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Sample records for woodward archosauria crocodyliformes

  1. Woodward Seminars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Woodward Seminars. Subramania Ranganathan. Think It Over Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 654-657. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/07/0654-0657. Keywords. Reaction ...

  2. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

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    Paul Sereno

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  3. Hommage à David Woodward

    OpenAIRE

    Palsky, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Le petit monde de la cartographie s'est trouvé endeuillé à deux reprises, dans la période récente. C'est tout d'abord le professeur David Woodward qui est décédé le 25 août 2004. Woodward, britannique d'origine, professeur de géographie à l'université de Wisconsin-Madison (1980-95) était un spécialiste de la cartographie de la Renaissance, mais ses travaux n'étaient pas traduits chez nous. Il était surtout l'initiateur, avec son collègue John Brian Harley, du projet d'une histoire générale de...

  4. Lisa Woodward | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lisa Woodward is Special Advisor to the President. Before joining IDRC, Lisa held positions in strategic planning, performance measurement, evaluation, risk management, and policy development in federal organizations, including Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the ...

  5. Robert Burns Woodward (1917-1979)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Robert Burns Woodward (1917-1979). Featured Scientist Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 130-130. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0130-0130. Resonance – Journal of ...

  6. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 6. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12. Adil Ghani Khan S V Eswaran. General Article Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 8-16. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/06/0008-0016 ...

  7. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12. Adil Ghani Khan is a final year student of BSc. (Honours) in Chemistry at. St. Stephen's College,. Delhi University. S V Eswaran is an accomplished Organic. Chemist and principal of. Deshbandhu College,. Delhi University. Keywords. Asymmetric synthesis, chira!. Adil Ghani Khan and ...

  8. Crocodyliform feeding traces on juvenile ornithischian dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Kaiparowits Formation, Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Clint A; Drumheller, Stephanie K; Gates, Terry A

    2013-01-01

    Crocodyliforms serve as important taphonomic agents, accumulating and modifying vertebrate remains. Previous discussions of Mesozoic crocodyliform feeding in terrestrial and riverine ecosystems have often focused on larger taxa and their interactions with equally large dinosaurian prey. However, recent evidence suggests that the impact of smaller crocodyliforms on their environments should not be discounted. Here we present direct evidence of feeding by a small crocodyliform on juvenile specimens of a 'hypsilophodontid' dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Diagnostic crocodyliform bite marks present on a left scapula and a right femur, as well as a partial probable crocodyliform tooth crown (ovoid in cross-section) preserved within a puncture on the right femur, comprise the bulk of the feeding evidence. Computed tomography scans of the femoral puncture reveal impact damage to the surrounding bone and that the distal tip of the embedded tooth was missing prior to the biting event. This is only the second reported incidence of a fossil crocodyliform tooth being found embedded directly into prey bone. These bite marks provide insight into the trophic interactions of the ecosystem preserved in the Kaiparowits Formation. The high diversity of crocodyliforms within this formation may have led to accentuated niche partitioning, which seems to have included juvenile dinosaurian prey.

  9. Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979) A Personal Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    He was also fond of literature, art and music.We arrived at the night club and Armstrong was already playing. I introduced Bob to my friend saying, “This is Bob Woodward.” My friend turned around impatiently, shook his hand, and returned his attention to the music. I said, “Look,. Bill, Bob Woodward is to organic chemistry ...

  10. Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979): A Personal Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979): A Personal Profile. S Ranganathan. Article-in-a-Box Volume 19 Issue 7 July 2014 pp 586-589. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  11. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic.

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    Jaelyn J Eberle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma, despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut. Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus, esocid (pike, and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.. Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  12. Lisa Woodward | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lisa Woodward est conseillère spéciale au pésident. Avant d'entrer au service du CRDI, elle a exercé différentes fonctions touchant à la planification stratégique, à la gestion du rendement, à l'évaluation, à la gestion des risques et à l'élaboration de politiques au sein de divers ministères et organismes fédéraux, dont ...

  13. Trigeminal nerve morphology in Alligator mississippiensis and its significance for crocodyliform facial sensation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Ian D; Holliday, Casey M

    2013-04-01

    Modern crocodylians possess a derived sense of face touch, in which numerous trigeminal nerve-innervated dome pressure receptors speckle the face and mandible and sense mechanical stimuli. However, the morphological features of this system are not well known, and it remains unclear how the trigeminal system changes during ontogeny and how it scales with other cranial structures. Finally, when this system evolved within crocodyliforms remains a mystery. Thus, new morphological insights into the trigeminal system of extant crocodylians may offer new paleontological tools to investigate this evolutionary transformation. A cross-sectional study integrating histological, morphometric, and 3D imaging analyses was conducted to identify patterns in cranial nervous and bony structures of Alligator mississippiensis. Nine individuals from a broad size range were CT-scanned followed by histomorphometric sampling of mandibular and maxillary nerve divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Endocast volume, trigeminal fossa volume, and maxillomandibular foramen size were compared with axon counts from proximal and distal regions of the trigeminal nerves to identify scaling properties of the structures. The trigeminal fossa has a significant positive correlation with skull length and endocast volume. We also found that axon density is greater in smaller alligators and total axon count has a significant negative correlation with skull size. Six additional extant and fossil crocodyliforms were included in a supplementary scaling analysis, which found that size was not an accurate predictor of trigeminal anatomy. This suggests that phylogeny or somatosensory adaptations may be responsible for the variation in trigeminal ganglion and nerve size in crocodyliforms. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Diversification events and the effects of mass extinctions on Crocodyliformes evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronzati, Mario; Montefeltro, Felipe C; Langer, Max C

    2015-05-01

    The rich fossil record of Crocodyliformes shows a much greater diversity in the past than today in terms of morphological disparity and occupation of niches. We conducted topology-based analyses seeking diversification shifts along the evolutionary history of the group. Our results support previous studies, indicating an initial radiation of the group following the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction, here assumed to be related to the diversification of terrestrial protosuchians, marine thalattosuchians and semi-aquatic lineages within Neosuchia. During the Cretaceous, notosuchians embodied a second diversification event in terrestrial habitats and eusuchian lineages started diversifying before the end of the Mesozoic. Our results also support previous arguments for a minor impact of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene mass extinction on the evolutionary history of the group. This argument is not only based on the information from the fossil record, which shows basal groups surviving the mass extinction and the decline of other Mesozoic lineages before the event, but also by the diversification event encompassing only the alligatoroids in the earliest period after the extinction. Our results also indicate that, instead of a continuous process through time, Crocodyliformes diversification was patchy, with events restricted to specific subgroups in particular environments and time intervals.

  15. A New Baurusuchid (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia) from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil and the Phylogeny of Baurusuchidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Larsson, Hans C. E.; Langer, Max C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Baurusuchidae is a group of extinct Crocodyliformes with peculiar, dog-faced skulls, hypertrophied canines, and terrestrial, cursorial limb morphologies. Their importance for crocodyliform evolution and biogeography is widely recognized, and many new taxa have been recently described. In most phylogenetic analyses of Mesoeucrocodylia, the entire clade is represented only by Baurusuchus pachecoi, and no work has attempted to study the internal relationships of the group or diagnose the clade and its members. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a nearly complete skull and a referred partial skull and lower jaw, we describe a new baurusuchid from the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation (Bauru Group), Late Cretaceous of Brazil. The taxon is diagnosed by a suite of characters that include: four maxillary teeth, supratemporal fenestra with equally developed medial and anterior rims, four laterally visible quadrate fenestrae, lateral Eustachian foramina larger than medial Eustachian foramen, deep depression on the dorsal surface of pterygoid wing. The new taxon was compared to all other baurusuchids and their internal relationships were examined based on the maximum parsimony analysis of a discrete morphological data matrix. Conclusion The monophyly of Baurusuchidae is supported by a large number of unique characters implying an equally large morphological gap between the clade and its immediate outgroups. A complex phylogeny of baurusuchids was recovered. The internal branch pattern suggests two main lineages, one with a relatively broad geographical range between Argentina and Brazil (Pissarrachampsinae), which includes the new taxon, and an endemic clade of the Bauru Group in Brazil (Baurusuchinae). PMID:21765925

  16. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick

    2013-09-01

    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  17. A New Sebecid from the Paleogene of Brazil and the Crocodyliform Radiation after the K–Pg Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Alexander W. A.; Pinheiro, André E. P.; Campos, Diogenes A.

    2014-01-01

    A new crocodyliform, Sahitisuchus fluminensis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a complete skull, lower jaw and anterior cervical vertebrae collected in the São José de Itaboraí Basin of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The specimen is one of the best preserved crocodyliforms from Paleocene deposits recovered so far and represents a sebecosuchian, one of the few clades that survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene biotic crisis. The new taxon is found in the same deposit as an alligatoroid, a group that experienced large diversification in the Paleogene. The sebecosuchian record suggests that after the Cretaceous-Paleogene biotic crisis, the less specialized members of this clade characterized by a higher number of teeth compared to the baurusuchid sebecosuchians survived, some having terrestrial habits while others developed a semi-aquatic life style (e.g., Lorosuchus). Starting in the Eocene, sebecid sebecosuchians became specialized with a more accentuated oreinirostry as observed in Sebecus and in Langstonia, but not showing the typical reduced dentition developed by the Cretaceous baurusuchid sebecosuchians. The basal position of Barinasuchus arveloi, a high-snouted Miocene sebecid, indicates the occurrence of an independent lineage sometime after the K-Pg biotic crisis that developed accentuated oreinirostry, suggesting a more complex history of the post-K-Pg crocodyliform radiation. PMID:24454686

  18. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia) and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vivian

    2017-01-01

    Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa). Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni) and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus) modes of forelimb function. We compare these two locomotor extremes in terms of the reconstructed musculoskeletal anatomy, ranges of motion of the forelimb joints and the moment arm patterns of muscles across those ranges of joint motion. We reconstructed the three-dimensional paths of 30 muscles acting around the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. We explicitly evaluate how forelimb joint mobility and muscle actions may have changed with postural and anatomical alterations from basal archosaurs to early sauropodomorphs. We thus evaluate in which ways forelimb posture was correlated with muscle leverage, and how such differences fit into a broader evolutionary context (i.e. transition from sprawling quadrupedalism to erect bipedalism and then shifting to graviportal quadrupedalism). Our analysis reveals major differences of muscle actions between the more sprawling and erect models at the shoulder joint. These differences are related not only to the articular surfaces but also to the orientation of the scapula, in which extension/flexion movements in Crocodylus (e.g. protraction of the humerus) correspond to elevation/depression in Mussaurus. Muscle action is highly

  19. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia) and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Alejandro; Allen, Vivian; Pol, Diego; Hutchinson, John R

    2017-01-01

    Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa). Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni) and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus) modes of forelimb function. We compare these two locomotor extremes in terms of the reconstructed musculoskeletal anatomy, ranges of motion of the forelimb joints and the moment arm patterns of muscles across those ranges of joint motion. We reconstructed the three-dimensional paths of 30 muscles acting around the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. We explicitly evaluate how forelimb joint mobility and muscle actions may have changed with postural and anatomical alterations from basal archosaurs to early sauropodomorphs. We thus evaluate in which ways forelimb posture was correlated with muscle leverage, and how such differences fit into a broader evolutionary context (i.e. transition from sprawling quadrupedalism to erect bipedalism and then shifting to graviportal quadrupedalism). Our analysis reveals major differences of muscle actions between the more sprawling and erect models at the shoulder joint. These differences are related not only to the articular surfaces but also to the orientation of the scapula, in which extension/flexion movements in Crocodylus (e.g. protraction of the humerus) correspond to elevation/depression in Mussaurus. Muscle action is highly

  20. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Otero

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa. Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus modes of forelimb function. We compare these two locomotor extremes in terms of the reconstructed musculoskeletal anatomy, ranges of motion of the forelimb joints and the moment arm patterns of muscles across those ranges of joint motion. We reconstructed the three-dimensional paths of 30 muscles acting around the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. We explicitly evaluate how forelimb joint mobility and muscle actions may have changed with postural and anatomical alterations from basal archosaurs to early sauropodomorphs. We thus evaluate in which ways forelimb posture was correlated with muscle leverage, and how such differences fit into a broader evolutionary context (i.e. transition from sprawling quadrupedalism to erect bipedalism and then shifting to graviportal quadrupedalism. Our analysis reveals major differences of muscle actions between the more sprawling and erect models at the shoulder joint. These differences are related not only to the articular surfaces but also to the orientation of the scapula, in which extension/flexion movements in Crocodylus (e.g. protraction of the humerus correspond to elevation/depression in Mussaurus. Muscle

  1. A review of Shamosuchus and Paralligator (Crocodyliformes, Neosuchia from the Cretaceous of Asia.

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    Alan H Turner

    Full Text Available The crocodyliform Shamosuchus is known from numerous Late Cretaceous localities in southern and eastern Mongolia and fragmentary remains from Uzbekistan. Seven species of Shamosuchus have been named from six localities in Mongolia and three in Uzbekistan. Six species originally described as Paralligator were later referred to Shamosuchus. Only the type species, Shamosuchus djadochtaensis has been examined in detail. Many of the named species of Shamosuchus show striking similarity in size and cranial morphology but most are based on partial remains suggesting that the true species diversity is overestimated. A review of all species referred to Shamosuchus recognizes three valid taxa: Shamosuchus djadochtaensis, S. gradilifrons, and S. major. Shamosuchus sungaricus, S. borealis, and S. karakalpakensis are nomena dubia, whereas S. ancestralis, S. ulgicus, S. tersus, and S. ulanicus are junior subjective synonyms of S. gradilifrons. Phylogenetic analysis of 318 phenotypic characters recovers a Paralligatoridae clade consisting of Shamosuchus, Rugosuchus, Batrachomimus, Glen Rose Form, and Wannchampsus. Shamosuchus is non-monophyletic: S. djadochtaensis is near the base of Paralligatoridae whereas S. gradilifrons + S. major are the most deeply nested. The name Paralligator is resurrected for this clade. Rugosuchus and Batrachomimus are sister taxa to Paralligator. Paralligatoridae is closely related to Theriosuchus, hylaeochampsids and a speciose Allodaposuchus clade, which together are the sister group of Borealosuchus plus Crocodylia. These results support the presence of a diverse clade in eastern Asia and western North America throughout the Cretaceous with origins in the Late Jurassic.

  2. First record of the synaptid holothurian Protankyrian protankyra Bidentata (Woodward and Barrett, 1858) from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Mukharjee, I.; Sivadas, S.K.

    The present report forms the first record of Protankyra bidentata (Woodward and Barrett, 1858) from Indian waters The specimen recorded was small measuring 42 mm in length, cylindrical in shape with microscopic ossicles scattered throughout the skin The size...

  3. [Response to Reviews : Woodward-Clyde Consultants Comments on Biomonitoring Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal : Dieldrin Toxicity in Badgers : 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This letter responds to a recent review of the proposed Biomonitoring Plan for Rocky Mountain Arsenal by Mr. Doug Reagan of Woodward-Clyde Consultants. Enclosed are...

  4. Arthur Smith Woodward and his involvement in the study of human evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, C.; De Groote, I.; Stringer, C.

    2016-01-01

    In 1884, Arthur Smith Woodward first met Charles Dawson, a solicitor and industrious amateur collector, antiquarian, geologist, archaeologist and palaeontologist. This began a long association and friendship centred on their mutual interest in palaeontology and human evolution. Dawson devised a complicated plot focused around the ancient river gravel deposits at Barkham Manor near the village of Piltdown, Sussex. In these gravels he planted stone tools and fossil mammal remains together with ...

  5. A new armored archosauriform (Diapsida: Archosauromorpha) from the marine Middle Triassic of China, with implications for the diverse life styles of archosauriforms prior to the diversification of Archosauria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun; Wu, Xiao-chun; Zhao, Li-jun; Nesbitt, Sterling J.; Stocker, Michelle R.; Wang, Li-Ting

    2016-12-01

    Reptiles have a long history of transitioning from terrestrial to semi-aquatic or aquatic environments that stretches back at least 250 million years. Within Archosauria, both living crocodylians and birds have semi-aquatic members. Closer to the root of Archosauria and within the closest relatives of the clade, there is a growing body of evidence that early members of those clades had a semi-aquatic lifestyle. However, the morphological adaptations to a semi-aquatic environment remain equivocal in most cases. Here, we introduce a new Middle Triassic (245-235 Ma) archosauriform, Litorosuchus somnii, gen. et sp. nov., based on a nearly complete skeleton from the Zhuganpo Member (Ladinian [241-235 Ma]) of the Falang Formation, Yunnan, China. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that Litorosuchus is a stem archosaur closely related to the aberrant Vancleavea just outside of Archosauria. The well-preserved skeleton of L. somnii bears a number of morphological characters consistent with other aquatic-adapted tetrapods including: a dorsally directed external naris, tall neural spines and elongate chevrons in an elongated tail, a short and broad scapula, webbed feet, long cervical vertebrae with long slender ribs, and an elongated rostrum with long and pointed teeth. Together these features represent one of the best-supported cases of a semi-aquatic mode of life for a stem archosaur. Together with Vancleavea campi, the discovery of L. somnii demonstrates a growing body of evidence that there was much more diversity in mode of life outside Archosauria. Furthermore, L. somnii helps interpret other possible character states consistent with a semi-aquatic mode of life for archosauriforms, including archosaurs.

  6. Taxonomic revision and stratigraphic provenance of 'Histiophorus rotundu' Woodward 1901 (Teleostei, Perciformes)

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    Monsch, K.A.; Fierstine, H.L.; Weems, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Until recently, Histiophorus rotundus Woodward 1901, was known from a single, poorly preserved rostrum from the Tertiary phosphate beds near Charleston, South Carolina, an area from which many fossils have been described. The specimen is relatively featureless externally; its internal anatomy is unknown and the documentation of its geological provenance was poor. In an earlier revision the species was transferred to the fossil billfish genus Xiphiorhynchus Van Beneden, 1871. Here we confirm this designation, supported by new morphological studies of the holotype, recently found specimens of Xiphiorhynchus rotundus (Woodward, 1901), and the stratigraphic record of Xiphiorhynchus. The systematic paleontology we present is a contribution to the taxonomic revision of billfishes world-wide. Because the holotype is heavily phosphatized and the type locality was vaguely described, we discuss the geology of the phosphate mining districts of the Charleston region. Based on our studies, we can narrow the possible age of the holotype to late Oligocene or early Miocene. We suggest X. rotundus was extinct by the Burdigalian. 

  7. Spectrophotometric tool for the determination of the total carboxylate content in proteins; Molar extinction coefficient of the enol ester from Woodward's reagent K reacted with protein carboxylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosters, H.A.; Jongh, de H.H.J.

    2003-01-01

    A number of relevant properties of Woodward's reagent K have been determined, such as the stability of the reactant and the optimal reaction conditions of the reactant with protein carboxylates. A Woodward's reagent K stock solution was stable at 4 C for prolonged time, whereas upon storage at 22 C,

  8. Spectrophotometric tool for the determination of the total carboxylate content in proteins; molar extinction coefficient of the enol ester from Woodward's reagent K reacted with protein carboxylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosters, H.A.; Jongh, H.H.J.de

    2003-01-01

    A number of relevant properties of Woodward's reagent K have been determined, such as the stability of the reactant and the optimal reaction conditions of the reactant with protein carboxylates. A Woodward's reagent K stock solution was stable at 4°C for prolonged time, whereas upon storage at 22°C,

  9. Detailed anatomy of the braincase of Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha using high resolution tomography and new insights on basal crocodylomorph phylogeny

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    Juan Martin Leardi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 from the Late Jurassic Morrison Fm. of Wyoming was originally described as a dinosaur by Marsh and in 1971 Ostrom suggested crocodilian affinities. In 2005, Göhlich and collaborators identified new material of this species from Colorado as a basal crocodylomorph. However, a partial skull found in association with mandibular and postcranial remains was not described. Methods Due to the small size and delicate structures within the braincase, micro CT studies were performed on this specimen. The new anatomical information was incorporated in a phylogenetic dataset, expanding both character and taxon sampling. Results This new material reinforces the non-crocodyliform crocodylomorph affinities of Macelognathusas it bears a large otic aperture, unfused frontals and lacks ornamentation on the dorsal cranial bones. The internal structures also support these affinities as this specimen bears traits (i.e., heavily pneumatized and expanded basisphenoid; the presence of additional pneumatic features on the braincase; and the otoccipital-quadrate contact not present in most basal crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, the presence of a wide supraoccipital and a cranioquadrate passage are traits shared with Almadasuchus from the early Late Jurassic of Argentina. Macelognathus was recovered as one of the closest relatives of crocodyliforms, forming a clade (Hallopodidae with two other Late Jurassic taxa (Almadasuchus and Hallopus. Discussion The clade formed by Almadasuchus + Hallopus + Macelognathus, the Hallopodidae, is characterized by a higher degree of suturing of the braincase, posteriorly closed otic aperture (paralleled in mesoeucrocodylians and cursorial adaptations. Also, the phylogenetic position of this lineage of derived crocodylomorphs as the sister group of Crocodyliformes implies a large amount of unsampled record (ghost lineage, at least 50 million years.

  10. Three Women in the administration: Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Mary Parker Follett and Joan Woodward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Adela Paolini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to pay tribute to three pioneering women in the development of Management studies. It is a summary of the contributions made by these outstanding researchers, while respecting their specific characteristics, according to the different contexts in which they acted and the personal stamp that left a legacy to the discipline.1. Lillian Moller Gilbreth, a pioneer in the field, she developed with her husband working methods that laid the foundation of Ergonomics. After the death of Lillian Moller her husband continued with the employment and occupation activity, overcoming many obstacles related to feminine gender.2. Mary Parker Follett, leading researcher, due to her who given their sensitivity, was a pioneer in studies of humanist and social character in organizations.3. Joan Woodward, well known teacher and researcher, transcended for its relevant and rigorous studies in the manufacturing industry of England, focusing on the impact of technology in its structures.The main purpose is to bring information to the reader in order to give dimension and observe  their  contributions and proposals from a current perspective.Key words: pioneers, management humanistic approach, research.

  11. A new partial skeleton of Alligatorellus (Crocodyliformes associated with echinoids from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian lithographic limestone of Kelheim, S-Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Schwarz-Wings

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A slab from the Late Jurassic (Early Tithonian lithographic limestone exhibiting skeletal material of an atoposaurid crocodyliform associated with four echinoids from the vicinity of Kelheim (S-Germany is described. The atoposaurid is represented by a row of dorsal paravertebral osteoderms, caudal osteoderms, a caudal vertebra and haemapophyses, dorsal ribs, and parts of the right fore- and hindlimb. Some of the bones have been prepared out of the slab and most of them are preserved three-dimensionally, which is in contrast to the general much flattened preservation of atoposaurid skeletons. This well preserved specimen allows one of the most detailed descriptions of an atoposaurid limb skeleton so far, yielding in particular well preserved manual elements. By comparison with all other known atoposaurid taxa, the specimen can be determined to belong to the genus Alligatorellus based on an identical morphology of osteoderms. In contrast, a high ontogenetic variety and missing data make comparisons of limb ratios in different atoposaurids virtually useless for taxonomy. Femoral and tibial lengths suggest that this specimen is the largest atoposaurid known from the Solnhofen-Eichstätt region. It is suggested that the crocodyliform carcass has been washed into the lagoon and was subsequently embedded together with the tests of four holectypoid echinoids, which probably populated the lagoon. doi:10.1002/mmng.201100007

  12. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany, and its relationships to Theriosuchus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Schwarz

    Full Text Available We report a new, small-sized atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic of Langenberg, Northeastern Germany. Atoposaurids are small-sized Mesozoic crocodyliforms of mainly European distribution, which are considered to be phylogenetically close to the origin of Eusuchia. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is represented by two well-preserved skulls and additional cranial and postcranial remains representing different ontogenetic stages. 3D reconstructions of a juvenile skull based on micro-computed tomography allow the most detailed description of cranial remains of any atoposaurid hitherto presented. Our new analysis contradicts previous preliminary assignment of the Langenberg atoposaurids to Theriosuchus. Knoetschkesuchus gen. nov. is characterized in particular by the presence of two dental morphotypes in the maxilla and dentary, slit-like secondary choanae within a narrow groove on the surface of the pterygoid, absence of lacrimonasal contact, presence of an antorbital foramen and an external mandibular fenestra, and proportional characters of the interorbital and intertemporal region. A similar combination of characters allows attribution of Theriosuchus guimarotae to Knoetschkesuchus, forming the new combination Knoetschkesuchus guimarotae. Our analysis provides an osteological basis for the separation of Theriosuchus and Knoetschkesuchus and helps further delineate generic differences in other closely related crocodylomorphs. Our phylogenetic analysis corroborates inclusion of Knoetschkesuchus into Atoposauridae and supports a position of Atoposauridae within Eusuchia.

  13. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov., a new atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic Langenberg Quarry (Lower Saxony, northwestern Germany), and its relationships to Theriosuchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Daniela; Raddatz, Maik; Wings, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    We report a new, small-sized atoposaurid crocodyliform from the Upper Jurassic of Langenberg, Northeastern Germany. Atoposaurids are small-sized Mesozoic crocodyliforms of mainly European distribution, which are considered to be phylogenetically close to the origin of Eusuchia. Knoetschkesuchus langenbergensis gen. nov. sp. nov. is represented by two well-preserved skulls and additional cranial and postcranial remains representing different ontogenetic stages. 3D reconstructions of a juvenile skull based on micro-computed tomography allow the most detailed description of cranial remains of any atoposaurid hitherto presented. Our new analysis contradicts previous preliminary assignment of the Langenberg atoposaurids to Theriosuchus. Knoetschkesuchus gen. nov. is characterized in particular by the presence of two dental morphotypes in the maxilla and dentary, slit-like secondary choanae within a narrow groove on the surface of the pterygoid, absence of lacrimonasal contact, presence of an antorbital foramen and an external mandibular fenestra, and proportional characters of the interorbital and intertemporal region. A similar combination of characters allows attribution of Theriosuchus guimarotae to Knoetschkesuchus, forming the new combination Knoetschkesuchus guimarotae. Our analysis provides an osteological basis for the separation of Theriosuchus and Knoetschkesuchus and helps further delineate generic differences in other closely related crocodylomorphs. Our phylogenetic analysis corroborates inclusion of Knoetschkesuchus into Atoposauridae and supports a position of Atoposauridae within Eusuchia.

  14. Taphonomy of a Baurusuchus (Crocodyliformes, Baurusuchidae) from the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Bauru Basin), Brazil: Implications for preservational modes, time resolution and paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo Júnior, Hermínio Ismael de; Silva Marinho, Thiago da

    2013-11-01

    Upper Cretaceous vertebrate accumulations from the Adamantina Formation are known due to their high taxonomic diversity. On the other hand, taphonomic analyses still are rare, limiting the understanding of processes related to the biostratinomic and fossildiagenetic histories of this lithostratigraphic unit. In 2005, fossils were collected from an outcrop located at Jales municipality, state of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. From this outcrop, a well-preserved Baurusuchus was recovered, which displays a peculiar set of taphonomic signatures. This paper identifies and interprets taphonomic features of a specimen of Baurusuchus (Crocodyliformes, Baurusuchidae; UFRJ DG 418-R) from the Adamantina Formation (Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Basin), in Jales municipality, state of São Paulo. Brief taphonomic comparisons with other specimens previously studied (crocodiles and dinosaurs) and a lithofaciological analysis of the outcrop were undertaken in order to enhance the knowledge of the stratigraphy and paleoenvironment and improve the time resolution for the Adamantina Formation in the region of Jales. Furthermore, paleoecological data were interpreted based on the taphonomic analysis. The fossil is composed of an articulated segment of vertebral column, ribs, part of the pelvic girdle and gastralia. There is no hydraulic equivalence between both the specimen of Baurusuchus and the size of quartz grain predominant in the fossiliferous layer, suggesting death in situ or short transport as a “water carcass”. Teeth marks identified on the pubes were assigned to a small/juvenile baurusuchid crocodyliform or a theropod dinosaur. The repositioning of some elements (ribs and dorsal osteoderms) is suggestive of mummification. Desiccation marks were observed and attributed to the stage 1 of weathering. These features suggest subaerial exposure of the carcass prior to burial, however, probably after the mummification. On the other hand, the subaerial exposure was short

  15. Conjugate Addition/[3,3] Sigmatropic Shift Processes for Formation of Medium-Ring Cyclic Amines - Do They Circumvent the Woodward-Hoffmann Rules?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Phillip P; Siebert, Matthew R; Tantillo, Dean J

    2015-12-04

    Herein we describe our exploration, using density functional theory calculations, of a conjugate addition-rearrangement sequence that leads to medium-ring cyclic amines. On the basis of the results of our calculations, we conclude that the rearrangement step is rate determining. In addition, we analyze the role of a carbanion lone pair in the rearrangement step, concluding that it functions as a substituent on a [3,3] sigmatropic shift, rather than a nucleophile; thus, the Woodward-Hoffmann rules are not circumvented in this reaction via involvement of orthogonal orbitals on an atom involved in the rearrangement.

  16. BASE MAP DATASET, WOODWARD COUNTY, OKLAHOMA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — FEMA Framework Basemap datasets comprise six of the seven FGDC themes of geospatial data that are used by most GIS applications (Note: the seventh framework theme,...

