Sample records for woodward archosauria crocodyliformes

  1. Woodward Effect Experimental Verifications (United States)

    March, Paul


    The work of J. F. Woodward (1990 1996a; 1996b; 1998; 2002a; 2002b; 2004) on the existence of ``mass fluctuations'' and their use in exotic propulsion schemes was examined for possible application in improving space flight propulsion and power generation. Woodward examined Einstein's General Relativity Theory (GRT) and assumed that if the strong Machian interpretation of GRT as well as gravitational / inertia like Wheeler-Feynman radiation reaction forces hold, then when an elementary particle is accelerated through a potential gradient, its rest mass should fluctuate around its mean value during its acceleration. Woodward also used GRT to clarify the precise experimental conditions necessary for observing and exploiting these mass fluctuations or ``Woodward effect'' (W-E). Later, in collaboration with his ex-graduate student T. Mahood, they also pushed the experimental verification boundaries of these proposals. If these purported mass fluctuations occur as Woodward claims, and his assumption that gravity and inertia are both byproducts of the same GRT based phenomenon per Mach's Principle is correct, then many innovative applications such as propellantless propulsion and gravitational exotic matter generators may be feasible. This paper examines the reality of mass fluctuations and the feasibility of using the W-E to design propellantless propulsion devices in the near to mid-term future. The latest experimental results, utilizing MHD-like force rectification systems, will also be presented.

  2. Cretaceous Crocodyliforms from the Sahara

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    Paul Sereno


    Full Text Available Diverse crocodyliforms have been discovered in recent years in Cretaceous rocks on southern landmasses formerly composing Gondwana.  We report here on six species from the Sahara with an array of trophic adaptations that significantly deepen our current understanding of African crocodyliform diversity during the Cretaceous period.  We describe two of these species (Anatosuchus minor, Araripesuchus wegeneri from nearly complete skulls and partial articulated skeletons from the Lower Cretaceous Elrhaz Formation (Aptian-Albian of Niger. The remaining four species (Araripesuchus rattoides sp. n., Kaprosuchus saharicus gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus thaumastos gen. n. sp. n., Laganosuchus maghrebensis gen. n. sp. n. come from contemporaneous Upper Cretaceous formations (Cenomanian in Niger and Morocco.

  3. Lisa Woodward | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Lisa Woodward is Special Advisor to the President. Before joining IDRC, Lisa held positions in strategic planning, performance measurement, evaluation, risk management, and policy development in federal organizations, including Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Canadian International Development Agency, and the ...

  4. Crocodyliform feeding traces on juvenile ornithischian dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Kaiparowits Formation, Utah.

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    Clint A Boyd

    Full Text Available Crocodyliforms serve as important taphonomic agents, accumulating and modifying vertebrate remains. Previous discussions of Mesozoic crocodyliform feeding in terrestrial and riverine ecosystems have often focused on larger taxa and their interactions with equally large dinosaurian prey. However, recent evidence suggests that the impact of smaller crocodyliforms on their environments should not be discounted. Here we present direct evidence of feeding by a small crocodyliform on juvenile specimens of a 'hypsilophodontid' dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Diagnostic crocodyliform bite marks present on a left scapula and a right femur, as well as a partial probable crocodyliform tooth crown (ovoid in cross-section preserved within a puncture on the right femur, comprise the bulk of the feeding evidence. Computed tomography scans of the femoral puncture reveal impact damage to the surrounding bone and that the distal tip of the embedded tooth was missing prior to the biting event. This is only the second reported incidence of a fossil crocodyliform tooth being found embedded directly into prey bone. These bite marks provide insight into the trophic interactions of the ecosystem preserved in the Kaiparowits Formation. The high diversity of crocodyliforms within this formation may have led to accentuated niche partitioning, which seems to have included juvenile dinosaurian prey.

  5. R. B. Woodward: A Larger-than-Life Chemistry Rock Star. (United States)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I


    To mark the 100th birthday of R. B. Woodward (April 10, 1917-July 8, 1979), a discussion and analysis of Woodward's persona is given. The fundamental theme is that "Woodward experienced his own exceptionality," as described by Albert Eschenmoser, Woodward's partner in the vitamin B 12 project. Woodward's rock star personality is explored and discussed as one of his legacies in addition to his scientific achievements. Woodward presented himself to his students, colleagues, and fellow chemists with an aura of nobility and romanticism. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Robert Burns Woodward (1917–1979) A Personal Profile

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    From a very early age, Woodward was attracted to and engaged in private study ... He detested exercise, could get along with only a few hours of sleep ... two great men met early on Monday morning on an Oxford train station platform in 1951.

  7. First Record of Eocene Bony Fishes and Crocodyliforms from Canada’s Western Arctic (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J.; Gottfried, Michael D.; Hutchison, J. Howard; Brochu, Christopher A.


    Background Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada’s High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early – middle Eocene (∼53–50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada’s easternmost Arctic – Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada’s westernmost Arctic Island – Banks Island, Northwest Territories – they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. Principal Findings We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower – middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Conclusions/Significance These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early – middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence

  8. First record of eocene bony fishes and crocodyliforms from Canada's Western Arctic. (United States)

    Eberle, Jaelyn J; Gottfried, Michael D; Hutchison, J Howard; Brochu, Christopher A


    Discovery of Eocene non-marine vertebrates, including crocodylians, turtles, bony fishes, and mammals in Canada's High Arctic was a critical paleontological contribution of the last century because it indicated that this region of the Arctic had been mild, temperate, and ice-free during the early - middle Eocene (∼53-50 Ma), despite being well above the Arctic Circle. To date, these discoveries have been restricted to Canada's easternmost Arctic - Ellesmere and Axel Heiberg Islands (Nunavut). Although temporally correlative strata crop out over 1,000 km west, on Canada's westernmost Arctic Island - Banks Island, Northwest Territories - they have been interpreted as predominantly marine. We document the first Eocene bony fish and crocodyliform fossils from Banks Island. We describe fossils of bony fishes, including lepisosteid (Atractosteus), esocid (pike), and amiid, and a crocodyliform, from lower - middle Eocene strata of the Cyclic Member, Eureka Sound Formation within Aulavik National Park (∼76°N. paleolat.). Palynology suggests the sediments are late early to middle Eocene in age, and likely spanned the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). These fossils extend the geographic range of Eocene Arctic lepisosteids, esocids, amiids, and crocodyliforms west by approximately 40° of longitude or ∼1100 km. The low diversity bony fish fauna, at least at the family level, is essentially identical on Ellesmere and Banks Islands, suggesting a pan-High Arctic bony fish fauna of relatively basal groups around the margin of the Eocene Arctic Ocean. From a paleoclimatic perspective, presence of a crocodyliform, gar and amiid fishes on northern Banks provides further evidence that mild, year-round temperatures extended across the Canadian Arctic during early - middle Eocene time. Additionally, the Banks Island crocodyliform is consistent with the phylogenetic hypothesis of a Paleogene divergence time between the two extant alligatorid lineages Alligator

  9. Pulmonary anatomy in the Nile crocodile and the evolution of unidirectional airflow in Archosauria

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    Emma R. Schachner


    Full Text Available The lungs of birds have long been known to move air in only one direction during both inspiration and expiration through most of the tubular gas-exchanging bronchi (parabronchi. Recently a similar pattern of airflow has been observed in American alligators, a sister taxon to birds. The pattern of flow appears to be due to the arrangement of the primary and secondary bronchi, which, via their branching angles, generate inspiratory and expiratory aerodynamic valves. Both the anatomical similarity of the avian and alligator lung and the similarity in the patterns of airflow raise the possibility that these features are plesiomorphic for Archosauria and therefore did not evolve in response to selection for flapping flight or an endothermic metabolism, as has been generally assumed. To further test the hypothesis that unidirectional airflow is ancestral for Archosauria, we measured airflow in the lungs of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. As in birds and alligators, air flows cranially to caudally in the cervical ventral bronchus, and caudally to cranially in the dorsobronchi in the lungs of Nile crocodiles. We also visualized the gross anatomy of the primary, secondary and tertiary pulmonary bronchi of C. niloticus using computed tomography (CT and microCT. The cervical ventral bronchus, cranial dorsobronchi and cranial medial bronchi display similar characteristics to their proposed homologues in the alligator, while there is considerable variation in the tertiary and caudal group bronchi. Our data indicate that the aspects of the crocodilian bronchial tree that maintain the aerodynamic valves and thus generate unidirectional airflow, are ancestral for Archosauria.

  10. A New Baurusuchid (Crocodyliformes, Mesoeucrocodylia) from the Late Cretaceous of Brazil and the Phylogeny of Baurusuchidae (United States)

    Montefeltro, Felipe C.; Larsson, Hans C. E.; Langer, Max C.


    Background Baurusuchidae is a group of extinct Crocodyliformes with peculiar, dog-faced skulls, hypertrophied canines, and terrestrial, cursorial limb morphologies. Their importance for crocodyliform evolution and biogeography is widely recognized, and many new taxa have been recently described. In most phylogenetic analyses of Mesoeucrocodylia, the entire clade is represented only by Baurusuchus pachecoi, and no work has attempted to study the internal relationships of the group or diagnose the clade and its members. Methodology/Principal Findings Based on a nearly complete skull and a referred partial skull and lower jaw, we describe a new baurusuchid from the Vale do Rio do Peixe Formation (Bauru Group), Late Cretaceous of Brazil. The taxon is diagnosed by a suite of characters that include: four maxillary teeth, supratemporal fenestra with equally developed medial and anterior rims, four laterally visible quadrate fenestrae, lateral Eustachian foramina larger than medial Eustachian foramen, deep depression on the dorsal surface of pterygoid wing. The new taxon was compared to all other baurusuchids and their internal relationships were examined based on the maximum parsimony analysis of a discrete morphological data matrix. Conclusion The monophyly of Baurusuchidae is supported by a large number of unique characters implying an equally large morphological gap between the clade and its immediate outgroups. A complex phylogeny of baurusuchids was recovered. The internal branch pattern suggests two main lineages, one with a relatively broad geographical range between Argentina and Brazil (Pissarrachampsinae), which includes the new taxon, and an endemic clade of the Bauru Group in Brazil (Baurusuchinae). PMID:21765925

  11. A middle Eocene mesoeucrocodylian (Crocodyliformes) from the Kaninah Formation, Republic of Yemen (United States)

    Stevens, Nancy J.; Hill, Robert V.; Al-Wosabi, Mohammed; Schulp, Anne; As-Saruri, Mustafa; Al-Nimey, Fuad; Jolley, Lea Ann; Schulp-Stuip, Yvonne; O'Connor, Patrick


    During the Cenozoic, the Arabian Plate separated from continental Africa and assumed a closer geographical relationship with Eurasia. As such, the vertebrate fossil record of the Arabian Peninsula has great potential for documenting faunal interchanges that occurred as a result of such tectonic events, with a shift from a primarily Afro-Arabian fauna in the Palaeogene to a more cosmopolitan fauna in the Neogene. Understanding of the sequence and timing of this faunal interchange has long been hampered by a lack of palaeontological data. Recently recovered fossils from the Middle Eocene Kaninah Formation of Yemen constitute the earliest Palaeogene record of continental vertebrates from the Arabian Peninsula, thereby offering a rare glimpse at the region's post- -Cretaceous fauna. Here we describe fossil materials from the Kaninah Formation, a collection of dental and postcranial elements representing a mesoeucrocodylian crocodyliform of unclear affinities. The specimen exhibits ziphodont tooth morphology along with a biserial paravertebral shield and polygonal gastral osteoderms, consistent with certain mesoeucrocodylians (e.g., ziphodontan notosuchians). Yet the associated fragmentary anterior caudal vertebra, although badly abraded, preserves morphology suggestive of procoely. This vertebral type in combination with the dental and osteoderm morphology is much more taxonomically restrictive and consistent with the suite of characters exhibited by atoposaurids, a finding that would significantly extend that clade through the Cretaceous/Palaeogene boundary. Alternatively, given the relative paucity of information from the region during the Palaeogene, the combination of characteristics of the Kaninah crocodyliform may reflect a novel or poorly known form exhibiting previously unrecognised character mosaicism. We take a conservative approach, and refer the Kaninah specimen to Mesoeucrocodylia, Atoposauridae (?) pending discovery of more complete material. New fossils

  12. Forelimb muscle and joint actions in Archosauria: insights from Crocodylus johnstoni (Pseudosuchia and Mussaurus patagonicus (Sauropodomorpha

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    Alejandro Otero


    Full Text Available Many of the major locomotor transitions during the evolution of Archosauria, the lineage including crocodiles and birds as well as extinct Dinosauria, were shifts from quadrupedalism to bipedalism (and vice versa. Those occurred within a continuum between more sprawling and erect modes of locomotion and involved drastic changes of limb anatomy and function in several lineages, including sauropodomorph dinosaurs. We present biomechanical computer models of two locomotor extremes within Archosauria in an analysis of joint ranges of motion and the moment arms of the major forelimb muscles in order to quantify biomechanical differences between more sprawling, pseudosuchian (represented the crocodile Crocodylus johnstoni and more erect, dinosaurian (represented by the sauropodomorph Mussaurus patagonicus modes of forelimb function. We compare these two locomotor extremes in terms of the reconstructed musculoskeletal anatomy, ranges of motion of the forelimb joints and the moment arm patterns of muscles across those ranges of joint motion. We reconstructed the three-dimensional paths of 30 muscles acting around the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. We explicitly evaluate how forelimb joint mobility and muscle actions may have changed with postural and anatomical alterations from basal archosaurs to early sauropodomorphs. We thus evaluate in which ways forelimb posture was correlated with muscle leverage, and how such differences fit into a broader evolutionary context (i.e. transition from sprawling quadrupedalism to erect bipedalism and then shifting to graviportal quadrupedalism. Our analysis reveals major differences of muscle actions between the more sprawling and erect models at the shoulder joint. These differences are related not only to the articular surfaces but also to the orientation of the scapula, in which extension/flexion movements in Crocodylus (e.g. protraction of the humerus correspond to elevation/depression in Mussaurus. Muscle

  13. A proof of the Woodward-Lawson sampling method for a finite linear array (United States)

    Somers, Gary A.


    An extension of the continuous aperture Woodward-Lawson sampling theorem has been developed for a finite linear array of equidistant identical elements with arbitrary excitations. It is shown that by sampling the array factor at a finite number of specified points in the far field, the exact array factor over all space can be efficiently reconstructed in closed form. The specified sample points lie in real space and hence are measurable provided that the interelement spacing is greater than approximately one half of a wavelength. This paper provides insight as to why the length parameter used in the sampling formulas for discrete arrays is larger than the physical span of the lattice points in contrast with the continuous aperture case where the length parameter is precisely the physical aperture length.

  14. Aerial radiometric and magnetic survey: Woodward National Topographic Map, Oklahoma, West Texas project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The results of analyses of the airborne gamma radiation and total magnetic field survey flown for the region identified as the Woodward National Topographic Map NJ14-11 are presented. The airborne data gathered are reduced by ground computer facilities to yield profile plots of the basic uranium, thorium and potassium equivalent gamma radiation intensities, ratios of these intensities, aircraft altitude above the earth's surface, total gamma ray and earth's magnetic field intensity, correlated as a function of geologic units. The distribution of data within each geologic unit, for all surveyed map lines and tie lines, has been calculated and is included. Two sets of profiled data for each line are included, with one set displaying the above-cited data. The second set includes only flight line magnetic field, temperature, pressure, altitude data plus magnetic field data as measured at a base station. A general description of the area, including descriptions of the various geologic units and the corresponding airborne data, is included also

  15. Detailed anatomy of the braincase of Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 (Archosauria, Crocodylomorpha using high resolution tomography and new insights on basal crocodylomorph phylogeny

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    Juan Martin Leardi


    Full Text Available Background Macelognathus vagans Marsh, 1884 from the Late Jurassic Morrison Fm. of Wyoming was originally described as a dinosaur by Marsh and in 1971 Ostrom suggested crocodilian affinities. In 2005, Göhlich and collaborators identified new material of this species from Colorado as a basal crocodylomorph. However, a partial skull found in association with mandibular and postcranial remains was not described. Methods Due to the small size and delicate structures within the braincase, micro CT studies were performed on this specimen. The new anatomical information was incorporated in a phylogenetic dataset, expanding both character and taxon sampling. Results This new material reinforces the non-crocodyliform crocodylomorph affinities of Macelognathusas it bears a large otic aperture, unfused frontals and lacks ornamentation on the dorsal cranial bones. The internal structures also support these affinities as this specimen bears traits (i.e., heavily pneumatized and expanded basisphenoid; the presence of additional pneumatic features on the braincase; and the otoccipital-quadrate contact not present in most basal crocodylomorphs. Furthermore, the presence of a wide supraoccipital and a cranioquadrate passage are traits shared with Almadasuchus from the early Late Jurassic of Argentina. Macelognathus was recovered as one of the closest relatives of crocodyliforms, forming a clade (Hallopodidae with two other Late Jurassic taxa (Almadasuchus and Hallopus. Discussion The clade formed by Almadasuchus + Hallopus + Macelognathus, the Hallopodidae, is characterized by a higher degree of suturing of the braincase, posteriorly closed otic aperture (paralleled in mesoeucrocodylians and cursorial adaptations. Also, the phylogenetic position of this lineage of derived crocodylomorphs as the sister group of Crocodyliformes implies a large amount of unsampled record (ghost lineage, at least 50 million years.

  16. Revision of the Late Jurassic crocodyliform Alligatorellus, and evidence for allopatric speciation driving high diversity in western European atoposaurids. (United States)

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D


    Atoposaurid crocodyliforms represent an important faunal component of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous Laurasian semi-aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems, with numerous spatiotemporally contemporaneous atoposaurids known from western Europe. In particular, the Late Jurassic of France and Germany records evidence for high diversity and possible sympatric atoposaurid species belonging to Alligatorellus, Alligatorium and Atoposaurus. However, atoposaurid taxonomy has received little attention, and many species are in need of revision. As such, this potentially high European diversity within a narrow spatiotemporal range might be a taxonomic artefact. Here we provide a taxonomic and anatomical revision of the Late Jurassic atoposaurid Alligatorellus. Initially described as A. beaumonti from the Kimmeridgian of Cerin, eastern France, additional material from the Tithonian of Solnhofen, south-eastern Germany, was subsequently referred to this species, with the two occurrences differentiated as A. beaumonti beaumonti and A. beaumonti bavaricus, respectively. We provide a revised diagnosis for the genus Alligatorellus, and note a number of anatomical differences between the French and German specimens, including osteoderm morphology and the configuration and pattern of sculpting of cranial elements. Consequently, we restrict the name Alligatorellus beaumonti to include only the French remains, and raise the rank of the German material to a distinct species: Alligatorellus bavaricus. A new diagnosis is provided for both species, and we suggest that a recently referred specimen from a coeval German locality cannot be conclusively referred to Alligatorellus. Although it has previously been suggested that Alligatorellus, Alligatorium and Atoposaurus might represent a single growth series of one species, we find no conclusive evidence to support this proposal, and provide a number of morphological differences to distinguish these three taxa that appear to be independent of

  17. National Dam Safety Program. Woodward Dam (Inventory Number NY 507), Lower Hudson River Basin, Orange County, New York. Phase I Inspection Report, (United States)


    omomrnuurI CONTENTS Location Plan Watershed Map Plate la : Field Sketch of Woodward Dam Plate Ib: Field Sketch of Greenleaf Dam Plate 2: Plan of Dam...goOFftkoww P L "mm alom+0a,0164m asm a Gooch~~A’~e mftLrrL - ol-ob o prat -n 4A ~ /e4 SojA S~tT IIV&-~ ~ i pqPiE5M 1%b, k&vs APPENDIX ry flScrvice orflSi).. L I) Ip. lv.ay ConcrCLC Sp’%way Las j’ r. Joints Surfncc of S p 5.3i). y ’Mclarical Ar .Dra .o ~~~ LI:C azard Class E

  18. Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B12

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    consistently demonstrating the powerful use of logical reason- ing where it was customary to abandon such approaches. Barton further says, "We were taught to think that mechanism had nothing to do with 'real' Chemistry. With one lecture, Wood- ward showed us the contrary." Vitamin B12 is a large and complex molecule ...

  19. Osteology of the Late Triassic aetosaur Scutarx deltatylus (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia

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    William G. Parker


    Full Text Available Aetosaurians are some of the most common fossils collected from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of Arizona, especially at the Petrified Forest National Park (PEFO. Aetosaurians collected from lower levels of the park include Desmatosuchus spurensis, Paratypothorax, Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae, Calyptosuchus wellesi, and Scutarx deltatylus. Four partial skeletons collected from the park between 2002 and 2009 represent the holotype and referred specimens of Scutarx deltatylus. These specimens include much of the carapace, as well as the vertebral column, and shoulder and pelvic girdles, and a new naming convention proposed for osteoderms descriptions better differentiates portions of the carapace and ventral armor. A partial skull from the holotype specimen represents the first aetosaur skull recovered and described from Arizona since the 1930s. The key morphological feature distinguishing Scutarx deltatylus is the presence of a prominent, triangular boss located in the posteromedial corner of the dorsal surface of the dorsal paramedian osteoderms. Scutarx deltatylus can be distinguished from closely related forms Calyptosuchus wellesi and Adamanasuchus eisenhardtae not only morphologically, but also stratigraphically. Thus, Scutarx deltatylus is potentially an index taxon for the upper part of the Adamanian biozone.


    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  1. Montealtosuchus arrudacamposi, Crocodyliformes, Peirosauridae do Cretáceo Superior da Bacia Bauru : aspectos morfofuncionais


    Sandra Aparecida Simionato Tavares


    Resumo: Montealtosuchus arrudacamposi, um crocodiliforme Peirosauridae que viveu no município de Monte Alto no Turoniano-Santoniano da Formação Adamantina, Grupo Bauru da Bacia homônima, habitava um ambiente semi-arido, quente com chuvas torrenciais e sujeito a inundações. Destaca-se pela excelente preservação das estruturas ósseas que compõe o seu esqueleto (crânio, mandíbula, elementos pós-cranianos e escudo dermal articulados). Por estes atributos, forneceu informações satisfatórias para o...

  2. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria

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    Chiari Ylenia


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes, to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles, or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results provide a phylogenetic framework and timescale with which to interpret the evolution of the peculiar morphological, developmental, and molecular features of turtles within the amniotes.

  3. Phylogenomic analyses support the position of turtles as the sister group of birds and crocodiles (Archosauria) (United States)


    Background The morphological peculiarities of turtles have, for a long time, impeded their accurate placement in the phylogeny of amniotes. Molecular data used to address this major evolutionary question have so far been limited to a handful of markers and/or taxa. These studies have supported conflicting topologies, positioning turtles as either the sister group to all other reptiles, to lepidosaurs (tuatara, lizards and snakes), to archosaurs (birds and crocodiles), or to crocodilians. Genome-scale data have been shown to be useful in resolving other debated phylogenies, but no such adequate dataset is yet available for amniotes. Results In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to obtain seven new transcriptomes from the blood, liver, or jaws of four turtles, a caiman, a lizard, and a lungfish. We used a phylogenomic dataset based on 248 nuclear genes (187,026 nucleotide sites) for 16 vertebrate taxa to resolve the origins of turtles. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian concatenation analyses and species tree approaches performed under the most realistic models of the nucleotide and amino acid substitution processes unambiguously support turtles as a sister group to birds and crocodiles. The use of more simplistic models of nucleotide substitution for both concatenation and species tree reconstruction methods leads to the artefactual grouping of turtles and crocodiles, most likely because of substitution saturation at third codon positions. Relaxed molecular clock methods estimate the divergence between turtles and archosaurs around 255 million years ago. The most recent common ancestor of living turtles, corresponding to the split between Pleurodira and Cryptodira, is estimated to have occurred around 157 million years ago, in the Upper Jurassic period. This is a more recent estimate than previously reported, and questions the interpretation of controversial Lower Jurassic fossils as being part of the extant turtles radiation. Conclusions These results provide a phylogenetic framework and timescale with which to interpret the evolution of the peculiar morphological, developmental, and molecular features of turtles within the amniotes. PMID:22839781

  4. Revised phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria (Archosauria: Pseudosuchia; assessing the effects of incongruent morphological character sets

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    William G. Parker


    Full Text Available Aetosauria is an early-diverging clade of pseudosuchians (crocodile-line archosaurs that had a global distribution and high species diversity as a key component of various Late Triassic terrestrial faunas. It is one of only two Late Triassic clades of large herbivorous archosaurs, and thus served a critical ecological role. Nonetheless, aetosaur phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood, owing to an overreliance on osteoderm characters, which are often poorly constructed and suspected to be highly homoplastic. A new phylogenetic analysis of the Aetosauria, comprising 27 taxa and 83 characters, includes more than 40 new characters that focus on better sampling the cranial and endoskeletal regions, and represents the most comprenhensive phylogeny of the clade to date. Parsimony analysis recovered three most parsimonious trees; the strict consensus of these trees finds an Aetosauria that is divided into two main clades: Desmatosuchia, which includes the Desmatosuchinae and the Stagonolepidinae, and Aetosaurinae, which includes the Typothoracinae. As defined Desmatosuchinae now contains Neoaetosauroides engaeus and several taxa that were previously referred to the genus Stagonolepis, and a new clade, Desmatosuchini, is erected for taxa more closely related to Desmatosuchus. Overall support for some clades is still weak, and Partitioned Bremer Support (PBS is applied for the first time to a strictly morphological dataset demonstrating that this weak support is in part because of conflict in the phylogenetic signals of cranial versus postcranial characters. PBS helps identify homoplasy among characters from various body regions, presumably the result of convergent evolution within discrete anatomical modules. It is likely that at least some of this character conflict results from different body regions evolving at different rates, which may have been under different selective pressures.

