 110 ms of activation together with altered hemispheric asymmetry. In addition, the slowed and attenuated late ERP components and weaker behavioural performance of the dyslexic group highlight deficits in the later, cognitive, processing stages.

  13. Generating quality word sense disambiguation test sets based on MeSH indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jung-Wei; Friedman, Carol

    2009-11-14

    Word sense disambiguation (WSD) determines the correct meaning of a word that has more than one meaning, and is a critical step in biomedical natural language processing, as interpretation of information in text can be correct only if the meanings of their component terms are correctly identified first. Quality evaluation sets are important to WSD because they can be used as representative samples for developing automatic programs and as referees for comparing different WSD programs. To help create quality test sets for WSD, we developed a MeSH-based automatic sense-tagging method that preferentially annotates terms being topical of the text. Preliminary results were promising and revealed important issues to be addressed in biomedical WSD research. We also suggest that, by cross-validating with 2 or 3 annotators, the method should be able to efficiently generate quality WSD test sets. Online supplement is available at: http://www.dbmi.columbia.edu/~juf7002/AMIA09.

  14. Abstinence-Related Word Associations and Definitions of Abstinence and Virginity among Missouri High School Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L.; Smith, Matthew Lee; Menn, Mindy

    2013-01-01

    Background: The ways in which adolescents define and view sex, abstinence, and virginity impact the efforts of sexuality educators and sexual health professionals. This study examined terminology used by nonsexually active high school students to define abstinence and virginity and identified words students associate with these terms. Purposes…

  15. Self-Esteem and Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items: Investigating Factorial Invariance by Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Christine; Motl, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    The Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSE) has been widely used in examinations of sex differences in global self-esteem. However, previous examinations of sex differences have not accounted for method effects associated with item wording, which have consistently been reported by researchers using the RSE. Accordingly, this study examined the…

  16. Words, Words, Words: English, Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Barbara

    The Quinmester course on words gives the student the opportunity to increase his proficiency by investigating word origins, word histories, morphology, and phonology. The course includes the following: dictionary skills and familiarity with the "Oxford,""Webster's Third," and "American Heritage" dictionaries; word…

  17. Associating LIPS and SWOLLEN: delayed attentional disengagement following words in sex contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; van der Leij, Andries R; Rotteveel, Mark

    2017-09-01

    With a series of three studies, using an adapted dot-probe paradigm, we investigated the elicitation of spontaneous affective meaning. Although it is well established that humans show delays in disengaging their attention from conventional affective stimuli, it is unknown whether contextually acquired affective meaning similarly impacts attention. We examined attentional disengagement following pairs of neutral or slightly ambiguous words that in combination could evoke sex, violence or neutral associations. Study 1 demonstrated slower disengagement following words that conveyed sex or violence associations compared to words that conveyed neutral associations. This pattern was only present for participants who were aware of sex or violence associations. Study 2 replicated these results in a large sample, but only for sex associations. Study 3 replicated the effect while instructing participants explicitly to expect sex and violence associations. Finally, two control studies countered reasonable alternative explanations for our findings. Together, these studies show that contextually driven affective associations can arise quickly with the potential to influence attentional processes. These findings are consistent with theoretical models of emotion and language that highlight the importance of context in the generation of affective meaning.

  18. Deterioration of word meaning: implications for reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, K; Hodges, J R

    1992-12-01

    We investigated six patients with progressive focal dementia or progressive aphasia, who showed impairments in knowledge of word meaning ranging from moderate to very severe. In all cases, a test of oral word reading demonstrated preserved reading of words with regular spelling-to-sound correspondences (e.g. MINT), but impaired reading of words with atypical correspondences (e.g. PINT). The level of success on these "exception" words was significantly related to word frequency, and the most common error was the assignment of a more typical spelling-sound correspondence. Various explanations are considered for this common association between loss of word meaning and a surface alexic pattern of reading performance.

  19. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  20. Error analysis of the nine-word California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-9) among older adults with and without dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kelly L; Price, Catherine C; Kaplan, Edith; Libon, David J

    2002-02-01

    The nine-word California Verbal Learning Test (CVLT-9; Libon et al., 1996; Spreen & Strauss, 1998) is a verbal list learning task used to assess declarative memory impairment among dementia patients. The present study sought to investigate the neuro-cognitive mechanisms that underlie the production of intrusions and perseverations on the list A, free recall learning trials, and the false positive responses made on the delayed recognition condition. Patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), Ischaemic Vascular Dementia associated with periventricular and deep white matter changes (IVD), and individuals without dementia (NC) were studied. Between-group analyses showed that AD participants produced more initial intrusion errors, and perseverated on those same intrusion errors across list A learning trials than IVD or NC participants. Also, as participants with dementia produced initial free recall intrusion errors, the semantic organization of their responses on the 'animal' word list generation task declined (Giovannetti-Carew, Lamar, Cloud, Grossman, & Libon, 1997). On the delayed recognition test condition, within-group analyses revealed that the IVD group endorsed more list B interference foils, than other errors. AD participants endorsed semantically related foils and list B interference foils. In addition, as participants with dementia endorsed more list B interference foils, more perseverations were produced on the Graphical Sequence Test - Dementia Version (Lamar et al., 1997). These results were interpreted within the context of the semantic knowledge, and executive functions deficits that typify AD and IVD, respectively.

  1. [Words before actions- the significance of counselling in the Praena-Test era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudin, Sibil

    2014-04-23

    Due to new offers in prenatal diagnostics pregnant women are forced to make choices. In Switzerland physicians are obliged to inform previous to prenatal tests and to obtain informed consent. Considering the complexity of this information and the consequences of a positive result, counselling is challenging, especially in an intercultural context. A questionnaire-based study compared information processing, test interpretation and emotional response of pregnant women from Switzerland and adjacent countries with Turkish women. Knowledge of the latter was significantly lower and they found counselling more unsettling, but their acceptance of prenatal tests was significantly higher. An empathetic approach and the right words are decisive, and counselling will even gain importance when considering the increase in options patients are confronted with.

  2. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. A meta-analysis of the sensitivity and specificity of the Stroop Color and Word Test with children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Homack, Susan; Riccio, Cynthia A

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which the Stroop Color-Word Test demonstrates sensitivity and specificity for the identification of executive function deficits in children and adolescents...

  4. Three monosyllables for standard words in Nasometer test: to evaluate air leakage in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunkngarmpun, Chaivut; Sumita, Yuka I; Taniguchi, Hisashi

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an evaluation method using a Nasometer, with several monosyllabic test words, to reveal the level of air leakage in maxillectomy patients without limitations due to language or ability to read. 20 normal Japanese (Group 1) and 20 international adults (Group 2), were asked to read 7 monosyllables, (5 vowels and 2 combined vowels, /a/, /i/, /u/, /e/, /o/, /am/, /aj/), 6 times each and 12 Japanese maxillectomy patients (Group 3) were asked to read only 3 monosyllables (/a/, /am/, /aj/) 6 times each. The "Nasalance Score" was calculated using a Nasometer (Nasometer II, model 6400 KayPentax, Lincoln Park, NJ, USA). Coefficient of variations (CVs) of three monosyllables /a/, /am/, /aj/ of Group 1 and Group 2 showed less than 0.33. There is significant difference in all pairs of three monosyllables between Group 1 and Group 3 (p Nasometer, these three monosyllables, /a/, /am/ and /aj/, could be used as standard test words and could reveal the level of air leakage in maxillectomy patients.

  5. Coverage of the Test of Memory Malingering, Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and Word Memory Test on the Internet: is test security threatened?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Lyndsey; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2006-01-01

    In forensic neuropsychological settings, maintaining test security has become critically important, especially in regard to symptom validity tests (SVTs). Coaching, which can entail providing patients or litigants with information about the cognitive sequelae of head injury, or teaching them test-taking strategies to avoid detection of symptom dissimulation has been examined experimentally in many research studies. Emerging evidence supports that coaching strategies affect psychological and neuropsychological test performance to differing degrees depending on the coaching paradigm and the tests administered. The present study sought to examine Internet coverage of SVTs because it is potentially another source of coaching, or information that is readily available. Google searches were performed on the Test of Memory Malingering, the Victoria Symptom Validity Test, and the Word Memory Test. Results indicated that there is a variable amount of information available about each test that could threaten test security and validity should inappropriately interested parties find it. Steps that could be taken to improve this situation and limitations to this exploration are discussed.

  6. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  7. Formation of semantic associations between subliminally presented face-word pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duss, Simone B; Oggier, Sereina; Reber, Thomas P; Henke, Katharina

    2011-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that consciousness of encoding is not necessary for the rapid formation of new semantic associations. We investigated whether unconsciously formed associations are as semantically precise as would be expected for associations formed with consciousness of encoding during episodic memory formation. Pairs of faces and written occupations were presented subliminally for unconscious associative encoding. Five minutes later, the same faces were presented suprathreshold for the cued unconscious retrieval of face-occupation associations. Retrieval instructions required participants to classify the presented individuals according to their putative (1) regularity of income, (2) length of education, and (3) creativity value of occupational activity. The three instructions yielded more classifications consistent with a person's occupation if the person had been subliminally presented with his written occupation versus a meaningless word (control condition). This suggests that consciousness is not necessary to encode, long-term store, and retrieve semantically precise associations between primarily unrelated items. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  9. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, K.R.

    1991-11-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization Plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference that documents the plans of each organization for office automation, identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations, and encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan.

  10. Graph analysis of semantic word association among children, adults, and the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxciel Zortea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study used graph analysis to investigate how age differences modify the structure of semantic word association networks of children and adults and if the networks present a small-world structure and a scale-free distribution which are typical of natural languages. Three age groups of Brazilian Portuguese speakers (children, adults and elderly people participated in the experiment. Quantitative and qualitative measures suggested that adults and elderly speakers have similar network structures. Children's network showed fewer nodes, connections and clusters, and longer inter-node distances. All networks presented a small-world structure, but they did not show entirely scale-free distributions. These results suggest that from childhood to adulthood, there is an increase not only in the number of words semantically linked to a target but also an increase in the connectivity of the network.

  11. Brain activation during word identification and word recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jernigan, Terry L.; Ostergaard, Arne L.; Law, Ian

    1998-01-01

    subjects performed the word identification (reading) and recognition memory tasks used previously by Ostergaard. The results are the direct comparisons of the two tasks and the effects of stimulus degradation on blood flow patterns during the tasks. Clear differences between word identification and word...... dramatically alter the degree to which word priming shows a dissociation from word recognition; i.e., effects of a number of factors on priming paralleled their effects on recognition memory tests when the words were degraded at test. In the present study, cerebral blood flow changes were measured while...... recognition were observed: the latter task evoked considerably more prefrontal activity and stronger cerebellar activation. Stimulus degradation was associated with focal increases in bilateral fusiform regions within the occipital lobe. No task, degradation, or item repetition effects were demonstrated...

  12. Word associations contribute to machine learning in automatic scoring of degree of emotional tones in dream reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amini, Reza; Sabourin, Catherine; De Koninck, Joseph

    2011-12-01

    Scientific study of dreams requires the most objective methods to reliably analyze dream content. In this context, artificial intelligence should prove useful for an automatic and non subjective scoring technique. Past research has utilized word search and emotional affiliation methods, to model and automatically match human judges' scoring of dream report's negative emotional tone. The current study added word associations to improve the model's accuracy. Word associations were established using words' frequency of co-occurrence with their defining words as found in a dictionary and an encyclopedia. It was hypothesized that this addition would facilitate the machine learning model and improve its predictability beyond those of previous models. With a sample of 458 dreams, this model demonstrated an improvement in accuracy from 59% to 63% (kappa=.485) on the negative emotional tone scale, and for the first time reached an accuracy of 77% (kappa=.520) on the positive scale. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [The 5-word test in 85 patients with generalized anxiety disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croisile, Bernard; Simon, Emile; Astier, Jean-Laurent; Beaumont, Charlotte; Mollion, Hélène

    2009-11-01

    Patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) expressed frequent memory complaints leading to consultations in memory clinics. The 5-word test (5WT) is a serial verbal memory test with semantic cuing. It is proposed to rapidly evaluate memory of people with memory complaints. It has previously shown its sensitivity and its specificity in identifying patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The objective was to evaluate memory performances of patients with GAD. Characteristics of the 5WT were investigated in a sample of 85 patients with GAD compared with 183 normal controls aged from 40 to 70 years. For each score of the 5WT, GAD patients significantly differed from controls. Forgetting rate was twice more important in GAD patients than in controls. However, for any score of the 5WT, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves found no significant cut-off scores combining reliable sensitivity, specificity and correct classification of the subjects. In spite of ancient and severe mnestic complaints, GAD patients have significant difficulties with the 5WT as compared to controls without being of the magnitude of those observed in AD patients. The 5WT is an easy and rapid test allowing a reliable evaluation of memory in GAD patients. Results could usually confort patients. The presence of true memory deficits with the 5WT could not be ascribed to anxiety but to other pathological conditions. Consequently, further memory testing should be done.

  14. Talking Hands: Tongue Motor Excitability During Observation of Hand Gestures Associated with Words.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeem eKomeilipoor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Perception of speech and gestures engage common brain areas. Neural regions involved in speech perception overlap with those involved in speech production in an articulator-specific manner. Yet, it is unclear whether motor cortex also has a role in processing communicative actions like gesture and sign language. We asked whether the mere observation of hand gestures, paired and not paired with words, may result in changes in the excitability of the hand and tongue areas of motor cortex. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we measured the motor excitability in tongue and hand areas of left primary motor cortex, while participants viewed video sequences of bimanual hand movements associated or not-associated with nouns. We found higher motor excitability in the tongue area during the presentation of meaningful gestures (noun-associated as opposed to meaningless ones, while the excitability of hand motor area was not differentially affected by gesture observation. Our results let us argue that the observation of gestures associated with a word results in activation of articulatory motor network accompanying speech production.

  15. Talking hands: tongue motor excitability during observation of hand gestures associated with words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeilipoor, Naeem; Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Daffertshofer, Andreas; Cesari, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Perception of speech and gestures engage common brain areas. Neural regions involved in speech perception overlap with those involved in speech production in an articulator-specific manner. Yet, it is unclear whether motor cortex also has a role in processing communicative actions like gesture and sign language. We asked whether the mere observation of hand gestures, paired and not paired with words, may result in changes in the excitability of the hand and tongue areas of motor cortex. Using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we measured the motor excitability in tongue and hand areas of left primary motor cortex, while participants viewed video sequences of bimanual hand movements associated or not-associated with nouns. We found higher motor excitability in the tongue area during the presentation of meaningful gestures (noun-associated) as opposed to meaningless ones, while the excitability of hand motor area was not differentially affected by gesture observation. Our results let us argue that the observation of gestures associated with a word results in activation of articulatory motor network accompanying speech production.

  16. Color associations to emotion and emotion-laden words: A collection of norms for stimulus construction and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Tina M; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2016-06-01

    Color has the ability to influence a variety of human behaviors, such as object recognition, the identification of facial expressions, and the ability to categorize stimuli as positive or negative. Researchers have started to examine the relationship between emotional words and colors, and the findings have revealed that brightness is often associated with positive emotional words and darkness with negative emotional words (e.g., Meier, Robinson, & Clore, Psychological Science, 15, 82-87, 2004). In addition, words such as anger and failure seem to be inherently associated with the color red (e.g., Kuhbandner & Pekrun). The purpose of the present study was to construct norms for positive and negative emotion and emotion-laden words and their color associations. Participants were asked to provide the first color that came to mind for a set of 160 emotional items. The results revealed that the color RED was most commonly associated with negative emotion and emotion-laden words, whereas YELLOW and WHITE were associated with positive emotion and emotion-laden words, respectively. The present work provides researchers with a large database to aid in stimulus construction and selection.

  17. Aging effects in item and associative recognition memory for pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliff, Roger; McKoon, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Item and associative recognition for pictures and words with college-age young adults and 60-75-year-old adults were examined in the experiment reported in this article. The diffusion model (Ratcliff & McKoon, 2008) was used to extract estimates of components of processing from the empirical values of accuracy and correct and error response time distributions. The model fit the empirical data well for both picture and word stimuli. Results showed that boundary separation was larger and nondecision time was longer for older relative to young adults. Drift rates were not lower for older adults for item recognition but they were for associative recognition, indicating that the richer structure of pictures did not provide an enhanced ability to form associations for the older adults. There were also significant correlations among the components of processing across the tasks of the experiment, suggesting common factors, but participants' accuracy and response times did not significantly correlate within and across the tasks. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Grounding word learning in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelson, Larissa K; Smith, Linda B; Perry, Lynn K; Spencer, John P

    2011-01-01

    Humans and objects, and thus social interactions about objects, exist within space. Words direct listeners' attention to specific regions of space. Thus, a strong correspondence exists between where one looks, one's bodily orientation, and what one sees. This leads to further correspondence with what one remembers. Here, we present data suggesting that children use associations between space and objects and space and words to link words and objects--space binds labels to their referents. We tested this claim in four experiments, showing that the spatial consistency of where objects are presented affects children's word learning. Next, we demonstrate that a process model that grounds word learning in the known neural dynamics of spatial attention, spatial memory, and associative learning can capture the suite of results reported here. This model also predicts that space is special, a prediction supported in a fifth experiment that shows children do not use color as a cue to bind words and objects. In a final experiment, we ask whether spatial consistency affects word learning in naturalistic word learning contexts. Children of parents who spontaneously keep objects in a consistent spatial location during naming interactions learn words more effectively. Together, the model and data show that space is a powerful tool that can effectively ground word learning in social contexts.

  19. Acute stress impairs recognition for positive words--association with stress-induced cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Rimmele, Ulrike; Reichwald, Ursula; Hautzinger, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Some studies suggest that stress-induced effects of cortisol on memory are modulated by the valence of the stimuli to be learned and retrieved. The present study investigated the effect of acute stress-induced cortisol secretion on acquisition and retrieval of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral words. Sixty healthy men were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups. Participants were either exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) before learning a wordlist, or before retrieval, or were not stressed. Free recall and recognition were tested 24 h later. Free recall was not affected by stress exposure. For recognition, there was no main effect of the stressor, but a main effect of valence and a valence by group interaction emerged: recognition for positive words was significantly impaired when subjects were stressed before retrieval. In addition, a positive correlation between the cortisol response and errors of commission was found. The results suggest that acute stress impairs memory for positive stimuli and that stress-induced cortisol secretion interferes with accuracy of memory retrieval, i.e. the ability to discriminate true memories from false ones.

  20. Word Memory Test Predicts Recovery in Claimants With Work-Related Head Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Annette; Abada, Abigail; Haws, Calvin; Park, Joanne; Niemeläinen, Riikka; Gross, Douglas P

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the predictive validity of the Word Memory Test (WMT), a verbal memory neuropsychological test developed as a performance validity measure to assess memory, effort, and performance consistency. Cohort study with 1-year follow-up. Workers' compensation rehabilitation facility. Participants included workers' compensation claimants with work-related head injury (N=188; mean age, 44y; 161 men [85.6%]). Not applicable. Outcome measures for determining predictive validity included days to suspension of wage replacement benefits during the 1-year follow-up and work status at discharge in claimants undergoing rehabilitation. Analysis included multivariable Cox and logistic regression. Better WMT performance was significantly but weakly correlated with younger age (r=-.30), documented brain abnormality (r=.28), and loss of consciousness at the time of injury (r=.25). Claimants with documented brain abnormalities on diagnostic imaging scans performed better (∼9%) on the WMT than those without brain abnormalities. The WMT predicted days receiving benefits (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.24) and work status outcome at program discharge (adjusted odds ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.34). Our results provide evidence for the predictive validity of the WMT in workers' compensation claimants. Younger claimants and those with more severe brain injuries performed better on the WMT. It may be that financial incentives or other factors related to the compensation claim affected the performance. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  2. Survey of ANL organization plans for word processors, personal computers, workstations, and associated software. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenske, K.R.; Rockwell, V.S.

    1992-08-01

    The Computing and Telecommunications Division (CTD) has compiled this Survey of ANL Organization plans for Word Processors, Personal Computers, Workstations, and Associated Software (ANL/TM, Revision 4) to provide DOE and Argonne with a record of recent growth in the acquisition and use of personal computers, microcomputers, and word processors at ANL. Laboratory planners, service providers, and people involved in office automation may find the Survey useful. It is for internal use only, and any unauthorized use is prohibited. Readers of the Survey should use it as a reference document that (1) documents the plans of each organization for office automation, (2) identifies appropriate planners and other contact people in those organizations and (3) encourages the sharing of this information among those people making plans for organizations and decisions about office automation. The Survey supplements information in both the ANL Statement of Site Strategy for Computing Workstations (ANL/TM 458) and the ANL Site Response for the DOE Information Technology Resources Long-Range Plan (ANL/TM 466).

  3. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J.Y. Lam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1 action features, (2 visual features, or (3 semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms, and 1,000 ms to determine the relative time course of the different features . Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100 ms, 250 ms, and 1,000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1,000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1 demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2 provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  4. Feature activation during word recognition: action, visual, and associative-semantic priming effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Kevin J Y; Dijkstra, Ton; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2015-01-01

    Embodied theories of language postulate that language meaning is stored in modality-specific brain areas generally involved in perception and action in the real world. However, the temporal dynamics of the interaction between modality-specific information and lexical-semantic processing remain unclear. We investigated the relative timing at which two types of modality-specific information (action-based and visual-form information) contribute to lexical-semantic comprehension. To this end, we applied a behavioral priming paradigm in which prime and target words were related with respect to (1) action features, (2) visual features, or (3) semantically associative information. Using a Go/No-Go lexical decision task, priming effects were measured across four different inter-stimulus intervals (ISI = 100, 250, 400, and 1000 ms) to determine the relative time course of the different features. Notably, action priming effects were found in ISIs of 100, 250, and 1000 ms whereas a visual priming effect was seen only in the ISI of 1000 ms. Importantly, our data suggest that features follow different time courses of activation during word recognition. In this regard, feature activation is dynamic, measurable in specific time windows but not in others. Thus the current study (1) demonstrates how multiple ISIs can be used within an experiment to help chart the time course of feature activation and (2) provides new evidence for embodied theories of language.

  5. Heart rate variability changes during stroop color and word test among genders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, Priyanka; Muralikrishnan, Krishnan; Balasubramanian, Kabali; Shanmugapriya

    2015-01-01

    Stress is the reaction of the body to a change that requires physical, mental or emotional adjustments. Individual differences in stress reactivity are a potentially important risk factor for gender-specific health problems in men and women. The Autonomic regulation of the cardiovascular system is most commonly affected by stress and is assessed by means of short term heart rate variability (HRV).The present study was undertaken to investigate the difference in the cardiovascular Autonomic Nervous System response to mental stress between the genders using HRV as tool. We compared the mean RR interval, Blood pressure and indices of HRV during the StroopColor Word Test (SCWT).Twenty five male (Age 19.52±0.714, BMI 22.73±2 kg/m2) and twenty five female subjects (Age 19.80±0.65, BMI 22.39±1.9) performed SCWT for five minutes. Blood Pressure (SBP pgenders. HRV indices like LFms2 (pgenders. The response by the cardiovascular system to a simple mental stressor exhibits difference among the genders.

  6. Learning to read new words in individuals with Down syndrome: testing the role of phonological knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengoni, Silvana E; Nash, Hannah M; Hulme, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of word level phonological knowledge on learning to read new words in Down syndrome compared to typical development. Children were taught to read 12 nonwords, 6 of which were pre-trained on their phonology. The 16 individuals with Down syndrome aged 8-17 years were compared first to a group of 30 typically developing children aged 5-7 years matched for word reading and then to a subgroup of these children matched for decoding. There was a marginally significant effect for individuals with Down syndrome to benefit more from phonological pre-training than typically developing children matched for word reading but when compared to the decoding-matched subgroup, the two groups benefitted equally. We explain these findings in terms of partial decoding attempts being resolved by word level phonological knowledge and conclude that being familiar with the spoken form of a new word may help children when they attempt to read it. This may be particularly important for children with Down syndrome and other groups of children with weak decoding skills. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A restricted test of single-word intelligibility in 3-year-old children with and without cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

    2012-05-01

    In a previous study, children with cleft palate with hard palate closure at 12 months of age showed more typical phonological development than did children with an unrepaired hard palate at 36 months of age. This finding was based on narrow transcription of word initial target consonants obtained from a simple naming test. To evaluate the relevance of this finding, we investigated how well the children's target words were understood by 84 naive listeners. A cross-sectional study. Data obtained from 28 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate, 3 years of age, who received hard palate closure at either 12 months (hard palate repaired; HPR) or 36 months (hard palate unrepaired; HPU) were compared with data obtained from 14 age-matched, typically developing control children. Video recordings of the children naming target words were shown to 84 naive listeners between 15 and 24 years of age who typed the word they heard. The findings of this study indicated that naive listeners correctly identified a larger percentage of words in the control children followed by children in the HPR group. Children in the HPU group were more difficult for the naive listeners to understand. The error of retraction/backing of alveolar target consonants to velar place of articulation occurred frequently and most often in the HPU group and was found to have a negative effect on intelligibility.

  8. Voice congruency facilitates word recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Campeanu

    Full Text Available Behavioral studies of spoken word memory have shown that context congruency facilitates both word and source recognition, though the level at which context exerts its influence remains equivocal. We measured event-related potentials (ERPs while participants performed both types of recognition task with words spoken in four voices. Two voice parameters (i.e., gender and accent varied between speakers, with the possibility that none, one or two of these parameters was congruent between study and test. Results indicated that reinstating the study voice at test facilitated both word and source recognition, compared to similar or no context congruency at test. Behavioral effects were paralleled by two ERP modulations. First, in the word recognition test, the left parietal old/new effect showed a positive deflection reflective of context congruency between study and test words. Namely, the same speaker condition provided the most positive deflection of all correctly identified old words. In the source recognition test, a right frontal positivity was found for the same speaker condition compared to the different speaker conditions, regardless of response success. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that the benefit of context congruency is reflected behaviorally and in ERP modulations traditionally associated with recognition memory.

  9. The Colour of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Bernice Lever

    Students from the ages of 13 or 14 onward need to know the "colours of words" which can let them live fully in the rainbow of life, thus eliminating student fears associated with written language and of being pawns of those who have the power of words, especially written words. Colour coding the eight basic types of work that words can…

  10. Comparison between the story recall test and the word-list learning test in Korean patients with mild cognitive impairment and early stage of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Min Jae; Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Sangyun

    2012-01-01

    Among verbal memory tests, two that are commonly used to measure the ability of verbal memory function in cognitive impairment are story recall tests and word-list learning tests. However, research is limited regarding which test might be more sensitive in discriminating between normal cognitive aging and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the Korean population. The purpose of the current study was to compare the word-list learning test (Seoul Verbal Learning Test; SVLT) and the story recall test (Korean Story Recall Test; KSRT) to determine which test is more sensitive in discriminating between individuals with normal cognitive aging and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early stage of AD in Korea. A total of 53 healthy adults, 127 patients with MCI, and 72 patients with early stage of AD participated in this study. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve and area under the curve (AUC) were evaluated to compare these two tests. The results showed that the AUC of the SVLT was significantly larger than the AUC of the KSRT in all three groups (healthy adults vs. MCI and early stage of AD; healthy adults vs. MCI; healthy adults vs. early stage of AD). However, in comparison of patients with MCI and early stage of AD, the AUC of SVLT and the AUC of KSRT were not significant. The word-list learning test is a more useful tool for examining verbal memory function for older adults in Korea than the story recall test.

  11. Using combined eye tracking and word association in order to assess novel packaging solutions: A case study involving jam jars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piqueras Fiszman, B.; Velasco, C.; Salgado, A.; Spence, C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study utilized the techniques of eye tracking and word association in order to collect attentional information and freely-elicited associations from consumers in response to changing specific attributes of the product packaging (jam jars). We assessed the relationship between the data

  12. Graph-Theoretic Properties of Networks Based on Word Association Norms: Implications for Models of Lexical Semantic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenenfelder, Thomas M.; Recchia, Gabriel; Rubin, Tim; Jones, Michael N.

    2016-01-01

    We compared the ability of three different contextual models of lexical semantic memory (BEAGLE, Latent Semantic Analysis, and the Topic model) and of a simple associative model (POC) to predict the properties of semantic networks derived from word association norms. None of the semantic models were able to accurately predict all of the network…

  13. Physical interaction and association by contiguity in memory for the words and melodies of songs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, R G; Serafine, M L; Repp, B

    1990-09-01

    Three experiments were designed to investigate two explanations for the integration effect in memory for songs (Serafine, Crowder, & Repp, 1984; Serafine, Davidson, Crowder, & Repp, 1986). The integration effect is the finding that recognition of the melody (or text) of a song is better in the presence of the text (or melody) with which it had been heard originally than in the presence of a different text (or melody). One explanation for this finding is the physical interaction hypothesis, which holds that one component of a song exerts subtle but memorable physical changes on the other component, making the latter different from what it would be with a different companion. In Experiments 1 and 2, we investigated the influence that words could exert on the subtle musical character of a melody. A second explanation for the integration effect is the association-by-contiguity hypothesis, which holds that any two events experienced in close temporal proximity may become connected in memory such that each acts as a recall cue for the other. In Experiment 3, we investigated the degree to which simultaneous presentations of spoken text with a hummed melody would induce an association between the two components. The results gave encouragement for both explanations and are discussed in terms of the distinction between encoding specificity and independent associative bonding.

  14. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role

  15. Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish. We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading. C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures. These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Examining the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal paired associate learning on Chinese word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George; Liu, Cuina; Xu, Shiyang

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning, traditionally measured with paired associate learning (PAL) tasks, has been found to predict reading ability in several languages. However, it remains unclear whether it also predicts word reading in Chinese, which is known for its ambiguous print-sound correspondences, and whether its effects are direct or indirect through the effects of other reading-related skills such as phonological awareness and rapid naming. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the direct and indirect effects of visual-verbal PAL on word reading in an unselected sample of Chinese children followed from the second to the third kindergarten year. A sample of 141 second-year kindergarten children (71 girls and 70 boys; mean age=58.99months, SD=3.17) were followed for a year and were assessed at both times on measures of visual-verbal PAL, rapid naming, and phonological awareness. In the third kindergarten year, they were also assessed on word reading. The results of path analysis showed that visual-verbal PAL exerted a significant direct effect on word reading that was independent of the effects of phonological awareness and rapid naming. However, it also exerted significant indirect effects through phonological awareness. Taken together, these findings suggest that variations in cross-modal associative learning (as measured by visual-verbal PAL) place constraints on the development of word recognition skills irrespective of the characteristics of the orthography children are learning to read. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mosuos' awareness of taxonomic relations in word associations, lexicon decisions and semantic categorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jijia; Lin, Na; Li, Degao

    2012-06-01

    The development of representations for taxonomic categories is influenced by many factors, such as age, life experiences, and education. It was hypothesized that Mosuos might be aware of taxonomic relations differently than Hans, as indicated by Sha (1996). Three experiments--word associations, lexicon decisions, and semantic categorizations--were conducted on young adults of Mosuos and Hans and consistent results were obtained: the Mosuos were found both similar to and different from the Hans in their experimental performance. They were apparently aware of taxonomic relations less than the Hans among categories of different levels and among categories of basic level, consistent with the conclusion that the uniqueness of a specific culture influences the people's representations for the hierarchically structured taxonomic categories (López, Atran, Coley, Medin & Smith, 1997). The present forms of education did not seem to be as effective as educators expected to help promote Mosuo children's development of knowledge of taxonomic categories. If school education would be available that is compatible with the cultural value of a relatively isolated, small population, such as Mosuos, and is of practical value for the young children to develop a better knowledge of the world, then a study would be of critical value into how educated individuals would be different from uneducated ones in their awareness of taxonomic relations. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  18. The Deaf Child's Knowledge of Words: Volume II, Alphabetical List of Test Items. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Dresner, Toby; Guilfoyle, George R.

    The document is the second volume of a report providing descriptive data on the reading vocabulary of deaf children ages 8-17 years, which resulted from a study assessing the reading vocabulary knowledge of 13,207 deaf students. Volume 2, continuing the appendix begun in Volume 1, contains an alphabetical list of the 7,300 words used on the 73…

  19. A Neural Assembly-Based View on Word Production: The Bilingual Test Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strijkers, Kristof

    2016-01-01

    I will propose a tentative framework of how words in two languages could be organized in the cerebral cortex based on neural assembly theory, according to which neurons that fire synchronously are bound into large-scale distributed functional units (assemblies), which represent a mental event as a whole ("gestalt"). For language this…

  20. Culturomics as a data playground for tests of selection: Mathematical approaches to detecting selection in word use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindi, Suzanne S; Dale, Rick

    2016-09-21

    In biological evolution traits may rise and fall in frequency due to genetic drift, where variant frequencies change by chance, or by selection where advantageous variants will rise in frequency. The neutral model of evolution, first developed by Kimura in the 1960s, has become the standard against which selection is detected. While the balance between these two important forces - drift and selection - has been well established in biology there are other domains where the contribution of these processes is still coming together. Although the idea of natural selection has been applied to the cultural domain since the time of Darwin, it has proven more challenging to positively identify cultural traits under selection both because of a lack of established tests for selection and a lack of large cultural data sets. However, in recent years with the accumulation of large cultural data sets many cultural features from pre-history pottery to modern baby names have been shown to evolve according to the neutral theory. But there is accumulating empirical evidence from cultural processes suggesting that the neutral theory alone cannot account for all features of the data. As such, there has been a renewed interest in determining whether there is selection amidst drift. Here we analyze a subset English word frequencies, and determine whether frequency change reveals processes of selection. Inspired by the Moran and Wright-Fisher models in population genetics, we developed a neutral model of word frequency variation to assess when linguistic data appears to depart from neutral evolution. As such, our model represents a possible "test for selection" in the linguistic domain. We explore how the distribution of word use has changed for sets of words in English for more than 100 years (1901-2008) as expressed in vocabulary usage in published books, made available by Google Ngram. When comparing empirical word frequency changes to our neutral model we find pervasive and systematic

  1. Does "Word Coach" Coach Words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Tom; Horst, Marlise

    2011-01-01

    This study reports on the design and testing of an integrated suite of vocabulary training games for Nintendo[TM] collectively designated "My Word Coach" (Ubisoft, 2008). The games' design is based on a wide range of learning research, from classic studies on recycling patterns to frequency studies of modern corpora. Its general usage…

  2. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions...... declined significantly during sympathetic activation (delta PD = -5 (2)mV, p less than 0.05). Gastric pH increased. Eleven of 12 ulcer patients had sympathetic activation accompanied by a decline in PD, and an increased pH. Sympathetic activation in ulcer patients and volunteers impaired gastric mucosal......Whether mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders is not clearly established. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic activation caused by the Stroop's colour word conflict test and gastric mucosal function, monitored by measuring the gastric...

  3. Gastric potential difference and pH in ulcer patients and normal volunteers during Stroop's colour word conflict test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, L; Bendtsen, Flemming

    1989-01-01

    mucosal electrical potential difference (PD). In 13 healthy volunteers and 12 duodenal ulcer patients gastric PD, pH, and heart rate were measured continuously during basal conditions, during mental stress evoked by the Stroop's colour word conflict test, and after return to basal conditions......Whether mental stress is important in the pathogenesis of gastric mucosal disorders is not clearly established. This study investigated the relationship between sympathetic activation caused by the Stroop's colour word conflict test and gastric mucosal function, monitored by measuring the gastric....... The volunteers fell into two groups: In seven no sympathetic activation was elicited as no changes in heart rate were demonstrated. Gastric pH was unchanged, and PD increased slightly. Sympathetic activation was elicited in the other six with increased heart rate by 18 (6) beats per min. Potential difference...

  4. Shaking Takete and Flowing Maluma. Non-Sense Words Are Associated with Motion Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Koppensteiner; Pia Stephan; Johannes Paul Michael Jäschke

    2016-01-01

    People assign the artificial words takete and kiki to spiky, angular figures and the artificial words maluma and bouba to rounded figures. We examined whether such a cross-modal correspondence could also be found for human body motion. We transferred the body movements of speakers onto two-dimensional coordinates and created animated stick-figures based on this data. Then we invited people to judge these stimuli using the words takete-maluma, bouba-kiki, and several verbal descriptors that se...