  17. DCS Terrain Submission for Woodward, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  18. Osteology of the Late Triassic aetosaur Scutarx deltatylus (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, William G

    2016-01-01

    Aetosaurians are some of the most common fossils collected from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Arizona, especially at the Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO). Aetosaurians collected from lower levels of the park include Desmatosuchus spurensis, Paratypothorax, Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae, Calyptosuchus wellesi, and Scutarx deltatylus. Four partial skeletons collected from the park between 2002 and 2009 represent the holotype and referred specimens of Scutarx deltatylus. These specimens include much of the carapace, as well as the vertebral column, and shoulder and pelvic girdles, and a new naming convention proposed for osteoderms descriptions better differentiates portions of the carapace and ventral armor. A partial skull from the holotype specimen represents the first aetosaur skull recovered and described from Arizona since the 1930s. The key morphological feature distinguishing Scutarx deltatylus is the presence of a prominent, triangular boss located in the posteromedial corner of the dorsal surface of the dorsal paramedian osteoderms. Scutarx deltatylus can be distinguished from closely related forms Calyptosuchus wellesi and Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae not only morphologically, but also stratigraphically. Thus, Scutarx deltatylus is potentially an index taxon for the upper part of the Adamanian biozone.

  19. Osteology of the Late Triassic aetosaur Scutarx deltatylus (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. Parker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aetosaurians are some of the most common fossils collected from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Arizona, especially at the Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO. Aetosaurians collected from lower levels of the park include Desmatosuchus spurensis, Paratypothorax, Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae, Calyptosuchus wellesi, and Scutarx deltatylus. Four partial skeletons collected from the park between 2002 and 2009 represent the holotype and referred specimens of Scutarx deltatylus. These specimens include much of the carapace, as well as the vertebral column, and shoulder and pelvic girdles, and a new naming convention proposed for osteoderms descriptions better differentiates portions of the carapace and ventral armor. A partial skull from the holotype specimen represents the first aetosaur skull recovered and described from Arizona since the 1930s. The key morphological feature distinguishing Scutarx deltatylus is the presence of a prominent, triangular boss located in the posteromedial corner of the dorsal surface of the dorsal paramedian osteoderms. Scutarx deltatylus can be distinguished from closely related forms Calyptosuchus wellesi and Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae not only morphologically, but also stratigraphically. Thus, Scutarx deltatylus is potentially an index taxon for the upper part of the Adamanian biozone.

  20. Archosaurian respiration and the pelvic girdle aspiration breathing of crocodyliforms

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Leon P. A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Birds and crocodylians, the only living archosaurs, are generally believed to employ pelvic girdle movements as a component of their respiratory mechanism. This in turn provides a phylogenetic basis for inferring that extinct archosaurs, including dinosaurs, also used pelvic girdle breathing. I examined lung ventilation through cineradiography (high-speed X-ray filming) and observed that alligators indeed rotate the pubis to increase tidal volume, but did not observe pelvic girdle movement co...

  1. FINAL DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, WOODWARD COUNTY, OK

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  2. Europe and what lies beyond. : In response to Alison Woodward.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Steen, M.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Margit van der Steen comments on Alison Woodward’s article “Travels, triangles and transformations”. Woodward’s reflections, she argues, would benefit from defining concepts more precisely. She also argues for a more in-depth analysis of the historical and political situation in which the triangle

  3. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiari, Ylenia; Cahais, Vincent; Galtier, Nicolas; Delsuc, Frédéric

    2012-07-27

    The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. These results provide a phylogenetic framework and timescale with which to interpret the evolution of the peculiar morphological, developmental, and molecular features of turtles within the amniotes.

  4. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiari Ylenia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results provide a phylogenetic framework and timescale with which to interpret the evolution of the peculiar morphological, developmental, and molecular features of turtles within the amniotes.

  5. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results provide a phylogenetic framework and timescale with which to interpret the evolution of the peculiar morphological, developmental, and molecular features of turtles within the amniotes. PMID:22839781

  6. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hermínio da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  7. Three Women in the administration: Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Mary Parker Follett and Joan Woodward

    OpenAIRE

    Norma Adela Paolini; Elena Margarita Denda; Blanca Tirachini

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to pay tribute to three pioneering women in the development of Management studies. It is a summary of the contributions made by these outstanding researchers, while respecting their specific characteristics, according to the different contexts in which they acted and the personal stamp that left a legacy to the discipline.1. Lillian Moller Gilbreth, a pioneer in the field, she developed with her husband working methods that laid the foundation of Ergonomics. After the death of...

  8. Europe and what lies beyond. In response to Alison E. Woodward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.W.F. van der

    2015-01-01

    Margit van der Steen comments on Alison Woodward’s article “Travels, triangles and transformations”. Woodward’s reflections, she argues, would benefit from defining concepts more precisely. She also argues for a more in-depth analysis of the historical and political situation in which the triangle

  9. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward-Hoffmann Rules At Your ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The orbital topology in cyclic systems can be classified as two categories, viz., Huckel .... There are numerous examples of molecules and ions which are .... In the simplest stereochemical possibility, the migrating group, ... The low activation energy associated with [3,3]-shifts has enabled the design of structures where, in.

  10. Theodore E. Woodward Award: Global Warming and the Human Stomach: Microecology Follows Macroecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaser, Martin J

    2005-01-01

    Just as there have been 20th century changes in our “macroecology,” including global warming, there have been alterations in our “microecology,” involving the microbial populations that colonize the human body. Helicobacter pylori, an ancient inhabitant of the human stomach, has been disappearing over the course of the 20th century. As such, by comparing H. pylori+ and H. pylori− persons, the consequences of its colonization can be determined. The presence of H. pylori is associated with increased risk for development of gastric cancer and peptic ulceration, and with decreased risk for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its sequelae, including esophageal adenocarcinoma. The disappearance of H. pylori (especially cag+ strains), possibly contributing to the risk of these esophageal diseases, may be an indicator for changing human microecology. PMID:16555606

  11. The upper cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901, and the crista circumfenestralis of snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    Studies on the phylogenetic relationships of snakes and lizards are plagued by problematic characterizations of anatomy that are then used to define characters and states in taxon-character matrices. State assignments and character descriptions must be clear characterizations of observable anatomy and topological relationships if homologies are to be hypothesized. A supposed homology among snakes, not observed in lizards, is the presence of a crista circumfenestralis (CCF), a system of bony crests surrounding the fenestra ovalis and lateral aperture of the recessus scalae tympani. We note that there are some fossil and extant snakes that lack a CCF, and some extant lizards that possess a morphological equivalent. The phylogenetically important upper Cretaceous fossil snake Dinilysia patagonica has been interpreted by different authors as either having or lacking a CCF. These conflicting results for Dinilysia were tested by re-examining the morphology of the otic region in a large sample of snakes and lizards. An unambiguous criterion arising from the test of topology is used to define the presence of a CCF: the enclosure of the ventral margin of the juxtastapedial recess by flanges of the otoccipital (crista tuberalis and crista interfenestralis) that extend forward to contact the posterior margin of the prootic. According to this criterion D. patagonica does not possess a CCF, therefore, this anatomical feature must have arisen later during the evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. STRUCTURE OF THE TAIL OF A PHYTOSAUR (REPTILIA, ARCHOSAURIA FROM THE NORIAN (LATE TRIASSIC OF LOMBARDY (NORTHERN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIO RENESTO

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the caudal portion of a vertebral column belonging to a complete phytosaur skeleton is described. The skeleton has been collected from the Calcare di Zorzino (Zorzino Limestone of Norian (Late Triassic age, in the small quarry of Endenna (Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy. The specimen is currently being prepared, and only a detailed description of the tail is possible. The exposed portion of the skull, which shows, among other characters, a narrow, flattened snout, suggests possible relationships with the genus Mystriosuchus, but preparation of the skull must be finished prior to attempting any classification. The morphology of the tail vertebrae has never been figured for phytosaurs; however, the structure of the tail vertebrae of this specimen reflects a great degree of adaptation toward aquatic life, justifying its description prior to complete preparation. If this specimen represents a new species, it should have been highly specialised toward marine life than most other phytosaurs in which the postcranial skeleton is known. 

  13. STRUCTURE OF THE TAIL OF A PHYTOSAUR (REPTILIA, ARCHOSAURIA) FROM THE NORIAN (LATE TRIASSIC) OF LOMBARDY (NORTHERN ITALY)

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIO RENESTO; CRISTINA LOMBARDO

    1999-01-01

    The structure of the caudal portion of a vertebral column belonging to a complete phytosaur skeleton is described. The skeleton has been collected from the Calcare di Zorzino (Zorzino Limestone) of Norian (Late Triassic) age, in the small quarry of Endenna (Bergamo, Lombardy, Northern Italy). The specimen is currently being prepared, and only a detailed description of the tail is possible. The exposed portion of the skull, which shows, among other characters, a narrow, flattened snout, sugges...

  14. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Turner

    Full Text Available Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP and undated Bayesian inference (BI methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars., the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars. and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.. For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed

  15. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Alan H; Pritchard, Adam C; Matzke, Nicholas J

    2017-01-01

    Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS) at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP) and undated Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars.), the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars.) and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.). For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees) were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed-clock model appears to

  16. Tres mujeres en la administración: Lillian Moller Gilbreth, Mary Parker Follett y Joan Woodward

    OpenAIRE

    Paolini, Norma Adela; Denda, Elena Margarita; Tirachini, Blanca

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to pay tribute to three pioneering women in the development of Management studies. It is a summary of the contributions made by these outstanding researchers, while respecting their specific characteristics, according to the different contexts in which they acted and the personal stamp that left a legacy to the discipline. 1. Lillian Moller Gilbreth, a pioneer in the field, she developed with her husband working methods that laid the foundation of Ergonomics. After the deat...

  17. Theodore R. Woodward Award. Age-related decline in growth hormone secretion: clinical significance and potential reversibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Thorner, M. O.

    1997-01-01

    Acute and chronic stimulation of GH secretion occurred after administration of MK-677 in normal elderly subjects and IGF-I was increased during four weeks of treatment. The activation of the GH/ IGF-I axis was achieved without adversely affecting ACTH, cortisol or prolactin secretion.

  18. A new rauisuchid (Archosauria, Pseudosuchia from the Upper Triassic (Norian of New Mexico increases the diversity and temporal range of the clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Lessner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rauisuchids are large (2–6 m in length, carnivorous, and quadrupedal pseudosuchian archosaurs closely related to crocodylomorphs. Though geographically widespread, fossils of this clade are relatively rare in Late Triassic assemblages. The middle Norian (∼212 Ma Hayden Quarry of northern New Mexico, USA, in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation, has yielded isolated postcranial elements and associated skull elements of a new species of rauisuchid. Vivaron haydeni gen. et. sp. nov. is diagnosed by the presence of two posteriorly directed prongs at the posterior end of the maxilla for articulation with the jugal. The holotype maxilla and referred elements are similar to those of the rauisuchid Postosuchus kirkpatricki from the southwestern United States, but V. haydeni shares several maxillary apomorphies (e.g., a distinct dropoff to the antorbital fossa that is not a ridge, a straight ventral margin, and a well defined dental groove with the rauisuchid Teratosaurus suevicus from the Norian of Germany. Despite their geographic separation, this morphological evidence implies a close phylogenetic relationship between V. haydeni and T. suevicus. The morphology preserved in the new Hayden Quarry rauisuchid V. haydeni supports previously proposed and new synapomorphies for nodes within Rauisuchidae. The discovery of Vivaron haydeni reveals an increased range of morphological disparity for rauisuchids from the low-paleolatitude Chinle Formation and a clear biogeographic connection with high paleolatitude Pangea.

  19. How do geological sampling biases affect studies of morphological evolution in deep time? A case study of pterosaur (Reptilia: Archosauria) disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Brusatte, Stephen L; Andres, Brian; Benson, Roger B J

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental contribution of paleobiology to macroevolutionary theory has been the illumination of deep time patterns of diversification. However, recent work has suggested that taxonomic diversity counts taken from the fossil record may be strongly biased by uneven spatiotemporal sampling. Although morphological diversity (disparity) is also frequently used to examine evolutionary radiations, no empirical work has yet addressed how disparity might be affected by uneven fossil record sampling. Here, we use pterosaurs (Mesozoic flying reptiles) as an exemplar group to address this problem. We calculate multiple disparity metrics based upon a comprehensive anatomical dataset including a novel phylogenetic correction for missing data, statistically compare these metrics to four geological sampling proxies, and use multiple regression modeling to assess the importance of uneven sampling and exceptional fossil deposits (Lagerstätten). We find that range-based disparity metrics are strongly affected by uneven fossil record sampling, and should therefore be interpreted cautiously. The robustness of variance-based metrics to sample size and geological sampling suggests that they can be more confidently interpreted as reflecting true biological signals. In addition, our results highlight the problem of high levels of missing data for disparity analyses, indicating a pressing need for more theoretical and empirical work. © 2011 The Author(s). Evolution © 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  20. Do different disparity proxies converge on a common signal? Insights from the cranial morphometrics and evolutionary history of Pterosauria (Diapsida: Archosauria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, C; Brusatte, S L; Butler, R J

    2012-05-01

    Disparity, or morphological diversity, is often quantified by evolutionary biologists investigating the macroevolutionary history of clades over geological timescales. Disparity is typically quantified using proxies for morphology, such as measurements, discrete anatomical characters, or geometric morphometrics. If different proxies produce differing results, then the accurate quantification of disparity in deep time may be problematic. However, despite this, few studies have attempted to examine disparity of a single clade using multiple morphological proxies. Here, as a case study for this question, we examine the disparity of the volant Mesozoic fossil reptile clade Pterosauria, an intensively studied group that achieved substantial morphological, ecological and taxonomic diversity during their 145+ million-year evolutionary history. We characterize broadscale patterns of cranial morphological disparity for pterosaurs for the first time using landmark-based geometric morphometrics and make comparisons to calculations of pterosaur disparity based on alternative metrics. Landmark-based disparity calculations suggest that monofenestratan pterosaurs were more diverse cranially than basal non-monofenestratan pterosaurs (at least when the aberrant anurognathids are excluded), and that peak cranial disparity may have occurred in the Early Cretaceous, relatively late in pterosaur evolution. Significantly, our cranial disparity results are broadly congruent with those based on whole skeleton discrete character and limb proportion data sets, indicating that these divergent approaches document a consistent pattern of pterosaur morphological evolution. Therefore, pterosaurs provide an exemplar case demonstrating that different proxies for morphological form can converge on the same disparity signal, which is encouraging because often only one such proxy is available for extinct clades represented by fossils. Furthermore, mapping phylogeny into cranial morphospace demonstrates that pterosaur cranial morphology is significantly correlated with, and potentially constrained by, phylogenetic relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Estágios de desenvolvimento de Mariliasuchus amarali, Crocodyliformes Mesoeucrocodylia da Formação Adamantina, Cretáceo Superior da Bacia Bauru, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mesquita de Vasconcellos

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Mariliasuchus amarali Carvalho & Bertini, 1999 , a Mesoeucrocodylia from the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous shows some adaptative features to terrestrial environments: short and high skull, lateral orbits, frontal external nares and reduction of the dental formula with specialization of the tooth crown morphology in incisiform, caniniform and molariform teeth. It has been included in the infraorder Notosuchia Gasparini, 1971. Three specimens of Mariliasuchus amarali, found near the municipality of Marília, São Paulo State were analysed. One of them, holotype of Mariliasuchus amarali (UFRJ DG 50-R, is a juvenile crocodylifom whereas the other two (UFRJ DG 105-R and UFRJ DG 106-R are adult animals. These fossils allowed an analysis of the ontogenetic development patterns of this species. It was performed a comparison betweeen the mandibular, laterotemporal and supratemporal fenestrae and the skull sculpturing in the three specimens. The results show that Mariliasuchus acquire in the course of its ontogeny a thicker and stronger skull. The caudal migration of the laterotemporal fenestra and the size increase of the supratemporal fenestra probably indicate a wider use or strength of the adductor muscles during seizing and food processing.

  2. Hallazgo de restos de la serpiente Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward 1901 en una nueva localidad del Santoniano de Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triviño, L. N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we describe new remains of the cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica from beds of the locality Barreales Norte, Bajo de la Carpa Formation (Upper Santonian, Neuquén province, Argentina. The material comprises the back of a partially preserved skull, articulated with a fragment of the compound bone, atlas and axis. Additionally, six fragments of precloacal vertebrae have been preserved. The assignation to Dinilysia patagonica is based on: large skull, otooccipital with long paraoccipital process adjacent to an elongate supratemporal that extends farther the level of the occipital condyle; well developed sagital crest of parietal bone, continuously joined with the supraoccipital crest; italics I-like prootic; wide, short and robust vertebrae; prezygapophyses long and highly inclined above the horizontal; triangular section of vertebral centrum; reduced prezygapophyseal process; flattened neural arches with straight posterior edge. This material adds a new Upper Cretaceous location for the distribution of the species at the north of the Neuquén River.En este trabajo se describen nuevos restos de la serpiente cretácica Dinilysia patagonica recuperados en la localidad Barreales Norte, Formación Bajo de la Carpa (Santoniano superior, provincia del Neuquén, Argentina. El material comprende la parte posterior de un cráneo parcialmente conservado y articulado con un fragmento del hueso compuesto, atlas y axis. Además, se preservaron seis secciones de columna vertebral con vértebras precloacales. La asignación a Dinilysia patagonica se basa en: cráneo de tamaño grande, otooccipital con largo proceso paraoccipital adosado a un elongado supratemporal que se extiende más allá del nivel del cóndilo occipital; cresta sagital del parietal bien desarrollada y continua con la cresta del supraoccipital; proótico en forma de I cursiva; vértebras anchas, cortas y robustas; prezigapófisis largas y muy inclinadas sobre la horizontal; canal neural pequeño y trilobulado; proceso prezigapofisario reducido; arcos neurales aplanados con el margen posterior recto. Este material agrega una nueva localidad al norte del río Neuquén para la distribución de la especie en el Cretácico superior.

  3. New insight into the anatomy of the hyolingual apparatus of Alligator mississippiensis and implications for reconstructing feeding in extinct archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiheng; Clarke, Julia A

    2015-07-01

    early evolution of the clade. Hyoid simplification has been linked to ingestion of large prey items, and this shift in hyoid-related feeding ecology may occur in early archosauriform evolution. A second transformation in hyoid morphology occurs within the crocodilian stem lineage after the split from birds. In Crocodyliformes, deflections in the ceratobrachials become more pronounced. The morphology of the hyoid in Archosauriformes indicates that aspects of the hyolingual apparatus in extant crocodilians are derived, including a strong deflection near the midpoint of the ceratobranchials, and their condition should not be treated as ancestral for Archosauria. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  4. Past and present ecological distribution of the yellowbilled oxpecker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodward &. Woodward (1899) described B. africanus as a 'rare' bird in Natal but found it in 'considerable numbers in the. Black Umfolozi district of Zululand'. This is confirmed by Sharpe (1897) who mentions two specimens in the. British Museum (N.H.) collected by the Woodward brothers at the Black Mfolozi but gives no ...

  5. Environ: E00603 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available E00603 Woodwardia rhizome Crude drug Woodwardia acid Woodwardia [TAX:29603], Woodward...ia unigemmata [TAX:120732], Woodwardia orientalis [TAX:86683] ... Blechnaceae Woodwardia rhizome (dried) ...

  6. Reference: 136 [Arabidopsis Phenome Database[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 136 http://metadb.riken.jp/db/SciNetS_ria224i/cria224u4ria224u15548601i Woodward A...r PEX7 is necessary for peroxisome function and dependent on PEX5. 2 573-83 15548601 2005 Feb Molecular biology of the cell Bartel Bonnie|Woodward Andrew W

  7. Our Readers Write ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    R B Woodward, Resonance, Vol.19, No.7, July 2014. The issue of Resonance which carries Prof Ranganathan's tour de force article on Woodward and his vitamin B. 12 synthesis is truly a collector's item. May I congratulate you and the. Resonance team for this exceptional effort? I was so impressed by the language, the ...

  8. The Total Synthesis of Cephalosporin C

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    1965-12-11

    R B Woodward in his Nobel Lecture, Dec 11, 1965. The total synthesis of Cephalosporin C is yet another example where Woodward identifies an anchor from which he never wavered, in spite of enormous problems. The anchor here was. L (+) cysteine (1). The choice of 1 was indeed ingenious! Not only does 1 contain half ...

  9. “The Arabs” in the ecclesiastical historians of the 4 /5 centuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    Woodward's view, based upon Eusebius' accounts of. Origen in Arabia, sees the province of Arabia as the place, on the edge of the empire, which was filled with heretics. To suggest that Mavia's tribe was an orthodox Christian tribe cuts against the grain of this scholarship. We hope to address Woodward's view in the future ...

  10. Past and present ecological distribution of the redbilled oxpecker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shelley (1875) stated that it was 'common' about. Durban and Pinetown which corresponds with Stark &. Sclaters' (1900) description of it occurring 'sparingly in Up- per Natal, but becomes more abundant in Zululand'. A recapitulation of records made prior to 1970 (Sharpe 1897;. Woodward & Woodward 1899; Clarke 1904; ...

  11. Rural Adolescent Loneliness and Coping Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, John C.; Frank, Barbara D.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated loneliness of rural Nebraskan adolescents (n=387)) in relation to aspects of their self-esteem. Gathered data using the Loneliness Inventory (Woodward, 1967), Bachman's (1970) Self Esteem Scale, and Coping Strategies Inventory (Woodward, 1987). Results indicated that rural adolescents had extremely high loneliness scores and that 10…

  12. Eschenmoser Approach to Vitamin B by A/D Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The American chemist, Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979) intellectualized the synthesis of complex molecules based on a paramount mechanistic rationale and a sense of Nature culminat- ing in an impressive list of chemical achievements. Although. Woodward received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965, his.

  13. Urachal Adenocarcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer. 1991; 67:2165-72. 6. Thali-Schwab CM, Woodward PJ, Wagner BJ. Computed tomographic appearance of urachal adenocarcinomas: review of 25 cases. Eur Radiol. 2005; 15:79-84. 7. Wong-You-Cheong JJ, Woodward PJ, Manning. MA, et al. Neoplasms of the urinary bladder: radiologic-pathologic correlation.

  14. A new archosauriform (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Manda beds (Middle Triassic) of southwestern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Butler, Richard J; Gower, David J

    2013-01-01

    Archosauria and their closest relatives, the non-archosaurian archosauriforms, diversified in the Early and Middle Triassic, soon after the end-Permian extinction. This diversification is poorly documented in most Lower and Middle Triassic rock sequences because fossils of early groups of archosauriforms are relatively rare compared to those of other amniotes. The early Middle Triassic (? late Anisian) Manda beds of southwestern Tanzania form an exception, with early archosaur skeletons being relatively common and preserved as articulated or associated specimens. The Manda archosaur assemblage is exceptionally diverse for the Middle Triassic. However, to date, no non-archosaurian archosauriforms have been reported from these rocks. Here, we name a new taxon, Asperoris mnyama gen. et sp. nov., from the Manda beds and thoroughly describe the only known specimen. The specimen consists of a well-preserved partial skull including tooth-bearing elements (premaxilla, maxilla), the nasal, partial skull roof, and several incomplete elements. All skull elements are covered in an autapomorphic highly rugose sculpturing. A unique combination of character states indicates that A. mnyama lies just outside Archosauria as a stem archosaur within Archosauriformes, but more precise relationships of A. mnyama relative to other early archosauriform clades (e.g., Erythrosuchidae) cannot be determined currently. Asperoris mnyama is the first confirmed non-archosaurian archosauriform from the Manda beds and increases the morphological and taxonomic diversity of early archosauriforms known from the Middle Triassic. The direct association of A. mnyama with species referable to Archosauria demonstrates that non-archosaurian archosauriforms were present during the rise and early diversification of Archosauria. Non-archosaurian archosauriforms and archosaurs co-occur in fossil reptile assemblages across Pangaea from the late Early Triassic to the end of the Late Triassic.

  15. 76 FR 38650 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Supplement, BOEMRE, 00, Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf Oil and Gas Lease Sales: 2012 Central Planning...-355-5356. EIS No. 20110206, Final EIS, FTA, MI, Woodward Avenue Light Rail Transit Project...

  16. Fibromyalgia Pain: Options for Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You can also try yoga, prayer, massage, or listening to nature or other soothing sounds. The more ... Accessed Sept. 18, 2017. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Fibromyalgia: The road to wellness. Rochester, Minn.: ...

  17. Stress Management: When and How to Say No

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Sure it's easier to say yes, but at what price to your peace of mind? Here's why saying no ... 2016. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Stress management. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  18. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 208 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro shoot multiplication and rooting from seedling explants of Pterocarpus angolensis in Zambia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Exildah Chisha-Kasumu, Adam H Price, Steve Woodward, 31-37 ...

  19. a comparison of wetland valuation purposes in lagos metropolis and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    abundance, storm buffering, recreation, and uniqueness heritage. Woodward and Wui (2001) identify the various functions performed by wetlands, though not exhaustive, to include: reservoirs of biodiversity; climate change mitigation; cultural value; flood control; groundwater replenishment; wetland products; including.

  20. Bookeri lühinimekiri on valitud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    Briti prestiizhseima kirjandusauhinna "The Man Booker Prize" lühinimekirja on jõudnud järgmised autorid: Achmat Dangor, Sarah Hall, Alan Hollinghurst, David Mitchell, Colm T̤ibín, Gerard Woodward jt.

  1. Contaminant evaluation of five sites, Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Woodward-Clyde Consultants performed site investigations at five sites owned by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service in the lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas from October...

  2. Deployable Waterfront Transportability Study Using Heavy Lift Submersible Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    City. MO MARITECII ENGRG Donoghue’, Austin, TX j MOFFATIT & NICHO )L ENGRS R Palnmer. Long Beach. CA PACIFIC MARINE TECH (M. Wagtte- Duvall. WA WOODWARD-CLYDE CONSULTANTS R Cross, Walnut Creek. CA; RZ Donminguez, Houston, TX 1

  3. Electromyography (EMG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Electromyography (EMG) By Mayo Clinic Staff Electromyography (EMG) is a diagnostic procedure to assess the health of ... Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. About your electromyography (EMG) examination. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education ... . Mayo ...

  4. Les caractéristiques des stomates des feuilles de Ficus benjamina L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    25 mars 2014 ... mm² d'épiderme (Hetherington & Woodward, 2003). La densité des stomates augmente avec l'intensité de la pollution de l'air en indiquant les zones les plus polluées et les zones les moins polluées (Woodward et al., 1995). La résistance des stomates (RS) exprime la mesure de l'inhibition de la diffusion ...