  5. Spectroscopic Analysis of a Theropod Dinosaur (Reptilia, Archosauria from the Ipubi Formation, Araripe Basin, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Hermínio da Silva


    Full Text Available The Araripe Sedimentary Basin is known by the excellence of its fossils, regarding the preservation, diversity, and quantity. Here, we present a spectroscopic analysis using several experimental techniques (X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy as well as X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis applied in small fragments of bones from the posterior members of a theropod dinosaur. The results agree regarding the different composition of the stone matrix and the fossilized bone, indicating a partial substitution of the material by elements present in the depositional environment. However, differently from what is believed to occur, there is evidence that pyritization is not the only mechanism of fossilization for a specimen of Ipubi formation, but calcification, additionally, plays an important role in the fossil production of this Formation.

  6. The upper cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward, 1901, and the crista circumfenestralis of snakes. (United States)

    Palci, Alessandro; Caldwell, Michael W


    Studies on the phylogenetic relationships of snakes and lizards are plagued by problematic characterizations of anatomy that are then used to define characters and states in taxon-character matrices. State assignments and character descriptions must be clear characterizations of observable anatomy and topological relationships if homologies are to be hypothesized. A supposed homology among snakes, not observed in lizards, is the presence of a crista circumfenestralis (CCF), a system of bony crests surrounding the fenestra ovalis and lateral aperture of the recessus scalae tympani. We note that there are some fossil and extant snakes that lack a CCF, and some extant lizards that possess a morphological equivalent. The phylogenetically important upper Cretaceous fossil snake Dinilysia patagonica has been interpreted by different authors as either having or lacking a CCF. These conflicting results for Dinilysia were tested by re-examining the morphology of the otic region in a large sample of snakes and lizards. An unambiguous criterion arising from the test of topology is used to define the presence of a CCF: the enclosure of the ventral margin of the juxtastapedial recess by flanges of the otoccipital (crista tuberalis and crista interfenestralis) that extend forward to contact the posterior margin of the prootic. According to this criterion D. patagonica does not possess a CCF, therefore, this anatomical feature must have arisen later during the evolution of snakes. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Osteology of Carnufex carolinensis (Archosauria: Psuedosuchia from the Pekin Formation of North Carolina and Its Implications for Early Crocodylomorph Evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Drymala

    Full Text Available Crocodylomorphs originated in the Late Triassic and were the only crocodile-line archosaurs to survive the end-Triassic extinction. Recent phylogenetic analyses suggest that the closest relatives of these generally gracile, small-bodied taxa were a group of robust, large-bodied predators known as rauisuchids implying a problematic morphological gap between early crocodylomorphs and their closest relatives. Here we provide a detailed osteological description of the recently named early diverging crocodylomorph Carnufex carolinensis from the Upper Triassic Pekin Formation of North Carolina and assess its phylogenetic position within the Paracrocodylomorpha. Carnufex displays a mosaic of crocodylomorph, rauisuchid, and dinosaurian characters, as well as highly laminar cranial elements and vertebrae, ornamented dermal skull bones, a large, subtriangular antorbital fenestra, and a reduced forelimb. A phylogenetic analysis utilizing a comprehensive dataset of early paracrocodylomorphs and including seven new characters and numerous modifications to characters culled from the literature recovers Carnufex carolinensis as one of the most basal members of Crocodylomorpha, in a polytomy with two other large bodied taxa (CM 73372 and Redondavenator. The analysis also resulted in increased resolution within Crocodylomorpha and a monophyletic clade containing the holotype and two referred specimens of Hesperosuchus as well as Dromicosuchus. Carnufex occupies a key transition at the origin of Crocodylomorpha, indicating that the morphology typifying early crocodylomorphs appeared before the shift to small body size.

  8. First record of the synaptid holothurian Protankyrian protankyra Bidentata (Woodward and Barrett, 1858) from the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deshmukh, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Mukharjee, I.; Sivadas, S.K.

    Sea cucumbers (holothurians) are marine invertebrates that are harvested worldwide, mostly for human consumption in Asian countries To date, only eight species of synaptid holothurians of the genus Protankyra have been reported from the Indian Ocean...

  9. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades. (United States)

    Turner, Alan H; Pritchard, Adam C; Matzke, Nicholas J


    Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS) at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP) and undated Bayesian inference (BI) methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars.), the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars.) and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.). For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees) were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed-clock model appears to

  10. Empirical and Bayesian approaches to fossil-only divergence times: A study across three reptile clades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H Turner

    Full Text Available Estimating divergence times on phylogenies is critical in paleontological and neontological studies. Chronostratigraphically-constrained fossils are the only direct evidence of absolute timing of species divergence. Strict temporal calibration of fossil-only phylogenies provides minimum divergence estimates, and various methods have been proposed to estimate divergences beyond these minimum values. We explore the utility of simultaneous estimation of tree topology and divergence times using BEAST tip-dating on datasets consisting only of fossils by using relaxed morphological clocks and birth-death tree priors that include serial sampling (BDSS at a constant rate through time. We compare BEAST results to those from the traditional maximum parsimony (MP and undated Bayesian inference (BI methods. Three overlapping datasets were used that span 250 million years of archosauromorph evolution leading to crocodylians. The first dataset focuses on early Sauria (31 taxa, 240 chars., the second on early Archosauria (76 taxa, 400 chars. and the third on Crocodyliformes (101 taxa, 340 chars.. For each dataset three time-calibrated trees (timetrees were calculated: a minimum-age timetree with node ages based on earliest occurrences in the fossil record; a 'smoothed' timetree using a range of time added to the root that is then averaged over zero-length internodes; and a tip-dated timetree. Comparisons within datasets show that the smoothed and tip-dated timetrees provide similar estimates. Only near the root node do BEAST estimates fall outside the smoothed timetree range. The BEAST model is not able to overcome limited sampling to correctly estimate divergences considerably older than sampled fossil occurrence dates. Conversely, the smoothed timetrees consistently provide node-ages far older than the strict dates or BEAST estimates for morphologically conservative sister-taxa when they sit on long ghost lineages. In this latter case, the relaxed

  11. Estágios de desenvolvimento de Mariliasuchus amarali, Crocodyliformes Mesoeucrocodylia da Formação Adamantina, Cretáceo Superior da Bacia Bauru, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Mesquita de Vasconcellos


    Full Text Available Mariliasuchus amarali Carvalho & Bertini, 1999 , a Mesoeucrocodylia from the Adamantina Formation (Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous shows some adaptative features to terrestrial environments: short and high skull, lateral orbits, frontal external nares and reduction of the dental formula with specialization of the tooth crown morphology in incisiform, caniniform and molariform teeth. It has been included in the infraorder Notosuchia Gasparini, 1971. Three specimens of Mariliasuchus amarali, found near the municipality of Marília, São Paulo State were analysed. One of them, holotype of Mariliasuchus amarali (UFRJ DG 50-R, is a juvenile crocodylifom whereas the other two (UFRJ DG 105-R and UFRJ DG 106-R are adult animals. These fossils allowed an analysis of the ontogenetic development patterns of this species. It was performed a comparison betweeen the mandibular, laterotemporal and supratemporal fenestrae and the skull sculpturing in the three specimens. The results show that Mariliasuchus acquire in the course of its ontogeny a thicker and stronger skull. The caudal migration of the laterotemporal fenestra and the size increase of the supratemporal fenestra probably indicate a wider use or strength of the adductor muscles during seizing and food processing.

  12. A new rauisuchid (Archosauria, Pseudosuchia from the Upper Triassic (Norian of New Mexico increases the diversity and temporal range of the clade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Lessner


    Full Text Available Rauisuchids are large (2–6 m in length, carnivorous, and quadrupedal pseudosuchian archosaurs closely related to crocodylomorphs. Though geographically widespread, fossils of this clade are relatively rare in Late Triassic assemblages. The middle Norian (∼212 Ma Hayden Quarry of northern New Mexico, USA, in the Petrified Forest Member of the Chinle Formation, has yielded isolated postcranial elements and associated skull elements of a new species of rauisuchid. Vivaron haydeni gen. et. sp. nov. is diagnosed by the presence of two posteriorly directed prongs at the posterior end of the maxilla for articulation with the jugal. The holotype maxilla and referred elements are similar to those of the rauisuchid Postosuchus kirkpatricki from the southwestern United States, but V. haydeni shares several maxillary apomorphies (e.g., a distinct dropoff to the antorbital fossa that is not a ridge, a straight ventral margin, and a well defined dental groove with the rauisuchid Teratosaurus suevicus from the Norian of Germany. Despite their geographic separation, this morphological evidence implies a close phylogenetic relationship between V. haydeni and T. suevicus. The morphology preserved in the new Hayden Quarry rauisuchid V. haydeni supports previously proposed and new synapomorphies for nodes within Rauisuchidae. The discovery of Vivaron haydeni reveals an increased range of morphological disparity for rauisuchids from the low-paleolatitude Chinle Formation and a clear biogeographic connection with high paleolatitude Pangea.


    In the natural gas industry, transmission pipeline operators use internal combustion (IC) gas-fired engines to provide the mechanical energy needed to drive pipeline gas compressors. As such, owners and operators of compressor stations are interested in the performance of these e...

  14. Hallazgo de restos de la serpiente Dinilysia patagonica Smith-Woodward 1901 en una nueva localidad del Santoniano de Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Triviño, L. N.


    Full Text Available In this study, we describe new remains of the cretaceous snake Dinilysia patagonica from beds of the locality Barreales Norte, Bajo de la Carpa Formation (Upper Santonian, Neuquén province, Argentina. The material comprises the back of a partially preserved skull, articulated with a fragment of the compound bone, atlas and axis. Additionally, six fragments of precloacal vertebrae have been preserved. The assignation to Dinilysia patagonica is based on: large skull, otooccipital with long paraoccipital process adjacent to an elongate supratemporal that extends farther the level of the occipital condyle; well developed sagital crest of parietal bone, continuously joined with the supraoccipital crest; italics I-like prootic; wide, short and robust vertebrae; prezygapophyses long and highly inclined above the horizontal; triangular section of vertebral centrum; reduced prezygapophyseal process; flattened neural arches with straight posterior edge. This material adds a new Upper Cretaceous location for the distribution of the species at the north of the Neuquén River.En este trabajo se describen nuevos restos de la serpiente cretácica Dinilysia patagonica recuperados en la localidad Barreales Norte, Formación Bajo de la Carpa (Santoniano superior, provincia del Neuquén, Argentina. El material comprende la parte posterior de un cráneo parcialmente conservado y articulado con un fragmento del hueso compuesto, atlas y axis. Además, se preservaron seis secciones de columna vertebral con vértebras precloacales. La asignación a Dinilysia patagonica se basa en: cráneo de tamaño grande, otooccipital con largo proceso paraoccipital adosado a un elongado supratemporal que se extiende más allá del nivel del cóndilo occipital; cresta sagital del parietal bien desarrollada y continua con la cresta del supraoccipital; proótico en forma de I cursiva; vértebras anchas, cortas y robustas; prezigapófisis largas y muy inclinadas sobre la horizontal; canal neural pequeño y trilobulado; proceso prezigapofisario reducido; arcos neurales aplanados con el margen posterior recto. Este material agrega una nueva localidad al norte del río Neuquén para la distribución de la especie en el Cretácico superior.

  15. New insight into the anatomy of the hyolingual apparatus of Alligator mississippiensis and implications for reconstructing feeding in extinct archosaurs. (United States)

    Li, Zhiheng; Clarke, Julia A


    early evolution of the clade. Hyoid simplification has been linked to ingestion of large prey items, and this shift in hyoid-related feeding ecology may occur in early archosauriform evolution. A second transformation in hyoid morphology occurs within the crocodilian stem lineage after the split from birds. In Crocodyliformes, deflections in the ceratobrachials become more pronounced. The morphology of the hyoid in Archosauriformes indicates that aspects of the hyolingual apparatus in extant crocodilians are derived, including a strong deflection near the midpoint of the ceratobranchials, and their condition should not be treated as ancestral for Archosauria. © 2015 Anatomical Society.

  16. Under the armor: X-ray computed tomographic reconstruction of the internal skeleton of Coahomasuchus chathamensis (Archosauria: Aetosauria) from the Upper Triassic of North Carolina, USA, and a phylogenetic analysis of Aetosauria. (United States)

    Hoffman, Devin K; Heckert, Andrew B; Zanno, Lindsay E


    Aetosauria is a clade of heavily armored, quadrupedal omnivorous to herbivorous archosaurs known from the Late Triassic across what was the supercontinent of Pangea. Their abundance in many deposits relative to the paucity of other Triassic herbivores indicates that they were key components of Late Triassic ecosystems. However, their evolutionary relationships remain contentious due, in large part, to their extensive dermal armor, which often obstructs observation of internal skeletal anatomy and limits access to potentially informative characters. In an attempt to address this problem we reanalyzed the holotype of a recently described species of Coahomasuchus , C. chathamensis , from the Sanford sub-basin of North Carolina using computed tomography (CT). CT scans of the holotype specimen clarify preservation of the skeleton, revealing several articulated vertebrae and ribs, an isolated vertebra, left ulna, left scapula, and the right humerus, though none of the material resulted in updated phylogenetic scorings. Reexamination of aetosaur materials from the holotype locality also indicates that several isolated osteoderms and elements of the appendicular skeleton are newly referable. Based on these results, we update the Coahomasuchus chathamensis hypodigm and conduct a revised phylogenetic analysis with improved character scorings for Coahomasuchus and several other aetosaurs. Our study recovers Coahomasuchus in a polytomy with Aetosaurus and the Typothoracinae, in contrast with a recent analysis that recovered Coahomasuchus as a wild-card taxon.

  17. 75 FR 72873 - Privacy Act Of 1974; System of Records (United States)


    ... Addiction Severity Index Veterans Affairs Medical Center 7180 Highland Drive Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15206. Bidirectional Health Information Austin Information Technology Exchange. Center 1615 Woodward Street Austin... Case Registries Austin Information Technology Center 1615 Woodward Street Austin, Texas 78772. CMOP...

  18. Revisão sistemática e ontogenética dos materiais cranianos atribuídos ao gênero Mariliasuchus (Crocodyliformes, Notosuchia) e suas implicações taxonômicas e paleobiológicas


    Bruno Gonçalves Augusta


    Mariliasuchus amarali Carvalho & Bertini 1999 é um crocodilomorfo Notosuchia do Cretáceo da Bacia Bauru. Este táxon possui um registro fóssil relativamente comum, e diversos espécimes (incluindo animais juvenis) são conhecidos. Portanto, ele representa um dos poucos táxons fósseis que permitem uma análise ontogenética, e seu desenvolvimento foi comparado com o do gênero Caiman (incluindo C. latirostris, C. crocodilus e C. yacare), um crocodilomorfo atual de ampla distribuição pela América do ...

  19. 76 FR 55883 - Procurement List; Proposed Addition (United States)


    ... INFORMATION: This notice is published pursuant to 41 U.S.C 47(a)(2) and 41 CFR 51-2.3. Its purpose is to... Break Caf[eacute], 3651 S. IH-35, Austin, TX. Connection Warehouse, 2021 East Woodward, Austin, TX. Southpark G (CSB), 1821 Directors Blvd., Austin, TX. Southpark J, 2191 Woodward, Austin, TX. Southpark K...

  20. Bookeri lühinimekiri on valitud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae


    Briti prestiizhseima kirjandusauhinna "The Man Booker Prize" lühinimekirja on jõudnud järgmised autorid: Achmat Dangor, Sarah Hall, Alan Hollinghurst, David Mitchell, Colm T̤ibín, Gerard Woodward jt.

  1. 75 FR 13730 - Marine Mammals; File No. 14118 (United States)


    ... Becky Woodward, Ph.D., 266 Woods Hole Road, MS 50, Woods Hole, MA 02543, has applied in due form for a...) extended fine-scale behavioral ecology studies using multi-sensor data recording packages. Initial efforts...

  2. An Analysis of the President's Budgetary Proposals for Fiscal Year 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blom, Barry; Booth, Mark; Peterson, John; Weiner, David; Page, Ben; Arnold, Bob; Burnham, Paul; Demiroglu, Ufuk; Foertsch, Tracy; Lasky, Mark


    .... The analysis was produced by the staffs of CBO's Budget Analysis, Macroeconomic Analysis, and Tax Analysis Divisions under the supervision of Robert Sunshine, Robert Dennis, and Thomas Woodward, respectively...

  3. Comment on ''Canonical formalism for Lagrangians with nonlocality of finite extent''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llosa, Josep


    The paper by Woodward [Phys. Rev. A 62, 052105 (2000)] claimed to have proved that Lagrangian theories with a nonlocality of finite extent are necessarily unstable. In this Comment we propose that this conclusion is false


    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Can you create high symmetry by assembling modules that lack them? Yes! Consider this. Take any ... Einstein in physics, to Pauling and Woodward in chemistry,. Archimedes ... real challenge is to arrange the composites to reach a predeter-.

  5. Stress Management: When and How to Say No (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Stress management Sure it's easier to say yes, but at what price to your peace of mind? Here's why saying ... 12, 2016. Barbara Woodward Lips Patient Education Center. Stress management. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and ...

  6. Current Writing: Text and Reception in Southern Africa - Vol 18, No 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lions, leopards and liminal spaces:Representations of Biosociality in the Writings of Katy Payne, Linda Tucker and Gillian van Houten · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. W Woodward ...

  7. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mar 1, 2008 ... nary Science and Technol- ogy-CSIR. ... rearranged the geo-political equations of the globe, western coun- ... Robert B Woodward, only 27 years of age then, to international .... Resonance – journal of science education. 1.

  8. A new archosauriform (Reptilia: Diapsida) from the Manda beds (Middle Triassic) of southwestern Tanzania. (United States)

    Nesbitt, Sterling J; Butler, Richard J; Gower, David J


    Archosauria and their closest relatives, the non-archosaurian archosauriforms, diversified in the Early and Middle Triassic, soon after the end-Permian extinction. This diversification is poorly documented in most Lower and Middle Triassic rock sequences because fossils of early groups of archosauriforms are relatively rare compared to those of other amniotes. The early Middle Triassic (? late Anisian) Manda beds of southwestern Tanzania form an exception, with early archosaur skeletons being relatively common and preserved as articulated or associated specimens. The Manda archosaur assemblage is exceptionally diverse for the Middle Triassic. However, to date, no non-archosaurian archosauriforms have been reported from these rocks. Here, we name a new taxon, Asperoris mnyama gen. et sp. nov., from the Manda beds and thoroughly describe the only known specimen. The specimen consists of a well-preserved partial skull including tooth-bearing elements (premaxilla, maxilla), the nasal, partial skull roof, and several incomplete elements. All skull elements are covered in an autapomorphic highly rugose sculpturing. A unique combination of character states indicates that A. mnyama lies just outside Archosauria as a stem archosaur within Archosauriformes, but more precise relationships of A. mnyama relative to other early archosauriform clades (e.g., Erythrosuchidae) cannot be determined currently. Asperoris mnyama is the first confirmed non-archosaurian archosauriform from the Manda beds and increases the morphological and taxonomic diversity of early archosauriforms known from the Middle Triassic. The direct association of A. mnyama with species referable to Archosauria demonstrates that non-archosaurian archosauriforms were present during the rise and early diversification of Archosauria. Non-archosaurian archosauriforms and archosaurs co-occur in fossil reptile assemblages across Pangaea from the late Early Triassic to the end of the Late Triassic.

  9. Seidel-Smith cohomology for tangles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezazadegan, Reza


    We generalize the “symplectic Khovanov cohomology” of Seidel and Smith (Duke Math J 134(3):453–514, 2006) to tangles using the notion of symplectic valued topological field theory introduced by Wehrheim and Woodward (arXiv:0905.1368).......We generalize the “symplectic Khovanov cohomology” of Seidel and Smith (Duke Math J 134(3):453–514, 2006) to tangles using the notion of symplectic valued topological field theory introduced by Wehrheim and Woodward (arXiv:0905.1368)....

  10. Biomass yield from an urban landscape (United States)

    Utilizing biomass from urban landscapes could significantly contribute to the nation’s renewable energy needs. In 2007, an experiment was begun to evaluate the biomass production from a bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon var. dactylon (L.) Pers., lawn in Woodward, Oklahoma and to estimate the potential...

  11. The Total Synthesis of Chlorophyll

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    led to the porphyrin14, which when held at 110oC in AcOH afforded the purpurine 15. This is the first example of porphyrin → purpurin change. Indeed Woodward anticipated this because such a change not only makes 7 and 8 tetrahedral, but also relieves the strain around the lower bridge! As the next step, the CH. 2. CH.

  12. 76 FR 5156 - Environmental Impact Statements; Notice of Availability (United States)


    ..., FTA, MI, Woodward Avenue Light Rail Transit Project, Construction and Operation, City of Detroit... EIS, BLM, NV, Salt Wells Energy Projects, Proposal for Three Separate Geothermal Energy and... Sievers 775-885-6000. EIS No. 20110019, Final EIS, DOE, 00, Long -Term Management and Storage of Elemental...

  13. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 7. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 19, Issue 7. July 2014, pages 585-668. pp 585-585 Editorial. Editorial · S Ranganathan · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 586-589 Article-in-a-Box. Robert Burns Woodward ...

  14. RE-SO--NANCEI-Ju-ne

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Woodward's Synthesis of Vitamin B'2. Adil Ghani Khan and S V Eswaran. Chemistry Behind the Life of a Transformer. Roshmi Sanghi. The Adive Lava Flows of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. Hetu Sheth. The Unexpeded Appearance of Pi in. Diverse Problems. Rajendra Bhatia. Acoustic Communication in Birds. Differences in ...

  15. 75 FR 65376 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting (United States)


    .... Charles J. Weir Mr. Barry A. Passett Mr. James G. McCleaf II Mr. John A. Ziegler Mrs. Mary E. Woodward Mrs... Kirkpatrick Dr. George E. Lewis, Jr. Mr. Charles D. McElrath Ms. Patricia Schooley Mr. Jack Reeder Ms. Merrily Pierce Topics that will be presented during the meeting include: 1. Update on park operations. 2. Update...

  16. An Overview of Advanced Concepts for Near-Space Systems (United States)


    2005). 39 T. R. Knowles, Levitation of a small carbon by visible light, 12th Annual Advanced Space Propulsion Workshop (2001). 40 http...372, 1948. 45 Woodward, J. and Mahood, T., “Gravity, Inertia, and Quantum Vacuum Zero Point Energy Fields,” Foundations of Physics, Vol. 31, No. 5, pp

  17. Microstructurally Based Cross-slip Mechanisms and Their Effects on Dislocation Microstructure Evolution in fcc Crystals (United States)


    incorporated into DDD simulations. Accordingly, the motivation of the current work is to incorporate an atomistically informed cross-slip model into DDD... nudged elastic band method, Acta Mater. 59 (19) (2011) 7135–7144. [54] S.I. Rao, D.M. Dimiduk, J.A. El-Awady, T.A. Parthasarathy, M.D. Uchic, C. Woodward

  18. Investigation of Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Locus of Control and Intercultural Sensitivities from the Perspective of Individual Differences (United States)

    Akca, Figen; Ulutas, Emrah; Yabanci, Cemile


    The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between Teachers' Self-efficacy beliefs, locus of control and intercultural sensitivities and to analyze these variables based on various demographic variables. The data of the study were collected through teachers' locus of control scale developed by Sadowski, Taylor, Woodward, Peacher,…

  19. 75 FR 29199 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations (United States)


    ..., February 25, 2010; The Honorable Jim February 18, 2010 085074 (10-08-0001P). March 5, 2010; The Woodward.... Commissioners, P.O. Box 850, Eagle, CO 81631. Larimer City of Fort Collins, February 8, 2010; The Honorable Doug February 24, 2010 080102 (09-08-0465P). February 15, 2010; Hutchinson, Mayor, City Fort Collins of Fort...