  5. A quick behavioral dichotic word test is prognostic for clinical response to cognitive therapy for depression: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Gerard E; Haggerty, Agnes; Siegle, Greg J

    2017-02-01

    There are no commonly used clinical indicators of whether an individual will benefit from cognitive therapy (CT) for depression. A prior study found right ear (left hemisphere) advantage for perceiving dichotic words predicted CT response. This study replicates this finding at a different research center in clinical trials that included clinically representative samples and community therapists. Right-handed individuals with unipolar major depressive disorder who subsequently received 12-14 weeks of CT at the University of Pittsburgh were tested on dichotic fused words and complex tones tests. Responders to CT showed twice the mean right ear advantage in dichotic fused words performance than non-responders. Patients with a right ear advantage greater than the mean for healthy controls had an 81% response rate to CT, whereas those with performance lower than the mean for controls had a 46% response rate. Individuals with a right ear advantage, indicative of strong left hemisphere language dominance, may be better at utilizing cognitive processes and left frontotemporal cortical regions critical for success of CT for depression. Findings at two clinical research centers suggest that verbal dichotic listening may be a clinically disseminative brief, inexpensive and easily automated test prognostic for response to CT across diverse clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The estimation of premorbid intelligence levels among Portuguese speakers: the Irregular Word Reading Test (TeLPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Lara; Simões, Mário R; Martins, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Information regarding cognitive abilities in earlier stages of life is essential to ascertain if and to what extent these may have declined. When unavailable, clinicians rely on estimate methods. One of the contemporary methods used worldwide combines performance on irregular word reading test with demographics since it has shown to provide reliable estimates of premorbid ability. Hence, a reading test portuguese irregular word reading test (TeLPI) was developed, filling an important gap in the neuropsychological evaluation of Portuguese speakers. Using 46 irregular, infrequent Portuguese words, TeLPI was validated against Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)-III (N = 124), and regression-based equations were determined to estimate premorbid IQ considering TeLPI scores and demographic variables. TeLPI scores accounted for 63% of the variance of WAIS-III Full-Scale IQ, 62% of Verbal IQ, and 47% of Performance IQ and thus were considered valid for premorbid intelligence estimation. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. A test of speech motor control on word level productions: The SPA Test (Dutch: Screening Pittige Articulatie)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Dejonckere; F. Wijnen; Dr. Yvonne van Zaalen

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to study whether an assessment instrument specifically designed to assess speech motor control on word level productions would be able to add differential diagnostic speech characteristics between people who clutter and people who stutter. It was hypothesized

  8. Learning new vocabulary in German: the effects of inferring word meanings, type of feedback, and time of test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Shana K; Sachs, Riebana E; Martin, Beth; Schmidt, Kristian; Looft, Ruxandra

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, introductory-level German students read a simplified story and learned the meanings of new German words by reading English translations in marginal glosses versus trying to infer (i.e., guess) their translations. Students who inferred translations were given feedback in English or in German, or no feedback at all. Although immediate retention of new vocabulary was better for students who used marginal glosses, students who inferred word meanings and then received English feedback forgot fewer translations over time. Plausible but inaccurate inferences (i.e., those that made sense in the context) were more likely to be corrected by students who received English feedback as compared with German feedback, providing support for the beneficial effects of mediating information. Implausible inaccurate inferences, however, were more likely to be corrected on the delayed vocabulary test by students who received German feedback as compared with English feedback, possibly because of the additional contextual support provided by German feedback.

  9. A spatially-supported forced-choice recognition test reveals children’s long-term memory for newly learned word forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine R. Gordon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Children’s memories for the link between a newly trained word and its referent have been the focus of extensive past research. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children. When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms, and they generally perform at floor on such tests. To better measure children’s memory for word forms, we aimed to design a more sensitive test that required recognition rather than recall, provided spatial cues to off-set the phonological memory demands of the test, and allowed pointing rather than verbal responses. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4-to-6-year-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially-supported form recognition test. We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links. When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained. Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time.

  10. Not all performance validity tests are created equal: The role of recollection and familiarity in the Test of Memory Malingering and Word Memory Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglit, Graham M L; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2017-03-01

    The Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Word Memory Test (WMT) are both performance validity tests (PVTs) that use a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) recognition memory format. Several studies have reported that these tests are susceptible to cognitive impairment and that the WMT is more susceptible than the TOMM. The current study explored components of recognition memory (i.e., conscious recollection and familiarity) underlying the TOMM and WMT to identify factors that make them susceptible and resilient to cognitive impairment. Fifty-four nonclinical undergraduate research participants were administered the TOMM and WMT while providing introspective judgments about their recognition memory using the remember/know/guess procedure. In addition, half of participants were administered dual-task interference, a manipulation intended to reduce recollection, during these tests, while the other half completed these tests without interference. Standard cutoffs on the TOMM and WMT were explored, as well as alternative cutoffs based on TOMM Trial 1 scores. The WMT was more impacted by dual-task interference than standard TOMM cutoff trials, while alternative TOMM cutoff trials were equally impacted by dual-task interference relative to the WMT. Dual-task interference reduced recollection on these tests, but spared familiarity. Standard TOMM trials and the WMT were relatively comparable on levels of recollection, but familiarity contributed more to the TOMM than to the WMT. Alternative TOMM trials possessed lower familiarity and recollection than standard TOMM trials and lower recollection than the WMT. Reduced recollection places examinees at risk of failing the TOMM and WMT, while familiarity contributes to the relative resilience of the standard TOMM. Future development of 2AFC recognition memory PVTs should attempt to maximize the contribution of familiarity to their completion.

  11. OPATs: Omnibus P-value association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chia-Wei; Yang, Hsin-Chou

    2017-07-10

    Combining statistical significances (P-values) from a set of single-locus association tests in genome-wide association studies is a proof-of-principle method for identifying disease-associated genomic segments, functional genes and biological pathways. We review P-value combinations for genome-wide association studies and introduce an integrated analysis tool, Omnibus P-value Association Tests (OPATs), which provides popular analysis methods of P-value combinations. The software OPATs programmed in R and R graphical user interface features a user-friendly interface. In addition to analysis modules for data quality control and single-locus association tests, OPATs provides three types of set-based association test: window-, gene- and biopathway-based association tests. P-value combinations with or without threshold and rank truncation are provided. The significance of a set-based association test is evaluated by using resampling procedures. Performance of the set-based association tests in OPATs has been evaluated by simulation studies and real data analyses. These set-based association tests help boost the statistical power, alleviate the multiple-testing problem, reduce the impact of genetic heterogeneity, increase the replication efficiency of association tests and facilitate the interpretation of association signals by streamlining the testing procedures and integrating the genetic effects of multiple variants in genomic regions of biological relevance. In summary, P-value combinations facilitate the identification of marker sets associated with disease susceptibility and uncover missing heritability in association studies, thereby establishing a foundation for the genetic dissection of complex diseases and traits. OPATs provides an easy-to-use and statistically powerful analysis tool for P-value combinations. OPATs, examples, and user guide can be downloaded from http://www.stat.sinica.edu.tw/hsinchou/genetics/association/OPATs.htm. © The Author 2017

  12. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  13. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Galduróz, R F; Oliveira, F G; Galduróz, J C F; Bueno, O F A

    2009-10-01

    The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years) and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years) submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15) significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5) and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P term memory (episodic declarative).

  14. Novel word acquisition in aphasia: Facing the word-referent ambiguity of natural language learning contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaloza, Claudia; Mirman, Daniel; Tuomiranta, Leena; Benetello, Annalisa; Heikius, Ida-Maria; Järvinen, Sonja; Majos, Maria C; Cardona, Pedro; Juncadella, Montserrat; Laine, Matti; Martin, Nadine; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Recent research suggests that some people with aphasia preserve some ability to learn novel words and to retain them in the long-term. However, this novel word learning ability has been studied only in the context of single word-picture pairings. We examined the ability of people with chronic aphasia to learn novel words using a paradigm that presents new word forms together with a limited set of different possible visual referents and requires the identification of the correct word-object associations on the basis of online feedback. We also studied the relationship between word learning ability and aphasia severity, word processing abilities, and verbal short-term memory (STM). We further examined the influence of gross lesion location on new word learning. The word learning task was first validated with a group of forty-five young adults. Fourteen participants with chronic aphasia were administered the task and underwent tests of immediate and long-term recognition memory at 1 week. Their performance was compared to that of a group of fourteen matched controls using growth curve analysis. The learning curve and recognition performance of the aphasia group was significantly below the matched control group, although above-chance recognition performance and case-by-case analyses indicated that some participants with aphasia had learned the correct word-referent mappings. Verbal STM but not word processing abilities predicted word learning ability after controlling for aphasia severity. Importantly, participants with lesions in the left frontal cortex performed significantly worse than participants with lesions that spared the left frontal region both during word learning and on the recognition tests. Our findings indicate that some people with aphasia can preserve the ability to learn a small novel lexicon in an ambiguous word-referent context. This learning and recognition memory ability was associated with verbal STM capacity, aphasia severity and the integrity

  15. Reliability and validity of a computer-mediated, single-word intelligibility test: preliminary findings for children with repaired cleft lip and palate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zajac, David J; Plante, Caitrin; Lloyd, Amanda; Haley, Katarina L

    2011-01-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of a computer-mediated, 50-word intelligibility test designed to be a global measure of severity of speech disability in children with repaired cleft lip and palate...

  16. Testing Measurement Invariance across Groups of Children with and without Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder: Applications for Word Recognition and Spelling Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lúcio, Patrícia S; Salum, Giovanni; Swardfager, Walter; Mari, Jair de Jesus; Pan, Pedro M; Bressan, Rodrigo A; Gadelha, Ary; Rohde, Luis A; Cogo-Moreira, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    Although studies have consistently demonstrated that children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) perform significantly lower than controls on word recognition and spelling tests, such studies rely on the assumption that those groups are comparable in these measures. This study investigates comparability of word recognition and spelling tests based on diagnostic status for ADHD through measurement invariance methods. The participants (n = 1,935; 47% female; 11% ADHD) were children aged 6-15 with normal IQ (≥70). Measurement invariance was investigated through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes models. Measurement invariance was attested in both methods, demonstrating the direct comparability of the groups. Children with ADHD were 0.51 SD lower in word recognition and 0.33 SD lower in spelling tests than controls. Results suggest that differences in performance on word recognition and spelling tests are related to true mean differences based on ADHD diagnostic status. Implications for clinical practice and research are discussed.

  17. Electrophysiological evidence of early word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne; Hagoort, Peter

    2012-12-01

    Around their first birthday infants begin to talk, yet they comprehend words long before. This study investigated the event-related potentials (ERP) responses of nine-month-olds on basic level picture-word pairings. After a familiarization phase of six picture-word pairings per semantic category, comprehension for novel exemplars was tested in a picture-word matching paradigm. ERPs time-locked to pictures elicited a modulation of the negative central (Nc) component, associated with visual attention and recognition. It was attenuated by category repetition as well as by the type-token ratio of picture context. ERPs time-locked to words in the training phase became more negative with repetition (N300-600), but there was no influence of picture type-token ratio, suggesting that infants have identified the concept of each picture before a word was presented. Results from the test phase provided clear support that infants integrated word meanings with (novel) picture context. Here, infants showed different ERP responses for words that did or did not align with the picture context: a phonological mismatch (N200) and a semantic mismatch (N400). Together, results were informative of visual categorization, word recognition and word-to-world-mappings, all three crucial processes for vocabulary construction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Single-item memory, associative memory, and the human hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Jeffrey J.; Hopkins, Ramona O.; Squire, Larry R.

    2006-01-01

    We tested recognition memory for items and associations in memory-impaired patients with bilateral lesions thought to be limited to the hippocampal region. In Experiment 1 (Combined memory test), participants studied words and then took a memory test in which studied words, new words, studied word pairs, and recombined word pairs were presented in a mixed order. In Experiment 2 (Separated memory test), participants studied single words and then took a memory test involving studied word and ne...

  19. Shaking Takete and Flowing Maluma. Non-Sense Words Are Associated with Motion Patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Koppensteiner

    Full Text Available People assign the artificial words takete and kiki to spiky, angular figures and the artificial words maluma and bouba to rounded figures. We examined whether such a cross-modal correspondence could also be found for human body motion. We transferred the body movements of speakers onto two-dimensional coordinates and created animated stick-figures based on this data. Then we invited people to judge these stimuli using the words takete-maluma, bouba-kiki, and several verbal descriptors that served as measures of angularity/smoothness. In addition to this we extracted the quantity of motion, the velocity of motion and the average angle between motion vectors from the coordinate data. Judgments of takete (and kiki were related to verbal descriptors of angularity, a high quantity of motion, high velocity and sharper angles. Judgments of maluma (or bouba were related to smooth movements, a low velocity, a lower quantity of motion and blunter angles. A forced-choice experiment during which we presented subsets with low and high rankers on our motion measures revealed that people preferably assigned stimuli displaying fast movements with sharp angles in motion vectors to takete and stimuli displaying slow movements with blunter angles in motion vectors to maluma. Results indicated that body movements share features with information inherent in words such as takete and maluma and that people perceive the body movements of speakers on the level of changes in motion direction (e.g., body moves to the left and then back to the right. Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether impressions of angularity and smoothness have similar communicative values across different modalities and how this affects social judgments and person perception.

  20. Shaking Takete and Flowing Maluma. Non-Sense Words Are Associated with Motion Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppensteiner, Markus; Stephan, Pia; Jäschke, Johannes Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    People assign the artificial words takete and kiki to spiky, angular figures and the artificial words maluma and bouba to rounded figures. We examined whether such a cross-modal correspondence could also be found for human body motion. We transferred the body movements of speakers onto two-dimensional coordinates and created animated stick-figures based on this data. Then we invited people to judge these stimuli using the words takete-maluma, bouba-kiki, and several verbal descriptors that served as measures of angularity/smoothness. In addition to this we extracted the quantity of motion, the velocity of motion and the average angle between motion vectors from the coordinate data. Judgments of takete (and kiki) were related to verbal descriptors of angularity, a high quantity of motion, high velocity and sharper angles. Judgments of maluma (or bouba) were related to smooth movements, a low velocity, a lower quantity of motion and blunter angles. A forced-choice experiment during which we presented subsets with low and high rankers on our motion measures revealed that people preferably assigned stimuli displaying fast movements with sharp angles in motion vectors to takete and stimuli displaying slow movements with blunter angles in motion vectors to maluma. Results indicated that body movements share features with information inherent in words such as takete and maluma and that people perceive the body movements of speakers on the level of changes in motion direction (e.g., body moves to the left and then back to the right). Follow-up studies are needed to clarify whether impressions of angularity and smoothness have similar communicative values across different modalities and how this affects social judgments and person perception.

  1. Estimating Intelligence in Spanish: Regression Equations With the Word Accentuation Test and Demographic Variables in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Sanjurjo, Natalia; Montañes, Patricia; Sierra Matamoros, Fabio Alexander; Burin, Debora

    2015-01-01

    Spanish is the fourth most spoken language in the world, and the majority of Spanish speakers have a Latin American origin. Reading aloud infrequently accentuated words has been established as a National Adult Reading Test-like method to assess premorbid intelligence in Spanish. However, several versions have been proposed and validated with small and selected samples, in particular geographical conditions, and they seldom derive a formula for IQ estimation with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) Full-Scale IQ (FSIQ). The objective of this study was to develop equations to estimate WAIS-Third Edition (WAIS-III) FSIQ from the Word Accentuation Test-Revised (WAT-R), demographic variables, and their combination within diverse Latin American samples. Two hundred and forty participants from Argentina and Colombia, selected according to age and years of education strata, were assessed with the WAT-R, the WAIS-III, and a structured questionnaire about demographic and medical information. A combined approach including place of birth, years of education, and WAT-R provided the best equation, explaining 76% of IQ variance. These equations could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ in patients with Latin American Spanish as their birth language.

  2. Word Spotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, James

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes the use of word-spotting in psycholinguistic research. Notes that listeners hear a list of nonsense words, some of which contain embedded real words, and they detect those embedded words, a task designed to study the segmentation of continuous speech. Describes the task and summarizes its advantages and disadvantages. (12 references)…

  3. Newly-acquired words are more phonologically robust in verbal short-term memory when they have associated semantic representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savill, Nicola; Ellis, Andrew W; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2017-04-01

    Verbal short-term memory (STM) is a crucial cognitive function central to language learning, comprehension and reasoning, yet the processes that underlie this capacity are not fully understood. In particular, although STM primarily draws on a phonological code, interactions between long-term phonological and semantic representations might help to stabilise the phonological trace for words ("semantic binding hypothesis"). This idea was first proposed to explain the frequent phoneme recombination errors made by patients with semantic dementia when recalling words that are no longer fully understood. However, converging evidence in support of semantic binding is scant: it is unusual for studies of healthy participants to examine serial recall at the phoneme level and also it is difficult to separate the contribution of phonological-lexical knowledge from effects of word meaning. We used a new method to disentangle these influences in healthy individuals by training new 'words' with or without associated semantic information. We examined phonological coherence in immediate serial recall (ISR), both immediately and the day after training. Trained items were more likely to be recalled than novel nonwords, confirming the importance of phonological-lexical knowledge, and items with semantic associations were also produced more accurately than those with no meaning, at both time points. For semantically-trained items, there were fewer phoneme ordering and identity errors, and consequently more complete target items were produced in both correct and incorrect list positions. These data show that lexical-semantic knowledge improves the robustness of verbal STM at the sub-item level, even when the effect of phonological familiarity is taken into account. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  5. Changes in Word Usage Frequency May Hamper Intergenerational Comparisons of Vocabulary Skills: An Ngram Analysis of Wordsum, WAIS, and WISC Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Eka

    2014-01-01

    Research on secular trends in mean intelligence test scores shows smaller gains in vocabulary skills than in nonverbal reasoning. One possible explanation is that vocabulary test items become outdated faster compared to nonverbal tasks. The history of the usage frequency of the words on five popular vocabulary tests, the GSS Wordsum, Wechsler…

  6. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  7. Understanding middle-aged and older adults' first associations with the word "cancer": A mixed methods study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, Edelyn; Dodd, Rachael H; Waller, Jo; Vrinten, Charlotte

    2017-10-18

    Cancer is still widely feared and often associated with death. Fatalistic beliefs adversely affect help-seeking for cancer symptoms and engagement in cancer prevention. This study aims to understand middle-aged and older adults' first association with the word "cancer" and their relationship with sociodemographic factors, cancer fear, and cancer information avoidance. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1464 community-based adults aged 50 to 70 living in England in April 2015. First associations with cancer were measured qualitatively and analysed using content analysis. We used binary logistic regression to analyse associations between the most common first association of cancer and sociodemographic characteristics, cancer fear, and cancer information avoidance. Cancer was most commonly associated with "death" (26%). Respondents with lower levels of education, living in the Midlands or North of England where cancer mortality is higher, or with close friends or family members with a cancer history, were more likely to associate cancer with death. Cancer fear was significantly associated with death associations, but cancer information avoidance was not. Despite improved cancer outcomes, middle-aged and older adults often associate cancer with death. Further efforts to decrease fatalistic associations in this age group may be needed. © 2017 The Authors. Psycho-Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Remote Associates Test and Alpha Brain Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarmann, Henk J.; George, Timothy; Smaliy, Alexei; Dien, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies found that performance on the remote associates test (RAT) improves after a period of incubation and that increased alpha brain waves over the right posterior brain predict the emergence of RAT insight solutions. We report an experiment that tested whether increased alpha brain waves during incubation improve RAT performance.…

  9. Consumers' perceptions toward 3 different fermented dairy products: Insights from focus groups, word association, and projective mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmerino, Erick A; Ferraz, Juliana P; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Pinto, Letícia P F; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2017-11-01

    Yogurts, fermented milk beverages, and fermented milks have great similarity and are widely accepted by Brazilian population, but the factors that influence their choice and consumption are unknown. In this sense, the present study aimed to identify the main aspects involved in consumers' perception of 3 different products, comparing the findings by using the 2 fast qualitative methods, word association and projective mapping, and a standard method, focus group. The tasks were performed by different participants through graphic stimuli (word association and projective mapping) and focus interviews (focus group). Results showed that all the 3 methodologies identified numerous intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence the consumer choices regarding fermented dairy products. Major dimensions were closely related to the sensory aspects, emotional factors, perception of benefits, and composition, among others. It is noteworthy that the stimuli related to fermented milk beverages evoked rejecting responses, possibly due to the dissociation between information and consumers' expectation. Although minor differences were observed between the number and type of dimensions that were obtained, similar conclusions can be drawn from all 3 sensory methods, which shows the relevance of qualitative and projective methods for investigation of consumers' perception. These findings can help dairy companies to provide subsidies and guidelines for the reformulation of their products, marketing strategies, and improvement in the communication between producers and consumers from different fermented dairy products. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive performance of young and elderly subjects on the free word recall memory test: effect of presentation order on recall order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Santos-Galduróz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of aging on memory has been extensively studied, but the importance of short-term memory and recall sequence has not. The objective of the current study was to examine the recall order of words presented on lists and to determine if age affects recall sequence. Physically and psychologically healthy male subjects were divided into two groups according to age, i.e., 23 young subjects (20 to 30 years and 50 elderly subjects (60 to 70 years submitted to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised and the free word recall test. The order of word presentation significantly affected the 3rd and 4th words recalled (P < 0.01; F = 14.6. In addition, there was interaction between the presentation order and the type of list presented (P < 0.05; F = 9.7. Also, both groups recalled the last words presented from each list (words 13-15 significantly more times 3rd and 4th than words presented in all remaining positions (P < 0.01. The order of word presentation also significantly affected the 5th and 6th words recalled (P = 0.05; F = 7.5 and there was a significant interaction between the order of presentation and the type of list presented (P < 0.01; F = 20.8. The more developed the cognitive functions, resulting mainly from formal education, the greater the cognitive reserve, helping to minimize the effects of aging on the long-term memory (episodic declarative.

  11. Acute effects of an Avena sativa herb extract on responses to the Stroop Color-Word test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Narelle M; Robinson, Matthew J; Bryan, Janet; Buckley, Jonathan D; Murphy, Karen J; Howe, Peter R C

    2011-07-01

    Extracts from oat (Avena sativa) herb may benefit cognitive performance. This study investigated whether Neuravena(®), an oat herb extract, could acutely improve responses to the Stroop Color-Word test, a measure of attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus. Elderly volunteers with below-average cognitive performance consumed single doses (0, 1600, and 2400 mg) of oat herb extract at weekly intervals in a double-blind, randomized, crossover comparison. Resting blood pressure (BP) was assessed before and after supplementation, and a Stroop test was performed. Significantly fewer errors were made during the color-naming component of the Stroop test after consuming the 1600-mg dose than after the 0-mg or 2400-mg doses (F (1,36)=18.85, p<0.001). In 7 subjects with suspected cognitive impairment, Stroop interference score was also improved by the 1600-mg dose compared to 0- and 2400-mg doses (F (1, 34)=2.40, p<0.01). Resting BP was unaffected by supplementation. Taking 1600 mg of oat herb extract may acutely improve attention and concentration and the ability to maintain task focus in older adults with differing levels of cognitive status.

  12. Associative memory architecture for word-parallel smallest Euclidean distance search using distance mapping into clock-number domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Toshinobu; Sasaki, Seiryu; Jürgen Mattausch, Hans

    2014-01-01

    A scalable word-parallel associative memory for smallest Euclidean distance (ED) search is presented. Due to the applied concept of distance to clock-number mapping, the reported architecture is digital in nature and scalable to advanced technology. Furthermore, the reference data of feature vectors can be scaled in principle to any vector dimension and number. Handling of the numerical complexity of the ED without large consumption of Silicon area is achieved by an area-efficient circuit, which uses the same adder for absolute-difference calculation of vector components and subsequent square calculation by sequential addition of partial products. Additionally, a clock-number minimization algorithm is proposed to significantly reduce the clock-number needed for the search when the smallest ED is a large value. The concept of the proposed architecture has been experimentally verified by measurement results from real chips fabricated in a 180 nm CMOS technology, in which the architecture is configured for parallel smallest ED search among 32 reference vectors with each vector having 16 8-bit elements. For the application example of codebook-based data compression, the fabricated test chip achieved 1.19 µs average search time, 5.77 µs worst-case search time and low power consumption of 8.75 mW at the maximum clock frequency of 47 MHz and nominal power supply voltage Vdd = 1.8 V. At reduced power supply voltage Vdd = 1.2 V, a smaller power consumption of 2.80 mW at an also smaller maximum clock frequency of 24 MHz is measured. In comparison to previous analog-digital architecture, a reduction of the normalized power-delay product per matching operation by about a factor 1.6 at Vdd = 1.8 V (about factor 2.5 at Vdd = 1.2 V) is obtained with best-case data for the analog-digital architecture and average-case data for the proposed fully-digital architecture.

  13. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow). Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow) can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  14. Color-shape associations revealed with implicit association tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Chen

    Full Text Available Kandinsky proposed a correspondence theory that suggests associations between specific colors and shapes (i.e., circle-blue, square-red, triangle-yellow. Makin and Wuerger tested the theory using the Implicit Association Test (IAT and did not find clear evidence for Kandinsky's color-shape associations among British participants. In the present study, we first replicated the previous study among Japanese participants and found similar results to those of Makin and Wuerger, showing little support for Kandinsky's theory. In the subsequent experiment, we tested another set of color-shape associations that had been revealed by using an explicit matching method (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow in Japanese participants. The IAT tests showed that response times were significantly faster when circle-red, square-blue, and triangle-yellow combinations were mapped onto the same response key, rather than different key combinations, indicating that these color-shape combinations were encoded. These results provide the first empirical evidence that color-shape associations can be measured by indirect behavioral methods, and in particular, Japanese people's color-shape associations (circle-red, square-blue, triangle-yellow can be observed by both direct and indirect experimental methods.

  15. Word Knowledge and Its Relation to Text Comprehension: A Comparative Study of Chinese- and Korean-Speaking L2 Learners and L1 Speakers of Japanese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiba, Yukie

    2012-01-01

    In this study, word knowledge and its relation to text comprehension was examined with 50 Chinese- and 20 Korean-speaking second language (L2) learners and 40 first language (L1) speakers of Japanese. Breadth and depth of word knowledge were assessed by a word-definition matching test and a word-associates selection test, respectively. Text…

  16. Recurrent Word Combinations in EAP Test-Taker Writing: Differences between High- and Low-Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, Randy; Wood, David

    2016-01-01

    The correct use of frequently occurring word combinations represents an important part of language proficiency in spoken and written discourse. This study investigates the use of English-language recurrent word combinations in low-level and high-level L2 English academic essays sourced from the Canadian Academic English Language (CAEL) assessment.…

  17. Is adaptation of the word accentuation test of premorbid intelligence necessary for use among older, Spanish-speaking immigrants in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrauf, Robert W; Weintraub, Sandra; Navarro, Ellen

    2006-05-01

    Adaptations of the National Adult Reading Test (NART) for assessing premorbid intelligence in languages other than English requires (a) generating word-items that are rare and do not follow grapheme-to-phoneme mappings common in that language, and (b) subsequent validation against a cognitive battery normed on the population of interest. Such tests exist for Italy, France, Spain, and Argentina, all normed against national versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Given the varieties of Spanish spoken in the United States, the adaptation of the Spanish Word Accentuation Test (WAT) requires re-validating the original word list, plus possible new items, against a cognitive battery that has been normed on Spanish-speakers from many countries. This study reports the generation of 55 additional words and revalidation in a sample of 80 older, Spanish-dominant immigrants. The Batería Woodcock-Muñoz Revisada (BWM-R), normed on Spanish speakers from six countries and five U.S. states, was used to establish criterion validity. The original WAT word list accounted for 77% of the variance in the BWM-R and 58% of the variance in Ravens Colored Progressive Matrices, suggesting that the unmodified list possesses adequate predictive validity as an indicator of intelligence. Regression equations are provided for estimating BWM-R and Ravens scores from WAT scores.

  18. What do Words Really Say? An Examination of Associations between Preschool Emotion Language and Emotional Development

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, Amy Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study examines associations of emotion language with emotion understanding and emotion regulation during the preschool years. There is evidence that the way parents talk about emotions with their children promotes children's emotion understanding and regulation (e.g. Bird and Reese, 2006; Laible, 2011). However, there has been little attention paid to associations of these outcomes with children's emotion language. In this study, I examined associations of children's emotion language ...

  19. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  20. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Gia eTsai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major context (the pitch-semantic task or for the meaning of a word to match the speaker’s identity (the voice-semantic task. Both the behavioral data and neuromagnetic data showed that congruency detection of the speaker’s identity and word meaning was slower than that of the pitch and pitch name. Congruency effects of musical stimuli revealed that pitch categorization and semantic processing of pitch information were associated with P2m and N400m, respectively. For verbal stimuli, P2m and N400m did not show any congruency effect. In both the pitch-semantic task and the voice-semantic task, we found that incongruent stimuli evoked stronger slow waves with the latency of 500-600 ms than congruent stimuli. These findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms underlying pitch-naming processes.

  1. Neuromagnetic brain activities associated with perceptual categorization and sound-content incongruency: a comparison between monosyllabic words and pitch names

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chen-Gia; Chen, Chien-Chung; Wen, Ya-Chien; Chou, Tai-Li

    2015-01-01

    In human cultures, the perceptual categorization of musical pitches relies on pitch-naming systems. A sung pitch name concurrently holds the information of fundamental frequency and pitch name. These two aspects may be either congruent or incongruent with regard to pitch categorization. The present study aimed to compare the neuromagnetic responses to musical and verbal stimuli for congruency judgments, for example a congruent pair for the pitch C4 sung with the pitch name do in a C-major context (the pitch-semantic task) or for the meaning of a word to match the speaker’s identity (the voice-semantic task). Both the behavioral data and neuromagnetic data showed that congruency detection of the speaker’s identity and word meaning was slower than that of the pitch and pitch name. Congruency effects of musical stimuli revealed that pitch categorization and semantic processing of pitch information were associated with P2m and N400m, respectively. For verbal stimuli, P2m and N400m did not show any congruency effect. In both the pitch-semantic task and the voice-semantic task, we found that incongruent stimuli evoked stronger slow waves with the latency of 500–600 ms than congruent stimuli. These findings shed new light on the neural mechanisms underlying pitch-naming processes. PMID:26347638

  2. Tune in to the Tone: Lexical Tone Identification is Associated with Vocabulary and Word Recognition Abilities in Young Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; Tong, Xiuhong; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Lexical tone is one of the most prominent features in the phonological representation of words in Chinese. However, little, if any, research to date has directly evaluated how young Chinese children's lexical tone identification skills contribute to vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. The present study distinguished lexical tones from segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness in order to estimate the unique contribution of lexical tone in early vocabulary acquisition and character recognition. A sample of 199 Cantonese children aged 5-6 years was assessed on measures of lexical tone identification, segmental phonological awareness, morphological awareness, nonverbal ability, vocabulary knowledge, and Chinese character recognition. It was found that lexical tone awareness and morphological awareness were both associated with vocabulary knowledge and character recognition. However, there was a significant relationship between lexical tone awareness and both vocabulary knowledge and character recognition, even after controlling for the effects of age, nonverbal ability, segmental phonological awareness and morphological awareness. These findings suggest that lexical tone is a key factor accounting for individual variance in young children's lexical acquisition in Chinese, and that lexical tone should be considered in understanding how children learn new Chinese vocabulary words, in either oral or written forms.

  3. TREAT (TREe-based Association Test)

    Science.gov (United States)

    TREAT is an R package for detecting complex joint effects in case-control studies. The test statistic is derived from a tree-structure model by recursive partitioning the data. Ultra-fast algorithm is designed to evaluate the significance of association be

  4. Mono-syllabic word test score as a pre-operative assessment criterion for cochlear implant candidature in adults with acquired hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Maire; Jenkinson, Louise

    2016-04-01

    Cochlear Implant (CI) candidates with a ski-slope hearing loss may be outside current implantation criteria [< 50% on Bamford-Kowal-Bench (BKB) sentence testing], despite having a significant hearing disability and limited benefit from conventional amplification. To use existing post-operative performance data to establish a criterion for Arthur Boothroyd (AB) word test for CI candidacy assessment. Retrospective analysis of post-operative AB words scores for 64 CI users was performed and the 10th percentile score selected as a criterion of reasonable chance for post-operative improvement. A follow-up audit was performed 4 years later with a larger patient group of 127 CI users. An AB word score of 15% was determined using this method and became the pre-implant criterion for future patients. The same score was achieved on the follow-up audit and was adopted as an All Wales criterion as part of the National Audit process.

  5. The anxiogenic video-recorded Stroop Color-Word Test: psychological and physiological alterations and effects of diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira-Silva, Flavia; Prado, Gabriela Bordini; Ribeiro, Lídia Christine Goulart; Leite, José Roberto

    2004-09-15

    From among the few human experimental models that can be used to predict the clinical activity of new anxiolytic drugs, the video-recorded Stroop Color-Word Test (VRSCWT), which uses subjective scales to evaluate anxious states, is notable for its simplicity. However, considering that the choice of treatment for anxiety disorders is heavily dependent on the level of somatic symptomatology, a quantitative evaluation of the physiological alterations elicited by the anxiogenic situation of the VRSCWT would also be of great interest. In the present study, 36 healthy male and female volunteers were submitted to either the VRSCWT or to a nonanxiogenic test. The results showed that, as well as a sensation of anxiety, the VRSCWT elicited increases in heart rate and gastrocnemius tension. Subsequently, a further 48 healthy men and women were randomly assigned to three treatments: placebo, 5 and 10 mg of diazepam, and were submitted to the VRSCWT. The results showed that in men, diazepam blocked the feeling of anxiety elicited by the test, although it did not prevent the physiological alterations, while in women, there was no response to the anxiolytic action of the drug. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that the VRSCWT is an efficient method of inducing anxiety experimentally. It is able to elicit observable psychological and physiological alterations and can detect the blocking, by an anxiolytic, of the feelings of anxiety in healthy men. Furthermore, the results suggest that the neural pathways for the control of the psychological and physiological manifestations of anxiety may be separate. This study also draws attention to the fact that gender is an important variable in the evaluation of anxiolytic drugs.

  6. Sequence robust association test for familial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Wei; Yang, Ming; Wang, Chaolong; Cai, Tianxi

    2017-09-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and next generation sequencing studies (NGSS) are often performed in family studies to improve power in identifying genetic variants that are associated with clinical phenotypes. Efficient analysis of genome-wide studies with familial data is challenging due to the difficulty in modeling shared but unmeasured genetic and/or environmental factors that cause dependencies among family members. Existing genetic association testing procedures for family studies largely rely on generalized estimating equations (GEE) or linear mixed-effects (LME) models. These procedures may fail to properly control for type I errors when the imposed model assumptions fail. In this article, we propose the Sequence Robust Association Test (SRAT), a fully rank-based, flexible approach that tests for association between a set of genetic variants and an outcome, while accounting for within-family correlation and adjusting for covariates. Comparing to existing methods, SRAT has the advantages of allowing for unknown correlation structures and weaker assumptions about the outcome distribution. We provide theoretical justifications for SRAT and show that SRAT includes the well-known Wilcoxon rank sum test as a special case. Extensive simulation studies suggest that SRAT provides better protection against type I error rate inflation, and could be much more powerful for settings with skewed outcome distribution than existing methods. For illustration, we also apply SRAT to the familial data from the Framingham Heart Study and Offspring Study to examine the association between an inflammatory marker and a few sets of genetic variants. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  7. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  8. Demographically corrected norms for African Americans and Caucasians on the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised, Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, Stroop Color and Word Test, and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test 64-Card Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Marc A; Moore, David J; Taylor, Michael; Franklin, Donald; Cysique, Lucette; Ake, Chris; Lazarretto, Deborah; Vaida, Florin; Heaton, Robert K

    2011-08-01

    Memory and executive functioning are two important components of clinical neuropsychological (NP) practice and research. Multiple demographic factors are known to affect performance differentially on most NP tests, but adequate normative corrections, inclusive of race/ethnicity, are not available for many widely used instruments. This study compared demographic contributions for widely used tests of verbal and visual learning and memory (Brief Visual Memory Test-Revised, Hopkins Verbal Memory Test-Revised) and executive functioning (Stroop Color and Word Test, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test-64) in groups of healthy Caucasians (n = 143) and African Americans (n = 103). Demographic factors of age, education, gender, and race/ethnicity were found to be significant factors on some indices of all four tests. The magnitude of demographic contributions (especially age) was greater for African Americans than for Caucasians on most measures. New, demographically corrected T-score formulas were calculated for each race/ethnicity. The rates of NP impairment using previously published normative standards significantly overestimated NP impairment in African Americans. Utilizing the new demographic corrections developed and presented herein, NP impairment rates were comparable between the two race/ethnicities and were unrelated to the other demographic characteristics (age, education, gender) in either race/ethnicity group. Findings support the need to consider extended demographic contributions to neuropsychological test performance in clinical and research settings.

  9. Sensationalism or sensitivity: use of words in stories on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by Associated Press Videotext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drushel, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although it appeared initially reluctant to cover the story at all, the mainstream press in the United States has supplied almost daily reports on AIDS since the mid-1980s. The author examined four weeks of stories on the Associated Press Videotext service in early 1986 in an effort to evaluate the validity of critics' charges that journalists were over-emphasizing the role of homosexuals in the progress of the disease, and that their stories were laden with negative or sensationalistic terms. The author found little evidence from the words used in the stories of distortion in telling the AIDS story, but speculated that such distortion might be found in selection, editing, and presentation decisions made by gatekeepers.