  5. Development of a New Class of Drugs to Inhibit All Forms of Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    to AR and histone H3 (chromatin fraction control). 10 Key Outcomes for Hauptman Woodward Institute Site (Gewirth, PI) Key Outcome 1: We have...Prostate Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATORS: Dan Gewirth CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Hauptman-Woodward Institute Buffalo, NY 14203 REPORT DATE: October...of Androgen Receptor in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  6. Development of a New Class of Drugs to Inhibit All Forms of Androgen Receptor in Castration Resistant Prostate Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    models with impaired function of PSA enhancer RNA (eRNA). Hauptman Woodward Institute Site (Gewirth, PI ): Nothing to Report Vancouver Prostate Centre...Activities for University of Minnesota Site (Dehm, PI ) In the first reporting period, the major activities consisted of a) Testing the effects of...derivative VPC14449 on AR chromatin binding using chromatin fractionation techniques. Major Activities for Hauptman Woodward Institute Site (Gewirth, PI ) In

  7. Seasonality and paleoecology of the late Cretaceous multi-taxa vertebrate assemblage of "Lo Hueco" (central eastern Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Barroso-Barcenilla, Fernando; Cambra-Moo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic studies of multi-taxa terrestrial vertebrate assemblages allow determination of paleoclimatic and paleoecological aspects on account of the different information supplied by each taxon. The late Campanian-early Maastrichtian "Lo Hueco" Fossil-Lagerstätte (central eastern Spain), located at a subtropical paleolatitude of ~31°N, constitutes an ideal setting to carry out this task due to its abundant and diverse vertebrate assemblage. Local δ18OPO4 values estimated from δ18OPO4 values of theropods, sauropods, crocodyliforms, and turtles are close to δ18OH2O values observed at modern subtropical latitudes. Theropod δ18OH2O values are lower than those shown by crocodyliforms and turtles, indicating that terrestrial endothermic taxa record δ18OH2O values throughout the year, whereas semiaquatic ectothermic taxa δ18OH2O values represent local meteoric waters over a shorter time period when conditions are favorable for bioapatite synthesis (warm season). Temperatures calculated by combining theropod, crocodyliform, and turtle δ18OH2O values and gar δ18OPO4 have enabled us to estimate seasonal variability as the difference between mean annual temperature (MAT, yielded by theropods) and temperature of the warmest months (TWMs, provided by crocodyliforms and turtles). ΔTWMs-MAT value does not point to a significantly different seasonal thermal variability when compared to modern coastal subtropical meteorological stations and Late Cretaceous rudists from eastern Tethys. Bioapatite and bulk organic matter δ13C values point to a C3 environment in the "Lo Hueco" area. The estimated fractionation between sauropod enamel and diet is ~15‰. While waiting for paleoecological information yielded by the ongoing morphological study of the "Lo Hueco" crocodyliforms, δ13C and δ18OCO3 results point to incorporation of food items with brackish influence, but preferential ingestion of freshwater. "Lo Hueco" turtles showed the lowest δ13C and δ18OCO3 values of the

  8. Seasonality and paleoecology of the late Cretaceous multi-taxa vertebrate assemblage of "Lo Hueco" (central eastern Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Domingo

    Full Text Available Isotopic studies of multi-taxa terrestrial vertebrate assemblages allow determination of paleoclimatic and paleoecological aspects on account of the different information supplied by each taxon. The late Campanian-early Maastrichtian "Lo Hueco" Fossil-Lagerstätte (central eastern Spain, located at a subtropical paleolatitude of ~31°N, constitutes an ideal setting to carry out this task due to its abundant and diverse vertebrate assemblage. Local δ18OPO4 values estimated from δ18OPO4 values of theropods, sauropods, crocodyliforms, and turtles are close to δ18OH2O values observed at modern subtropical latitudes. Theropod δ18OH2O values are lower than those shown by crocodyliforms and turtles, indicating that terrestrial endothermic taxa record δ18OH2O values throughout the year, whereas semiaquatic ectothermic taxa δ18OH2O values represent local meteoric waters over a shorter time period when conditions are favorable for bioapatite synthesis (warm season. Temperatures calculated by combining theropod, crocodyliform, and turtle δ18OH2O values and gar δ18OPO4 have enabled us to estimate seasonal variability as the difference between mean annual temperature (MAT, yielded by theropods and temperature of the warmest months (TWMs, provided by crocodyliforms and turtles. ΔTWMs-MAT value does not point to a significantly different seasonal thermal variability when compared to modern coastal subtropical meteorological stations and Late Cretaceous rudists from eastern Tethys. Bioapatite and bulk organic matter δ13C values point to a C3 environment in the "Lo Hueco" area. The estimated fractionation between sauropod enamel and diet is ~15‰. While waiting for paleoecological information yielded by the ongoing morphological study of the "Lo Hueco" crocodyliforms, δ13C and δ18OCO3 results point to incorporation of food items with brackish influence, but preferential ingestion of freshwater. "Lo Hueco" turtles showed the lowest δ13C and δ18OCO3

  9. Seasonality and Paleoecology of the Late Cretaceous Multi-Taxa Vertebrate Assemblage of “Lo Hueco” (Central Eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Laura; Barroso-Barcenilla, Fernando; Cambra-Moo, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Isotopic studies of multi-taxa terrestrial vertebrate assemblages allow determination of paleoclimatic and paleoecological aspects on account of the different information supplied by each taxon. The late Campanian-early Maastrichtian “Lo Hueco” Fossil-Lagerstätte (central eastern Spain), located at a subtropical paleolatitude of ~31°N, constitutes an ideal setting to carry out this task due to its abundant and diverse vertebrate assemblage. Local δ18OPO4 values estimated from δ18OPO4 values of theropods, sauropods, crocodyliforms, and turtles are close to δ18OH2O values observed at modern subtropical latitudes. Theropod δ18OH2O values are lower than those shown by crocodyliforms and turtles, indicating that terrestrial endothermic taxa record δ18OH2O values throughout the year, whereas semiaquatic ectothermic taxa δ18OH2O values represent local meteoric waters over a shorter time period when conditions are favorable for bioapatite synthesis (warm season). Temperatures calculated by combining theropod, crocodyliform, and turtle δ18OH2O values and gar δ18OPO4 have enabled us to estimate seasonal variability as the difference between mean annual temperature (MAT, yielded by theropods) and temperature of the warmest months (TWMs, provided by crocodyliforms and turtles). ΔTWMs-MAT value does not point to a significantly different seasonal thermal variability when compared to modern coastal subtropical meteorological stations and Late Cretaceous rudists from eastern Tethys. Bioapatite and bulk organic matter δ13C values point to a C3 environment in the “Lo Hueco” area. The estimated fractionation between sauropod enamel and diet is ~15‰. While waiting for paleoecological information yielded by the ongoing morphological study of the “Lo Hueco” crocodyliforms, δ13C and δ18OCO3 results point to incorporation of food items with brackish influence, but preferential ingestion of freshwater. “Lo Hueco” turtles showed the lowest δ13C and δ18OCO3

  10. Seidel-Smith cohomology for tangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezazadegan, Reza

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the “symplectic Khovanov cohomology” of Seidel and Smith (Duke Math J 134(3):453–514, 2006) to tangles using the notion of symplectic valued topological field theory introduced by Wehrheim and Woodward (arXiv:0905.1368).......We generalize the “symplectic Khovanov cohomology” of Seidel and Smith (Duke Math J 134(3):453–514, 2006) to tangles using the notion of symplectic valued topological field theory introduced by Wehrheim and Woodward (arXiv:0905.1368)....

  11. A Crystal-Plasticity FEM Study on Effects of Simplified Grain Representation and Mesh Types on Mesoscopic Plasticity Heterogeneities (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-09

    HETEROGENEITIES (POSTPRINT) M.A. Groeber , T.J. Turner, D.M. Dimiduk, C.F. Woodward, and M.D. Uchic AFRL/RXCM Y.S. Choi and T.A. Parthasarathy UES, Inc... Groeber , T.J. Turner, D.M. Dimiduk, C.F. Woodward, and M.D. Uchic - AFRL/RXCM Y.S. Choi and T.A. Parthasarathy - UES, Inc. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4349...15] A. Rollett, R. Lebensohn, M. Groeber , Y. Choi, J. Li, G. Rohrer, Modell. Simul. Mater. Sci. Eng. 18 (2010) 074005. 16] C. Przybyla, D. McDowell

  12. Unappreciated diversification of stem archosaurs during the Middle Triassic predated the dominance of dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Ezcurra, Martín D; Sookias, Roland B; Brusatte, Stephen L; Butler, Richard J

    2016-09-15

    Archosauromorpha originated in the middle-late Permian, radiated during the Triassic, and gave rise to the crown group Archosauria, a highly successful clade of reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems over the last 250 million years. However, scientific attention has mainly focused on the diversification of archosaurs, while their stem lineage (i.e. non-archosaurian archosauromorphs) has often been overlooked in discussions of the evolutionary success of Archosauria. Here, we analyse the cranial disparity of late Permian to Early Jurassic archosauromorphs and make comparisons between non-archosaurian archosauromorphs and archosaurs (including Pseudosuchia and Ornithodira) on the basis of two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Our analysis recovers previously unappreciated high morphological disparity for non-archosaurian archosauromorphs, especially during the Middle Triassic, which abruptly declined during the early Late Triassic (Carnian). By contrast, cranial disparity of archosaurs increased from the Middle Triassic into the Late Triassic, declined during the end-Triassic extinction, but re-expanded towards the end of the Early Jurassic. Our study indicates that non-archosaurian archosauromorphs were highly diverse components of terrestrial ecosystems prior to the major radiation of archosaurs, including dinosaurs, while disparity patterns of the Ladinian and Carnian indicate a gradual faunal replacement of stem archosaurs by the crown group, including a short interval of partial overlap in morphospace during the Ladinian.

  13. The Spirit of Adventure and the Art of Creation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    twain meet that creativity is manifested. Arthur Koestler, in his book The Act of Creation, has discussed several instances where such impacting of two different matrices of thought has led to novelty and creativity. One can describe Woodward's art in organic synthesis in the same words – his naming the challenge,.

  14. Behavior of a Rocket-Like Coaxial Injector in an Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    B. Camano Schettini, and R. D. Woodward for providing us with their core length data in tabular form. D. W. Davis would like to thank his thesis...275-308. 21. Favre-Marinet, M., and Camano Schettini, E. B., International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, Vol. 44, 2001, pp. 1913-1924. 22

  15. Experiments on a Coaxial Injector Under an Externally-Forced Transverse Acoustic Field (POSTPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-20

    Camano Schettini, and R. D. Woodward for providing us with their core length data in tabular form. The first author would like to thank his thesis...Marinet, M., and Camano Schettini, E. B., “The Density Field of Coaxial Jets with Large Velocity Ratio and Large Density Differences,” International

  16. Title: Effect of abiotic stress on reduction of microbial contamination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TERI

    2016-03-23

    Mar 23, 2016 ... Malbhog is a Musa cultivar of AAB genomic group under subgroup of silk type having reference ..... Planta 37:133-. 138. Leifert C, Woodward S (1998). Laboratory contamination management: the requirement for microbiological quality assurance. Plant Cell. Tissue Organ Cult. 52:83-88. Madhulatha P ...

  17. Modelling Sulphur Clusters for an Understanding of Ultramarine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The S4 molecule is the most likely chromophore in ultramarine red; however the specific isomer is uncertain. Under the assumption that S4 was formed by a concerted reaction between S3–. and S+., aWoodward-Hoffmann analysis of the molecular orbitals of S3–. and S+. supported the formation of the puckered square S4, ...

  18. Modelling Sulphur Clusters for an Understanding of Ultramarine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the blue chromophore in ultramarine. The closed, D3h, geometry represents a transition state. The S4 molecule is the most likely chromophore in ultramarine red; however the specific isomer is uncertain. Under the assumption that S4 was formed by a concerted reaction between S3. –! and S+!, a Woodward-Hoffmann ...

  19. A comparative study of the plasma level of arginase and rhodanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    cancer cell lines.Nw-hydroxy-L-arginine selectively inhibit cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in MDA-. MB-468 cells.Cancer Res. 60: 3305-3312. Taylor, R., Cumming, R., Woodward, A. and Black, M. (2001). Passive smoking and lung cancer: a cumulative meta-analysis. Austr.N Z J. Pub.Health. 25: 203-211. Westley,.

  20. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 101 - 150 of 921 ... MB Yakass, B Woodward, MA Otoo, EK Hiadzi. Vol 14, No 1 (2010), Case Report: An unusual case of Cervico-cutaneous fistula, Abstract PDF. S Ghose, DK Maurya, M Gowda, P Begum. Vol 7, No 3 (2003), Case Report: Extrauterine Translocated Contraceptive Device: A Presentation of Five Cases ...

  1. Evidence for an in vitro anticoagulant and antithrombotic activity in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-03-18

    Mar 18, 2008 ... known since 1978 (Lawson et al., 1992). According to. Mohammad and Woodward (1986), when an aqueous extract of garlic was added to platelet rich plasma (PRP), platelet aggregation was inhibited. These findings clearly showed that garlic has anticoagulant properties. Tulbaghia violacea (T. violacea), ...

  2. S V Eswaran

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 7 Issue 8 August 2002 pp 59-66 General Article. Photoresists for Microlithography - The Role of Polymer Microstructure · Debmalya Roy P K Basu S V Eswaran · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 8-16 General Article. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12 · Adil Ghani Khan S V Eswaran.

  3. Intertidal barnacles are not uniformly abundant around the coast of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. This research was funded by a post-doctoral fel- lowship awarded by the South African Foundation for Research Development to Prof. G. M. Branch. (University of Cape Town [UCT]). I thank. Prof. Branch for his hospitality, Dr D. L. Woodward. (University of California, San Diego) for several months.

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION ISOLATION OF CHLOROPHYLL A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    chemical synthesis was reported by Woodward and co-workers [3]. The first successful separation of chlorophyll was reported by Tswett [4] giving birth to modern chromatographic techniques. A variety of chromatographic procedures, including paper [5], thin-layer [6], conventional column [7], and high-performance liquid ...

  5. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    age of seventeen years and was managed by the Woodward's procedure. INTRODUCTION. Congenital elevation of the scapula is a complex congenital deformity of the shoulder girdle. Other names attributed to it include undescended scapula, elevated scapula, Congenital high scapula and congenital undescended ...

  6. A Study of Electrocyclic Reactions in a Molecular Junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Hansen, Thorsten

    2017-01-01

    must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb...

  7. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    neglect still-births. It may also have been painful to some women to be reminded of previous still-births and so reporting as if these never occurred may have been preferred. Woodward et al 9 reported that women who had low-birth weight babies were less likely to register their infants than those with adequate weight. 336 ...

  8. BKR.2013.006 (Galley_Proof)-1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olorunniji

    2013-08-31

    Aug 31, 2013 ... (Woodward et al., 1992). In Nigeria CVD has become one of the major causes of death especially in urban areas (Akinkugbe, 1976). An earlier study by Taylor and Agbedana (1983) indicated that circulating low level of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) was positively associated with SES ...

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Adil Ghani Khan. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 8 Issue 6 June 2003 pp 8-16 General Article. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12 · Adil Ghani Khan S V Eswaran · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  10. Evaluation of the BovineSNP50 genotyping array in four South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olga Qwabe

    2013-03-20

    Mar 20, 2013 ... MacNeil, M.D., Nkrumah, J.D., Woodward, B.W. & Northcutt, S.L., 2010. Genetic evaluation of Angus cattle for carcass marbling using ultrasound and genomic indicators. J. Anim. Sci. 88, 517-522. Mai, M.D., Sahana, G., Chistiansen, F.B. & Guldbrandtsen, B., 2010. A genome-wide association study for.

  11. Comparisons of stomatal parameters between normal and abnormal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... and the atmosphere (Hetherington and Woodward,. 2003). They also make a significant contribution to global water and carbon cycles (Ciais et al., 1997). At present, stomata were observed in the seeds, primary root, leaf and other parts of plants (Paiva et al., 2006;. Christodoulakis et al., 2002). Stomata ...

  12. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-11-10

    Nov 10, 2017 ... Applied Soft Computing, 2011, 11(4):3658-3670. [12] Pace S S, Cain A, Woodward C J. A consolidated model of particle swarm optimisation variants. In EEECongress on Evolutionary Computation, 2012, pp. 1–8. [13] Talbi E G. A taxonomy of hybrid metaheuristics.Journal of Heuristics, 2002,. 8(5):541–564 ...

  13. AFRREV IJAH, Vol.1 (1) Feb., 2012

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (Woodward. 1985, p.8). This is a history that has not left the Indian Americans, as their natural wealth has been plundered, their wild life exterminated, the land, air and water poisoned. Since 1942, more than 140 of their animals and bird species have become extinct. Its memory carries with it a feeling of nostalgia. Profit has.

  14. estimated glomerular filtration rate and risk of survival in acute stroke

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-03-03

    Mar 3, 2014 ... rate or glomerular filtration barrier and occurrence of stroke. Arch Neurol 2008; 65: 934-938. 2. Matsushita K,Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M,. Emberson JR, Jafar TH, Jee SH et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the. MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  15. Page 1 A STUDY OF THE RAMAN EFFECT IN SODIUM NITRATE ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward and Ramaswamy have studied the stubstance in a dissolved state. Rao has investigated the Rainlan spectrum of this substance in the fused State also. It is not necessary to review individually the work of each author here as there is general agreement on the essential points between the various workers.

  16. BY AFRIKANERKALWERS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comfort 91961), Lehman et al. (1961), Brinks, Clark,. Kieffer, Urick (1964) en Pahnish et al. (1964). Dit dui daarop dat dieselfde gene verantwoordelik is vir die hoe massas by verskillende stadiums van ontwikkeling. Shelby, Harvey, Clark, Quesenberry & Woodward. (1963) meen dat wanneer dieselfde gene die uitdrukking.

  17. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 151 - 200 of 208 ... ... D Farag, F Gilbert, S Jobling, D Marchant, D Madaney, E Mohamed, HS Zalat, G Taylor, B Woodward, S Zalat. Vol 4 (2002), Separation, identification and quantification of photosynthetic pigments from three Red Sea seaweeds using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, Abstract.

  18. Errata: Resonance, Vol.19, No.7, July 2014

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    S Ranganathan, Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979): A Personal Profile. Page 586: Para 2, Line 6, 'chemistry at the with' should be read as 'chemistry with'. Page 588: Para 4, Line 4, 'late sixties' should be read as 'early seventies'. 2. Setty Mallikarjuna Babu and Subramania Ranganathan, The Spirit of Adventure and ...

  19. ELECTROCHEMISTRY CHARACTERIZATION OF FERROCENE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-31

    Dec 31, 2009 ... 5. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. Support of the work by the laboratoire de valorisation et promotion des resources sahariennes is gratefully acknowledged. We would like to thank Professor M. SAIDI, for his help. 6. REFERENCES. [1] Wilkinson G., Rosenblum M., Whiting M.C. and Woodward R. B. J. Am. Chem.

  20. The decline of the Nile crocodile population in Loskop Dam, Olifants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-05-18

    May 18, 2010 ... 1984; Woodward and Moore, 1993). According to Jacobsen. (1984), the tendency to underestimate the size of crocodiles spotted from the air is regarded as a constant factor and can therefore be ignored. Economic reasons eventually necessi- tated that the crocodilian population surveys be conducted by.

  1. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 7, No 16 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A safe inexpensive method to isolate high quality plant and fungal DNA in an open laboratory environment · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Niu, H Kebede, DL Auld, JE Woodward, G Burow, RJ Wright ...

  2. influence of parental socioeconomic status on caries prevalence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dental caries among children of high and middle social class while a low prevalence was found among children of low social class. This finding is similar to the trend observed in other developing countries16,17,23 where caries prevalence was observed to increase with increasing socio-economic status. Woodward and.

  3. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecule to man: A narration of cosmic-chemical-biological organization. 2. Life under the Sun: Solar energy-ATP. 3. Energy transduction: proton gradient - energy gradient. 4. Woodward-Hoffmann rules - a simple description - aromatic transition states. 5. The magic in chemistry - ninety minutes of tested demonstrations. 6.

  4. Gestion du Centre | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lisa Woodward. Conseillère spéciale au Président. Ottawa, ON, Canada. Ce que nous faisons · Financement · Ressources · À propos du CRDI. Savoir. Innovation. Solutions. Carrières · Communiquez avec nous · Plan du site. Abonnez-vous à notre bulletin pour recevoir les nouvelles du CRDI chaque mois. Abonnez-vous.

  5. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 19, Issue 7. July 2014, pages 585-668. pp 585-585 Editorial. Editorial · S Ranganathan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 586-589 Article-in-a-Box. Robert Burns Woodward ...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 301 - 350 of 499 ... E Chisha-Kasumu, S Woodward, A Price. Vol 208 (2006), Phenotypic variation in fruit, seed and seedling traits of nine Uapaca kirkiana provenances found in Malawi, Abstract. WF Mwase, Å Bjørnstad, YM Ntupanyama, MB Kwapata, JM Bokosi. Vol 72, No 2 (2010), Phosphorus fertiliser source and ...

  7. Is Agency Skin Deep? Surface Attributes Influence Infants' Sensitivity to Goal-Directed Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guajardo, Jose J.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2004-01-01

    Three studies investigated the role of surface attributes in infants' identification of agents, using a habituation paradigm designed to tap infants' interpretation of grasping as goal directed (Woodward, 1998). When they viewed a bare human hand grasping objects, 7- and 12-month-old infants focused on the relation between the hand and its goal.…

  8. The perceptions of rural women doctors about their work

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JAMWA 1998;43:176-80. 5. Woodward CA, Williams AP, Ferrier B,. Cohen M. Time spent on professional activities and unwaged domestic work. Can Fam Physician 1996;42:1928-35. 6. Rout U. Stress among general practition- ers and their spouses: a qualitative study. Brit J Gen Pract 1996;46:157-60. 7. Hammond JMS.

  9. Case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... The Stewart-Treves syndrome is characterized clinically by the occurrence, at a lymphadenomatous member of tumor infiltrating lesions, nodules, often multiple and purple, painless, rarely ulcerated. The series of Woodward et al. [5], recording 162 cases of lymphangiosarcomas after mastectomy, helped to ...

  10. Kriitikast / Leelo Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Leelo, 1927-

    1999-01-01

    Vestlus Rein Rannapiga pärast sooloesinemist 29.11.1976 Estonia kontserdisaalis. - Rein Metsa esinemisest kontserdil 02.12.1976 Estonia kontserdisaalis, kavas Bartoki 1. klaverikontsert. - Kalle Randalu klaveriõhtust. - Eesti pianistide esinemistest. - Vestlus Kalle Randaluga. - Roger Woodward esinemisest Estonia kontserdisaalis 1994. a. juunis

  11. The Teacher Trainer: A Practical Journal for Those Who Train, Mentor and Educate TESOL Teachers, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Tessa, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three journal issues include the following articles: "Competence in Facilitation" (Graham O'Connel); "Is My Map to Scale?" (Mark Wilson); "A Trainer's Dozen" (Barbara Thornton and Mary Lou McCloskey); "Carrot Ice Cream: Reactions to the New or Different" (Tessa Woodward); "Feeding (back to) the…

  12. Lions, leopards and liminal spaces:Representations of Biosociality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lions, leopards and liminal spaces:Representations of Biosociality in the Writings of Katy Payne, Linda Tucker and Gillian van Houten. W Woodward. Abstract. This paper considers Linda Tucker's Mystery of the White Lions: Children of the Sun God (2003) and Gillian van Houten's The Way of the Leopard (2003), as well as ...

  13. Comparison of some yield and quality criteria in organically and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-02

    May 2, 2008 ... be sustained by internal recycling (Woodward and. Lampkin, 1990). Organic agriculture is an ecological production management system that promotes and en- hances biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. The principal guidelines for organic production are to use materials and practices ...

  14. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Brown G. H. and Woodward O. M. 1947 RCA Review 8 259. ESRO Spacecraft Division Document ESRO-TR-10-ESTEC, 1971. Jasik H. 1961. Antennas engineering handbook, (New York McGraw Hill). Kraus J D 1950 Antennas (New York: McGraw Hill) p. 424. Pal S, Reddy P K, Lakshmeesha V K, Mahadevan V, Nicholas ...

  15. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodward, W. Vol 21, No 1-2 (2009) - Articles The Nonhuman Animal and Levinasian Otherness: Contemporary Narratives and Criticism Abstract · Vol 15, No 2 (2003) - Articles Jim comes from Jo'burg': Regionalised Identities and Social Comedy in Zakes Mda's The Heart of Redness Abstract · Vol 18, No 1 (2006) - Articles

  16. NANCEI-Ju-ne

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B'2. Adil Ghani Khan and S V Eswaran. Chemistry Behind the Life of a Transformer. Roshmi Sanghi. The Adive Lava Flows of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Hetu Sheth. The Unexpeded Appearance of Pi in. Diverse Problems. Rajendra Bhatia. Acoustic Communication in Birds. Differences in ...

  17. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... especially tenderness and marbling. Tenderness is one of the important sensory properties and indicators of meat quality (Shackelford, 2001;. Goodson et al., 2002). Abundant intramuscular fat tissue in beef renders a marble-like feature and enhances meat juice and sensory tenderness. (Woodward et al.

  18. Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science - Vol 71, No 1 (2009)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic variation among five provenances of Pterocarpus angolensis in Zimbabwe and Zambia · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. E Chisha-Kasumu, S Woodward, A Price. http://dx.doi.org/10.2989/SF.2009.71.1.6.743 ...

  19. Infants Generate Goal-Based Action Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the actions of others is critical to smooth social interactions. Prior work suggests that both understanding and anticipation of goal-directed actions appears early in development. In this study, on-line goal prediction was tested explicitly using an adaptation of Woodward's (1998) paradigm for an eye-tracking task. Twenty 11-month-olds…

  20. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ward, Bob Woodward), possibly for teaching us how to use new tools (Jack Roberts, Ahmed Zewail) or for teaching us about the molecules of life (G N Ramachandran, Venky Ramakrishnan). One could also consider those whose chemistry directly and im- mediately influenced people in a major way (Carl Djerassi, Fritz.

  1. Phenotypic variation among five provenances of Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenotypic variation among five provenances of Pterocarpus angolensis in Zimbabwe and Zambia. E Chisha-Kasumu, S Woodward, A Price. Abstract. The feasibility of utilising morphological markers for determining existing provenance variation in the African savanna tree Pterocarpus angolensis was assessed.

  2. Addis Ab•.~••lJmversi~

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Woodward-Lawson or numerical optimization to obtain the required array current distribution for a unifonnly spaced array. Spacing the elements unequally along a straight line in order to obtain better perfonnance (e.g.,-sidelobe reduction) is relatively a younger field in the array synthesis theory. Probably the first work on.

  3. A two-pronged approach in leishmaniasis drug development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Kamau

    Woodward J; Zhou S; Zimmermann W;. Smith DF; Blackwell JM; Stuart KD;. Barrell B and Myler PJ. The genome of the kinetoplastid parasite, Leishmania major. Science. 2005; 309: 436-42. 17. Croft SL and Yardly V. Chemotherapy of. Leishmaniasis. Current Pharmaceutical. Design. 2002; 8:319-42. 18. Kumar A; Katiyar ...

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLES In-hospital outcome of patients discharged ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    complications, practical and psychological considerations. Laryngoscope 1998; 98: 1165~1169. 5. Boyd SW, Benzel EC. The role of early tracheostomy in the management pf the neurosurgical patient. Laryngoscope 102: 1992; 559-562. 6. Stock MC, Woodward CG, Shapiro BA, Cane RD, Lewis B, Pecaro B. Perioperative.

  5. The Man Behind 'Femtochemistry'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    photochemically allowed by Woodward-Hoffman rules [3]. The chemical transformation is shown in Scheme 1. This reaction, however, may proceed directly through a transi- tion state (see Figure 3a) or it could proceed through a diradical detector molecular jet. Figure 2. Schematic dia- gram of the femtosecond apparatus ...

  6. determination of design inflow rate in furrow irrigation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    Shockley, Woodward and Phelan (SWP) 1964 vertical recession model was found to be better in terms of error margin between observed and calculated vertical recession times when compared to the time of irrigation, the error margin not exceeding -4%. The Sherman and Singh (1978) and Ram and. Singh (1982) in the ...

  7. Learning by Pictures: Comments on Learning, Literacy, and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Arthur

    1989-01-01

    Stating that the primary function of textbooks is to transmit quantity and quality of knowledge, Woodward argues that photographs and other design features should be relevant to the topic, extending learning beyond the written text. Presents recommendations for evaluating the instructional quality of textbook photographs. (GEA)

  8. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul J. Flory – The Man Who Laid the Foundations of Modern Polymer Science · Harold A Scheraga · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 6-7 Table of Contents. Table of Contents · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 8-16 General Article. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12 · Adil Ghani Khan S V Eswaran · More Details Fulltext PDF.

  9. Geotechnical and environmental problems related to shales in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    high compressibility (Seed and Woodward, 1964; Sowers and Sowers, 1970; Coduto, 1999). An increase in plasticity of material also decreases its permeability and hydraulic conductivity (Sowers and Sowers, 1970). In this study the specific gravity (Gs) of shale, a dimensionless parameter, is the weighted average of the.

  10. The systematic position of Unio Caffer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    but have concentric beak sculpture (Ortmann 1916; Woodward 1965; personally verified). Unlike those of Unio caffer, however, the glochidia of those species of Hyriopsis Conrad,. Lamellidens Simpson and Uniandra Haas, all of the Oriental region, are of subovate shape. (height always greater than length) and lack hooks.

  11. Seismic Tomography of the Near Solar Surface L. Gizon1, Τ. L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    approximation (see Woodward 1992). We restricted our attention to a simplified problem, in which the prescribed flow (U) is steady, horizontal, and depth indepen dent. Furthermore the random sources of oscillations are assumed to be of pressure type, uniformly distributed on the surface, and spatially uncorrelated ...

  12. New Fellows and Honorary Fellow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annual Meetings · Mid Year Meetings · Discussion Meetings · Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1964 Honorary. Woodward, Prof. Robert Burns Nobel Laureate (Chemistry) - 1965. Date of birth: 10 April 1917. Date of death: 8 July ...

  13. Structural study of nanosized yttrium-doped CaMnO3 perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    YMnO3 does not form perovskite structure type since its cation is too small and leads to instability of the perovskite structure (Woodward et al 1998; Hibble et al. 1999; Dlouha et al 2002; Zagorac et al 2010). At atmos- pheric pressure YMnO3 crystallizes in hexagonal struc- ture (space group P63cm) (Lukaszewicz and Karut-.

  14. A comparison between beef fed organically, in a feedlot, and on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    higher production turnover (Fernandez & Woodward, 1999). They believe that producers gain the most in economic terms as long as they follow conventional methods including the use of growth promoting substances, antibiotics, deworming practices and creep feeding. Since the organic food sector now occupies a ...

  15. Digital Portfolios: Fact or Fashion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Helen; Nanlohy, Phil

    2004-01-01

    The value of portfolios as an assessment tool is thoroughly researched and their use in education is well documented ( Woodward, 2000). Research on the introduction of digital portfolios is substantially based on general portfolio research; however, additional specific factors and features need to be considered. One of the inherent dangers with…

  16. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ever since its isolation in 1820, Quinine has played a crucial role in the development of organic chemistry, chemical indus- try and modern medicine. The total synthesis of quinine, widely regarded as an event of epochal importance was claimed by Woodward and Doering in 1945. This work, however, heavily relied on ...

  17. RAPD markers demonstrate genetic diversity in Pterocarpus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAPD markers demonstrate genetic diversity in Pterocarpus angolensis from Zimbabwe and Zambia. E Chisha-Kasumu, S Woodward, A Price. Abstract. Understanding the availability, extent and apportionment of genetic variability in natural populations of the southern African savanna tree Pterocarpus angolensis can ...

  18. Think It Over

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Woodward Seminars' were quite famous. They always took place on Thursdays, started around 8.00 pm and were open ended! Most of us had our baptization from these seminars! It would start with 'an entertainment' where a sacrificial scientist ...

  19. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 506 ... E Chisha-Kasumu, S Woodward, A Price. Vol 76, No 3 (2014), Comparison of the tolerance of Pinus patula seedlings and established trees to infection by Fusarium circinatum, Abstract. R Glen Mitchell, Michael J Wingfield, Emma T Steenkamp, Jolanda Roux, Steven Verryn, Teresa A Coutinho. Vol 79 ...

  20. Commentary on Intensive Interventions: What Are the Limits of Highly Structured Curriculum for At-Risk Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, John

    2016-01-01

    In this commentary, John Woodward observes that, when judged collectively, the pre-K to Grade 4 research in this special section not only exemplifies the effects of the Institute of Education Sciences' emphasis on large-scale empirical studies over the last decade, but it also demonstrates how the field of special education has moved away from a…

  1. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward–Hoffmann Rules At Your ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward-Hoffmann Rules At Your Fingertips! Subramania Ranganathan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1211-1222. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    ecule was transformed and rent asunder in innumerable directions, and the fascination and intricacy of the chemistry of chlorophyll and its congeners was fully revealed. These massive contributions were crowned by the proposal, in. 1940 of a structure which was complete except for stereochemical detail. – R B Woodward ...