  20. Indian Summer Arts Festival


    Martel, Yann; Tabu; Tejpal, Tarun; Kunzru, Hari


    The SFU Woodward's Cultural Unit partnered with the Indian Summer Festival Society to kick off the inaugural Indian Summer Festival. Held at the Goldcorp Centre for the Arts, it included an interactive Literature Series with notable authors from both India and Canada, including special guests Yann Martel, Bollywood superstar Tabu, journalist Tarun Tejpal, writer Hari Kunzru, and many others.

  1. Kriitikast / Leelo Kõlar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kõlar, Leelo, 1927-


    Vestlus Rein Rannapiga pärast sooloesinemist 29.11.1976 Estonia kontserdisaalis. - Rein Metsa esinemisest kontserdil 02.12.1976 Estonia kontserdisaalis, kavas Bartoki 1. klaverikontsert. - Kalle Randalu klaveriõhtust. - Eesti pianistide esinemistest. - Vestlus Kalle Randaluga. - Roger Woodward esinemisest Estonia kontserdisaalis 1994. a. juunis

  2. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Published online: 10 November 2017 ... In this paper, taxonomy of the PSO-GA ... Research that combine PSO and GA algorithms is very progressing[5-7]. ..... facility is assigned to the first location, fourth facility to second location, second facility to .... [21] Dower S,Woodward C J. ESDL: A simple description language for ...

  3. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    where Woodward was carried by four of his group in a sedan chair, on the .... arose from work on vitamin B. 12 . 1. .... asymmetric centers reflects a brilliant effort by Nature, and ..... expectations but also was pivotal in determining the correct.

  4. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.


    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems

  5. Methodology for characterizing potential adversaries of Nuclear Material Safeguards Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkwood, C.W.; Pollock, S.M.


    The results are described of a study by Woodward--Clyde Consultants to assist the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in the development of methods to analyze and evaluate Nuclear Material Safeguards (NMS) Systems. The study concentrated on developing a methodology to assist experts in describing, in quantitative form, their judgments about the characteristics of potential adversaries of NMS Systems.

  6. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 12. A Tale of Two Topologies: Woodward-Hoffmann Rules At Your Fingertips! Subramania Ranganathan. Volume 16 Issue 12 December 2011 pp 1211-1222. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  7. Whole Exome Analysis of Early Onset Alzheimer’s Disease (United States)


    SA, Shan X, Jones BA, Zhao G, Woodward ML, Li X, Zhu Y, McEachern EJ, Silverman MA, Watson NV, Gong CX, Vocadlo DJ1. Pharmacological inhibition of O...ADGC) genotyped on the exome chip, which included 195,039 variants with MAFɚ%. Enrichment analysis of the variant list was conducted using DAVID

  8. Structural study of nanosized yttrium-doped CaMnO3 perovskites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Mater. 10 2461. Rodriguez-Carvajal J 1990 Collected abstract of powder di- ffraction meeting, Toulouse, p. 127. Shannon R D 1976 Acta Cryst. A32 751. Woodward P M, Vogt T, Cox D E, Arulraj A, Rao C N R,. Karen P and Cheetham A K 1998 Chem. Mater. 10 3652. Wunderlich F, Leisegang T and Weissbach T 2010 Phys.

  9. A new cascade method for studying isotope effect in chemical exchange system without valance change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Xiaoning; Luo Wenzong


    A new cascade method for studying isotope effect in chemical exchange system without valance change is developed and described. This method is simple to use and consumes less extractant as compared with the commonly used Woodward method. It is also convenient for unstable systems

  10. Development of Microbial Fuel Cell Prototypes for Examination of the Temporal and Spatial Response of Anodic Bacterial Communities in Marine Sediments (United States)


    yeast extract (versus 10 g) and no reductant (Na2S) was used. IV. MFC CONSTRUCTION The prototypes were designed based on previous iterations...D.R. Lovley, J.D. Coates, E.L. Blunt-Harris, E.J.P. Phillips, J.C. Woodward, “Humic substances as electron acceptors for microbial respiration

  11. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 51 - 100 of 164 ... Vol 18, No 1 (2006), Lions, leopards and liminal spaces:Representations of Biosociality in the Writings of Katy Payne, Linda Tucker and Gillian van Houten, Abstract. W Woodward. Vol 19, No 1 (2007), Making Space for New Voices: The Politics of Editing in South Africa, Abstract. E Bregin. Vol 15, No 2 ...

  12. 14. Pisces, Reptilia and Aves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beaufort, de L.F.


    In the following list of fishes and reptiles, known to occur as fossils in the Indoaustralian Archipelago, I have chiefly followed Smith Woodward (Bibl. 18) for the taxonomy. The teleosts, however, have been arranged according to Boulenger (The Cambridge Natural History, Vol. VII, 1904), with some

  13. Polycentrism in the missio Dei

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    May 31, 2016 ... In this regard, Woodward (2012:60) notes 'the vulnerabilities of a centralised leadership structure' especially in regards ... The Father, Son, and Holy Spirit send the church into the world (Bosch 2011:399;. Wright 2006:63). ..... to make decisions, collaborate, and to act together on suitable ways to reach the ...

  14. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Woodward's obsession with organic chemistry sprouted very early. His initiative, at the age of eleven, to secure few original publications in German journals via consular channels in Boston defies imagination. By the time he entered high school, he had already managed to perform most of the experiments in Gattermann's ...

  15. Unappreciated diversification of stem archosaurs during the Middle Triassic predated the dominance of dinosaurs. (United States)

    Foth, Christian; Ezcurra, Martín D; Sookias, Roland B; Brusatte, Stephen L; Butler, Richard J


    Archosauromorpha originated in the middle-late Permian, radiated during the Triassic, and gave rise to the crown group Archosauria, a highly successful clade of reptiles in terrestrial ecosystems over the last 250 million years. However, scientific attention has mainly focused on the diversification of archosaurs, while their stem lineage (i.e. non-archosaurian archosauromorphs) has often been overlooked in discussions of the evolutionary success of Archosauria. Here, we analyse the cranial disparity of late Permian to Early Jurassic archosauromorphs and make comparisons between non-archosaurian archosauromorphs and archosaurs (including Pseudosuchia and Ornithodira) on the basis of two-dimensional geometric morphometrics. Our analysis recovers previously unappreciated high morphological disparity for non-archosaurian archosauromorphs, especially during the Middle Triassic, which abruptly declined during the early Late Triassic (Carnian). By contrast, cranial disparity of archosaurs increased from the Middle Triassic into the Late Triassic, declined during the end-Triassic extinction, but re-expanded towards the end of the Early Jurassic. Our study indicates that non-archosaurian archosauromorphs were highly diverse components of terrestrial ecosystems prior to the major radiation of archosaurs, including dinosaurs, while disparity patterns of the Ladinian and Carnian indicate a gradual faunal replacement of stem archosaurs by the crown group, including a short interval of partial overlap in morphospace during the Ladinian.

  16. Seventeenth-century 'treasure' found in Royal Society archives: the Ludus helmontii and the stone disease. (United States)

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, Ana Maria; Ferraz, Márcia Helena Mendes; Rattansi, Piyo M


    Our archival researches at the Royal Society reveal that a small envelope attached to a 1675 letter from an Antwerp apothecary, A. Boutens, contained a sample of the 'Ludus' prepared as a remedy for the 'stone disease' then sweeping through Europe, which was first announced in J. B. van Helmont's De lithiasi (1644). After examining the fascination with the medical use of the Ludus (which required the 'alkahest' for its preparation) and the tenacious efforts to procure it, we trace the fortunae of two other ludi in England, brought to and offered by Francis Mercurius van Helmont during his English sojourn. Both eventually found their way to the geologist John Woodward, one of them through Sir Isaac Newton. Finally we show how the allure of the Ludus helmontii vanished, with transformations in mineral analysis and reclassifications from Woodward to John Hill.

  17. Vacuum electron acceleration by coherent dipole radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Hartemann, F.V.; Troha, A.L.; Van Meter, J.R.; Landahl, E.C.; Alvis, R.M.; Li, K.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Hartemann, F.V.; Unterberg, Z.A.; Kerman, A.K.


    The validity of the concept of laser-driven vacuum acceleration has been questioned, based on an extrapolation of the well-known Lawson-Woodward theorem, which stipulates that plane electromagnetic waves cannot accelerate charged particles in vacuum. To formally demonstrate that electrons can indeed be accelerated in vacuum by focusing or diffracting electromagnetic waves, the interaction between a point charge and coherent dipole radiation is studied in detail. The corresponding four-potential exactly satisfies both Maxwell's equations and the Lorentz gauge condition everywhere, and is analytically tractable. It is found that in the far-field region, where the field distribution closely approximates that of a plane wave, we recover the Lawson-Woodward result, while net acceleration is obtained in the near-field region. The scaling of the energy gain with wave-front curvature and wave amplitude is studied systematically. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. alpha-Crystallin A sequences of Alligator mississippiensis and the lizard Tupinambis teguixin: molecular evolution and reptilian phylogeny. (United States)

    de Jong, W W; Zweers, A; Versteeg, M; Dessauer, H C; Goodman, M


    The amino acid sequences of the eye lens protein alpha-crystallin A from many mammalian and avian species, two frog species, and a dogfish have provided detailed information about the molecular evolution of this protein and allowed some useful inferences about phylogenetic relationships among these species. We now have isolated and sequenced the alpha-crystallins of the American alligator and the common tegu lizard. The reptilian alpha A chains appear to have evolved as slowly as those of other vertebrates, i.e., at two to three amino acid replacements per 100 residues in 100 Myr. The lack of charged replacements and the general types and distribution of replacements also are similar to those in other vertebrate alpha A chains. Maximum-parsimony analyses of the total data set of 67 vertebrate alpha A sequences support the monophyletic origin of alligator, tegu, and birds and favor the grouping of crocodilians and birds as surviving sister groups in the subclass Archosauria.

  19. Cosmopolitanism and transnational elite entrepreneurial practices: manifesting the cosmopolitan disposition in a cosmopolitan city


    Nicolopoulou, Katerina; Kakabadse, Nada K.; Nikolopoulos, Kanellos Panagiotis; Alcaraz, Jose M.; Sakellariou, Konstantina


    Purpose\\ud The paper aims to focus on the role that cosmopolitanism and, in particular, “the cosmopolitan disposition” (Woodward et al., 2008) plays in the process of entrepreneurial business by transnational business elites in Dubai.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud Adopting a relational perspective based on Bourdieu and Wacquant’s (1992) Reflexive Sociology, as well as an inductive design, the authors conducted 30 semi-structured interviews focusing on both expatriates and Emiratis (lo...

  20. Energy efficiency: potentials and profits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigaud, J.B.


    In this work, Jean-Marie Bouchereau (ADEME) has presented a review of the energy efficiency profits in France during the last 20 years and the prospects from now to 2020. Then, Geoffrey Woodward (TOTAL) and Sebastien Huchette (AXENS) have recalled the stakes involved in the energy efficiency of the upstream and downstream sectors respectively and presented examples of advances approaches illustrated by concrete cases of applications. (O.M.)

  1. Performance Prediction of Constrained Waveform Design for Adaptive Radar (United States)


    the famous Woodward quote, having a ubiquitous feeling for all radar waveform design (and performance prediction) researchers , that is found at the end...discuss research that develops performance prediction models to quantify the impact on SINR when an amplitude constraint is placed on a radar waveform...optimize the radar perfor- mance for the particular scenario and tasks. There have also been several survey papers on various topics in waveform design for

  2. Fundamentals of quantum chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    House, J E


    An introduction to the principles of quantum mechanics needed in physical chemistry. Mathematical tools are presented and developed as needed and only basic calculus, chemistry, and physics is assumed. Applications include atomic and molecular structure, spectroscopy, alpha decay, tunneling, and superconductivity. New edition includes sections on perturbation theory, orbital symmetry of diatomic molecules, the Huckel MO method and Woodward/Hoffman rules as well as a new chapter on SCF and Hartree-Fock methods. * This revised text clearly presents basic q

  3. Marine Cognitive Processes. (United States)


    34’- f signs may mean transporting one object ( gramatically speaking, the "dir- DLSTRIUTION STATEMENT A ia’d:t Ulimibed 85 10 23 089 ... ...- ...,... Zj...34,"" """-; "" ’-"""" T...., L Dr. Donald P. Woodward October 9, 1985 Page 2 ect object") over to another object ( gramatically speaking, the "indirect

  4. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ley, S.V.; Woodward, P.R. Tetrahedron Letters 1987, 28, 345. 9. Labelled reagents were bought from Aldrich Chemical Company. 10. Davidson, D.; Bernhard, S.A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1948, 70, 3426; Philhaja, K.; Sielo,. M. Acta Chem. Scand. 1968, 22, 3053. 11. Baig, M.V.A.; Owen, L.N. J. Chem. Soc. /C 1966, 540: Neises, ...

  5. A Chiang-type lagrangian in CP^2 (United States)

    Cannas da Silva, Ana


    We analyse a monotone lagrangian in CP^2 that is hamiltonian isotopic to the standard lagrangian RP^2, yet exhibits a distinguishing behaviour under reduction by one of the toric circle actions, namely it intersects transversally the reduction level set and it projects one-to-one onto a great circle in CP^1. This lagrangian thus provides an example of embedded composition fitting work of Wehrheim-Woodward and Weinstein.

  6. Systematics of putative euparkeriids (Diapsida: Archosauriformes from the Triassic of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland B. Sookias


    Full Text Available The South African species Euparkeria capensis is of great importance for understanding the early radiation of archosauromorphs (including archosaurs following the Permo–Triassic mass extinction, as most phylogenetic analyses place it as the sister taxon to crown group Archosauria within the clade Archosauriformes. Although a number of species from Lower–Middle Triassic deposits worldwide have been referred to the putative clade Euparkeriidae, the monophyly of Euparkeriidae is controversial and has yet to be demonstrated by quantitative phylogenetic analysis. Three Chinese taxa have been recently suggested to be euparkeriids: Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’, and Wangisuchus tzeyii, all three of which were collected from the Middle Triassic Ermaying Formation of northern China. Here, we reassess the taxonomy and systematics of these taxa. We regard Wangisuchus tzeyii as a nomen dubium, because the holotype is undiagnostic and there is no convincing evidence that the previously referred additional specimens represent the same taxon as the holotype. We also regard ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ as a nomen dubium as we are unable to identify any diagnostic features. We refer the holotype to Archosauriformes, and more tentatively to Euparkeriidae. Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis and the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ are resolved as sister taxa in a phylogenetic analysis, and are in turn the sister taxon to Euparkeria capensis, forming a monophyletic Euparkeriidae that is the sister to Archosauria+Phytosauria. This is the first quantitative phylogenetic analysis to recover a non-monospecific, monophyletic Euparkeriidae, but euparkeriid monophyly is only weakly supported and will require additional examination. Given their similar sizes, stratigraphic positions and phylogenetic placement, the holotype of ‘Turfanosuchus shageduensis’ may represent a second individual of Halazhaisuchus qiaoensis, but no

  7. Search for a correlation between Josephson junctions and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    Woodward's transient mass shift (TMS) formula has commonality with Modanese's anomalous coupling theory (ACT) and Woodward's capacitor experiment has commonality with Podkletnov's layered superconductor disk experiment. The TMS formula derives a mass fluctuation from a time-varying energy density. The ACT suggests that the essential ingredient for the gravity phenomenon is the presence of strong variations or fluctuations of the Cooper pair density (a time-varying energy density). Woodward's experiment used a small array of capacitors whose energy density was varied by an applied 11 kHz signal. Podkletnov's superconductor disk contained many Josephson junctions (small capacitive like interfaces), which were radiated with a 3-4 MHz signal. This paper formulates a TMS for superconductor Josephson junctions. The equation was compared to the 2% mass change claimed by Podkletnov in his gravity shielding experiments. The TMS is calculated to be 2% for a 2-kg superconductor with an induced total power to the multiple Josephson junctions of about 3.3-watts. A percent mass change equation is then formulated based on the Cavendish balance equation where the superconductor TMS is used for the delta change in mass. An experiment using a Cavendish balance is then discussed

  8. First Observation of Laser-Driven Acceleration of Relativistic Electrons in a Semi-Infinite Vacuum Space

    CERN Document Server

    Plettner, Tomas; Colby, Eric R; Cowan, Benjamin; Sears, Chris M S; Siemann, Robert; Smith, Todd I; Spencer, James


    We have observed acceleration of relativistic electrons in vacuum driven by a linearly polarized laser beam incident on a thin gold-coated reflective boundary. The observed energy modulation effect follows all the characteristics expected for linear acceleration caused by a longitudinal electric field. As predicted by the Lawson-Woodward theorem the laser driven modulation only appears in the presence of the boundary. It shows a linear dependence with the strength of the electric field of the laser beam and also it is critically dependent on the laser polarization. Finally, it appears to follow the expected angular dependence of the inverse transition radiation process.

  9. On the Mechanism for a Gravity Effect Using Type 2 Superconductors (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.


    In this paper, we formulate a percent mass change equation based on Woodward's transient mass shift and the Cavendish balance equations applied to superconductor Josephson junctions, A correction to the transient mass shift equation is presented due to the emission of the mass energy from the superconductor. The percentage of mass change predicted by the equation was estimated against the maximum percent mass change reported by Podkletnov in his gravity shielding experiments. An experiment is then discussed, which could shed light on the transient mass shift near superconductor and verify the corrected gravitational potential.

  10. A Study of Electrocyclic Reactions in a Molecular Junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Stine Tetzschner; Nielsen, Mogens Brøndsted; Hansen, Thorsten


    must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb...... blockade diamonds were therefore modeled for this compound to elucidate how a dark photoswitching event would manifest itself in the stability plot. From this modeling of conductance as a function of gate and bias potentials, we predict a collapse in Coulomb diamond size, that is, a decrease in the height...

  11. Estimating the standard deviation for 222Rn scintillation counting - a note concerning the paper by Sarmiento et al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, R.M.


    In a recent report Sarmiento et al.(1976) presented a method for estimating the statistical error associated with 222 Rn scintillation counting. Because of certain approximations, the method is less accurate than that of an earlier work by Lucas and Woodward (1964). The Sarmiento method and the Lucas method are compared, and the magnitude of errors incurred using the approximations are determined. For counting times greater than 300 minutes, the disadvantage of the slight inaccuracies of the Sarmiento method are outweighed by the advantage of easier calculation. (Auth.)

  12. Accelerated Exploration of Multi-principal Element Alloys for Structural Applications (Postprint) (United States)


    S. Ranganathan, High Entropy Alloys, Butterworth-Hei- nemann, London, UK, 2014. [6] B. Cantor , I.T.H. Chang, P. Knight, A.J.B. Vincent, Mater. Sci...Kristallogr.-Cryst. Mater. 230 (2015) 55–68. [14] B. Cantor , Entropy 16 (2014) 4749–4768. [15] O.N. Senkov, C. Woodward, D.B. Miracle, JOM. 66 (2014...2014) 1973–1983. [21] F. Otto, Y. Yang, H. Bei, E.P. George , Acta Mater. 61 (2013) 2628–2638. [22] K.Y. Tsai, M.H. Tsai, J.W. Yeh, Acta Mater. 61

  13. Culture, identity and difference relationship and the proficiency exam EPPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Petian Anchieta


    Full Text Available The present work discusses how aspects such as identity, culture and difference are important aspects in for language teaching and learning environments. Using Woodward's (2011 definition that identity is marked by difference, we considered these aspects in foreign language teaching and learning contexts when we learn the laguage of others. In addition, we present a proficiency exam called EPPLE, aimed at language teachers, and we suggest the implementation of a task that addresses cultural issues, because we need to prepare language teachers that search not only for their linguistic and pedagogical knowledge construction, but also for their understanding about culture, identity and difference.

  14. Enhanced thermal conduction -- An alternative solution for removing a broad range of hydrocarbons from contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bova, J.C.


    This paper presents an overview of Enhanced Thermal Conduction (ETC), an ex-situ soil remediation process. A review of a practical demonstration of this process which was conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants to determine the capability of the technology for remediating soils from gasworks sites that have been contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons, polynuclear hydrocarbons (PAHs) and cyanide is also presented in this paper. Projections for using this process to treat soils contaminated with other hazardous materials such as TCE PCE and PCB's are discussed as well.

  15. A Critical Comparison of Some Methods for Interpolation of Scattered Data (United States)


    Albuquerque, NM 87185 Patrick W. Gaffney Union Carbide/Nuclear Division Computer Sciences Division Box Y Oak Ridge , TN 37830 Dr. Carl de Boor...Robert Rlffenburgh Codel18 Naval Ocean System Center San Diego$ CA 92152 John K. Munro,, Jr. Bldg. 9104-2 Oak Ridge National Laboratory P. 0. Box Y Oak... Ridge , T4 37830 Paul Peterson Woodw~ard Governor Co. 5001 N. 2nd St. Rockford, IL 61101 John Babbitt * Continental Oil Co. P. 0. Bnx 1267 Ponca City

  16. On Non-Abelian Symplectic Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Johan; Thaddeus, Michael


    We discuss symplectic cutting for Hamiltonian actions of non-Abelian compact groups. By using a degeneration based on the Vinberg monoid we give, in good cases, a global quotient description of a surgery construction introduced by Woodward and Meinrenken, and show it can be interpreted in algebro......-geometric terms. A key ingredient is the `universal cut' of the cotangent bundle of the group itself, which is identified with a moduli space of framed bundles on chains of projective lines recently introduced by the authors....

  17. Checklist of recent brachiopod species collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific (United States)

    Bitner, Maria Aleksandra


    Abstract Twenty species belonging to 16 genera, i.e. Neoancistrocrania, Novocrania, Basiliola, Basiliolella, Ebiscothyris, Stenosarina, Kanakythyris, Xenobrochus, Terebratulina, Eucalathis, Fallax, Frenulina, Septicollarina, Campages, Annuloplatidia, and Thecidellina have been identified in the material collected during the Terrasses and Exbodi cruises in the New Caledonian region, SW Pacific. The species Basiliolella grayi (Woodward, 1855) and Fallax neocaledonensis Laurin, 1997 are the most common in the studied collection, while Eucalathis murrayi (Davidson, 1878) is reported for the first time from the New Caledonian region. PMID:26798235

  18. The phylogenetic relationships of basal archosauromorphs, with an emphasis on the systematics of proterosuchian archosauriforms (United States)


    crownward archosauriforms than to proterosuchids, and several species are found widespread along the archosauromorph tree, some being nested within Archosauria (e.g., “Chasmatosaurus ultimus,” Youngosuchus). Doswelliids and proterochampsids are recovered as more closely related to each other than to other archosauromorphs, forming a large clade (Proterochampsia) of semi-aquatic to aquatic forms that includes the bizarre genus Vancleavea. Euparkeria is one of the sister-taxa of the clade composed of proterochampsians and archosaurs. The putative Indian archosaur Yarasuchus is recovered in a polytomy with Euparkeria and more crownward archosauriforms, and as more closely related to the Russian Dongusuchus than to other species. Phytosaurs are recovered as the sister-taxa of all other pseudosuchians, thus being nested within Archosauria. PMID:27162705

  19. Paleomagnetism of the Cretaceous Galula Formation and implications for vertebrate evolution (United States)

    Widlansky, Sarah J.; Clyde, William C.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Roberts, Eric M.; Stevens, Nancy J.