  10. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  11. How Do Chinese ESL Learners Recognize English Words during a Reading Test? A Comparison with Romance-Language-Speaking ESL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines how Chinese ESL learners recognize English words while responding to a multiple-choice reading test as compared to Romance-language-speaking ESL learners. Four adult Chinese ESL learners and three adult Romance-language-speaking ESL learners participated in a think-aloud study with the Michigan English Language Assessment…

  12. A Case-Series Test of the Interactive Two-Step Model of Lexical Access: Predicting Word Repetition from Picture Naming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Gary S.; Martin, Nadine; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2007-01-01

    Lexical access in language production, and particularly pathologies of lexical access, are often investigated by examining errors in picture naming and word repetition. In this article, we test a computational approach to lexical access, the two-step interactive model, by examining whether the model can quantitatively predict the repetition-error…

  13. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-10-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning.

  14. Gender Differences in Child Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Gross, Megan; Buac, Milijana

    2013-01-01

    In prior work with adults, women were found to outperform men on a paired-associates word-learning task, but only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words. The goal of the present work was to examine whether similar gender differences in word learning would be observed in children. In addition to manipulating phonological familiarity, referent familiarity was also manipulated. Children between the ages of 5 and 7 learned phonologically-familiar or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words in association with pictures of familiar referents (animals) or unfamiliar referents (aliens). Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition measure administered immediately after the learning phase. Analyses of retention data revealed stronger phonological and referent familiarity effects in girls than in boys. Moreover, girls outperformed boys only when learning phonologically-familiar novel words and when learning novel words in association with familiar referents. These findings are interpreted to suggest that females are more likely than males to recruit native-language phonological and semantic knowledge during novel word learning. PMID:24039377

  15. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  16. Stroop effects from newly learned color words: effects of memory consolidation and episodic context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geukes, Sebastian; Gaskell, M. Gareth; Zwitserlood, Pienie

    2015-01-01

    The Stroop task is an excellent tool to test whether reading a word automatically activates its associated meaning, and it has been widely used in mono- and bilingual contexts. Despite of its ubiquity, the task has not yet been employed to test the automaticity of recently established word-concept links in novel-word-learning studies, under strict experimental control of learning and testing conditions. In three experiments, we thus paired novel words with native language (German) color words via lexical association and subsequently tested these words in a manual version of the Stroop task. Two crucial findings emerged: When novel word Stroop trials appeared intermixed among native-word trials, the novel-word Stroop effect was observed immediately after the learning phase. If no native color words were present in a Stroop block, the novel-word Stroop effect only emerged 24 h later. These results suggest that the automatic availability of a novel word's meaning depends either on supportive context from the learning episode and/or on sufficient time for memory consolidation. We discuss how these results can be reconciled with the complementary learning systems account of word learning. PMID:25814973

  17. Atypical performance patterns on Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System Color-Word Interference Test: Cognitive switching and learning ability in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Jody-Lynn; Swan, Natasha M; Banks, Sarah J; Miller, Justin B

    2016-09-01

    Cognitive set shifting requires flexible application of lower level processes. The Delis-Kaplan Executive Functioning System (DKEFS) Color-Word Interference Test (CWIT) is commonly used to clinically assess cognitive set shifting. An atypical pattern of performance has been observed on the CWIT; a subset of individuals perform faster, with equal or fewer errors, on the more difficult inhibition/switching than the inhibition trial. This study seeks to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this atypical pattern. It is hypothesized that atypical patterns on CWIT will be associated with better performance on underlying cognitive measures of attention, working memory, and learning when compared to typical CWIT patterns. Records from 239 clinical referrals (age: M = 68.09 years, SD = 10.62; education: M = 14.87 years, SD = 2.73) seen for a neuropsychological evaluation as part of diagnostic work up in an outpatient dementia and movement disorders clinic were sampled. The standard battery of tests included measures of attention, learning, fluency, executive functioning, and working memory. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to compare the cognitive performance of those with typical versus atypical CWIT patterns. An atypical pattern of performance was confirmed in 23% of our sample. Analyses revealed a significant group difference in acquisition of information on both nonverbal (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised, BVMT-R total recall), F(1, 213) = 16.61, p Learning Test-Revised, HVLT-R total recall) learning tasks, F(1, 181) = 6.43, p learning (Cohen's d = 0.47) and semantic fluency (Cohen's d = 0.43). Individuals demonstrating an atypical pattern of performance on the CWIT inhibition/switching trial also demonstrated relative strengths in semantic fluency and learning.

  18. Infants generalize representations of statistically segmented words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine eGraf Estes

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The acoustic variation in language presents learners with a substantial challenge. To learn by tracking statistical regularities in speech, infants must recognize words across tokens that differ based on characteristics such as the speaker’s voice, affect, or the sentence context. Previous statistical learning studies have not investigated how these types of surface form variation affect learning. The present experiments used tasks tailored to two distinct developmental levels to investigate the robustness of statistical learning to variation. Experiment 1 examined statistical word segmentation in 11-month-olds and found that infants can recognize statistically segmented words across a change in the speaker’s voice from segmentation to testing. The direction of infants’ preferences suggests that recognizing words across a voice change is more difficult than recognizing them in a consistent voice. Experiment 2 tested whether 17-month-olds can generalize the output of statistical learning across variation to support word learning. The infants were successful in their generalization; they associated referents with statistically defined words despite a change in voice from segmentation to label learning. Infants’ learning patterns also indicate that they formed representations of across-word syllable sequences during segmentation. Thus, low probability sequences can act as object labels in some conditions. The findings of these experiments suggest that the units that emerge during statistical learning are not perceptually constrained, but rather are robust to naturalistic acoustic variation.

  19. Is the motor or the garage more important to the car? The difference between semantic associations in single word and sentence production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlhaus, Juliane; Heim, Stefan; Sachs, Olga; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute; Sass, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of part-whole (e.g., car-motor) and functional associations (e.g., car-garage) on single word (Experiment 1) and sentence production (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, a classical picture-word task was used. In Experiment 2, the same stimuli and distractors were embedded into a sentence. The relation between target and distractor was either part-whole, functional or unrelated. At single word level, part-whole and functional relations facilitate naming. Additionally, the facilitation effect was stronger for part-whole in comparison to functional associations. During sentence production, facilitation shifted to interference. The difference between both relations disappeared. The findings of the different effects between functional and part-whole associations depend on the length of utterances and highlight the divergent impact of associations. The differences between part-whole and functional associations in single word production might reflect a differential organization of associative links at the conceptual level. In contrast, during sentence production the syntactic processing at the lexical level seem to be more important than types of semantic associations at the conceptual level.

  20. The segment-to-frame association in word reading: Early effects of the interaction between segmental and suprasegmental information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone eSulpizio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In four reading aloud experiments we investigated the operations occurring at the level of the phonological buffer by manipulating stress and phoneme information. In all experiments we adopted a masked priming paradigm with three-syllable Italian word targets. Experiments 1 and 2 tested the effect of pure segmental (e.g., fe%%%% – FEcola and pure suprasegmental (CInema – FEcola overlap, respectively. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the joint manipulation of segmental and suprasegmental information, by using prime-target pairs that shared the first syllable and did or did not share their stress pattern (e.g. FEgato – FEcola vs. feNIce – FEcola. The results showed that both segmental and suprasegmental primes affect reading at an abstract phonological level. Moreover, the joint manipulation of stress and phonemes showed an asymmetric pattern for different stress patterns, suggesting that the phonemic and the stress systems address the articulation planning through a process that starts as soon as the relevant information about the to-be-planned unit is active.

  1. A restricted test of single word intelligibility in 3-year-old children with and without cleft palate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willadsen, Elisabeth; Poulsen, Mads

    2012-01-01

    listeners to understand. The error of retraction/backing of alveolar target consonants to velar place of articulation occurred frequently and most often in the HPU group and was found to have a negative effect on intelligibility. Key words: intelligibility, cleft palate, naïve listeners, error types, single......Abstract Objective: In a previous study, children with cleft palate with hard palate closure at 12 months of age showed more typical phonological development than children with an unrepaired hard palate at 36 months of age. This finding was based on narrow transcription of word initial target...... hard palate closure at either12 months (HPR (hard palate repaired)) or 36 months (HPU (hard palate unrepaired)), were compared to data obtained from 14 age-matched, typically developing, control children. Methods: Video recordings of the children naming target words were shown to 84 naïve listeners...

  2. Lexical Ambiguity in Statistics: What Do Students Know about the Words Association, Average, Confidence, Random and Spread?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Fisher, Diane G.; Rogness, Neal T.

    2009-01-01

    Language plays a crucial role in the classroom. The use of specialized language in a domain can cause a subject to seem more difficult to students than it actually is. When words that are part of everyday English are used differently in a domain, these words are said to have lexical ambiguity. Studies in other fields, such as mathematics and…

  3. Estimating verbal intelligence in unipolar depression: comparison of word definition and word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suslow, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Depression is known to be associated with deficits in effortful processing and word fluency. Automatic processes, instead, appear largely intact in depressed patients. It was investigated whether active word definition could be a less appropriate method than passive word recognition as a measure of verbal intelligence in depression. The valid assessment of premorbid IQ is important for correct comparison with current cognitive efficiency of depressed individuals, since premorbid IQ serves as baseline or control parameter to estimate the extent and severity of acquired cognitive impairments, both in the clinical and the research context. Two vocabulary tests were administered to 90 patients (31 women) with unipolar depression and 30 control subjects (15 women): a word definition task [the vocabulary subtest of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-R)] and a word recognition task [the Multiple choice vocabulary test (MWT)]. In the depressed sample, scores of the MWT tended to be higher than WAIS-R scores. For depressed women, the MWT score was significantly higher than the WAIS-R score. In the control sample, no differences between MWT and WAIS-R scores were observed. Our findings indicate that word definition tasks could underestimate verbal intelligence especially in depressed women. For depressed women, it could be more appropriate to administer word recognition than word definition as an estimate of premorbid or verbal intelligence.

  4. Manipulating objects and telling words: a study on concrete and abstract words acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Flumini, Andrea; Cimatti, Felice; Marocco, Davide; Scorolli, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Four experiments (E1-E2-E3-E4) investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the words as tools (WAT) proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (Training 1). In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (Training 2); labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST 2). Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1); even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2). TEST 3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2-E3-E4, TEST 3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard-microphone) responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed.

  5. Manipulating objects and telling words: A study on concrete and abstract words acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Four experiments (E1-E2-E3-E4 investigated whether different acquisition modalities lead to the emergence of differences typically found between concrete and abstract words, as argued by the Words As Tools (WAT proposal. To mimic the acquisition of concrete and abstract concepts, participants either manipulated novel objects or observed groups of objects interacting in novel ways (training1. In TEST 1 participants decided whether two elements belonged to the same category. Later they read the category labels (training2; labels could be accompanied by an explanation of their meaning. Then participants observed previously seen exemplars and other elements, and were asked which of them could be named with a given label (TEST2. Across the experiments, it was more difficult to form abstract than concrete categories (TEST 1; even when adding labels, abstract words remained more difficult than concrete words (TEST 2. TEST3 differed across the experiments. In E1 participants performed a feature production task. Crucially, the associations produced with the novel words reflected the pattern evoked by existing concrete and abstract words, as the first evoked more perceptual properties. In E2-E3-E4, TEST3 consisted of a color verification task with manual/verbal (keyboard-microphone responses. Results showed the microphone use to have an advantage over keyboard use for abstract words, especially in the explanation condition. This supports WAT: due to their acquisition modality, concrete words evoke more manual information; abstract words elicit more verbal information. This advantage was not present when linguistic information contrasted with perceptual one. Implications for theories and computational models of language grounding are discussed.

  6. [Test-retest reliability of the Implicit Association Test for measuring shyness: Inclusion of malleability of implicit shyness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Tsutomu; Sawaumi, Takafumi; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    The Implicit Association Test of Shyness (Shyness IAT: Aikawa & Fujii, 2011) provides an indirect assessment of shyness by measuring associations of self (vs. other) with shyness-related (vs sociability-related) words. In this study we examined the test-retest reliability of the Shyness IAT. Thirty-five participants responded twice to the Shyness IAT with a time lag of one month. The correlation coefficient between the two time points was .54 (p = .001), confirming an adequate level of test-retest reliability. Indeed, changes in explicit and implicit shyness between the two time points were not related to sociable behavior during the one month period. Implications of the results for the assessment of personalities using IATs as well as relevant future directions are discussed.

  7. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Custer , Discess, Erbq, Piu’ne, "resce-.z., Gr.i.;io, ’en dici, Tlipnurp, Prato, Ridente, Rilievo, Sassosa., Sole,’ .D-oc-isio, Vaccqn-a T4 COMODITA...Estate, Fuga, Qioia, Infanzia, Leopardi, Lieto, L~ui,-i, ’.e- morabile, iente, M.orte, Niente, Noia, Nulla, ?.aese, Puerizira. Raf . azza, Reinoti

  8. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal. PMID:26321783

  9. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A; LaBar, Kevin S

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 all three word types were used. Results showed significant priming in all experiments, as indicated by faster reaction times for studied words than for novel words. A priming × emotion interaction was found in Experiments 1 and 3, with greater priming for taboo relative to neutral words. The LAN words in Experiments 2 and 3 showed no difference in priming magnitude relative to the other word types. These results show selective enhancement of word repetition priming by emotional arousal.

  10. Recognition memory across the lifespan: The impact of word frequency and study-test interval on estimates of familiarity and recollection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beat eMeier

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate recognition memory performance across the lifespan and to determine how estimates of recollection and familiarity contribute to performance. In each of three experiments, participants from five groups from 14 up to 85 years of age (children, young adults, middle-aged adults, young-old adults and old-old adults were presented with high- and low-frequency words in a study phase and were tested immediately afterwards and/or after a one day retention interval. The results showed that word frequency and retention interval affected recognition memory performance as well as estimates of recollection and familiarity. Across the lifespan, the trajectory of recognition memory followed an inverse u-shape function that was neither affected by word frequency nor by retention interval. The trajectory of estimates of recollection also followed an inverse u-shape function, and was especially pronounced for low-frequency words. In contrast, estimates of familiarity did not differ across the lifespan. The results indicate that age differences in recognition memory are mainly due to differences in processes related to recollection while the contribution of familiarity-based processes seems to be age-invariant.

  11. Explaining Method Effects Associated with Negatively Worded Items in Trait and State Global and Domain-Specific Self-Esteem Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, Jose M.; Oliver, Amparo; Galiana, Laura; Sancho, Patricia; Lila, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    Several investigators have interpreted method effects associated with negatively worded items in a substantive way. This research extends those studies in different ways: (a) it establishes the presence of methods effects in further populations and particular scales, and (b) it examines the possible relations between a method factor associated…

  12. Morphological Awareness in Chinese: Unique Associations of Homophone Awareness and Lexical Compounding to Word Reading and Vocabulary Knowledge in Chinese Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Phil D.; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Wong, Terry T.-Y.; Shu, Hua; Wong, Anita M.-Y.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth exploration of the associations of two aspects of morphological awareness in Chinese--homophone awareness and lexical compounding awareness--to Chinese word reading and vocabulary knowledge was the primary focus of the present study. Among 154 9-year-old Hong Kong Chinese children, both lexical compounding and homophone awareness were…

  13. An Item Response Theory–Based, Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Makransky, Guido; Dale, Philip S.; Havmose, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential validity of an IRT-based computerized adaptive testing (CAT) version of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory: Words & Sentences (CDI:WS) vocabulary checklist, with the objective of reducing length while maintaining measurement......:WS. Conclusions: These results provide strong evidence that a CAT version of the CDI:WS has the potential to reduce length while maintaining the accuracy and precision of the full instrument....

  14. Implicit Association Tests of Attitudes toward Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adrian; Vaughn, Edwin D.; Doyle, Andrea; Bubb, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed 3 of the currently available implicit association tests designed to measure attitudes toward persons with disabilities. The Revised Multiple Disability Implicit Association Test, the Implicit Association Test for Attitudes Toward Athletes With Disabilities, and the Disability Attitude Implicit Association Test were related to…

  15. Using a Word Association Test for the Assessment of High School Students' Cognitive Structures on Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Aysegul; Eilks, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding students' cognitive structures in a specific knowledge domain helps to determine the ''what, how and why'' features of such knowledge, so that we can take these structures into consideration in teaching. The purpose of the present study was to identify students' cognitive structures about solution and dissolution concepts. The study…

  16. Repeated Measurement of Divers’ Word Fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    side if necessary and identify by block number) WORD FLUENCY MEASUREMENT NEUROPSYCHOLOGY PSYCHOLOGY DIVING NAVSEA TASK NO. 86-54 SATURATION NEDU TEST...WORDS: <II Word Fluency--,, Neuropsychology’-" Diving Saturation Measurement Pyschology NAVSEA Task #86-54 NEDU Test Plan #86-10 v N. .,#7V REPEATED...function (Fillskov & Boll, -V 1981). One type of test with clinical significance reflects Word Fluency (Borkowski, Benton & Spreen, 1967; Lezak, 1983). Word

  17. Emotional arousal enhances word repetition priming

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Laura A.; LaBar, Kevin S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to determine if emotional content increases repetition priming magnitude. In the study phase of Experiment 1, participants rated high-arousing negative (taboo) words and neutral words for concreteness. In the test phase, they made lexical decision judgements for the studied words intermixed with novel words (half taboo, half neutral) and pseudowords. In Experiment 2, low-arousing negative (LAN) words were substituted for the taboo words, and in Experiment 3 al...

  18. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  19. Dissociative affective and associative priming effects in the lexical decision task: yes versus no responses to word targets reveal evaluative judgment tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentura, D

    2000-03-01

    The affective priming effect (AP; i.e., shorter evaluative or lexical decision latencies for affectively congruent prime-target pairs) has often been interpreted as evidence for spreading activation from the prime to affectively congruent targets. The present study emphasizes the view that in the lexical decision task, the prime-target configuration is implicitly evaluated as a question of the form "Is (prime) (target)?" (e.g., "Is death wise?") so that there is a tendency to affirm in cases of congruency and to negate in cases of incongruency. Therefore, after establishing the AP with the lexical decision task in Experiment 1, in Experiment 2 the assignment of yes responses to words and nonwords was varied. For the word = yes condition, the AP emerged, whereas the data pattern was reversed for the word = no condition. In Experiment 3, a comparable pattern of results was not found for symmetrical or backward associatively related prime-target pairs.

  20. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  1. Emotion processing in words: a test of the neural re-use hypothesis using surface and intracranial EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponz, Aurélie; Montant, Marie; Liegeois-Chauvel, Catherine; Silva, Catarina; Braun, Mario; Jacobs, Arthur M; Ziegler, Johannes C

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the spatiotemporal brain dynamics of emotional information processing during reading using a combination of surface and intracranial electroencephalography (EEG). Two different theoretical views were opposed. According to the standard psycholinguistic perspective, emotional responses to words are generated within the reading network itself subsequent to semantic activation. According to the neural re-use perspective, brain regions that are involved in processing emotional information contained in other stimuli (faces, pictures, smells) might be in charge of the processing of emotional information in words as well. We focused on a specific emotion-disgust-which has a clear locus in the brain, the anterior insula. Surface EEG showed differences between disgust and neutral words as early as 200 ms. Source localization suggested a cortical generator of the emotion effect in the left anterior insula. These findings were corroborated through the intracranial recordings of two epileptic patients with depth electrodes in insular and orbitofrontal areas. Both electrodes showed effects of disgust in reading as early as 200 ms. The early emotion effect in a brain region (insula) that responds to specific emotions in a variety of situations and stimuli clearly challenges classic sequential theories of reading in favor of the neural re-use perspective.

  2. Fourteen-month-old infants learn similar sounding words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Katherine A.; Fennell, Christopher T.; Swingley, Daniel; Werker, Janet F.

    2010-01-01

    Can infants, in the very first stages of word learning, use their perceptual sensitivity to the phonetics of speech while learning words? Research to date suggests that infants of 14 months cannot learn two similar sounding words unless there is substantial contextual support. The current experiment advances our understanding of this failure by testing whether the source of infants’ difficulty lies in the learning or testing phase. Infants were taught to associate two similar sounding words with two different objects, and tested using a visual choice method rather than the standard Switch task. The results reveal that 14-month-olds are capable of learning and mapping two similar sounding labels; they can apply phonetic detail in new words. The findings are discussed in relation to infants’ concurrent failure, and the developmental transition to success, in the Switch task. PMID:19371365

  3. Methods of Testing Thermal Insulation and Associated Test Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The system and method for testing thermal insulation uses a cryostatic insulation tester having a vacuum chamber and a cold mass including a test chamber and upper and lower guard chambers adjacent thereto. The thermal insulation is positioned within the vacuum chamber and adjacent the cold mass. Cryogenic liquid is supplied to the test chamber, upper guard and lower guard to create a first gas layer in an upper portion of the lower guard chamber and a second gas layer in an upper portion of the test chamber. Temperature are sensed within the vacuum chamber to test the thermal insulation.

  4. The "visual word form area" is involved in successful memory encoding of both words and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Leilei; Xue, Gui; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Feng; Zhang, Mingxia; Dong, Qi

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have identified the critical role of the left fusiform cortex in visual word form processing, learning, and memory. However, this so-called visual word form area's (VWFA) other functions are not clear. In this study, we used fMRI and the subsequent memory paradigm to examine whether the putative VWFA was involved in the processing and successful memory encoding of faces as well as words. Twenty-two native Chinese speakers were recruited to memorize the visual forms of faces and Chinese words. Episodic memory for the studied material was tested 3h after the scan with a recognition test. The fusiform face area (FFA) and the VWFA were functionally defined using separate localizer tasks. We found that, both within and across subjects, stronger activity in the VWFA was associated with better recognition memory of both words and faces. Furthermore, activation in the VWFA did not differ significantly during the encoding of faces and words. Our results revealed the important role of the so-called VWFA in face processing and memory and supported the view that the left mid-fusiform cortex plays a general role in the successful processing and memory of different types of visual objects (i.e., not limited to visual word forms). Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  6. Sarbalap! Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Virginia, Comp.; And Others

    Prepared by bilingual teacher aide students, this glossary provides the Spanish translation of about 1,300 English words used in the bilingual classroom. Intended to serve as a handy reference for teachers, teacher aides, and students, the glossary can also be used in teacher training programs as a vocabulary builder for future bilingual teachers…

  7. When Sandpaper Is 'Kiki' and Satin Is 'Bouba': an Exploration of the Associations Between Words, Emotional States, and the Tactile Attributes of Everyday Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzi, Roberta; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano; Gallace, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, scientists working on the topic of multisensory integration, as well as designers and marketers involved in trying to understand consumer behavior, have become increasingly interested in the non-arbitrary associations (e.g., sound symbolism) between different sensorial attributes of the stimuli they work with. Nevertheless, to date, little research in this area has investigated the presence of these crossmodal correspondences in the tactile evaluation of everyday materials. Here, we explore the presence and nature of the associations between tactile sensations, the sound of non-words, and people's emotional states. Samples of cotton, satin, tinfoil, sandpaper, and abrasive sponge, were stroked along the participants' forearm at the speed of 5 cm/s. Participants evaluated the materials along several dimensions, comprising scales anchored by pairs of non-words (e.g., Kiki/Bouba) and adjectives (e.g., ugly/beautiful). The results revealed that smoother textures were associated with non-words made up of round-shaped sounds (e.g., Maluma), whereas rougher textures were more strongly associated with sharp-transient sounds (e.g., Takete). The results also revealed the presence of a number of correspondences between tactile surfaces and adjectives related to visual and auditory attributes. For example, smooth textures were associated with features evoked by words such as 'bright' and 'quiet'; by contrast, the rougher textures were associated with adjectives such as 'dim' and 'loud'. The textures were also found to be associated with a number of emotional labels. Taken together, these results further our understanding of crossmodal correspondences involving the tactile modality and provide interesting insights in the applied field of design and marketing.

  8. Do US Consumers’ Perceive Local and Organic Food Differently? An Analysis Based on Means‐End Chain Analysis and Word Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Haas

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The market of local and organic food is still a niche market in the USA, despite its strong growth rates. Both offer consumers an alternative to a globalized anonymous food supply chain. Yet local food and organic food seem to beoverlapping and to some degree competing food concepts. While the organic food market somehow has managed to “mature”, being widely distributed in national supermarket chains, local food in the US still seems to be tied to a“grassroots food movement”, being mainly distributed over short food supply chains. With several trends indicating sustained growth for local and organic consumption, this paper first addresses different connotations of local foodand compares them to standard definitions of organic food. The main focus is to explore the perception of US consumers towards local and organic food, using results from two different studies. Both studies use laddering techniques and word association tests, which were undertaken at Cornell University in New York State and at the University of Florida in the city of Gainesville. These findings are used to achieve a better understanding of the image of local and organic food, and the motives and values of local and organic food consumers.

  9. Lesser Neural Pattern Similarity across Repeated Tests Is Associated with Better Long-Term Memory Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson Wirebring, Linnea; Wiklund-Hörnqvist, Carola; Eriksson, Johan; Andersson, Micael; Jonsson, Bert; Nyberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Encoding and retrieval processes enhance long-term memory performance. The efficiency of encoding processes has recently been linked to representational consistency: the reactivation of a representation that gets more specific each time an item is further studied. Here we examined the complementary hypothesis of whether the efficiency of retrieval processes also is linked to representational consistency. Alternatively, recurrent retrieval might foster representational variability--the altering or adding of underlying memory representations. Human participants studied 60 Swahili-Swedish word pairs before being scanned with fMRI the same day and 1 week later. On Day 1, participants were tested three times on each word pair, and on Day 7 each pair was tested once. A BOLD signal change in right superior parietal cortex was associated with subsequent memory on Day 1 and with successful long-term retention on Day 7. A representational similarity analysis in this parietal region revealed that beneficial recurrent retrieval was associated with representational variability, such that the pattern similarity on Day 1 was lower for retrieved words subsequently remembered compared with those subsequently forgotten. This was mirrored by a monotonically decreased BOLD signal change in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex on Day 1 as a function of repeated successful retrieval for words subsequently remembered, but not for words subsequently forgotten. This reduction in prefrontal response could reflect reduced demands on cognitive control. Collectively, the results offer novel insights into why memory retention benefits from repeated retrieval, and they suggest fundamental differences between repeated study and repeated testing. Repeated testing is known to produce superior long-term retention of the to-be-learned material compared with repeated encoding and other learning techniques, much because it fosters repeated memory retrieval. This study demonstrates that repeated memory

  10. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  11. Problems Associated with the Use of Compound Words in Thesauri, with Special Reference to BS 5723: 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin P.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes that the major criteria for handling compound words should rest upon their orthography (physical form), lexicography (dictionary definition), and semantics, with special attention given to possible homographs. BS 5723 is criticized for failing to pay sufficient attention to the requirements of mechanized systems. Thirty-one references are…

  12. Effect of Phonetic Association on Lexis Learning in Natural Language Context: A Comparative Study of English, French and Turkish Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebubekir, Bozavli

    2017-01-01

    Mother tongue acquisition starts with words and grammar acquired spontaneously by means of communication, while at school foreign language learning takes place based on grammar. Vocabulary learning is very often neglected or rather it turns into an individual activity. The present study, which is considered to be unique on its own, is to reveal…

  13. Learning builds on learning: infants' use of native language sound patterns to learn words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine

    2014-10-01

    The current research investigated how infants apply prior knowledge of environmental regularities to support new learning. The experiments tested whether infants could exploit experience with native language (English) phonotactic patterns to facilitate associating sounds with meanings during word learning. Infants (14-month-olds) heard fluent speech that contained cues for detecting target words; the target words were embedded in sequences that occur across word boundaries. A separate group heard the target words embedded without word boundary cues. Infants then participated in an object label learning task. With the opportunity to use native language patterns to segment the target words, infants subsequently learned the labels. Without this experience, infants failed. Novice word learners can take advantage of early learning about sounds to scaffold lexical development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Same wording, distinct concepts? Testing differences between expectancies and motives in a mediation model of alcohol outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel; Wiers, Reinout W; Janssen, Tim; Gmel, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Per definition, alcohol expectancies (after alcohol I expect X), and drinking motives (I drink to achieve X) are conceptually distinct constructs. Theorists have argued that motives mediate the association between expectancies and drinking outcomes. Yet, given the use of different instruments, do these constructs remain distinct when assessment items are matched? The present study tested to what extent motives mediated the link between expectancies and alcohol outcomes when identical items were used, first as expectancies and then as motives. A linear structural equation model was estimated based on a national representative sample of 5,779 alcohol-using students in Switzerland (mean age = 15.2 years). The results showed that expectancies explained up to 38% of the variance in motives. Together with motives, they explained up to 48% of the variance in alcohol outcomes (volume, 5+ drinking, and problems). In 10 of 12 outcomes, there was a significant mediated effect that was often higher than the direct expectancy effect. For coping, the expectancy effect was close to zero, indicating the strongest form of mediation. In only one case (conformity and 5+ drinking), there was a direct expectancy effect but no mediation. To conclude, the study demonstrates that motives are distinct from expectancies even when identical items are used. Motives are more proximally related to different alcohol outcomes, often mediating the effects of expectancies. Consequently, the effectiveness of interventions, particularly those aimed at coping drinkers, should be improved through a shift in focus from expectancies to drinking motives.

  15. The timing and strength of regional brain activation associated with word recognition in children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roozbeh eRezaie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the relative degree and timing of cortical activation across parietal, temporal, and frontal regions during performance of a continuous visual word recognition task in children who experience reading difficulties (N=44, RD and typical readers (N=40, NI. Minimum norm estimates of regional neurophysiological activity were obtained from magnetoencephalographic recordings. Children with RD showed bilaterally reduced neurophysiological activity in the superior and middle temporal gyri, and increased activity in rostral middle frontal and ventral occipitotemporal cortices, bilaterally. The temporal profile of activity in the RD group, featured near-simultaneous activity peaks in temporal, inferior parietal and prefrontal regions, in contrast to a clear temporal progression of activity among these areas in the NI group. These results replicate and extend previous MEG and fMRI results demonstrating atypical, latency-dependent attributes of the brain circuit involved in word reading in children with reading difficulties.

  16. On the occasion of the first interconnection, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans tests out the co-activity principle in the tunnel, in other words the performance of several tasks in parallel for the installation of the LHC.

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    On the occasion of the first interconnection, LHC Project Leader Lyn Evans tests out the co-activity principle in the tunnel, in other words the performance of several tasks in parallel for the installation of the LHC.

  17. The "N" Word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    1999-01-01

    In a lawsuit involving classroom and literary racial epithets, the Ninth Circuit Court remanded the racial-harassment claim, not the book-removal claim. The ultimate outcome awaits trial; the court's Solomonic decision needs further testing. Meanwhile, the "N" word is a no-no for teachers and students, but not necessarily for books. (MLH)

  18. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  19. Type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance are associated with word memory source monitoring recollection deficits but not simple recognition familiarity deficits following water, low glycaemic load, and high glycaemic load breakfasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel J; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Moulin, Chris A J; Dye, Louise

    2014-01-30

    It has been established that type 2 diabetes, and to some extent, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are associated with general neuropsychological impairments in episodic memory. However, the effect of abnormalities in glucose metabolism on specific retrieval processes such as source monitoring has not been investigated. The primary aim was to investigate the impact of type 2 diabetes and IGT on simple word recognition (familiarity) and complex source monitoring (recollection). A secondary aim was to examine the effect of acute breakfast glycaemic load manipulations on episodic memory. Data are presented from two separate studies; (i) 24 adults with type 2 diabetes and 12 controls aged 45-75years, (ii) 18 females with IGT and 47 female controls aged 30-50years. Controls were matched for age, IQ, BMI, waist circumference, and depression. Recognition of previously learned words and memory for specifically which list a previously learned word had appeared in (source monitoring) was examined at two test sessions during the morning after consumption of low glycaemic load, high glycaemic load and water breakfasts according to a counterbalanced, crossover design. Type 2 diabetes (p<0.05) and IGT (p<0.01) were associated with significant source monitoring recollection deficits but not impairments in familiarity. Impairments were only observed in the late postprandial stage at the second test session. These impairments were not attenuated by the breakfast glycaemic load manipulations. Isolated source monitoring recollection deficits indicate that abnormalities in glucose metabolism are not detrimental for global episodic memory processes. This enhances our understanding of how metabolic disorders are associated with memory impairments. © 2013.

  20. Covariance Association Test (CVAT) Identifies Genetic Markers Associated with Schizophrenia in Functionally Associated Biological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohde, Palle Duun; Demontis, Ditte; Castro Dias Cuyabano, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a psychiatric disorder with large personal and social costs, and understanding the genetic etiology is important. Such knowledge can be obtained by testing the association between a disease phenotype and individual genetic markers; however, such single-marker methods have limited...... power to detect genetic markers with small effects. Instead, aggregating genetic markers based on biological information might increase the power to identify sets of genetic markers of etiological significance. Several set test methods have been proposed: Here we propose a new set test derived from...... genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP), the covariance association test (CVAT). We compared the performance of CVAT to other commonly used set tests. The comparison was conducted using a simulated study population having the same genetic parameters as for schizophrenia. We found that CVAT...

  1. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  2. Pitch enhancement facilitates word learning across visual contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera eFilippi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates word-learning using a new model that integrates three processes: a extracting a word out of a continuous sound sequence, b inferring its referential meanings in context, c mapping the segmented word onto its broader intended referent, such as other objects of the same semantic category, and to novel utterances. Previous work has examined the role of statistical learning and/or of prosody in each of these processes separately. Here, we combine these strands of investigation into a single experimental approach, in which participants viewed a photograph belonging to one of three semantic categories while hearing a complex, five-syllable utterance containing a one-syllable target word. Six between-subjects conditions were tested with 20 adult participants each. In condition 1, the only cue to word-meaning mapping was the co-occurrence of word and referents. This statistical cue was present in all conditions. In condition 2, the target word was sounded at a higher pitch. In condition 3, random one-syllable words were sounded at a higher pitch, creating an inconsistent cue. In condition 4, the duration of the target word was lengthened. In conditions 5 and 6, an extraneous acoustic cue and a visual cue were associated with the target word, respectively. Performance in this word-learning task was significantly higher than that observed with simple co-occurrence only when pitch prominence consistently marked the target word. We discuss implications for the intentional value of pitch marking as well as the relevance of our findings to language acquisition and language evolution.

  3. "En Sus Proprias Palabras" ("In Their Own Words"): Latina Women's Perspectives on Enablers of HIV Testing Using Freelisting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Sudha, S.; Herrera, Samantha; Ruiz, Carolina; Thomas, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Comprehensive information on the facilitators of HIV testing in Latino women (Latinas) in the Southeastern USA is lacking. Efforts to rectify this should include Latina perspectives on the issue. This study aimed to (1) solicit Latina perspectives using qualitative methodology and (2) characterise enablers of HIV testing follow-through.…

  4. Beyond Punnett Squares: Student Word Association and Explanations of Phenotypic Variation through an Integrative Quantitative Genetics Unit Investigating Anthocyanin Inheritance and Expression in Brassica rapa Fast Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amber R.; Williams, Paul H.; McGee, Seth A.; Dósa, Katalin; Pfammatter, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Genetics instruction in introductory biology is often confined to Mendelian genetics and avoids the complexities of variation in quantitative traits. Given the driving question “What determines variation in phenotype (Pv)? (Pv=Genotypic variation Gv + environmental variation Ev),” we developed a 4-wk unit for an inquiry-based laboratory course focused on the inheritance and expression of a quantitative trait in varying environments. We utilized Brassica rapa Fast Plants as a model organism to study variation in the phenotype anthocyanin pigment intensity. As an initial curriculum assessment, we used free word association to examine students’ cognitive structures before and after the unit and explanations in students’ final research posters with particular focus on variation (Pv = Gv + Ev). Comparison of pre- and postunit word frequency revealed a shift in words and a pattern of co-occurring concepts indicative of change in cognitive structure, with particular focus on “variation” as a proposed threshold concept and primary goal for students’ explanations. Given review of 53 posters, we found ∼50% of students capable of intermediate to high-level explanations combining both Gv and Ev influence on expression of anthocyanin intensity (Pv). While far from “plug and play,” this conceptually rich, inquiry-based unit holds promise for effective integration of quantitative and Mendelian genetics. PMID:25185225

  5. Gender Context Effects on Homophone Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Elsa; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether context marked for grammatical gender can constrain the processing of homphone words in French. Homophones whose different meaning are associated with words of different genders were used in two cross-modal semantic priming experiments. (Author/VWL)

  6. Visualizing multiple word similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kievit-Kylar, Brent; Jones, Michael N

    2012-09-01

    Although many recent advances have taken place in corpus-based tools, the techniques used to guide exploration and evaluation of these systems have advanced little. Typically, the plausibility of a semantic space is explored by sampling the nearest neighbors to a target word and evaluating the neighborhood on the basis of the modeler's intuition. Tools for visualization of these large-scale similarity spaces are nearly nonexistent. We present a new open-source tool to plot and visualize semantic spaces, thereby allowing researchers to rapidly explore patterns in visual data that describe the statistical relations between words. Words are visualized as nodes, and word similarities are shown as directed edges of varying strengths. The "Word-2-Word" visualization environment allows for easy manipulation of graph data to test word similarity measures on their own or in comparisons between multiple similarity metrics. The system contains a large library of statistical relationship models, along with an interface to teach them from various language sources. The modularity of the visualization environment allows for quick insertion of new similarity measures so as to compare new corpus-based metrics against the current state of the art. The software is available at www.indiana.edu/~semantic/word2word/.