  3. Academic Literacies and Systemic Functional Linguistics: How Do They Relate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Caroline; Donohue, James P.

    2012-01-01

    Two approaches to English for Academic Purposes (EAP) research and teaching which have arisen in recent years are systemic functional linguistics (SFL) approaches in Australia and elsewhere (e.g. Hood, 2006; Lee, 2010; Woodward-Kron, 2009) and Academic Literacies approaches in the UK and elsewhere (e.g. Lillis & Scott, 2008; Thesen &…

  4. A Century of Chemical Dynamics Traced through the Nobel Prizes. 1981: Fukui and Hoffmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Houten, J.

    2002-06-01

    The 1981 Nobel Prize was awarded to Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions." Those theories, which have come to be known as "frontier orbital theory" and the "Woodward-Hoffmann rules" respectively, remain important tools for predicting the course of organic reactions and they are frequently taught in courses in mechanistic organic chemistry.

  5. 75 FR 72873 - Privacy Act Of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... Center 1615 Woodward Street Austin, Texas 78772. Former Prisoner of War Statistical Austin Information... Distribution Center 155 Van Gordon Street Lakewood, Colorado 80228-1709. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum... Austin, Texas 78772. Veterans Administration Central Cancer Veterans Affairs Medical Center Registry. 50...

  6. Biomass yield from an urban landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass production from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, Oklahoma and to estimate the potential...

  7. Renewable energy from urban landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass potential from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, OK and to estimate the potential biomas...

  8. Cognitive Dominance: A Historical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-23

    Take a Hero, 293. 57 Woodward, The Commanders, 247-56, 291. 30 extensive logistics capabilities, airlifting over 800 pallets of maps into theater...kilometers of the Saudi border.59 58 Kevin M. Woods , The Mother of All Battles: Saddam Hussein’s...believed he offered one comprehensive and inflexible 61 Woods , Mother of All Battles, 126-30, 88-89

  9. A Simple Computer-Aided Three-Dimensional Molecular Modeling for the Octant Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yinan; Kang, Fu-An

    2011-01-01

    The Moffitt-Woodward-Moscowitz-Klyne-Djerassi octant rule is one of the most successful empirical rules in organic chemistry. However, the lack of a simple effective modeling method for the octant rule in the past 50 years has posed constant difficulties for researchers, teachers, and students, particularly the young generations, to learn and…

  10. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.

    1978-11-01

    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  11. Proceedings from the Annual Army Environmental R&D Symposium (16th) Held 23-25 June 1992 at Fort Magruder Inn and Conference Center, Williamsburg, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Aquino , R., Project Summary: Organic and ronmental situations, therefore, aqueous solutions of Organotin Compounds Leached from PVC and methylene...Alamos, NM, 1991. 363 SONIC DRILLING FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLING Gregg A. Anderson and Tomas A. Terry EG&G Rocky Flats, Woodward-Clyde Federal Services

  12. William Faulkner: No Friend of Brown v. Board of Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polsgrove, Carol

    2001-01-01

    In the years following the Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision to integrate America's public schools, William Faulkner, Norman Mailer, Hannah Arendt, Robert Penn Warren, and, to a lesser extent, C. Vann Woodward, provided intellectual sustenance to southern efforts to resist racial integration. Focuses on Faulkner's political…

  13. Exploring the Ancestral Roots of American Sign Language: Lexical Borrowing from Cistercian Sign Language and French Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Keith Martin

    2010-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is the natural and preferred language of the Deaf community in both the United States and Canada. Woodward (1978) estimated that approximately 60% of the ASL lexicon is derived from early 19th century French Sign Language, which is known as "langue des signes francaise" (LSF). The lexicon of LSF and ASL may…

  14. Editorial

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Only a handful are gifted with, at a very young age, the path laid out for them in life. Indeed. Woodward's obsession with organic chemistry sprouted very early. His initiative, at the age of eleven, to secure few original publications in German journals via consular channels in Boston defies imagination. By the time he entered ...

  15. Marine Cognitive Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-09

    WoodwardT IC .’ Program Manager DI PF h y s i ology an d N eu r ob iology EL CTE Office of Naval Research Code NOOOIL 5 985 y- 800 North Quincy Street...black and white ob- jects (balls, footballs , cones, etc.). The balls floated on the water sur- face along with other previously "named" objects. Following

  16. Using SOURCES to Examine the Nadir of Race Relations (1890-1920)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVallee, Carol; Waring, Scott M.

    2015-01-01

    The "nadir of race relations" is a term used by historians to describe the time period after Reconstruction, 1890-1920. During this time, African Americans were free; some argue, however, that it was a worse time than when these individuals were enslaved (Brundage 1990; Woodward 2002). There is a debate whether this time period…

  17. The pulmonary anatomy of Alligator mississippiensis and its similarity to the avian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, R Kent; Farmer, C G

    2012-04-01

    Using gross dissections and computed tomography we studied the lungs of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis). Our findings indicate that both the external and internal morphology of the lungs is strikingly similar to the embryonic avian respiratory system (lungs + air sacs). We identified bronchi that we propose are homologous to the avian ventrobronchi (entobronchi), laterobronchi, dorsobronchi (ectobronchi), as well as regions of the lung hypothesized to be homologous to the cervical, interclavicular, anterior thoracic, posterior thoracic, and abdominal air sacs. Furthermore, we suggest that many of the features that alligators and birds share are homologous and that some of these features are important to the aerodynamic valve mechanism and are likely plesiomorphic for Archosauria. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. MicroRNAs support a turtle + lizard clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Sperling, Erik A; Heimberg, Alysha M; Gauthier, Jacques A; King, Benjamin L; Peterson, Kevin J

    2012-02-23

    Despite much interest in amniote systematics, the origin of turtles remains elusive. Traditional morphological phylogenetic analyses place turtles outside Diapsida-amniotes whose ancestor had two fenestrae in the temporal region of the skull (among the living forms the tuatara, lizards, birds and crocodilians)-and allied with some unfenestrate-skulled (anapsid) taxa. Nonetheless, some morphological analyses place turtles within Diapsida, allied with Lepidosauria (tuatara and lizards). Most molecular studies agree that turtles are diapsids, but rather than allying them with lepidosaurs, instead place turtles near or within Archosauria (crocodilians and birds). Thus, three basic phylogenetic positions for turtles with respect to extant Diapsida are currently debated: (i) sister to Diapsida, (ii) sister to Lepidosauria, or (iii) sister to, or within, Archosauria. Interestingly, although these three alternatives are consistent with a single unrooted four-taxon tree for extant reptiles, they differ with respect to the position of the root. Here, we apply a novel molecular dataset, the presence versus absence of specific microRNAs, to the problem of the phylogenetic position of turtles and the root of the reptilian tree, and find that this dataset unambiguously supports a turtle + lepidosaur group. We find that turtles and lizards share four unique miRNA gene families that are not found in any other organisms' genome or small RNA library, and no miRNAs are found in all diapsids but not turtles, or in turtles and archosaurs but not in lizards. The concordance between our result and some morphological analyses suggests that there have been numerous morphological convergences and reversals in reptile phylogeny, including the loss of temporal fenestrae.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics in a novel L2 clade of non-LTR retrotransposons in Deuterostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovsin, N; Gubensek, F; Kordi, D

    2001-12-01

    The evolution of the novel L2 clade of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons and their evolutionary dynamics in Deuterostomia has been examined. The short-term evolution of long interspersed nuclear element 2s (LINE2s) has been studied in 18 reptilian species by analysis of a PCR amplified 0.7-kb fragment encoding the palm/fingers subdomain of reverse transcriptase (RT). Most of the reptilian LINE2s examined are inactive since they contain multiple stop codons, indels, or frameshift mutations that disrupt the RT. Analysis of reptilian LINE2s has shown a high degree of sequence divergence and an unexpectedly large number of deletions. The evolutionary dynamics of LINE2s in reptiles has been found to be complex. LINE2s are shown to form a novel clade of non-LTR retrotransposons that is well separated from the CR1 clade. This novel L2 clade is more widely distributed than previously thought, and new representatives have been discovered in echinoderms, insects, teleost fishes, Xenopus, Squamata, and marsupials. There is an apparent absence of LINE2s from different vertebrate classes, such as cartilaginous fishes, Archosauria (birds and crocodiles), and turtles. Whereas the LINE2s are present in echinoderms and teleost fishes in a conserved form, in most tetrapods only highly degenerated pseudogenes can be found. The predominance of inactive LINE2s in Tetrapoda indicates that, in the host genomes, only inactive copies are still present. The present data indicate that the vertical inactivation of LINE2s might have begun at the time of Tetrapoda origin, 400 MYA. The evolutionary dynamics of the L2 clade in Deuterostomia can be described as a gradual vertical inactivation in Tetrapoda, stochastic loss in Archosauria and turtles, and strict vertical transmission in echinoderms and teleost fishes.

  20. Systematics of putative euparkeriids (Diapsida: Archosauriformes) from the Triassic of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sookias, Roland B; Sullivan, Corwin; Liu, Jun; Butler, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The South African species Euparkeria capensis is of great importance for understanding the early radiation of archosauromorphs (including archosaurs) following the Permo-Triassic mass extinction, as most phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister taxon to crown group Archosauria within the clade Archosauriformes. Although a number of species from Lower-Middle Triassic deposits worldwide have been referred to the putative clade Euparkeriidae, the monophyly of Euparkeriidae is controversial and has yet to be demonstrated by quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Three Chinese taxa have been recently suggested to be euparkeriids: Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis', and Wangisuchus tzeyii, all three of which were collected from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of northern China. Here, we reassess the taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. We regard Wangisuchus tzeyii as a nomen dubium, because the holotype is undiagnostic and there is no convincing evidence that the previously referred additional specimens represent the same taxon as the holotype. We also regard 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis' as a nomen dubium as we are unable to identify any diagnostic features. We refer the holotype to Archosauriformes, and more tentatively to Euparkeriidae. Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis and the holotype of 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis' are resolved as sister taxa in a phylogenetic analysis, and are in turn the sister taxon to Euparkeria capensis, forming a monophyletic Euparkeriidae that is the sister to Archosauria+Phytosauria. This is the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis to recover a non-monospecific, monophyletic Euparkeriidae, but euparkeriid monophyly is only weakly supported and will require additional examination. Given their similar sizes, stratigraphic positions and phylogenetic placement, the holotype of 'Turfanosuchus shageduensis' may represent a second individual of Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, but no apomorphies or unique character combination

  1. Cretaceous Small Scavengers: Feeding Traces in Tetrapod Bones from Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Valais, Silvina; Apesteguía, Sebastián; Garrido, Alberto C.

    2012-01-01

    Ecological relationships among fossil vertebrate groups are interpreted based on evidence of modification features and paleopathologies on fossil bones. Here we describe an ichnological assemblage composed of trace fossils on reptile bones, mainly sphenodontids, crocodyliforms and maniraptoran theropods. They all come from La Buitrera, an early Late Cretaceous locality in the Candeleros Formation of northwestern Patagonia, Argentina. This locality is significant because of the abundance of small to medium-sized vertebrates. The abundant ichnological record includes traces on bones, most of them attributable to tetrapods. These latter traces include tooth marks that provde evidence of feeding activities made during the sub-aerial exposure of tetrapod carcasses. Other traces are attributable to arthropods or roots. The totality of evidence provides an uncommon insight into paleoecological aspects of a Late Cretaceous southern ecosystem. PMID:22253800

  2. An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novas, Fernando E; Salgado, Leonardo; Suárez, Manuel; Agnolín, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Chimento, Nicolás R; de la Cruz, Rita; Isasi, Marcelo P; Vargas, Alexander O; Rubilar-Rogers, David

    2015-06-18

    Theropod dinosaurs were the dominant predators in most Mesozoic era terrestrial ecosystems. Early theropod evolution is currently interpreted as the diversification of various carnivorous and cursorial taxa, whereas the acquisition of herbivorism, together with the secondary loss of cursorial adaptations, occurred much later among advanced coelurosaurian theropods. A new, bizarre herbivorous basal tetanuran from the Upper Jurassic of Chile challenges this conception. The new dinosaur was discovered at Aysén, a fossil locality in the Upper Jurassic Toqui Formation of southern Chile (General Carrera Lake). The site yielded abundant and exquisitely preserved three-dimensional skeletons of small archosaurs. Several articulated individuals of Chilesaurus at different ontogenetic stages have been collected, as well as less abundant basal crocodyliforms, and fragmentary remains of sauropod dinosaurs (diplodocids and titanosaurians).

  3. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M

    2014-09-20

    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill.

  4. Chemical solution deposition of CaCu3Ti4O12 thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Ramirez A P, Subramanian M A, Gardel M G, Blumberg G, Li. D, Vogt T and Shapiro S M 2000 Solid State Commun. 115 217. Schwartz R W 1997 Chem. Mater. 9 2325. Shri Prakash B, Varma K B R, Michau D and Maglione M 2008. Thin Solid Films 516 2874. Si W, Cruz E M, Johnson P D, Barnes P W, Woodward P and.

  5. Global Counterinsurgency: A Way Out of the Global War on Terrorism Quagmire?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    the Salifist movement.54 For example, Muhammad Abd al-Salam Faraj, an electrician and self-taught theologian for the underground Jihad in Egypt during...Marie, and Paul F. Steinberg. The Road to Martyr’s Square: A Journey Into the World of the Suicide Bomber. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005...War. New York: Simon and Shuster, 2002. Woodward, Bob. Plan of Attack. New York: Simon and Shuster, 2004. Ye’or, Bat . Eurabia: The Euro-Arab Axis

  6. The Potential for Carbon Sequestration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    supervision of Joseph Kile and David Moore. Terry Dinan, Justin Falk, Mark Lasky, Robert Shackleton , and G. Thomas Woodward of CBO provided helpful comments...which is then sold to the food industry. 29. See John Deutch, Ernest J. Moniz, and others, The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained...Deutch, Ernest J. Moniz, and others, The Future of Coal: Options for a Carbon-Constrained World (Cambridge, Mass.: Massachusetts Institute of

  7. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E

    2004-01-01

    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  8. METALLIC AND CERAMIC MATERIALS RESEARCH Task Order 0003: Metallic Materials, Processing and Performance Development for Air Force Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Solid State Joining 3.3.1.1 Inertia Friction Welding of Dissimilar Superalloys Mar-M247 and LSHR Many advanced applications require different...result in welding defects such as liquation cracking, strain age cracking, etc. In this work, inertia friction welding (IFW) was used to weld two...pp 1628-1633. [15] O.N. Senkov, D.W. Mahaffey, S.L. Semiatin, and C. Woodward, "Inertia Friction Welding of Dissimilar Superalloys Mar-M247and

  9. Performance Prediction and Simulation of Gas Turbine Engine Operation for Aircraft, Marine, Vehicular, and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Overall performances of an LM6000 type gas turbine are shown in this figure, where comparison of predictions to manufacturer published data is shown. The...of Engineering for Gas Turbine and Power, July 1987, Vol. 109. Anon., “ LM6000 Control Solutions Benefit Operations”, Woodward Governor Company...Organowski, G., “GE LM6000 Development of the First 40% Thermal Efficiency Gas Turbine”, GE Marine & Industrial Engine and Service Division”. Meher Homji

  10. A Chiang-type lagrangian in CP^2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas da Silva, Ana

    2017-12-01

    We analyse a monotone lagrangian in CP^2 that is hamiltonian isotopic to the standard lagrangian RP^2 , yet exhibits a distinguishing behaviour under reduction by one of the toric circle actions, namely it intersects transversally the reduction level set and it projects one-to-one onto a great circle in CP^1 . This lagrangian thus provides an example of embedded composition fitting work of Wehrheim-Woodward and Weinstein.

  11. Synthesis and properties of Oxasmaragdyrins containing one Five ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bauer V J, Clive D L J, Dolphin D, Paine J B, Harris F L,. King M M, Loder J, Wang S W C and Woodward R B. 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. 105 6429. 4. Sessler J L, Camiolo S and Gale P A 2003 Coordin. Chem. Rev. 240 17. 5. Narayanan S J, Sridevi B and Chandrashekar T K 1999. Org. Lett. 4 587. 6. Sridevi B, Narayanan S J ...

  12. Charge-order driven multiferroic and magneto-dielectric properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    manganates (figure 4) (Vogt et al 1996; Woodward et al. 1999). For example, the charge-ordered structure of. Nd0⋅5Sr0⋅5MnO3 consists of distorted oxygen octahedra with zigzag chains with alternate long and short Mn–O bonds. In terms of the chemistry, the mean A-site cation radius 〈rA〉 is expected to play an important ...

  13. Single step hydrothermal based synthesis of M(II)Sb2O6 (M = Cd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    those reported in the literature (Mizoguchi and Woodward. 2004). In the case of NiSb2O6 and CuSb2O6, pyrochlore phase formation was also seen in addition to the desired pro- ducts, while the reaction was incomplete in the case of. PbSb2O6. The reaction of NaSbO3 with divalent metal salt solutions producing the oxides ...

  14. Phalangiotarbid arachnids from the coal measures of Lancashire, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlop, J.A.; Horrocks, C.A. [University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1997-05-01

    Four new specimens of phalangiotarbid (arachnida: Phalangiotarbida) from the Upper Carboniferous (upper Westphalian A) of Westhoughton, Lancashire, UK, are referred to Mesotarbus peteri sp. nov. an additional Lancashire phalangiotarbid, Phalangiotarbus subovalis (Woodward, 1872), from the Upper Carboniferous (lower/middle Westphalian A) of Burnley, is redescribed and designated the neotype of this species. This material allows new interpretations of the opisthosomal segmentation and respiratory organs of phalangiotarbids, and a reconstruction of Mesotarbus peteri is presented.

  15. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 13, Number 1, January 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    peritonsillar abscess, pneumonia, necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock, acute rheumatic fever ) secondary to group A beta-hemolytic...infections and the prevention of long-term sequelae (e.g., acute rheumatic fever ).2,3 They also demonstrated the effectiveness of mass prophylaxis...ed Woodward, TE. Borden Institute. 1994. 3.Denny FW, Wannamaker LW, Brink WR, Rammelkamp CH, Custer EA. Prevention of rheumatic fever : treatment of

  16. Implementing Monitored Natural Attenuation and Expediting Closure at Fuel-Release Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-08-01

    Acinetobacter sp., Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Nocardia sp., methanogens, anaerobes Moderate to High Toluene Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, Bacillus sp... Nocardia , Methylobacterium Mycobacterium Pseudomonas, Rodacoccus and Sphingomaonas Low to Moderate Adapted from Riser-Roberts (1992) and Woodward and...receptors (e.g., plants, mamals, fish ) It is necessary to collect and integrate all of above-listed information that is relevant to the site of

  17. 2005 Defense Base Closure and Realignment Commission Report. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Commonwealth Edison Company and its holding company, Unicom Corporation. Prior to joining Commonwealth Edison , Mr. Skinner served as Chief of Staff...facilities: Enid, Alva , Woodward, Blackwell, Cherokee, Watonga, and the National Guard Field Maintenance Shop in Enid, OK if the State of Oklahoma decides to...DoN 29 Navy and Marine Corps Reserve Centers (Rollup) FINAL REPORT PAGE # 101 32 KILMER US ARMY RESERVE CENTER, EDISON COMMISSION ITEM # 53

  18. Pawcatuck River and Narragansett Bay Drainage Basins Water and Related Land Resources Study. Big River Reservoir Project. Volume II. Appendix A-G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    Charlestown, RI 02813 Box 695 7 Marion Drive Post Road Coventry, RI 02816 Matunuck, RI 02879 Mr. Oliver Kushman Ms. Linda Carmeroto Town Farm Road 83...GENERAL PUBLIC Mr. Gerald Donovan Ms. JoAnn Silva Ms. Mary Wilkins 113 Woodward Hall 131 Cleveland Street 49 South Main Street University of Rhode...Coventry, RI 02816 Johnston, RI 02919 Cranston, RI 02910 Hon. Marion G. Donnelly lion. Joseph DeAngelis Hon. Paul R. Durfv State Representative State

  19. Interest-Bearing Currency: Evidence from the Civil War Experience: A Comment.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, G Thomas

    1995-01-01

    James Gherity (1993) reports an experience that falsifies predictions of the legal restrictions theory of the demand for money. He concludes that this failure is explained by Lawrence H. White's (1987) rather than Gail E. Makinen and G. Thomas Woodward's (1986) hypothesis of why interest-free money is a superior circulating medium. Gherity's conclusion depends on the erroneous proposition that transactions costs of using post-dated interest-bearing notes are avoided by tendering them at par. ...

  20. Advanced Thermally Stable Coal-Based Jet Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Research Assistants Ryuichi Ashida, Scott Berkhous, Elise Bickford, Nicolas Bouvet, Abraham Brandt, Justin Brumberg , Suchada Butnark, Elana Chapman...Y. Multidisciplinary study of pulse detonation engine propulsion. CPIA Publ. 1999. 692(1), 141-150. Santoro, R.J.; Lee, S.-Y.; Conrad, C.; Brumberg ...2003, 259-270. Santoro, R.J.; Lee, S.-Y.; Conrad, C.; Brumberg , J.; Saretto, S.; Lecat, P.; Pal, S.; Woodward, R.D. Deflagration-to-detonation

  1. Theoretical study of the spectroscopy of the alkali oxides LiO, NaO, and KO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhoff, Stephen R.; Partridge, Harry; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A state-averaged complete-active-space self-consistent-field multireference configuration-interaction method is presented to characterize the bound-bound emission from the CPi-2 state into the two lowest ionic states of LiO, NaO, and KO. Ab initio calculations use the experimental results obtained by Woodward et al. (1989) of the emitting state as CPi-2, but indicate that the tentative experimental band assignments are incorrect.

  2. Human Dimensions of Strategic Leadership : A Selected Bibliogrpahy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Psychology 25, no. 3 (September 2010): 367-380. EBSCO OmniFile Donigian, Aram, and Jeff Weiss. “A Failure to Engage: Current Negotiation Strategies...Journal for Quality & Participation 35, no. 2 (July 2012): 25-30. EBSCO OmniFile Woodward, Ian, and Elizabeth More. “Leadership Communication at the...Domenec. Management Ethics: Placing Ethics at the Core of Good Management. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012. 191pp. EBSCO E-book Metcalfe, Hal G

  3. Sources of Environmental Structuring and Participant Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-08

    Human Performance, 1978, 22, 375-403. Kerr, S ., Schriesheim, C., Murphy, C. J., & Stogdill, R. M. Toward a contingency theory of leadership based... theories may differ in their conceptualization of significant situational contingency factors. Following the lead of Woodward (1973), Kerr argued that we are...substitutes for leadership" (p. 727). In spite of the contingency models of leadership ( Fiedler , 1967; House, 1971) Ford (1q81) recently noted that much

  4. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    crownward archosauriforms than to proterosuchids, and several species are found widespread along the archosauromorph tree, some being nested within Archosauria (e.g., “Chasmatosaurus ultimus,” Youngosuchus). Doswelliids and proterochampsids are recovered as more closely related to each other than to other archosauromorphs, forming a large clade (Proterochampsia) of semi-aquatic to aquatic forms that includes the bizarre genus Vancleavea. Euparkeria is one of the sister-taxa of the clade composed of proterochampsians and archosaurs. The putative Indian archosaur Yarasuchus is recovered in a polytomy with Euparkeria and more crownward archosauriforms, and as more closely related to the Russian Dongusuchus than to other species. Phytosaurs are recovered as the sister-taxa of all other pseudosuchians, thus being nested within Archosauria. PMID:27162705

  5. Richard J. A. Talbert and Richard W.

    OpenAIRE

    Aujac, Germaine

    2011-01-01

    Ce très intéressant volume, écho du 35e Atelier médiéval qui réunit à Vancouver, en octobre 2005, une quinzaine de spécialistes, est dédié à la mémoire des pionniers que furent, pour l’histoire de la cartographie, John Brian Harley et David Woodward, disparus respectivement en 1991 et en 2004. Ces deux infatigables savants avaient lancé et mis partiellement à exécution l’History of Cartography Project, dont le premier volume, Cartography in Prehistoric, Ancient and Medieval Europe and the Med...

  6. 'Dipper, Christof, Schneider, Ute, Kartenwelten. Der Raum und seine Repräsentation in der Neuzeit'

    OpenAIRE

    Chassagnette, Axelle

    2013-01-01

    Un des topoï de l’histoire contemporaine de la cartographie, qui, sur ce point, s’appuie en particulier sur les travaux anglo-saxons de John Brian Harley ou de David Woodward, est de rappeler constamment le caractère construit des cartes, artefacts humains dont la fonction supposée – dans une perspective positiviste de l’histoire des sciences, aujourd’hui largement remise en cause – est de représenter la réalité, mais dont l’élaboration implique des omissions, un processus de sélection et de ...

  7. Development of a Real-Time Hardware-in- the-Loop Power Systems Simulation Platform to Evaluate Commercial Microgrid Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-23

    Woodward easYgen 3500 (protocol 5010 [4], pp. 697−739) Parameter R/W Reg Number Unit Scale Notes Protocol ID (5010 Protocol) R 4 50001 − − Value of...is off, frequency droop is off or machine is in ISO mode, and the auxiliary fuel function is disabled. If any of the remote control bits are active...the simulated microgrid 8. Simulate the influence the ISO energy market would have on microgrid operation The benefit of producing HIL testing

  8. Finger Movements in Transcription Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-07

    Laboratories1845 Elena Ave., Fourth Floor I Dr. J. Arthur Woodward 1 Dr. Hubert Dreyfus Redondo Beach, CA 90277 Department of Psychology University...AsDonnel Doulas Atronautics Co. I Dr. Martha Poison 51eCrtyDrvP.O. 3" 516 Departlmt of PsJychology 5 e~ rv St. Louis , NO 63166 University of Colorado...Astronautics Co. I DR. DIANE M. IBISEY-KLEE 1 SC. ICHAPL AT00 P. 0. Sex 516 1-K RESEARCH & SYSTM IESIGN SCINCE APPLICATIONS ISTITUT St. Louis , MO 63166

  9. Changing of the Guard: Nation Building and the United States Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    Earth . At the same time as many American leaders were exploring the possibility of a peace dividend, the United States military sought a relevant...value of every dollar spent on operations in the Middle East. The success of these operations will be measured by the respective countries‘ capacity...Rumsfeld ―that son of a bitch,‖ or ―that asshole.‖ 14 According to Woodward, ―strong, forceful military advice was bleached out of the system. The

  10. O imperativo tecnológico: um argumento

    OpenAIRE

    Chiavenato, Marilena Saboya

    1980-01-01

    O objetivo precípuo do tema deste trabalho é uma tentativa de explicar a grande influência da tecnologia na determinação da estrutura e design organizacional, tal como a consideram autores de renome como Lawrence e Lorsch, Woodward, Perrow, James Thompson, Galbraith e outros posteriormente citados. Partiremos da abordagem da Tecnologia como uma variável ambiental sem, entretanto, deixar de lado as demais variáveis ambientais, também relevantes para uma análise das estratégias e políticas dese...

  11. The U.S. Military Response to the 2010 Haiti Earthquake: Considerations for Army Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Security, MG-221-A, 2004 • Gary Cecchine, Michael  A. Wermuth, Roger  C. Molander, K. Scott McMahon, Jesse  D. Malkin, Jennifer Brower, John D...W. Chan, Jefferson P. Marquis, and Karl P. Mueller for their expert review and advice on the manuscript. Dallas Owens also provided a very helpful...Scott McMahon, Jesse  D. Malkin, Jennifer Brower, John D. Woodward, and Donna F. Barbisch, Triage for Civil Support: Using Military Medical Assets to

  12. The Potential Linkage between Emergency Medical Services Systems and Health Systems Agencies to Civil Defense Related Health and Medical Care Plans and Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Attendees Madge R. Swann HRA 436-7234 Bob Handy HRA 436-7240 Dick Salamandra HSA-EMS 436-6295 Jonetta Darden PHS 443-1167 Gordon Johnson PHS/FDA/BRH 443...Francsico area. He said all Federal agencies have been working under General Woodward’s leadership to develop a plan. Mr. Salamandra asked Ms. Darden how...Anderson then introduced Dick Salamandra whose topic was Overview of Emergency Medical Services Systems. Mr. Salamandra said the intent of the EMS Act of

  13. A Monte Carlo Study of Seven Homogeneity of Variance Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Howard B. Lee; Gary S. Katz; Alberto F. Restori

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The decision by SPSS (now PASW) to use the unmodified Levene test to test homogeneity of variance was questioned. It was compared to six other tests. In total, seven homogeneity of variance tests used in Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) were compared on robustness and power using Monte Carlo studies. The homogeneity of variance tests were (1) Levene, (2) modified Levene, (3) Z-variance, (4) Overall-Woodward Modified Z-variance, (5) OBrien, (6) Samiuddin Cube Root and (7) F-Max....

  14. On Non-Abelian Symplectic Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We discuss symplectic cutting for Hamiltonian actions of non-Abelian compact groups. By using a degeneration based on the Vinberg monoid we give, in good cases, a global quotient description of a surgery construction introduced by Woodward and Meinrenken, and show it can be interpreted in algebro......-geometric terms. A key ingredient is the `universal cut' of the cotangent bundle of the group itself, which is identified with a moduli space of framed bundles on chains of projective lines recently introduced by the authors....