    This study uses magnetostratigraphy to help constrain the age of the paleontologically important Galula Formation (Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania). The formation preserves a Cretaceous vertebrate fauna, including saurischian dinosaurs, a putative gondwanatherian mammal, and notosuchian crocodyliforms. With better dating, the Galula Formation and its fossils help fill a temporal gap in our understanding of vertebrate evolution in continental Africa, enabling better evaluation of competing paleobiogeographic hypotheses concerning faunal exchange throughout Gondwana during the Cretaceous. Paleomagnetic samples for this study were collected from the Namba (higher in section) and Mtuka (lower in section) members of the Galula Formation and underwent stepwise thermal demagnetization. All samples displayed a strong normal magnetic polarity overprint, and maximum unblocking temperatures at approximately 690 °C. Three short reversed intervals were identified in the Namba Member, whereas the Mtuka Member lacked any clear reversals. Given the relatively limited existing age constraints, one interpretation correlates the Namba Member to Chron C32. An alternative correlation assigns reversals in the Namba Member to recently proposed short reversals near the end of the Cretaceous Normal Superchron (Chron C34), a time that is traditionally interpreted as having stable normal polarity. The lack of reversals in the Mtuka Member supports deposition within Chron C34. These data suggest that the Namba Member is no older than Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian-Campanian), with the Mtuka Member less well constrained to the middle Cretaceous (Aptian-Cenomanian). The paleomagnetic results are supported by the application of fold and reversal tests for paleomagnetic stability, and paleomagnetic poles for the Namba (246.4°/77.9°, α95 5.9°) and Mtuka (217.1°/72.2°, α95 11.1°) members closely matching the apparent polar wander path for Africa during the Late Cretaceous. These

  20. Two types of essential carboxyl groups in Rhodospirillum rubrum proton ATPase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceccarelli, E.; Vallejos, R.H.


    Two different types of essential carboxyl groups were detected in the extrinsic component of the proton ATPase of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Chemical modification of R. rubrum chromatophores or its solubilized ATPase by Woodward's reagent K resulted in inactivation of photophosphorylating and ATPase activities. The apparent order of reaction was nearly 1 with respect to reagent concentration and similar K1 were obtained for the soluble and membrane-bound ATPases suggesting that inactivation was associated with modification of one essential carboxyl group located in the soluble component of the proton ATPase. Inactivation was prevented by adenine nucleotides but not by divalent cations. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide completely inhibited the solubilized ATPase with a K1 of 5.2 mM and a K2 of 0.81 min-1. Mg2+ afforded nearly complete protection with a Kd of 2.8 mM. Two moles of [14C]dicyclohexylcarbodiimide were incorporated per mole of enzyme for complete inactivation but in the presence of 30 mM MgCl2 only one mole was incorporated and there was no inhibition. The labeling was recovered mostly from the beta subunit. The incorporation of the labeled reagent into the ATPase was not prevented by previous modification with Woodward's reagent K. It is concluded that both reagents modified two different essential carboxyl groups in the soluble ATPase from R. rubrum

  1. Do essencialismo ao não essencialismo? reflexões sobre a identidade cultural do MST From essentialism to non essentialism? reflections about cultural identity of MST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Souza da Cruz


    Full Text Available O trabalho apresenta um estudo envolvendo um movimento social, o MST (Movimento dos Trabalhadores Rurais Sem-Terra, e as noções de identidade cultural. A investigação desenvolve um breve exercício de contextualização do movimento através de sua história, seu relacionamento com o poder e sua estrutura nos dias atuais. Com relação aos marcos teórico-metodológicos, a pesquisa adota os pressupostos de Kathryn Woodward (2000, Stuart Hall (2002 e Zygmunt Bauman (2005 e os discursos dos integrantes do movimento retirados do estudo de recepção realizado por Cruz (2006. Como discussão central, pretende-se analisar os desafios do MST em tempos de globalização.The work presents a study involving a social movement, the MST (Portuguese acronym for Movement of the Agricultural Landless Workers, and the slight knowledge of cultural identity. The inquiry develops a brief exercise combining the meaning of the movement through its history, its relationship with the power and its structure in the current days. In regard to theoretical-methodological landmarks, the research adopts pressupositions of Kathryn Woodward (2000, Stuart Hall (2002 e Zygmunt Bauman (2005 and speeches of people from the movement, taken from Cruz' study of reception (2006. As central quarrel, it is intended to analyze the challenges of the MST in globalization times.

  2. A bird-like skull in a Triassic diapsid reptile increases heterogeneity of the morphological and phylogenetic radiation of Diapsida (United States)

    Pritchard, Adam C.; Nesbitt, Sterling J.


    The Triassic Period saw the first appearance of numerous amniote lineages (e.g. Lepidosauria, Archosauria, Mammalia) that defined Mesozoic ecosystems following the end Permian Mass Extinction, as well as the first major morphological diversification of crown-group reptiles. Unfortunately, much of our understanding of this event comes from the record of large-bodied reptiles (total body length > 1 m). Here we present a new species of drepanosaurid (small-bodied, chameleon-like diapsids) from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation of New Mexico. Using reconstructions of micro-computed tomography data, we reveal the three-dimensional skull osteology of this clade for the first time. The skull presents many archaic anatomical traits unknown in Triassic crown-group reptiles (e.g. absence of bony support for the external ear), whereas other traits (e.g. toothless rostrum, anteriorly directed orbits, inflated endocranium) resemble derived avian theropods. A phylogenetic analysis of Permo-Triassic diapsids supports the hypothesis that drepanosaurs are an archaic lineage that originated in the Permian, far removed from crown-group Reptilia. The phylogenetic position of drepanosaurids indicates the presence of archaic Permian clades among Triassic small reptile assemblages and that morphological convergence produced a remarkably bird-like skull nearly 100 Myr before one is known to have emerged in Theropoda.

  3. Continental fossil vertebrates from the mid-Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) Alcântara Formation, Brazil, and their relationship with contemporaneous faunas from North Africa (United States)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.; Fanti, Federico; Therrien, François; Lamanna, Matthew C.


    The Albian-Cenomanian Alcântara Formation of northeastern Brazil preserves the most diverse continental vertebrate fauna of this age yet known from northern South America. The Alcântara vertebrate assemblage, consisting of elasmobranchs, actinopterygians, sarcopterygians, turtles, crocodyliforms, pterosaurs, and non-avian dinosaurs, displays close similarities to contemporaneous faunas from North Africa. The co-occurrence of as many as eight freshwater or estuarine fish taxa ( Onchopristis, Bartschichthys, Lepidotes, Stephanodus, Mawsonia, Arganodus, Ceratodus africanus, and possibly Ceratodus humei) and up to seven terrestrial archosaur taxa ( Sigilmassasaurus, Rebbachisauridae, Baryonychinae, Spinosaurinae, Carcharodontosauridae, possibly Pholidosauridae, and doubtfully Bahariasaurus) suggests that a land route connecting northeastern Brazil and North Africa existed at least until the Albian. Interestingly, most components of this mid-Cretaceous northern South American/North African assemblage are not shared with coeval southern South American faunas, which are themselves characterized by a number of distinct freshwater and terrestrial vertebrate taxa (e.g., chelid turtles, megaraptoran and unenlagiine theropods). These results suggest that, although mid-Cretaceous faunal interchange was probably possible between northern South America and North Africa, paleogeographic, paleoclimatic, and/or paleoenvironmental barriers may have hindered continental vertebrate dispersal between northern and southern South America during this time.

  4. Convergent evolution in aquatic tetrapods: insights from an exceptional fossil mosasaur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Lindgren

    Full Text Available Mosasaurs (family Mosasauridae are a diverse group of secondarily aquatic lizards that radiated into marine environments during the Late Cretaceous (98-65 million years ago. For the most part, they have been considered to be simple anguilliform swimmers--i.e., their propulsive force was generated by means of lateral undulations incorporating the greater part of the body--with unremarkable, dorsoventrally narrow tails and long, lizard-like bodies. Convergence with the specialized fusiform body shape and inferred carangiform locomotory style (in which only a portion of the posterior body participates in the thrust-producing flexure of ichthyosaurs and metriorhynchid crocodyliform reptiles, along with cetaceans, has so far only been recognized in Plotosaurus, the most highly derived member of the Mosasauridae. Here we report on an exceptionally complete specimen (LACM 128319 of the moderately derived genus Platecarpus that preserves soft tissues and anatomical details (e.g., large portions of integument, a partial body outline, putative skin color markings, a downturned tail, branching bronchial tubes, and probable visceral traces to an extent that has never been seen previously in any mosasaur. Our study demonstrates that a streamlined body plan and crescent-shaped caudal fin were already well established in Platecarpus, a taxon that preceded Plotosaurus by 20 million years. These new data expand our understanding of convergent evolution among marine reptiles, and provide insights into their evolution's tempo and mode.

  5. How static media is understood and used by high school science teachers (United States)

    Hirata, Miguel

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the role of static media in textbooks, as defined by Mayer (2001) in the form of printed images and text, and how these media are viewed and used by high school science teachers. Textbooks appeared in the United States in the late 1800s, and since then pictorial aids have been used extensively in them to support the teacher's work in the classroom (Giordano, 2003). According to Woodward, Elliott, and Nagel (1988/2013) the research on textbooks prior to the 1970s doesn't present relevant work related to the curricular role and the quality and instructional design of textbooks. Since then there has been abundant research, specially on the use of visual images in textbooks that has been approached from: (a) the text/image ratio (Evans, Watson, & Willows, 1987; Levin & Mayer, 1993; Mayer, 1993; Woodward, 1993), and (b) the instructional effectiveness of images (Woodward, 1993). The theoretical framework for this study comes from multimedia learning (Mayer, 2001), information design (Pettersson, 2002), and visual literacy (Moore & Dwyer, 1994). Data was collected through in-depth interviews of three high school science teachers and the graphic analyses of three textbooks used by the interviewed teachers. The interview data were compared through an analytic model developed from the literature, and the graphic analyses were performed using Mayer's multimedia learning principles (Mayer, 2001) and the Graphic Analysis Protocol (GAP) (Slough & McTigue, 2013). The conclusions of this study are: (1) pictures are specially useful for teaching science because science is a difficult subject to teach, (2) due this difficulty, pictures are very important to make the class dynamic and avoid students distraction, (3) static and dynamic media when used together can be more effective, (4) some specific type of graphics were found in the science textbooks used by the participants, in this case they were naturalistic drawings, stylized

  6. Implementing the shoreline cleanup assessment team process in the Gulf of Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debusschere, K.; Penland, S.; Ramsey, K.E.; Lindstedt, D.; Westphal, K.A.; Seal, R.; McBride, R.A.; Byrnes, M.R.; Owens, E.


    Louisiana State University (LSU) and Woodward-Clyde Consultants are working with state and federal agencies and industry through the LSU Gulf of Mexico Oil Spill Research and Response Program to establish a shoreline cleanup assessment team program (SCAT) in the Gulf of Mexico. Each SCAT team consists of a coastal geomorphologist and ecologist (and archaeologist when appropriate), as well as representatives from the responsible federal, state, and private agencies. This cooperative effort is aimed at identifying oil spill impact and interagency coastal resource concerns and recommendations, and developing a cleanup strategy based on interagency cooperation and concurrence within a systematic and standardized framework. The SCAT program provides interagency coordination, SCAT preparedness, spill drill participation, interagency training, geographic information systems services, monitoring, and routine aerial videotape surveys. It also offers technical support to the decision-making process within spill response operations

  7. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.


    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others.

  8. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Alex W.


    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others

  9. Open Innovation and Organization Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Tushman


    Full Text Available Abernathy's (1978 empirical work on the automotive industry investigated relationships among an organization’s boundary (all manufacturing plants, its organizational design (fluid vs. specific, and its ability to execute product and/or process innovations.  Abernathy's ideas of dominant designs and the locus of innovation have been central to scholars of innovation, R&D, and strategic management. Similarly, building on March and Simon's (1958 concept of organizations as decision making systems, Woodward (1965, Burns and Stalker (1966, and Lawrence and Lorsch (1967 examined relationships among organizational boundaries, organization structure, and innovation in a set of industries that varied by technology and environmental uncertainty. These and other early empirical works have led a diverse group of scholars to develop theories about firm boundaries, organization design, and the ability to innovate.

  10. Evaluation of the potential for surface faulting at TA-63. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, T.; Sawyer, J.; Springer, J.; Olig, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Wong, I.; Reneau, S.


    This report describes an investigation of the potential for surface faulting at the proposed sites for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RL)WF) and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility at TA-63 and TA-52 (hereafter TA-63), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This study was performed by Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) at the request of the LANL. The projections of both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults are mapped in the vicinity of TA-63. Based on results obtained in the ongoing Seismic Hazard Evaluation Program of the LANL, displacement may have occurred on both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults in the past 11,000 years (Holocene time). Thus, in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and Standards for seismic hazards evaluations and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations for seismic standard requirements, a geologic study of the proposed TA-63 site was conducted

  11. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Patrick


    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The science program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.

  12. Late Devonian (Frasnian) phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields from Belgium reinterpreted as ammonoid anaptychi (United States)

    Goolaerts, Stijn; Denayer, Julien; Mottequin, Bernard


    The taxonomic affinities of fossils from the Frasnian succession of Belgium previously described as phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields are discussed. The rediscovery of the holotype of Ellipsocaris dewalquei, the type species of the genus Ellipsocaris Woodward in Dewalque, 1882, allows to end the discussion on the taxonomic assignation of the genus Ellipsocaris. It is removed from the phyllopod crustaceans as interpreted originally and considered here as an ammonoid anaptychus. Furthermore, it is considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Sidetes Giebel, 1847. Similarly, Van Straelen's (1933) lower to middle Frasnian record Spathiocaris chagrinensis Ruedemann, 1916, is also an ammonoid anaptychus. Although ammonoids can be relatively frequent in some Frasnian horizons of Belgium, anaptychi remain particularly scarce and the attribution to the present material to peculiar ammonoid species is not possible.

  13. Quinones as dienophiles in the Diels-Alder reaction: history and applications in total synthesis. (United States)

    Nawrat, Christopher C; Moody, Christopher J


    In the canon of reactions available to the organic chemist engaged in total synthesis, the Diels-Alder reaction is among the most powerful and well understood. Its ability to rapidly generate molecular complexity through the simultaneous formation of two carbon-carbon bonds is almost unrivalled, and this is reflected in the great number of reported applications of this reaction. Historically, the use of quinones as dienophiles is highly significant, being the very first example investigated by Diels and Alder. Herein, we review the application of the Diels-Alder reaction of quinones in the total synthesis of natural products. The highlighted examples span some 60 years from the landmark syntheses of morphine (1952) and reserpine (1956) by Gates and Woodward, respectively, through to the present day examples, such as the tetracyclines. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Woodward‐Hoffmann則 [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Woodward‐Hoffmann則 名詞 一般 * * * * ...Woodward‐Hoffmann則 Woodward‐Hoffmannソク ダブリューオーオーディーダブリューエイアールディー‐エイチオーエフエフエムエイエヌエヌソク Thesaurus2015 200906012584096939 C CA22 UNKNOWN_2 Woodward ‐ Hoffmann 則

  15. A construção da identidade cristã pela Jóns saga helga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno Maschmann de Oliveira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo é resultado de análises iniciais, tem como objetivo explanar a construção da identidade cristã por meio de um processo de alterização das práticas pré-cristãs. Para isso utilizaremos a Jóns saga helga, a saga do santo Jón, que narra a vida e milagres do primeiro bispo de Hólar. Por meio dos conceitos de Marginalização de Le Goff (2010 e Identidade de Woodward (2000, demonstraremos que a construção da identidade cristã foi um fenômeno paralelo a estigmatização dos costumes e práticas pré-cristãs.

  16. The self and the new language: identities and foreign language learning and teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Coroa do Couto


    Full Text Available Students’ attitudes towards a FL they are learning can have considerable influence on the language acquisition process. Identities determine how teachers’ and students’ relationship with the world is built across time and space (NORTON, 2000, and so they permeate the whole teaching/learning process. They also bear a close relationship with the context, and are socially constructed, thus influencing actions and interactions, while also being influenced by them (HALL, 2000; MOITA LOPES, 2003; NORTON, 2000; SILVA, 2000; WOODWARD, 2000. The goal of this work is to sensitize  the agents in the FL teaching/learning process to the importance of the issue of identities. Thus, further research may be carried out for a better understanding of this complex web of relationships and (reconstructions that can influence the whole FL teaching/learning process, and thereby advance improvements to it.

  17. Delusional Ideation, Cognitive Processes and Crime Based Reasoning. (United States)

    Wilkinson, Dean J; Caulfield, Laura S


    Probabilistic reasoning biases have been widely associated with levels of delusional belief ideation (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2010; Lincoln, Ziegler, Mehl, & Rief, 2010; Speechley, Whitman, & Woodward, 2010; White & Mansell, 2009), however, little research has focused on biases occurring during every day reasoning (Galbraith, Manktelow, & Morris, 2011), and moral and crime based reasoning (Wilkinson, Caulfield, & Jones, 2014; Wilkinson, Jones, & Caulfield, 2011). 235 participants were recruited across four experiments exploring crime based reasoning through different modalities and dual processing tasks. Study one explored delusional ideation when completing a visually presented crime based reasoning task. Study two explored the same task in an auditory presentation. Study three utilised a dual task paradigm to explore modality and executive functioning. Study four extended this paradigm to the auditory modality. The results indicated that modality and delusional ideation have a significant effect on individuals reasoning about violent and non-violent crime (p < .05), which could have implication for the presentation of evidence in applied setting such as the courtroom.

  18. Waste Handling and Emplacement Options for Disposal of Radioactive Waste in Deep Boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, John R.; Hardin, Ernest


    Traditional methods cannot be used to handle and emplace radioactive wastes in boreholes up to 16,400 feet (5 km) deep for disposal. This paper describes three systems that can be used for handling and emplacing waste packages in deep borehole: (1) a 2011 reference design that is based on a previous study by Woodward-Clyde in 1983 in which waste packages are assembled into ''strings'' and lowered using drill pipe; (2) an updated version of the 2011 reference design; and (3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. Emplacement on coiled tubing was also considered, but not developed in detail. The systems described here are currently designed for U.S. Department of Energy-owned high-level waste (HLW) including the Cesium- 137/Strontium-90 capsules from the Hanford Facility and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing in Idaho.

  19. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Patrick [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)


    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The science program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.

  20. Reptilian Transcriptomes v2.0: An Extensive Resource for Sauropsida Genomics and Transcriptomics. (United States)

    Tzika, Athanasia C; Ullate-Agote, Asier; Grbic, Djordje; Milinkovitch, Michel C


    Despite the availability of deep-sequencing techniques, genomic and transcriptomic data remain unevenly distributed across phylogenetic groups. For example, reptiles are poorly represented in sequence databases, hindering functional evolutionary and developmental studies in these lineages substantially more diverse than mammals. In addition, different studies use different assembly and annotation protocols, inhibiting meaningful comparisons. Here, we present the "Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0," which provides extensive annotation of transcriptomes and genomes from species covering the major reptilian lineages. To this end, we sequenced normalized complementary DNA libraries of multiple adult tissues and various embryonic stages of the leopard gecko and the corn snake and gathered published reptilian sequence data sets from representatives of the four extant orders of reptiles: Squamata (snakes and lizards), the tuatara, crocodiles, and turtles. The LANE runner 2.0 software was implemented to annotate all assemblies within a single integrated pipeline. We show that this approach increases the annotation completeness of the assembled transcriptomes/genomes. We then built large concatenated protein alignments of single-copy genes and inferred phylogenetic trees that support the positions of turtles and the tuatara as sister groups of Archosauria and Squamata, respectively. The Reptilian Transcriptomes Database 2.0 resource will be updated to include selected new data sets as they become available, thus making it a reference for differential expression studies, comparative genomics and transcriptomics, linkage mapping, molecular ecology, and phylogenomic analyses involving reptiles. The database is available at and can be enquired using a wwwblast server installed at the University of Geneva. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins. (United States)

    Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H


    The archosauria consist of two living groups, crocodilians, and birds. Here we compare the structure, expression, and phylogeny of the beta (β)-keratins in two crocodilian genomes and two avian genomes to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of the feather β-keratins. Unlike squamates such as the green anole with 40 β-keratins in its genome, the chicken and zebra finch genomes have over 100 β-keratin genes in their genomes, while the American alligator has 20 β-keratin genes, and the saltwater crocodile has 21 β-keratin genes. The crocodilian β-keratins are similar to those of birds and these structural proteins have a central filament domain and N- and C-termini, which contribute to the matrix material between the twisted β-sheets, which form the 2-3 nm filament. Overall the expression of alligator β-keratin genes in the integument increases during development. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that a crocodilian β-keratin clade forms a monophyletic group with the avian scale and feather β-keratins, suggesting that avian scale and feather β-keratins along with a subset of crocodilian β-keratins evolved from a common ancestral gene/s. Overall, our analyses support the view that the epidermal appendages of basal archosaurs used a diverse array of β-keratins, which evolved into crocodilian and avian specific clades. In birds, the scale and feather subfamilies appear to have evolved independently in the avian lineage from a subset of archosaurian claw β-keratins. The expansion of the avian specific feather β-keratin genes accompanied the diversification of birds and the evolution of feathers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in sauropsids: evolutionary insights from cDNA mapping and GC3 profiling in snake (United States)


    Background Extant sauropsids (reptiles and birds) are divided into two major lineages, the lineage of Testudines (turtles) and Archosauria (crocodilians and birds) and the lineage of Lepidosauria (tuatara, lizards, worm lizards and snakes). Karyotypes of these sauropsidan groups generally consist of macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. In chicken, microchromosomes exhibit a higher GC-content than macrochromosomes. To examine the pattern of intra-genomic GC heterogeneity in lepidosaurian genomes, we constructed a cytogenetic map of the Japanese four-striped rat snake (Elaphe quadrivirgata) with 183 cDNA clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and examined the correlation between the GC-content of exonic third codon positions (GC3) of the genes and the size of chromosomes on which the genes were localized. Results Although GC3 distribution of snake genes was relatively homogeneous compared with those of the other amniotes, microchromosomal genes showed significantly higher GC3 than macrochromosomal genes as in chicken. Our snake cytogenetic map also identified several conserved segments between the snake macrochromosomes and the chicken microchromosomes. Cross-species comparisons revealed that GC3 of most snake orthologs in such macrochromosomal segments were GC-poor (GC3 < 50%) whereas those of chicken orthologs in microchromosomes were relatively GC-rich (GC3 ≥ 50%). Conclusion Our results suggest that the chromosome size-dependent GC heterogeneity had already occurred before the lepidosaur-archosaur split, 275 million years ago. This character was probably present in the common ancestor of lepidosaurs and but lost in the lineage leading to Anolis during the diversification of lepidosaurs. We also identified several genes whose GC-content might have been influenced by the size of the chromosomes on which they were harbored over the course of sauropsid evolution. PMID:23140509

  3. Phylogenomic analyses of 539 highly informative loci dates a fully resolved time tree for the major clades of living turtles (Testudines). (United States)

    Shaffer, H Bradley; McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Near, Thomas J; Mount, Genevieve G; Spinks, Phillip Q


    Accurate time-calibrated phylogenies are the centerpiece of many macroevolutionary studies, and the relationship between the size and scale of molecular data sets and the density and accuracy of fossil calibrations is a key element of time tree studies. Here, we develop a target capture array specifically for living turtles, compare its efficiency to an ultraconserved element (UCE) dataset, and present a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on 539 nuclear loci sequenced from 26 species representing the breadth of living turtle diversity plus outgroups. Our gene array, based on three fully sequenced turtle genomes, is 2.4 times more variable across turtles than a recently published UCE data set for an identical subset of 13 species, confirming that taxon-specific arrays return more informative data per sequencing effort than UCEs. We used our genomic data to estimate the ages of living turtle clades including a mid-late Triassic origin for crown turtles and a mid-Carboniferous split of turtles from their sister group, Archosauria. By specifically excluding several of the earliest potential crown turtle fossils and limiting the age of fossil calibration points to the unambiguous crown lineage Caribemys oxfordiensis from the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian, 163.5-157.3Ma) we corroborate a relatively ancient age for living turtles. We also provide novel age estimates for five of the ten testudine families containing more than a single species, as well as several intrafamilial clades. Most of the diversity of crown turtles appears to date to the Paleogene, well after the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction 66mya. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Expansion for the Brachylophosaurus canadensis Collagen I Sequence and Additional Evidence of the Preservation of Cretaceous Protein. (United States)

    Schroeter, Elena R; DeHart, Caroline J; Cleland, Timothy P; Zheng, Wenxia; Thomas, Paul M; Kelleher, Neil L; Bern, Marshall; Schweitzer, Mary H


    Sequence data from biomolecules such as DNA and proteins, which provide critical information for evolutionary studies, have been assumed to be forever outside the reach of dinosaur paleontology. Proteins, which are predicted to have greater longevity than DNA, have been recovered from two nonavian dinosaurs, but these results remain controversial. For proteomic data derived from extinct Mesozoic organisms to reach their greatest potential for investigating questions of phylogeny and paleobiology, it must be shown that peptide sequences can be reliably and reproducibly obtained from fossils and that fragmentary sequences for ancient proteins can be increasingly expanded. To test the hypothesis that peptides can be repeatedly detected and validated from fossil tissues many millions of years old, we applied updated extraction methodology, high-resolution mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics analyses on a Brachylophosaurus canadensis specimen (MOR 2598) from which collagen I peptides were recovered in 2009. We recovered eight peptide sequences of collagen I: two identical to peptides recovered in 2009 and six new peptides. Phylogenetic analyses place the recovered sequences within basal archosauria. When only the new sequences are considered, B. canadensis is grouped more closely to crocodylians, but when all sequences (current and those reported in 2009) are analyzed, B. canadensis is placed more closely to basal birds. The data robustly support the hypothesis of an endogenous origin for these peptides, confirm the idea that peptides can survive in specimens tens of millions of years old, and bolster the validity of the 2009 study. Furthermore, the new data expand the coverage of B. canadensis collagen I (a 33.6% increase in collagen I alpha 1 and 116.7% in alpha 2). Finally, this study demonstrates the importance of reexamining previously studied specimens with updated methods and instrumentation, as we obtained roughly the same amount of sequence data as the

  5. Reassessment of the evidence for postcranial skeletal pneumaticity in Triassic archosaurs, and the early evolution of the avian respiratory system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J Butler

    been present in these taxa (and secondarily lost in extant crocodilians and was potentially primitive for Archosauria as a whole.