  7. Same Wording, Distinct Concepts? Testing Differences Between Expectancies and Motives in a Mediation Model of Alcohol Outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Janssen, T.; Gmel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Per definition, alcohol expectancies (after alcohol I expect X), and drinking motives (I drink to achieve X) are conceptually distinct constructs. Theorists have argued that motives mediate the association between expectancies and drinking outcomes. Yet, given the use of different instruments, do

  8. Same wording, distinct concepts? Testing differences between expectancies and motives in a mediation model of alcohol outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.; Wiers, R.W.; Janssen, T.; Gmel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Per definition, alcohol expectancies (after alcohol I expect X), and drinking motives (I drink to achieve X) are conceptually distinct constructs. Theorists have argued that motives mediate the association between expectancies and drinking outcomes. Yet, given the use of different instruments, do

  9. Optimal Trend Tests for Genetic Association Studies of Heterogeneous Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wen-Chung

    2016-06-09

    The Cochran-Armitage trend test is a standard procedure in genetic association studies. It is a directed test with high power to detect genetic effects that follow the gene-dosage model. In this paper, the author proposes optimal trend tests for genetic association studies of heterogeneous diseases. Monte-Carlo simulations show that the power gain of the optimal trend tests over the conventional Cochran-Armitage trend test is striking when the genetic effects are heterogeneous. The easy-to-use R 3.1.2 software (R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) code is provided. The optimal trend tests are recommended for routine use.

  10. Words translated in sentence contexts produce repetition priming in visual word comprehension and spoken word production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Wendy S; Camacho, Alejandra; Lara, Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Previous research with words read in context at encoding showed little if any long-term repetition priming. In Experiment 1, 96 Spanish-English bilinguals translated words in isolation or in sentence contexts at encoding. At test, they translated words or named pictures corresponding to words produced at encoding and control words not previously presented. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were generally smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Repetition priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context. A componential analysis indicated priming from comprehension in context, but only in the less fluent language. Experiment 2 was a replication of Experiment 1 with auditory presentation of the words and sentences to be translated. Repetition priming was reliable in all conditions, but priming effects were again smaller for contextualized than for isolated words. Priming in picture naming indicated priming from production in context, but the componential analysis indicated no detectable priming for auditory comprehension. The results of the two experiments taken together suggest that repetition priming reflects the long-term learning that occurs with comprehension and production exposures to words in the context of natural language.

  11. Do domestic dogs learn words based on humans' referential behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelmann, Sebastian; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Some domestic dogs learn to comprehend human words, although the nature and basis of this learning is unknown. In the studies presented here we investigated whether dogs learn words through an understanding of referential actions by humans rather than simple association. In three studies, each modelled on a study conducted with human infants, we confronted four word-experienced dogs with situations involving no spatial-temporal contiguity between the word and the referent; the only available cues were referential actions displaced in time from exposure to their referents. We found that no dogs were able to reliably link an object with a label based on social-pragmatic cues alone in all the tests. However, one dog did show skills in some tests, possibly indicating an ability to learn based on social-pragmatic cues.

  12. Do domestic dogs learn words based on humans' referential behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Tempelmann

    Full Text Available Some domestic dogs learn to comprehend human words, although the nature and basis of this learning is unknown. In the studies presented here we investigated whether dogs learn words through an understanding of referential actions by humans rather than simple association. In three studies, each modelled on a study conducted with human infants, we confronted four word-experienced dogs with situations involving no spatial-temporal contiguity between the word and the referent; the only available cues were referential actions displaced in time from exposure to their referents. We found that no dogs were able to reliably link an object with a label based on social-pragmatic cues alone in all the tests. However, one dog did show skills in some tests, possibly indicating an ability to learn based on social-pragmatic cues.

  13. A picture is worth a thousand words? Not when it comes to associative memory of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guez, Jonathan; Lev, Dror

    2016-02-01

    Properties of the binding mechanism in associative recognition were studied by examining the influence of the pictorial superiority effect on the age-related associative deficit. The informative aspect of associative recognition is the recollection of the pairing. Previous findings indicate that recollection is susceptible to aging and that pictorial presentation can enhance recollection and facilitate associative recognition. Pictorial presentation was found to facilitate item recognition by both young and older adults, associative recognition by young adults, but not associative recognition by older adults. Our findings support the hypothesis that the binding mechanism in associative recognition is content independent. Theoretical implications are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Using the noninformative families in family-based association tests : A powerful new testing strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, C; DeMeo, D; Silverman, EK; Weiss, ST; Laird, NM

    2003-01-01

    For genetic association studies with multiple phenotypes, we propose a new strategy for multiple testing with family-based association tests (FBATs). The strategy increases the power by both using all available family data and reducing the number of hypotheses tested while being robust against

  15. A Close Look at the Relationship between Multiple Choice Vocabulary Test and Integrative Cloze Test of Lexical Words in Iranian Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz

    2009-01-01

    In spite of various definitions provided for it, language proficiency has been always a difficult concept to define and realize. However the commonality of all the definitions for this illusive concept is that language tests should seek to test the learners' ability to use real-life language. The best type of test to show such ability is…

  16. Word and text processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Cristina; Corrow, Sherryse L; Corrow, Jeffrey C; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    The "many-to-many" hypothesis proposes that visual object processing is supported by distributed circuits that overlap for different object categories. For faces and words the hypothesis posits that both posterior fusiform regions contribute to both face and visual word perception and predicts that unilateral lesions impairing one will affect the other. However, studies testing this hypothesis have produced mixed results. We evaluated visual word processing in subjects with developmental prosopagnosia, a condition linked to right posterior fusiform abnormalities. Ten developmental prosopagnosic subjects performed a word-length effect task and a task evaluating the recognition of word content across variations in text style, and the recognition of style across variations in word content. All subjects had normal word-length effects. One had prolonged sorting time for word recognition in handwritten stimuli. These results suggest that the deficit in developmental prosopagnosia is unlikely to affect visual word processing, contrary to predictions of the many-to-many hypothesis.

  17. Genetic Association Test for Multiple Traits at Gene Level

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaobo; Liu, Zhifa; Wang, Xueqin; Zhang, Heping

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) at gene level are commonly used to understand biological mechanisms underlying complex diseases. In general, one response or outcome is used to present a disease of interest in such studies. In this study, we consider a multiple traits association test from gene level. We propose and examine a class of test statistics that summarizes the association information between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and each of the traits. Our simulation studies...

  18. Semantic priming from crowded words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Su-Ling; He, Sheng; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Vision in a cluttered scene is extremely inefficient. This damaging effect of clutter, known as crowding, affects many aspects of visual processing (e.g., reading speed). We examined observers' processing of crowded targets in a lexical decision task, using single-character Chinese words that are compact but carry semantic meaning. Despite being unrecognizable and indistinguishable from matched nonwords, crowded prime words still generated robust semantic-priming effects on lexical decisions for test words presented in isolation. Indeed, the semantic-priming effect of crowded primes was similar to that of uncrowded primes. These findings show that the meanings of words survive crowding even when the identities of the words do not, suggesting that crowding does not prevent semantic activation, a process that may have evolved in the context of a cluttered visual environment.

  19. Novel Word Retention in Sequential Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Pui Fong

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to learn and retain new words is fundamental to their vocabulary development. This study examined word retention in children learning a home language (L1) from birth and a second language (L2) in preschool settings. Participants were presented with sixteen novel words in L1 and in L2 and were tested for retention after…

  20. WordEdge® A Career Mobility Guide to High Speed Dictionary-Based Electronic Learning and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Oliphant

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As Thomas Kuhn taught us, misery loves innovation even more than company. Small wonder our recession worriers — and who isn’t one these days, directly or indirectly? — are desperately looking for new and practical ways to increase their job mobility. Statistically considered, since most unskilled jobs are already filled, jobseekers from shrinking fields of employment are being advised to broaden their search to include entry level jobs in new high tech fields that are either stable or expanding, e.g., health care.Let’s grant that each high tech field has its own hands-on skills. But it’s also true that each field, e.g., plumbing, has its own high tech vocabulary which each candidate for employment is expected to know or learn, including correct pronunciation, very much like an aspiring restaurant server learning the complete menu by heart. Hence the desirability of acquiring preliminary mastery of an employment field’s high tech vocabulary well in ADVANCE of the first interview, not in a panicky last minute cram session. Until recently, the only way we could acquire a preliminary mastery of, say, health care terms was to take a course (inconvenient and expensive or to study a specific-field booklet (usually limited inscope. Today, however, our current partnership between print dictionaries and their electronic versions gives any job candidate quick access to an amazingly efficient learning tool for masteringa wide range of high tech vocabularies in current use. Here’s the why and how of our dictionary-based learning and testing route.

  1. Word accents and morphology--ERPs of Swedish word processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Horne, Merle; Lindgren, Magnus

    2010-05-12

    Results indicating that high stem tones realizing word accents activate a certain class of suffixes in online processing of Central Swedish are presented. This supports the view that high Swedish word accent tones are induced onto word stems by particular suffixes rather than being associated with words in the mental lexicon. Using event-related potentials, effects of mismatch between word accents and inflectional suffixes were compared with mismatches between stem and suffix in terms of declension class. Declensionally incorrect suffixes yielded an increase in the N400, indicating problems in lexical retrieval, as well as a P600 effect, showing reanalysis. Both declensionally correct and incorrect high tone-inducing (Accent 2) suffixes combined with a mismatching low tone (Accent 1) on the stems produced P600 effects, but did not increase the N400. Suffixes usually co-occurring with Accent 1 did not yield any effects in words realized with the nonmatching Accent 2, suggesting that Accent 1 is a default accent, lacking association with any particular suffix. High tones on Accent 2 words also produced an early anterior positivity, interpreted as a P200 effect reflecting preattentive processing of the tone. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A likelihood ratio test for genomewide association under genetic heterogeneity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Meng; Shao, Yongzhao

    2013-01-01

    Summary Most existing association tests for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) fail to account for genetic heterogeneity. Zhou and Pan proposed a binomial mixture model based association test to account for the possible genetic heterogeneity in case-control studies. The idea is elegant, however, the proposed test requires an EM-type iterative algorithm to identify the penalized maximum likelihood estimates and a permutation method to assess p-values. The intensive computational burden induced by the EM-algorithm and the permutation becomes prohibitive for direct applications to genome-wide association studies. This paper develops a likelihood ratio test (LRT) for genome-wide association studies under genetic heterogeneity based on a more general alternative mixture model. In particular, a closed-form formula for the likelihood ratio test statistic is derived to avoid the EM-type iterative numerical evaluation. Moreover, an explicit asymptotic null distribution is also obtained which avoids using the permutation to obtain p-values. Thus, the proposed LRT is easy to implement for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Furthermore, numerical studies demonstrate that the LRT has power advantages over the commonly used Armitage trend test and other existing association tests under genetic heterogeneity. A breast cancer GWAS data set is used to illustrate the newly proposed LRT. PMID:23362943

  3. Word-learning performance in beginning readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Elizabeth; Bourassa, Derrick

    2008-06-01

    This investigation examined word-learning performance in beginning readers. The children learned to read words with regular spelling-sound mappings (e.g., snake) more easily than words with irregular spelling-sound mappings (e.g., sword). In addition, there was an effect of semantics: Children learned to read concrete words (e.g., elbow) more successfully than abstract words (e.g., temper). Trial-by-trial learning indicated that children made greater use of the regularity and semantic properties at later trials as compared with early trials. The influence of cognitive skills (paired associate learning and phonological awareness) on word-learning performance was also examined. Regression analyses revealed that whereas paired associate learning skills accounted for unique variance in the children's learning of both regular and irregular words, phonological awareness accounted for unique variance only in the acquisition of regular words. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Comparison of single-word and adjective-noun phrase production using event-related brain potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Violaine Michel; Perret, Cyril; Laganaro, Marina

    2015-01-01

    The present study builds upon findings from event-related potential (ERP) studies of single word production in order to shed light onto the mechanisms underlying the production of dual-word adjective-noun phrases (NPs). In a first experiment, we tested for potential differences elicited by visual...... whereas the corresponding pattern for 1W production lasted from 300 to 450 msec. Since this time window has been previously associated with phonological encoding in single word production, this result suggests that the cost of planning the second word in dual-word production may be incurred during...

  5. Audience design: embedded versus word search priming

    OpenAIRE

    Leckie, Tomlin

    2010-01-01

    The present study looks at manipulating audience design using different priming techniques. We were trying to test the effectiveness of different priming techniques (priming words embedded in a story versus priming words embedded in a word search) on audience design by making people more or less helpful in a story retelling task. A time constraint was also introduced to see if the effect of word search priming would be cancelled out. In order to answer these questions two experiments were ru...

  6. Electrophysiological correlates of refreshing: Event-related potentials associated with directing reflective attention to face, scene, or word representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew R.; McCarthy, Gregory; Muller, Kathleen A.; Brudner, Samuel N.; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2016-01-01

    Refreshing is the component cognitive process of directing reflective attention to one of several active mental representations. Previous studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) suggested that refresh tasks involve a component process of initiating refreshing as well as the top-down modulation of representational regions central to refreshing. However, those studies were limited by fMRI’s low temporal resolution. In the present study, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine the timecourse of refreshing on the scale of milliseconds rather than seconds. Event-related potential (ERP) analyses showed that a typical refresh task does have a distinct electrophysiological response as compared to a control condition, and includes at least two main temporal components: an earlier (~400ms) positive peak reminiscent of a P3 response, and a later (~800ms–1400ms) sustained positivity over several sites reminiscent of the late directing attention positivity (LDAP). Overall, the evoked potentials for refreshing representations from three different visual categories (faces, scenes, words) were similar, but multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) showed that some category information was nonetheless present in the EEG signal. When related to previous fMRI studies, these results are consistent with a two-phase model, with the first phase dominated by frontal control signals involved in initiating refreshing and the second by the top-down modulation of posterior perceptual cortical areas that constitutes refreshing a representation. This study also lays the foundation for future studies of the neural correlates of reflective attention at a finer temporal resolution than is possible using fMRI. PMID:25961640

  7. Prevalence of Two-Syllable Digits Affecting Forward Digit Span Test Score: A Potential Reliability Factor in Digit Span Tests and New Light to the Word Length Effect

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Egner, Lars E; Sütterlin, Stefan; Lugo, Ricardo G

    2016-01-01

    .... The study examined the effect of amount of syllables on Norwegian digit span test scores by altering the prevalence of two-syllable digits using three conditions in a repeated measures design (N = 54...

  8. Differential diagnostics in cluttering and stuttering A test of speech motor control on word level productions: The SPA Test (Dutch: Screening Pittige Articulatie)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Yvonne van Zaalen; Prof. dr. Frank Wijnen; Prof. dr. Philip Dejonckere

    2009-01-01

    Tot op heden bestond er geen onderzoeksinstrument dat betrouwbaar differentieert tussen broddelende en stotterende clienten. Een door de eerste auteur ontwikkelde test voor spraakmotorische controle op woordniveau is genormeerd en gevalideerd voor broddelende, stotterende sprekers en controles. Dit

  9. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We continue in this issue of Echo with the contribution of Luit de Jonge. Luit de Jonge My only year as president (mid-1982 to mid-1983) of the Staff Association was intense and eventful. Michel Vitasse, who had prepared the ground for me as his successor, had previously worked with his deputies on the modes of staff representation in major international organizations. We had only one official body for discussions with Management, the Standing Consultation Committee (SCC). As its name suggests, this committee was advisory only, but we, the Staff Association, wanted to negotiate and reach signed agreements. A joint group had been established (President Günther Ullmann and Vice President Romain Pittin, who at the same time was Vice-President of the Staff Association) to study the issue. In the end, it was clear that the CERN Management did not want to chang...

  10. Déjà vu experiences in healthy subjects are unrelated to laboratory tests of recollection and familiarity for word stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Robert O'Connor

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuropsychological and neuroscientific research suggests that people who experience more déjà vu display characteristic patterns in normal recognition memory. We conducted a large individual differences study (n = 206 to test these predictions using recollection and familiarity parameters recovered from a standard memory task. Participants reported déjà vu frequency and a number of its correlates, and completed a recognition memory task analogous to a Remember-Know procedure. The individual difference measures replicated an established correlation between déjà vu frequency and frequency of travel, and recognition performance showed well-established word frequency and accuracy effects. Contrary to predictions, no relationships were found between déjà vu frequency and recollection or familiarity memory parameters from the recognition test. We suggest that déjà vu in the healthy population reflects a mismatch between errant memory signalling and memory monitoring processes not easily characterised by standard recognition memory task performance.

  11. Utility of Green's Word Memory Test Free Recall Subtest as a Measure of Verbal Memory: Initial Evidence from a Temporal Lobe Epilepsy Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R; Osborn, Katie E; Mattingly, Michelle L; Vale, Fernando L; Benbadis, Selim R; Rodgers-Neame, Nancy T; Schoenberg, Mike R

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the Word Memory Test (WMT) Free Recall (FR) subtest as a conventional memory measure. Nineteen participants with pharmacoresistant left temporal lobe epilepsy (LTLE) and 16 with right temporal lobe epilepsy (RTLE) completed the WMT, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition Logical Memory (LM) subtest during presurgical evaluation. LTLE participants performed significantly worse on FR subtest (p < .05, [Formula: see text]) and RAVLT Trial 7 (p < .01, [Formula: see text]), but not on LM subtest. Age was a significant covariate for FR (p < .01, [Formula: see text]). Logistic regression revealed FR plus age and RAVLT age-adjusted T-scores both yielded 77.1% classification accuracy and respective diagnostic odds ratios of 11.36 and 11.84. Receiver operating characteristic curves to classify seizure laterality found that RAVLT and FR were significant (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.82 and 0.74), whereas LM was nonsignificant (AUC = 0.67). Cut scores and positive/negative predictive values were established for improved clinical classification. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pop-Out Effect of Negative Words in a Word-Grid-Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roja Palma de Figueiredo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The environment is very complex, as there are many different stimuli that evoke attention, and therefore demands different adaptive reactions. Quick responses to upcoming danger are essential for survival. Highly negative stimuli contain alarm signals that cause an attentional shift toward the stimulus. Past research indicates that high arousal negative words lead to faster reaction times in a Lexical Decision Task. This study tested whether these words can be found faster in a word grid task. Therefore we tested 56 participants who had to find words seen before within a word grid task. Our results show that participants found high arousal negative words faster than high arousal positive or neutral words. This might suggest a pop-out effect for the high arousal negative words within the word grid.

  13. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  14. Assessing factors associated with HIV testing among adolescents in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Paul

    2017-07-01

    Despite being at high risk of HIV/AIDS, most young people do not know their HIV status. Using survey data (n = 2428) and applying multilevel models, this paper assesses factors associated with HIV testing among adolescents in Northern Malawi. The results show that among both boys (OR = 0.39) and girls (OR = 0.47), orphan status is associated with low likelihood of HIV testing. Correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS (OR = 2.55) and having secondary education (OR = 3.24) are associated with HIV testing among boys and girls, respectively. At the household level, living in a household whose head has secondary or higher education is positively associated with testing for boys (OR = 2.63), while residing together with biological siblings predicts higher odds of testing (OR = 2.67) for girls. Notably, orphaned girls' disadvantage regarding HIV testing loses significance when residential arrangement is controlled. At the community level, having HIV testing facility (OR = 2.70) or post-test club (OR = 1.40) is positively associated with HIV testing for boys, while girls from areas where religious leaders hold judgmental views about HIV/AIDS are less likely (OR = 0.45) to test. These findings suggest that efforts to scale up HIV testing among youth could benefit greatly from an understanding of how individual and community factors operate to influence adolescents to know their sero-status.

  15. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We start in this issue of Echo with contributions from Michel Vitasse and Jean-Pol Matheys.   Michel Vitasse Having had the honour and pleasure of participating in the development of the Staff Association, as its president for seven years, during three different periods in the years 1980, 1990 and 2000 and working with seven Directors-General, I was asked to write a few lines about this experience. First of all, it has been a wonderful human experience. What a privilege to have met, at all levels, colleagues from all nationalities and of all trades, who devote all their efforts with dedication and passion, to an ideal of European scientific collaboration. Furthermore, I was able to share with others some principles of action, such as: Defending all categories of staff, maintaining its unity, by taking into account in our strategic and tactical choices...

  16. Presidents' Words

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    In the context of the sixtieth anniversary of the Staff Association, we asked former presidents to tell us about their years of Presidency. We continue in this issue of Echo with the contribution of Franco Francia. Franco Francia During my term as President of the Staff Association (January 1978 – June 1980) a major topic was the Review of Social and Economic Conditions (RESCO). It was the first major revision of the CERN Staff Rules and Regulations. The salary scale at the time, before the revision, had a parabolic shape. For an organization like CERN, which already had a third of its staff with a university level education, this proportion hinted at a too important growth of the total salary bill, compared to the cost of investment and maintenance of the CERN facilities. We thus flattened the curve by stopping the automatic advancement in grades 12 to 14 for three years. This measure, although restrictive for senior staff, made the CERN budget more acceptable in the long term to the Membe...

  17. The automatic visual simulation of words: A memory reactivated mask slows down conceptual access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Amandine E; Riou, Benoit; Vallet, Guillaume T; Versace, Rémy

    2017-03-01

    How do we represent the meaning of words? The present study assesses whether access to conceptual knowledge requires the reenactment of the sensory components of a concept. The reenactment-that is, simulation-was tested in a word categorisation task using an innovative masking paradigm. We hypothesised that a meaningless reactivated visual mask should interfere with the simulation of the visual dimension of concrete words. This assumption was tested in a paradigm in which participants were not aware of the link between the visual mask and the words to be processed. In the first phase, participants created a tone-visual mask or tone-control stimulus association. In the test phase, they categorised words that were presented with 1 of the tones. Results showed that words were processed more slowly when they were presented with the reactivated mask. This interference effect was only correlated with and explained by the value of the visual perceptual strength of the words (i.e., our experience with the visual dimensions associated with concepts) and not with other characteristics. We interpret these findings in terms of word access, which may involve the simulation of sensory features associated with the concept, even if participants were not explicitly required to access visual properties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Patch testing for food-associated allergies in orofacial granulomatosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Food-associated allergies, especially to benzoates and cinnamon-related compounds, have been associated with orofacial granulomatosis and both standard and urticarial patch testing have been used to detect such allergies. Elimination diets have also been shown to be effective in some patients.

  19. Native American Perceptions of the National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics: In Their Own Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Plemons, Bradford W.; Starr, Edward; Reyes, Raymond; Fleming, Candace; Latimer, Anna; Trimble, Joseph E.

    The National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics (NANACOA) initiated a strategy in 1995 to evaluate their programs and prevention efforts. The design and methodology of the project incorporated a "naturalistic" approach to help preserve cultural integrity and respect multiple perspectives. Data were gathered from…

  20. A word by any other intonation: fMRI evidence for implicit memory traces for pitch contours of spoken words in adult brains.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inspector

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intonation may serve as a cue for facilitated recognition and processing of spoken words and it has been suggested that the pitch contour of spoken words is implicitly remembered. Thus, using the repetition suppression (RS effect of BOLD-fMRI signals, we tested whether the same spoken words are differentially processed in language and auditory brain areas depending on whether or not they retain an arbitrary intonation pattern. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Words were presented repeatedly in three blocks for passive and active listening tasks. There were three prosodic conditions in each of which a different set of words was used and specific task-irrelevant intonation changes were applied: (i All words presented in a set flat monotonous pitch contour (ii Each word had an arbitrary pitch contour that was set throughout the three repetitions. (iii Each word had a different arbitrary pitch contour in each of its repetition. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The repeated presentations of words with a set pitch contour, resulted in robust behavioral priming effects as well as in significant RS of the BOLD signals in primary auditory cortex (BA 41, temporal areas (BA 21 22 bilaterally and in Broca's area. However, changing the intonation of the same words on each successive repetition resulted in reduced behavioral priming and the abolition of RS effects. CONCLUSIONS: Intonation patterns are retained in memory even when the intonation is task-irrelevant. Implicit memory traces for the pitch contour of spoken words were reflected in facilitated neuronal processing in auditory and language associated areas. Thus, the results lend support for the notion that prosody and specifically pitch contour is strongly associated with the memory representation of spoken words.

  1. Nicotine decreases attentional bias to negative-affect-related Stroop words among smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzetelny, Adam; Gilbert, David G; Hammersley, Jonathan; Radtke, Robert; Rabinovich, Norka E; Small, Stacey L

    2008-06-01

    The present study examined the hypothesis that nicotine is associated with reduced attentional bias to affective and smoking-related stimuli in a modified Stroop task. A total of 56 habitual smokers were each tested on 4 days with 14 mg nicotine patches and placebo patches, counterbalanced, as a within-subjects factor in a double-blind design. A modified Stroop using negative-affect words, smoking words, color words, and neutral words was presented via computer in blocked format. As predicted, nicotine, relative to placebo, was associated with decreased attentional bias to negative words. Nicotine speeded performance during smoking-word and color-word blocks to the same degree as during neutral words and thus appeared to also have a nonspecific performance-enhancing effect. In an exploratory analysis, nicotine-attention effects occurred only in the initial presentation of pairs of blocked word pages. Nicotine also was associated with improved mood. The results are discussed in terms of affect-attention and smoking literatures.

  2. Chi-Square Test of Word of Mouth Marketing with Impact on the Evaluation of Patients' Hospital and Services: An Application in Teaching and Research Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda ŞENER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, using data provided from 223 inpatients in a teaching and research hospital, hospital’s preference is to explain the effect of word of mouth marketing. For this purpose, word of mouth marketing process is evaluated in terms of providing information about the hospital and the patient’s level of intimacy, both of patients and information provider’s level of expertise with related to hospital and services, the patient’s perceived level of risk for hospitals and services and providing information’s level of impact on patient being treated in hospital. The obtain data, after evaluation by frequency distributions these factors impact on word of mouth marketing is demonstrated by descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis and pearson’s correlation analysis. As a result of this study is concluded word of mouth marketing on the training and research hospital is preferred by the patints to have a significant impact.

  3. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  4. Young Children's Fast Mapping and Generalization of Words, Facts, and Pictograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deak, Gedeon O.; Toney, Alexis J.

    2013-01-01

    To test general and specific processes of symbol learning, 4- and 5-year-old children learned three kinds of abstract associates for novel objects: words, facts, and pictograms. To test fast mapping (i.e., one-trial learning) and subsequent learning, comprehension was tested after each of four exposures. Production was also tested, as was…

  5. A generalized association test based on U statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changshuai; Lu, Qing

    2017-07-01

    Second generation sequencing technologies are being increasingly used for genetic association studies, where the main research interest is to identify sets of genetic variants that contribute to various phenotypes. The phenotype can be univariate disease status, multivariate responses and even high-dimensional outcomes. Considering the genotype and phenotype as two complex objects, this also poses a general statistical problem of testing association between complex objects. We here proposed a similarity-based test, generalized similarity U (GSU), that can test the association between complex objects. We first studied the theoretical properties of the test in a general setting and then focused on the application of the test to sequencing association studies. Based on theoretical analysis, we proposed to use Laplacian Kernel-based similarity for GSU to boost power and enhance robustness. Through simulation, we found that GSU did have advantages over existing methods in terms of power and robustness. We further performed a whole genome sequencing (WGS) scan for Alzherimer's disease neuroimaging initiative data, identifying three genes, APOE , APOC1 and TOMM40 , associated with imaging phenotype. We developed a C ++ package for analysis of WGS data using GSU. The source codes can be downloaded at https://github.com/changshuaiwei/gsu . weichangshuai@gmail.com ; qlu@epi.msu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  6. Word Length Effect in Free Recall of Randomly Assembled Word Lists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail eKatkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In serial recall experiments, human subjects are requested to retrieve a list of words in the same order as they were presented. In a classical study, participants were reported to recall more words from study lists composed of short words compared to lists of long words, the word length effect. The world length effect was also observed in free recall experiments, where subjects can retrieve the words in any order. Here we analyzed a large dataset from free recall experiments of unrelated words, where short and long words were randomly mixed, and found a seemingly opposite effect: long words are recalled better than the short ones. We show that our recently proposed mechanism of associative retrieval can explain both these observations. Moreover, the direction of the effect depends solely on the way study lists are composed.

  7. Performance on the Green Word Memory Test following Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom-era military service: Test failure is related to evaluation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cortney L; Yoash-Gantz, Ruth E; McDonald, Scott D; Campbell, Thomas C; Tupler, Larry A

    2013-12-01

    This study investigates prior reports of high neuropsychological symptom validity test (SVT) failure rates in post-deployed Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) active and veteran military personnel, using a large, multi-site sample (N = 214) drawn from three levels of the Department of Defense/Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma System of Care. The sample failure rate and its relationship to research versus dual research/clinical context of evaluation were examined, in addition to secondary variables explored in prior studies. Results yielded an overall failure rate of 25%, lower than prior reports describing OEF/OIF active-duty and veteran military personnel. Findings also supported the hypothesis that SVT failure rates would differ by context (dual > research). Participants with traumatic brain injury (TBI) failed more frequently than those without TBI in the dual context but not in the research context. Secondary analyses revealed that failure rates increased in the presence of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and male sex but were unrelated to active versus veteran military status, service connection (SC) or percentage of SC, age, education, or ethnicity. Further research is required to elucidate the underpinnings of these findings in light of the limited literature and variability between OEF/OIF-related SVT studies, as well as the substantial diagnostic and treatment implications for VA.

  8. A Factor Analytic Approach to the Validation of the Word Memory Test and Test of Memory Malingering as Measures of Effort and Not Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyanka, Daniel J; Thaler, Nicholas S; Linck, John F; Pastorek, Nicholas J; Miller, Brian; Romesser, Jennifer; Sim, Anita H

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the utility of performance validity tests (PVTs) as a method of determining adequate effort during a neuropsychological evaluation. Although some studies affirm that forced-choice PVTs measure effort rather than memory, doubts remain in the literature. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between effort and memory variables in a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) sample (n = 160) by separating memory and effort as distinct factors while statistically controlling for the shared covariance between the variables. A two-factor solution was extracted such that the five PVT variables loaded on Factor 1 and the four memory variables loaded on Factor 2. The pattern matrix, which controls for the covariance between variables, provided clear support of two highly distinct factors with minimal cross-loadings. Our findings support assertions that PVTs measure effort independent of memory in veterans with mild TBI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Dynamic burstiness of word-occurrence and network modularity in textbook systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xue-Mei; Yoon, Chang No; Youn, Hyejin; Lee, Sang Hoon; Jung, Jean S.; Han, Seung Kee

    2017-12-01

    We show that the dynamic burstiness of word occurrence in textbook systems is attributed to the modularity of the word association networks. At first, a measure of dynamic burstiness is introduced to quantify burstiness of word occurrence in a textbook. The advantage of this measure is that the dynamic burstiness is decomposable into two contributions: one coming from the inter-event variance and the other from the memory effects. Comparing network structures of physics textbook systems with those of surrogate random textbooks without the memory or variance effects are absent, we show that the network modularity increases systematically with the dynamic burstiness. The intra-connectivity of individual word representing the strength of a tie with which a node is bound to a module accordingly increases with the dynamic burstiness, suggesting individual words with high burstiness are strongly bound to one module. Based on the frequency and dynamic burstiness, physics terminology is classified into four categories: fundamental words, topical words, special words, and common words. In addition, we test the correlation between the dynamic burstiness of word occurrence and network modularity using a two-state model of burst generation.

  10. Statistical tests for associations between two directed acyclic graphs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hoehndorf

    Full Text Available Biological data, and particularly annotation data, are increasingly being represented in directed acyclic graphs (DAGs. However, while relevant biological information is implicit in the links between multiple domains, annotations from these different domains are usually represented in distinct, unconnected DAGs, making links between the domains represented difficult to determine. We develop a novel family of general statistical tests for the discovery of strong associations between two directed acyclic graphs. Our method takes the topology of the input graphs and the specificity and relevance of associations between nodes into consideration. We apply our method to the extraction of associations between biomedical ontologies in an extensive use-case. Through a manual and an automatic evaluation, we show that our tests discover biologically relevant relations. The suite of statistical tests we develop for this purpose is implemented and freely available for download.

  11. Trait anxiety among undergraduates according to the Implicit Association Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Yang, Zhibing; Miao, Danmin; Lu, Huijie; Zhu, Xia

    2012-08-01

    Trait anxiety, which includes stress and anxiety, affects mental health. However, early studies using the Implicit Association Test-Anxiety (IAT-Anxiety) did not consider the participants' trait anxiety. In the present study, the hypothesis that trait anxiety would influence the results of the IAT-Anxiety was tested. A total of 148 healthy undergraduates were assessed with the Profile of Mood State (POMS) test and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) to test explicit anxiety; they were then assessed for implicit anxiety with the IAT-Anxiety. High trait anxiety was positively correlated with negative mood; low trait anxiety tended to be associated with greater vigor and higher self-esteem. Significant main effects were found for both critical block and group among participants who received the IAT-Anxiety. Future studies of the IAT-Anxiety should consider trait anxiety as a within-subject factor for group matching to enhance the persuasiveness of the results.

  12. Finding Words and Word Structure in Artificial Speech: The Development of Infants' Sensitivity to Morphosyntactic Regularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetto, Erika; Bonatti, Luca L.

    2015-01-01

    To achieve language proficiency, infants must find the building blocks of speech and master the rules governing their legal combinations. However, these problems are linked: words are also built according to rules. Here, we explored early morphosyntactic sensitivity by testing when and how infants could find either words or within-word structure…

  13. Reading Skill and Word Skipping: Implications for Visual and Linguistic Accounts of Word Skipping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A.; Folk, Jocelyn R.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did…

  14. The Effect of Colour-Word Interference on Children's Memory for Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malliet, Gineva M.

    The Stroop color-word test involves a conflict situation in which subjects are asked to say aloud the ink color used to print a color word on a card. Interference occurs when the ink color is in conflict with the color word, such as 'red' printed in green ink. On the other hand, little interference occurs when asked to name the color words…

  15. Measuring word identification skills and related variables in Dutch children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VandenBos, KP; Spelberg, HCL; Leong, CK; Joshi, RM

    1997-01-01

    In this chapter a simple definition of dyslexia is adopted: Ward identification ability below a certain performance criterion on a suitable word identification test. In Study 1, the research focus is on two word identification tests, a real-word test (RWT) and a pseudoword test (PWT). The question

  16. Evidence that gendered wording in job advertisements exists and sustains gender inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Danielle; Friesen, Justin; Kay, Aaron C

    2011-07-01

    Social dominance theory (Sidanius & Pratto, 1999) contends that institutional-level mechanisms exist that reinforce and perpetuate existing group-based inequalities, but very few such mechanisms have been empirically demonstrated. We propose that gendered wording (i.e., masculine- and feminine-themed words, such as those associated with gender stereotypes) may be a heretofore unacknowledged, institutional-level mechanism of inequality maintenance. Employing both archival and experimental analyses, the present research demonstrates that gendered wording commonly employed in job recruitment materials can maintain gender inequality in traditionally male-dominated occupations. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated the existence of subtle but systematic wording differences within a randomly sampled set of job advertisements. Results indicated that job advertisements for male-dominated areas employed greater masculine wording (i.e., words associated with male stereotypes, such as leader, competitive, dominant) than advertisements within female-dominated areas. No difference in the presence of feminine wording (i.e., words associated with female stereotypes, such as support, understand, interpersonal) emerged across male- and female-dominated areas. Next, the consequences of highly masculine wording were tested across 3 experimental studies. When job advertisements were constructed to include more masculine than feminine wording, participants perceived more men within these occupations (Study 3), and importantly, women found these jobs less appealing (Studies 4 and 5). Results confirmed that perceptions of belongingness (but not perceived skills) mediated the effect of gendered wording on job appeal (Study 5). The function of gendered wording in maintaining traditional gender divisions, implications for gender parity, and theoretical models of inequality are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Functional imaging of implicit marijuana associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ames, S.L.; Grenard, J.L.; Stacy, A.W.; Xiao, L.; He, Q.; Wong, S.W; Xue, G.; Wiers, R.W.; Bechara, A.