  15. Digital Doppler Radial Velocity Data Compared Objectively with Digital Reflectivity Radar Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    0 e l n a 1 3EB i li n g s *0- Woodward ga Sad Garber Rdoc J1 Field Sta 00pwee6X IOrients 3 NE Per -1Iawe autual Fairviev-O- dENTRALANO pmro Taloga...Mr ainl gg 11 rli 0. o N 0 C) -Z V .IL~’ LI o IW Z - CC >- *dtl -CC V) < *IL o gir #O Z ZQ)7b-wi 00 zxw o N it W < - It- > vuW4- 7 -U < 7U. j % Nr. ofU

  16. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the green turtle and blue-tailed mole skink: statistical evidence for archosaurian affinity of turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, Y; Nishida, M

    1999-06-01

    Turtles have highly specialized morphological characteristics, and their phylogenetic position has been under intensive debate. Previous molecular studies have not established a consistent and statistically well supported conclusion on this issue. In order to address this, complete mitochondrial DNA sequences were determined for the green turtle and the blue-tailed mole skink. These genomes possess an organization of genes which is typical of most other vertebrates, such as placental mammals, a frog, and bony fishes, but distinct from organizations of alligators and snakes. Molecular evolutionary rates of mitochondrial protein sequences appear to vary considerably among major reptilian lineages, with relatively rapid rates for snake and crocodilian lineages but slow rates for turtle and lizard lineages. In spite of this rate heterogeneity, phylogenetic analyses using amino acid sequences of 12 mitochondrial proteins reliably established the Archosauria (birds and crocodilians) and Lepidosauria (lizards and snakes) clades postulated from previous morphological studies. The phylogenetic analyses further suggested that turtles are a sister group of the archosaurs, and this untraditional relationship was provided with strong statistical evidence by both the bootstrap and the Kishino-Hasegawa tests. This is the first statistically significant molecular phylogeny on the placement of turtles relative to the archosaurs and lepidosaurs. It is therefore likely that turtles originated from a Permian-Triassic archosauromorph ancestor with two pairs of temporal fenestrae behind the skull orbit that were subsequently lost. The traditional classification of turtles in the Anapsida may thus need to be reconsidered.

  17. A bird-like skull in a Triassic diapsid reptile increases heterogeneity of the morphological and phylogenetic radiation of Diapsida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Adam C.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.

    2017-10-01

    The Triassic Period saw the first appearance of numerous amniote lineages (e.g. Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Mammalia) that defined Mesozoic ecosystems following the end Permian Mass Extinction, as well as the first major morphological diversification of crown-group reptiles. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of this event comes from the record of large-bodied reptiles (total body length > 1 m). Here we present a new species of drepanosaurid (small-bodied, chameleon-like diapsids) from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of New Mexico. Using reconstructions of micro-computed tomography data, we reveal the three-dimensional skull osteology of this clade for the first time. The skull presents many archaic anatomical traits unknown in Triassic crown-group reptiles (e.g. absence of bony support for the external ear), whereas other traits (e.g. toothless rostrum, anteriorly directed orbits, inflated endocranium) resemble derived avian theropods. A phylogenetic analysis of Permo-Triassic diapsids supports the hypothesis that drepanosaurs are an archaic lineage that originated in the Permian, far removed from crown-group Reptilia. The phylogenetic position of drepanosaurids indicates the presence of archaic Permian clades among Triassic small reptile assemblages and that morphological convergence produced a remarkably bird-like skull nearly 100 Myr before one is known to have emerged in Theropoda.

  18. A new toothed pterosaur (Pterodactyloidea: Anhangueridae) from the Early Cretaceous Romualdo Formation, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantim, Renan A M; Saraiva, Antônio A F; Oliveira, Gustavo R; Sayão, Juliana M

    2014-10-01

    A new species of pterosaur, Maaradactylus kellneri gen. nov., sp. nov. (Archosauria: Pterosauria) from the Romualdo Formation (Aptian/Albian), is herein described. The specimen (MPSC R 2357) was found at Sítio São Gonçalo, Santana do Cariri city (State of Ceará, northeast Brazil) and consists of the skull, atlas and axis, and represents one of the largest skulls of the Anhangueridae from the Araripe Basin described. The autapomorphies of the new pterosaur include the following characters: a premaxillary sagittal crest that is relatively long and high, beginning at the anterior part of the skull (rostrum) and extending to the 22nd pair of alveoli, not covering the nasoantorbital fenestra or the choanaes, and also the presence of 35 pairs of alveoli; smooth palatal ridge, which starts on the 5th pair of alveoli and ends on the 13th pair; palate is convex shaped in the anterior region; choanae not extending laterally; small and convex palatal elevation; the 5th, 6th and 7th alveoli smaller than the 4th and 8th; the alveoli decreasing in size from the 9th to the 12th and increasing from the 13th to 18th, and from the 18th to the 35th they are arranged in triplets. Furthermore, the lateral surface of the premaxillary crest shows grooves and tridimensional structures that may have housed blood vessels.

  19. Neural and endocranial anatomy of Triassic phytosaurian reptiles and convergence with fossil and modern crocodylians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenschlager, Stephan; Butler, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Phytosaurs are a clade of large, carnivorous pseudosuchian archosaurs from the Late Triassic with a near cosmopolitan distribution. Their superficial resemblance to longirostrine (long-snouted) crocodylians, such as gharials, has often been used in the past to infer ecological and behavioural convergence between the two groups. Although more than thirty species of phytosaur are currently recognised, little is known about the endocranial anatomy of this clade. Here, we describe the endocranial anatomy (including the brain, inner ear, neurovascular structures and sinus systems) of the two non-mystriosuchine phytosaurs Parasuchus angustifrons (="Paleorhinus angustifrons") and Ebrachosuchus neukami from the Late Triassic of Germany based on digital reconstructions. Results show that the endocasts of both taxa are very similar to each other in their rostrocaudally elongate morphology, with long olfactory tracts, weakly demarcated cerebral regions and dorsoventrally short endosseous labyrinths. In addition, several sinuses, including large antorbital sinuses and prominent dural venous sinuses, were reconstructed. Comparisons with the endocranial anatomy of derived phytosaurs indicate that Phytosauria is united by the presence of elongate olfactory tracts and longitudinally arranged brain architecture-characters which are also shared with Crocodyliformes. However, a substantial morphological variability is observed in the cephalic and pontine flexure and the presence of a pineal organ across the different phytosaur species. These results suggest that the endocranial anatomy in Phytosauria generally follows a plesiomorphic pattern, with moderate variation within the clade likely resulting from divergent sensory and behavioural adaptations.

  20. A Short-Snouted, Middle Triassic Phytosaur and its Implications for the Morphological Evolution and Biogeography of Phytosauria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Michelle R; Zhao, Li-Jun; Nesbitt, Sterling J; Wu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Chun

    2017-04-10

    Following the end-Permian extinction, terrestrial vertebrate diversity recovered by the Middle Triassic, and that diversity was now dominated by reptiles. However, those reptilian clades, including archosaurs and their closest relatives, are not commonly found until ~30 million years post-extinction in Late Triassic deposits despite time-calibrated phylogenetic analyses predicting an Early Triassic divergence for those clades. One of these groups from the Late Triassic, Phytosauria, is well known from a near-Pangean distribution, and this easily recognized clade bears an elongated rostrum with posteriorly retracted nares and numerous postcranial synapomorphies that are unique compared with all other contemporary reptiles. Here, we recognize the exquisitely preserved, nearly complete skeleton of Diandongosuchus fuyuanensis from the Middle Triassic of China as the oldest and basalmost phytosaur. The Middle Triassic age and lack of the characteristically-elongated rostrum fill a critical morphological and temporal gap in phytosaur evolution, indicating that the characteristic elongated rostrum of phytosaurs appeared subsequent to cranial and postcranial modifications associated with enhanced prey capture, predating that general trend of morphological evolution observed within Crocodyliformes. Additionally, Diandongosuchus supports that the clade was present across Pangea, suggesting early ecosystem exploration for Archosauriformes through nearshore environments and leading to ease of dispersal across the Tethys.

  1. A newMourasuchus(Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae) from the late Miocene of Venezuela, the phylogeny of Caimaninae and considerations on the feeding habits ofMourasuchus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidade, Giovanne M; Solórzano, Andrés; Rincón, Ascanio Daniel; Riff, Douglas; Hsiou, Annie Schmaltz

    2017-01-01

    Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae) is one of the most peculiar crocodyliforms due to the skull morphology consisting of a long, wide, dorsoventrally flat rostrum with long, slender mandibular rami. Despite these peculiarities, the systematics, phylogeny and feeding habits of this taxon have not been properly studied. In this paper, we describe a new species of the genus, Mourasuchus pattersoni sp. nov., from the late Miocene of the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela. The new species differs from the other Mourasuchus species in having a lateromedially wide, dorsoventrally high jugal bone and a circular incisive foramen, which both represent autapomorphies of the new taxon. Phylogenetically, M. pattersoni sp. nov. is more closely related to M. amazonensis and the specimen UFAC-1424 (formely attributed to M. nativus ) than to M. arendsi or M. atopus , whilst Mourasuchus is recovered once more as a monophyletic group. Furthermore, the cladistic analysis performed in this contribution offers a new phylogenetic assessment of Caimaninae, including many taxa described recently for the group. In this study, we also discuss the crocodylian diversity of the Urumaco Formation as well as how paleoenvironment may have contributed toward its evolution. In addition, we provide a discussion of the potential feeding habits of Mourasuchus . In this contribution, Mourasuchus is regarded as a taxon that likely preferred to prey on small animals. The unusual skull morphology of this group may have evolved to cover a large area with the rostrum, allowing for a more efficient prey capture, while the prey may have consisted predominantly of large amounts of small animals.

  2. The "Continental Intercalaire" of southern Tunisia: Stratigraphy, paleontology, and paleoecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Federico; Contessi, Michela; Franchi, Fulvio

    2012-09-01

    The "Continental Intercalaire" deposits of southern Tunisia preserve one of the most diverse Early Cretaceous vertebrate fauna from Africa, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs. Vertebrate remains representative of both marine and fluvial environments have been historically referred to a specific bonebed within the Chenini Member, which crops out extensively in the Tataouine region. A stratigraphic revision of the mainly siliciclastic deposits of the Douiret and the Aïn El Guettar formations in the area based on new sedimentological and paleontological data is presented. Data collected indicate the presence of multiple fossil-bearing strata encompassing the stratigraphic interval from the Berriasian to the Albian and document faunal variation through time as well as major environmental and climatic changes. Detailed sedimentological analysis combined with biostratigraphic correlation performed at a basin scale indicate lateral facies variability within each formation as a result of tectonically and climatically driven zonations within the Tataouine Basin in the Early Cretaceous. Furthermore, proposed stratigraphic correlations indicate that vertebrate remains previously referred to the fluvial Chenini Member (and in particular theropod and sauropod dinosaurs) are instead representative of a transgressive deposit which mark the base of the overlying Oum ed Diab Member.

  3. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.

    2011-05-01

    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  4. Do essencialismo ao não essencialismo? reflexões sobre a identidade cultural do MST From essentialism to non essentialism? reflections about cultural identity of MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Souza da Cruz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo envolvendo um movimento social, o MST (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra, e as noções de identidade cultural. A investigação desenvolve um breve exercício de contextualização do movimento através de sua história, seu relacionamento com o poder e sua estrutura nos dias atuais. Com relação aos marcos teórico-metodológicos, a pesquisa adota os pressupostos de Kathryn Woodward (2000, Stuart Hall (2002 e Zygmunt Bauman (2005 e os discursos dos integrantes do movimento retirados do estudo de recepção realizado por Cruz (2006. Como discussão central, pretende-se analisar os desafios do MST em tempos de globalização.The work presents a study involving a social movement, the MST (Portuguese acronym for Movement of the Agricultural Landless Workers, and the slight knowledge of cultural identity. The inquiry develops a brief exercise combining the meaning of the movement through its history, its relationship with the power and its structure in the current days. In regard to theoretical-methodological landmarks, the research adopts pressupositions of Kathryn Woodward (2000, Stuart Hall (2002 e Zygmunt Bauman (2005 and speeches of people from the movement, taken from Cruz' study of reception (2006. As central quarrel, it is intended to analyze the challenges of the MST in globalization times.

  5. How static media is understood and used by high school science teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Miguel

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the role of static media in textbooks, as defined by Mayer (2001) in the form of printed images and text, and how these media are viewed and used by high school science teachers. Textbooks appeared in the United States in the late 1800s, and since then pictorial aids have been used extensively in them to support the teacher's work in the classroom (Giordano, 2003). According to Woodward, Elliott, and Nagel (1988/2013) the research on textbooks prior to the 1970s doesn't present relevant work related to the curricular role and the quality and instructional design of textbooks. Since then there has been abundant research, specially on the use of visual images in textbooks that has been approached from: (a) the text/image ratio (Evans, Watson, & Willows, 1987; Levin & Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993; Woodward, 1993), and (b) the instructional effectiveness of images (Woodward, 1993). The theoretical framework for this study comes from multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), information design (Pettersson, 2002), and visual literacy (Moore & Dwyer, 1994). Data was collected through in-depth interviews of three high school science teachers and the graphic analyses of three textbooks used by the interviewed teachers. The interview data were compared through an analytic model developed from the literature, and the graphic analyses were performed using Mayer's multimedia learning principles (Mayer, 2001) and the Graphic Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough & McTigue, 2013). The conclusions of this study are: (1) pictures are specially useful for teaching science because science is a difficult subject to teach, (2) due this difficulty, pictures are very important to make the class dynamic and avoid students distraction, (3) static and dynamic media when used together can be more effective, (4) some specific type of graphics were found in the science textbooks used by the participants, in this case they were naturalistic drawings, stylized

  6. Phylogenomic analyses of 539 highly informative loci dates a fully resolved time tree for the major clades of living turtles (Testudines).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, H Bradley; McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Near, Thomas J; Mount, Genevieve G; Spinks, Phillip Q

    2017-10-01

    Accurate time-calibrated phylogenies are the centerpiece of many macroevolutionary studies, and the relationship between the size and scale of molecular data sets and the density and accuracy of fossil calibrations is a key element of time tree studies. Here, we develop a target capture array specifically for living turtles, compare its efficiency to an ultraconserved element (UCE) dataset, and present a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on 539 nuclear loci sequenced from 26 species representing the breadth of living turtle diversity plus outgroups. Our gene array, based on three fully sequenced turtle genomes, is 2.4 times more variable across turtles than a recently published UCE data set for an identical subset of 13 species, confirming that taxon-specific arrays return more informative data per sequencing effort than UCEs. We used our genomic data to estimate the ages of living turtle clades including a mid-late Triassic origin for crown turtles and a mid-Carboniferous split of turtles from their sister group, Archosauria. By specifically excluding several of the earliest potential crown turtle fossils and limiting the age of fossil calibration points to the unambiguous crown lineage Caribemys oxfordiensis from the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian, 163.5-157.3Ma) we corroborate a relatively ancient age for living turtles. We also provide novel age estimates for five of the ten testudine families containing more than a single species, as well as several intrafamilial clades. Most of the diversity of crown turtles appears to date to the Paleogene, well after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction 66mya. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution. PMID:23140509

  8. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsubara Kazumi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes. Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3 of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 3 ≥ 50%. Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution.

  9. Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Vivian; Bates, Karl T; Li, Zhiheng; Hutchinson, John R

    2013-05-02

    Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria. We use three-dimensional digital reconstruction to estimate body shape from skeletal dimensions for 17 archosaurs along the ancestral bird line, including the exceptionally preserved, feathered taxa Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Pengornis and Yixianornis, which represent key stages in the evolution of the avian body plan. Rather than a discrete transition from more-upright postures in the basal-most birds (Avialae) and their immediate outgroup deinonychosauria, our results support hypotheses of a gradual, stepwise acquisition of more-crouched limb postures across much of theropod evolution, although we find evidence of an accelerated change within the clade Maniraptora (birds and their closest relatives, such as deinonychosaurs). In addition, whereas reduction of the tail is widely accepted to be the primary morphological factor correlated with centre-of-mass position and, hence, evolution of hindlimb posture, we instead find that enlargement of the pectoral limb and several associated trends have a much stronger influence. Intriguingly, our support for the onset of accelerated morpho-functional trends within Maniraptora is closely correlated with the evolution of flight. Because we find that the evolution of enlarged forelimbs is strongly linked, via whole-body centre of mass, to hindlimb function during

  10. Reassessment of the Evidence for Postcranial Skeletal Pneumaticity in Triassic Archosaurs, and the Early Evolution of the Avian Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J.; Barrett, Paul M.; Gower, David J.

    2012-01-01

    in these taxa (and secondarily lost in extant crocodilians) and was potentially primitive for Archosauria as a whole. PMID:22470520

  11. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Richard J; Barrett, Paul M; Gower, David J

    2012-01-01

    in these taxa (and secondarily lost in extant crocodilians) and was potentially primitive for Archosauria as a whole.

  12. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    been present in these taxa (and secondarily lost in extant crocodilians and was potentially primitive for Archosauria as a whole.

  13. Dynamic Changes in Host Gene Expression following In Vitro Viral Mimic Stimulation in Crocodile Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics. Cells displayed a marked upregulation of many genes known to be involved in the mammalian response to viral infection, including viperin, Mx1, IRF7, IRF1, and RIG-I with approximately 10% of the genes being uncharacterized transcripts. Both pathway and genome analysis suggested that the crocodile may utilize the main known mammalian TLR and cytosolic antiviral RNA signaling pathways, with the pathways being responsible for sensing DNA viruses less clear. Viral mimic stimulation upregulated the type I interferon, IFN-Omega, with many known antiviral interferon-stimulated genes also being upregulated. This work demonstrates for the first time that reptiles show functional regulation of many known and unknown antiviral pathways and effector genes. An enhanced knowledge of these ancient antiviral pathways will not only add to our understanding of the host antiviral innate response in non-mammalian species, but is critical to fully comprehend the complexity of the mammalian innate immune response to viral infection.

  14. Ontogeny of the alligator cartilago transiliens and its significance for sauropsid jaw muscle evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry P Tsai

    Full Text Available The cartilago transiliens is a fibrocartilaginous structure within the jaw muscles of crocodylians. The cartilago transiliens slides between the pterygoid buttress and coronoid region of the lower jaw and connects two muscles historically identified as m. pseudotemporalis superficialis and m. intramandibularis. However, the position of cartilago transiliens, and its anatomical similarities to tendon organs suggest the structure may be a sesamoid linking a single muscle. Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. However, such structures rarely ossify in reptiles and have thus far received scant attention. We tested the hypothesis that the cartilago transiliens is a sesamoid developed within in one muscle by investigating its structure in an ontogenetic series of Alligator mississippiensis using dissection, 3D imaging, and polarizing and standard light microscopy. In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two main muscular attachments. However, whereas collagen fibers were continuous within the cartilaginous nodule of younger animals, such continuity decreased in older animals, where the fibrocartilaginous core grew to displace the fibrous region. Whereas several neighboring muscles attached to the fibrous capsule in older individuals, only two muscles had significant contributions to the structure in young animals. Our results indicate that the cartilago transiliens is likely a sesamoid formed within a single muscle (i.e., m. pseudotemporalis superficialis as it wraps around the pterygoid buttress. This tendon organ is ubiquitous among fossil crocodyliforms indicating it is a relatively ancient, conserved structure associated with the development of the large pterygoid flanges in this clade. Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw

  15. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  16. CNG (Compressed natural gas) engine M366 G for electric power generation; Motor M 366 G movido a gas metano veicular versao industrial: aplicacao grupo gerador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraro, Wilson; Shiraiwa, Nilton Mitsuro [DaimlerChrysler do Brasil Ltda., Sao Bernardo do Campo, SP (Brazil); Mantovani, Wladimir Tadeu [Woodward Governor Company, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2004-07-01

    Daimler-Chrysler of Brazil developed the M 366 G engine, in the industrial version, using compressed natural gas. This product has the combustion with lambda 1.0, it is a 6-cylinder engine in line with displacement compressor of 5.958 cm{sup 3} , power of 65 kW @ 1800 min{sup 1} (60Hz) and power of 55 kW @ 1500 min{sup 1} (50Hz). The equipment for rotation control, ignition, reducing gas and stabilizer were specially developed for industrial motors with CNG supply for the Fca Woodward. This paper presents the results of tests made on bank of evidence and test field, which showed the good performance of the product. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the potential for surface faulting at TA-63. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolbe, T.; Sawyer, J.; Springer, J.; Olig, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Wong, I. [Woodward-Clyde Federal Services, Oakland, CA (United States); Reneau, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the potential for surface faulting at the proposed sites for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RL)WF) and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility at TA-63 and TA-52 (hereafter TA-63), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This study was performed by Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) at the request of the LANL. The projections of both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults are mapped in the vicinity of TA-63. Based on results obtained in the ongoing Seismic Hazard Evaluation Program of the LANL, displacement may have occurred on both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults in the past 11,000 years (Holocene time). Thus, in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and Standards for seismic hazards evaluations and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations for seismic standard requirements, a geologic study of the proposed TA-63 site was conducted.

  18. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Patrick [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The science program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.

  19. Open Innovation and Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tushman

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Abernathy's (1978 empirical work on the automotive industry investigated relationships among an organization’s boundary (all manufacturing plants, its organizational design (fluid vs. specific, and its ability to execute product and/or process innovations.  Abernathy's ideas of dominant designs and the locus of innovation have been central to scholars of innovation, R&D, and strategic management. Similarly, building on March and Simon's (1958 concept of organizations as decision making systems, Woodward (1965, Burns and Stalker (1966, and Lawrence and Lorsch (1967 examined relationships among organizational boundaries, organization structure, and innovation in a set of industries that varied by technology and environmental uncertainty. These and other early empirical works have led a diverse group of scholars to develop theories about firm boundaries, organization design, and the ability to innovate.

  20. Reviews of recent publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Paisley Livingston. Models of Desire: René Girard and the Psychology of Mimesis by Andrew J. McKenna Andrew J. McKenna. Violence and Difference: Girard, Derrida, and Deconstruction by Servanne Woodward James F. Murphy. The Proletarian Moment: The Controversy over Leftism in Literature by Jack Marmorstein Chris Bongie. Exotic Memories: Literature, Colonialism, and the Fin de Siecle by Annelise Riles Luce Irigaray. Marine Lover of Friedrich Nietzsche . Trans. Gillian C. Gill by Marianne Bosshard Christie McDonald. The Proustian Fabric: Associations of Memory by Rebecca Karoff Kathryn Hume. Calvino 's Fictions. Cogito and Cosmos by Gian-Paolo Biasin Peter Baker. Obdurate Brilliance: Exteriority and the Modern Long Poem by Steven Winspur

  1. Obamas krige har danske konsekvenser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breitenbauch, Henrik Ø.; Larsen, Esben Salling

    2010-01-01

    Demokratisk kontrol med militæret og det civile embedsværk fordrer, at politikerne efterspørger, tilbydes og vælger mellem reelle valgmuligheder. Stjernejournalisten Bob Woodwards ny bog Obamas krige handler om den amerikanske strategiproces for krigen i Afghanistan. Bogens centrale strid er mellem...... en præsident, der ønskede flere modeller at vælge imellem for indsatsen i Afghanistan, og et militær, der kun gav præsidenten én reel valgmulighed. Obamas krige er dermed relevant for strategiprocessen i dansk forsvarspolitik, og for forholdet mellem politikere og embedsmænd i dansk politik som sådan...

  2. The self and the new language: identities and foreign language learning and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Coroa do Couto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes towards a FL they are learning can have considerable influence on the language acquisition process. Identities determine how teachers’ and students’ relationship with the world is built across time and space (NORTON, 2000, and so they permeate the whole teaching/learning process. They also bear a close relationship with the context, and are socially constructed, thus influencing actions and interactions, while also being influenced by them (HALL, 2000; MOITA LOPES, 2003; NORTON, 2000; SILVA, 2000; WOODWARD, 2000. The goal of this work is to sensitize  the agents in the FL teaching/learning process to the importance of the issue of identities. Thus, further research may be carried out for a better understanding of this complex web of relationships and (reconstructions that can influence the whole FL teaching/learning process, and thereby advance improvements to it.

  3. Al-'Arābīyah and Basa Sunda: Ideologies of Translation and Interpretation among the Muslim of West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin G. Zimmer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on these questions as they relate to the Sundanese-speaking population of western Java, Indonesia's second largest ethnic group. "Sundaneseness" is to a great extent defined by vernacular usage of the local language, basa Sunda, which is related to but distinct from Javanese, Indonesian, and the other Austronesian languages of the region. Speakers of Sundanese currently number more than 30 million, rivaling the populations of such countries as Canada, Morocco, and Kenya (and twice the population of their erstwhile colonizers, the Netherlands, yet Western scholarly literature on "Java" has paid them scant attention. Ethnographic studies of the island's Muslim communities, from Geertz's Religion of Java to Woodward's Islam in Java, have been similarly skewed towards the dominant Javanese ethno linguistic group inhabiting central and eastern Java.Copyright (c 2014 by SDI. All right reserved.DOI: 10.15408/sdi.v7i3.702

  4. Late Devonian (Frasnian) phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields from Belgium reinterpreted as ammonoid anaptychi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolaerts, Stijn; Denayer, Julien; Mottequin, Bernard

    2017-12-01

    The taxonomic affinities of fossils from the Frasnian succession of Belgium previously described as phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields are discussed. The rediscovery of the holotype of Ellipsocaris dewalquei, the type species of the genus Ellipsocaris Woodward in Dewalque, 1882, allows to end the discussion on the taxonomic assignation of the genus Ellipsocaris. It is removed from the phyllopod crustaceans as interpreted originally and considered here as an ammonoid anaptychus. Furthermore, it is considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Sidetes Giebel, 1847. Similarly, Van Straelen's (1933) lower to middle Frasnian record Spathiocaris chagrinensis Ruedemann, 1916, is also an ammonoid anaptychus. Although ammonoids can be relatively frequent in some Frasnian horizons of Belgium, anaptychi remain particularly scarce and the attribution to the present material to peculiar ammonoid species is not possible.

  5. Patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sood P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Sood1, Maria A Woodward21Emory Eye Center, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2Kellogg Eye Center, Ann Arbor, MI, USAAbstract: Cataract surgery has evolved. The goal of the surgeon includes both restoration of vision and refinement of vision. Patients' desire for spectacle independence has driven the market for presbyopia-correcting cataract surgery and development of novel intraocular lens (IOL designs. The Tecnis® Multifocal Intraocular Lens incorporates an aspheric, modified anterior prolate IOL with a diffractive multifocal lens design. The design aims to minimize spherical aberration and improve range of focus. The purpose of this review is to assess patient acceptability of the Tecnis® multifocal intraocular lens.Keywords: Tecnis®, intraocular lens, multifocal, presbyopia 

  6. Late Devonian (Frasnian) phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields from Belgium reinterpreted as ammonoid anaptychi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolaerts, Stijn; Denayer, Julien; Mottequin, Bernard

    2017-11-03

    The taxonomic affinities of fossils from the Frasnian succession of Belgium previously described as phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields are discussed. The rediscovery of the holotype of Ellipsocaris dewalquei, the type species of the genus Ellipsocaris Woodward in Dewalque, 1882, allows to end the discussion on the taxonomic assignation of the genus Ellipsocaris. It is removed from the phyllopod crustaceans as interpreted originally and considered here as an ammonoid anaptychus. Furthermore, it is considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Sidetes Giebel, 1847. Similarly, Van Straelen's (1933) lower to middle Frasnian record Spathiocaris chagrinensis Ruedemann, 1916, is also an ammonoid anaptychus. Although ammonoids can be relatively frequent in some Frasnian horizons of Belgium, anaptychi remain particularly scarce and the attribution to the present material to peculiar ammonoid species is not possible.

  7. Competitive Pseudopericyclic [3,3]- and [3,5]-Sigmatropic Rearrangements of Trichloroacetimidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shikha; Rajale, Trideep; Unruh, Daniel K; Birney, David M

    2015-12-04

    The Woodward-Hoffmann rules predict whether concerted pericyclic reactions are allowed or forbidden based on the number of electrons involved and whether the cyclic orbital overlap involves suprafacial or antarafacial orbital overlap. Pseudopericyclic reactions constitute a third class of reactions in which orthogonal orbitals make them orbital symmetry allowed, regardless of the number of electrons involved in the reaction. Based on the recent report of eight-centered ester rearrangements, it is predicted that the isoelectronic eight-centered rearrangements of imidates would also be allowed. We now report that these rearrangements occur, and indeed, an eight-centered rearrangement is slightly favored in at least one case over the well-known six-centered Overman rearrangements, in a trichloroacetimidoylcyclohexadienone, a molecular system where both rearrangements are possible.

  8. Covalent Protein Labeling at Glutamic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Gago, Pablo; Fansa, Eyad K; Winzker, Michael; Murarka, Sandip; Janning, Petra; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Baumann, Matthias; Wittinghofer, Alfred; Waldmann, Herbert

    2017-05-18

    Covalent labeling of amino acids in proteins by reactive small molecules, in particular at cysteine SH and lysine NH groups, is a powerful approach to identify and characterize proteins and their functions. However, for the less-reactive carboxylic acids present in Asp and Glu, hardly any methodology is available. Employing the lipoprotein binding chaperone PDE6δ as an example, we demonstrate that incorporation of isoxazolium salts that resemble the structure and reactivity of Woodward's reagent K into protein ligands provides a novel method for selective covalent targeting of binding site carboxylic acids in whole proteomes. Covalent adduct formation occurs via rapid formation of enol esters and the covalent bond is stable even in the presence of strong nucleophiles. This new method promises to open up hitherto unexplored opportunities for chemical biology research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A microBio reactor for hydrogen production.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volponi, Joanne V.; Walker, Andrew William

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the potential of developing a microfluidic reactor capable of enzymatically converting glucose and other carbohydrates to hydrogen. This aggressive project was motivated by work in enzymatic hydrogen production done by Woodward et al. at OWL. The work reported here demonstrated that hydrogen could be produced from the enzymatic oxidation of glucose. Attempts at immobilizing the enzymes resulted in reduced hydrogen production rates, probably due to buffer compatibility issues. A novel in-line sensor was also developed to monitor hydrogen production in real time at levels below 1 ppm. Finally, a theoretical design for the microfluidic reactor was developed but never produced due to the low production rates of hydrogen from the immobilized enzymes. However, this work demonstrated the potential of mimicking biological systems to create energy on the microscale.