  6. Linking the evolution of body shape and locomotor biomechanics in bird-line archosaurs. (United States)

    Allen, Vivian; Bates, Karl T; Li, Zhiheng; Hutchinson, John R


    Locomotion in living birds (Neornithes) has two remarkable features: feather-assisted flight, and the use of unusually crouched hindlimbs for bipedal support and movement. When and how these defining functional traits evolved remains controversial. However, the advent of computer modelling approaches and the discoveries of exceptionally preserved key specimens now make it possible to use quantitative data on whole-body morphology to address the biomechanics underlying this issue. Here we use digital body reconstructions to quantify evolutionary trends in locomotor biomechanics (whole-body proportions and centre-of-mass position) across the clade Archosauria. We use three-dimensional digital reconstruction to estimate body shape from skeletal dimensions for 17 archosaurs along the ancestral bird line, including the exceptionally preserved, feathered taxa Microraptor, Archaeopteryx, Pengornis and Yixianornis, which represent key stages in the evolution of the avian body plan. Rather than a discrete transition from more-upright postures in the basal-most birds (Avialae) and their immediate outgroup deinonychosauria, our results support hypotheses of a gradual, stepwise acquisition of more-crouched limb postures across much of theropod evolution, although we find evidence of an accelerated change within the clade Maniraptora (birds and their closest relatives, such as deinonychosaurs). In addition, whereas reduction of the tail is widely accepted to be the primary morphological factor correlated with centre-of-mass position and, hence, evolution of hindlimb posture, we instead find that enlargement of the pectoral limb and several associated trends have a much stronger influence. Intriguingly, our support for the onset of accelerated morpho-functional trends within Maniraptora is closely correlated with the evolution of flight. Because we find that the evolution of enlarged forelimbs is strongly linked, via whole-body centre of mass, to hindlimb function during

  7. Dynamic Changes in Host Gene Expression following In Vitro Viral Mimic Stimulation in Crocodile Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Sarker


    Full Text Available The initial control of viral infection in a host is dominated by a very well orchestrated early innate immune system; however, very little is known about the ability of a host to control viral infection outside of mammals. The reptiles offer an evolutionary bridge between the fish and mammals, with the crocodile having evolved from the archosauria clade that included the dinosaurs, and being the largest living reptile species. Using an RNA-seq approach, we have defined the dynamic changes of a passaged primary crocodile cell line to stimulation with both RNA and DNA viral mimics. Cells displayed a marked upregulation of many genes known to be involved in the mammalian response to viral infection, including viperin, Mx1, IRF7, IRF1, and RIG-I with approximately 10% of the genes being uncharacterized transcripts. Both pathway and genome analysis suggested that the crocodile may utilize the main known mammalian TLR and cytosolic antiviral RNA signaling pathways, with the pathways being responsible for sensing DNA viruses less clear. Viral mimic stimulation upregulated the type I interferon, IFN-Omega, with many known antiviral interferon-stimulated genes also being upregulated. This work demonstrates for the first time that reptiles show functional regulation of many known and unknown antiviral pathways and effector genes. An enhanced knowledge of these ancient antiviral pathways will not only add to our understanding of the host antiviral innate response in non-mammalian species, but is critical to fully comprehend the complexity of the mammalian innate immune response to viral infection.

  8. New early Eocene vertebrate assemblage from western India reveals a mixed fauna of European and Gondwana affinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Smith


    Full Text Available The Ypresian Cambay Shale Formation at Vastan and Mangrol lignite mines in Gujarat, western India, has yielded a rich vertebrate fauna with numerous taxa of European affinities. Here we report a new, approximately contemporary vertebrate assemblage from two fossiliferous layers in the nearby mine of Tadkeshwar. These layers have yielded a similar mammal fauna with the co-occurrence of the perissodactyl-like cambaytheriid Cambaytherium thewissi, the adapoid primates Marcgodinotius indicus and cf. Asiadapis cambayensis, and the hyaenodontid Indohyaenodon raoi. The presence of these species in both Vastan and Tadkeshwar mines and at different levels suggests that the deposits between the two major lignite seams represent a single land mammal age. Apart from the aforementioned species there is a new, smaller species of Cambaytherium, and a new genus and species of esthonychid tillodont. This fauna also contains the first large early Eocene vertebrates from India, including an unidentified Coryphodon-like pantodont, a dyrosaurid crocodyliform and a new giant madtsoiid snake. Among the Tadkeshwar vertebrates several taxa are of Gondwana affinities, such as Pelomedusoides turtles, dyrosaurids, and large madtsoiids, attesting that the early Eocene was a crucial period in India during which Laurasian taxa of European affinities co-existed with relict taxa from Gondwana before the India-Asia collision. Our results suggest that terrestrial faunas could have dispersed to or from Europe during episodes of contact between the Indian subcontinent and different island blocks along the northern margin of the Neotethys, such as the Kohistan–Ladakh island-arc system. Gondwana taxa might represent remnants of ghost lineages shared with Madagascar, which reached the Indian subcontinent during the late Cretaceous; alternatively they might have come from North Africa and passed along the southern margin of the Neotethys to reach the Indian subcontinent. These

  9. A new Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae from the late Miocene of Venezuela, the phylogeny of Caimaninae and considerations on the feeding habits of Mourasuchus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanne M. Cidade


    Full Text Available Mourasuchus (Alligatoroidea, Caimaninae is one of the most peculiar crocodyliforms due to the skull morphology consisting of a long, wide, dorsoventrally flat rostrum with long, slender mandibular rami. Despite these peculiarities, the systematics, phylogeny and feeding habits of this taxon have not been properly studied. In this paper, we describe a new species of the genus, Mourasuchus pattersoni sp. nov., from the late Miocene of the Urumaco Formation of Venezuela. The new species differs from the other Mourasuchus species in having a lateromedially wide, dorsoventrally high jugal bone and a circular incisive foramen, which both represent autapomorphies of the new taxon. Phylogenetically, M. pattersoni sp. nov. is more closely related to M. amazonensis and the specimen UFAC-1424 (formely attributed to M. nativus than to M. arendsi or M. atopus, whilst Mourasuchus is recovered once more as a monophyletic group. Furthermore, the cladistic analysis performed in this contribution offers a new phylogenetic assessment of Caimaninae, including many taxa described recently for the group. In this study, we also discuss the crocodylian diversity of the Urumaco Formation as well as how paleoenvironment may have contributed toward its evolution. In addition, we provide a discussion of the potential feeding habits of Mourasuchus. In this contribution, Mourasuchus is regarded as a taxon that likely preferred to prey on small animals. The unusual skull morphology of this group may have evolved to cover a large area with the rostrum, allowing for a more efficient prey capture, while the prey may have consisted predominantly of large amounts of small animals.

  10. Ontogeny of the Alligator Cartilago Transiliens and Its Significance for Sauropsid Jaw Muscle Evolution (United States)

    Tsai, Henry P.; Holliday, Casey M.


    The cartilago transiliens is a fibrocartilaginous structure within the jaw muscles of crocodylians. The cartilago transiliens slides between the pterygoid buttress and coronoid region of the lower jaw and connects two muscles historically identified as m. pseudotemporalis superficialis and m. intramandibularis. However, the position of cartilago transiliens, and its anatomical similarities to tendon organs suggest the structure may be a sesamoid linking a single muscle. Incompressible sesamoids often form inside tendons that wrap around bone. However, such structures rarely ossify in reptiles and have thus far received scant attention. We tested the hypothesis that the cartilago transiliens is a sesamoid developed within in one muscle by investigating its structure in an ontogenetic series of Alligator mississippiensis using dissection, 3D imaging, and polarizing and standard light microscopy. In all animals studied, the cartilago transiliens receives collagen fibers and tendon insertions from its two main muscular attachments. However, whereas collagen fibers were continuous within the cartilaginous nodule of younger animals, such continuity decreased in older animals, where the fibrocartilaginous core grew to displace the fibrous region. Whereas several neighboring muscles attached to the fibrous capsule in older individuals, only two muscles had significant contributions to the structure in young animals. Our results indicate that the cartilago transiliens is likely a sesamoid formed within a single muscle (i.e., m. pseudotemporalis superficialis) as it wraps around the pterygoid buttress. This tendon organ is ubiquitous among fossil crocodyliforms indicating it is a relatively ancient, conserved structure associated with the development of the large pterygoid flanges in this clade. Finally, these findings indicate that similar tendon organs exist among potentially homologous muscle groups in birds and turtles, thus impacting inferences of jaw muscle homology

  11. An Odyssey to Viral Pathogenesis. (United States)

    Oldstone, Michael B A


    This odyssey is mine from early junior high school, where my dreams for adventure were shaped by Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes, Percival Christopher Wren's Beau Geste, and best of all the remarkable explorers in Paul de Kruif's Microbe Hunters. My birth site was in Manhattan (my mother was a Vogue model and my father worked in retail), and I traveled to college at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, where my love of history and English literature was shaped along with a sufficient exposure to biology, chemistry, and genetics to meet requirements for entering medical school. By the second year at the University of Maryland School of Medicine, through expert teachers such as Theodore (Ted) Woodward and Sheldon (Shelly) Greisman in medicine and Charles Weissmann in virology and microbiology, I found that understanding why and how people became ill was more my cup of tea than identifying and treating their illnesses. Although I was becoming competent in diagnosis and treatment, I left medical school at the end of my sophomore year to seek a more basic understanding of biology and chemistry. I achieved this by working toward a PhD in biochemistry at Johns Hopkins McCollum-Pratt Institute combined with study of rickettsial toxin at Maryland. This was a very important time in my life, because it convinced me that addressing biologic and medical questions in a disciplined scientific manner was what my life voyage should be. That voyage led me initially, through Woodward's contact, to work a summer in Joe Smadel's unit at Walter Reed (Smadel being one of the deans of American virology) and to meet several times with Carleton Gajdusek and then John Enders at Harvard, who pointed me to Frank Dixon at Scripps in La Jolla, California, for postdoctoral training. Dixon was among the founders of modern immunology and a pathfinder for immunopathology. Training by and association with Dixon and his other postdoctoral fellows, my independent position at Scripps, early

  12. On the sighted ancestry of blindness - exceptionally preserved eyes of Mesozoic polychelidan lobsters. (United States)

    Audo, Denis; Haug, Joachim T; Haug, Carolin; Charbonnier, Sylvain; Schweigert, Günter; Müller, Carsten H G; Harzsch, Steffen


    Modern representatives of Polychelida (Polychelidae) are considered to be entirely blind and have largely reduced eyes, possibly as an adaptation to deep-sea environments. Fossil species of Polychelida, however, appear to have well-developed compound eyes preserved as anterior bulges with distinct sculpturation. We documented the shapes and sizes of eyes and ommatidia based upon exceptionally preserved fossil polychelidans from Binton (Hettangian, United-Kingdom), Osteno (Sinemurian, Italy), Posidonia Shale (Toarcian, Germany), La Voulte-sur-Rhône (Callovian, France), and Solnhofen-type plattenkalks (Kimmeridgian-Tithonian, Germany). For purposes of comparison, sizes of the eyes of several other polychelidans without preserved ommatidia were documented. Sizes of ommatidia and eyes were statistically compared against carapace length, taxonomic group, and outcrop. Nine species possess eyes with square facets; Rosenfeldia oppeli (Woodward, 1866), however, displays hexagonal facets. The sizes of eyes and ommatidia are a function of carapace length. No significant differences were discerned between polychelidans from different outcrops; Eryonidae, however, have significantly smaller eyes than other groups. Fossil eyes bearing square facets are similar to the reflective superposition eyes found in many extant decapods. As such, they are the earliest example of superposition eyes. As reflective superposition is considered plesiomorphic for Reptantia, this optic type was probably retained in Polychelida. The two smallest specimens, a Palaeopentacheles roettenbacheri (Münster, 1839) and a Hellerocaris falloti (Van Straelen, 1923), are interpreted as juveniles. Both possess square-shaped facets, a typical post-larval feature. The eye morphology of these small specimens, which are far smaller than many extant eryoneicus larvae, suggests that Jurassic polychelidans did not develop via giant eryoneicus larvae. In contrast, another species we examined, Rosenfeldia oppeli

  13. Dynamic Earthquake Triggering on Seismogenic Faults in Oklahoma (United States)

    Qin, Y.; Chen, X.; Peng, Z.; Aiken, C.


    Regions with high pore pressure are generally more susceptible to dynamic triggering from transient stress change caused by surface wave of distant earthquakes. The stress threshold from triggering studies can help understand the stress state of seismogenic faults. The recent dramatic seismicity increase in central US provides a rich database for assessing dynamic triggering phenomena. We begin our study by conducting a systematic analysis of dynamic triggering for the continental U.S using ANSS catalog (with magnitude of completeness Mc=3) from 49 global mainshocks (Ms>6.5, depth1kPa). We calculate β value for each 1° by 1° bins in 30 days before and 10 days after the mainshock. To identify regions that experience triggering from a distant mainshock, we generate a stacked map using β≥2 - which represents significant seismicity rate increase. As expected, the geothermal and volcanic fields in California show clear response to distant earthquakes. We also note areas in Oklahoma and north Texas show enhanced triggering, where wastewater-injection induced seismicity are occurring. Next we focus on Oklahoma and use a local catalog from Oklahoma Geological Survey with lower completeness threshold Mc to calculate the beta map in 0.2° by 0.2° bins for each selected mainshock to obtain finer spatial resolutions of the triggering behavior. For those grids with β larger than 2.0, we use waveforms from nearby stations to search for triggered events. The April 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake causes a statistically significant increase of local seismicity (β=3.5) in the Woodward area (west Oklahoma) during an on-going earthquake sequence. By visually examining the surface wave from the nearest station, we identify 3 larger local events, and 10 additional smaller events with weaker but discernable amplitude. Preliminary analysis shows that the triggering is related to Rayleigh wave, which would cause dilatational or shear stress changes along the strike direction of

  14. Three new species of Scissurellidae (Gastropoda, Prosobranchia from the coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ch. Montouchet


    Full Text Available A consultation of the original descriptions of the genera of Scissurellidae led the author to conclude that the valid names for the genera of this family are: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescription by Sowerby, 1824, Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Incisura Hedley, 1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924, Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella and Anatoma are cosmopolites, the first generally living in shallow waters, associated to sea-weeds, while the second is found in deep waters. The three last genera are restricted to Australasia. Three new species are described from the Brazilian coast: Scissurella alexandrei, Scissurella electilis and Scissurella morretesi. The internal anatomy of S. alexandrei is described. These three new species have been found in littoral shallow waters, the two first on the northeast Brazilian coast, the third on the coast of the State of São Paulo. The fourth known species of Scissurellidae from Brazil, Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886, was dredged by H.M.S, "Challenger", in 1873, off Pernambuco, 350 fm (640 m.Pela leitura das descrições originais dos gêneros de Scissurellidae , conclue-se que os nomes válidos destes gêneros são: Scissurella d'Orbigny, 1823 (redescrição por Sowerby, 1824, Anatoma Woodward, 1859, Incisura Hedley,1904, Scissurona Iredale, 1924 e Sinezona Finlay, 1927. Scissurella e Anatoma são cosmopolitas; o primeiro encontra-se geralmente em águas rasas e associado a algas; o segundo habita águas profundas. Os três últimos gêneros são restritos à Australásia. Três novas espécies são descritas para a costa do Brasil: Scissurella alexandrei, Scissurella electilis e Scissurella morretesi. Da primeira foi estudada a anatomia interna. Estas três espécies novas foram encontradas em águas rasas; S. alexandrei e S.electilis provém de amostras de algas do mesolitoral inferior. Conhece-se uma quarta espécie de Scissurellidae para o Brasil: Anatoma aedonia (Watson, 1886, dragada em 1873 pelo 'Challenger

  15. Investigation of the I-40 Jet-Propulsion Engine in the Cleveland Altitude Wind Tunnel. V - Operational Characteristics. 5; Operational Characteristics (United States)

    Golladay, Richard L.; Gendler, Stanley L.


    An investigation has been conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the operational characteristics of the I-40 jet-propulsion engine over a range of pressure altitudes from 10,000 to 50,000 feet and ram-pressure ratios from 1.00 to 1.76. Engine operational data were obtained with the engine in the standard configuration and with various modifications of the fuel system, the electrical system, and the combustion chambers. The effects of altitude and airspeed on operating speed range, starting,, acceleration, speed regulation, cooling, and vibration of the standard and modified engines were determined, and damage to parts was noted. Maximum engine speed was obtainable at all altitudes and airspeeds wi th each fuel-control system investigated. The minimum idling speed was raised by increases in altitude and airspeed. The lowest minimum stable speeds were obtained with the standard configuration using 40-gallon nozzles with individual metering plugs. The engine was started normally at altitudes as high as 20,000 feet with all of the fuel systems and ignition combinations except one. Ignition at 70,000 feet was difficult and, although successful ignition occurred, acceleration was slow and usually characterized by excessive tail-pipe temperature. During windmilling investigations of the engine equipped with the standard fuel system, the engine could not be started at ram-pressure ratios of 1.1 to 1.7 at altitudes of 10,000, 20,000 and 30,000 feet. When equipped with the production barometric and Monarch 40-gallon nozzles, the engine accelerated in 12 seconds from an engine speed of 6000 rpm to 11,000 rpm at 20,000 feet and an average tail-pipe temperature of 11000 F. At the same altitude and temperature, all the engine configurations had approximately the same rate of acceleration. The Woodward governor produced the safest accelerations, inasmuch as it could be adjusted to automatically prevent acceleration blow out. The engine speed was

  16. Variation of curve number with storm depth (United States)

    Banasik, K.; Hejduk, L.


    The NRCS Curve Number (known also as SCS-CN) method is well known as a tool in predicting flood runoff depth from small ungauged catchment. The traditional way of determination the CNs, based on soil characteristics, land use and hydrological conditions, seemed to have tendency to overpredict the floods in some cases. Over 30 year rainfall-runoff data, collected in two small (A=23.4 & 82.4 km2), lowland, agricultural catchments in Center of Poland (Banasik & Woodward 2010), were used to determine runoff Curve Number and to check a tendency of changing. The observed CN declines with increasing storm size, which according recent views of Hawkins (1993) could be classified as a standard response of watershed. The analysis concluded, that using CN value according to the procedure described in USDA-SCS Handbook one receives representative value for estimating storm runoff from high rainfall depths in the analyzes catchments. This has been confirmed by applying "asymptotic approach" for estimating the watershed curve number from the rainfall-runoff data. Furthermore, the analysis indicated that CN, estimated from mean retention parameter S of recorded events with rainfall depth higher than initial abstraction, is also approaching the theoretical CN. The observed CN, ranging from 59.8 to 97.1 and from 52.3 to 95.5, in the smaller and the larger catchment respectively, declines with increasing storm size, which has been classified as a standard response of watershed. The investigation demonstrated also changeability of the CN during a year, with much lower values during the vegetation season. Banasik K. & D.E. Woodward (2010). "Empirical determination of curve number for a small agricultural watrshed in Poland". 2nd Joint Federal Interagency Conference, Las Vegas, NV, June 27 - July 1, 2010 ( 28_02_10. pdf). Hawkins R. H. (1993). "Asymptotic determination of curve numbers from data". Journal of Irrigation and Drainage

  17. Sequência de ossificação do sincrânio e hioide em embriões de Caiman yacare (Crocodylia, Alligatoridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano C. Lima


    Full Text Available O crânio representa uma estrutura única e complexa dos vertebrados, sendo foco relevante objeto de estudos morfológicos e sistemáticos. Embora os crocodilianos constituam um importante grupo representante dos Archosauria, nossos conhecimentos acerca de seu desenvolvimento e homologias ainda são escassos. Aqui descrevemos uma sequência detalhada de ossificação dos ossos do crânio de Caiman yacare (Daudin, 1802, objetivando contribuir com informações de foco anatômico. Coletaram-se ao acaso embriões em intervalos regulares durante todo o período de incubação, sendo estes posteriormente submetidos a protocolo de diafanização e coloração de ossos. O padrão de ossificação em C. yacare segue parâmetros gerais em répteis e outros tetrápodes. Os primeiros centros de ossificação correspondem aos ossos dérmicos, envolvidos com funções primárias como a alimentação e respiração (e.g. maxila, dentário, esplenial, angular, pterigoide, ectopterigoide e jugal, incluindo ainda os dentes. Os ossos da porção dorsal do neurocrânio se ossificam posteriormente, evidenciando uma fontanela cranial que permanece até o momento da eclosão. Os ossos parietal, frontal e opstótico possuem mais de um centro de ossificação que se fundem durante a ontogenia. O centro de ossificação do parisfenoide está ausente, e apenas um centro de ossificação está presente para o basisfenoide. A porção posterior do crânio é formada por centros de substituição do condrocrânio que se ossificam em estágios posteriores.

  18. Primera cita de cocodrilos zifodontos en el Cenozoico de Asturias: Royo Gómez y los supuestos dientes de dinosaurio del Eoceno de Llamaquique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereda Suberbiola, X.


    Full Text Available In 1928, José Royo Gómez mentioned the find of “two teeth similar to those of theropod dinosaurs from the Secondary” in the Eocene of Llamaquique (Oviedo Basin, Asturias. Royo Gómez was aware of the interest of the discovery, “because they would be the youngest remains found of these gigantic reptiles”. According to the hitherto unpublished documents preserved in the Archives of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales in Madrid, Royo Gómez photographed five teeth from Llamaquique in April 1932, which he regarded as belonging to theropods. The whereabouts of this material is currently unknown. However, the revision of the Llamaquique collection in the above mentioned museum has allowed to recover one labiolingually compressed and serrated tooth (ziphodont condition. We reject here that the tooth belongs to a theropod, and we assign it to a Mesoeucrocodylia indet. This is the first mention of the discovery of ziphodont crocodyliforms in the Paleogene of Asturias.