    2013-01-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe

  18. Performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test and electrodermal responsiveness after acute administration of cannabidiol (CBD Desempenho de pacientes esquizofrênicos no Stroop Color Word Test e responsividade eletrodérmica após administração aguda de canabidiol (CBD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime E. C. Hallak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The last decade has seen increasing evidence of dysfunctions in the endogenous cannabinoid system in schizophrenia and of its relationship with the typical cognitive impairment of the disorder. Studies in animal models, healthy volunteers, and psychotic patients clearly suggest an antipsychotic-like effect of cannabidiol. This study investigated the effects of cannabidiol on selective attention in 28 schizophrenic patients using the Stroop Color Word Test and on these patients' electrodermal responsiveness to auditive stimuli. METHOD: The subjects attended two experimental sessions, the first one without the administration of drugs. In the second session the subjects were divided into three groups that received either a single dose of cannabidiol 300mg or cannabidiol 600mg or placebo. RESULTS: The three groups did not differ significantly with respect to electrodermal measures in the two experimental sessions. When the first and second sessions were compared improved performance was found in all three groups, with patients who received placebo and cannabidiol 300mg performing better than those who received cannabidiol 600mg. CONCLUSION: The single, acute administration of cannabidiol seems to have no beneficial effects on the performance of schizophrenic patients in the Stroop Color Word Test, although the hypothesis that chronic administration may lead to improvement cannot be disregarded.OBJETIVO: Descobertas relativas a possíveis disfunções do sistema canabinóide endógeno na esquizofrenia e sua relação com o prejuízo cognitivo característico da doença têm aumentado durante a última década. Estudos com modelos animais, voluntários saudáveis e pacientes psicóticos sugerem claramente que o canabidiol possui efeitos antipsicóticos. Este estudo investigou os efeitos do canabidiol sobre a atenção seletiva por meio do Stroop Color Word Test e a responsividade eletrodérmica a estímulos auditivos em 28 pacientes com

  19. The reliability of eyetracking to assess attentional bias to threatening words in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Ian W; Hübscher, Markus; Moseley, G Lorimer; Lee, Hopin; Wand, Benedict M; Traeger, Adrian C; Gustin, Sylvia M; McAuley, James H

    2017-08-15

    Eyetracking is commonly used to investigate attentional bias. Although some studies have investigated the internal consistency of eyetracking, data are scarce on the test-retest reliability and agreement of eyetracking to investigate attentional bias. This study reports the test-retest reliability, measurement error, and internal consistency of 12 commonly used outcome measures thought to reflect the different components of attentional bias: overall attention, early attention, and late attention. Healthy participants completed a preferential-looking eyetracking task that involved the presentation of threatening (sensory words, general threat words, and affective words) and nonthreatening words. We used intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to measure test-retest reliability (ICC > .70 indicates adequate reliability). The ICCs(2, 1) ranged from -.31 to .71. Reliability varied according to the outcome measure and threat word category. Sensory words had a lower mean ICC (.08) than either affective words (.32) or general threat words (.29). A longer exposure time was associated with higher test-retest reliability. All of the outcome measures, except second-run dwell time, demonstrated low measurement error ( .93). Recommendations are discussed for improving the reliability of eyetracking tasks in future research.

  20. Function of cancer associated genes revealed by modern univariate and multivariate association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorfine, Malka; Goldstein, Boaz; Fishman, Alla; Heller, Ruth; Heller, Yair; Lamm, Ayelet T

    2015-01-01

    Copy number variation (CNV) plays a role in pathogenesis of many human diseases, especially cancer. Several whole genome CNV association studies have been performed for the purpose of identifying cancer associated CNVs. Here we undertook a novel approach to whole genome CNV analysis, with the goal being identification of associations between CNV of different genes (CNV-CNV) across 60 human cancer cell lines. We hypothesize that these associations point to the roles of the associated genes in cancer, and can be indicators of their position in gene networks of cancer-driving processes. Recent studies show that gene associations are often non-linear and non-monotone. In order to obtain a more complete picture of all CNV associations, we performed omnibus univariate analysis by utilizing dCov, MIC, and HHG association tests, which are capable of detecting any type of association, including non-monotone relationships. For comparison we used Spearman and Pearson association tests, which detect only linear or monotone relationships. Application of dCov, MIC and HHG tests resulted in identification of twice as many associations compared to those found by Spearman and Pearson alone. Interestingly, most of the new associations were detected by the HHG test. Next, we utilized dCov's and HHG's ability to perform multivariate analysis. We tested for association between genes of unknown function and known cancer-related pathways. Our results indicate that multivariate analysis is much more effective than univariate analysis for the purpose of ascribing biological roles to genes of unknown function. We conclude that a combination of multivariate and univariate omnibus association tests can reveal significant information about gene networks of disease-driving processes. These methods can be applied to any large gene or pathway dataset, allowing more comprehensive analysis of biological processes.

  1. Effects of word width and word length on optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eTeramoto

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated whether word width and length affect the optimal character size for reading of horizontally scrolling Japanese words, using reading speed as a measure. In Experiment 1, three Japanese words, each consisting of 4 Hiragana characters, sequentially scrolled on a display screen from right to left. Participants, all Japanese native speakers, were instructed to read the words aloud as accurately as possible, irrespective of their order within the sequence. To quantitatively measure their reading performance, we used rapid serial visual presentation paradigm, where the scrolling rate was increased until the participants began to make mistakes. Thus, the highest scrolling rate at which the participants’ performance exceeded 88.9% correct rate was calculated for each character size (0.3, 0.6, 1.0, and 3.0° and scroll window size (5 or 10 character spaces. Results showed that the reading performance was highest in the range of 0.6° to 1.0°, irrespective of the scroll window size. Experiment 2 investigated whether the optimal character size observed in Experiment 1 was applicable for any word width and word length (i.e., the number of characters in a word. Results showed that reading speeds were slower for longer than shorter words and the word width of 3.6° was optimal among the word lengths tested (3, 4, and 6 character words. Considering that character size varied depending on word width and word length in the present study, this means that the optimal character size can be changed by word width and word length.

  2. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  3. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  4. Supplementary Table 1. Results of association test with CAPN10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    maheswari velmurugan

    Odds ratio - OR, CI- confidence interval, HW- hardy-Weinberg, MAF- minor allele frequency;. A- adenine; G, guanine. A chi squared test was performed to evaluate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms and PCOS; the genotypes were verified to comply with the. Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium; odds ratio ...

  5. Tracking word semantic change in biomedical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Zhu, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Up to this point, research on written scholarly communication has focused primarily on syntactic, rather than semantic, analyses. Consequently, we have yet to understand semantic change as it applies to disciplinary discourse. The objective of this study is to illustrate word semantic change in biomedical literature. To that end, we identify a set of representative words in biomedical literature based on word frequency and word-topic probability distributions. A word2vec language model is then applied to the identified words in order to measure word- and topic-level semantic changes. We find that for the selected words in PubMed, overall, meanings are becoming more stable in the 2000s than they were in the 1980s and 1990s. At the topic level, the global distance of most topics (19 out of 20 tested) is declining, suggesting that the words used to discuss these topics are stabilizing semantically. Similarly, the local distance of most topics (19 out of 20) is also declining, showing that the meanings of words from these topics are becoming more consistent with those of their semantic neighbors. At the word level, this paper identifies two different trends in word semantics, as measured by the aforementioned distance metrics: on the one hand, words can form clusters with their semantic neighbors, and these words, as a cluster, coevolve semantically; on the other hand, words can drift apart from their semantic neighbors while nonetheless stabilizing in the global context. In relating our work to language laws on semantic change, we find no overwhelming evidence to support either the law of parallel change or the law of conformity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The influence of the picture superiority effect on performance in the word and picture form of the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test

    OpenAIRE

    Thorley, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) is a delayed cued recall test that controls attention and cognitive processing to obtain a measure of episodic memory that is unconfounded by normal age-related changes in cognition. Performance in the FCSRT is sensitive to the early changes in episodic memory associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). There are two forms of the FCSRT: a ‘word’ form and a ‘picture’ form. This study aimed to examine whether the picture superiority e...

  7. Aminopenicillin-associated exanthem: lymphocyte transformation testing revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, A; Seitz, C S; Stoevesandt, J; Kerstan, A

    2014-12-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) has been promoted as in-vitro test for diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity. For determination of statistical LTT sensitivity, series of patients with clinically uniform reactions followed by complete drug hypersensitivity work-up are mandatory. Assessment of LTT specificity requires control patients who tolerated exposure to the drug studied. To prospectively determine the diagnostic value of the LTT in a clinically and diagnostically well-defined series of patients. Patients with exanthematous skin eruptions after ampicillin (AMP) intake were included in this study. After exclusion or confirmation of delayed-onset allergic AMP hypersensitivity by skin and provocation testing, two independent LTTs were performed: one standard LTT and a modified LTT with additional anti-CD3/anti-CD28 monoclonal antibody stimulation. By testing, delayed-onset allergic AMP hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 11 patients and definitely ruled out in 26. The standard LTT reached a diagnostic sensitivity of 54.5% while the modified LTT yielded 72.7%. However, the methodical test modification resulted in a decline of specificity from 92.3% (standard LTT) to 76.9%. In cases of AMP-associated exanthems, the diagnostic value of the LTT compared with routine allergy testing is limited. When evaluating such exanthems, provocation testing remains the gold standard. Delayed reading of intradermal skin tests remains most useful to avoid positive provocation reactions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  9. Chi-Square Test of Word of Mouth Marketing with Impact on the Evaluation of Patients' Hospital and Services: An Application in Teaching and Research Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    ŞENER, Yelda; BEHDİOĞLU, Sema

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study, using data provided from 223 inpatients in a teaching and research hospital, hospital’s preference is to explain the effect of word of mouth marketing. For this purpose, word of mouth marketing process is evaluated in terms of providing information about the hospital and the patient’s level of intimacy, both of patients and information provider’s level of expertise with related to hospital and services, the patient’s perceived level of risk for hospitals and service...

  10. MOJIBAKE – The Rehearsal of Word Fragments In Verbal Recall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Christiane eLange-Küttner

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the ‘grain size’ of word units (Ziegler & Goswami, 2005. In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF English words versus geographical UK town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT non-words and names of international (INT European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  11. Mojibake - The rehearsal of word fragments in verbal recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange-Küttner, Christiane; Sykorova, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Theories of verbal rehearsal usually assume that whole words are being rehearsed. However, words consist of letter sequences, or syllables, or word onset-vowel-coda, amongst many other conceptualizations of word structure. A more general term is the 'grain size' of word units (Ziegler and Goswami, 2005). In the current study, a new method measured the quantitative percentage of correctly remembered word structure. The amount of letters in the correct letter sequence as per cent of word length was calculated, disregarding missing or added letters. A forced rehearsal was tested by repeating each memory list four times. We tested low frequency (LF) English words versus geographical (UK) town names to control for content. We also tested unfamiliar international (INT) non-words and names of international (INT) European towns to control for familiarity. An immediate versus distributed repetition was tested with a between-subject design. Participants responded with word fragments in their written recall especially when they had to remember unfamiliar words. While memory of whole words was sensitive to content, presentation distribution and individual sex and language differences, recall of word fragments was not. There was no trade-off between memory of word fragments with whole word recall during the repetition, instead also word fragments significantly increased. Moreover, while whole word responses correlated with each other during repetition, and word fragment responses correlated with each other during repetition, these two types of word recall responses were not correlated with each other. Thus there may be a lower layer consisting of free, sparse word fragments and an upper layer that consists of language-specific, orthographically and semantically constrained words.

  12. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Robust tests for matched case-control genetic association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fung Wing

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cochran-Armitage trend test (CATT is powerful in detecting association between a susceptible marker and a disease. This test, however, may suffer from a substantial loss of power when the underlying genetic model is unknown and incorrectly specified. Thus, it is useful to derive tests obtaining the plausible power against all common genetic models. For this purpose, the genetic model selection (GMS and genetic model exclusion (GME methods were proposed recently. Simulation results showed that GMS and GME can obtain the plausible power against three common genetic models while the overall type I error is well controlled. Results Although GMS and GME are powerful statistically, they could be seriously affected by known confounding factors such as gender, age and race. Therefore, in this paper, via comparing the difference of Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium coefficients between the cases and the controls within each sub-population, we propose the stratified genetic model selection (SGMS and exclusion (SGME methods which could eliminate the effect of confounding factors by adopting a matching framework. Our goal in this paper is to investigate the robustness of the proposed statistics and compare them with other commonly used efficiency robust tests such as MAX3 and χ2 with 2 degrees of freedom (df test in matched case-control association designs through simulation studies. Conclusion Simulation results showed that if the mean genetic effect of the heterozygous genotype is between those of the two homozygous genotypes, then the proposed tests and MAX3 are preferred. Otherwise, χ2 with 2 df test may be used. To illustrate the robust procedures, the proposed tests are applied to a real matched pair case-control etiologic study of sarcoidosis.

  14. What are the cultural effects on consumers' perceptions? A case study covering coalho cheese in the Brazilian northeast and southeast area using word association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Eveline K B; Esmerino, Erick A; Ferreira, Marcus Vinícius S; da Silva, Maria Aparecida A P; Freitas, Mônica Q; Cruz, Adriano G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of regional diversity aspects related to consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese, with Brazilian Northeast and Southeast consumers (n=400, divided equally in each area) using Word Association (WA) task. Different perceptions were detected for both Northeast and Southeast consumers, and among 17 categories elicited for describing coalho cheese, only 7 categories (positive feeling, social aspects, sensory characteristic, dairy product technology, negative feeling, and lack of quality standard) presented significant differences in the frequency of mention according to chi-square per cell approach. The application of the discriminant technique Partial Least Square Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) indicated that the categories "Social", "Accompaniment", "Manufacturing method" were the main responsible for differentiating consumers' perceptions of both areas. Overall, the main dimensions involved in the consumers' perceptions of coalho cheese from different Brazilian regions were identified, thus obtaining comprehensive insights that can be used as a guideline for coalho cheese producers to develop marketing strategies considering the intra-cultural differences. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. The role of partial knowledge in statistical word learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricker, Damian C.; Yu, Chen; Smith, Linda B.

    2013-01-01

    A critical question about the nature of human learning is whether it is an all-or-none or a gradual, accumulative process. Associative and statistical theories of word learning rely critically on the later assumption: that the process of learning a word's meaning unfolds over time. That is, learning the correct referent for a word involves the accumulation of partial knowledge across multiple instances. Some theories also make an even stronger claim: Partial knowledge of one word–object mapping can speed up the acquisition of other word–object mappings. We present three experiments that test and verify these claims by exposing learners to two consecutive blocks of cross-situational learning, in which half of the words and objects in the second block were those that participants failed to learn in Block 1. In line with an accumulative account, Re-exposure to these mis-mapped items accelerated the acquisition of both previously experienced mappings and wholly new word–object mappings. But how does partial knowledge of some words speed the acquisition of others? We consider two hypotheses. First, partial knowledge of a word could reduce the amount of information required for it to reach threshold, and the supra-threshold mapping could subsequently aid in the acquisition of new mappings. Alternatively, partial knowledge of a word's meaning could be useful for disambiguating the meanings of other words even before the threshold of learning is reached. We construct and compare computational models embodying each of these hypotheses and show that the latter provides a better explanation of the empirical data. PMID:23702980

  16. Different neurophysiological mechanisms underlying word and rule extraction from speech.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth De Diego Balaguer

    Full Text Available The initial process of identifying words from spoken language and the detection of more subtle regularities underlying their structure are mandatory processes for language acquisition. Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms that allow us to extract these two types of information and their specific time-course of acquisition following initial contact with a new language. We report time-related electrophysiological changes that occurred while participants learned an artificial language. These changes strongly correlated with the discovery of the structural rules embedded in the words. These changes were clearly different from those related to word learning and occurred during the first minutes of exposition. There is a functional distinction in the nature of the electrophysiological signals during acquisition: an increase in negativity (N400 in the central electrodes is related to word-learning and development of a frontal positivity (P2 is related to rule-learning. In addition, the results of an online implicit and a post-learning test indicate that, once the rules of the language have been acquired, new words following the rule are processed as words of the language. By contrast, new words violating the rule induce syntax-related electrophysiological responses when inserted online in the stream (an early frontal negativity followed by a late posterior positivity and clear lexical effects when presented in isolation (N400 modulation. The present study provides direct evidence suggesting that the mechanisms to extract words and structural dependencies from continuous speech are functionally segregated. When these mechanisms are engaged, the electrophysiological marker associated with rule-learning appears very quickly, during the earliest phases of exposition to a new language.

  17. [The Visual Association Test to study episodic memory in clinical geriatric psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, Han; Prins, Marleen; Lauret, Gijs

    2017-09-27

    The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively).VAT-scores correlated with another test of memory function, the Cognitive Screening Test (CST), based on the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (r = 0.53). Tests of executive functioning (Expanded Mental Control Test, Category Fluency, Clock Drawing) did not add significantly to the explanation of variance in VAT-scores.Fifty-five participants (31.6%) were faced with initial problems in naming or identifying one or more objects on the cue cards or association cards. If necessary, naming was aided by the investigator. Initial difficulties in identifying cue objects were associated with lower VAT-scores, but this did not hold for difficulties in identifying target objects.A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine whether linear or quadratic trends best fitted VAT performance across the range of CST scores. The regression model revealed a linear but not a quadratic trend. The best fitting linear model implied that VAT scores differentiated between CST scores in the lower, as well as in the upper range, indicating the absence of floor and ceiling effects, respectively. Moreover, the VAT compares favourably to word list-learning tasks being more attractive in its presentation of interacting visual objects and cued recall based on incidental learning of the association

  18. Testing the semantic differential as a model of task processes with the implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Maggie J; Logan, Gordon D; Franks, Jeffery J

    2006-10-01

    In this study, we examined the hypothesis that semantic judgment tasks share overlapping processes if they require processing on common dimensions but not if they require processing on orthogonal dimensions in semantic space (Osgood, Suci, & Tannenbaum, 1957). We tested the hypothesis with the implicit association test (IATl Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) in three experiments. Consistent with the hypothesis, IAT effects (costs in reaction time because of incompatible response mapping between associated judgment tasks) occurred consistently when judgment tasks tapped into common semantic dimensions, whereas no IAT effect appeared when judgment tasks entailed processing on orthogonal semantic dimensions.

  19. Representations of Circular Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    László Hegedüs

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we give two different ways of representations of circular words. Representations with tuples are intended as a compact notation, while representations with trees give a way to easily process all conjugates of a word. The latter form can also be used as a graphical representation of periodic properties of finite (in some cases, infinite words. We also define iterative representations which can be seen as an encoding utilizing the flexible properties of circular words. Every word over the two letter alphabet can be constructed starting from ab by applying the fractional power and the cyclic shift operators one after the other, iteratively.

  20. Taboo words: the effect of emotion on memory for peripheral information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillet, Rebecca; Arndt, Jason

    2009-09-01

    In three experiments, we examined memory for peripheral information that occurred in the same context as emotion-inducing information. In the first two experiments, participants studied either a sentence (Experiment 1) or a pair of words (Experiments 2A-2C) containing a neutral peripheral word, as well as a neutral, negative-valence, or taboo word, to induce an emotional response. At retrieval, the participants were asked to recall the neutral peripheral word from a sentence fragment or emotion-inducing word cue. In Experiment 3, we presented word pairs at encoding and tested memory with associative recognition. In all three experiments, memory for peripheral words was enhanced when it was encoded in the presence of emotionally arousing taboo words but not when it was encoded in the presence of words that were only negative in valence. These data are consistent with priority-binding theory (MacKay et al., 2004) and inconsistent with the attention-narrowing hypothesis (Easterbrook, 1959), as well as with object-based binding theory (Mather, 2007).

  1. Professional Music Training and Novel Word Learning: From Faster Semantic Encoding to Longer-lasting Word Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittinger, Eva; Barbaroux, Mylène; D'Imperio, Mariapaola; Jäncke, Lutz; Elmer, Stefan; Besson, Mireille

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of previous results showing that music training positively influences different aspects of speech perception and cognition, the aim of this series of experiments was to test the hypothesis that adult professional musicians would learn the meaning of novel words through picture-word associations more efficiently than controls without music training (i.e., fewer errors and faster RTs). We also expected musicians to show faster changes in brain electrical activity than controls, in particular regarding the N400 component that develops with word learning. In line with these hypotheses, musicians outperformed controls in the most difficult semantic task. Moreover, although a frontally distributed N400 component developed in both groups of participants after only a few minutes of novel word learning, in musicians this frontal distribution rapidly shifted to parietal scalp sites, as typically found for the N400 elicited by known words. Finally, musicians showed evidence for better long-term memory for novel words 5 months after the main experimental session. Results are discussed in terms of cascading effects from enhanced perception to memory as well as in terms of multifaceted improvements of cognitive processing due to music training. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that music training influences semantic aspects of language processing in adults. These results open new perspectives for education in showing that early music training can facilitate later foreign language learning. Moreover, the design used in the present experiment can help to specify the stages of word learning that are impaired in children and adults with word learning difficulties.

  2. Proofs without Words in Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirode, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1970s, the Mathematical Association of America's (MAA) journals "Mathematics Magazine" and "College Mathematics Journal" have published "Proofs without Words" (PWWs) (Nelsen 1993). "PWWs are pictures or diagrams that help the reader see why a particular mathematical statement may be true and how one…

  3. A Written Word Is Worth a Thousand Spoken Words: The Influence of Spelling on Spoken-Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Audrey; Spinelli, Elsa; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the role of spelling in phonological variant processing. Participants learned the auditory forms of potential reduced variants of novel French words (e.g., /plur/) and their associations with pictures of novel objects over 4 days. After the fourth day of training, the spelling of each novel word was presented once.…

  4. Word learning in adults with second-language experience: effects of phonological and referent familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar versus unfamiliar referents and whether successful word learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: in which phonologically unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults.

  5. Word learning in adults with second language experience: Effects of phonological and referent familiarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushanskaya, Margarita; Yoo, Jeewon; Van Hecke, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this research was to examine whether phonological familiarity exerts different effects on novel word learning for familiar vs. unfamiliar referents, and whether successful word-learning is associated with increased second-language experience. Method Eighty-one adult native English speakers with various levels of Spanish knowledge learned phonologically-familiar novel words (constructed using English sounds) or phonologically-unfamiliar novel words (constructed using non-English and non-Spanish sounds) in association with either familiar or unfamiliar referents. Retention was tested via a forced-choice recognition-task. A median-split procedure identified high-ability and low-ability word-learners in each condition, and the two groups were compared on measures of second-language experience. Results Findings suggest that the ability to accurately match newly-learned novel names to their appropriate referents is facilitated by phonological familiarity only for familiar referents but not for unfamiliar referents. Moreover, more extensive second-language learning experience characterized superior learners primarily in one word-learning condition: Where phonologically-unfamiliar novel words were paired with familiar referents. Conclusions Together, these findings indicate that phonological familiarity facilitates novel word learning only for familiar referents, and that experience with learning a second language may have a specific impact on novel vocabulary learning in adults. PMID:22992709

  6. Time flies when we read taboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Jason

    2010-08-01

    Does time fly or stand still when one is reading highly arousing words? A temporal bisection task was used to test the effects of sexual taboo words on time perception. Forty participants judged the duration of sexual taboo, high-arousal negative, high-arousal positive, low-arousal negative, low-arousal positive, and category-related neutral words. The results support the hypothesis that sexual taboo stimuli receive more attention and reduce the perceived time that has passed ("time flies")-the duration of high sexual taboo words was underestimated for taboo-word stimuli relative to all other word types. The findings are discussed in the context of internal clock theories of time perception.

  7. ESL Proficiency and a Word Frequency Count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlech-Jones, Brian

    1983-01-01

    In a study of the vocabulary proficiency of some South African ESL teacher trainees, the General Service List of English Words' validity was evaluated. It was found that mastery of this list would meet most of the vocabulary needs of the test group. Recommendations are made for practical uses of word counts. (MSE)

  8. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice.

  9. General Framework for Meta-Analysis of Haplotype Association Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Jing Hua; An, Ping; Guo, Xiuqing; Jensen, Richard A; Marten, Jonathan; Huffman, Jennifer E; Meidtner, Karina; Boeing, Heiner; Campbell, Archie; Rice, Kenneth M; Scott, Robert A; Yao, Jie; Schulze, Matthias B; Wareham, Nicholas J; Borecki, Ingrid B; Province, Michael A; Rotter, Jerome I; Hayward, Caroline; Goodarzi, Mark O; Meigs, James B; Dupuis, Josée

    2016-04-01

    For complex traits, most associated single nucleotide variants (SNV) discovered to date have a small effect, and detection of association is only possible with large sample sizes. Because of patient confidentiality concerns, it is often not possible to pool genetic data from multiple cohorts, and meta-analysis has emerged as the method of choice to combine results from multiple studies. Many meta-analysis methods are available for single SNV analyses. As new approaches allow the capture of low frequency and rare genetic variation, it is of interest to jointly consider multiple variants to improve power. However, for the analysis of haplotypes formed by multiple SNVs, meta-analysis remains a challenge, because different haplotypes may be observed across studies. We propose a two-stage meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype analysis results. In the first stage, each cohort estimate haplotype effect sizes in a regression framework, accounting for relatedness among observations if appropriate. For the second stage, we use a multivariate generalized least square meta-analysis approach to combine haplotype effect estimates from multiple cohorts. Haplotype-specific association tests and a global test of independence between haplotypes and traits are obtained within our framework. We demonstrate through simulation studies that we control the type-I error rate, and our approach is more powerful than inverse variance weighted meta-analysis of single SNV analysis when haplotype effects are present. We replicate a published haplotype association between fasting glucose-associated locus (G6PC2) and fasting glucose in seven studies from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium and we provide more precise haplotype effect estimates. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  10. An evolutionary framework for association testing in resequencing studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Ryan King

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sequencing technologies are becoming cheap enough to apply to large numbers of study participants and promise to provide new insights into human phenotypes by bringing to light rare and previously unknown genetic variants. We develop a new framework for the analysis of sequence data that incorporates all of the major features of previously proposed approaches, including those focused on allele counts and allele burden, but is both more general and more powerful. We harness population genetic theory to provide prior information on effect sizes and to create a pooling strategy for information from rare variants. Our method, EMMPAT (Evolutionary Mixed Model for Pooled Association Testing, generates a single test per gene (substantially reducing multiple testing concerns, facilitates graphical summaries, and improves the interpretation of results by allowing calculation of attributable variance. Simulations show that, relative to previously used approaches, our method increases the power to detect genes that affect phenotype when natural selection has kept alleles with large effect sizes rare. We demonstrate our approach on a population-based re-sequencing study of association between serum triglycerides and variation in ANGPTL4.

  11. Lexical Integration of Novel Words without Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M. Gareth

    2013-01-01

    Learning a new word involves integration with existing lexical knowledge. Previous work has shown that sleep-associated memory consolidation processes are important for the engagement of novel items in lexical competition. In 3 experiments we used spaced exposure regimes to investigate memory for novel words and whether lexical integration can…

  12. Robust Association Tests for the Replication of Genome-Wide Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Jungnam; Park, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Bora; Park, Boram; Kim, Sohee; Yoon, Kyong-Ah; Lee, Jin Soo; Geller, Nancy L

    2015-01-01

    In genome-wide association study (GWAS), robust genetic association tests such as maximum of three CATTs (MAX3), each corresponding to recessive, additive, and dominant genetic models, the minimum p value of Pearson's Chi-square test with 2 degrees of freedom, and CATT based on additive genetic model (MIN2), genetic model selection (GMS), and genetic model exclusion (GME) methods have been shown to provide better power performance under wide range of underlying genetic models. In this paper, we demonstrate how these robust tests can be applied to the replication study of GWAS and how the overall statistical significance can be evaluated using the combined test formed by p values of the discovery and replication studies.

  13. Robust Association Tests for the Replication of Genome-Wide Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungnam Joo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In genome-wide association study (GWAS, robust genetic association tests such as maximum of three CATTs (MAX3, each corresponding to recessive, additive, and dominant genetic models, the minimum p value of Pearson’s Chi-square test with 2 degrees of freedom, and CATT based on additive genetic model (MIN2, genetic model selection (GMS, and genetic model exclusion (GME methods have been shown to provide better power performance under wide range of underlying genetic models. In this paper, we demonstrate how these robust tests can be applied to the replication study of GWAS and how the overall statistical significance can be evaluated using the combined test formed by p values of the discovery and replication studies.

  14. Word-stem tones cue suffixes in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Mikael; Söderström, Pelle; Horne, Merle

    2013-07-03

    High and low tones on Swedish word stems are associated with different classes of suffixes. We tested the electrophysiological effects of high and low stem tones as well as tonally cued and uncued suffixes. Two different tasks were used involving either choosing the suffix-dependent meaning of the words, or pressing a button when the word ended. To determine whether effects were in fact due to association of tones with lexical material, delexicalized stimuli were also used. High tones in lexical items produced an increase in the P2 component in both tasks, interpreted as showing passive anticipatory attention allocated to the associated upcoming suffix. This effect was absent for delexicalized forms, where instead an N1 increase was found for high tones, indicating that the high pitch was unexpected in the absence of lexical material, and did not lead to anticipatory attention. A P600 effect was found for uncued high-associated suffixes in the semantic task, which was also where the largest increase was found in reaction times. This suggests that the tonal cues were most important when participants were required to process the meaning of the words. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Robust and Powerful Affected Sibpair Test for Rare Variant Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Keng-Han; Zöllner, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing technology facilitate investigating the impact of rare variants on complex diseases. However, using a conventional case-control design, large samples are needed to capture enough rare variants to achieve sufficient power for testing the association between suspected loci and complex diseases. In such large samples, population stratification may easily cause spurious signals. One approach to overcome stratification is to use a family-based design. For rare variants, this strategy is especially appropriate, as power can be increased considerably by analyzing cases with affected relatives. We propose a novel framework for association testing in affected sibpairs by comparing the allele count of rare variants on chromosome regions shared identical by descent to the allele count of rare variants on nonshared chromosome regions, referred to as test for rare variant association with family-based internal control (TRAFIC). This design is generally robust to population stratification as cases and controls are matched within each sibpair. We evaluate the power analytically using general model for effect size of rare variants. For the same number of genotyped people, TRAFIC shows superior power over the conventional case-control study for variants with summed risk allele frequency f < 0.05; this power advantage is even more substantial when considering allelic heterogeneity. For complex models of gene-gene interaction, this power advantage depends on the direction of interaction and overall heritability. In sum, we introduce a new method for analyzing rare variants in affected sibpairs that is robust to population stratification, and provide freely available software. © 2015 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  16. Test-Retest Reliability and Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, James R; Olson, Kristina R

    2017-12-18

    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is increasingly used in developmental research despite minimal evidence of whether children's IAT scores are reliable across time or predictive of behavior. When test-retest reliability and predictive validity have been assessed, the results have been mixed, and because these studies have differed on many factors simultaneously (lag-time between testing administrations, domain, etc.), it is difficult to discern what factors may explain variability in existing test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates. Across five studies (total N = 519; ages 6- to 11-years-old), we manipulated two factors that have varied in previous developmental research-lag-time and domain. An internal meta-analysis of these studies revealed that, across three different methods of analyzing the data, mean test-retest (rs of .48, .38, and .34) and predictive validity (rs of .46, .20, and .10) effect sizes were significantly greater than zero. While lag-time did not moderate the magnitude of test-retest coefficients, whether we observed domain differences in test-retest reliability and predictive validity estimates was contingent on other factors, such as how we scored the IAT or whether we included estimates from a unique sample (i.e., a sample containing gender typical and gender diverse children). Recommendations are made for developmental researchers that utilize the IAT in their research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Power Analysis for Genetic Association Test (PAGEANT) provides insights to challenges for rare variant association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Andriy; Zhang, Haoyu; Chatterjee, Nilanjan

    2017-11-28

    Genome-wide association studies are now shifting focus from analysis of common to rare variants. As power for association testing for individual rare variants may often be low, various aggregate level association tests have been proposed to detect genetic loci. Typically, power calculations for such tests require specification of large number of parameters, including effect sizes and allele frequencies of individual variants, making them difficult to use in practice. We propose to approximate power to varying degree of accuracy using a smaller number of key parameters, including the total genetic variance explained by multiple variants within a locus. We perform extensive simulation studies to assess the accuracy of the proposed approximations in realistic settings. Using these simplified power calculations, we develop an analytic framework to obtain bounds on genetic architecture of an underlying trait given results from a genome-wide association studies with rare variants. Finally, we provide insights into the required quality of annotation/functional information for identification of likely causal variants to make meaningful improvement in power. A shiny application that allows a variety of Power Analysis of GEnetic AssociatioN Tests (PAGEANT), in R is made publicly available at https://andrewhaoyu.shinyapps.io/PAGEANT/. nilanjan@jhu.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  18. Statistical testing of association between menstruation and migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barra, Mathias; Dahl, Fredrik A; Vetvik, Kjersti G

    2015-02-01

    To repair and refine a previously proposed method for statistical analysis of association between migraine and menstruation. Menstrually related migraine (MRM) affects about 20% of female migraineurs in the general population. The exact pathophysiological link from menstruation to migraine is hypothesized to be through fluctuations in female reproductive hormones, but the exact mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, the main diagnostic criterion today is concurrency of migraine attacks with menstruation. Methods aiming to exclude spurious associations are wanted, so that further research into these mechanisms can be performed on a population with a true association. The statistical method is based on a simple two-parameter null model of MRM (which allows for simulation modeling), and Fisher's exact test (with mid-p correction) applied to standard 2 × 2 contingency tables derived from the patients' headache diaries. Our method is a corrected version of a previously published flawed framework. To our best knowledge, no other published methods for establishing a menstruation-migraine association by statistical means exist today. The probabilistic methodology shows good performance when subjected to receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. Quick reference cutoff values for the clinical setting were tabulated for assessing association given a patient's headache history. In this paper, we correct a proposed method for establishing association between menstruation and migraine by statistical methods. We conclude that the proposed standard of 3-cycle observations prior to setting an MRM diagnosis should be extended with at least one perimenstrual window to obtain sufficient information for statistical processing. © 2014 American Headache Society.

  19. Word 2010 Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Herb

    2010-01-01

    In-depth guidance on Word 2010 from a Microsoft MVP. Microsoft Word 2010 arrives with many changes and improvements, and this comprehensive guide from Microsoft MVP Herb Tyson is your expert, one-stop resource for it all. Master Word's new features such as a new interface and customized Ribbon, major new productivity-boosting collaboration tools, how to publish directly to blogs, how to work with XML, and much more. Follow step-by-step instructions and best practices, avoid pitfalls, discover practical workarounds, and get the very most out of your new Word 2010 with this packed guide. Coverag

  20. Word Sense Disambiguation using Aggregated Similarity based on WordNet Graph Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina ZURINI

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The term of word sense disambiguation, WSD, is introduced in the context of text document processing. A knowledge based approach is conducted using WordNet lexical ontology, describing its structure and components used for the process of identification of context related senses of each polysemy words. The principal distance measures using the graph associated to WordNet are presented, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages. A general model for aggregation of distances and probabilities is proposed and implemented in an application in order to detect the context senses of each word. For the non-existing words from WordNet, a similarity measure is used based on probabilities of co-occurrences. The module of WSD is proposed for integration in the step of processing documents such as supervised and unsupervised classification in order to maximize the correctness of the classification. Future work is related to the implementation of different domain oriented ontologies.

  1. Associations between Symptom Validity Test failure and scores on the MMPI-2-RF validity and substantive scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervais, Roger O; Wygant, Dustin B; Sellbom, Martin; Ben-Porath, Yossef S

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the association between Symptom Validity Test (SVT) failure and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008), in the Forensic Disability Claimant samples described in the MMPI-2-RF Technical Manual (Tellegen & Ben-Porath, 2008 a, 2008b). SVTs used included the Word Memory Test (Green, 2003), the Computerized Assessment of Response Bias (Allen, Conder, Green, & Cox, 1997), the Medical Symptom Validity Test (Green, 2004), and the Test of Memory Malingering (Tombaugh, 1996). SVT failure was associated with significant elevations throughout the MMPI-2-RF overreporting validity scales and substantive scales. Pairwise contrasts between groups failing 0 and 3 SVTs revealed predominantly large effect sizes for the overreporting validity scales (d = 0.78-1.11), and many of the substantive scales, including the Cognitive Complaints (COG) scale. Results of this study demonstrate an association between SVT performance and elevated scores on the MMPI-2-RF. These results suggest that exaggeration of cognitive symptoms as demonstrated by SVT failure is also associated with overreported emotional, somatic, and neurocognitive complaints on the MMPI-2-RF.