  10. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-11-15

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others.

  11. The preparation of size-controlled functionalized polymeric nanoparticles in micelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakurov, Alexander; Pchelintsev, Nikolay A; Gibson, Tim; Millner, Paul [Research Institute of Membrane and Systems Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Forde, Jessica; O' Fagain, Ciaran, E-mail: bmbav@bmb.leeds.ac.u, E-mail: n.a.pchelintsev@googlemail.co, E-mail: Jessica.Forde@dcu.i, E-mail: ciaran.fagan@dcu.i, E-mail: timdgibson@merchab.fsnet.co.u, E-mail: p.a.millner@leeds.ac.u [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City University, Dublin, Republic of Ireland (Ireland)

    2009-07-22

    The reverse micellar system of dioctyl-sulfosuccinate (AOT)/octane and toluene have been used as a template for polymerization of acrylamide (AA)/bisacrylamide (BAA)-based functionalized polymeric nanoparticles. Such nanoparticles are typically sized between 20 and 90 nm. They can be synthesized with different functional groups according to the monomers added to the polymerization mixture. In our experiments the nanoparticles carried amino and carboxyl groups following incorporation of allylamine (AAm) or methacrylic acid (MAA) monomers, respectively. The available amine or carboxyl groups can then be used for immobilization of enzymes or other biomolecules. These enzymes, subtilisin, laccase and lipase, were immobilized onto polyAA/BAA/MAA nanoparticles covalently after activating the MAA carboxylic groups with Woodward's K reagent. Non-covalent immobilization via electrostatic interaction was also performed.

  12. Comparison of Direct Eulerian Godunov and Lagrange Plus Remap, Artificial Viscosity Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pember, R B; Anderson, R W

    2001-03-30

    The authors compare two algorithms for solving the equations of unsteady inviscid compressible flow in an Eulerian frame: a staggered grid, Lagrange plus remap artificial viscosity scheme and a cell-centered, direct Eulerian higher-order Godunov scheme. They use the two methods to compute solutions to a number of one- and two-dimensional problems. The results show the accuracy of the two schemes to be generally equivalent. In a 1984 survey paper by Woodward and Colella, the Lagrange plus remap approach did not compare favorably with the higher-order Godunov methodology. They examine, therefore, how certain features of the staggered grid scheme considered here contribute to its improved accuracy. The critical features are shown to be the use of a monotonic artificial viscosity in the Lagrange step and, in the remap step, the use of a corner transport upwind scheme with van Leer limiters in conjunction with separate advection of internal and kinetic energies.

  13. A bacterial artificial chromosome library for the Australian saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus) and its utilization in gene isolation and genome characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Xueyan; Ray, David A; Bunge, John A; Peterson, Daniel G

    2009-07-14

    Crocodilians (Order Crocodylia) are an ancient vertebrate group of tremendous ecological, social, and evolutionary importance. They are the only extant reptilian members of Archosauria, a monophyletic group that also includes birds, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs. Consequently, crocodilian genomes represent a gateway through which the molecular evolution of avian lineages can be explored. To facilitate comparative genomics within Crocodylia and between crocodilians and other archosaurs, we have constructed a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library for the Australian saltwater crocodile, Crocodylus porosus. This is the first BAC library for a crocodile and only the second BAC resource for a crocodilian. The C. porosus BAC library consists of 101,760 individually archived clones stored in 384-well microtiter plates. NotI digestion of random clones indicates an average insert size of 102 kb. Based on a genome size estimate of 2778 Mb, the library affords 3.7 fold (3.7x) coverage of the C. porosus genome. To investigate the utility of the library in studying sequence distribution, probes derived from CR1a and CR1b, two crocodilian CR1-like retrotransposon subfamilies, were hybridized to C. porosus macroarrays. The results indicate that there are a minimum of 20,000 CR1a/b elements in C. porosus and that their distribution throughout the genome is decidedly non-random. To demonstrate the utility of the library in gene isolation, we probed the C. porosus macroarrays with an overgo designed from a C-mos (oocyte maturation factor) partial cDNA. A BAC containing C-mos was identified and the C-mos locus was sequenced. Nucleotide and amino acid sequence alignment of the C. porosus C-mos coding sequence with avian and reptilian C-mos orthologs reveals greater sequence similarity between C. porosus and birds (specifically chicken and zebra finch) than between C. porosus and squamates (green anole). We have demonstrated the utility of the Crocodylus porosus BAC library as a

  14. Iodine Standard Materials: Preparation and Inter-Laboratory Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D D Jenson; M L Adamic; J E Olson; M G Watrous; C Vockenhuber

    2014-08-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory is preparing to enter the community of AMS practioners who analyze for 129Iodine. We expect to take delivery of a 0.5 MV compact accelerator mass spectrometry system, built by NEC, in the early summer of 2014. The primary mission for this instrument is iodine; it is designed to analyze iodine in the +3 charge state. As part of the acceptance testing for this instrument, both at NEC and on-site in our laboratory, some sort of standard or reference material is needed to verify performance. Appropriate standard materials are not readily available in the commercial marketplace. Small quantities can sometimes be acquired from other laboratories already engaged in iodine analyses. In the longer-term, meaningful quantities of standard materials are needed for routine use in analyses, and for quality control functions1. We have prepared some standard materials, starting with elemental Woodward iodine and NIST SRM 3231 [Iodine-129 Isotopic Standard (high level)] 10-6 solution. The goal was to make mixtures at the 5x10-10, 5x10-11, 5x10-12 ratio levels, along with some unmodified Woodward, in the chemical form of silver iodide. Approximately twenty grams of each of these mixtures were prepared. The elemental Woodward iodine was dissolved in chloroform, then reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite in water. At this point the NIST spike material was added, in the form of sodium iodide. The mixed iodides were oxidized back to iodine in chloroform using hydrogen peroxide. This oxidation step was essential for isotopic equilibration of the 127 and 129 atoms. The iodine was reduced to iodide using sodium bisulfite as before. Excess sulfites and sulfates were precipitated with barium nitrate. After decanting, silver nitrate was used to precipitate the desired silver iodide. Once the silver iodide was produced, the material was kept in darkness as much as possible to minimize photo-oxidation. The various mixtures were synthesized independently of each

  15. Primera cita de cocodrilos zifodontos en el Cenozoico de Asturias: Royo Gómez y los supuestos dientes de dinosaurio del Eoceno de Llamaquique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereda Suberbiola, X.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1928, José Royo Gómez mentioned the find of “two teeth similar to those of theropod dinosaurs from the Secondary” in the Eocene of Llamaquique (Oviedo Basin, Asturias. Royo Gómez was aware of the interest of the discovery, “because they would be the youngest remains found of these gigantic reptiles”. According to the hitherto unpublished documents preserved in the Archives of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid, Royo Gómez photographed five teeth from Llamaquique in April 1932, which he regarded as belonging to theropods. The whereabouts of this material is currently unknown. However, the revision of the Llamaquique collection in the above mentioned museum has allowed to recover one labiolingually compressed and serrated tooth (ziphodont condition. We reject here that the tooth belongs to a theropod, and we assign it to a Mesoeucrocodylia indet. This is the first mention of the discovery of ziphodont crocodyliforms in the Paleogene of Asturias.

    En 1928, José Royo Gómez informó del hallazgo de “dos dientes idénticos a los de los Dinosaurios terópodos del Secundario” en el Eoceno de Llamaquique (Cuenca de Oviedo, Asturias. Royo Gómez era consciente del interés de este descubrimiento, “pues serían los restos más modernos que se conocerían de estos gigantescos reptiles”. Según la documentación conservada en el Archivo del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales en Madrid, hasta ahora inédita, Royo Gómez fotografió en abril de 1932 cinco dientes de Llamaquique que él consideraba pertenecientes a terópodos. Este material se encuentra actualmente en paradero desconocido. No obstante, la revisión de la colección paleontológica de Llamaquique en el mencionado museo ha permitido recuperar un diente comprimido lateralmente y provisto de carenas denticuladas (condición zifodonta. Se descarta que el diente pertenezca a un terópodo, asignándose a un Mesoeucrocodylia indeterminado. Se trata de la

  16. Variation of curve number with storm depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.

    2012-04-01

    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 (http://acwi.gov/sos/pubs/2ndJFIC/Contents/10E_Banasik_ 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  17. A Direct Measurement of Atmospheric Dispersion in N-band Spectra: Implications for Mid-IR Systems on ELTs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skemer, Andrew J.; Hinz, Philip M.; Hoffmann, William F.; Close, Laird M.; Kendrew, Sarah; Mathar, Richard J.; Stuik, Remko; Greene, Thomas P.; Woodward, Charles E.; Kelley, Michael S.

    This paper is modified from [A.J. Skemer, P.M. Hinz, W.F. Hoffmann, L.M. Close, S. Kendrew, R.J. Mathar, R. Stuik, T.P. Greene, C.E. Woodward, M.S. Kelley, PASP 121, 897 (2009)]. Adaptive optics will almost completely remove the effects of atmospheric turbulence at 10µm on the Extremely Large Telescope (ELT) generation of telescopes. In this paper, we observationally confirm that the next most important limitation to image quality is atmospheric dispersion, rather than telescope diffraction. By using the 6.5 meter MMT with its unique mid-IR adaptive optics system, we measure atmospheric dispersion in the N-band with the newly commissioned spectroscopic mode on MIRAC4BLINC. Our results indicate that atmospheric dispersion is generally linear in the N-band, although there is some residual curvature. We compare our measurements to theory, and make predictions for ELT Strehls and image FHWM with and without an atmospheric dispersion corrector (ADC). We find that for many mid-IR applications, an ADC will be necessary on ELTs. The observations reported here were obtained at the MMT Observatory, a facility operated jointly by the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona

  18. Reseñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comité Editorial

    1985-12-01

    Full Text Available Woodward, W.R. & Ash, M.G., eds. (1982, The problematic science: Psychology in nineteenth-century thought, Nueva York: Praeger (Praeger Special Studies, XX+ 390 pgs.Mecacci. L. ( 19H5 . Hadiografía del cerebro. Barcelona: Ariel. trad. del italiano. 174 pgs.Ash, M. G. • & Geuter, U.; eds. (1985, Geschichte der deutschen Psychologie im 20. Jahrhundert. Ein Uberblick (Historia de la psicología alemana en el siglo veinte. Una panorámica. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 386 pgs.Graumann, C.F., ed. (1985, Psychologie im Nationalsozialismus (La psicología durante el nacionalsocialismo . Berlín - Heidelberg - New York - Tokio: Springer- Verlag, 318 pgs.Thomas, H. & Maddox. G. L. eds. (1982 , .New perspectives on old age. A message to decision makers. New York: Springer Publishing Company. XII 146pgs.Sahakian. W.S. (19K2. Historia v sistemas de la psicología. Madrid: Tecnos. trad. del inglés . 664 pgs.Sprung. L. y Sprung. Helga (1984. Grundlagen der  Methodologie und Methodik  der Psychologie. Eine Einführung in die Forschungs- und Diagnose methodik für empirisch arbeitende Humanwissenschaftler. Berlín  ( RDA: VEB Dcutscher Verlag der Wissenseschaften,  452 pgs.

  19. Generation of FM signals with quasi-chirp behavior using three-dimensional chaotic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Benjamin C.; Pappu, Chandra S.; Verdin, Berenice

    2011-06-01

    In previous work, we constructed wideband FM signals for high range resolution applications using the non-linear Lorenz system, which has a set of three state variables and three control parameters. The FM signals were generated using any one of the three state variables as the instantaneous frequency which was then controlled by adjusting the values of the parameters in the chaotic regime. We now determine the spectral characteristics of the Lorenz FM signal and compare the spectral characteristics to those of a similar FM signal based on the Lang-Kobayashi system. We show that for either chaotic system, the local linearity of the attractor yields an FM signal with a distinct chirp behavior. Irrespective of the statistical independence of the chaotic flow samples, we show that the chaotic FM signal follows Woodward's theorem in the sense that the spectrum of the FM signal follows the shape of the probability density function of the state variable. The chirp rate of the FM signal can be controlled through a time-scale parameter that compresses or expands the chaotic flow. As the chaotic flow evolves in time, so does the spectrum of the corresponding FM signal, which experiences changes in center frequency and bandwidth. We show that segments of the signal with a high chirp rate can be significantly compressed to achieve high range-Doppler resolution. The ability to change the center frequency and the shape of the spectrum is interpreted as added frequency agility.

  20. Imaging of Jurassic fossils from the Talbragar Fish Bed using fluorescence, photoluminescence, and elemental and mineralogical mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frese, Michael; Gloy, Gerda; Oberprieler, Rolf G; Gore, Damian B

    2017-01-01

    The Talbragar Fish Bed is one of Australia's most important Jurassic deposits for freshwater fishes, land plants and aquatic and terrestrial insects. The site has yielded many well preserved fossils, which has led to the formal description of numerous new species and higher taxa. The excellent preservation of many fossils has allowed detailed anatomical studies, e.g. of the early teleost fish Cavenderichthys talbragarensis (Woodward, 1895). Here we report on the fluorescent characteristics and mineral composition of a range of Talbragar fossils. Most specimens fluoresce under ultraviolet, blue and green light. Elemental and mineralogical analyses revealed that the Talbragar fossils consist predominantly of quartz (SiO2), a mineral that is likely to account for the observed fluorescence, with trace kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4) in some of the fish fossils. Rock matrices are predominantly composed of quartz and goethite (FeO(OH)). Closer inspection of a plant leaf (Pentoxylon australicum White, 1981) establishes fluorescence as a useful tool for the visualisation of anatomical details that are difficult to see under normal light conditions.

  1. Comparing a Fischer-Tropsch Alternate Fuel to JP-8 and Their 50-50 Blend: Flow and Flame Visualization Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, M.

    2013-01-01

    Combustion performance of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel manufactured by Sasol was compared to JP-8 and a 50-50 blend of the two fuels, using the NASA/Woodward 9 point Lean Direct Injector (LDI) in its baseline configuration. The baseline LDI configuration uses 60deg axial air-swirlers, whose vanes generate clockwise swirl, in the streamwise sense. For all cases, the fuel-air equivalence ratio was 0.455, and the combustor inlet pressure and pressure drop were 10-bar and 4 percent. The three inlet temperatures used were 828, 728, and 617 K. The objectives of this experiment were to visually compare JP-8 flames with FT flames for gross features. Specifically, we sought to ascertain in a simple way visible luminosity, sooting, and primary flame length of the FT compared to a standard JP grade fuel. We used color video imaging and high-speed imaging to achieve these goals. The flame color provided a way to qualitatively compare soot formation. The length of the luminous signal measured using the high speed camera allowed an assessment of primary flame length. It was determined that the shortest flames resulted from the FT fuel.

  2. Characteristics of Recombinant Phytase (rSt-Phy) of the Thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile and its applicability in dephytinizing foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Bibhuti; Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-12-01

    Sporotrichum thermophile produces very low titres of phytase (St-Phy) extracellularly, which is acidstable, thermostable, and protease insensitive with broad substrate specificity, and therefore, the gene encoding phytase (St-Phy) has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant phytase (rSt-Phy) has the molecular mass of 55 kDa with Km and Vmax (calcium phytate), kcat and kcat/Km of 0.143 mM, 185.05 nmoles mg(-1)  s(-1), 5.1 × 10(3) s(-1), and 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) display slight stimulatory effect on the enzyme, while it is inhibited by other ions to a varied extent. The enzyme is also inhibited by chaotropic agents (guanidinium hydrochloride, potassium iodide, and urea), Woodward's reagent K, and 2,3-butanedione but resistant to both pepsin and trypsin. The rSt-Phy is useful in dephytinization of tandoori and naan (unleavened flat Indian breads), and bread, liberating soluble inorganic phosphate that mitigates anti-nutrient effects of phytic acid.

  3. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation2011-2014 Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fischer, M. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billesbach, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this field campaign, we used eddy covariance towers to quantify carbon, water, and energy fluxes from a pasture and a wheat field that were converted to switchgrass. The U.S. Department of Energy is investing in switchgrass as a cellulosic bioenergy crop, but there is little data available that could be used to develop or test land surface model representations of the crop. This campaign was a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Unfortunately, in 2011, Oklahoma had one of the most severe droughts on record, and the crop in one of the switchgrass fields experienced almost complete die-off. The crop was replanted, but subsequent drought conditions prevented its establishment. Then, in April 2012, a large tornado demolished the instruments at our site in Woodward, Oklahoma. These two events meant that we have some interesting data on land response to extreme weather; however, we were not able to collect continuous data for annual sums as originally intended. We did observe that, because of the drought, the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was much lower in 2011 than in 2010. Concomitantly, sensible heat fluxes increased and latent heat fluxes decreased. These conditions would have large consequences for land surface forcing of convection. Data from all years were submitted to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Data Archive, and the sites were registered in AmeriFlux.

  4. REPRESENTASI BUDAYA DALAM NOVEL HUJAN BULAN JUNI KARYA SAPARDI DJOKO DAMONO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Rizky Amelia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is determine representation about culture in the Hujan Bulan Juni novel by Sapardi Djoko Damono. This paper based in the issue that comes from the novel related to the chracteristic of Javanese and Manado culture. The aim of this paper is to describe culture representation that shows by the concept of this novel. This explanation based on the theory about Javanese people’s characteristic from Geertz, Manado people’s characteristic from Sumampow and concept culuture identity from Hall and Woodward. The result of  the analysis shows that the novel displays the cultural characteristics of Java wich is different for each character. The ‘ethok-ethok’ (pretend, ‘wedi’(afraid,’ isin’(shame, dan ‘sungkan’ attitude displayed by the character that has the constancy of identity. While being open, straight foward and aggressive attitude. While Manado characters are represented through characters steady by showing agrressive attitude, overt, brave, culinary practice, character name and Christianity. Different cultural characteristics to each person indicate the liquid identity. 

  5. Improving outcomes of refractory celiac disease – current and emerging treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Woodward Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Intestinal inflammation and symptoms of celiac disease (CD usually respond well to gluten withdrawal, but rare cases are refractory to diet. Two types of refractory CD are discriminated on the basis of the presence or absence of an atypical population of mucosal lymphocytes that may progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Challenges remain in the secure diagnosis of both types of refractory disease, and evidence on which to base treatment recommendations is flawed by the small numbers of reported patients and the use of different diagnostic strategies. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the condition in conjunction with the development of immunomodulatory agents for managing other inflammatory diseases are helping to shape future approaches to targeted therapy. Progression will depend on collaboration and recruitment to trials. In the meantime, there is evidence to suggest that earlier diagnosis and better follow-up and management of CD may prevent the development of refractoriness. Keywords: celiac disease, gluten, small intestine, lymphoma, lymphocytes

  6. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams PAH

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices

  7. Calidad de vida y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adultos con enfermedad avanzada y en cuidado paliativo en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Novoa Gómez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio evaluó la calidad de vida y el bienestar psicológico de pacientes oncológicos con diagnóstico de enfermedad avanzada y que al momento de la evaluación se encontraban en cuidado paliativo en la ciudad de Bogotá. La muestra estuvo constituida por 83 personas mayores de edad de ambos sexos, con diversos tipos de enfermedad oncológica y con diagnóstico de enfermedad avanzada. Previa firma del consentimiento informado, los instrumentos que se aplicaron fueron un Registro de Datos Sociodemográficos, Índice de Bienestar Psicológico (Dupuy, 1984 SF36 (Medical Outcomes Trust, 1992 y el McMaster Quality of Life Scale (Sterkenburg, Woodward y King, 1996, los cuales están diseñados para la medición de la calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer. Se analizaron los datos en función de variables sociodemográficas, tipo de tratamientos recibidos y tipo de enfermedad avanzada.

  8. Penetration of Magnetosheath Plasma into Dayside Magnetosphere. 2. ; Magnetic Field in Plasma Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Pollock, Craig; Goldstein, Melvyn L.; Lyatskaya, Sonya Inna; Avanov, Levon Albert

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examined plasma structures (filaments), observed in the dayside magnetosphere but containing magnetosheath plasma. These filaments show the stable antisunward motion (while the ambient magnetospheric plasma moved in the opposite direction) and the existence of a strip of magnetospheric plasma, separating these filaments from the magnetosheath. These results, however, contradict both theoretical studies and simulations by Schindler (1979), Ma et al. (1991), Dai and Woodward (1994, 1998), and other researchers, who reported that the motion of such filaments through the magnetosphere is possible only when their magnetic field is directed very close to the ambient magnetic field, which is not the situation that is observed. In this study, we show that this seeming contradiction may be related to different events as the theoretical studies and simulations are related to the case when the filament magnetic field is about aligned with filament orientation, whereas the observations show that the magnetic field in these filaments may be rotating. In this case, the rotating magnetic field, changing incessantly its direction, drastically affects the penetration of plasma filaments into the magnetosphere. In this case, the filaments with rotating magnetic field, even if in each moment it is significantly inclined to the ambient magnetic field, may propagate through the magnetosphere, if their average (for the rotation period) magnetic field is aligned with the ambient magnetic field. This shows that neglecting the rotation of magnetic field in these filaments may lead to wrong results.

  9. DISCURSO, IDENTIDADE E SUBJETIVIDADE EM O CANDIDATO DOS POBRES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WELISSON MARQUES

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Propomos por meio deste artigo refletir, a priori, acerca da noção de identidade advinda dos estudos sociológicos, seguindo as reflexões de Hall (2006, Bauman (2005, Silva (2007 e Woodward (2007, como também de subjetividade a partir dos estudos de Foucault (1984; 1992; 1994; 1997 2007, e pensar a pertinência destes conceitos como complementares e que coadunam com a noção de sujeito segundo a perspectiva discursiva. Apresentaremos também uma breve reflexão sobre a noção de poder em Foucault, cuja proficuidade se dá na Análise do Discurso uma vez que o poder é constitutivo dos discursos do sujeito-enunciador. Por fim, pautados nos conceitos aqui bosquejados, empreenderemos uma breve análise de um artigo intitulado O Candidato dos Pobres publicado pela revista Veja e que faz referência ao presidente Lula no contexto do escândalo do mensalão. Destarte, percebemos por meio dos recortes analisados que o sujeito enunciador se utiliza de diversas estratégias como forma de conspurcação de seu referente - o presidente Lula.

  10. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. M. Payne; V. W. Gorman; S. A. Jensen; M. E. Nitzel; M. J. Russell; R. P. Smith

    2000-03-01

    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process.

  11. FAKES NO TWITTER E APROPRIAÇÕES IDENTITÁRIAS: CONTRIBUIÇÕES METODOLÓGICAS PARA A COLETA E ANÁLISE DE PERFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMARAL, Adriana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute algumas contribuições metodológicas possíveis para a coleta e análise de dados no processo da pesquisa empírica qualitativa na internet (Fragoso, Recuero e Amaral, 2011, aplicada à observação e análise de perfis fakes do Twitter como forma de apropriação de identidade cultural (Woodward, 2000; Hall, 2002 nos ambientes digitais. O contexto e os resultados aqui debatidos partem do estudo de Santos (2011 sobre perfis fakes de celebridades midiáticas no Twitter. O objetivo do artigo é apresentar algumas possibilidades de exploração dessa plataforma para estudos empíricos sobre esse tema. Os resultados coletados a partir dessas processualidades online demonstram apropriações de características identitárias que geram a empatia dos mesmos com seu público seguidor. Além disso, observamos alguns padrões de usos e tipos de conteúdos produzidos pelos fakes que são construídos através de um aprendizado obtido a partir do uso constante da plataforma em suas limitações e qualidades.

  12. Global Differential Geometry and Global Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkall, Ulrich; Simon, Udo; Wegner, Berd

    1991-01-01

    All papers appearing in this volume are original research articles and have not been published elsewhere. They meet the requirements that are necessary for publication in a good quality primary journal. E.Belchev, S.Hineva: On the minimal hypersurfaces of a locally symmetric manifold. -N.Blasic, N.Bokan, P.Gilkey: The spectral geometry of the Laplacian and the conformal Laplacian for manifolds with boundary. -J.Bolton, W.M.Oxbury, L.Vrancken, L.M. Woodward: Minimal immersions of RP2 into CPn. -W.Cieslak, A. Miernowski, W.Mozgawa: Isoptics of a strictly convex curve. -F.Dillen, L.Vrancken: Generalized Cayley surfaces. -A.Ferrandez, O.J.Garay, P.Lucas: On a certain class of conformally flat Euclidean hypersurfaces. -P.Gauduchon: Self-dual manifolds with non-negative Ricci operator. -B.Hajduk: On the obstruction group toexistence of Riemannian metrics of positive scalar curvature. -U.Hammenstaedt: Compact manifolds with 1/4-pinched negative curvature. -J.Jost, Xiaowei Peng: The geometry of moduli spaces of stabl...

  13. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  14. Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals: A long-known but neglected tool in electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, David W.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Head-Gordon, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-01-14

    Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals (cRHF) is studied. We introduce an orbital pairing theorem, with which we obtain a concise connection between cRHF and real-valued RHF, and use it to uncover the close relationship between cRHF, unrestricted Hartree Fock, and generalized valence bond perfect pairing. This enables an intuition for cRHF, contrasting with the generally unintuitive nature of complex orbitals. We also describe an efficient computer implementation of cRHF and its corresponding stability analysis. By applying cRHF to the Be + H{sub 2} insertion reaction, a Woodward-Hoffmann violating reaction, and a symmetry-driven conical intersection, we demonstrate in genuine molecular systems that cRHF is capable of removing certain potential energy surface singularities that plague real-valued RHF and related methods. This complements earlier work that showed this capability in a model system. We also describe how cRHF is the preferred RHF method for certain radicaloid systems like singlet oxygen and antiaromatic molecules. For singlet O{sub 2}, we show that standard methods fail even at the equilibrium geometry. An implication of this work is that, regardless of their individual efficacies, cRHF solutions to the HF equations are fairly commonplace.

  15. Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals: A long-known but neglected tool in electronic structure theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, David W.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals (cRHF) is studied. We introduce an orbital pairing theorem, with which we obtain a concise connection between cRHF and real-valued RHF, and use it to uncover the close relationship between cRHF, unrestricted Hartree Fock, and generalized valence bond perfect pairing. This enables an intuition for cRHF, contrasting with the generally unintuitive nature of complex orbitals. We also describe an efficient computer implementation of cRHF and its corresponding stability analysis. By applying cRHF to the Be + H2 insertion reaction, a Woodward-Hoffmann violating reaction, and a symmetry-driven conical intersection, we demonstrate in genuine molecular systems that cRHF is capable of removing certain potential energy surface singularities that plague real-valued RHF and related methods. This complements earlier work that showed this capability in a model system. We also describe how cRHF is the preferred RHF method for certain radicaloid systems like singlet oxygen and antiaromatic molecules. For singlet O2, we show that standard methods fail even at the equilibrium geometry. An implication of this work is that, regardless of their individual efficacies, cRHF solutions to the HF equations are fairly commonplace.

  16. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.L.; O' Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O' Connor, K.

    1980-09-01

    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report.

  17. New genetic and morphological evidence suggests a single hoaxer created `Piltdown man'

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groote, Isabelle; Flink, Linus Girdland; Abbas, Rizwaan; Bello, Silvia M.; Burgia, Lucia; Buck, Laura Tabitha; Dean, Christopher; Freyne, Alison; Higham, Thomas; Jones, Chris G.; Kruszynski, Robert; Lister, Adrian; Parfitt, Simon A.; Skinner, Matthew M.; Shindler, Karolyn; Stringer, Chris B.

    2016-08-01

    In 1912, palaeontologist Arthur Smith Woodward and amateur antiquarian and solicitor Charles Dawson announced the discovery of a fossil that supposedly provided a link between apes and humans: Eoanthropus dawsoni (Dawson's dawn man). The publication generated huge interest from scientists and the general public. However, `Piltdown man's' initial celebrity has long been overshadowed by its subsequent infamy as one of the most famous scientific frauds in history. Our re-evaluation of the Piltdown fossils using the latest scientific methods (DNA analyses, high-precision measurements, spectroscopy and virtual anthropology) shows that it is highly likely that a single orang-utan specimen and at least two human specimens were used to create the fake fossils. The modus operandi was found consistent throughout the assemblage (specimens are stained brown, loaded with gravel fragments and restored using filling materials), linking all specimens from the Piltdown I and Piltdown II sites to a single forger-Charles Dawson. Whether Dawson acted alone is uncertain, but his hunger for acclaim may have driven him to risk his reputation and misdirect the course of anthropology for decades. The Piltdown hoax stands as a cautionary tale to scientists not to be led by preconceived ideas, but to use scientific integrity and rigour in the face of novel discoveries.

  18. Tetracycline-resistant coliforms in the effluent of the main sewage treatment plant in Hamilton, Ontario - do they have a common ancestral strain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorger, George J; Quinn, James S

    2010-07-01

    Sewage, a major source of bacterial contamination of the environment, can be an important health hazard. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage can exacerbate this problem. The sources of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in sewage are, for this reason, worth identifying and addressing. The bacterial flora in the effluent of the Woodward Avenue Wastewater Treatment Plant (WAWTP) in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, contains many antibiotic-resistant coliforms. Here we ask, are the antibiotic resistance genes in the coliforms in the effluent of WAWTP descended from a recent common ancestor strain? If so, the source could be identified and eliminated. If, on the other hand, the antibiotic resistance genes in the bacterial flora of the WAWTP have more than one origin, identification and elimination of the source(s) could be difficult. There was considerable diversity of antibiotic resistance patterns and antibiotic resistance genes among the effluent and influent coliform isolates of the WAWTP, suggesting multiple genetic ancestry. The patterns of horizontal transmissibility and sequence differences in the genes tetA and tetE among these coliform isolates also suggest that they have no one predominant ancestral strain. Using the same logic, the evidence presented here is not compatible with a single ancestral origin of the antibiotic resistance genes in the isolates described herein.