    En 1928, José Royo Gómez informó del hallazgo de “dos dientes idénticos a los de los Dinosaurios terópodos del Secundario” en el Eoceno de Llamaquique (Cuenca de Oviedo, Asturias. Royo Gómez era consciente del interés de este descubrimiento, “pues serían los restos más modernos que se conocerían de estos gigantescos reptiles”. Según la documentación conservada en el Archivo del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales en Madrid, hasta ahora inédita, Royo Gómez fotografió en abril de 1932 cinco dientes de Llamaquique que él consideraba pertenecientes a terópodos. Este material se encuentra actualmente en paradero desconocido. No obstante, la revisión de la colección paleontológica de Llamaquique en el mencionado museo ha permitido recuperar un diente comprimido lateralmente y provisto de carenas denticuladas (condición zifodonta. Se descarta que el diente pertenezca a un terópodo, asignándose a un Mesoeucrocodylia indeterminado. Se trata de la

  19. Precision Gas Sampling (PGS) Validation2011-2014 Final Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, M. S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fischer, M. L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Biraud, S. C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billesbach, D. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States)


    In this field campaign, we used eddy covariance towers to quantify carbon, water, and energy fluxes from a pasture and a wheat field that were converted to switchgrass. The U.S. Department of Energy is investing in switchgrass as a cellulosic bioenergy crop, but there is little data available that could be used to develop or test land surface model representations of the crop. This campaign was a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Unfortunately, in 2011, Oklahoma had one of the most severe droughts on record, and the crop in one of the switchgrass fields experienced almost complete die-off. The crop was replanted, but subsequent drought conditions prevented its establishment. Then, in April 2012, a large tornado demolished the instruments at our site in Woodward, Oklahoma. These two events meant that we have some interesting data on land response to extreme weather; however, we were not able to collect continuous data for annual sums as originally intended. We did observe that, because of the drought, the net ecosystem exchange of CO2 was much lower in 2011 than in 2010. Concomitantly, sensible heat fluxes increased and latent heat fluxes decreased. These conditions would have large consequences for land surface forcing of convection. Data from all years were submitted to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Data Archive, and the sites were registered in AmeriFlux.

  20. Represión policial como choque moral: un análisis de narrativas de los activistas de junio de 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etyelle Pinheiro Araújo


    Full Text Available En este artículo se lleva a cabo, en perspectiva microinteraccional, un análisis de narrativas (BASTOS; BIAR, 2015 producidas por los activistas de protestas en junio de 2013 en Brasil. En particular, nos centramos en desarrollos de este tipo de eventos en el estado de Río de Janeiro. La investigación es cualitativa e interpretativa (DENZIN; LINCOLN, 2000, con una dimensión autoetnográfica (REED-DANAHAY, 2001. Los datos se generaron en entrevistas abiertas con activistas presentes en ocupaciones que marcaron el período. Los resultados identifican la importancia y la centralidad de los episodios de represión policial en narrativas sobre las protestas, lo que permite la interpretación de que estos episodios: i son a menudo entendidos por los activistas como "choque moral" (JASPER, 1997 que aportaron sentido y cohesión a las demostraciones; ii jugaron un papel importante en la construcción positiva de simismos por los activistas (GOFFMAN, 1955, gracias a la estrategia de distribución de identidades polares (WOODWARD, 2000 a los manifestantes y a la policía.

  1. The Conversion of Carboxylic Acids to Ketones: A Repeated Discovery (United States)

    Nicholson, John W.; Wilson, Alan


    This article describes the history of the reaction converting carboxylic acids to ketones. The reaction has been rediscovered several times, yet has actually been known for centuries. The best known version of the process is the Dakin West reaction (1928), which applies to α-amino acids and also involves the simultaneous conversion of the amine group to amido functionality. Unlike other examples, this particular reaction has attracted a reasonable amount of attention and it appears to be better known than the conversion of simple carboxylic acids to ketones. However, this reaction was described as long ago as 1612, when Beguin published an account of it in his book, Tyrocinium Chymicum . Since then, many chemists have rediscovered the reaction, apparently independently. One of the earliest modern accounts was by W. H. Perkin, Sr., in 1886, who made various simple ketones by refluxing the appropriate carboxylic acids with base. However, this work has been largely ignored, including by his son, W. H. Perkin, Jr., who used a more complicated base-catalyzed ketonization to prepare small ring compounds in the early years of the 20th century. Other articles detailing the application of ketonization to organic acids are discussed, including our own work, which employed the process to crosslink carboxylated polymers for possible technical application in coatings. Despite its relative obscurity, the reaction was used by Woodward et al. in the total synthesis of strychnine, reported in 1963, and this is discussed in detail at the end of the article. See Featured Molecules .

  2. Hydrogeologic testing of the E.J. Kubat borehole, San Juan County, Utah: utilization of a high pressure instrumented flow control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoexter, D.F.


    The E.J. Kubat borehole, located in San Juan County, Utah, in the SW 1/4, Section 23, T37S, R19E, was drilled in 1958 as a petroleum exploration (wildcat) well. Drilling records and geophysical logs were examined as a part of the Paradox Basin Project, a feasibility and siting study for a high-level nuclear waste repository to be located in bedded salt deposits in the Utah portion of the Paradox Basin. This project is part of the Department of Energy National Waste Terminal Storage Program, and is being conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants under subcontract to Battelle Memorial Institute, Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation. The geophysical logs of the Kubat and nearby wells showed that salt cycles potentially suitable as a possible repository horizon existed within the Pennsylvanian-age Paradox Formation in the area. Thus, it was decided to re-enter the well and extend it deeper into the Mississippian Leadville Limestone, the major water-bearing formation underlying the repository horizon. A series of hydrogeologic tests was conducted to evaluate hydrogeologic properties of the Leadville Limestone. These tests provided data on potentiometric level, transmissivity and permeability of the test interval. Although testing of relatively highly permeable formations is common, obtaining reliable data from formations of low permeability is more difficult, and is a special aspect of the paradox Basin Project

  3. Comparing a Fischer-Tropsch Alternate Fuel to JP-8 and Their 50-50 Blend: Flow and Flame Visualization Results (United States)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tacina, M.


    Combustion performance of a Fischer-Tropsch (FT) jet fuel manufactured by Sasol was compared to JP-8 and a 50-50 blend of the two fuels, using the NASA/Woodward 9 point Lean Direct Injector (LDI) in its baseline configuration. The baseline LDI configuration uses 60deg axial air-swirlers, whose vanes generate clockwise swirl, in the streamwise sense. For all cases, the fuel-air equivalence ratio was 0.455, and the combustor inlet pressure and pressure drop were 10-bar and 4 percent. The three inlet temperatures used were 828, 728, and 617 K. The objectives of this experiment were to visually compare JP-8 flames with FT flames for gross features. Specifically, we sought to ascertain in a simple way visible luminosity, sooting, and primary flame length of the FT compared to a standard JP grade fuel. We used color video imaging and high-speed imaging to achieve these goals. The flame color provided a way to qualitatively compare soot formation. The length of the luminous signal measured using the high speed camera allowed an assessment of primary flame length. It was determined that the shortest flames resulted from the FT fuel.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenden Rizky Amelia


    Full Text Available This paper is determine representation about culture in the Hujan Bulan Juni novel by Sapardi Djoko Damono. This paper based in the issue that comes from the novel related to the chracteristic of Javanese and Manado culture. The aim of this paper is to describe culture representation that shows by the concept of this novel. This explanation based on the theory about Javanese people’s characteristic from Geertz, Manado people’s characteristic from Sumampow and concept culuture identity from Hall and Woodward. The result of  the analysis shows that the novel displays the cultural characteristics of Java wich is different for each character. The ‘ethok-ethok’ (pretend, ‘wedi’(afraid,’ isin’(shame, dan ‘sungkan’ attitude displayed by the character that has the constancy of identity. While being open, straight foward and aggressive attitude. While Manado characters are represented through characters steady by showing agrressive attitude, overt, brave, culinary practice, character name and Christianity. Different cultural characteristics to each person indicate the liquid identity. 

  5. Improving outcomes of refractory celiac disease – current and emerging treatment strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woodward J


    Full Text Available Jeremy Woodward Department of Gastroenterology and Clinical Nutrition, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Intestinal inflammation and symptoms of celiac disease (CD usually respond well to gluten withdrawal, but rare cases are refractory to diet. Two types of refractory CD are discriminated on the basis of the presence or absence of an atypical population of mucosal lymphocytes that may progress to enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma. Challenges remain in the secure diagnosis of both types of refractory disease, and evidence on which to base treatment recommendations is flawed by the small numbers of reported patients and the use of different diagnostic strategies. Recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of the condition in conjunction with the development of immunomodulatory agents for managing other inflammatory diseases are helping to shape future approaches to targeted therapy. Progression will depend on collaboration and recruitment to trials. In the meantime, there is evidence to suggest that earlier diagnosis and better follow-up and management of CD may prevent the development of refractoriness. Keywords: celiac disease, gluten, small intestine, lymphoma, lymphocytes

  6. The inter-rater reliability of the incontinence-associated dermatitis intervention tool-D (IADIT-D) between two independent registered nurses of nursing home residents in long-term care facilities. (United States)

    Braunschmidt, Brigitte; Müller, Gerhard; Jukic-Puntigam, Margareta; Steininger, Alfred


    Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is the clinical manifestation of moisture related skin damage (Beeckman, Woodward, & Gray, 2011). Valid assessment instruments are needed for risk assessment and classification of IAD. Aim of the quantitative-descriptive cross-sectional study was to determine the inter-rater reliability of the item scores of the German Incontinence Associated Dermatitis Intervention Tool (IADIT-D) between two independent assessors of nursing home residents (n = 381) in long-term care facilities. The 19 pairs of assessors consisted of registered nurses. The data analysis was computed first with the calculation of the total percentage of agreement. Because this value is not randomly adjusted, the calculation of the Kappa-coefficients and AC1-Statistic was done as well. The total percentage of the inter-rater agreement was 84% (n = 319). In a second step of analysis, the calculation of all items determined high (kappa = .70) and very high agreement (AC1 = .83) levels, respectively. For the risk assessment (kappa = .82; AC1 = .94), the values amounted to very high agreement levels and for the classification (kappa(w) = .70; AC1 = .76) to high agreement levels. The high to very high agreement values of IADIT-D demonstrate that the items can be regarded as stable in regards to the inter-rater reliability for the use in long-term care facilities. In addition, further validation studies are needed.

  7. Preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.L.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.; O'Connor, K.


    This report presents results of a study leading to preconceptual designs for plugging boreholes, shafts, and tunnels to a nuclear waste repository in basalt. Beginning design criteria include a list of preferred plug materials and plugging machines that were selected to suit the environmental conditions, and depths, diameters, and orientations of the accesses to a nuclear waste repository in the Columbia River basalts located in eastern Washington State. The environmental conditions are described. The fiscal year 1979-1980 Task II work is presented in two parts: preliminary testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in a separate report); and preconceptual systems and equipment for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt (described in this report). To fulfill the scope of the Task II work, Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) was requested to: provide preconceptual systems for plugging boreholes, tunnels, and shafts in basalt; describe preconceptual borehole plugging equipment for placing the selected materials in man-made accesses; utilize the quality assurance program, program plan and schedule, and work plans previously developed for Task II; and prepare a preliminary report

  8. Inverse transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.; Romea, R.D.; Kimura, W.D.


    A new method for laser acceleration is proposed based upon the inverse process of transition radiation. The laser beam intersects an electron-beam traveling between two thin foils. The principle of this acceleration method is explored in terms of its classical and quantum bases and its inverse process. A closely related concept based on the inverse of diffraction radiation is also presented: this concept has the significant advantage that apertures are used to allow free passage of the electron beam. These concepts can produce net acceleration because they do not satisfy the conditions in which the Lawson-Woodward theorem applies (no net acceleration in an unbounded vacuum). Finally, practical aspects such as damage limits at optics are employed to find an optimized set of parameters. For reasonable assumptions an acceleration gradient of 200 MeV/m requiring a laser power of less than 1 GW is projected. An interesting approach to multi-staging the acceleration sections is also presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  9. Reseñas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comité Editorial


    Full Text Available Woodward, W.R. & Ash, M.G., eds. (1982, The problematic science: Psychology in nineteenth-century thought, Nueva York: Praeger (Praeger Special Studies, XX+ 390 pgs.Mecacci. L. ( 19H5 . Hadiografía del cerebro. Barcelona: Ariel. trad. del italiano. 174 pgs.Ash, M. G. • & Geuter, U.; eds. (1985, Geschichte der deutschen Psychologie im 20. Jahrhundert. Ein Uberblick (Historia de la psicología alemana en el siglo veinte. Una panorámica. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 386 pgs.Graumann, C.F., ed. (1985, Psychologie im Nationalsozialismus (La psicología durante el nacionalsocialismo . Berlín - Heidelberg - New York - Tokio: Springer- Verlag, 318 pgs.Thomas, H. & Maddox. G. L. eds. (1982 , .New perspectives on old age. A message to decision makers. New York: Springer Publishing Company. XII 146pgs.Sahakian. W.S. (19K2. Historia v sistemas de la psicología. Madrid: Tecnos. trad. del inglés . 664 pgs.Sprung. L. y Sprung. Helga (1984. Grundlagen der  Methodologie und Methodik  der Psychologie. Eine Einführung in die Forschungs- und Diagnose methodik für empirisch arbeitende Humanwissenschaftler. Berlín  ( RDA: VEB Dcutscher Verlag der Wissenseschaften,  452 pgs.

  10. High-throughput protein crystallization on the World Community Grid and the GPU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotseruba, Yulia; Cumbaa, Christian A; Jurisica, Igor


    We have developed CPU and GPU versions of an automated image analysis and classification system for protein crystallization trial images from the Hauptman Woodward Institute's High-Throughput Screening lab. The analysis step computes 12,375 numerical features per image. Using these features, we have trained a classifier that distinguishes 11 different crystallization outcomes, recognizing 80% of all crystals, 94% of clear drops, 94% of precipitates. The computing requirements for this analysis system are large. The complete HWI archive of 120 million images is being processed by the donated CPU cycles on World Community Grid, with a GPU phase launching in early 2012. The main computational burden of the analysis is the measure of textural (GLCM) features within the image at multiple neighbourhoods, distances, and at multiple greyscale intensity resolutions. CPU runtime averages 4,092 seconds (single threaded) on an Intel Xeon, but only 65 seconds on an NVIDIA Tesla C2050. We report on the process of adapting the C++ code to OpenCL, optimized for multiple platforms.

  11. Development of Probabilistic Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Parameters for Moderate and High Hazard Facilities at INEEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, S. M.; Gorman, V. W.; Jensen, S. A.; Nitzel, M. E.; Russell, M. J.; Smith, R. P.


    Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) horizontal and vertical response spectra are developed for moderate and high hazard facilities or Performance Categories (PC) 3 and 4, respectively, at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The probabilistic DBE response spectra will replace the deterministic DBE response spectra currently in the U.S. Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) Architectural Engineering Standards that govern seismic design criteria for several facility areas at the INEEL. Probabilistic DBE response spectra are recommended to DOE Naval Reactors for use at the Naval Reactor Facility at INEEL. The site-specific Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) developed by URS Greiner Woodward Clyde Federal Services are used as the basis for developing the DBE response spectra. In 1999, the UHS for all INEEL facility areas were recomputed using more appropriate attenuation relationships for the Basin and Range province. The revised UHS have lower ground motions than those produced in the 1996 INEEL site-wide probabilistic ground motion study. The DBE response spectra were developed by incorporating smoothed broadened regions of the peak accelerations, velocities, and displacements defined by the site-specific UHS. Portions of the DBE response spectra were adjusted to ensure conservatism for the structural design process

  12. Overview of the regional geology of the Paradox Basin Study Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Geologic Project Manager for the Paradox Basin Salt Region (PBSR), Woodward-Clyde Consultants, has conducted geologic studies to characterize the region and evaluate selected geologic formations as potential repositories for the storage and disposal of nuclear waste. Evaluations have been made from the standpoint of engineering feasibility, safety, public health, and resource conflicts. The Regulatory Project Manager for the PBSR, Bechtel National, Inc., has performed environmental characterizations to ensure that data on ecological, socioeconomic, and other environmental factors required by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 are considered. This report characterizes, at a regional overview level of detail, the Paradox Basin Study Region Geology. Information sources include the published literature, field trip guidebooks, open file data of the US Geological Survey (USGC) and Utah Geologic and Mineral Survey, university theses, Geo-Ref Computer Search, and various unpublished sources of subsurface data such as well logs. Existing information has been synthesized and characterized. No field work was conducted as part of this study. Where possible, attempts were made to evaluate the data. All results of this study are subject to change as more data become available

  13. Nationwide survey, assessment, and replacement designs of tank systems at 430 emergency broadcast stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraj, R.; Whitaker-Sheppard, L.


    The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), acting on behalf of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), undertook a program to bring into compliance federally-owned underground storage tanks (USTs) at radio and television stations, which are part of the Broadcast Station Protection Program (BSPP) of the Emergency Broadcast System (EBS). These USTs supply fuel (diesel and gasoline) to emergency generators and are located on private property. Woodward-Clyde Federal Services is under contract with FEMA to provide assistance in all phases of the program. The BSPP is designed to protect selected stations that are participants in the EBS, which support emergency preparedness and response operations. Technical standards for installation, spill and overfill protection, corrosion protection, and leak detection for underground storage tanks (UST) were promulgated by the EPA, as described in 53 Federal Register 37082 (September 23, 1988). December 1998 was established as a compliance data for corrosion protection and spill/overfill protection. A compliance period of December 1989 to December 1993 was established for leak detection devices, depending on the UST installation date. Several states have promulgated underground storage tank regulations that are more stringent than the federal requirements. Local agencies in several states may have additional UST requirements. All federal, state, and local UST requirements must be satisfied under a compliance program. The approach and methodology employed by FEMA are presented


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMARAL, Adriana


    Full Text Available O artigo discute algumas contribuições metodológicas possíveis para a coleta e análise de dados no processo da pesquisa empírica qualitativa na internet (Fragoso, Recuero e Amaral, 2011, aplicada à observação e análise de perfis fakes do Twitter como forma de apropriação de identidade cultural (Woodward, 2000; Hall, 2002 nos ambientes digitais. O contexto e os resultados aqui debatidos partem do estudo de Santos (2011 sobre perfis fakes de celebridades midiáticas no Twitter. O objetivo do artigo é apresentar algumas possibilidades de exploração dessa plataforma para estudos empíricos sobre esse tema. Os resultados coletados a partir dessas processualidades online demonstram apropriações de características identitárias que geram a empatia dos mesmos com seu público seguidor. Além disso, observamos alguns padrões de usos e tipos de conteúdos produzidos pelos fakes que são construídos através de um aprendizado obtido a partir do uso constante da plataforma em suas limitações e qualidades.

  15. Analysis of the Organizational Structure of Enterprises of Technological Basis With Projects Without Incubators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Gimenes Bera Oshita


    Full Text Available The contingency theory assumes that the structure of the organization involves environment, people, technologies and administrative techniques for achieving the objectives of the company, which must comply with the contingent factors and the environment in which it is inserted. Being that, by the evolution of technology companies must be innovative from an organic structure. Thus, the incubated companies have innovative feature, this way: how is the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators? This research aims to asses and classify the organizational structure of enterprises of technological basis with projects in incubators in the State of Paraná. To achieve this goal it carried out a literature review on the contingency theory. Afterwards it was applied the questionnaire with companies incubated in that sought to identify their organizational structure Trough the applied methodology was found that, in General, incubated companies presented some mechanistic designs features with command-based rules and procedures in that only one person takes the decision, which way be the reflection of a technological breakthrough in which companies migrate to a mechanistic designs structure for organic , as well as in the results of Joan Woodward (1958, in which the occurrence of technological advancement, companies use the mechanistic designs structure, changing later to organic.

  16. Seismicity of the Paradox Basin and the Colorado Plateau interior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, I.G.


    National Waste Terminal Storage Program site qualification criteria require that a nuclear waste repository be located so that ground motion associated with the maximum credible and maximum probable earthquakes or other earthquake-associated effects will not have an unacceptable adverse impact on system performance. To determine whether a potential repository site located in the Paradox salt formation in the Paradox Basin of southeastern Utah satisfies these criteria, seismological studies were undertaken by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (WCC) in March 1978. These studies included: (1) analysis of historical seismicity; (2) analysis of contemporary seismicity and tectonics of both the Paradox Basin and surrounding Colorado Plateau, including an extensive program of microearthquake monitoring; (3) evaluation of the Paradox Basin crustal structure; (4) evaluation of mining-induced seismicity; and (5) characterization of design-related earthquake-induced ground motions pertinent to a potential repository site through studies of attentation and subsurface ground motions. A detailed discussion of the results of the seismological studies performed through December 1980 is contained in WCC (1982). The purpose of this topical report is to update and summarize the studies on the local, regional, and mining-induced seismicity conducted through December 1982. The limitations of any interpretations are also discussed and additional information that remains to be acquired is identified. 56 references, 45 figures, 4 tables

  17. Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals: A long-known but neglected tool in electronic structure theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Small, David W.; Sundstrom, Eric J.; Head-Gordon, Martin [Department of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)


    Restricted Hartree Fock using complex-valued orbitals (cRHF) is studied. We introduce an orbital pairing theorem, with which we obtain a concise connection between cRHF and real-valued RHF, and use it to uncover the close relationship between cRHF, unrestricted Hartree Fock, and generalized valence bond perfect pairing. This enables an intuition for cRHF, contrasting with the generally unintuitive nature of complex orbitals. We also describe an efficient computer implementation of cRHF and its corresponding stability analysis. By applying cRHF to the Be + H{sub 2} insertion reaction, a Woodward-Hoffmann violating reaction, and a symmetry-driven conical intersection, we demonstrate in genuine molecular systems that cRHF is capable of removing certain potential energy surface singularities that plague real-valued RHF and related methods. This complements earlier work that showed this capability in a model system. We also describe how cRHF is the preferred RHF method for certain radicaloid systems like singlet oxygen and antiaromatic molecules. For singlet O{sub 2}, we show that standard methods fail even at the equilibrium geometry. An implication of this work is that, regardless of their individual efficacies, cRHF solutions to the HF equations are fairly commonplace.

  18. Firm contracts for treatability tests on contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Geosafe Corporation, a Pacific Northwest-headquartered hazardous waste remediation company, announced that is has successfully completed treatability testing of contaminated soils under contract with Woodward Clyde Consultants of Denver, Colorado, the prime contractor for a major hazardous waste site in the Western United States. The tests are being conducted at the University of Washington with Geosafe's specially-designed test equipment. The recently concluded testing confirms the ability of Geosafe's patented in situ vitrification (ISV) technology to treat soils containing a variety of organic and inorganic contaminants. ISV, for which Geosafe has worldwide rights, is the only technology available today that will fully comply with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. The ability of ISV to treat mixtures of organic, inorganic and radioactive wastes in situ, in a single process, offers distinct advantages over excavation, transportation and incineration. During the ISV process, organic contaminants are pyrolized and the inorganics present are chemically incorporated into the molten soil which, when cooled, resembles naturally-occurring obsidian

  19. Calidad de vida y bienestar psicológico en pacientes adultos con enfermedad avanzada y en cuidado paliativo en Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica María Novoa Gómez


    Full Text Available El presente estudio evaluó la calidad de vida y el bienestar psicológico de pacientes oncológicos con diagnóstico de enfermedad avanzada y que al momento de la evaluación se encontraban en cuidado paliativo en la ciudad de Bogotá. La muestra estuvo constituida por 83 personas mayores de edad de ambos sexos, con diversos tipos de enfermedad oncológica y con diagnóstico de enfermedad avanzada. Previa firma del consentimiento informado, los instrumentos que se aplicaron fueron un Registro de Datos Sociodemográficos, Índice de Bienestar Psicológico (Dupuy, 1984 SF36 (Medical Outcomes Trust, 1992 y el McMaster Quality of Life Scale (Sterkenburg, Woodward y King, 1996, los cuales están diseñados para la medición de la calidad de vida en pacientes con cáncer. Se analizaron los datos en función de variables sociodemográficas, tipo de tratamientos recibidos y tipo de enfermedad avanzada.

  20. Systematic revision and palaeobiology of Rosenfeldia triasica and Rogeryon oppeli gen. et comb. nov. (Eucrustacea, Polychelida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Audo


    Full Text Available Polychelidan lobsters (Decapoda: Polychelida are crustaceans with extant species which are restricted to deep water environments. Fossil species, however, used to live in more varied palaeoenvironments, from shallow water to deep water, and were more diverse morphologically. We redescribe two species of polychelidan lobsters, the Late Triassic Rosenfeldia triasica Garassino, Teruzzi & Dalla Vecchia, 1996 and the Late Jurassic Eryon oppeli Woodward, 1866, recently assigned to the same genus, Rosenfeldia, based upon only a few characters. Our investigation of all available material of both species leads us to distinguish these two species and to erect Rogeryon gen. nov. to accommodate Eryon oppeli. The palaeobiology of both species is interpreted for the first time. Rosenfeldia triasica with its stout first pereiopods and mandibles with both incisor and molar processes (documented for the first time in Polychelida was benthic and probably fed either on slow-moving sedentary preys or was a scavenger. Rogeryon oppeli gen. et comb. nov. was benthic, visually adapted to shallow water palaeoenvironments, and possibly had a diet similar to that of slipper lobsters and horseshoe crabs. The redescription of these two species highlights the palaeobiological diversity of fossil polychelidans.