  2. The Relationships among Cognitive Correlates and Irregular Word, Non-Word, and Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Hamour, Bashir; University, Mu'tah; Urso, Annmarie; Mather, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    This study explored four hypotheses: (a) the relationships among rapid automatized naming (RAN) and processing speed (PS) to irregular word, non-word, and word reading; (b) the predictive power of various RAN and PS measures, (c) the cognitive correlates that best predicted irregular word, non-word, and word reading, and (d) reading performance of…

  3. Effects of degraded sensory input on memory for speech: Behavioral data and a test of biologically constrained computational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquado, Tepring; Cousins, Katheryn A.Q.; Wingfield, Arthur; Miller, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Poor hearing acuity reduces memory for spoken words, even when the words are presented with enough clarity for correct recognition. An "effortful hypothesis" suggests that the perceptual effort needed for recognition draws from resources that would otherwise be available for encoding the word in memory. To assess this hypothesis, we conducted a behavioral task requiring immediate free recall of word-lists, some of which contained an acoustically masked word that was just above perceptual threshold. Results show that masking a word reduces the recall of that word and words prior to it, as well as weakening the linking associations between the masked and prior words. In contrast, recall probabilities of words following the masked word are not affected. To account for this effect we conducted computational simulations testing two classes of models: associative linking models and short-term memory buffer models. Only a model that integrated both contextual linking and buffer components matched all of the effects of masking observed in our behavioral data. In this Linking-Buffer model, the masked word disrupts a short-term memory buffer, causing associative links of words in the buffer to be weakened, affecting memory for the masked word and the word prior to it, while allowing links of words following the masked word to be spared. We suggest that these data account for the so-called "effortful hypothesis", where distorted input has a detrimental impact on prior information stored in short-term memory. PMID:20875801

  4. Measuring Implicit Alcohol Associations via the Internet: Validation of Web-based Implicit Association Tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houben, K.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Given the potential advantages of online assessment of implicit alcohol-related cognitive processes, the goal of this study was to empirically validate the online administration of the implicit association test (IAT). First, we examined whether an Internet-delivered IAT programmed in Flash can be as

  5. How does the provision of semantic information influence the lexicalization of new spoken words?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Erin A; Rastle, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The integration of a novel spoken word with existing lexical items can proceed within 24 hours of learning its phonological form. However, previous studies have reported that lexical integration of new spoken words can be delayed if semantic information is provided during learning. One possibility is that this delay in lexical integration reflects reduced phonological processing during learning as a consequence of the need to learn the semantic associations. In the current study, adult participants learnt novel words via a phoneme monitoring task, in which half of the words were associated with a picture referent, and half were phonological forms only. Critically, participants were instructed to learn the forms of the novel words, with no explicit goal to learn the word-picture mappings. Results revealed significant lexical competition effects emerging one week after consolidation, which were equivalent for the picture-present and form-only conditions. Tests of declarative memory and shadowing showed equivalent performance for picture-present and form-only words, despite participants showing good knowledge of the picture associations immediately after learning. These data support the contention that provided phonological information is recruited sufficiently well during learning, the provision of semantic information does not slow the time-course of lexical integration.

  6. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...

  7. Word and text processing in acquired prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hills, Charlotte S; Pancaroglu, Raika; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2015-08-01

    A novel hypothesis of object recognition asserts that multiple regions are engaged in processing an object type, and that cerebral regions participate in processing multiple types of objects. In particular, for high-level expert processing, it proposes shared rather than dedicated resources for word and face perception, and predicts that prosopagnosic subjects would have minor deficits in visual word processing, and alexic subjects would have subtle impairments in face perception. In this study, we evaluated whether prosopagnosic subjects had deficits in processing either the word content or the style of visual text. Eleven prosopagnosic subjects, 6 with unilateral right lesions and 5 with bilateral lesions, participated. In the first study, we evaluated their word length effect in reading single words. In the second study, we assessed their time and accuracy for sorting text by word content independent of style, and for sorting text by handwriting or font style independent of word content. Only subjects with bilateral lesions showed mildly elevated word length effects. Subjects were not slowed in sorting text by word content, but were nearly uniformly impaired in accuracy for sorting text by style. Our results show that prosopagnosic subjects are impaired not only in face recognition but also in perceiving stylistic aspects of text. This supports a modified version of the many-to-many hypothesis that incorporates hemispheric specialization for processing different aspects of visual text. © 2015 American Neurological Association.

  8. The Galker test of speech reception in noise; associations with background variables, middle ear status, hearing, and language in Danish preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauritsen, Maj-Britt Glenn; Söderström, Margareta; Kreiner, Svend; Dørup, Jens; Lous, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    We tested "the Galker test", a speech reception in noise test developed for primary care for Danish preschool children, to explore if the children's ability to hear and understand speech was associated with gender, age, middle ear status, and the level of background noise. The Galker test is a 35-item audio-visual, computerized word discrimination test in background noise. Included were 370 normally developed children attending day care center. The children were examined with the Galker test, tympanometry, audiometry, and the Reynell test of verbal comprehension. Parents and daycare teachers completed questionnaires on the children's ability to hear and understand speech. As most of the variables were not assessed using interval scales, non-parametric statistics (Goodman-Kruskal's gamma) were used for analyzing associations with the Galker test score. For comparisons, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used. Interrelations were adjusted for using a non-parametric graphic model. In unadjusted analyses, the Galker test was associated with gender, age group, language development (Reynell revised scale), audiometry, and tympanometry. The Galker score was also associated with the parents' and day care teachers' reports on the children's vocabulary, sentence construction, and pronunciation. Type B tympanograms were associated with a mean hearing 5-6dB below that of than type A, C1, or C2. In the graphic analysis, Galker scores were closely and significantly related to Reynell test scores (Gamma (G)=0.35), the children's age group (G=0.33), and the day care teachers' assessment of the children's vocabulary (G=0.26). The Galker test of speech reception in noise appears promising as an easy and quick tool for evaluating preschool children's understanding of spoken words in noise, and it correlated well with the day care teachers' reports and less with the parents' reports. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Words That Encourage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbach, Brooke B.

    2014-01-01

    Teachers and education leaders are aware that their words can have a significant effect on their students. Words can build them up and encourage them to work hard or tear them down and lead them to despair. The language used in teacher evaluations is no different, says teacher Brooke Eisenbach. In this article, she shares stories of colleagues…

  10. Words: Religious Language Matters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Hemel, E.; Szafraniec, Asja

    It is said that words are like people: One can encounter them daily yet never come to know their true selves. This volume examines what words are how they exist in religious phenomena. Going beyond the common idea that language merely describes states of mind, beliefs, and intentions, the book looks

  11. Baby's First 10 Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Fletcher, Paul; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Kaciroti, Niko; Marchman, Virginia A.

    2008-01-01

    Although there has been much debate over the content of children's first words, few large sample studies address this question for children at the very earliest stages of word learning. The authors report data from comparable samples of 265 English-, 336 Putonghua- (Mandarin), and 369 Cantonese-speaking 8- to 16-month-old infants whose caregivers…

  12. Construct validity of the Big Five Implicit Association Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaja Zager Kocjan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Psychology has recently seen a noticeable increase in interest for implicit measures of attitudes and personality characteristics. The far most known implicit measure is the Implicit Association Test – IAT. We adapted this test in order to assess the Big Five personality dimensions (B5 IAT. We examined B5 IAT measurement characteristics on two samples. Based on the findings of the first sample (N = 62, improvements were made in the B5 IAT, to be tested again on another sample (N = 75. The two studies have shown similar results. The reliabilities of the personality dimensions measured with the B5 IAT failed to achieve a satisfactory level in most cases. The reason probably lies in a lower adequacy of certain stimuli and in the considerable length of the test procedure. The convergent validity of the B5 IAT with explicit measures of personality was low, which may be due to different structures underlying implicit and explicit measures. Results obtained on the first sample have shown that the correlations between IAT adjectives are adequately explained by five latent dimensions. However, these results should be interpreted with caution due to B5 IAT low reliabilities and small sample sizes. The second sample proved to be very unstable, thus the confirmatory factor analysis could not be conducted. Since this is the first attempt to adapt B5 IAT to Slovene language, it is hardly surprising that the results are not entirely consistent with the expectations. As implicit measures currently fail to meet relevant psychometric characteristics, they are not yet applicable in psychological practice. Nevertheless, they have great potential in exploring personality and individual differences, as they overcome many limitations of existing explicit measures.

  13. Presidents' words - Gianni Deroma

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Gianni Deroma This week we publish the last contributions in the 'Words of presidents' series by giving the floor to Gianni Deroma (2007-2010) and Michel Goossens (2011-2015). "Tu patere legem quam ipse fecisti" This Latin adage has marked my years with the Staff Association (SA). For someone like me, coming from the technical world, the discovery of the importance of the role played by legal matters in the defence of the staff illustrates a new reality and incarnates my years spent with the SA. We, members of personnel, as citizens have as reference the democratic societies in which we live. CERN is not a democracy. The Member States, the Director-General have full powers, or almost. Contrary to citizens of states, we do not elect our leaders. So in that context is it useful to have a Staff Association? Or does it only serve as a necessary alibi for those who have the power? This is where a legal approach makes sense, in counterbalancing the power of our governing ...

  14. Pupillary responses to words that convey a sense of brightness or darkness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathot, Sebastiaan; Grainger, Jonathan; Strijkers, Kristof

    2017-01-01

    Theories about embodiment of language hold that when you process a word's meaning, you automatically simulate associated sensory input (e.g., perception of brightness when you process lamp) and prepare associated actions (e.g., finger movements when you process typing). To test this latter

  15. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  16. Is word recognition crowded in pure alexia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Katrine; Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pure alexia is a selective deficit in reading, which arises following damage to the left ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Crowding, the inability to recognise objects in a clutter, has recently been hypothesised to be the underlying deficit of apperceptive visual agnosia1. Crowding...... normally occurs in peripheral vision, and we therefore tested whether the performance with words at the centre of fixation in a pure alexic patient (LK) is indeed similar to the performance of matched controls in the peripheral visual field. Using an accuracy-based word recognition task with brief, masked...... exposures, we tested word processing in LK and 24 matched controls. LK was tested in central vision, while the controls were tested in central vision and 4.6 degrees to the right of fixation. LK was significantly impaired on visual word recognition in the central visual field but there was no significant...

  17. A "bat" is easier to learn than a "tab": effects of relative phonotactic frequency on infant word learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when) the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants' word learning. We exploit the fact that Labial-Coronal (LC) words are more frequent than Coronal-Labial (CL) words in French, and that French-learning infants prefer LC over CL sequences at 10 months of age, to explore the possibility that LC structures might be learned more easily and thus at an earlier age than CL structures. Eye movements of French-learning 14- and 16-month-olds were recorded while they watched animated cartoons in a word learning task. The experiment involved four trials testing LC sequences and four trials testing CL sequences. Our data reveal that 16-month-olds were able to learn the LC and CL words, while14-month-olds were only able to learn the LC words, which are the words with the more frequent phonotactic pattern. The present results provide evidence that infants' knowledge of their native language phonotactic patterns influences their word learning: Words with a frequent phonotactic structure could be acquired at an earlier age than those with a lower probability. Developmental changes are discussed and integrated with previous findings.

  18. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  19. THE EFFECTS OF WORD FAMILIARITY AND LETTER STRUCTURE FAMILIARITY ON THE PERCEPTION OF WORDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that familiarity of letter structure (as opposed to familiarity of the word ) would facilitate the...perception of the word . The results showed an interaction between letter structure familiarity and work familiarity such that while letter structure...familiarity facilitated correct identification of the letters of the word , letter structure familiarity resulted in inhibiting the perception of

  20. [Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to measure implicit shyness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Atsushi; Fujii, Tsutomu

    2011-04-01

    Previous research has shown that implicitly measured shyness predicted spontaneous shy behavior in social situations, while explicit self-ratings of shyness predicted controlled shy behavior (Asendorpf, Banse, & Mücke, 2002). The present study examined whether these same results would be replicated in Japan. In Study 1, college students (N=47) completed a shyness Implicit Association Test (IAT for shyness) and explicit self-ratings of shyness. In Study 2, friends (N=69) of the Study 1 participants rated those participants on various personality scales. Covariance structure analysis, revealed that only implicit self-concept measured by the shyness IAT predicted other-rated high interpersonal tension (spontaneous shy behavior). Also, only explicit self-concept predicted other-rated low praise seeking (controlled shy behavior). The results of this study are similar to the findings of the previous research.

  1. Exercise testing parameters associated with post lung transplant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Hilary F; Garber, Carol Ewing; Bartels, Matthew N

    2012-04-30

    Exercise performance during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is a predictor of all-cause mortality in the general population and in patients with coronary heart disease. Mortality beyond one-year after lung transplantation (LTx) is due to multiple causes, is difficult to predict, and has not been fully evaluated in LTx recipients. We hypothesized that, similar to other populations, exercise performance after LTx may be associated with mortality. A retrospective review of all LTx recipients who underwent CPET between 2001 and 2009 was conducted. Chosen endpoint was re-transplantation or death. Survival analysis was performed using Cox proportional-hazard models in 183 patients. After adjusting for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) score, for every 10% increment in percent-predicted peak watts or percent-predicted peak oxygen uptake patients were approximately 23% less likely to experience an endpoint. We conclude that after adjusting for BOS score, lower exercise capacity one-year post LTx is independently associated with mortality. This may imply a protective role of exercise capacity in the LTx population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Associated factors to urinary incontinence in women undergoing urodynamic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina Pereira da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract OBJECTIVE Analyzing factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI among women submitted to urodynamic testing. METHOD A cross-sectional study of 150 women attended at a urological center. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. RESULTS White women (79.3%, overweight (45.3%, menopausal (53.3%, who drink coffee (82.7%, sedentary (65.3%, who had vaginal birth (51.4%, with episiotomy (80%, and who underwent the Kristeller maneuver (69%. 60.7% had Urethral Hypermobility (UH. A statistical association was found between: weight change and UH (p = 0.024; menopause, Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD and Detrusor Instability (DI (p = 0.001; gynecological surgery, ISD and DI (p = 0.014; hysterectomy and all types of UI (p = 0.040; physical activity and mixed UI (p = 0.014. CONCLUSION Interventions and guidance on preventing UI and strengthening pelvic muscles should be directed at women who present weight changes, who are sedentary menopausal women, and those who have undergone hysterectomy or other gynecological surgery. Studies on pelvic strengthening methods are needed in order to take into account the profile of the needs presented by women.

  3. Effects of normalization on quantitative traits in association test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Von Bing

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative trait loci analysis assumes that the trait is normally distributed. In reality, this is often not observed and one strategy is to transform the trait. However, it is not clear how much normality is required and which transformation works best in association studies. Results We performed simulations on four types of common quantitative traits to evaluate the effects of normalization using the logarithm, Box-Cox, and rank-based transformations. The impact of sample size and genetic effects on normalization is also investigated. Our results show that rank-based transformation gives generally the best and consistent performance in identifying the causal polymorphism and ranking it highly in association tests, with a slight increase in false positive rate. Conclusion For small sample size or genetic effects, the improvement in sensitivity for rank transformation outweighs the slight increase in false positive rate. However, for large sample size and genetic effects, normalization may not be necessary since the increase in sensitivity is relatively modest.

  4. Recalling taboo and nontaboo words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy; Caldwell-Harris, Catherine; King, Krista

    2008-01-01

    People remember emotional and taboo words better than neutral words. It is well known that words that are processed at a deep (i.e., semantic) level are recalled better than words processed at a shallow (i.e., purely visual) level. To determine how depth of processing influences recall of emotional and taboo words, a levels of processing paradigm was used. Whether this effect holds for emotional and taboo words has not been previously investigated. Two experiments demonstrated that taboo and emotional words benefit less from deep processing than do neutral words. This is consistent with the proposal that memories for taboo and emotional words are a function of the arousal level they evoke, even under shallow encoding conditions. Recall was higher for taboo words, even when taboo words were cued to be recalled after neutral and emotional words. The superiority of taboo word recall is consistent with cognitive neuroscience and brain imaging research.

  5. Processing lexically embedded spoken words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, P A; Lyons, E A

    1999-02-01

    A large number of multisyllabic words contain syllables that are themselves words. Previous research using cross-modal priming and word-spotting tasks suggests that embedded words may be activated when the carrier word is heard. To determine the effects of an embedded word on processing of the larger word, processing times for matched pairs of bisyllabic words were examined to contrast the effects of the presence or absence of embedded words in both 1st- and 2nd-syllable positions. Results from auditory lexical decision and single-word shadowing demonstrate that the presence of an embedded word in the 1st-syllable position speeds processing times for the carrier word. The presence of an embedded word in the 2nd syllable has no demonstrable effect.

  6. Effects of Sleep on Word Pair Memory in Children – Separating Item and Source Memory Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Yi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Word paired-associate learning is a well-established task to demonstrate sleep-dependent memory consolidation in adults as well as children. Sleep has also been proposed to benefit episodic features of memory, i.e., a memory for an event (item bound into the spatiotemporal context it has been experienced in (source. We aimed to explore if sleep enhances word pair memory in children by strengthening the episodic features of the memory, in particular. Sixty-one children (8–12 years studied two lists of word pairs with 1 h in between. Retrieval testing comprised cued recall of the target word of each word pair (item memory and recalling in which list the word pair had appeared in (source memory. Retrieval was tested either after 1 h (short retention interval or after 11 h, with this long retention interval covering either nocturnal sleep or daytime wakefulness. Compared with the wake interval, sleep enhanced separate recall of both word pairs and the lists per se, while recall of the combination of the word pair and the list it had appeared in remained unaffected by sleep. An additional comparison with adult controls (n = 37 suggested that item-source bound memory (combined recall of word pair and list is generally diminished in children. Our results argue against the view that the sleep-induced enhancement in paired-associate learning in children is a consequence of sleep specifically enhancing the episodic features of the memory representation. On the contrary, sleep in children might strengthen item and source representations in isolation, while leaving the episodic memory representations (item-source binding unaffected.

  7. Becoming a written word: eye movements reveal order of acquisition effects following incidental exposure to new words during silent reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Holly S S L; Wonnacott, Elizabeth; Forbes, Paul; Nation, Kate

    2014-10-01

    We know that from mid-childhood onwards most new words are learned implicitly via reading; however, most word learning studies have taught novel items explicitly. We examined incidental word learning during reading by focusing on the well-documented finding that words which are acquired early in life are processed more quickly than those acquired later. Novel words were embedded in meaningful sentences and were presented to adult readers early (day 1) or later (day 2) during a five-day exposure phase. At test adults read the novel words in semantically neutral sentences. Participants' eye movements were monitored throughout exposure and test. Adults also completed a surprise memory test in which they had to match each novel word with its definition. Results showed a decrease in reading times for all novel words over exposure, and significantly shorter [corrected] total reading times at test for early than late novel words. Early-presented novel words were also remembered better in the offline test. Our results show that order of presentation influences processing time early in the course of acquiring a new word, consistent with partial and incremental growth in knowledge occurring as a function of an individual's experience with each word. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Arabic word recognizer for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Nitin; Abdollahian, Golnaz; Brame, Ben; Boutin, Mireille; Delp, Edward J.

    2011-03-01

    When traveling in a region where the local language is not written using a "Roman alphabet," translating written text (e.g., documents, road signs, or placards) is a particularly difficult problem since the text cannot be easily entered into a translation device or searched using a dictionary. To address this problem, we are developing the "Rosetta Phone," a handheld device (e.g., PDA or mobile telephone) capable of acquiring an image of the text, locating the region (word) of interest within the image, and producing both an audio and a visual English interpretation of the text. This paper presents a system targeted for interpreting words written in Arabic script. The goal of this work is to develop an autonomous, segmentation-free Arabic phrase recognizer, with computational complexity low enough to deploy on a mobile device. A prototype of the proposed system has been deployed on an iPhone with a suitable user interface. The system was tested on a number of noisy images, in addition to the images acquired from the iPhone's camera. It identifies Arabic words or phrases by extracting appropriate features and assigning "codewords" to each word or phrase. On a dictionary of 5,000 words, the system uniquely mapped (word-image to codeword) 99.9% of the words. The system has a 82% recognition accuracy on images of words captured using the iPhone's built-in camera.

  10. Functional imaging of implicit marijuana associations during performance on an Implicit Association Test (IAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Susan L; Grenard, Jerry L; Stacy, Alan W; Xiao, Lin; He, Qinghua; Wong, Savio W; Xue, Gui; Wiers, Reinout W; Bechara, Antoine

    2013-11-01

    This research evaluated the neural correlates of implicit associative memory processes (habit-based processes) through the imaging (fMRI) of a marijuana Implicit Association Test. Drug-related associative memory effects have been shown to consistently predict level of drug use. To observe differences in neural activity of associative memory effects, this study compared 13 heavy marijuana users and 15 non-using controls, ranging in age from 18 to 25, during performance of a marijuana Implicit Association Test (IAT). Group by condition interactions in the putamen, caudate, and right inferior frontal gyrus were observed. Relative to non-users, marijuana users showed greater bilateral activity in the dorsal striatum (caudate and putamen) during compatible trials focused on perceived positive outcomes of use. Alternatively, relative to the marijuana-using group, the non-users showed greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus during incompatible trials, which require more effortful processing of information. Further, relative to fixation, heavy users showed bilateral activity in the caudate and putamen, hippocampus and some frontal regions during compatible trials and no significant activity during incompatible trials. The non-using group showed greater activity in frontal regions during incompatible trials relative to fixation and no significant activity during compatible trials. These findings are consistent with a dual process framework of appetitive behaviors proposing that (1) implicit associations underlying habit are mediated through neural circuitry dependent on the striatum, and (2) deliberative/controlled behaviors are mediated through circuitry more dependent on the prefrontal cortex. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficient automatic OCR word validation using word partial format derivation and language model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyuan; Misra, Dharitri; Thoma, George R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present an OCR validation module, implemented for the System for Preservation of Electronic Resources (SPER) developed at the U.S. National Library of Medicine.1 The module detects and corrects suspicious words in the OCR output of scanned textual documents through a procedure of deriving partial formats for each suspicious word, retrieving candidate words by partial-match search from lexicons, and comparing the joint probabilities of N-gram and OCR edit transformation corresponding to the candidates. The partial format derivation, based on OCR error analysis, efficiently and accurately generates candidate words from lexicons represented by ternary search trees. In our test case comprising a historic medico-legal document collection, this OCR validation module yielded the correct words with 87% accuracy and reduced the overall OCR word errors by around 60%.

  12. Infants Encode Phonetic Detail during Cross-Situational Word Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Mulak, Karen E; Vlach, Haley A

    2016-01-01

    Infants often hear new words in the context of more than one candidate referent. In cross-situational word learning (XSWL), word-object mappings are determined by tracking co-occurrences of words and candidate referents across multiple learning events. Research demonstrates that infants can learn words in XSWL paradigms, suggesting that it is a viable model of real-world word learning. However, these studies have all presented infants with words that have no or minimal phonological overlap (e.g., BLICKET and GAX). Words often contain some degree of phonological overlap, and it is unknown whether infants can simultaneously encode fine phonological detail while learning words via XSWL. We tested 12-, 15-, 17-, and 20-month-olds' XSWL of eight words that, when paired, formed non-minimal pairs (MPs; e.g., BON-DEET) or MPs (e.g., BON-TON, DEET-DIT). The results demonstrated that infants are able to learn word-object mappings and encode them with sufficient phonetic detail as to identify words in both non-minimal and MP contexts. Thus, this work suggests that infants are able to simultaneously discriminate phonetic differences between words and map words to referents in an implicit learning paradigm such as XSWL.

  13. Vocabulary Word Instruction for Students Who Read Braille

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaiano, Mackenzie E.; Compton, Donald L.; Hatton, Deborah D.; Lloyd, Blair P.

    2016-01-01

    The association made between the meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of a word has been shown to help children remember the meanings of words. The present study addressed whether the presence of a target word in Braille during instruction facilitated vocabulary learning more efficiently than an auditory-only instructional condition. The authors…

  14. Word Translation Entropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaeffer, Moritz; Dragsted, Barbara; Hvelplund, Kristian Tangsgaard

    language activation during source text reading in translation, i.e. co-activation of the two linguistic systems, employed late eye movement measures or reaction times. The current study therefore aims to investigate if and to what extent earlier eye movement measures in reading for translation show......This study reports on an investigation into the relationship between the number of translation alternatives for a single word and eye movements on the source text. In addition, the effect of word order differences between source and target text on eye movements on the source text is studied...... evidence of co-activation. Results show that the number of translation alternatives for a single word and differences between source and target text in terms of word order have an effect on very early and late eye movement measures. Results are interpreted in terms of semantic and structural cross...

  15. The Deaf Child's Knowledge of Words: Volume I. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman-Dresner, Toby; Guilfoyle, George R.

    To assess the reading vocabulary knowledge of deaf children, a vocabulary pool of 14,852 words was reduced to 7,300 words. These words were fed into a computer to produce 73 sets of 100 randomly selected words each. The 73 sets were converted into vocabulary tests which were randomly administered, two per child, to 13,207 deaf students, ages 7-17…

  16. The association between congenital diaphragmatic hernia and undescended testes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarow, Kenneth S; Cusick, Robert; Wynn, Julia; Chung, Wendy; Mychaliska, George B; Crombleholme, Timothy M; Chung, Dai H; Lim, Foong Yen; Potoka, Douglas; Warner, Brad W; Aspelund, Gundrun; Arkovitz, Marc S

    2015-05-01

    Undescended testes (UDT) is a common abnormality treated by pediatric surgeons. Embryological development of the genitourinary ridge is in close proximity with the pleuroperitoneal fold. The purpose of this paper is to describe the association between congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and UDT. As part of the DHREAMS (Diaphragmatic Hernia Research and Exploration: Advancing Molecular Science) study (www.cdhgenetics.com), all living children had tissue banked and analyzed for common genetic mutations and had a health assessment performed by telephone consultation with the parents at two years of age. The incidence of UDT was then compared to clinical and genetic findings previously identified. Sixty-five males had complete information from their 2year health assessment. Of these, twelve (18%) had a UDT repaired by the time of the 2year assessment. Of the twelve who had a repair, no child had a unilateral UDT which was contralateral to the side of the CDH. There were no differences in rate or number of mutations of any of the genes we checked as part of our study. It appears that a deficiency of diaphragm tissue may affect the first or transabdominal phase of the testicular descent, leading to an increased incidence of UDT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Personality in 100,000 Words: A large-scale analysis of personality and word use among bloggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarkoni, Tal

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have found systematic associations between personality and individual differences in word use. Such studies have typically focused on broad associations between major personality domains and aggregate word categories, potentially masking more specific associations. Here I report the results of a large-scale analysis of personality and word use in a large sample of blogs (N=694). The size of the dataset enabled pervasive correlations with personality to be identified for a broad range of lexical variables, including both aggregate word categories and individual English words. The results replicated category-level findings from previous offline studies, identified numerous novel associations at both a categorical and single-word level, and underscored the value of complementary approaches to the study of personality and word use.

  18. Event-related potentials associated with masked priming of test cues reveal multiple potential contributions to recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollams, Anna M; Taylor, Jason R; Karayanidis, Frini; Henson, Richard N

    2008-06-01

    The relationship between recognition memory and repetition priming remains unclear. Priming is believed to reflect increased processing fluency for previously studied items relative to new items. Manipulations that affect fluency can also affect the likelihood that participants will judge items as studied in recognition tasks. This attribution of fluency to memory has been related to the familiarity process, as distinct from the recollection process, that is assumed by dual-process models of recognition memory. To investigate the time courses and neural sources of fluency, familiarity, and recollection, we conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study of recognition memory using masked priming of test cues and a remember/know paradigm. During the recognition test, studied and unstudied words were preceded by a brief, masked word that was either the same or different. Participants decided quickly whether each item had been studied ("old" or "new"), and for items called old, indicated whether they "remembered" (R) the encoding event, or simply "knew" (K) the item had been studied. Masked priming increased the proportion of K, but not R, judgments. Priming also decreased response times for hits but not correct rejections (CRs). Four distinct ERP effects were found. A medial-frontal FN400 (300-500 msec) was associated with familiarity (R, K Hits > CRs) and a centro-parietal late positivity (500-800 msec) with recollection (R Hits > K Hits, CRs). A long-term repetition effect was found for studied items judged "new" (Misses > CRs) in the same time window as the FN400, but with a posterior distribution. Finally, a centrally distributed masked priming effect was visible between 150 and 250 msec and continued into the 300-500 msec time window, where it was topographically dissociable from the FN400. These results suggest that multiple neural signals are associated with repetition and potentially contribute to recognition memory.

  19. Measuring implicit alcohol associations via the Internet: validation of Web-based implicit association tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Wiers, Reinout W

    2008-11-01

    Given the potential advantages of online assessment of implicit alcohol-related cognitive processes, the goal of this study was to empirically validate the online administration of the implicit association test (IAT). First, we examined whether an Internet-delivered IAT programmed in Flash can be as effectively used to assess implicit alcohol-related associations as equivalent IAT versions that are programmed in local lab software, such as Inquisit. Second, participants performed the IAT versions once in the controlled laboratory setting and once on their home computers via the Internet. Findings with the alcohol IAT versions were robust and did not vary systematically with respect to setting (home or lab) or assessment software (Flash or Inquisit). Importantly, there were also indications that IAT versions performed at home were more strongly related to explicit measures and drinking behavior than were lab-based IAT versions. Together, these findings demonstrate that the alcohol IAT can be validly administered online via participants' home computers.

  20. Extending the Implicit Association Test (IAT): Assessing Consumer Attitudes Based on Multi-Dimensional Implicit Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT; [1]) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe–unsafe; young–old; innovative–conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good–bad). Methodology/Principal Findings In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. Conclusions/Significance This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher [2], [3]. PMID:21246037

  1. Extending the Implicit Association Test (IAT): assessing consumer attitudes based on multi-dimensional implicit associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattol, Valentin; Sääksjärvi, Maria; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2011-01-05

    The authors present a procedural extension of the popular Implicit Association Test (IAT) that allows for indirect measurement of attitudes on multiple dimensions (e.g., safe-unsafe; young-old; innovative-conventional, etc.) rather than on a single evaluative dimension only (e.g., good-bad). In two within-subjects studies, attitudes toward three automobile brands were measured on six attribute dimensions. Emphasis was placed on evaluating the methodological appropriateness of the new procedure, providing strong evidence for its reliability, validity, and sensitivity. This new procedure yields detailed information on the multifaceted nature of brand associations that can add up to a more abstract overall attitude. Just as the IAT, its multi-dimensional extension/application (dubbed md-IAT) is suited for reliably measuring attitudes consumers may not be consciously aware of, able to express, or willing to share with the researcher.

  2. Methods of defining ontologies, word disambiguation methods, computer systems, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P [Richland, WA; Tratz, Stephen C [Richland, WA; Gregory, Michelle L [Richland, WA; Chappell, Alan R [Seattle, WA; Whitney, Paul D [Richland, WA; Posse, Christian [Seattle, WA; Baddeley, Robert L [Richland, WA; Hohimer, Ryan E [West Richland, WA

    2011-10-11

    Methods of defining ontologies, word disambiguation methods, computer systems, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a word disambiguation method includes accessing textual content to be disambiguated, wherein the textual content comprises a plurality of words individually comprising a plurality of word senses, for an individual word of the textual content, identifying one of the word senses of the word as indicative of the meaning of the word in the textual content, for the individual word, selecting one of a plurality of event classes of a lexical database ontology using the identified word sense of the individual word, and for the individual word, associating the selected one of the event classes with the textual content to provide disambiguation of a meaning of the individual word in the textual content.

  3. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  4. The English word disgust has no exact translation in Hindi or Malayalam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollareth, Dolichan; Russell, James A

    2017-09-01

    Do different languages have a translation for the English word disgust that labels the same underlying concept? If not, the English word might label a culture-specific concept. Four studies (Ns = 93, 90, 180, 960) compared disgust to its common translation in Hindi (an Indo-European language) and in Malayalam (a Dravidian language) by examining two components of the concept thought of as a script: causal antecedent and facial expression. The English word was used to refer to reactions to both unclean substances and moral violations; Hindi and Malayalam translations referred mainly to moral violations. Speakers of all three languages associated different facial expressions to unclean substances and moral violations. Words for disgust in the three languages failed a test of translation equivalence (a correlation of .80 or above across emotional facial expressions).

  5. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  6. Loan Words versus Indigenous Words in Northern Sotho — A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    (2) Loan word survey — Translation of the questionnaire (with in Columns A and B: L = loan word, and I = (more) indigenous word; and in Column C: the English translation). Hello! Choose from A and B those words which, according to you, should be included in a Northern So- tho dictionary. You may choose either A or B, ...

  7. Reading skill and word skipping: Implications for visual and linguistic accounts of word skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-11-01

    We investigated whether high-skill readers skip more words than low-skill readers as a result of parafoveal processing differences based on reading skill. We manipulated foveal load and word length, two variables that strongly influence word skipping, and measured reading skill using the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. We found that reading skill did not influence the probability of skipping five-letter words, but low-skill readers were less likely to skip three-letter words when foveal load was high. Thus, reading skill is likely to influence word skipping when the amount of information in the parafovea falls within the word identification span. We interpret the data in the context of visual-based (extended optimal viewing position model) and linguistic based (E-Z Reader model) accounts of word skipping. The models make different predictions about how and why a word and skipped; however, the data indicate that both models should take into account the fact that different factors influence skipping rates for high- and low-skill readers. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The mechanism of word crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Deyue; Akau, Melanie M U; Chung, Susana T L

    2012-01-01

    Word reading speed in peripheral vision is slower when words are in close proximity of other words (Chung, 2004). This word crowding effect could arise as a consequence of interaction of low-level letter features between words, or the interaction between high-level holistic representations of words. We evaluated these two hypotheses by examining how word crowding changes for five configurations of flanking words: the control condition - flanking words were oriented upright; scrambled - letters in each flanking word were scrambled in order; horizontal-flip - each flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; letter-flip - each letter of the flanking word was the left-right mirror-image of the original; and vertical-flip - each flanking word was the up-down mirror-image of the original. The low-level letter feature interaction hypothesis predicts similar word crowding effect for all the different flanker configurations, while the high-level holistic representation hypothesis predicts less word crowding effect for all the alternative flanker conditions, compared with the control condition. We found that oral reading speed for words flanked above and below by other words, measured at 10° eccentricity in the nasal field, showed the same dependence on the vertical separation between the target and its flanking words, for the various flanker configurations. The result was also similar when we rotated the flanking words by 90° to disrupt the periodic vertical pattern, which presumably is the main structure in words. The remarkably similar word crowding effect irrespective of the flanker configurations suggests that word crowding arises as a consequence of interactions of low-level letter features. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Video Game Vocabulary : The effect of video games on Swedish learners‟ word comprehension

    OpenAIRE

    Laveborn, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Video games are very popular among children in the Western world. This study was done in order to investigate if video games had an effect on 49 Swedish students‟ comprehension of English words (grades 7-8). The investigation was based on questionnaire and word test data. The questionnaire aimed to measure with which frequency students were playing video games, and the word test aimed to measure their word comprehension in general. In addition, data from the word test were used to investigate...

  10. Individual differences in emotion word processing: A diffusion model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christina J; Kuchinke, Lars

    2016-06-01

    The exploratory study investigated individual differences in implicit processing of emotional words in a lexical decision task. A processing advantage for positive words was observed, and differences between happy and fear-related words in response times were predicted by individual differences in specific variables of emotion processing: Whereas more pronounced goal-directed behavior was related to a specific slowdown in processing of fear-related words, the rate of spontaneous eye blinks (indexing brain dopamine levels) was associated with a processing advantage of happy words. Estimating diffusion model parameters revealed that the drift rate (rate of information accumulation) captures unique variance of processing differences between happy and fear-related words, with highest drift rates observed for happy words. Overall emotion recognition ability predicted individual differences in drift rates between happy and fear-related words. The findings emphasize that a significant amount of variance in emotion processing is explained by individual differences in behavioral data.