  19. Analysis of the Organizational Structure of Enterprises of Technological Basis With Projects Without Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gimenes Bera Oshita

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The contingency theory assumes that the structure of the organization involves environment, people, technologies and administrative techniques for achieving the objectives of the company, which must comply with the contingent factors and the environment in which it is inserted. Being that, by the evolution of technology companies must be innovative from an organic structure. Thus, the incubated companies have innovative feature, this way: how is the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators? This research aims to asses and classify the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators in the State of Paraná. To achieve this goal it carried out a literature review on the contingency theory. Afterwards it was applied the questionnaire with companies incubated in that sought to identify their organizational structure Trough the applied methodology was found that, in General, incubated companies presented some mechanistic designs features with command-based rules and procedures in that only one person takes the decision, which way be the reflection of a technological breakthrough in which companies migrate to a mechanistic designs structure for organic , as well as in the results of Joan Woodward (1958, in which the occurrence of technological advancement, companies use the mechanistic designs structure, changing later to organic.

  20. Sobolev Spaces, Schwartz Spaces, and a Definition of the Electromagnetic and Gravitational Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montillet, Jean-Philippe

    The concept of "multiplicity of solutions" was developed in arXiv:1509.02603v2 which is based on the theory of energy operators in the Schwartz space S^-(R) and some subspaces called energy spaces first defined in arXiv:1208.3385 and arXiv:1308.0874. The main idea is to look for solutions of a given linear PDE in those subspaces. Here, this work extends previous developments in S^-(R^m) (m in Z^+) using the theory of Sobolev spaces, and in a special case the Hilbert spaces. Furthermore, we also define the concept of "Energy Parallax", which is the inclusion of additional solutions when varying the energy of a predefined system locally by taking into account additional smaller quantities. We show that it is equivalent to take into account solutions in other energy subspaces. To illustrate the theory, one of our examples is based on the variation of ElectroMagnetic (EM) energy density within the skin depth of a conductive material, leading to take into account derivatives of EM evanescent waves, particular solutions of the wave equation. The last example is the derivation of the Woodward effect with the variations of the EM energy density under strict assumptions in general relativity. It finally leads to a theoretical definition of an electromagnetic and gravitational (EMG) coupling.

  1. Theoretical Analysis of the Fragmentation of (CO)5: A Symmetry-Allowed Highly Exothermic Reaction that Follows a Stepwise Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajun; Bao, Xiaoguang; Hrovat, David A; Borden, Weston Thatcher

    2015-12-04

    B3LYP and CCSD(T) calculations, using an aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, have been carried out on the fragmentation of 1,2,3,4,5-cyclopentanepentone, (CO)(5), to five molecules of CO. Although this reaction is calculated to be highly exothermic and is allowed to be concerted by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules, our calculations find that the D(5h) energy maximum is a multidimensional hilltop on the potential energy surface. This D(5h) hilltop is 16-20 kcal/mol higher in energy than a C(2) transition structure for the endothermic cleavage of (CO)(5) to (CO)(4) + CO and 11-15 kcal/mol higher than a C(s) transition structure for the loss of two CO molecules. The reasons for the very high energy of the D(5h) hilltop are discussed, and the geometries of the two lower energy transition structures are rationalized on the basis of mixing of the e(2)' HOMO and the a(2)″ LUMO of the hilltop.

  2. Woodard–Cody anomalous resistivity in a Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}C{sub 0.3} superconductor compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortolozo, Ausdinir D., E-mail: ausdinir.bortolozo@fca.unicamp.br [School of Applied Sciences/FCA, Research Group in Manufacturing of Advanced Materials, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campus Limeira, 1300, Pedro Zaccaria St., Jd. Sta Luiza, 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); Osorio, Wislei R. [School of Applied Sciences/FCA, Research Group in Manufacturing of Advanced Materials, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, Campus Limeira, 1300, Pedro Zaccaria St., Jd. Sta Luiza, 13484-350 Limeira, SP (Brazil); Santos, Carlos Alberto M. dos; Machado, Antônio Jefferson S. [School of Engineering of Lorena –São Paulo University State, P. O. Box 116, Lorena, SP 12600-970 (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    A normal-state electrical resistivity of a superconducting Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}C{sub 0.3} compound is investigated. Resistivity data are taken from the superconducting transition temperature T{sub c} at room temperature. The data are discussed based on important theoretical expressions in order to explain the normal-state resistivity of the Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}C{sub 0.3} compound. Focusing on the best fitting Woodward and Cody model is used. An 0.77 electron–phonon coupling (λ) is determined, which induces an important role of the electron–phonon coupling for a Nb{sub 5}Ge{sub 3}C{sub 0.3} compound. The saturation of the ρ(T) at 300 K indicates that the mean free path l of the carriers is actually longer than the unit cell dimensions. The negative curvature of this superconductor is a result of the mean free path non-linear in their resulting perturbation. It is also found that the magnitude of the temperature-dependent (phonon) correlated with the resistivity decreases with the decreasing of the mean free path in the absence of phonons due to an atomic disorder induced by lattice intrinsic defects.

  3. New genetic and morphological evidence suggests a single hoaxer created ‘Piltdown man’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flink, Linus Girdland; Abbas, Rizwaan; Bello, Silvia M.; Burgia, Lucia; Buck, Laura Tabitha; Freyne, Alison; Higham, Thomas; Jones, Chris G.; Kruszynski, Robert; Lister, Adrian; Parfitt, Simon A.; Skinner, Matthew M.; Shindler, Karolyn; Stringer, Chris B.

    2016-01-01

    In 1912, palaeontologist Arthur Smith Woodward and amateur antiquarian and solicitor Charles Dawson announced the discovery of a fossil that supposedly provided a link between apes and humans: Eoanthropus dawsoni (Dawson's dawn man). The publication generated huge interest from scientists and the general public. However, ‘Piltdown man's’ initial celebrity has long been overshadowed by its subsequent infamy as one of the most famous scientific frauds in history. Our re-evaluation of the Piltdown fossils using the latest scientific methods (DNA analyses, high-precision measurements, spectroscopy and virtual anthropology) shows that it is highly likely that a single orang-utan specimen and at least two human specimens were used to create the fake fossils. The modus operandi was found consistent throughout the assemblage (specimens are stained brown, loaded with gravel fragments and restored using filling materials), linking all specimens from the Piltdown I and Piltdown II sites to a single forger—Charles Dawson. Whether Dawson acted alone is uncertain, but his hunger for acclaim may have driven him to risk his reputation and misdirect the course of anthropology for decades. The Piltdown hoax stands as a cautionary tale to scientists not to be led by preconceived ideas, but to use scientific integrity and rigour in the face of novel discoveries. PMID:27853612

  4. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidhir, Karzan G.; Woodward, David F.; Farjo, Nilofer P.; Farjo, Bessam K.; Tang, Elaine S.; Wang, Jenny W.; Picksley, Steven M.; Randall, Valerie A.

    2013-01-01

    Balding causes widespread psychological distress but is poorly controlled. The commonest treatment, minoxidil, was originally an antihypertensive drug that promoted unwanted hair. We hypothesized that another serendipitous discovery, increased eyelash growth side-effects of prostamide F2α-related eyedrops for glaucoma, may be relevant for scalp alopecias. Eyelash hairs and follicles are highly specialized and remain unaffected by androgens that inhibit scalp follicles and stimulate many others. Therefore, we investigated whether non-eyelash follicles could respond to bimatoprost, a prostamide F2α analog recently licensed for eyelash hypotrichosis. Bimatoprost, at pharmacologically selective concentrations, increased hair synthesis in scalp follicle organ culture and advanced mouse pelage hair regrowth in vivo compared to vehicle alone. A prostamide receptor antagonist blocked isolated follicle growth, confirming a direct, receptor-mediated mechanism within follicles; RT-PCR analysis identified 3 relevant receptor genes in scalp follicles in vivo. Receptors were located in the key follicle regulator, the dermal papilla, by analyzing individual follicular structures and immunohistochemistry. Thus, bimatoprost stimulates human scalp follicles in culture and rodent pelage follicles in vivo, mirroring eyelash behavior, and scalp follicles contain bimatoprost-sensitive prostamide receptors in vivo. This highlights a new follicular signaling system and confirms that bimatoprost offers a novel, low-risk therapeutic approach for scalp alopecias.—Khidhir, K. G., Woodward, D. F., Farjo, N. P., Farjo, B. K., Tang, E. S., Wang, J. W., Picksley, S. M., and Randall, V. A. The prostamide-related glaucoma therapy, bimatoprost, offers a novel approach for treating scalp alopecias. PMID:23104985

  5. The effect of knowledge and expectations on adherence to and persistence with antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward SC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sophie Claire Woodward, Bonnie Jayne Bereznicki, Juanita Louise Westbury, Luke Ryan Elliot Bereznicki Pharmacy, School of Medicine, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia Purpose: Adherence to and persistence with antidepressants are often suboptimal. However, little is known about how patient knowledge and outcome expectations may influence antidepressant adherence and persistence.Method: Individuals who had been prescribed their first antidepressant to treat depression in the preceding 6 months were recruited to an online survey via Facebook. Knowledge, education received, and initial outcome expectations were analyzed for associations with persistence and adherence.Results: Two hundred and twenty surveys were analyzed. A total of 117 participants had taken their antidepressant for at least 3 months; another 25 had never started or stopped after <3 months without consulting their doctor. Differences in expectations and various educational messages among persistent and nonpersistent participants were identified. Having received the instruction “don’t stop it without checking with your doctor” was a significant independent predictor of persistence (odds ratio [OR] =5.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.4–24.5. At the time of the survey, 82.7% of participants were taking an antidepressant and 77.9% were adherent. Significant independent predictors of adherence were a greater age (OR =1.1, 95% CI =1.0–1.2, knowledge (OR =1.6, 95% CI =1.1–2.3, being informed of common side effects (OR =5.5, 95% CI =1.1–29.0, and having discussed ways to solve problems (OR =3.9, 95% CI =1.1–14.5.Conclusion: Improving outcome expectations and particular educational messages may increase adherence and persistence. Greater knowledge may enhance adherence. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether a focus on these simple educational messages will improve outcomes in patients who commence an antidepressant.Keywords: counseling

  6. Once-weekly albiglutide in the management of type 2 diabetes: patient considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward HN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Heather N Woodward,1 Sarah L Anderson21Centura St. Anthony’s Hospital, Lakewood, CO, USA; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Aurora, CO, USA Abstract: This review describes the pharmacologic, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of albiglutide, as well as its clinical efficacy and safety. Albiglutide is a novel, once-weekly, injectable glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The European Commission recently granted marketing authorization for the drug in the European Union and on April 15, 2014, the US Food and Drug Administration approved albiglutide (Tanzeum™ [GlaxoSmithKline LLC, Wilmington, DE, USA] to improve glycemic control in adults with type 2 diabetes. Albiglutide has been studied in Phase I, II, and III clinical trials. In the Phase III clinical trials, known as the Harmony series, weekly dosing of albiglutide demonstrated reductions in fasting plasma glucose, postprandial plasma glucose, and glycated hemoglobin, and was associated with weight loss. In all phases of the clinical trials, albiglutide administered once weekly showed a safety and tolerability profile similar to that of placebo, with mild gastrointestinal-related complaints and injection site erythema being the most commonly encountered adverse effects. Compared with pioglitazone and liraglutide, albiglutide has been shown to be clinically less effective. However, it offers the benefit of weight loss that pioglitazone does not, with fewer gastrointestinal side effects than liraglutide. As guidelines continue to advocate for patient-centered treatment strategies, once-weekly albiglutide will be an important addition to the growing armamentarium of treatment options for adults with type 2 diabetes needing target glycemic control.Keywords: albiglutide, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist, drug therapy, type 2 diabetes mellitus

  7. Worsening anatomic outcomes following aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in eyes previously well controlled with ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudleman E

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Eric Nudleman,1 Jeremy D Wolfe,2,3 Maria A Woodward,4 Yoshihiro Yonekawa,2,3 George A Williams,2,3 Tarek S Hassan2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2Beaumont Eye Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3Associated Retinal Consultants, Royal Oak, 4Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included. Results: A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity. Conclusion: Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab. Keywords: anti

  8. An integrated safety analysis of intravenous ibuprofen (Caldolor® in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southworth SR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Stephen R Southworth,1 Emily J Woodward,2 Alex Peng,2 Amy D Rock21North Mississippi Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Clinic, PLLC, Tupelo, MS, 2Department of Research and Development, Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc., Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Intravenous (IV nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as IV ibuprofen are increasingly used as a component of multimodal pain management in the inpatient and outpatient settings. The safety of IV ibuprofen as assessed in ten sponsored clinical studies is presented in this analysis. Overall, 1,752 adult patients have been included in safety and efficacy trials over 11 years; 1,220 of these patients have received IV ibuprofen and 532 received either placebo or comparator medication. The incidence of adverse events (AEs, serious AEs, and changes in vital signs and clinically significant laboratory parameters have been summarized and compared to patients receiving placebo or active comparator drug. Overall, IV ibuprofen has been well tolerated by hospitalized and outpatient patients when administered both prior to surgery and postoperatively as well as for nonsurgical pain or fever. The overall incidence of AEs is lower in patients receiving IV ibuprofen as compared to those receiving placebo in this integrated analysis. Specific analysis of hematological and renal effects showed no increased risk for patients receiving IV ibuprofen. A subset analysis of elderly patients suggests that no dose adjustment is needed in this higher risk population. This integrated safety analysis demonstrates that IV ibuprofen can be safely administered prior to surgery and continued in the postoperative period as a component of multimodal pain management.Keywords: NSAID, surgical pain, fever, perioperative analgesia, critical care, multimodal pain management

  9. Electrokinetics as a Propellantless Propulsion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, Thomas

    This is a review of the worthwhile, innovative theories and concepts in electrogravitics and electrokinetics that could yield tremendous technological and economic dividends in both investment dollars and potential applications for future generations. Electrogravitics is most commonly associated with the 1918 work by Professor Nipher followed by the 1928 British patent #300,311 of T. Townsend Brown, the 1952 Special Inquiry File #24-185 of the Office of Naval Research into the "Electro-Gravity Device of Townsend Brown" and two widely circulated 1956 Aviation Studies Ltd. Reports on "Electrogravitics Systems" and "The Gravitics Situation." By definition, electrogravitics historically has had a purported relationship to gravity or the object's mass, as well as the applied voltage. An analysis of the 90-year old science of electrogravitics (or electrogravity) necessarily includes an analysis of electrokinetics. Electrokinetics, on the other hand, is more commonly associated with many patents of T. Townsend Brown as well as Agnew Bahnson, starting with the 1960 US patent #2,949,550 entitled, "Electrokinetic Apparatus." Electrokinetics, which often involves a capacitor and dielectric, has virtually no relationship that can be connected with mass or gravity. The Army Research Lab has recently issued a report on electrokinetics, analyzing the force on an asymmetric capacitor, while NASA has received three patents on the same design topic. To successfully describe and predict the purported motion in the direction of the positive terminal of the capacitor, it is desirable to use the classical electrokinetic field and force equations for the specific geometry involved. This initial review also suggests directions for further confirming measurements. This paper also reviews the published electrokinetic experiments by the Army Research Lab by Bahder and Fazi, California State University at Fullerton work by Woodward and Mahood, Erwin Saxl, and others.

  10. Practical theologians’ calling to serve in the field of gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The South African demographic statistics echo the global trend of an ageing population. This fact poses challenges to the country’s labour supply, to health care, retirement and intergenerational relations. The elderly are faced with specific challenges such as negative views regarding older people, discrimination and prejudice based on age, changing roles, the loss of a support system when children emigrate, financial problems, abuse and neglect, emotions of fear and depression, and the struggle to find meaning in life and suffering. The field of study that concerns ageing and older adulthood is called gerontology. Joan Erber defines it as ‘the study of the biological, behavioural, and social phenomena that occur from the point of maturity to old age.’ It is an interdisciplinary field where different disciplines seek to address the problems associated with ageing. Biologists focus on the biological processes of ageing, psychologists focus on aspects like mental abilities, personality and behaviour, whilst sociologists study the social roles, group behaviour and status of older people. The question may be asked what is being done regarding the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly. This is the niche of practical theology, as indicated by one definition of practical theology that it is ‘a place where religious belief, tradition and practice meet contemporary experiences, questions and actions and conducts a dialogue that is mutually enriching, intellectually critical, and practically transforming’ according to Pattison and Woodward. The aims of this exploratory article are (1 to investigate to what extent research in practical theology has addressed the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly and (2 to identify opportunities where practical theology may provide service in the field of gerontology.

  11. Uncooled EuSbTe3 photodetector highly sensitive from ultraviolet to terahertz frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Ying Y.; Wu, Dong; Su, Yu Q.; Zhu, Hai; Wang, Biao; Wang, Ying X.; Zhao, Zi R.; Zheng, Ping; Niu, Jia S.; Zhou, Hui B.; Wei, Jian; Wang, Nan L.

    2018-01-01

    Light probe from Uv to THz is critical in photoelectronics and has great applications ranging from imaging, communication to medicine (Woodward et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3853–63 Pospischil et al 2013 Nat. Photon. 7 892–6 Martyniuk and Rogalski 2003 Prog. Quantum Electron. 27 59–210). However, the room temperature ultrabroadband photodetection across visible down to far-infrared is still challenging. The challenging arises mainly from the lack of suitable photoactive materials. Because that conventional semiconductors, such as silicon, have their photosensitive properties cut off by the bandgap and are transparent to spectrum at long-wavelength infrared side (Ciupa and Rogalski 1997 Opto-Electron. Rev. 5 257–66 Tonouchi 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 97–105 Sizov and Rogalski 2010 Prog. Quantum Electron. 34 278–347 Kinch 2000 J. Electron. Mater. 29 809–17). Comparatively, the dielectrics with very narrow band-gap but maintain the semiconductor-like electrical conduction would have priorities for ultrabroadband photodetection. Here we report on EuSbTe3 is highly sensitive from ultraviolet directly to terahertz (THz) at room temperature. High photoresponsivities 1–8 A W‑1 reached in our prototype EuSbTe3 detectors with low noise equivalent power (NEP) recorded, for instances ~150 pW · Hz‑1/2 (at λ  =  532 nm) and ~0.6 nW · Hz‑1/2 (at λ  =  118.8 µm) respectively. Our results demonstrate a promising system with direct photosensitivity extending well into THz regime at room temperature, shed new light on exploring more sophisticated multi-band photoelectronics.

  12. Development of using experimenter-given cues in infant chimpanzees: longitudinal changes in behavior and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto-Barth, Sanae; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-01-01

    The use of gaze shifts as social cues has various evolutionary advantages. To investigate the developmental processes of this ability, we conducted an object-choice task by using longitudinal methods with infant chimpanzees tested from 8 months old until 3 years old. The experimenter used one of six gestures towards a cup concealing food; tapping, touching, whole-hand pointing, gazing plus close-pointing, distant-pointing, close-gazing, and distant-gazing. Unlike any other previous study, we analyzed the behavioral changes that occurred before and after choosing the cup. We assumed that pre-choice behavior indicates the development of an attentional and spatial connection between a pointing cue and an object (e.g. Woodward, 2005); and post-choice behavior indicates the emergence of object permanence (e.g. Piaget, 1954). Our study demonstrated that infant chimpanzees begin to use experimenter-given cues with age (after 11 months of age). Moreover, the results from the behavioral analysis showed that the infants gradually developed the spatial link between the pointing as an object-directed action and the object. Moreover, when they were 11 months old, the infants began to inspect the inside of the cup, suggesting the onset of object permanence. Overall, our results imply that the ability to use the cues is developing and mutually related with other cognitive developments. The present study also suggests what the standard object-choice task actually measures by breaking the task down into the developmental trajectories of its component parts, and describes for the first time the social-physical cognitive development during the task with a longitudinal method.

  13. Spreken vanuit het graf. De stoffelijke resten van Willem van Oranje in hun politiek-culturele betekenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Santing

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Voice from the Grave. The politico-cultural relevance of the mortal remains of William of OrangeBalthazar Gerards’ murder of William of Orange on July 10th, 1584 is a canonical fact in Dutch history, but thus far this significant event has not yet been analysed on its own merits, i.e. in terms of the material disposition of his assassinated body. Hence, this article examines the literal and figurative - or cultural and material - handling of the physical remains of William the Silent and their subsequent iconification and deification. The historiographical background and intellectual inspiration for this article are provided by the work of Ernst Kantorowic’s pupil Ralph Giesey, Agostino Paravicini Bagliani and Joanna Woodward. All authors point to the increasingly lavish pomp and circumstance of monarchical funeral culture, which was imitated by Europe’s high aristocracy. The autopsy on William the Silent’s corpse was completed with a meticulous embalming. The preserved body and its subsequent lying in state amidst an extensive funerary apparatus and the full pompa of the burial ceremony contained numerous reminiscences of Charles V Brussels’ funeral, in which the Prince had played a prominent role. Also, after having examined the sculptural iconography of Hendrik de Keyser’s mausoleum in Delft’s Nieuwe Kerk, it can be concluded that the significance of William the Silent’s murdered body was much more royal and catholic than traditional historiographical views on the Dutch Republic would lead us to suspect.

  14. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L

    2016-11-01

    of the countries to manage and adapt in the face of such risks. Citation: McIver L, Kim R, Woodward A, Hales S, Spickett J, Katscherian D, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Kim H, Iddings S, Naicker J, Bambrick H, McMichael AJ, Ebi KL. 2016. Health impacts of climate change in Pacific island countries: a regional assessment of vulnerabilities and adaptation priorities. Environ Health Perspect 124:1707-1714; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509756.

  15. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J.; Ebi, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    change, the health risks entailed, and the limited capacity of the countries to manage and adapt in the face of such risks. Citation: McIver L, Kim R, Woodward A, Hales S, Spickett J, Katscherian D, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Kim H, Iddings S, Naicker J, Bambrick H, McMichael AJ, Ebi KL. 2016. Health impacts of climate change in Pacific island countries: a regional assessment of vulnerabilities and adaptation priorities. Environ Health Perspect 124:1707–1714; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1509756 PMID:26645102

  16. Multi-wavelength observations of pulsar wind nebulae and composite supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temim, Tea

    Multi-wavelength studies of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and supernova remnants (SNRs) lead to a better understanding of their evolutionary development, the interaction of supernovae (SNe) and pulsar winds with their surroundings, and nucleosynthesis and production and processing of dust grains by SNe. PWNe and composite supernova remnants, in particular, are unique laboratories for the study of the energetic pulsar winds, particle injection processes, and the impact of PWNe on the evolving SNR. They provide information on SNR shock properties, densities and temperatures, and the chemical composition and the ionization state of the material ejected by SNe. SNRs also serve as laboratories for the study of dust production and processing in SNe. While X-ray observations yield important information about the SN progenitor, hot gas properties, SN explosion energy, and the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM), the IR can provide crucial information about the faint non-thermal emission, continuum emission from dust, and forbidden line emission from SN ejecta. Combining observations at a wide range of wavelengths provides a more complete picture of the SNR development and helps better constrain current models describing a SNR's evolution and its impact on the surrounding medium. This thesis focuses on a multi-wavelength study of PWNe in various stages of their evolution and investigates their interaction with the expanding SN ejecta and dust and the SNR reverse shock. The study of these interactions can provide important information on the SNR properties that may otherwise be unobservable. The work in this thesis has been carried out under the supervision of Patrick Slane at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Charles E. Woodward and Rebert D. Gehrz at the University of Minnesota. The first part of the thesis summarizes the evolution and observational properties of SNRs and PWNe, with a focus on the evolution of young PWNe that are sweeping up inner SN

  17. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM -- PHASE III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-03-01

    report. Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition (RMI) technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the RMI system.

  18. Standard Reference Material (SRM 1990) for Single Crystal Diffractometer Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong-Ng, W.; Siegrist, T.; DeTitta, G.T.; Finger, L.W.; Evans, H.T.; Gabe, E.J.; Enright, G.D.; Armstrong, J.T.; Levenson, M.; Cook, L.P.; Hubbard, C.R.

    2001-01-01

    An international project was successfully completed which involved two major undertakings: (1) a round-robin to demonstrate the viability of the selected standard and (2) the certification of the lattice parameters of the SRM 1990, a Standard Reference Material?? for single crystal diffractometer alignment. This SRM is a set of ???3500 units of Cr-doped Al2O3, or ruby spheres [(0 420.011 mole fraction % Cr (expanded uncertainty)]. The round-robin consisted of determination of lattice parameters of a pair of crystals' the ruby sphere as a standard, and a zeolite reference to serve as an unknown. Fifty pairs of crystals were dispatched from Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute to volunteers in x-ray laboratories world-wide. A total of 45 sets of data was received from 32 laboratories. The mean unit cell parameters of the ruby spheres was found to be a=4.7608 A?? ?? 0.0062 A??, and c=12.9979 A?? ?? 0.020 A?? (95 % intervals of the laboratory means). The source of errors of outlier data was identified. The SRM project involved the certification of lattice parameters using four well-aligned single crystal diffractometers at (Bell Laboratories) Lucent Technologies and at NRC of Canada (39 ruby spheres), the quantification of the Cr content using a combined microprobe and SEM/EDS technique, and the evaluation of the mosaicity of the ruby spheres using a double-crystal spectrometry method. A confirmation of the lattice parameters was also conducted using a Guinier-Ha??gg camera. Systematic corrections of thermal expansion and refraction corrections were applied. These rubies_ are rhombohedral, with space group R3c. The certified mean unit cell parameters are a=4.76080 ?? 0.00029 A??, and c=12 99568 A?? ?? 0.00087 A?? (expanded uncertainty). These certified lattice parameters fall well within the results of those obtained from the international round-robin study. The Guinier-Ha??gg transmission measurements on five samples of powdered rubies (a=4.7610 A?? ?? 0

  19. Generalization of two-phase model with topology microstructure of mixture to Lagrange-Euler methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Alexei A Leonov [Nuclear Safety Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences 52, Bolshaya Tulskaya, Moscow 113191 (Russian Federation)

    2005-07-01

    numerical compressible multiphase mixtures, J. Comput. Phys. 186 (2003) 361-396; (3). P. Colella, P.R. Woodward, The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for gas-dynamical simulations, J. Comput. Phys. 54 (1984) 174-201. (authors)

  20. Chemogenetic Excitation of Accumbens-Projecting Infralimbic Cortical Neurons Blocks Toluene-Induced Conditioned Place Preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayman, Wesley N; Woodward, John J

    2018-02-07

    Abuse rates for inhalants among adolescents continue to be high, yet preclinical models for studying mechanisms underlying inhalant abuse remain limited. Our laboratory has previously shown that, in male rats, an acute binge-like exposure to toluene vapor that mimics human solvent abuse modifies the intrinsic excitability of mPFC pyramidal neurons projecting to the NAc. These changes showed region (infralimbic; IL vs prelimbic; PRL), layer (shallow; 2/3 vs deep; 5/6), target (core vs shell), and age (adolescent vs adult) dependent differences (Wayman and Woodward, 2017). To expand these findings using reward-based models that may better mimic human drug abuse, we used whole-cell electrophysiology and drug receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs to examine changes in neuronal function and behavior in rats showing a conditioned place preference (CPP) to toluene. Repeated pairings of adolescent rats to binge concentrations of toluene vapor previously shown to enhance dopamine release in reward-sensitive areas of the brain produced CPP that persisted for 7 but not 30 d. Toluene-induced CPP was associated with increased excitability of IL5/6 mPFC neurons projecting to the core of the NAc and reduced excitability of those projecting to the NAc shell. No changes in PRL-NAc-projecting neurons were found in toluene-CPP rats. Chemogenetic reversal of the toluene-induced decrease in IL5/6-NAc shell neurons blocked the expression of toluene-induced CPP while manipulating IL5/6-NAc core neuron activity had no effect. These data reveal that alterations in selective mPFC-NAc pathways are required for expression of toluene-induced CPP. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Disturbed physiology of pyramidal neurons projecting from the mPFC to the NAc has been shown to have different roles in drug-seeking behaviors for a number of drugs (e.g., methamphetamine, cocaine, ecstasy, alcohol, heroin). Here, we report that rats repeatedly exposed to the volatile organic solvent toluene, a

  1. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  2. ASK Magazine. No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Todd (Editor); Laufer, Alexander (Editor); Collins, Michelle (Editor)

    2002-01-01

    What makes a successful team? In this issue our contributors look closely at the subject and come up with several answers. Working on team chemistry is the "Activation Energy" Dr. Owen Gadeken's story is about. Scott Cameron thinks it's getting to know people one to one. Tony Maturo says it's getting the most out of your support staff. Dr. Michael Hecht finds the best people he can and build the team around their talents. Teamwork is a theme we explore often in Academy Sharing Knowledge (ASK), but never so directly as in this issue. You'll not only find formulas for building successful teams, you'll see examples of ones in action, strategies for how project managers can motivate their teams, and expert advice on how to choose who to work with and who not to work with. It seems like all the stories make one common point: everyone on a team counts. Few project managers can pull off a project alone, and when the whole team is performing to everyone's potential, the chances of pulling off a successful project goes up exponentially. If that doesn't seem like enough by itself, listen to this... Discerning fans of ASK will note the last two issues our Special Feature was "There are no Mistakes, Only Lessons." We have not abandoned this feature, but for now we want to broaden our repertoire. In this issue we add a new Special Feature, "My Metaphor," starting with Paul Espinosa's article "My Big Wall" about his rock climbing adventures on El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. If you think getting to Mars is work, read what it's like to scale a 3,000-foot rock face. This issue we're also welcoming two new members to our Review Board, Hugh Woodward and Jody Kusek. Hugh and Jody are our first reviewers from outside NASA, and we are delighted to have them on our team. Read their bios on the ASK Review Board page and see why we feel privileged to have them on our team.