  1. New perspectives on understanding cultural diversity in nurse–patient communication. (United States)

    Crawford, Tonia; Candlin, Sally; Roger, Peter

    Effective communication is essential in developing rapport with patients, and many nursing roles such as patient assessment, education, and counselling consist only of dialogue. With increasing cultural diversity among nurses and patients in Australia, there are growing concerns relating to the potential for miscommunication, as differences in language and culture can cause misunderstandings which can have serious impacts on health outcomes and patient safety (Hamilton & Woodward-Kron, 2010). According to Grant and Luxford (2011)) there is little research into the way health professionals approach working with cultural difference or how this impacts on their everyday practice. Furthermore, there has been minimal examination of intercultural nurse–patient communication from a linguistic perspective. Applying linguistic frameworks to nursing practice can help nurses understand what is happening in their communication with patients, particularly where people from different cultures are interacting. This paper discusses intercultural nurse–patient communication and refers to theoretical frameworks from applied linguistics to explain how miscommunication may occur. It illustrates how such approaches will help to raise awareness of underlying causes and potentially lead to more effective communication skills, therapeutic relationships and therefore patient satisfaction and safety.

  2. Simulation of leaf area index on site scale based on model data fusion (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Wang, J. B.


    The world's grassland area is about 24 × 108hm2, accounting for about one-fifth of the global land area. It is one of the most widely distributed terrestrial ecosystems on Earth. And currently, it is the most affected area of human activity. A considerable portion of the global CO2 emissions are fixed by grassland, and the grassland carbon cycle plays an important role in the global carbon cycle (Li Bo, Yongshen Peng, Li Yao, China's Prairie, 1990). In recent years, the carbon cycle and its influencing factors of grassland ecosystems have become one of the hotspots in ecology, geology, botany and agronomy under the background of global change ( Mu Shaojie, 2014) . And the model is now as a popular and effective method of research. However, there are still some uncertainties in this approach. CEVSA ( Carbon Exchange between Vegetation, Soil and Atmosphere) is a biogeochemical cycle model based on physiological and ecological processes to simulate plant-soil-atmosphere system energy exchange and water-carbon-nitrogen coupling cycles (Cao at al., 1998a; 1998b; Woodward et al., 1995). In this paper, the remote sensing observation data of leaf area index are integrated into the model, and the CEVSA model of site version is optimized by Markov chain-Monte Carlo method to achieve the purpose of increasing the accuracy of model results.

  3. SOCMA study urges flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirschner, E.


    In implementing the 1990 Pollution Prevention Act, regulators and legislators should hold off on cookie-cutter, numerical goal-based requirements to allow for site and process specific programs, says a study sponsored by the Synthetic Organic Chemicals Manufacturers Association (SOCMA; Washington). Companies should have that flexibility to target their resources toward those activities that reduce pollution cost effectively, says SOCMA environmental quality committee chairman Art Gillen, who is also BASF director of environmental regulatory affairs. The study - conducted by Woodward-Clyde Consultants (Denver) - examines four batch and custom chemical manufacturing films. As in the Clean Air Act, the batch processing of SOCMA-member plants should be considered in new regulations, Gillen says. For example, the study found that most wastes are from shutdowns and cleanouts, and there are frequent charges in waste streams and raw materials. Those characteristics do not lend themselves to annual reduction goals. Also, specific goals could have a wide range of costs: measures to reduce stack air emissions run from $18/lb to $1,106/lb. SOCMA says it will present the study to Congress and the Environmental Protection Agency

  4. Cybersecurity vulnerabilities in medical devices: a complex environment and multifaceted problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams PAH


    Full Text Available Patricia AH Williams, Andrew J Woodward eHealth Research Group and Security Research Institute, Edith Cowan University, Perth, WA, Australia Abstract: The increased connectivity to existing computer networks has exposed medical devices to cybersecurity vulnerabilities from which they were previously shielded. For the prevention of cybersecurity incidents, it is important to recognize the complexity of the operational environment as well as to catalog the technical vulnerabilities. Cybersecurity protection is not just a technical issue; it is a richer and more intricate problem to solve. A review of the factors that contribute to such a potentially insecure environment, together with the identification of the vulnerabilities, is important for understanding why these vulnerabilities persist and what the solution space should look like. This multifaceted problem must be viewed from a systemic perspective if adequate protection is to be put in place and patient safety concerns addressed. This requires technical controls, governance, resilience measures, consolidated reporting, context expertise, regulation, and standards. It is evident that a coordinated, proactive approach to address this complex challenge is essential. In the interim, patient safety is under threat. Keywords: cybersecurity, security, safety, wireless, risk, medical devices

  5. Global Differential Geometry and Global Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pinkall, Ulrich; Simon, Udo; Wegner, Berd


    All papers appearing in this volume are original research articles and have not been published elsewhere. They meet the requirements that are necessary for publication in a good quality primary journal. E.Belchev, S.Hineva: On the minimal hypersurfaces of a locally symmetric manifold. -N.Blasic, N.Bokan, P.Gilkey: The spectral geometry of the Laplacian and the conformal Laplacian for manifolds with boundary. -J.Bolton, W.M.Oxbury, L.Vrancken, L.M. Woodward: Minimal immersions of RP2 into CPn. -W.Cieslak, A. Miernowski, W.Mozgawa: Isoptics of a strictly convex curve. -F.Dillen, L.Vrancken: Generalized Cayley surfaces. -A.Ferrandez, O.J.Garay, P.Lucas: On a certain class of conformally flat Euclidean hypersurfaces. -P.Gauduchon: Self-dual manifolds with non-negative Ricci operator. -B.Hajduk: On the obstruction group toexistence of Riemannian metrics of positive scalar curvature. -U.Hammenstaedt: Compact manifolds with 1/4-pinched negative curvature. -J.Jost, Xiaowei Peng: The geometry of moduli spaces of stabl...

  6. Characteristics of Recombinant Phytase (rSt-Phy) of the Thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile and its applicability in dephytinizing foods. (United States)

    Ranjan, Bibhuti; Singh, Bijender; Satyanarayana, T


    Sporotrichum thermophile produces very low titres of phytase (St-Phy) extracellularly, which is acidstable, thermostable, and protease insensitive with broad substrate specificity, and therefore, the gene encoding phytase (St-Phy) has been cloned and expressed in E. coli. The purified recombinant phytase (rSt-Phy) has the molecular mass of 55 kDa with Km and Vmax (calcium phytate), kcat and kcat/Km of 0.143 mM, 185.05 nmoles mg(-1)  s(-1), 5.1 × 10(3) s(-1), and 3.5 × 10(7) M(-1) s(-1), respectively. Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) display slight stimulatory effect on the enzyme, while it is inhibited by other ions to a varied extent. The enzyme is also inhibited by chaotropic agents (guanidinium hydrochloride, potassium iodide, and urea), Woodward's reagent K, and 2,3-butanedione but resistant to both pepsin and trypsin. The rSt-Phy is useful in dephytinization of tandoori and naan (unleavened flat Indian breads), and bread, liberating soluble inorganic phosphate that mitigates anti-nutrient effects of phytic acid.

  7. Recombinant HAP Phytase of the Thermophilic Mold Sporotrichum thermophile: Expression of the Codon-Optimized Phytase Gene in Pichia pastoris and Applications. (United States)

    Ranjan, Bibhuti; Satyanarayana, T


    The codon-optimized phytase gene of the thermophilic mold Sporotrichum thermophile (St-Phy) was expressed in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant P. pastoris harboring the phytase gene (rSt-Phy) yielded a high titer of extracellular phytase (480 ± 23 U/mL) on induction with methanol. The recombinant phytase production was ~40-fold higher than that of the native fungal strain. The purified recombinant phytase (rSt-Phy) has the molecular mass of 70 kDa on SDS-PAGE, with K m and V max (calcium phytate), k cat and k cat/K m values of 0.147 mM and 183 nmol/mg s, 1.3 × 10(3)/s and 8.84 × 10(6)/M s, respectively. Mg(2+) and Ba(2+) display a slight stimulatory effect, while other cations tested exert inhibitory action on phytase. The enzyme is inhibited by chaotropic agents (guanidinium hydrochloride, potassium iodide, and urea), Woodward's reagent K and 2,3-bunatedione, but resistant to both pepsin and trypsin. The rSt-Phy is useful in the dephytinization of broiler feeds efficiently in simulated gut conditions of chick leading to the liberation of soluble inorganic phosphate with concomitant mitigation in antinutrient effects of phytates. The addition of vanadate makes it a potential candidate for generating haloperoxidase, which has several applications.

  8. Treatment of specific phobia in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy A Pachana


    Full Text Available Nancy A Pachana1, Rana M Woodward1, Gerard JA Byrne21School of Psychology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia 2School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Brisbane, AustraliaAbstract: Phobias are common in later life, yet treatment research in this population remains scant. The efficacy of exposure therapy, in combination with other Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT components, in the treatment of specific phobia with a middle and older aged sample was examined. Sixteen adults aged 45–68 with DSM-IV diagnosis of a specific phobia received a manualized intervention over ten weeks, and were compared with a control group. Results indicated significant time effects in the treatment group for the primary outcome variables of phobic severity and avoidance as well as secondary outcome variables including depression and anxiety. Symptom presence and severity also significantly declined in the treatment group. No significant changes in state anxiety were noted across the treatment period. Such results provide support for the efficacy of exposure combined with CBT treatment for specific phobia in middle to older aged adults.Keywords: anxiety, phobia, older adults, cognitive behavioral therapy

  9. Evaluation of the seismic integrity of a plutonium-handling facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coats, D.W.


    Many studies have been made by and for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to ensure the seismic safety of its Plutonium Facility (Building 332). These studies have included seismological and geologic field investigations to define the actual seismic hazard existing at the Laboratory site as well as structural studies of the Facility itself. Because the basic seismic design criteria has undergone changes over the years, numerous structural studies and upgrades have been completed. The seismic criteria in use at the LLNL site is reviewed on a continuing basis as new information on the seismicity and geology of the Livermore Valley is obtained. At present, the Laboratory's Earth Sciences Division is conducting a multi-million dollar program to identify and characterize the geologic hazards at the Livermore site, with the primary emphasis on earthquake hazards in the Livermore Valley. This effort is undergoing an independent review by Woodward-Clyde Associates. Additionally, because of increased concerns over the seismic safety of Building 332, the Laboratory has initiated an independent structural review. This review effort will be monitored by the California Seismic Safety Commission to ensure its independence. Both of these studiies are in their early stages and results are not yet available

  10. The White Nile sedimentary system (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Resentini, Alberto; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor


    The Nile River flows for ~6700 km from south of the Equator to finally reach the Mediterranean Sea at northern subtropical latitudes (Woodward et al. 2007). This is the longest sedimentological laboratory on Earth, a unique setting in which we are investigating changes in sediment composition associated with diverse chemical and physical processes, including weathering and hydraulic sorting. The present study focuses on the southern branch of the Nile across 20° of latitude, from hyperhumid Burundi and Rwanda highlands in central Africa to Khartoum, the capital city of Sudan at the southern edge of the Sahara. Our study of the Kagera basin emphasizes the importance of weathering in soils at the source rather than during stepwise transport, and shows that the transformation of parent rocks into quartzose sand may be completed in one sedimentary cycle (Garzanti et al. 2013a). Micas and heavy minerals, less effectively diluted by recycling than main framework components, offer the best key to identify the original source-rock imprint. The different behaviour of chemical indices such as the CIA (a truer indicator of weathering) and the WIP (markedly affected by quartz dilution) helps us to distinguish strongly weathered first-cycle versus polycyclic quartz sands (Garzanti et al. 2013b). Because sediment is efficiently trapped in East African Rift lakes, the composition of Nile sediments changes repeatedly northwards across Uganda. Downstream of both Lake Kyoga and Lake Albert, quartzose sands are progressively enriched in metamorphiclastic detritus supplied from tributaries draining amphibolite-facies basements. The evolution of White Nile sediments across South Sudan, a scarcely accessible region that suffered decades of civil war, was inferred from the available information (Shukri 1950), integrated by original petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical data (Padoan et al. 2011). Mineralogical and isotopic signatures of Bahr-el-Jebel and Sobat sediments, derived

  11. Active site studies of Escherichia coli 2-keto-4-hydroxyglutarate aldolase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, C.J.


    The data presented delineate the complete amino acid sequence of E. coli KHG aldolase and also identify Lys-133, Glu-45, and Arg-49 as aminoacyl residues required for catalytic activity. Incubation of E. coli KHG aldolase with [ 14 C]pyruvate in the presence of NaCNBH 3 results in the incorporation of one mol of 14 C per mol of enzyme subunit. Digestion of this enzyme-adduct with trypsin, followed by purification of the peptides, allowed for the isolation of a unique radioactive peptide. Its amino acid sequence showed that the pyruvate-binding (i.e., Schiff-base forming) lysine residue is located at position 133 in the intact enzyme. E. coli KHG aldolase activity is lost when the enzyme is reacted with bromopyruvate; saturation kinetics are observed. The substrates, pyruvate and KHG, protect the enzyme from inactivation. Both facts suggest that the reagent is active-site specific. Incubation of the aldolase with [3- 14 C]bromopyruvate is associated with a concomitant loss of enzymatic activity and esterification of Glu-45; if the enzyme is denatured in the presence of excess bromopyruvate, Cys-159 and Cys-180 are also alkylated. Blocking the active-site lysine residue with pyruvate prevents Glu-45 from being esterified but does not eliminate alkylation of these two cysteine residues. Woodward's Reagent K was also found to inactivate the aldolase under conditions that are usually specific for carboxyl group modification. This aldolase is also inactivated by 1,2-cyclohexanedione. Loss of enzymatic activity occurs concomitantly with modification of one arginine residue per enzyme subunit. Treatment of the aldolase with the arginine-specific reagent, 4-(oxyacetyl)phenoxyacetic acid, followed by digestion with trypsin allowed for the isolation of a unique peptide and the identification of Arg-49 as the specific residue involved

  12. A Study of Electrocyclic Reactions in a Molecular Junction: Mechanistic and Energetic Requirements for Switching in the Coulomb Blockade Regime. (United States)

    Olsen, Stine T; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens; Hansen, Thorsten; Ratner, Mark A; Mikkelsen, Kurt V


    Molecular photoswitches incorporated in molecular junctions yield the possibility of light-controlled switching of conductance due to the electronic difference of the photoisomers. Another isomerization mechanism, dark photoswitching, promoted by a voltage stimulus rather than by light, can be operative in the Coulomb blockade regime for a specific charge state of the molecule. Here we elucidate theoretically the mechanistic and thermodynamic restrictions for this dark photoswitching for donor-acceptor substituted 4n and 4n+2 π-electron open-chain oligoenes (1,3-butadiene and 1,3,5-hexatriene) by considering the molecular energies and orbitals of the molecules placed in a junction. For an electrocyclic ring closure reaction to occur for these compounds, we put forward two requirements: a) the closed stereoisomer (cis or trans form) must be of lower energy than the open form, and b) the reaction pathway must be in accordance to the orbital symmetry rules expressed by the Woodward-Hoffmann rules (when the electrodes do not significantly alter the molecular orbital appearances). We find these two requirements to be valid for the dianion of (1E,3Z,5E)-hexa-1,3,5-triene-1,6-diamine, and the Coulomb blockade diamonds were therefore modeled for this compound to elucidate how a dark photoswitching event would manifest itself in the stability plot. From this modeling of conductance as a function of gate and bias potentials, we predict a collapse in Coulomb diamond size, that is, a decrease in the height of the island of zero conductance. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Practical theologians’ calling to serve in the field of gerontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petria M. Theron


    Full Text Available The South African demographic statistics echo the global trend of an ageing population. This fact poses challenges to the country’s labour supply, to health care, retirement and intergenerational relations. The elderly are faced with specific challenges such as negative views regarding older people, discrimination and prejudice based on age, changing roles, the loss of a support system when children emigrate, financial problems, abuse and neglect, emotions of fear and depression, and the struggle to find meaning in life and suffering. The field of study that concerns ageing and older adulthood is called gerontology. Joan Erber defines it as ‘the study of the biological, behavioural, and social phenomena that occur from the point of maturity to old age.’ It is an interdisciplinary field where different disciplines seek to address the problems associated with ageing. Biologists focus on the biological processes of ageing, psychologists focus on aspects like mental abilities, personality and behaviour, whilst sociologists study the social roles, group behaviour and status of older people. The question may be asked what is being done regarding the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly. This is the niche of practical theology, as indicated by one definition of practical theology that it is ‘a place where religious belief, tradition and practice meet contemporary experiences, questions and actions and conducts a dialogue that is mutually enriching, intellectually critical, and practically transforming’ according to Pattison and Woodward. The aims of this exploratory article are (1 to investigate to what extent research in practical theology has addressed the spiritual and emotional needs of the elderly and (2 to identify opportunities where practical theology may provide service in the field of gerontology.

  14. Spreken vanuit het graf. De stoffelijke resten van Willem van Oranje in hun politiek-culturele betekenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Santing


    Full Text Available Voice from the Grave. The politico-cultural relevance of the mortal remains of William of OrangeBalthazar Gerards’ murder of William of Orange on July 10th, 1584 is a canonical fact in Dutch history, but thus far this significant event has not yet been analysed on its own merits, i.e. in terms of the material disposition of his assassinated body. Hence, this article examines the literal and figurative - or cultural and material - handling of the physical remains of William the Silent and their subsequent iconification and deification. The historiographical background and intellectual inspiration for this article are provided by the work of Ernst Kantorowic’s pupil Ralph Giesey, Agostino Paravicini Bagliani and Joanna Woodward. All authors point to the increasingly lavish pomp and circumstance of monarchical funeral culture, which was imitated by Europe’s high aristocracy. The autopsy on William the Silent’s corpse was completed with a meticulous embalming. The preserved body and its subsequent lying in state amidst an extensive funerary apparatus and the full pompa of the burial ceremony contained numerous reminiscences of Charles V Brussels’ funeral, in which the Prince had played a prominent role. Also, after having examined the sculptural iconography of Hendrik de Keyser’s mausoleum in Delft’s Nieuwe Kerk, it can be concluded that the significance of William the Silent’s murdered body was much more royal and catholic than traditional historiographical views on the Dutch Republic would lead us to suspect.

  15. Worsening anatomic outcomes following aflibercept for neovascular age-related macular degeneration in eyes previously well controlled with ranibizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nudleman E


    Full Text Available Eric Nudleman,1 Jeremy D Wolfe,2,3 Maria A Woodward,4 Yoshihiro Yonekawa,2,3 George A Williams,2,3 Tarek S Hassan2,3 1Department of Ophthalmology, Shiley Eye Center, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, 2Beaumont Eye Institute, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, 3Associated Retinal Consultants, Royal Oak, 4Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI, USA Purpose: Antivascular endothelial growth factor injection is the mainstay of treating neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Previous studies have shown that switching treatment from ranibizumab to aflibercept led to an improvement in eyes with recalcitrant activity. Herein, we identify a unique subset of patients whose eyes with neovascular AMD were previously well controlled with ranibizumab injections were then worsened after being switched to aflibercept. Methods: This is a retrospective interventional case series. Eyes with neovascular AMD, previously well controlled with monthly injections of ranibizumab, which then developed worsening of subretinal fluid after being switched to aflibercept were included. Results: A total of 17 eyes were included. All eyes developed increased subretinal fluid when switched from ranibizumab to aflibercept. Fourteen patients were switched back to ranibizumab after a single injection of aflibercept and had subsequent rapid resolution of subretinal fluid. Three patients continued with monthly aflibercept injections for two subsequent months and demonstrated the persistence of the increased subretinal fluid until they were switched back to treatment with ranibizumab at which time the fluid resolved. No eye had persistent decline in visual acuity. Conclusion: Switching from intravitreal ranibizumab to aflibercept in eyes with well-controlled neovascular AMD may result in worsening in a subset of patients and resolves when therapy is switched back to ranibizumab. Keywords: anti

  16. Uncooled EuSbTe3 photodetector highly sensitive from ultraviolet to terahertz frequencies (United States)

    Niu, Ying Y.; Wu, Dong; Su, Yu Q.; Zhu, Hai; Wang, Biao; Wang, Ying X.; Zhao, Zi R.; Zheng, Ping; Niu, Jia S.; Zhou, Hui B.; Wei, Jian; Wang, Nan L.


    Light probe from Uv to THz is critical in photoelectronics and has great applications ranging from imaging, communication to medicine (Woodward et al 2002 Phys. Med. Biol. 47 3853-63 Pospischil et al 2013 Nat. Photon. 7 892-6 Martyniuk and Rogalski 2003 Prog. Quantum Electron. 27 59-210). However, the room temperature ultrabroadband photodetection across visible down to far-infrared is still challenging. The challenging arises mainly from the lack of suitable photoactive materials. Because that conventional semiconductors, such as silicon, have their photosensitive properties cut off by the bandgap and are transparent to spectrum at long-wavelength infrared side (Ciupa and Rogalski 1997 Opto-Electron. Rev. 5 257-66 Tonouchi 2007 Nat. Photon. 1 97-105 Sizov and Rogalski 2010 Prog. Quantum Electron. 34 278-347 Kinch 2000 J. Electron. Mater. 29 809-17). Comparatively, the dielectrics with very narrow band-gap but maintain the semiconductor-like electrical conduction would have priorities for ultrabroadband photodetection. Here we report on EuSbTe3 is highly sensitive from ultraviolet directly to terahertz (THz) at room temperature. High photoresponsivities 1-8 A W-1 reached in our prototype EuSbTe3 detectors with low noise equivalent power (NEP) recorded, for instances ~150 pW · Hz-1/2 (at λ  =  532 nm) and ~0.6 nW · Hz-1/2 (at λ  =  118.8 µm) respectively. Our results demonstrate a promising system with direct photosensitivity extending well into THz regime at room temperature, shed new light on exploring more sophisticated multi-band photoelectronics.