  11. Task-irrelevant spider associations affect categorization performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woud, M.L.; Ellwart, T.; Langner, O.; Rinck, M.; Becker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    In two studies, the Single Target Implicit Association Test (STIAT) was used to investigate automatic associations toward spiders. In both experiments, we measured the strength of associations between pictures of spiders and either threat-related words or pleasant words. Unlike previous studies, we

  12. Negative affect words prime beer consumption in young drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zack, Martin; Poulos, Constantine X; Fragopoulos, Fofo; Woodford, Tracy M; MacLeod, Colin M

    2006-01-01

    Negative affect is consistently associated with pathological aspects of alcohol use. Priming of motivation for alcohol by negative affect cues may contribute to this relationship. This study sought to determine whether: (a) exposure to negative affect words primes actual drinking behavior; (b) this effect is related to severity of alcohol problems; and (c) these effects are moderated by gender and anxiety sensitivity. Prime words (negative, positive, neutral) were administered using a synonym generation task. Primed drinking behavior was measured in a taste-test procedure, using placebo beer. Drinking scores were significantly greater in the negative affect condition than in the other two conditions, which did not differ from each other. Problem drinking severity directly predicted priming effects of negative affect words but was unrelated to drinking in the other two word prime conditions. Anxiety sensitivity was unrelated to drinking in any condition. Even unobtrusive exposure to negative affect cues can prime drinking behavior in young drinkers, and this effect is tied to the severity of alcohol problems.

  13. Word Spotting and Recognition with Embedded Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almazán, Jon; Gordo, Albert; Fornés, Alicia; Valveny, Ernest

    2014-12-01

    This paper addresses the problems of word spotting and word recognition on images. In word spotting, the goal is to find all instances of a query word in a dataset of images. In recognition, the goal is to recognize the content of the word image, usually aided by a dictionary or lexicon. We describe an approach in which both word images and text strings are embedded in a common vectorial subspace. This is achieved by a combination of label embedding and attributes learning, and a common subspace regression. In this subspace, images and strings that represent the same word are close together, allowing one to cast recognition and retrieval tasks as a nearest neighbor problem. Contrary to most other existing methods, our representation has a fixed length, is low dimensional, and is very fast to compute and, especially, to compare. We test our approach on four public datasets of both handwritten documents and natural images showing results comparable or better than the state-of-the-art on spotting and recognition tasks.

  14. Word encoding during sleep is suggested by correlations between word-evoked up-states and post-sleep semantic priming

    OpenAIRE

    Simon eRuch; Thomas eKoenig; Johannes eMathis; Corinne eRoth; Katharina eHenke

    2014-01-01

    To test whether humans can encode words during sleep we played everyday words to men while they were napping and assessed priming from sleep-played words following waking. Words were presented during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Priming was assessed using a semantic and a perceptual priming test. These tests measured differences in the processing of words that had been or had not been played during sleep. Synonyms to sleep-played words were the targets in the semantic priming test tha...

  15. Posture Affects How Robots and Infants Map Words to Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F.; Benitez, Viridian L.; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B.

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body – and its momentary posture – may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1–3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1–5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies’ momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6–9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge –not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping – but through the body’s momentary disposition in space. PMID:25785834

  16. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F Morse

    Full Text Available For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7, or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9. A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5 is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9. Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  17. Posture affects how robots and infants map words to objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Anthony F; Benitez, Viridian L; Belpaeme, Tony; Cangelosi, Angelo; Smith, Linda B

    2015-01-01

    For infants, the first problem in learning a word is to map the word to its referent; a second problem is to remember that mapping when the word and/or referent are again encountered. Recent infant studies suggest that spatial location plays a key role in how infants solve both problems. Here we provide a new theoretical model and new empirical evidence on how the body - and its momentary posture - may be central to these processes. The present study uses a name-object mapping task in which names are either encountered in the absence of their target (experiments 1-3, 6 & 7), or when their target is present but in a location previously associated with a foil (experiments 4, 5, 8 & 9). A humanoid robot model (experiments 1-5) is used to instantiate and test the hypothesis that body-centric spatial location, and thus the bodies' momentary posture, is used to centrally bind the multimodal features of heard names and visual objects. The robot model is shown to replicate existing infant data and then to generate novel predictions, which are tested in new infant studies (experiments 6-9). Despite spatial location being task-irrelevant in this second set of experiments, infants use body-centric spatial contingency over temporal contingency to map the name to object. Both infants and the robot remember the name-object mapping even in new spatial locations. However, the robot model shows how this memory can emerge -not from separating bodily information from the word-object mapping as proposed in previous models of the role of space in word-object mapping - but through the body's momentary disposition in space.

  18. Associated factors to urinary incontinence in women undergoing urodynamic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliana Cristina Pereira da; Soler, Zaida Aurora Sperli Geraldes; DominguesWysocki, Anneliese

    2017-04-03

    Analyzing factors associated with urinary incontinence (UI) among women submitted to urodynamic testing. A cross-sectional study of 150 women attended at a urological center. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistics. White women (79.3%), overweight (45.3%), menopausal (53.3%), who drink coffee (82.7%), sedentary (65.3%), who had vaginal birth (51.4%), with episiotomy (80%), and who underwent the Kristeller maneuver (69%). 60.7% had Urethral Hypermobility (UH). A statistical association was found between: weight change and UH (p = 0.024); menopause, Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD) and Detrusor Instability (DI) (p = 0.001); gynecological surgery, ISD and DI (p = 0.014); hysterectomy and all types of UI (p = 0.040); physical activity and mixed UI (p = 0.014). Interventions and guidance on preventing UI and strengthening pelvic muscles should be directed at women who present weight changes, who are sedentary menopausal women, and those who have undergone hysterectomy or other gynecological surgery. Studies on pelvic strengthening methods are needed in order to take into account the profile of the needs presented by women. Analisar os fatores associados à Incontinência Urinária (IU) entre mulheres submetidas a estudo urodinâmico. Estudo transversal realizado com 150 mulheres atendidas em um centro urológico. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística uni e multivariada. Mulheres brancas (79,3%), com sobrepeso (45,3%), na menopausa (53,3%), que ingeriam café (82,7%), sedentárias (65,3%), que fizeram parto normal (51,4%), com episiotomia (80%), que sofreram Manobra de Kristeller (69%). 60,7% apresentavam HipermobilidadeUretral (HU).Houve associação estatística entre: mudança de peso e HU (p=0,024); menopausa,Deficiência Esfincteriana Intrínseca (DEI) e Instabilidade Detrusora (ID) (p=0,001); cirurgia ginecológica, DEI e ID (p=0,014); histerectomia etodos os tipos de IU (p=0,040); realização de atividade física eIU mista

  19. The Utility and Ubiquity of Taboo Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Timothy

    2009-03-01

    Taboo words are defined and sanctioned by institutions of power (e.g., religion, media), and prohibitions are reiterated in child-rearing practices. Native speakers acquire folk knowledge of taboo words, but it lacks the complexity that psychological science requires for an understanding of swearing. Misperceptions persist in psychological science and in society at large about how frequently people swear or what it means when they do. Public recordings of taboo words establish the commonplace occurrence of swearing (ubiquity), although frequency data are not always appreciated in laboratory research. A set of 10 words that has remained stable over the past 20 years accounts for 80% of public swearing. Swearing is positively correlated with extraversion and Type A hostility but negatively correlated with agreeableness, conscientiousness, religiosity, and sexual anxiety. The uniquely human facility for swearing evolved and persists because taboo words can communicate emotion information (anger, frustration) more readily than nontaboo words, allowing speakers to achieve a variety of personal and social goals with them (utility). A neuro-psycho-social framework is offered to unify taboo word research. Suggestions for future research are offered. © 2009 Association for Psychological Science.

  20. Berge, word lug! Werklikheid, word water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Viljoen

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Breyten Breytenbach is vandag erg omstrede; sy werk ook. Omstrede in die eerste instansie om sy politieke betrokkenheid. Hy skryf iramers (of haal aan "The duty of the artist is to overthrow his government" (Boom p 119. Sy digbundel Skrytj om 'n sinkende skip blou te verf (1972 is om politieke redes verbied - twee jaar nadat dit verskyn het. Sy jongste prosaboek, 'n Seisoen in die paradys (ironiese sinspeling op Rimbaud se Une Saison en enfer, sal - uit vrees vir sensuur om politieke redes - waarskynlik nooit verskyn nie (Anon 1975a kol 1. 'n Paar hoofstukke daarvan het darem al in Rapport verskyn (Breytenbach 1974c. By sy verhoor in Pretoria het Breytenbach onder andere om verskoning gevra vir die dinge wat hy in Skryt geskryf het, maar dit het sy omstredenheid eerder vererger. Hierdie dinge mag nie uit die oog verloor word nie, omdat dit neig om die oordeel oor sy werk te vertroebel.

  1. Sign Facilitation in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauters, Loes N.; Knoors, Harry E. T.; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Aarnoutse, Cor A. J.

    2001-01-01

    This study examined whether use of sign language would facilitate reading word recognition by 16 deaf children (6- to 1 years-old) in the Netherlands. Results indicated that if words were learned through speech, accompanied by the relevant sign, accuracy of word recognition was greater than if words were learned solely through speech. (Contains…

  2. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  3. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  4. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  5. Microsoft Word 2007 - Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Roque, Vítor; Silva, Inês; Marques, Fátima

    2007-01-01

    O Microsoft Word 2007 é um processador de texto, que constitui uma poderosa ferramenta de auxílio à elaboração de documentos. Com este software, o utilizador pode criar uma grande diversidade de documentos, recorrendo a funcionalidades como o uso de tabelas, gráficos, índices, imagens, som, vídeo, texto em colunas, entre muitas outras. O Word 2007 pode também constituir uma alternativa válida para a elaboração de páginas Web, permitindo criar páginas atractivas e dinâmicas com ...

  6. The relationship between knowing a word and reading it aloud in children's word reading development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nation, Kate; Cocksey, Joanne

    2009-07-01

    This experiment examined the item-level relationship between 7-year-olds' ability to read words aloud and their knowledge of the same words in the oral domain. Two types of knowledge were contrasted: familiarity with the phonological form of the word (lexical phonology), measured by auditory lexical decision, and semantic knowledge, measured by a definitions task. Overall, there was a robust relationship between word knowledge and reading aloud success. The association was stronger when words contained irregular spelling-sound correspondences. There was no evidence that a deeper or more semantic knowledge of words was more closely related to reading aloud success beyond the association between reading success and familiarity with the phonological form of the same words. This finding is not compatible with models that see semantics as contributing directly to the reading aloud process, at least during the relatively early stages of reading development. More critical was whether or not a word was considered a lexical item, as indexed by auditory lexical decision performance.

  7. 21 CFR 866.6010 - Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Tumor Associated Antigen immunological Test Systems § 866.6010 Tumor-associated antigen immunological test system. (a) Identification. A...

  8. Clinical utility of celiac disease associated HLA testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallav, Kumar; Kabbani, Toufic; Tariq, Sohaib; Vanga, Rohini; Kelly, Ciaran P.; Leffler, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative predictive value (NPV) of Celiac Disease (CD) related human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DQ2 and DQ8 approaches 100% in individual patients. However, studies evaluating its exclusionary utility in patient groups are lacking. Aim We aim to assess the performance of HLA testing when applied to patient groups with varying characteristics and propose evidence-based recommendations for its clinical use. Methods Demographic and clinical information was recorded in patients undergoing HLA testing. Using predetermined criteria, patients were classified as CD, Non CD or indeterminate. Diagnostic yield of HLA testing was defined as the percentage of patients in whom CD could be excluded based on negative HLA test. Results 256 patients underwent testing for CD related HLA DQ2 and DQ8. 102 (100 Non CD, 2 CD) patients tested HLA negative for a 98% NPV and 39% diagnostic yield. Diagnostic yield was highest (60%) in patients with intraepithelial lymphocytosis plus normal IgA tissue transglutaminase antibody (IgA-tTG) and lowest in patients with positive IgA-tTG plus villous atrophy (0%). CD was diagnosed in 2 HLA negative patients, who carried half of DQ2.5 trans genotype. Conclusions Diagnostic yield of CD related HLA testing varies widely depending on clinical indication. HLA testing is a practical and valuable test for most patients in whom initial evaluation for CD is inconclusive. A negative HLA result usually obviates the need for further celiac testing including endoscopy and gluten challenge. Rarely, in patients reported as HLA negative, half of HLA DQ2.5 (cis or trans) is sufficient for development of CD. PMID:24705698

  9. Encoding Deficits Impede Word Learning and Memory in Adults with Developmental Language Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Karla K.; Gordon, Katherine; Eden, Nichole; Arbisi-Kelm, Tim; Oleson, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether the word-learning challenges associated with developmental language disorder (DLD) result from encoding or retention deficits. Method In Study 1, 59 postsecondary students with DLD and 60 with normal development (ND) took the California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition, Adult Version…

  10. Homotopy invariants of Gauss words

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    By defining combinatorial moves, we can define an equivalence relation on Gauss words called homotopy. In this paper we define a homotopy invariant of Gauss words. We use this to show that there exist Gauss words that are not homotopically equivalent to the empty Gauss word, disproving a conjecture by Turaev. In fact, we show that there are an infinite number of equivalence classes of Gauss words under homotopy.

  11. Barriers and facilitators associated with HIV testing uptake in South African health facilities offering HIV Counselling and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neo Mohlabane

    2016-10-01

    Objective: An HCT survey was carried out to ascertain barriers and facilitators for HIV testing in South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 67 HCT-offering health facilities in 8 South African provinces was undertaken. Individuals (n = 489 who had not tested for HIV on the day of the site visit were interviewed on awareness of HCT services, HIV testing history and barriers to HIV testing. Frequencies were run to describe the sample characteristics, barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was usedt o identify the association between never tested for HIV with socio-demographics, awareness of HCT services and type of HCT facilities. Results: In all 18.1% participants never had an HIV test. Major barriers to HCT uptake comprise being scared of finding out one's HIV test result or what people may say, shyness or embarrassment, avoidance of divulging personal information to health workers and fear of death. In multivariate analysis the age group 55 years and older, and not being recommended to have an HIV test were associated with never had an HIV test. Potential facilitators for HIV testing include community or household HIV testing, providing incentives for those who test for HIV, mandatory HIV testing and disclosure of HIV status by those who test HIV positive. Conclusion: The benefits of HCT which include the reduction of HIV transmission, the availability of HIV care and treatment needs to be emphasized to enhance HCT uptake.

  12. Magnitude of phonetic distinction predicts success at early word learning in native and non-native accents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola eEscudero

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Although infants perceptually attune to native vowels and consonants well before 12 months, at 13–15 months, they have difficulty learning to associate novel words that differ by their initial consonant (e.g., BIN and DIN to their visual referents. However, this difficulty may not apply to all minimal-pair novel words. While Canadian English (CE 15-month-olds failed to respond to a switch from the newly learned word DEET to the novel nonword DOOT, they did notice a switch from DEET to DIT (Curtin, Fennell, & Escudero, 2009. Those authors argued that early word learners capitalize on large phonetic differences, seen in CE DEET–DIT, but not on smaller phonetic differences, as in CE DEET–DOOT. To assess this hypothesis, we tested Australian English (AusE 15-month-olds, as AusE has a smaller magnitude of phonetic difference in both novel word pairs. Two groups of infants were trained on the novel word DEET and tested on the vowel switches in DIT and DOOT, produced by an AusE female speaker or the same CE female speaker as in Curtin et al. (2009. If the size of the phonetic distinction plays a more central role than native accent experience in early word learning, AusE children should more easily recognize both of the unfamiliar but larger CE vowel switches than the more familiar but smaller AusE ones. The results support our phonetic-magnitude hypothesis: AusE children taught and tested with the CE-accented novel words looked longer to both of the switch test trials (DIT, DOOT than same test trials (DEET, while those who heard the AusE-accented tokens did not notice either switch. Implications of our findings for models of early word learning are discussed.

  13. [Test anxiety: associations with personal and family variables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosário, Pedro; Núñez, José Carlos; Salgado, Ana; González-Pienda, Julio A; Valle, Antonio; Joly, Cristina; Bernardo, Ana

    2008-11-01

    Test anxiety is a common behavior among students facing social pressure centered on mastery. Only a few studies have analyzed the relations between test anxiety, academic procrastination, personal and family variables and math grades. This work focus on the analysis of the impact of students' social-personal variables such as parents' education level, number of siblings and under-achievement by performing ANOVAs in two samples of 533 and 796 students from junior high-school. Corroborating the findings in other studies, the data stress that test anxiety is higher in girls and decreases when students' parents have higher educational levels, with the number of courses flunked, and when students' math grades were lower. Test anxiety and procrastination correlate positive and significantly. Findings are discussed and compared with those of previous researches. The implications for teaching practice are also analyzed.

  14. Testing a Nested Skills Model of the Relations among Invented Spelling, Accurate Spelling, and Word Reading, from Kindergarten to Grade 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Monique

    2017-01-01

    The goal was to assess the role of invented spelling to subsequent reading and spelling as proposed by the Nested Skills Model of Early Literacy Acquisition. 107 English-speaking children were tested at the beginning of kindergarten and grade 1, and at the end of grade 1. The findings provided support for the proposed model. First, the role played…

  15. From word superiority to word inferiority: Visual processing of letters and words in pure alexia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habekost, Thomas; Petersen, Anders; Behrmann, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    impaired in letter naming and word processing, and performance with letters and words was dissociated in all four patients, with word reading being more severely impaired than letter recognition. This suggests that the word reading deficit in pure alexia may not be reduced to an impairment in single letter...

  16. Automatic Word Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Cited OTHER PUBLICATIONS Wu, Hua, etal., “Boosting Statistical Word Alignment Using Labeled and Unlabeled Data” Toshiba (China) research and...Labeled and Unlabeled Data” Toshiba {China) Research and Development Center (Jul. 1, 2006) pp. 913-920. * cited by examiner U .S. Patent F eb.18, 2014

  17. Have Words, Will Understand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Shifting the focus from words to concepts--does it work? The author shares his findings from such a project with three primary schools in the UK. Many children aged 7-10 find mastering the language of science difficult and do not make the progress that they could. Encountering complex terminology in the science language causes students to become…

  18. A Life in Words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siegumfeldt, Inge Birgitte; Auster, Paul

    "Paul Auster's A Life in Words--a wide-ranging dialogue between Auster and the Danish professor I.B. Siegumfeldt--is a remarkably candid and often surprising celebration of one writer's art, craft, and life. It includes many revelations that have never been shared before, such as that he doesn...

  19. Stigma associated with sexually transmissible infection testing in an online testing environment: examining the perspectives of youth in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamouzian, Mohammad; Knight, Rod; Davis, Wendy M; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-09-01

    Background: Online sexually transmissible infection (STI) testing is increasingly available and has shown promising results across different settings. However, evidence on how stigma associated with STI testing may be experienced by youth in the context of these online services is limited. Methods: A convenience sample of 71 youth (aged 15-24 years) both male and female was engaged through online and offline recruitment strategies in Vancouver, Canada. Through semistructured and exploratory interviews, participants were asked about their perceptions of stigma associated with STI testing in an online testing environment. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results: Youth came from a diverse set of sociodemographic backgrounds and most (n=46, 65%) had previously accessed STI testing in clinic-based settings. Participants' perceptions pointed to the benefits of online testing for reducing the external stigma despite the potential persistence of internalised stigma. Notions of hegemonic masculinity and emphasised femininity were also present in the participants' descriptions of the role of gender in accessing online STI testing. Conclusions: Online STI testing could potentially ameliorate the experiences of participants in regards to the stigma associated with STI testing; however, participants' internalised feelings of shame and stigma around testing for STI may continue to persist. Our findings underscore the need to revisit and re-evaluate existing STI testing services to provide less anxiety-inducing testing environments for youth.

  20. Word encoding during sleep is suggested by correlations between word-evoked up-states and post-sleep semantic priming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon eRuch

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available To test whether humans can encode words during sleep we played everyday words to men while they were napping and assessed priming from sleep-played words following waking. Words were presented during non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. Priming was assessed using a semantic and a perceptual priming test. These tests measured differences in the processing of words that had been or had not been played during sleep. Synonyms to sleep-played words were the targets in the semantic priming test that tapped the meaning of sleep-played words. All men responded to sleep-played words by producing up-states in their electroencephalogram. Up-states are NREM sleep-specific phases of briefly increased neuronal excitability. The word-evoked up-states might have promoted word processing during sleep. Yet, the mean performance in the priming tests administered following sleep was at chance level, which suggests that participants as a group failed to show priming following sleep. However, performance in the two priming tests was positively correlated to each other and to the magnitude of the word-evoked up-states. Hence, the larger a participant’s word-evoked up-states, the larger his perceptual and semantic priming. Those participants who scored high on all variables must have encoded words during sleep. We conclude that some humans are able to encode words during sleep, but more research is needed to pin down the factors that modulate this ability.

  1. Word encoding during sleep is suggested by correlations between word-evoked up-states and post-sleep semantic priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Simon; Koenig, Thomas; Mathis, Johannes; Roth, Corinne; Henke, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    To test whether humans can encode words during sleep we played everyday words to men while they were napping and assessed priming from sleep-played words following waking. Words were presented during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Priming was assessed using a semantic and a perceptual priming test. These tests measured differences in the processing of words that had been or had not been played during sleep. Synonyms to sleep-played words were the targets in the semantic priming test that tapped the meaning of sleep-played words. All men responded to sleep-played words by producing up-states in their electroencephalogram. Up-states are NREM sleep-specific phases of briefly increased neuronal excitability. The word-evoked up-states might have promoted word processing during sleep. Yet, the mean performance in the priming tests administered following sleep was at chance level, which suggests that participants as a group failed to show priming following sleep. However, performance in the two priming tests was positively correlated to each other and to the magnitude of the word-evoked up-states. Hence, the larger a participant's word-evoked up-states, the larger his perceptual and semantic priming. Those participants who scored high on all variables must have encoded words during sleep. We conclude that some humans are able to encode words during sleep, but more research is needed to pin down the factors that modulate this ability.

  2. Measuring automatic associations: validation of algorithms for the Implicit Association Test (IAT) in a laboratory setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glashouwer, Klaske A; Smulders, Fren T Y; de Jong, Peter J; Roefs, Anne; Wiers, Reinout W H J

    2013-03-01

    In their paper, "Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: I. An improved scoring algorithm", Greenwald, Nosek, and Banaji (2003) investigated different ways to calculate the IAT-effect. However, up to now, it remained unclear whether these findings - based on internet data - also generalize to laboratory settings. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to cross-validate scoring algorithms for the IAT in a laboratory setting, specifically in the domain of psychopathology. Four known IAT algorithms and seven alternative IAT algorithms were evaluated on several performance criteria in the large-scale laboratory sample of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (N = 2981) in which two IATs were included to obtain measurements of automatic self-anxious and automatic self-depressed associations. Results clearly demonstrated that the D(2SD)-measure and the D(600)-measure as well as an alternative algorithm based on the correct trials only (D(noEP)-measure) are suitable to be used in a laboratory setting for IATs with a fixed order of category combinations. It remains important to further replicate these findings, especially in studies that include outcome measures of more spontaneous kinds of behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Word Generalization by a Dog (Canis familiaris): Is Shape Important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zee, Emile; Zulch, Helen; Mills, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the presence of a key feature of human word comprehension in a five year old Border Collie: the generalization of a word referring to an object to other objects of the same shape, also known as shape bias. Our first experiment confirmed a solid history of word learning in the dog, thus making it possible for certain object features to have become central in his word comprehension. Using an experimental paradigm originally employed to establish shape bias in children and human adults we taught the dog arbitrary object names (e.g. dax) for novel objects. Two experiments showed that when briefly familiarized with word-object mappings the dog did not generalize object names to object shape but to object size. A fourth experiment showed that when familiarized with a word-object mapping for a longer period of time the dog tended to generalize the word to objects with the same texture. These results show that the dog tested did not display human-like word comprehension, but word generalization and word reference development of a qualitatively different nature compared to humans. We conclude that a shape bias for word generalization in humans is due to the distinct evolutionary history of the human sensory system for object identification and that more research is necessary to confirm qualitative differences in word generalization between humans and dogs. PMID:23185321

  4. Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec Word Prosody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Lucien Serapio

    This dissertation presents a phonological description and acoustic analysis of the word prosody of Ixpantepec Nieves Mixtec, which involves both a complex tone system and a default stress system. The analysis of Nieves Mixtec word prosody is complicated by a close association between morphological structure and prosodic structure, and by the interactions between word prosody and phonation type, which has both contrastive and non-contrastive roles in the phonology. I contextualize these systems within the phonology of Nieves Mixtec as a whole, within the literature on other Mixtec varieties, and within the literature on cross-linguistic prosodic typology. The literature on prosodic typology indicates that stress is necessarily defined abstractly, as structured prominence realized differently in each language. Descriptions of stress in other Mixtec varieties widely report default stress on the initial syllable of the canonical bimoraic root, though some descriptions suggest final stress or mobile stress. I first present phonological evidence---from distributional restrictions, phonological processes, and loanword adaptation---that Nieves Mixtec word prosody does involve a stress system, based on trochaic feet aligned to the root. I then present an acoustic study comparing stressed syllables to unstressed syllables, for ten potential acoustic correlates of stress. The results indicate that the acoustic correlates of stress in Nieves Mixtec include segmental duration, intensity and periodicity. Building on analyses of other Mixtec tone systems, I show that the distribution of tone and the tone processes in Nieves Mixtec support an analysis in which morae may bear H, M or L tone, where M tone is underlyingly unspecified, and each morpheme may sponsor a final +H or +L floating tone. Bimoraic roots thus host up to two linked tones and one floating tone, while monomoraic clitics host just one linked tone and one floating tone, and tonal morphemes are limited to a single

  5. Evaluation of Criteria Associated with Abdominal Fitness Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Loarn D.; Magnusdottir, Hjordis

    1987-01-01

    The use of the timed sit up as a measure of abdominal fitness has been challenged. This article describes experiments designed to evaluate a modified curl up test as an alternative. Subjects were 20 college students averaging 25.3 years of age. Results are discussed. (Author/MT)

  6. Barriers and facilitators associated with HIV testing uptake in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major barriers to HCT uptake comprise being scared of finding out one's HIV test result or what people may say, shyness or embarrassment, avoidance of divulging personal information to health workers and fear of death. In multivariate analysis the age group 55 years and older, and not being recommended to have an HIV ...

  7. Errors Associated with Flexure Testing of Brittle Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    DeSALVO , G. J. Theory and Structural Defin Applications of Welbull Statistics. Westinghouse Astronuclesr Laboratory, WANL-TME- 2688, 1970. 24 F = 1 - exp...ty.Elghth Conftence on the Desig of Experiments in Army Reearc, Deripeaat and Testing, 1983. 28. DeSALVO , G.J. Theory ed Structual Deftx Apphlcetioes of

  8. Prevalence of positive tuberculin skin test and associated factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    not consent to participate in the study and known TB patients were excluded. For each study participant a questionnaire with relevant information was completed, including age, sex, year of study, prior contact with a TB case, and BCG vaccina- tion status. A trained counselor provided pre and post- test counseling for HIV.

  9. A “Bat” Is Easier to Learn than a “Tab”: Effects of Relative Phonotactic Frequency on Infant Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Nayeli; Poltrock, Silvana; Nazzi, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when) the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants’ word learning. We exploit the fact that Labial-Coronal (LC) words are more frequent than Coronal-Labial (CL) words in French, and that French-learning infants prefer LC over CL sequences at 10 months of age, to explore the possibility that LC structures might be learned more easily and thus at an earlier age than CL structures. Eye movements of French-learning 14- and 16-month-olds were recorded while they watched animated cartoons in a word learning task. The experiment involved four trials testing LC sequences and four trials testing CL sequences. Our data reveal that 16-month-olds were able to learn the LC and CL words, while14-month-olds were only able to learn the LC words, which are the words with the more frequent phonotactic pattern. The present results provide evidence that infants’ knowledge of their native language phonotactic patterns influences their word learning: Words with a frequent phonotactic structure could be acquired at an earlier age than those with a lower probability. Developmental changes are discussed and integrated with previous findings. PMID:23527227

  10. Association test with the principal component analysis in case ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-06-05

    Jun 5, 2015 ... The statistic here focuses on all the principal components and is asymp- totically distributed as a χ2 distribution with one degree of freedom. Simulation .... 1, ··· , p. Then, under the null hypothesis of no association, the following statistic TPC is asymptotically a central χ2. (1) distribution: TPC = ( p. ∑ k=1.

  11. Opt-Out HIV Testing of Inmates in North Carolina Prisons: Factors Associated with not Wanting a Test and not Knowing They Were Tested.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodensky, Catherine A; Rosen, David L; Hino, Sayaka; Golin, Carol E; Wohl, David A

    2016-04-01

    Opt-out HIV testing is recommended for correctional settings but may occur without inmates' knowledge or against their wishes. Through surveying inmates receiving opt-out testing in a large prison system, we estimated the proportion unaware of being tested or not wanting a test, and associations [prevalence ratios (PRs)] with inmate characteristics. Of 871 tested, 11.8 % were unknowingly tested and 10.8 % had unwanted tests. Not attending an educational HIV course [PR = 2.34, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.47-3.74], lower HIV knowledge (PR = 0.95, 95 % CI 0.91-0.98), and thinking testing is not mandatory (PR = 9.84, 95 % CI 4.93-19.67) were associated with unawareness of testing. No prior incarcerations (PR = 1.59, 95 % CI 1.03-2.46) and not using crack/cocaine recently (PR = 2.37, 95 % CI 1.21-4.64) were associated with unwanted testing. Residence at specific facilities was associated with both outcomes. Increased assessment of inmate understanding and enhanced implementation are needed to ensure inmates receive full benefits of opt-out testing: being informed and tested according to their wishes.

  12. The emotional carryover effect in memory for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stephen R; Schmidt, Constance R

    2016-08-01

    Emotional material rarely occurs in isolation; rather it is experienced in the spatial and temporal proximity of less emotional items. Some previous researchers have found that emotional stimuli impair memory for surrounding information, whereas others have reported evidence for memory facilitation. Researchers have not determined which types of emotional items or memory tests produce effects that carry over to surrounding items. Six experiments are reported that measured carryover from emotional words varying in arousal to temporally adjacent neutral words. Taboo, non-taboo emotional, and neutral words were compared using different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs), recognition and recall tests, and intentional and incidental memory instructions. Strong emotional memory effects were obtained in all six experiments. However, emotional items influenced memory for temporally adjacent words under limited conditions. Words following taboo words were more poorly remembered than words following neutral words when relatively short SOAs were employed. Words preceding taboo words were affected only when recall tests and relatively short retention intervals were used. These results suggest that increased attention to the emotional items sometimes produces emotional carryover effects; however, retrieval processes also contribute to retrograde amnesia and may extend the conditions under which anterograde amnesia is observed.

  13. Multiplex PCR Tests for Detection of Pathogens Associated with Gastroenteritis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hongwei; Morrison, Scott; Tang, Yi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of enteric pathogens can cause infectious gastroenteritis. Conventional diagnostic algorithms including culture, biochemical identification, immunoassay and microscopic examination are time consuming and often lack sensitivity and specificity. Advances in molecular technology have as allowed its use as clinical diagnostic tools. Multiplex PCR based testing has made its way to gastroenterology diagnostic arena in recent years. In this article we present a review of recent laborato...

  14. One picture or a thousand words? Influence of question length and illustration support on the success and skip rates on online tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest REDONDO

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing popularity of automatically graded online tests, either as an evaluation or self-assessment tool in online or blended education, demands a review of how these questions are designed and delivered to their intended audience. This paper analyzes the results of over 20,000 pre-university mock online quizzes designed to train the students for the Spanish university admission test (known as “Pruebas de Acceso a la Universidad” or “Selectividad” in the technical drawing subject, corresponding to the June and September intakes of 2009 and 2015. The influence of two key aspects on the questions success and skip rates is assessed: (a the presence or absence of illustration support and (b the length of the question as a proxy of reading comprehension difficulty. The results support that the presence of an accompanying illustration in the questions result in fewer skipped questions and mode successful answers, while the length of the question has the opposite effect. The performance difference in the 6-year span is also discussed, showing a slight decline over time in the pass rates while the skip rates remain stable. When comparing both two intakes, corresponding to different academic profiles of students that passed the June exam and those who did not, the success ratio is unsurprisingly lower for the students in the second intake. These findings should help improving the design of online quizzes, including more visual content and/or rephrasing the questions to be more concise, to fit the requirements of students educated in a more visual environment of multimedia technologies.

  15. Locus of Word Frequency Effects in Spelling to Dictation: Still at the Orthographic Level!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Patrick; Laroche, Betty; Perret, Cyril

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed at testing the locus of word frequency effects in spelling to dictation: Are they located at the level of spoken word recognition (Chua & Rickard Liow, 2014) or at the level of the orthographic output lexicon (Delattre, Bonin, & Barry, 2006)? Words that varied on objective word frequency and on phonological…

  16. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  17. Utility of testing for apraxia and associated features in dementia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, S.; Baker, I.; Thompson, S; Husain, M.; Butler, CR

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that the presence or absence of apraxia and associated parietal deficits may be clinically relevant in differential diagnosis of dementia syndromes.This study investigated the profile of these features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum disorders, at first presentation.Retrospective case note analysis was undertaken in 111 patients who presented to the Oxford Cognitive Disorders Clinic, Oxford, UK, including 29 amnestic AD, 12 p...

  18. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine; Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid

    2017-01-01

    In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of...... how the presence of individual-specific behavior-based social information in a movie streaming service affects potential users’ attitude towards and intentions to use the service.......In this research in progress-paper, we introduce the notion of ‘Electronic Word of Behavior’ (eWOB) to describe the phenomenon of consumers’ product-related behaviors increasingly made observable by online social environments. We employ Observational Learning theory to conceptualize the notion of e...

  19. A Moist Crevice for Word Aversion: In Semantics Not Sounds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul H Thibodeau

    Full Text Available Why do people self-report an aversion to words like "moist"? The present studies represent an initial scientific exploration into the phenomenon of word aversion by investigating its prevalence and cause. Results of five experiments indicate that about 10-20% of the population is averse to the word "moist." This population often speculates that phonological properties of the word are the cause of their displeasure. However, data from the current studies point to semantic features of the word-namely, associations with disgusting bodily functions-as a more prominent source of peoples' unpleasant experience. "Moist," for averse participants, was notable for its valence and personal use, rather than imagery or arousal-a finding that was confirmed by an experiment designed to induce an aversion to the word. Analyses of individual difference measures suggest that word aversion is more prevalent among younger, more educated, and more neurotic people, and is more commonly reported by females than males.

  20. Visual content of words delays negation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    a century, the phenomenon has not played a role in the development of linguistic typology or modern grammatical theory. The current volume aims to address this gap by offering detailed studies on flexible word classes, investigating their properties and what it means for the grammar of a language to have...... Indonesian, Santali, Sri Lanka Malay, Lushootseed, Gooniyandi, and Late Archaic Chinese. Readership: Linguists and students of linguistics and cognitive sciences, anthropologists, philosophers...

  2. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  3. Nine Words - Nine Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trempe Jr., Robert B.; Buthke, Jan

    2016-01-01

    This book records the efforts of a one-week joint workshop between Master students from Studio 2B of Arkitektskolen Aarhus and Master students from the Harbin Institute of Technology in Harbin, China. The workshop employed nine action words to instigate team-based investigation into the effects o...... as formwork for the shaping of wood veneer. The resulting columns ‘wear’ every aspect of this design pipeline process and display the power of process towards an architectural resolution....

  4. What's in a word? What's a word in?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Line Brink

    2011-01-01

    factors. Mystudyconcentrates onneologism (i.e. the study of new words) and grammaticalization (i.e. the study of word change). From an integrationist’s framework, words do not obtain meaning outside the situational context. The results can include difficulties on how one can explain conventions, norms...

  5. Using WordNet for Building WordNets

    CERN Document Server

    Farreres, X; Farreres, Xavier; Rodriguez, Horacio; Rigau, German

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarises a set of methodologies and techniques for the fast construction of multilingual WordNets. The English WordNet is used in this approach as a backbone for Catalan and Spanish WordNets and as a lexical knowledge resource for several subtasks.

  6. Semantic Context and Word Frequency Effects in Visual Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Curtis A.

    1979-01-01

    Schuberth and Eimas (EJ 159 939) reported that context and frequency effects added to determine reaction times in a lexical decision (word v nonword) task. The present reexamination shows that context and frequency do interact, with semantic context facilitating the processing of low-frequency words more than high-frequency words. (Author/CP)

  7. Word Maturity: A New Metric for Word Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K.; Kireyev, Kirill; Panaccione, Charles

    2011-01-01

    A new metric, Word Maturity, estimates the development by individual students of knowledge of every word in a large corpus. The metric is constructed by Latent Semantic Analysis modeling of word knowledge as a function of the reading that a simulated learner has done and is calibrated by its developing closeness in information content to that of a…

  8. The assessment of deep word knowledge in young first and second language learners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonen, R.; Verhallen-van Ling, M.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of so-called depth of word knowledge has been the focus of research for some years now. In this article the construct of deep word knowledge is further specified as the decontextualized knowledge of word meanings and word associations. Most studies so far have involved adolescent and

  9. Determination of operating characteristic, retesting, and testing amount probabilities associated with testing for the presence of Salmonella in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Foster D; Lee, Jung K

    2011-01-01

    The relatively small perceived probability associated with retesting a food for the presence of Salmonella at low levels is often considered as one of the reasons that a confirmatory or check-analysis tends to disagree in practice with the results of an original test. Given a retesting process where a retest is only performed to confirm an original positive Salmonella test, the probability that both the original and retest will test positive for Salmonella has been traditionally determined by some as the product of the probabilities of a positive Salmonella test for the original and retest samples. When examining the probabilities associated with the retesting process, we found that our results disagreed with those based on intuitions apparently held by others concerning how these probabilities should be calculated. For Salmonella testing, operating characteristic values were computed to demonstrate the protections afforded by the Salmonella sampling plans presented in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual and to obtain the probability of a positive Salmonella test. The geometric distribution was examined for possible utility in determining the probabilities associated with testing amounts, i.e., the number of Salmonella tests needed to obtain a positive test.