  3. A quantitative comparison of numerical methods for the compressible Euler equations: fifth-order WENO and piecewise-linear Godunov

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenough, J. A.; Rider, W. J.

    2004-05-01

    A numerical study is undertaken comparing a fifth-order version of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory numerical (WENO5) method to a modern piecewise-linear, second-order, version of Godunov's (PLMDE) method for the compressible Euler equations. A series of one-dimensional test problems are examined beginning with classical linear problems and ending with complex shock interactions. The problems considered are: (1) linear advection of a Gaussian pulse in density, (2) Sod's shock tube problem, (3) the "peak" shock tube problem, (4) a version of the Shu and Osher shock entropy wave interaction and (5) the Woodward and Colella interacting shock wave problem. For each problem and method, run times, density error norms and convergence rates are reported for each method as produced from a common code test-bed. The linear problem exhibits the advertised convergence rate for both methods as well as the expected large disparity in overall error levels; WENO5 has the smaller errors and an enormous advantage in overall efficiency (in accuracy per unit CPU time). For the nonlinear problems with discontinuities, however, we generally see both first-order self-convergence of error as compared to an exact solution, or when an analytic solution is not available, a converged solution generated on an extremely fine grid. The overall comparison of error levels shows some variation from problem to problem. For Sod's shock tube, PLMDE has nearly half the error, while on the peak problem the errors are nearly the same. For the interacting blast wave problem the two methods again produce a similar level of error with a slight edge for the PLMDE. On the other hand, for the Shu-Osher problem, the errors are similar on the coarser grids, but favors WENO by a factor of nearly 1.5 on the finer grids used. In all cases holding mesh resolution constant though, PLMDE is less costly in terms of CPU time by approximately a factor of 6. If the CPU cost is taken as fixed, that is run times are

  4. Paleoseismology in Venezuela: Objectives, methods, applications, limitations and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard M., Franck A.

    2005-10-01

    The privileged location of Venezuela along an active interplate deformation belt, despite of being a "so-called" developing country, has led to a long paleoseismic tradition as attested by 45 trench assessments since 1968. Since then, a first 2-trench study was carried out by the American Woodward-Clyde company across the Oca fault at Sinamaica. Since 1980, all further paleoseismic studies have been performed by FUNVISIS and the Uribante-Caparo hydroelectric project (southern Mérida Andes) became their first assessment where 22 huge trenches were bulldozer-dug. Except for these Compañía Anónima de Administración y Fomento Eléctrico (CADAFE) financed trenches and two others, all other assessments were for Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. -PDVSA-. In this paper, geographic and geologic factors, as well as logistic limitations, conditioning success in paleoseismic studies by trenching, shall be discussed based on the Venezuelan experience developed over the years. The scientific contribution of this approach refer to: confirmation of Holocene fault activity, slip-per-event and average slip rate of a given fault (or segment), seismic potential (repeat of maximum credible earthquakes) of known faults, fault segmentation, fault interaction as consequence of stress loading by stick-slip on contiguous faults, time-space distribution of seismic activity along a given tectonic feature, seismotectonic association of historical earthquakes and landscape evolution on the short term and its implications on the long-term evolution (poorly discussed since this is really part of the field of Neotectonics). In recent years (since 1999), a new approach has been introduced in Venezuela consisting in complementing the seismic history derived from trenching studies with the evaluation of seismically induced perturbations in the continuous Quaternary sedimentary record of (either active or fossil) lakes. The future of this discipline in Venezuela heads to more trenching and lake

  5. Mechanistic and synthetic studies of deuterium-labeled vinylcyclopropanes, cyclopropylallenes, and spiropentanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, L.P.

    1992-01-01

    A number of hydrocarbons were prepared and pyrolyzed in the gas phase to study stereochemistry and kinetic isotope effects in the isomerizations. Heating 1-(Z-1[prime]-tert-butyl-2[prime]-deuteriovinyl)-trans-2-trans-3-dideuteriocyclopropane to 290.0[degrees]C leads to the [l brace]1,3[r brace] sigmatropic rearrangement product 1-tert-butyl-3,4,5-trideuteriocyclopentene. Accompanying this rearrangement is a geometric isomerization of the ring deuteriums which occurs in a random fashion and is four times more rapid than rearrangement. The [l brace]1,3[r brace] shift occurs 75--100% via the Woodward-Hoffmann [open quotes]allowed[close quotes] suprafacial-inversion pathway, suggesting a concerted mechanism for rearrangement. At 311.6[degrees]C, there is a normal kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 1.14 upon the [l brace]1,3[r brace] shift of 1[prime]-tert-butyl-2[prime],2[prime]-dideuteriovinylcyclopropane relative to its nondeuterated analogue. At 311.5[degrees]C, there is a normal KIE of 1.15 upon the [l brace]1,3[r brace] shift of 1-cyclopropyl-3,3-dideuterioallene relative to its nondeuterated analogue. trans-1,2-Bis(2[prime],2[prime]-dideuteriovinyl)-cyclopropane and its nondeuterated analogue were pyrolyzed over temperatures from 100 to 191[degrees]C. A normal KIE was observed upon the [l brace]3,3[r brace] shift to 1,4-cycloheptadiene. This KIE is relevant to understanding the mechanism of some [l brace]1,3[r brace] shifts, [l brace]3,3[r brace] shifts, and Diels-Alder reactions. The magnitude of the KIE was found to vary with temperature. trans-1,2-Diallenylcyclopropane rearranges at 196.4[degrees]C to give primarily the [l brace]3,3[r brace] shift product 3,4-dimethylene-1,5-cycloheptadiene. Study of the geometric isomerization of parent spiropentane will require analysis by polarimetry and infrared spectrometry, but in the case of phenylspiropentane, NMR may be used. Synthetic approaches to suitably deuterium-labeled spiropentanes were established.

  6. Essencialização da surdez em discursivizações do status linguístico da Libras e implicações educacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Batista Martins

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A questão que problematizamos neste texto refere-se à identificação do que chamamos de essencialização da surdez. Nossas análises partem de recortes de discursivizações sobre o status linguístico da Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS/LSB e suas implicações no cenário educacional das políticas de inclusão. Em nossa análise, trata-se de uma espécie de reinvenção da surdez que vem sendo levada à escola por meio do discurso do bilinguismo e da diferença. Nesta discussão, trazemos a concepção bakhtiniana de língua como interação verbal determinada pelas relações sociais (BAKHTIN, 2006 e contribuições de autores como Rajagopalan (2003, Hall (2000, Woodward (2009, Derrida (2001 e Bhabha (2005. Nossa posição é a de que a perspectiva inclusivista não consegue manter a coerência entre seus pressupostos e as ações implementadas para conduzir o problema da educação da criança surda. Levamos em consideração ainda a crítica de que a escola, ultimamente, tenha perdido sua identidade, enquanto instituição de ensino que prioriza o trabalho com os saberes associados a uma produção escrita de caráter erudito. Concluímos que, prioritariamente, o compromisso linguístico da escola, mesmo em se tratando de alunos surdos, deva ser com a língua portuguesa. Por uma questão de respeito às diferenças, a escola deve acolher a língua de sinais, contudo, não cabe a ela a promoção e a preocupação, em primeira instância, com a identidade linguística de crianças surdas.

  7. El voluntariado y la identidad voluntaria como herramientas neoliberales: en pauta el voluntariado contra el cáncer infantil piauiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Almeida Silva

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available El argumento desarrollado reside en que el tercer sector es una construcción político-económica del Estado para la implantación del programa neoliberal de reducción de la acción social estatal, y el voluntariado una construcción revalorada socioculturalmente, en los últimos años, en Brasil. El voluntariado, como identidad social, es una de las herramientas de legitimación de la nueva postura del Estado brasileño. Con la reducción de la acción social del Estado, hubo la disminución con lo social por parte de este y la consecuente responsabilidad de la sociedad por la gerencia de políticas sociales puntuales y focalistas. La cultura de los voluntariados promovió la construcción de las identidades voluntarias. En este proceso, los derechos sociales y la solidaridad social fueron transformados en deberes sociales y solidaridad voluntaria y local, como es el caso del voluntariado de la Red Femenina de Combate al Cáncer de Piauí (RFCC-PI, organización social que actúa en la prevención y terapéutica de cáncer. Concluimos que el tercer sector y los voluntariados, de entre ellos el de la RFCC-PI, son campo de minas, debido al Estado financiar/subsidiar inúmeras categorías del tercer sector y, así, desfavorecer las demandas sociales. Sin embargo, independientemente del contexto neoliberal brasileño, la importancia del voluntariado de la RFCC-PI está en su acción complementaria del cuidado humanizado a personas con cáncer, uniendo medicina y terapia lúdica. Los autores utilizados en este análisis son: Ana Amaral (2003; Zygmunt Bauman (2005; Elaine Behring (2003; Paula Bonfim (2010; Lúcia Costa (2006; Denys Cuche (2002; Victor Ferreira (2005; Stuart Hall (2000; Rodrigo Horochovski (2003; José Mendes (2002; Maria Luiza Mestriner (2005; Thomaz Silva (2000, Susan Sontag (1984 e Kathryn Woodward (2000. La metodología se basó en la revisión de la literatura, análisis de documentos, entrevistas y trabajo de campo.

  8. Conceptual DFT: the chemical relevance of higher response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerlings, P; De Proft, F

    2008-06-07

    In recent years conceptual density functional theory offered a perspective for the interpretation/prediction of experimental/theoretical reactivity data on the basis of a series of response functions to perturbations in the number of electrons and/or external potential. This approach has enabled the sharp definition and computation, from first principles, of a series of well-known but sometimes vaguely defined chemical concepts such as electronegativity and hardness. In this contribution, a short overview of the shortcomings of the simplest, first order response functions is illustrated leading to a description of chemical bonding in a covalent interaction in terms of interacting atoms or groups, governed by electrostatics with the tendency to polarize bonds on the basis of electronegativity differences. The second order approach, well known until now, introduces the hardness/softness and Fukui function concepts related to polarizability and frontier MO theory, respectively. The introduction of polarizability/softness is also considered in a historical perspective in which polarizability was, with some exceptions, mainly put forward in non covalent interactions. A particular series of response functions, arising when the changes in the external potential are solely provoked by changes in nuclear configurations (the "R-analogues") are also systematically considered. The main part of the contribution is devoted to third order response functions which, at first sight, may be expected not to yield chemically significant information, as turns out to be for the hyperhardness. A counterexample is the dual descriptor and its R analogue, the initial hardness response, which turns out to yield a firm basis to regain the Woodward-Hoffmann rules for pericyclic reactions based on a density-only basis, i.e. without involving the phase, sign, symmetry of the wavefunction. Even the second order nonlinear response functions are shown possibly to bear interesting information, e

  9. Fósseis da Localidade de Nova Iorque, Maranhão, no Acervo do Museu de Ciências da Terra / Departamento Nacional da Produção Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Jorge de Melo

    2005-01-01

    localidade. Destes, 65,1% pertencem a Knightia brasiliensis Woodward 1939, 20,9% a Macracara prisca Woodward 1939, 6,9% a Triportheus altus (Santos 1946, 2,3% a Procharax minor Santos & Travassos 1956 e 2,3% a Arius sp. Todos os holótipos das espécies encontramse depositados no MCTer/DNPM, que certamente é a única instituição que possui fósseis desta localidade. Os macrofósseis vegetais foram estudados por Cristalli (1997, em sua dissertação de mestrado, onde identificou as seguintes subclasses botânicas: Magnolidae (Laurales, Dillenidae (Malvales, Ebenales, Rosidae (Fabales, Sapindales e Lilidae (Liliales. Segundo o catálogo a coleção de Paleobotânica possui 81 lotes de fósseis, sendo constituída de restos foliares, em vários estados de conservação. O estado atual desta coleção é bastante frágil, pois com o tempo os folhelhos foram se ressecando, ocorrendo a formação de alguns cristais na superfície do fóssil e também houve a fragmentação de diversos exemplares. O levantamento histórico dessa coleção permite recuperar e atualizar as informações sobre os fósseis da localidade de Nova Iorque e mostra a importância histórica e científica das coleções do MCTer/ DNPM, cujo acervo apresenta singularidades paleontológicas, como os materiais aqui apresentados.

  10. Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.

    2001-01-01

    broilers and 300,000 turkeys. Probable nonhuman sources included turkeys, horses, chickens, and cattle; however, wildlife sources such as deer, raccoon, muskrat, and opossum were not evaluated. Human waste was an important source of E. coli in water samples collected at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) on Shoal Creek and at two tributary sites (Joyce Creek and Woodward Creek). In general, the detection of human ribopatterns was consistent with the detection of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater such as caffeine, triclosan, or phenol, and the fecal indicators cholesterol and 3B-coprostanol. Ribopattern analysis indicate that horses were an important source of E. coli in Woodward Creek, which was consistent with horses being pastured immediately upstream from the sampling site on this creek. Pogue Creek contains a large density of turkey barns and five of eight E. coli isolates from one sample from Pogue Creek were matched to turkeys. Water samples from Pogue Creek generally did not contain detectable concentrations of human wastewater compounds, but one sample did contain detectable quantities of the antibiotics tylosin and lincomycin (widely used in the animal industry), and sulfamethoxazole (human use only). Although promising, the ability of ribopattern analyses to positively identify the source of a particular isolate is uncertain because of the small sample size, possible differences between animal source patterns in the study area and database used, lack of native wildlife source patterns, and variation in results depending on the number of possible animal host considered. Results of this study indicate that a trend of increasing fecal coliform densities with increasing time detected by the MDNR is, in part, caused by trends in annual precipitation and stream discharge, and not necessarily changes in land use or densities of animal operations. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using specific conductance and wate

  11. Numerical simulations of cloud rise phenomena associated with nuclear bursts: compressible and low Mach approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Antoun, T.

    2008-12-01

    The nuclear cloud rise is a two stage phenomenon. The initial phase (fireball expansion) of the cloud formation is dominated by compressible flow effects and propagation of shock waves. At the later stage, shock waves become weak, the Mach number decreases and the time steps required by an explicit code to model the acoustic waves make simulation of the late time cloud dynamics with a compressible code very expensive. The buoyant cloud rise at this stage can be efficiently simulated by low Mach-number approximation. In this approach acoustic waves are removed analytically, compressible effects are included as a non-zero divergence constraint due to background stratification and the system of equations is solved implicitly using pressure projection methods. Our numerical approach includes fluid mechanical models that are able to simulate both compressible, incompressible and low Mach regimes. Compressible dynamics is simulated with the explicit high order Eulerian code GEODYN (Lomov et al., 2001). It is based on the second-order Godunov method of Colella and Woodward (1984) that is extended for multiple dimensions using operator-splitting. The code includes the material interface tracking based on a volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach of Miller and Puckett (1996). The code we use for the low Mach approximation (LMC) is based on the incompressible solver of Bell et al., (2003). An unsplit second-order Godunov method and the MAC projection method (Bell et al., 2003) are used. An algebraic slip multiphase model is implemented to describe fallout of dust particles. Both codes incorporate adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). Additionally, the codes are explicitly coupled via input/output files. First, we compared solutions for an idealized buoyant bubble rise problem, that is characterized by low Mach numbers, in GEODYN and LMC codes. While the cloud evolution process is reproduced in both codes, some differences are found in the cloud rise speed and the cloud interface structure

  12. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Chase; Daniel Olsen; Ted Bestor

    2005-05-01

    the field demonstration phase in Year 3. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. These laboratory results were enhanced, then verified via a field demonstration project during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program. An Implementation Team of qualified engine retrofit service providers was assembled to install the retrofit micropilot ignition system on an engine operated by El Paso Pipeline Group at a compressor station near Window Rock, Arizona. Testing of this demonstration unit showed that the same benefits identified by laboratory testing at CSU, i.e., reduced fuel consumption and exhaust emissions (NOx, THC, CO, and CH2O). Commercialization of the retrofit micropilot ignition technology is awaiting a ''market pull'', which is expected to materialize as the results of the field demonstration become known and accepted. The Implementation Team, comprised of Woodward Governor Company, Enginuity LLC, Hoerbiger Corporation of America, and DigiCon Inc., has direct experience with the technology development and implementation, and stands ready to promote and commercialize the retrofit micropilot ignition system.

  13. Deciphering Selectivity in Organic Reactions: A Multifaceted Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcells, David; Clot, Eric; Eisenstein, Odile; Nova, Ainara; Perrin, Lionel

    2016-05-17

    Computational chemistry has made a sustained contribution to the understanding of chemical reactions. In earlier times, half a century ago, the goal was to distinguish allowed from forbidden reactions (e.g., Woodward-Hoffmann rules), that is, reactions with low or high to very high activation barriers. A great achievement of computational chemistry was also to contribute to the determination of structures with the bonus of proposing a rationalization (e.g., anomeric effect, isolobal analogy, Gillespie valence shell pair electron repulsion rules and counter examples, Wade-Mingos rules for molecular clusters). With the development of new methods and the constant increase in computing power, computational chemists move to more challenging problems, close to the daily concerns of the experimental chemists, in determining the factors that make a reaction both efficient and selective: a key issue in organic synthesis. For this purpose, experimental chemists use advanced synthetic and analytical techniques to which computational chemists added other ways of determining reaction pathways. The transition states and intermediates contributing to the transformation of reactants into the desired and undesired products can now be determined, including their geometries, energies, charges, spin densities, spectroscopy properties, etc. Such studies remain challenging due to the large number of chemical species commonly present in the reactive media whose role may have to be determined. Calculating chemical systems as they are in the experiment is not always possible, bringing its own share of complexity through the large number of atoms and the associated large number of conformers to consider. Modeling the chemical species with smaller systems is an alternative that historically led to artifacts. Another important topic is the choice of the computational method. While DFT is widely used, the vast diversity of functionals available is both an opportunity and a challenge. Though

  14. An In-Situ Deep-UV Optical Probe for Examining Biochemical Presence in Deep Glaciers and Sub-Glacial Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, A. L.; Behar, A.; Bhartia, R.; Conrad, P. G.; Hug, W. F.

    2007-12-01

    that has recently generated spatially resolved spectral images of material inside the Vostok cores without extraction or disturbance to the material in the ice. We will describe the instrumentation we will have available for the British Antarctica Survey Lake Ellsworth Exploration field campaign, provide a possible operational scenario and show examples of the kinds of possible measurement results that might be obtained, based upon our Lake Vostok core studies. [1] Siegert, M.J., Tranter, M., Ellis-Evans, C.J., Priscu, J.C. & Lyons, W.B. (2003) The hydrochemistry of Lake Vostok and the potential for life in Antarctic subglacial lakes. Hydrological Processes, 17, 795-814. [2] Priscu, J.C. and B.C. Christner (2004). Earth's icy biosphere, pp. 130-145, In "Microbial Diversity and Bioprospecting", A. Bull (editor). Chap 13. ASM Press, Washington, D.C. [3] Siegert M.J., Hindmarsh, R., Corr H., Smith, A., Woodward, J., King, E., Payne, A.J., and Joughin, I.(2004) Subglacial Lake Ellsworth: a candidate for in situ exploration in West Antarctica. Geophysical Research Letters, 31 (23), L23403, 10.1029/2004GL021477.

  15. Visualizing how Seismic Waves Propagate Across Seismic Arrays using the IRIS DMS Ground Motion Visualization (GMV) Products and Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, J.; Bahavar, M.; Bravo, T. K.; Butler, R. F.; Kilb, D. L.; Trabant, C.; Woodward, R.; Ammon, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    Data from dense seismic arrays can be used to visualize the propagation of seismic waves, resulting in animations effective for teaching both general and advanced audiences. One of the first visualizations of this type was developed using Objective C code and EarthScope/USArray data, which was then modified and ported to the Matlab platform and has now been standardized and automated as an IRIS Data Management System (IRIS-DMS) data product. These iterative code developments and improvements were completed by C. Ammon, R. Woodward and M. Bahavar, respectively. Currently, an automated script creates Ground Motion Visualizations (GMVs) for all global earthquakes over magnitude 6 recorded by EarthScope's USArray Transportable Array (USArray TA) network. The USArray TA network is a rolling array of 400 broadband stations deployed on a uniform 70-km grid. These near real-time GMV visualizations are typically available for download within 4 hours or less of their occurrence (see: www.iris.edu/dms/products/usarraygmv/). The IRIS-DMS group has recently added a feature that allows users to highlight key elements within the GMVs, by providing an online tool for creating customized GMVs. This new interface allows users to select the stations, channels, and time window of interest, adjust the mapped areal extent of the view, and specify high and low pass filters. An online tutorial available from the IRIS Education and Public Outreach (IRIS-EPO) website, listed below, steps through a teaching sequence that can be used to explain the basic features of the GMVs. For example, they can be used to demonstrate simple concepts such as relative P, S and surface wave velocities and corresponding wavelengths for middle-school students, or more advanced concepts such as the influence of focal mechanism on waveforms, or how seismic waves converge at an earthquake's antipode. For those who desire a greater level of customization, including the ability to use the GMV framework with data

  16. Revisión zoogeográfica marina del sur del Brasil A marine zoogeographical revision of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J Palacio

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available El estúdio inicial de la fauna y distribución de cefalópodos de Brasil se convirtio en una revisión de la zoogeografía de la región Tropical-Subtropical del sur del Brasil. Observaciones iniciales sobre zoogeografía marina brasileña tuvieron lugar en la primera parte del siglo XIX por naturalistas franceses, principalmente d'Orbigny, trabajando en cefalópodos. Posteriormente, el primer patrón global de provincias zoologicas, definidas por James Dana en 1853 y basadas en zonas de temperaturas oceanicas, colocan el extremo meridional de la fauna tropical del Atlántico Occidental en una latitud de 30ºS, incluyendo una zona de transición (São Paulo entre Rio de Janeiro y Porto Alegre. El análisis detallado de numerosos estúdios subsecuentes en esta región lleva a la confirmación de la validez conceptual de los puntos de vista de d'Orbigny, Dana, Forbes, Woodward y algunos mas durante el siglo pasado. En su tratado zoogeográfico de 1953, Ekman no tuvo a su disposición información adecuada sobre Brasil y señaló vagamente a Rio de Janeiro como el extremo sur de la fauna tropical, basado en la aparente ausencia de manglares y de arrecifes de coral. Este punto de vista ha sido fuente de confusión y debate, especialmente en el siglo XX. Toda la información oceanógrafica, geológica, sedimentaria y faunística acumulada y estudiada hasta el presente señala a la región entre Rio Grande do Sul y Rio de la Plata, como la barrera ecológica fundamental (principalmente debido a cambios de temperatura, en la distribución sur de organismos tropicales. Entre Espirito Santo y Rio Grande do Sul existe una zona de transición faunística caracterizada por complejas variaciones medioambientales estacionales, bajo la influencia alterna y combina de las Corrientes del Brasil y Falkland, en la margen occindetal de la Convergencia Subtropical/Subantartica. Esta zona de transición constituye una provincia biogeografica, designada "Paulista

  17. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way (www.earthobservations.org). This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  18. A more rapid approach to systematically assessing published associations of genetic polymorphisms and disease risk: type 2 diabetes as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho AH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alex H Cho1, Xiaolei Jiang2, Devin M Mann3, Kensaku Kawamoto4, Timothy J Robinson5, Nancy Wang6, Jeanette J McCarthy2, Mark Woodward7, Geoffrey S Ginsburg1,21Center for Personalized Medicine and Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 5Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, 6School of Medicine, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 7George Institute for Global Health and University of Sydney, AustraliaBackground: Comparative effectiveness research and research in genomic medicine are not orthogonal pursuits. Both require a robust evidence base, and each stands to benefit from applying the methods of the other. There is an exponentially growing literature reporting associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and increased risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Literature-based meta-analysis is an important method of assessing the validity of published gene-disease associations, but a traditional emphasis on exhaustiveness makes it difficult to study multiple polymorphisms efficiently. Here we describe a novel two-step search method for broadly yet systematically reviewing the literature to identify the "most-studied" gene-disease associations, thereby selecting those with a high possibility of replication on which to conduct abbreviated, simultaneous meta-analyses. This method was then applied to identify and evaluate the validity of SNPs reported to be associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk, to demonstrate proof of principle.Methods: A two-step MEDLINE search (1950 to present was conducted in September 2007 for published genetic association data related to SNPs associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The

  19. The developmental origins of naïve psychology in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Brooker, Ivy; Chow, Virginia

    2009-01-01

    -based account is very difficult (Povinelli & Vonk, 2004). One way to address this debate would be to design training studies that provide infants with first-person experience of mental states and to use more active behavioral measures. In terms of training, there is some evidence that infants' performance on goal and visual perception attribution tasks is improved if they received training of relevant skills (e.g., wearing a blindfold, reaching with a "sticky mitten": Meltzoff & Brooks, 2007: Sommerville & Woodward, 2004). Furthermore, longitudinal research using more active measures revealed links between goal detection as measured with the violation of expectancy paradigm at 10 months of age and the ability to infer intended goals in an imitation task at 14 months (Olineck & Poulin-Dubois, 2007b). Developmental changes in the scope of infants' concept of intentional agent also will require more attention from researchers. According to some, infants' attributions of intentional behavior are activated whenever infants recognize an object as a psychological agent, based on an evolutionary designed system which is sensitive to certain cues such as self-propulsion, contingent reactivity or equifinal variation of the action (Baron-Cohen, 1995; Gergely & Csibra, 2003; Johnson, 2000; Leslie, deficient in theory of mind. One may hope that nonverbal theory of mind tasks that reliably predict later theory mind skills will be adapted for use with this population and eventually used for the early detection of autism. In sum, the numerous studies reported here show that by the end of the second year of life, infants have developed ways to predict human actions The review also makes clear that we do not yet fully understand how deep infants' insight into the mind really is. Nonetheless, there appears to be some consensus that infants, like chimpanzees, understand the goals, intentions, perception, and knowledge of others. This provides the foundations for the full-fledged adult-like naive

  20. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available - Walter E.A. van Beek, Ph. Quarles van Ufford, Religion and development; Towards an integrated approach, Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1988., M. Schoffeleers (eds. - J.H. de Beer, H.F. Tillema, A journey among the people of Central Borneo in word and picture, edited and with an introduction by Victor T. King, Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. 268 pp. - Chris de Beet, Richard Price, Alabi’s world. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1990. xx + 444 pp. - G. Bos, Neil L. Whitehead, Lords of the tiger spirit; A history of the Caribs in colonial Venezuela and Guyana 1498-1820, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Leiden. Caribbean series 10, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications, 1988, 250 pp., maps, ills., index, bibl. - James R. Brandon, Richard Schechner, By means of performance: Intercultural studies of theatre and ritual. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 190 + xv pp + ills. Paperback, Willa Appel (eds. - J.N. Breetvelt, Matti Kamppinen, Cognitive systems and cultural models of illness, Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, FF Comunications No. 244, 1989. 152 pp. - Martin van Bruinessen, Mark R. Woodward, Islam in Java: Normative piety and mysticism in the Sultanate of Yogykarta. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1989, 311 pp, index. - J.G. de Casparis, Pauline Lunsingh Scheurleer, Ancient Indonesian Bronzes; A catalogue of the exhibition in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam with a general introduction. Leiden: Brill, 1988. IX + 179 pp., richly illustrated., Marijke J. Klokke (eds. - Hugo Fernandes Mendes, Luc Alofs, Ken ta Arubiano? Sociale intergartie en natievorming op Aruba, Leiden: Caraïbische Afdeling, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 1990. ix + 232 pp., Leontine Merkies (eds. - Rene van der Haar, I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Kommunikation bei den Eipo; Eine humanethologische bestandsaufnahme, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1989., W. Schiefenh

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Sutherland

    2000-10-01

    Vogel (eds. - David Henley, Robert W. Hefner, Market cultures; Society and morality in the new Asian capitalisms. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998, viii + 328 pp. - David Henley, James F. Warren, The Sulu zone; The world capitalist economy and the historical imagination. Amsterdam: VU University Press for the Centre for Asian Studies, Amsterdam (CASA, 1998, 71 pp. [Comparative Asian Studies 20.] - Huub de Jonge, Laurence Husson, La migration maduraise vers l’Est de Java; ‘Manger le vent ou gratter la terre’? Paris: L’Harmattan/Association Archipel, 1995, 414 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 26.] - Nico Kaptein, Mark R. Woodward, Toward a new paradigm; Recent developments in Indonesian Islamic thought. Tempe: Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1996, x + 380 pp. - Catharina van Klinken, Gunter Senft, Referring to space; Studies in Austronesian and Papuan languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, xi + 324 pp. - W. Mahdi, J.G. de Casparis, Sanskrit loan-words in Indonesian; An annotated check-list of words from Sanskrit in Indonesian and Traditional Malay. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1997, viii + 59 pp. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 41.] - Henk Maier, David Smyth, The canon in Southeast Asian literatures; Literatures of Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Richmond: Curzon, 2000, x + 273 pp. - Toon van Meijl, Robert J. Foster, Social reproduction and history in Melanesia; Mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the Tanga islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxii + 288 pp. - J.A. de Moor, Douglas Kammen, A tour of duty; Changing patterns of military politics in Indonesia in the 1990’s. Ithaca, New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 98 pp., Siddharth Chandra (eds. - Joke van Reenen, Audrey Kahin, Rebellion to integration; West Sumatra and the Indonesian