  10. Comprehension of derivational morphemes in words and pseudo-words in semantic variant primary progressive aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noémie Auclair-Ouellet

    2014-04-01

    The results of the word condition alone cannot rule out the possibility that errors in the svPPA group were caused by difficulty in understanding words rather than in processing derivational morphemes. However, the lexical context provided in this condition did not speed-up the performance of svPPA individuals as it did in the control group. Most importantly, results from the pseudo-word condition showed that in the svPPA group, the association between the morpheme and its meaning was not performed as readily and reliably as in the control group. These results support the involvement of semantic memory in morphological processing.

  11. Gesturing more diminishes recall of abstract words when gesture is allowed and concrete words when it is taboo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews-Saugstad, Krista M; Raymakers, Erik P; Kelty-Stephen, Damian G

    2017-07-01

    Gesture during speech can promote or diminish recall for conversation content. We explored effects of cognitive load on this relationship, manipulating it at two scales: individual-word abstractness and social constraints to prohibit gestures. Prohibited gestures can diminish recall but more so for abstract-word recall. Insofar as movement planning adds to cognitive load, movement amplitude may moderate gesture effects on memory, with greater permitted- and prohibited-gesture movements reducing abstract-word recall and concrete-word recall, respectively. We tested these effects in a dyadic game in which 39 adult participants described words to confederates without naming the word or five related words. Results supported our expectations and indicated that memory effects of gesturing depend on social, cognitive, and motoric aspects of discourse.

  12. Utility of testing for apraxia and associated features in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Samrah; Baker, Ian; Thompson, Sian; Husain, Masud; Butler, Christopher R

    2016-11-01

    Existing literature suggests that the presence or absence of apraxia and associated parietal deficits may be clinically relevant in differential diagnosis of dementia syndromes. This study investigated the profile of these features in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) spectrum disorders, at first presentation. Retrospective case note analysis was undertaken in 111 patients who presented to the Oxford Cognitive Disorders Clinic, Oxford, UK, including 29 amnestic AD, 12 posterior cortical atrophy (PCA), 12 logopenic primary progressive aphasia (lvPPA), 20 behavioural variant FTD (bvFTD), 7 non-fluent variant PPA (nfvPPA), 6 semantic variant PPA (svPPA) and 25 patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI). The clinical features of interest were: limb apraxia, apraxia of speech (AOS), and left parietal symptoms of dyslexia, dysgraphia, and dyscalculia. The prevalence of limb apraxia was highest in PCA, amnestic AD, lvPPA and nfvPPA. AOS was only observed in nfvPPA. Associated parietal features were more prevalent in AD spectrum than FTD spectrum disorders. Group comparisons between key differential diagnostic challenges showed that lvPPA and nfvPPA could be significantly differentiated on the presence of left parietal features and AOS, and amnestic AD could be differentiated from bvFTD, svPPA and SCI by limb apraxia. Regression analysis showed that limb apraxia could successfully differentiate between AD and FTLD spectrum disorders with 83% accuracy. Disease-specific profiles of limb apraxia and associated deficits can be observed. FTD and AD spectrum disorders can be difficult to differentiate due to overlapping cognitive symptoms, and measures of apraxia, in particular, appear to be a promising discriminator. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. A Biochar Classification System and Associated Test Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camps-Arbestain, Marta; Amonette, James E.; Singh, Balwant; Wang, Tao; Schmidt, Hans-Peter

    2015-02-18

    In this chapter, a biochar classification system related to its use as soil amendment is proposed. This document builds upon previous work and constrains its scope to materials with properties that satisfy the criteria for biochar as defined by either the International Biochar Initiative (IBI) Biochar Standards or the European Biochar Community (EBC) Standards, and it is intended to minimise the need for testing in addition to those required according to the above-mentioned standards. The classification system envisions enabling stakeholders and commercial entities to (i) identify the most suitable biochar to fulfil the requirements for a particular soil and/or land-use, and (ii) distinguish the application of biochar for specific niches (e.g., soilless agriculture). It is based on the best current knowledge and the intention is to periodically review and update the document based on new data and knowledge that become available in the scientific literature. The main thrust of this classification system is based on the direct or indirect beneficial effects that biochar provides from its application to soil. We have classified the potential beneficial effects of biochar application to soils into five categories with their corresponding classes, where applicable: (i) carbon (C) storage value, (ii) fertiliser value, (iii) liming value, (iv) particle-size, and (v) use in soil-less agriculture. A summary of recommended test methods is provided at the end of the chapter.

  14. Dirty Words in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Beatrice

    1971-01-01

    Describes method of teaching the thesaurus to children with a low vocabulary. Lists of words pertaining to the word dirty was made by children who were inadvertently compiling their own thesaurus and building a vocabulary. (AF)

  15. Are there qualitative differences in the representation of abstract and concrete words? Within-language and cross-language evidence from the semantic priming paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferré, Pilar; Guasch, Marc; García-Chico, Teófilo; Sánchez-Casas, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    The different organizational frameworks theory proposes that there is a qualitative difference between the representation of concrete and abstract words in memory: Concrete concepts would be primarily organized in terms of semantic similarity whereas abstract concepts would be mainly organized by their association with other concepts. Evidence in support of this proposal has been mostly obtained with neuropsychological populations and, to a lesser extent, with healthy participants. In the present work, we tested the different organizational frameworks theory by using, for the first time, a semantic priming paradigm both within language and across languages. The results revealed that there was priming for both semantically similar and associative relations when words were concrete. However, with abstract words, priming was only observed when pairs and targets were associated. These results do not support the proposal of Crutch and coworkers, suggesting that the experimental paradigm as well as the type of relations tested may modulate the pattern of effects obtained with concrete and abstract words.

  16. Second language experience modulates word retrieval effort in bilinguals: Evidence from pupillometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens eSchmidtke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bilingual speakers often have less language experience compared to monolinguals as a result of speaking two languages and/or a later age of acquisition of the second language. This may result in weaker and less precise phonological representations of words in memory, which may cause greater retrieval effort during spoken word recognition. To gauge retrieval effort, the present study compared the effects of word frequency, neighborhood density (ND, and level of English experience by testing monolingual English speakers and native Spanish speakers who differed in their age of acquisition of English (early/late. In the experimental paradigm, participants heard English words and matched them to one of four pictures while the pupil size, an indication of cognitive effort, was recorded. Overall, both frequency and ND effects could be observed in the pupil response, indicating that lower frequency and higher ND were associated with greater retrieval effort. Bilingual speakers showed an overall delayed pupil response and a larger ND effect compared to the monolingual speakers. The frequency effect was the same in early bilinguals and monolinguals but was larger in late bilinguals. Within the group of bilingual speakers, higher English proficiency was associated with an earlier pupil response in addition to a smaller frequency and ND effect. These results suggest that greater retrieval effort associated with bilingualism may be a consequence of reduced language experience rather than constitute a categorical bilingual disadvantage. Future avenues for the use of pupillometry in the field of spoken word recognition are discussed.

  17. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jifan Zhou

    Full Text Available Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1 and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3 measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4. Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  18. [Testing doses? Environmental health stakes associated with nanotechnologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouzel, Jean-Noël

    2011-01-01

    In this contribution, we analyse how nanoscience and nanotechnology have given birth to an important environmental health controversy regarding the potential sanitary dangers of engineered nanomaterials. We show how this controversy is part of a larger picture, made of a series of social and scientific disputes about the effects of man made chemicals on the human body. We show how these disputes have contributed throughout the 20th century to the emergence and the transformation of toxicology as a scientific field, and to test the robustness of the dose paradigm that constitues the cornerstone of this discipline. We suggest that the contemporary emergence of a new scientific field known as "nanotoxicolgy" must be interpreted as a successful adaptation of this paradigm to the specific toxicological questions raised by engineered nanomaterials.

  19. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  20. Unraveling sexual associations in contact and noncontact child sex offenders using the single category - implicit association test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempel, I S; Buck, N M L; Goethals, K R; van Marle, H J C

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies found associations between children and sex in child sex offenders (CSOs) using the Implicit Association Test (IAT). We used a modification of this task, the Single Category-Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) to unravel child-sex associations in CSOs. Using the SC-IAT, we were able to test whether CSOs indeed hold stronger child-sex associations relative to adult-sex associations, compared to adult sex offenders and nonoffenders. Furthermore, we examined whether contact CSOs differed from noncontact CSOs in their child-sex associations. The hypothesis that CSOs would have stronger child-sex associations, relative to their adult-sex associations, than adult sex offenders and nonoffenders was confirmed. No difference between contact CSOs and noncontact CSOs was found. Although the Sex SC-IAT was able to distinguish CSOs from nonoffenders, the sensitivity and specificity of the test was poor (AUC of .65) and needs refinement. The results of this study support the existence of a child-sex association as a distinctive characteristic of CSOs. These findings are discussed in the context of theories on deviant cognitions in CSOs and risk for sexual offending.

  1. Goodnight Book: Sleep Consolidation Improves Word Learning via Storybooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Reading the same storybooks repeatedly helps preschool children learn words. In addition, sleeping shortly after learning also facilitates memory consolidation and aids learning in older children and adults. The current study explored how sleep promotes word learning in preschool children using a shared storybook reading task. Children were either read the same story repeatedly or different stories and either napped after the stories or remained awake. Children’s word retention were tested 2.5 hours later, 24 hours later and 7 days later. Results demonstrate strong, persistent effects for both repeated readings and sleep consolidation on young children’s word learning. A key finding is that children who read different stories before napping learned words as well as children who had the advantage of hearing the same story. In contrast, children who read different stories and remained awake never caught up to their peers on later word learning tests. Implications for educational practices are discussed.

  2. Build an Interactive Word Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Julie

    2018-01-01

    Word walls visually display important vocabulary covered during class. Although teachers have often been encouraged to post word walls in their classrooms, little information is available to guide them. This article describes steps science teachers can follow to transform traditional word walls into interactive teaching tools. It also describes a…

  3. Word Frequency Effects for LEET Lettering in Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabbe, Jeremy W

    2016-01-01

    Letter substitution has been shown to have a cost to word recognition performance, such as increased reaction time. The use of orthographically similar numbers or symbols as a substitute for letters is known as LEET. Perea, Duñabeitia, and Carreiras (2008) showed that word recognition was not affected when LEET substitutions were used as primes. This study examined whether the effects of LEET prime substitutions would remain constant across word frequency. The apparent lack of substitution costs may have been an effect of word-level processing such as holistic bias for high-frequency words. Evidence that LEET does not have an appreciable cost to performance across word frequency suggests that such orthographic substitutions are processed much like normally lettered words, which supported Perea et al.'s findings. It was suggested that LEET substitutions offset substitution costs because of orthography (because of more complete processing of nonsubstituted letters) rather than lexical effects (i.e., holistic bias).

  4. Design and testing of the first 2D Prototype Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Deptuch, G.; Hoff, J.; Jindariani, S.; Joshi, S.; Olsen, J.; Tran, N.; Trimpl, M.

    2015-02-01

    An associative memory-based track finding approach has been proposed for a Level 1 tracking trigger to cope with increasing luminosities at the LHC. The associative memory uses a massively parallel architecture to tackle the intrinsically complex combinatorics of track finding algorithms, thus avoiding the typical power law dependence of execution time on occupancy and solving the pattern recognition in times roughly proportional to the number of hits. This is of crucial importance given the large occupancies typical of hadronic collisions. The design of an associative memory system capable of dealing with the complexity of HL-LHC collisions and with the short latency required by Level 1 triggering poses significant, as yet unsolved, technical challenges. For this reason, an aggressive R&D program has been launched at Fermilab to advance state of-the-art associative memory technology, the so called VIPRAM (Vertically Integrated Pattern Recognition Associative Memory) project. The VIPRAM leverages emerging 3D vertical integration technology to build faster and denser Associative Memory devices. The first step is to implement in conventional VLSI the associative memory building blocks that can be used in 3D stacking, in other words, the building blocks are laid out as if it is a 3D design. In this paper, we report on the first successful implementation of a 2D VIPRAM demonstrator chip (protoVIPRAM00). The results show that these building blocks are ready for 3D stacking.

  5. ERP correlates of unexpected word forms in a picture–word study of infants and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duta, M.D.; Styles, S.J.; Plunkett, K.

    2012-01-01

    We tested 14-month-olds and adults in an event-related potentials (ERPs) study in which pictures of familiar objects generated expectations about upcoming word forms. Expected word forms labelled the picture (word condition), while unexpected word forms mismatched by either a small deviation in word medial vowel height (mispronunciation condition) or a large deviation from the onset of the first speech segment (pseudoword condition). Both infants and adults showed sensitivity to both types of unexpected word form. Adults showed a chain of discrete effects: positivity over the N1 wave, negativity over the P2 wave (PMN effect) and negativity over the N2 wave (N400 effect). Infants showed a similar pattern, including a robust effect similar to the adult P2 effect. These observations were underpinned by a novel visualisation method which shows the dynamics of the ERP within bands of the scalp over time. The results demonstrate shared processing mechanisms across development, as even subtle deviations from expected word forms were indexed in both age groups by a reduction in the amplitude of characteristic waves in the early auditory evoked potential. PMID:22483072

  6. Searching for the right word: Hybrid visual and memory search for words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettcher, Sage E P; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2015-05-01

    In "hybrid search" (Wolfe Psychological Science, 23(7), 698-703, 2012), observers search through visual space for any of multiple targets held in memory. With photorealistic objects as the stimuli, response times (RTs) increase linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the memory set size, even when over 100 items are committed to memory. It is well-established that pictures of objects are particularly easy to memorize (Brady, Konkle, Alvarez, & Oliva Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105, 14325-14329, 2008). Would hybrid-search performance be similar if the targets were words or phrases, in which word order can be important, so that the processes of memorization might be different? In Experiment 1, observers memorized 2, 4, 8, or 16 words in four different blocks. After passing a memory test, confirming their memorization of the list, the observers searched for these words in visual displays containing two to 16 words. Replicating Wolfe (Psychological Science, 23(7), 698-703, 2012), the RTs increased linearly with the visual set size and logarithmically with the length of the word list. The word lists of Experiment 1 were random. In Experiment 2, words were drawn from phrases that observers reported knowing by heart (e.g., "London Bridge is falling down"). Observers were asked to provide four phrases, ranging in length from two words to no less than 20 words (range 21-86). All words longer than two characters from the phrase, constituted the target list. Distractor words were matched for length and frequency. Even with these strongly ordered lists, the results again replicated the curvilinear function of memory set size seen in hybrid search. One might expect to find serial position effects, perhaps reducing the RTs for the first (primacy) and/or the last (recency) members of a list (Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968; Murdock Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 482-488, 1962). Surprisingly, we showed no reliable effects of word order

  7. Plagiarism: words and ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-09-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' label should not be used for deeds which are very different in nature and importance.

  8. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    that recent years have seen a social media-facilitated move from opinion-centric eWOM (e.g. reviews) to behavior-centric (e.g. information about friends’ music consumption on Spotify). A review of the concepts of WOM and eWOM and a netnographic study reveal that the current definitions and understandings...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  9. Flexibility in Bilingual Infants' Word Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf Estes, Katharine; Hay, Jessica F.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiments tested bilingual infants' developmental narrowing for the interpretation of sounds that form words. These studies addressed how language specialization proceeds when the environment provides varied and divergent input. Experiment 1 (N = 32) demonstrated that bilingual 14- and 19-month-olds learned a pair of object labels…

  10. Effective Ways to Promote Word Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching vocabulary often began as a poorly organized, extensive list of new terms presented to students each week. Students recorded a selected list of words and sought their meanings. With time devoted to study and review of the new terms, students were considered prepared for a test on mastery by the final class session of the week. The…

  11. Early word recognition and later language skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, Caroline; Cutler, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Recent behavioral and electrophysiological evidence has highlighted the long-term importance for language skills of an early ability to recognize words in continuous speech. We here present further tests of this long-term link in the form of follow-up studies conducted with two (separate) groups of

  12. Explaining word order in the noun phrase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    1990-01-01

    This article argues that word order in the noun phrase is largely determined by three iconic principles of constituent ordering. The patterns that these principles predict for simple noun phrases are tested against data from various existing samples. It appears that the predicted patterns are all...

  13. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  14. Word regularity affects orthographic learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua-Chen; Castles, Anne; Nickels, Lyndsey

    2012-01-01

    Share's self-teaching hypothesis proposes that orthographic representations are acquired via phonological decoding. A key, yet untested, prediction of this theory is that there should be an effect of word regularity on the number and quality of word-specific orthographic representations that children acquire. Thirty-four Grade 2 children were exposed to the sound and meaning of eight novel words and were then presented with those words in written form in short stories. Half the words were assigned regular pronunciations and half irregular pronunciations. Lexical decision and spelling tasks conducted 10 days later revealed that the children's orthographic representations of the regular words appeared to be stronger and more extensive than those of the irregular words.

  15. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  16. The role of age of acquisition in bilingual word translation: evidence from Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, J Michael; Kennison, Shelia M

    2011-08-01

    The present research tested the hypothesis that the age at which one's first language (L1) words are learned influences language processing in bilinguals. Prior research on bilingual language processing by Kroll and colleagues has suggested that memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger than memory links between one's second language (L2) word and conceptual representations. We hypothesized that the strengths of memory links between L1 words and conceptual representations are stronger for words learned early in life than for words learned later in life. Support for the hypothesis was obtained in bilingual translation experiment with 36 Spanish-English bilinguals. Participants translated L1 words into L2 and L2 words into L1. Half of the L1 words were learned early in childhood (early AoA words), and half were learned later in life (late AoA words). The L2 words were translation equivalents of the L1 words tested; the average age at which L2 words were learned was age 7. Target words were presented either in random order or blocked by semantic category. Translation times were longer when trials were blocked by semantic category (i.e., categorical interference) occurred only when early AoA L1 words were translated into L2. Implications for current models of bilingual memory are discussed.

  17. A "bat" is easier to learn than a "tab": effects of relative phonotactic frequency on infant word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that during the first year of life infants start learning the prosodic, phonetic and phonotactic properties of their native language. In parallel, infants start associating sound sequences with semantic representations. However, the question of how these two processes interact remains largely unknown. The current study explores whether (and when the relative phonotactic probability of a sound sequence in the native language has an impact on infants' word learning. We exploit the fact that Labial-Coronal (LC words are more frequent than Coronal-Labial (CL words in French, and that French-learning infants prefer LC over CL sequences at 10 months of age, to explore the possibility that LC structures might be learned more easily and thus at an earlier age than CL structures. Eye movements of French-learning 14- and 16-month-olds were recorded while they watched animated cartoons in a word learning task. The experiment involved four trials testing LC sequences and four trials testing CL sequences. Our data reveal that 16-month-olds were able to learn the LC and CL words, while14-month-olds were only able to learn the LC words, which are the words with the more frequent phonotactic pattern. The present results provide evidence that infants' knowledge of their native language phonotactic patterns influences their word learning: Words with a frequent phonotactic structure could be acquired at an earlier age than those with a lower probability. Developmental changes are discussed and integrated with previous findings.

  18. Testing genotypes-phenotype relationships using permutation tests on association rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Mateen; Beyene, Joseph

    2015-02-01

    Association rule mining is a knowledge discovery technique which informs researchers about relationships between variables in data. These relationships can be focused to a specific set of response variables. We propose an augmented version of this method to discover groups of genotypes which relate to specific outcomes. We derive the methodology to find these candidate groups of genotypes and illustrate how the method works on data regarding neuroinvasive complications of West Nile virus and through simulation.

  19. A Comparative Study of Five Association Tests Based on CpG Set for Epigenome-Wide Association Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuyi Zhang

    Full Text Available An epigenome-wide association study (EWAS is a large-scale study of human disease-associated epigenetic variation, specifically variation in DNA methylation. High throughput technologies enable simultaneous epigenetic profiling of DNA methylation at hundreds of thousands of CpGs across the genome. The clustering of correlated DNA methylation at CpGs is reportedly similar to that of linkage-disequilibrium (LD correlation in genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP variation. However, current analysis methods, such as the t-test and rank-sum test, may be underpowered to detect differentially methylated markers. We propose to test the association between the outcome (e.g case or control and a set of CpG sites jointly. Here, we compared the performance of five CpG set analysis approaches: principal component analysis (PCA, supervised principal component analysis (SPCA, kernel principal component analysis (KPCA, sequence kernel association test (SKAT, and sliced inverse regression (SIR with Hotelling's T2 test and t-test using Bonferroni correction. The simulation results revealed that the first six methods can control the type I error at the significance level, while the t-test is conservative. SPCA and SKAT performed better than other approaches when the correlation among CpG sites was strong. For illustration, these methods were also applied to a real methylation dataset.

  20. Does Testing Increase Spontaneous Mediation in Learning Semantically Related Paired Associates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kit W.; Neely, James H.; Brennan, Michael K.; Vitrano, Deana; Crocco, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Carpenter (2011) argued that the testing effect she observed for semantically related but associatively unrelated paired associates supports the mediator effectiveness hypothesis. This hypothesis asserts that after the cue-target pair "mother-child" is learned, relative to restudying mother-child, a review test in which…

  1. The Distribution of Talker Variability Impacts Infants’ Word Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Quam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants struggle to apply earlier-demonstrated sound-discrimination abilities to later word learning, attending to non-constrastive acoustic dimensions (e.g., Hay et al., 2015, and not always to contrastive dimensions (e.g., Stager & Werker, 1997. One hint about the nature of infants’ difficulties comes from the observation that input from multiple talkers can improve word learning (Rost & McMurray, 2009. This may be because, when a single talker says both of the to-be-learned words, consistent talker’s-voice characteristics make the acoustics of the two words more overlapping (Apfelbaum & McMurray, 2011. Here, we test that notion. We taught 14-month-old infants two similar-sounding words in the Switch habituation paradigm. The same amount of overall talker variability was present as in prior multiple-talker experiments, but male and female talkers said different words, creating a gender-word correlation. Under an acoustic-similarity account, correlated talker gender should help to separate words acoustically and facilitate learning. Instead, we found that correlated talker gender impaired learning of word-object pairings compared with uncorrelated talker gender—even when gender-word pairings were always maintained in test—casting doubt on one account of the beneficial effects of talker variability. We discuss several alternate potential explanations for this effect.

  2. The role of the left anterior temporal lobe in exception word reading: reconciling patient and neuroimaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Maximiliano A; Joubert, Sven; Ferré, Perrine; Belleville, Sylvie; Ansaldo, Ana Inés; Joanette, Yves; Rouleau, Isabelle; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2012-05-01

    Semantic dementia (SD) is a neurodegenerative disease that occurs following the atrophy of the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs). It is characterised by the degradation of semantic knowledge and difficulties in reading exception words (surface dyslexia). This disease has highlighted the role of the ATLs in the process of exception word reading. However, imaging studies in healthy subjects have failed to detect activation of the ATLs during exception word reading. The aim of the present study was to test whether the functional brain regions that mediate exception word reading in normal readers overlap those brain regions atrophied in SD. In Study One, we map the brain regions of grey matter atrophy in AF, a patient with mild SD and surface dyslexia profile. In Study Two, we map the activation pattern associated with exception word compared to pseudoword reading in young, healthy participants using fMRI. The results revealed areas of significant activation in healthy subjects engaged in the exception word reading task in the left anterior middle temporal gyrus, in a region observed to be atrophic in the patient AF. These results reconcile neuropsychological and functional imaging data, revealing the critical role of the left ATL in exception word reading. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Word Sense Disambiguation using Optimised Combinations of Knowledge Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilks, Y A; Wilks, Yorick; Stevenson, Mark

    1998-01-01

    Word sense disambiguation algorithms, with few exceptions, have made use of only one lexical knowledge source. We describe a system which performs unrestricted word sense disambiguation (on all content words in free text) by combining different knowledge sources: semantic preferences, dictionary definitions and subject/domain codes along with part-of-speech tags. The usefulness of these sources is optimised by means of a learning algorithm. We also describe the creation of a new sense tagged corpus by combining existing resources. Tested accuracy of our approach on this corpus exceeds 92%, demonstrating the viability of all-word disambiguation rather than restricting oneself to a small sample.

  4. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Alexander M.; Tenenbaum, Joel; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-03-01

    We analyze the dynamic properties of 107 words recorded in English, Spanish and Hebrew over the period 1800-2008 in order to gain insight into the coevolution of language and culture. We report language independent patterns useful as benchmarks for theoretical models of language evolution. A significantly decreasing (increasing) trend in the birth (death) rate of words indicates a recent shift in the selection laws governing word use. For new words, we observe a peak in the growth-rate fluctuations around 40 years after introduction, consistent with the typical entry time into standard dictionaries and the human generational timescale. Pronounced changes in the dynamics of language during periods of war shows that word correlations, occurring across time and between words, are largely influenced by coevolutionary social, technological, and political factors. We quantify cultural memory by analyzing the long-term correlations in the use of individual words using detrended fluctuation analysis.

  5. Word Learning and Individual Differences in Word Learning Reflected in Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, Charles A.; Wlotko, Edward W.; Hart, Lesley A.

    2005-01-01

    Adults learned the meanings of rare words (e.g., gloaming) and then made meaning judgments on pairs of words. The 1st word was a trained rare word, an untrained rare word, or an untrained familiar word. Event-related potentials distinguished trained rare words from both untrained rare and familiar words, first at 140 ms and again at 400-600 ms…

  6. Using Constant Time Delay to Teach Braille Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Jonathan; Ivy, Sarah; Hatton, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Constant time delay has been identified as an evidence-based practice to teach print sight words and picture recognition (Browder, Ahlbrim-Delzell, Spooner, Mims, & Baker, 2009). For the study presented here, we tested the effectiveness of constant time delay to teach new braille words. Methods: A single-subject multiple baseline…

  7. Prosodic cues to word order: what level of representation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Carline; Gervain, Judit

    2012-01-01

    Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial, and realized as increased pitch (^ Tōkyōni "Tokyo to"), whereas in French, English, or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (toRome). Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words). In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants' preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants' familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent representation.

  8. Prosodic cues to word order: what level of representation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carline eBernard

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Within language, systematic correlations exist between syntactic structure and prosody. Prosodic prominence, for instance, falls on the complement and not the head of syntactic phrases, and its realization depends on the phrasal position of the prominent element. Thus, in Japanese, a functor-final language, prominence is phrase-initial and realized as increased pitch (^Tōkyō ni ‘Tokyo to’, whereas in French, English or Italian, functor-initial languages, it manifests itself as phrase-final lengthening (to Rome. Prosody is readily available in the linguistic signal even to the youngest infants. It has, therefore, been proposed that young learners might be able to exploit its correlations with syntax to bootstrap language structure. In this study, we tested this hypothesis, investigating how 8-month-old monolingual French infants processed an artificial grammar manipulating the relative position of prosodic prominence and word frequency. In Condition 1, we created a speech stream in which the two cues, prosody and frequency, were aligned, frequent words being prosodically non-prominent and infrequent ones being prominent, as is the case in natural language (functors are prosodically minimal compared to content words. In Condition 2, the two cues were misaligned, with frequent words carrying prosodic prominence, unlike in natural language. After familiarization with the aligned or the misaligned stream in a headturn preference procedure, we tested infants’ preference for test items having a frequent word initial or a frequent word final word order. We found that infants’ familiarized with the aligned stream showed the expected preference for the frequent word initial test items, mimicking the functor-initial word order of French. Infants in the misaligned condition showed no preference. These results suggest that infants are able to use word frequency and prosody as early cues to word order and they integrate them into a coherent

  9. A General Framework for Association Tests With Multivariate Traits in Large-Scale Genomics Studies

    OpenAIRE

    He, Qianchuan; Avery, Christy L.; Lin, Dan-Yu

    2013-01-01

    Genetic association studies often collect data on multiple traits that are correlated. Discovery of genetic variants influencing multiple traits can lead to better understanding of the etiology of complex human diseases. Conventional univariate association tests may miss variants that have weak or moderate effects on individual traits. We propose several multivariate test statistics to complement univariate tests. Our framework covers both studies of unrelated individuals and family studies a...

  10. Word length effects on novel words: evidence from eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Randy; Morris, Robin K

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of word length on eye movement behavior during initial processing of novel words while reading. Adult skilled readers' eye movements were monitored as they read novel or known target words in sentence frames with neutral context preceding the target word. Comparable word length effects on all single-fixation measures for novel and known words suggested that both types of words were subject to similar initial encoding strategies. The impact of the absence of an existing lexical entry emerged in multiple first-pass fixation measures in the form of interactions between word length (long and short) and word type (novel and known). Specifically, readers spent significantly more first-pass time refixating long novel targets than short novel targets; however, the first-pass time spent refixating known controls did not differ as a function of length. Implications of these findings for models of eye movement control while reading, as well as for vocabulary acquisition in reading, are discussed.

  11. A powerful microbiome-based association test and a microbial taxa discovery framework for comprehensive association mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Hyunwook; Blaser, Martin J; Li, Huilin

    2017-04-24

    The role of the microbiota in human health and disease has been increasingly studied, gathering momentum through the use of high-throughput technologies. Further identification of the roles of specific microbes is necessary to better understand the mechanisms involved in diseases related to microbiome perturbations. Here, we introduce a new microbiome-based group association testing method, optimal microbiome-based association test (OMiAT). OMiAT is a data-driven testing method which takes an optimal test throughout different tests from the sum of powered score tests (SPU) and microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT). We illustrate that OMiAT efficiently discovers significant association signals arising from varying microbial abundances and different relative contributions from microbial abundance and phylogenetic information. We also propose a way to apply it to fine-mapping of diverse upper-level taxa at different taxonomic ranks (e.g., phylum, class, order, family, and genus), as well as the entire microbial community, within a newly introduced microbial taxa discovery framework, microbiome comprehensive association mapping (MiCAM). Our extensive simulations demonstrate that OMiAT is highly robust and powerful compared with other existing methods, while correctly controlling type I error rates. Our real data analyses also confirm that MiCAM is especially efficient for the assessment of upper-level taxa by integrating OMiAT as a group analytic method. OMiAT is attractive in practice due to the high complexity of microbiome data and the unknown true nature of the state. MiCAM also provides a hierarchical association map for numerous microbial taxa and can also be used as a guideline for further investigation on the roles of discovered taxa in human health and disease.

  12. Infant Word Segmentation and Childhood Vocabulary Development: A Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Reznick, J. Steven; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-01-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge. PMID:22709398

  13. Infant word segmentation and childhood vocabulary development: a longitudinal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Leher; Steven Reznick, J; Xuehua, Liang

    2012-07-01

    Infants begin to segment novel words from speech by 7.5 months, demonstrating an ability to track, encode and retrieve words in the context of larger units. Although it is presumed that word recognition at this stage is a prerequisite to constructing a vocabulary, the continuity between these stages of development has not yet been empirically demonstrated. The goal of the present study is to investigate whether infant word segmentation skills are indeed related to later lexical development. Two word segmentation tasks, varying in complexity, were administered in infancy and related to childhood outcome measures. Outcome measures consisted of age-normed productive vocabulary percentiles and a measure of cognitive development. Results demonstrated a strong degree of association between infant word segmentation abilities at 7 months and productive vocabulary size at 24 months. In addition, outcome groups, as defined by median vocabulary size and growth trajectories at 24 months, showed distinct word segmentation abilities as infants. These findings provide the first prospective evidence supporting the predictive validity of infant word segmentation tasks and suggest that they are indeed associated with mature word knowledge. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxzLi5oLZQ8. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Identification of vowel length, word stress and compound words and phrases by postlingually-deafened cochlear implant listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, David Jackson; Magnusson, Lennart; Faulkner, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Background: The accurate perception of prosody assists a listener in deriving meaning from natural speech. Few studies have addressed the ability of cochlear implant (CI) listeners to perceive the brief duration prosodic cues involved in contrastive vowel length, word stress, and compound word...... word stress, vowel length, and compound words or phrases all of which were presented with minimal-pair response choices. Tests were performed in quiet and in speech-spectrum shaped noise at a 10 dB signal- to-noise ratio. Also, discrimination thresholds for four acoustic properties of a synthetic vowel...

  15. Testing Alternative Hypotheses Regarding the Association between Behavioral Inhibition and Language Development in Toddlerhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Ashley K. Smith; Patel, Deepika; Corley, Robin P.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Hewitt, John K.; Robinson, JoAnn L.; Rhee, Soo H.

    2014-01-01

    Studies have reported an inverse association between language development and behavioral inhibition or shyness across childhood, but the direction of this association remains unclear. This study tested alternative hypotheses regarding this association in a large sample of toddlers. Data on behavioral inhibition and expressive and receptive…

  16. WordPress For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    The bestselling guide to WordPress, fully updated to help you get your blog going! Millions of bloggers rely on WordPress, the popular, free blogging platform. This guide covers all the features and improvements in the most up-to-date version of WordPress. Whether you are switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just starting your first blog, you'll find the advice in this friendly guide gets you up to speed on both the free-hosted WordPress.com version and WordPress.org, which requires the purchase of web hosting services, and figure out which version is best for you. You'll b

  17. More is more: the relationship between vocabulary size and word extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, Emily E; Sandhofer, Catherine M

    2009-12-01

    This study experimentally tested the relationship between children's lexicon size and their ability to learn new words within the domain of color. We manipulated the size of 25 20-month-olds' color lexicons by training them with two, four, or six different color words over the course of eight training sessions. We subsequently tested children's ability to extend new color words to new instances. We found that training with a broader number of color words led to increased extension of new words. The results suggest that children's learning history predicts their ability to learn new words within domains.

  18. A Teacher's Guide to Sexist Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Mary W.

    1977-01-01

    Presents tables of sexist words (those which apply to one sex only) and words generally used for one particular sex. Teaching suggestions involve students in researching etymology and current uses of the words. Words include job titles (patrolman), words of disapproval (roughneck), and words derived from names (pollyanna). (AV)

  19. Adaptive testing for association between two random vectors in moderate to high dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Xu, Gongjun; Pan, Wei

    2017-11-01

    Testing for association between two random vectors is a common and important task in many fields, however, existing tests, such as Escoufier's RV test, are suitable only for low-dimensional data, not for high-dimensional data. In moderate to high dimensions, it is necessary to consider sparse signals, which are often expected with only a few, but not many, variables associated with each other. We generalize the RV test to moderate-to-high dimensions. The key idea is to data adaptively weight each variable pair based on its empirical association. As the consequence, the proposed test is adaptive, alleviating the effects of noise accumulation in high-dimensional data, and thus maintaining the power for both dense and sparse alternative hypotheses. We show the connections between the proposed test with several existing tests, such as a generalized estimating equations-based adaptive test, multivariate kernel machine regression (KMR), and kernel distance methods. Furthermore, we modify the proposed adaptive test so that it can be powerful for nonlinear or nonmonotonic associations. We use both real data and simulated data to demonstrate the advantages and usefulness of the proposed new test. The new test is freely available in R package aSPC on CRAN at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/aSPC/index.html and https://github.com/jasonzyx/aSPC. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  20. Factors associated with refusal of rapid HIV testing in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisculli, Mary L; Reichmann, William M; Losina, Elena; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Arbelaez, Christian; Katz, Jeffrey N; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2011-05-01

    HIV screening studies in the emergency department (ED) have demonstrated rates of HIV test refusal ranging from 40-67%. This study aimed to determine the factors associated with refusal to undergo routine rapid HIV testing in an academic ED in Boston. HIV counselors offered routine testing to 1,959 patients; almost one-third of patients (29%) refused. Data from a self-administered survey were used to determine independent correlates of HIV testing refusal. In multivariate analysis, women and patients with annual household incomes of $50,000 or more were more likely to refuse testing, as were those who reported not engaging in HIV risk behaviors, those previously HIV tested and those who did not perceive a need for testing. Enrollment during morning hours was also associated with an increased risk of refusal. Increased educational efforts to convey the rationale and benefits of universal screening may improve testing uptake among these groups.