  17. An integrated safety analysis of intravenous ibuprofen (Caldolor® in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Southworth SR


    Full Text Available Stephen R Southworth,1 Emily J Woodward,2 Alex Peng,2 Amy D Rock21North Mississippi Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Clinic, PLLC, Tupelo, MS, 2Department of Research and Development, Cumberland Pharmaceuticals Inc., Nashville, TN, USAAbstract: Intravenous (IV nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as IV ibuprofen are increasingly used as a component of multimodal pain management in the inpatient and outpatient settings. The safety of IV ibuprofen as assessed in ten sponsored clinical studies is presented in this analysis. Overall, 1,752 adult patients have been included in safety and efficacy trials over 11 years; 1,220 of these patients have received IV ibuprofen and 532 received either placebo or comparator medication. The incidence of adverse events (AEs, serious AEs, and changes in vital signs and clinically significant laboratory parameters have been summarized and compared to patients receiving placebo or active comparator drug. Overall, IV ibuprofen has been well tolerated by hospitalized and outpatient patients when administered both prior to surgery and postoperatively as well as for nonsurgical pain or fever. The overall incidence of AEs is lower in patients receiving IV ibuprofen as compared to those receiving placebo in this integrated analysis. Specific analysis of hematological and renal effects showed no increased risk for patients receiving IV ibuprofen. A subset analysis of elderly patients suggests that no dose adjustment is needed in this higher risk population. This integrated safety analysis demonstrates that IV ibuprofen can be safely administered prior to surgery and continued in the postoperative period as a component of multimodal pain management.Keywords: NSAID, surgical pain, fever, perioperative analgesia, critical care, multimodal pain management

  18. Coniacian sandstones from the North Sudetic Synclinorium revisited: palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical reconstructions based on trace fossil analysis and associated body fossils (United States)

    Chrząstek, Alina; Wypych, Monika


    The Coniacian quartz sandstones (Żerkowice Member, Rakowice Wielkie Formation) that crop out at quarries near Czaple-Nowa Wieś Grodziska (North Sudetic Synclinorium) contain a low-diversity assemblage of trace fossils: Gyrochorte isp., Ophiomorpha nodosa (Lundgren, 1891), Ophiomorpha isp., Phycodes cf. curvipalmatum (Pollard, 1981), ?Phycodes isp., Planolites cf. beverleyensis (Billings, 1862), Thalassinoides paradoxicus (Woodward, 1830) and ?Thalassinoides isp. Moreover, interesting compound burrow systems, here referred to as Thalassinoides-Phycodes cf. palmatus and ?Thalassinoides-Phycodes, were recognised at the Czaple Quarry. Additionally, ?Gyrochorte isp., Phycodes cf. flabellum (Miller and Dyer, 1878) and ?Treptichnus isp. were encountered at correlative levels in the Rakowice Małe Quarry. Some of these ichnotaxa have not been recorded previously from Coniacian sandstones of the Żerkowice Member. Additionally, in slabs of these sandstones, the gastropod Nerinea bicincta (Bronn, 1836) and the bivalve Lima haidingeri (Zittel, 1866) were found. These interesting finds, in particular the gastropods, were already noted from the study area in the first half of the twentieth century by (Scupin (1912-1913)). Ethologically, the trace fossil assemblage is represented by domichnia or domichnia/fodinichnia (Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides), fodinichnia (Phycodes) and pascichnia (Gyrochorte, Planolites). The compound burrow systems (Thalassinoides-Phycodes) are interpreted as dwelling/feeding structures. The possible tracemakers are crustaceans (Ophiomorpha, Thalassinoides) or worm-like animals (annelids and other) (Planolites, ?Phycodes, Gyrochorte and ?Treptichnus). The assemblage of trace fossils is characteristic of the Skolithos ichnofacies and Cruziana ichnofacies, typical of shallow-marine settings. Ichnological studies, as well as the presence of accompanying fossils (bivalves, gastropods), confirm the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Żerkowice Member

  19. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report presents conceptual design information for a system to handle and emplace packages containing radioactive waste, in boreholes 16,400 ft deep or possibly deeper. Its intended use is for a design selection study that compares the costs and risks associated with two emplacement methods: drill-string and wireline emplacement. The deep borehole disposal (DBD) concept calls for siting a borehole (or array of boreholes) that penetrate crystalline basement rock to a depth below surface of about 16,400 ft (5 km). Waste packages would be emplaced in the lower 6,560 ft (2 km) of the borehole, with sealing of appropriate portions of the upper 9,840 ft (3 km). A deep borehole field test (DBFT) is planned to test and refine the DBD concept. The DBFT is a scientific and engineering experiment, conducted at full-scale, in-situ, without radioactive waste. Waste handling operations are conceptualized to begin with the onsite receipt of a purpose-built Type B shipping cask, that contains a waste package. Emplacement operations begin when the cask is upended over the borehole, locked to a receiving flange or collar. The scope of emplacement includes activities to lower waste packages to total depth, and to retrieve them back to the surface when necessary for any reason. This report describes three concepts for the handling and emplacement of the waste packages: 1) a concept proposed by Woodward-Clyde Consultants in 1983; 2) an updated version of the 1983 concept developed for the DBFT; and 3) a new concept in which individual waste packages would be lowered to depth using a wireline. The systems described here could be adapted to different waste forms, but for design of waste packaging, handling, and emplacement systems the reference waste forms are DOE-owned high- level waste including Cs/Sr capsules and bulk granular HLW from fuel processing. Handling and Emplacement Options for Deep Borehole Disposal Conceptual Design July 23, 2015 iv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has

  20. MEDEX2015: Greater Sea-Level Fitness Is Associated with Lower Sense of Effort During Himalayan Trekking Without Worse Acute Mountain Sickness. (United States)

    Rossetti, Gabriella M K; Macdonald, Jamie H; Smith, Matthew; Jackson, Anna R; Callender, Nigel; Newcombe, Hannah K; Storey, Heather M; Willis, Sebastian; van den Beukel, Jojanneke; Woodward, Jonathan; Pollard, James; Wood, Benjamin; Newton, Victoria; Virian, Jana; Haswell, Owen; Oliver, Samuel J


    Rossetti, Gabriella M.K., Jamie H. Macdonald, Matthew Smith, Anna R. Jackson, Nigel Callender, Hannah K. Newcombe, Heather M. Storey, Sebastian Willis, Jojanneke van den Beukel, Jonathan Woodward, James Pollard, Benjamin Wood, Victoria Newton, Jana Virian, Owen Haswell, and Samuel J. Oliver. MEDEX2015: Greater sea-level fitness is associated with lower sense of effort during Himalayan trekking without worse acute mountain sickness. High Alt Med Biol. 18:152-162, 2017.-This study examined the complex relationships of fitness and hypoxic sensitivity with submaximal exercise responses and acute mountain sickness (AMS) at altitude. Determining these relationships is necessary before fitness or hypoxic sensitivity tests can be recommended to appraise individuals' readiness for altitude. Forty-four trekkers (26 men; 18 women; 20-67 years) completed a loaded walking test and a fitness questionnaire in normoxia to measure and estimate sea-level maximal aerobic capacity (maximum oxygen consumption [[Formula: see text]O 2max ]), respectively. Participants also completed a hypoxic exercise test to determine hypoxic sensitivity (cardiac, ventilatory, and arterial oxygen saturation responses to acute hypoxia, fraction of inspired oxygen [Fio 2 ] = 0.112). One month later, all participants completed a 3-week trek to 5085 m with the same ascent profile. On ascent to 5085 m, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE ascent ), fatigue by Brunel Mood Scale, and AMS were recorded daily. At 5085 m, RPE during a fixed workload step test (RPE fixed ) and step rate during perceptually regulated exercise (STEP RPE35 ) were recorded. Greater sea-level [Formula: see text]O 2max was associated with, and predicted, lower sense of effort (RPE ascent ; r = -0.43; p sea-level fitness reported less effort during simulated and actual trekking activities, had better mood (less fatigue), and chose a higher step rate during perceptually regulated exercise, but did not suffer from worse AMS

  1. Conceptual DFT: the chemical relevance of higher response functions. (United States)

    Geerlings, P; De Proft, F


    In recent years conceptual density functional theory offered a perspective for the interpretation/prediction of experimental/theoretical reactivity data on the basis of a series of response functions to perturbations in the number of electrons and/or external potential. This approach has enabled the sharp definition and computation, from first principles, of a series of well-known but sometimes vaguely defined chemical concepts such as electronegativity and hardness. In this contribution, a short overview of the shortcomings of the simplest, first order response functions is illustrated leading to a description of chemical bonding in a covalent interaction in terms of interacting atoms or groups, governed by electrostatics with the tendency to polarize bonds on the basis of electronegativity differences. The second order approach, well known until now, introduces the hardness/softness and Fukui function concepts related to polarizability and frontier MO theory, respectively. The introduction of polarizability/softness is also considered in a historical perspective in which polarizability was, with some exceptions, mainly put forward in non covalent interactions. A particular series of response functions, arising when the changes in the external potential are solely provoked by changes in nuclear configurations (the "R-analogues") are also systematically considered. The main part of the contribution is devoted to third order response functions which, at first sight, may be expected not to yield chemically significant information, as turns out to be for the hyperhardness. A counterexample is the dual descriptor and its R analogue, the initial hardness response, which turns out to yield a firm basis to regain the Woodward-Hoffmann rules for pericyclic reactions based on a density-only basis, i.e. without involving the phase, sign, symmetry of the wavefunction. Even the second order nonlinear response functions are shown possibly to bear interesting information, e

  2. Crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail accessory factor gp26 at acidic and neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cingolani, Gino, E-mail:; Andrews, Dewan [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood [Department of Pathology, Division of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Utah Medical School, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, 750 East Adams Street, Syracuse, NY 13210 (United States)


    The crystallogenesis of bacteriophage P22 tail-fiber gp26 is described. To study possible pH-induced conformational changes in gp26 structure, native trimeric gp26 has been crystallized at acidic pH (4.6) and a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) has been crystallized at neutral and alkaline pH (7-10). Gp26 is one of three phage P22-encoded tail accessory factors essential for stabilization of viral DNA within the mature capsid. In solution, gp26 exists as an extended triple-stranded coiled-coil protein which shares profound structural similarities with class I viral membrane-fusion protein. In the cryo-EM reconstruction of P22 tail extracted from mature virions, gp26 forms an ∼220 Å extended needle structure emanating from the neck of the tail, which is likely to be brought into contact with the cell’s outer membrane when the viral DNA-injection process is initiated. To shed light on the potential role of gp26 in cell-wall penetration and DNA injection, gp26 has been crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH. Crystals of native gp26 grown at pH 4.6 diffract X-rays to 2.0 Å resolution and belong to space group P2{sub 1}, with a dimer of trimeric gp26 molecules in the asymmetric unit. To study potential pH-induced conformational changes in the gp26 structure, a chimera of gp26 fused to maltose-binding protein (MBP-gp26) was generated. Hexagonal crystals of MBP-gp26 were obtained at neutral and alkaline pH using the high-throughput crystallization robot at the Hauptman–Woodward Medical Research Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. These crystals diffract X-rays to beyond 2.0 Å resolution. Structural analysis of gp26 crystallized at acidic, neutral and alkaline pH is in progress.

  3. Smartphone Apps for Measuring Human Health and Climate Change Co-Benefits: A Comparison and Quality Rating of Available Apps. (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel K; Marsh, Samantha; Halvarsson, Jakob; Holdsworth, Michelle; Waterlander, Wilma; Poelman, Maartje P; Salmond, Jennifer Ann; Christian, Hayley; Koh, Lenny Sc; Cade, Janet E; Spence, John C; Woodward, Alistair; Maddison, Ralph


    associated health and environmental impact are of mixed quality. Most apps do not include all desirable features or provide sufficient health information. Further research is needed to determine the potential of smartphone apps to evoke behavior change resulting in climate change and health co-benefits. ©Rachel K Sullivan, Samantha Marsh, Jakob Halvarsson, Michelle Holdsworth, Wilma Waterlander, Maartje P Poelman, Jennifer Ann Salmond, Hayley Christian, Lenny SC Koh, Janet E Cade, John C Spence, Alistair Woodward, Ralph Maddison. Originally published in JMIR Mhealth and Uhealth (, 19.12.2016.

  4. Generalization of two-phase model with topology microstructure of mixture to Lagrange-Euler methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir V Chudanov; Alexei A Leonov


    numerical compressible multiphase mixtures, J. Comput. Phys. 186 (2003) 361-396; (3). P. Colella, P.R. Woodward, The piecewise parabolic method (PPM) for gas-dynamical simulations, J. Comput. Phys. 54 (1984) 174-201. (authors)

  5. El voluntariado y la identidad voluntaria como herramientas neoliberales: en pauta el voluntariado contra el cáncer infantil piauiense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Almeida Silva


    Full Text Available El argumento desarrollado reside en que el tercer sector es una construcción político-económica del Estado para la implantación del programa neoliberal de reducción de la acción social estatal, y el voluntariado una construcción revalorada socioculturalmente, en los últimos años, en Brasil. El voluntariado, como identidad social, es una de las herramientas de legitimación de la nueva postura del Estado brasileño. Con la reducción de la acción social del Estado, hubo la disminución con lo social por parte de este y la consecuente responsabilidad de la sociedad por la gerencia de políticas sociales puntuales y focalistas. La cultura de los voluntariados promovió la construcción de las identidades voluntarias. En este proceso, los derechos sociales y la solidaridad social fueron transformados en deberes sociales y solidaridad voluntaria y local, como es el caso del voluntariado de la Red Femenina de Combate al Cáncer de Piauí (RFCC-PI, organización social que actúa en la prevención y terapéutica de cáncer. Concluimos que el tercer sector y los voluntariados, de entre ellos el de la RFCC-PI, son campo de minas, debido al Estado financiar/subsidiar inúmeras categorías del tercer sector y, así, desfavorecer las demandas sociales. Sin embargo, independientemente del contexto neoliberal brasileño, la importancia del voluntariado de la RFCC-PI está en su acción complementaria del cuidado humanizado a personas con cáncer, uniendo medicina y terapia lúdica. Los autores utilizados en este análisis son: Ana Amaral (2003; Zygmunt Bauman (2005; Elaine Behring (2003; Paula Bonfim (2010; Lúcia Costa (2006; Denys Cuche (2002; Victor Ferreira (2005; Stuart Hall (2000; Rodrigo Horochovski (2003; José Mendes (2002; Maria Luiza Mestriner (2005; Thomaz Silva (2000, Susan Sontag (1984 e Kathryn Woodward (2000. La metodología se basó en la revisión de la literatura, análisis de documentos, entrevistas y trabajo de campo.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Santana Ferreira


    Full Text Available O presente artigo defende que os estilos de fala adotados pelos interagentes são construídos no contexto, levando-os a projetarem ou a negociarem identidades no curso da interação. Pretende-se demonstrar os resultados de uma investigação etnográfica no contexto de sala de aula em uma instituição de Ensino Superior. O objetivo do trabalho é revelar como as identidades são negociadas por meio do estilo de fala e como os interagentes sinalizam pistas de contextualização (Gumperz, 1982 e 2002, que os enquadram no contexto situacional. Este estudo se situa no quadro da Sociolinguística Interacional e incorpora contribuições das noções de contexto defendidas por Duranti & Goodwin (2000, assim como das concepções cognitivistas defendidas por van Dijk (1977. Ademais, pretende-se revelar como o contexto em curso determinará a escolha de um estilo de fala mais formal ou menos formal pelos professores colaboradores (Coupland, 2007 & Irvine, 2001 e como as identidades dos professores e dos alunos são negociadas no momento da interação (Woodward, 2009; Castells, 1999 & Bauman, 2005. Para realizar este estudo, foram feitas microanálises etnográficas por meio de filmagens de aulas com observação participante, totalizando corpus de, aproximadamente, duas horas de aulas gravadas. Como resultados desta pesquisa, pode-se indicar que a ideia de uma identidade fixa não constitui mais uma realidade no mundo pós-moderno. Por esta razão, as identidades fluidas e líquidas, defendidas por Giddens (2002 e Bauman (2005, aplicam-se ao contexto desta pesquisa, uma vez que o contexto em curso determinará as negociações ou as invocações/projeções de identidades pelos professores colaboradores.  

  7. A quantitative comparison of numerical methods for the compressible Euler equations: fifth-order WENO and piecewise-linear Godunov

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenough, J.A.; Rider, W.J.


    A numerical study is undertaken comparing a fifth-order version of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory numerical (WENO5) method to a modern piecewise-linear, second-order, version of Godunov's (PLMDE) method for the compressible Euler equations. A series of one-dimensional test problems are examined beginning with classical linear problems and ending with complex shock interactions. The problems considered are: (1) linear advection of a Gaussian pulse in density, (2) Sod's shock tube problem, (3) the 'peak' shock tube problem, (4) a version of the Shu and Osher shock entropy wave interaction and (5) the Woodward and Colella interacting shock wave problem. For each problem and method, run times, density error norms and convergence rates are reported for each method as produced from a common code test-bed. The linear problem exhibits the advertised convergence rate for both methods as well as the expected large disparity in overall error levels; WENO5 has the smaller errors and an enormous advantage in overall efficiency (in accuracy per unit CPU time). For the nonlinear problems with discontinuities, however, we generally see both first-order self-convergence of error as compared to an exact solution, or when an analytic solution is not available, a converged solution generated on an extremely fine grid. The overall comparison of error levels shows some variation from problem to problem. For Sod's shock tube, PLMDE has nearly half the error, while on the peak problem the errors are nearly the same. For the interacting blast wave problem the two methods again produce a similar level of error with a slight edge for the PLMDE. On the other hand, for the Shu-Osher problem, the errors are similar on the coarser grids, but favors WENO by a factor of nearly 1.5 on the finer grids used. In all cases holding mesh resolution constant though, PLMDE is less costly in terms of CPU time by approximately a factor of 6. If the CPU cost is taken as fixed, that is run times are

  8. The Whiteside Run restoration project: Wetlands and stream mitigation and restoration of a previously polluted stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigatel, A.; Hellier, W.W.; Forman, J.G.; Kepler, S.


    An 841,000 m 3 coal refuse pile from the operation of a now abandoned Lower Kitanning (B) coal deep mine had been the source of over 95% of the mine drainage pollution in Whiteside Run, a tributary of Moshannon Creek in Gulich and Woodward Townships, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. Representative water quality upstream of the refuse pile was: pH = 6.9; alkalinity = 31 and acidity = 0 mg/L as CaCO 3 equivalent; [Fe] = 0.85 mg/L; [Mn] = 0.31 mg/L; and [Al] = 0.25 mg/L. Representative water quality downstream of the refuse pile before th project was: pH = 3.0; alkalinity = 0 and acidity = 358 mg/L as CaCO 3 equivalent; [Fe] = 7.08 mg/L; [Mn] = 0.81 mg/L; and [Al] = 46.86 mg/L. Present downstream water quality is: pH = 5.9; alkalinity = 14.3 and acidity = 8.1 mg/L as CaCO 3 equivalent; [Fe] = 1.57 mg/L; [Mn] = 0.92 mg/L; and [Al] = 0.97 mg/L. There has been a significant improvement in the diversity of aquatic life since the project was undertaken. Power Operating Co., Inc., a local coal mining company, applied for authorization to conduct coal mining activities which would affect a wetland with an area of 1.7 ha and 790 m of an unnamed tributary of Moshannon Creek. Although part of this wetland was anthropogenic, having developed because earlier mining activities by others had affected the channel of the unnamed tributary of Moshannon Creek, the major portion of the area was a natural wetland. Power Operating developed 2.6 ha (6.5 ac) of constructed wetlands to replace the wetland disturbed by mining. The refuse pile was removed and placed in the backfilled area of Power's adjacent surface mine permit, and the mitigation wetland was constructed on the area formerly occupied by the refuse pile. As a result, 6.4 km (4 mi) of formerly polluted stream are now capable of supporting fish

  9. Health Impacts of Climate Change in Pacific Island Countries: A Regional Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptation Priorities. (United States)

    McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Rokho; Woodward, Alistair; Hales, Simon; Spickett, Jeffery; Katscherian, Dianne; Hashizume, Masahiro; Honda, Yasushi; Kim, Ho; Iddings, Steven; Naicker, Jyotishma; Bambrick, Hilary; McMichael, Anthony J; Ebi, Kristie L


    of the countries to manage and adapt in the face of such risks. Citation: McIver L, Kim R, Woodward A, Hales S, Spickett J, Katscherian D, Hashizume M, Honda Y, Kim H, Iddings S, Naicker J, Bambrick H, McMichael AJ, Ebi KL. 2016. Health impacts of climate change in Pacific island countries: a regional assessment of vulnerabilities and adaptation priorities. Environ Health Perspect 124:1707-1714;

  10. Essencialização da surdez em discursivizações do status linguístico da Libras e implicações educacionais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Batista Martins


    Full Text Available A questão que problematizamos neste texto refere-se à identificação do que chamamos de essencialização da surdez. Nossas análises partem de recortes de discursivizações sobre o status linguístico da Língua Brasileira de Sinais (LIBRAS/LSB e suas implicações no cenário educacional das políticas de inclusão. Em nossa análise, trata-se de uma espécie de reinvenção da surdez que vem sendo levada à escola por meio do discurso do bilinguismo e da diferença. Nesta discussão, trazemos a concepção bakhtiniana de língua como interação verbal determinada pelas relações sociais (BAKHTIN, 2006 e contribuições de autores como Rajagopalan (2003, Hall (2000, Woodward (2009, Derrida (2001 e Bhabha (2005. Nossa posição é a de que a perspectiva inclusivista não consegue manter a coerência entre seus pressupostos e as ações implementadas para conduzir o problema da educação da criança surda. Levamos em consideração ainda a crítica de que a escola, ultimamente, tenha perdido sua identidade, enquanto instituição de ensino que prioriza o trabalho com os saberes associados a uma produção escrita de caráter erudito. Concluímos que, prioritariamente, o compromisso linguístico da escola, mesmo em se tratando de alunos surdos, deva ser com a língua portuguesa. Por uma questão de respeito às diferenças, a escola deve acolher a língua de sinais, contudo, não cabe a ela a promoção e a preocupação, em primeira instância, com a identidade linguística de crianças surdas.

  11. Antenna analysis using neural networks (United States)

    Smith, William T.


    Conventional computing schemes have long been used to analyze problems in electromagnetics (EM). The vast majority of EM applications require computationally intensive algorithms involving numerical integration and solutions to large systems of equations. The feasibility of using neural network computing algorithms for antenna analysis is investigated. The ultimate goal is to use a trained neural network algorithm to reduce the computational demands of existing reflector surface error compensation techniques. Neural networks are computational algorithms based on neurobiological systems. Neural nets consist of massively parallel interconnected nonlinear computational elements. They are often employed in pattern recognition and image processing problems. Recently, neural network analysis has been applied in the electromagnetics area for the design of frequency selective surfaces and beam forming networks. The backpropagation training algorithm was employed to simulate classical antenna array synthesis techniques. The Woodward-Lawson (W-L) and Dolph-Chebyshev (D-C) array pattern synthesis techniques were used to train the neural network. The inputs to the network were samples of the desired synthesis pattern. The outputs are the array element excitations required to synthesize the desired pattern. Once trained, the network is used to simulate the W-L or D-C techniques. Various sector patterns and cosecant-type patterns (27 total) generated using W-L synthesis were used to train the network. Desired pattern samples were then fed to the neural network. The outputs of the network were the simulated W-L excitations. A 20 element linear array was used. There were 41 input pattern samples with 40 output excitations (20 real parts, 20 imaginary). A comparison between the simulated and actual W-L techniques is shown for a triangular-shaped pattern. Dolph-Chebyshev is a different class of synthesis technique in that D-C is used for side lobe control as opposed to pattern

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Cigarette Smoking and DNA Methylation: Epigenome-Wide Association in a Discovery Sample of Adolescents and Replication in an Independent Cohort at Birth through 17 Years of Age (United States)

    Lee, Ken W.K.; Richmond, Rebecca; Hu, Pingzhao; French, Leon; Shin, Jean; Bourdon, Celine; Reischl, Eva; Waldenberger, Melanie; Zeilinger, Sonja; Gaunt, Tom; McArdle, Wendy; Ring, Susan; Woodward, Geoff; Bouchard, Luigi; Gaudet, Daniel; Smith, George Davey; Relton, Caroline; Paus, Tomas


    Background: Prenatal exposure to maternal cigarette smoking (prenatal smoke exposure) had been associated with altered DNA methylation (DNAm) at birth. Objective: We examined whether such alterations are present from birth through adolescence. Methods: We used the Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip to search across 473,395 CpGs for differential DNAm associated with prenatal smoke exposure during adolescence in a discovery cohort (n = 132) and at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in a replication cohort (n = 447). Results: In the discovery cohort, we found five CpGs in MYO1G (top-ranking CpG: cg12803068, p = 3.3 × 10–11) and CNTNAP2 (cg25949550, p = 4.0 × 10–9) to be differentially methylated between exposed and nonexposed individuals during adolescence. The CpGs in MYO1G and CNTNAP2 were associated, respectively, with higher and lower DNAm in exposed versus nonexposed adolescents. The same CpGs were differentially methylated at birth, during childhood, and during adolescence in the replication cohort. In both cohorts and at all developmental time points, the differential DNAm was in the same direction and of a similar magnitude, and was not altered appreciably by adjustment for current smoking by the participants or their parents. In addition, four of the five EWAS (epigenome-wide association study)–significant CpGs in the adolescent discovery cohort were also among the top sites of differential methylation in a previous birth cohort, and differential methylation of CpGs in CYP1A1, AHRR, and GFI1 observed in that study was also evident in our discovery cohort. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that modifications of DNAm associated with prenatal maternal smoking may persist in exposed offspring for many years—at least until adolescence. Citation: Lee KW, Richmond R, Hu P, French L, Shin J, Bourdon C, Reischl E, Waldenberger M, Zeilinger S, Gaunt T, McArdle W, Ring S, Woodward G, Bouchard L, Gaudet D, Davey Smith G, Relton C, Paus T

  13. A quantitative comparison of numerical methods for the compressible Euler equations: fifth-order WENO and piecewise-linear Godunov (United States)

    Greenough, J. A.; Rider, W. J.


    A numerical study is undertaken comparing a fifth-order version of the weighted essentially non-oscillatory numerical (WENO5) method to a modern piecewise-linear, second-order, version of Godunov's (PLMDE) method for the compressible Euler equations. A series of one-dimensional test problems are examined beginning with classical linear problems and ending with complex shock interactions. The problems considered are: (1) linear advection of a Gaussian pulse in density, (2) Sod's shock tube problem, (3) the "peak" shock tube problem, (4) a version of the Shu and Osher shock entropy wave interaction and (5) the Woodward and Colella interacting shock wave problem. For each problem and method, run times, density error norms and convergence rates are reported for each method as produced from a common code test-bed. The linear problem exhibits the advertised convergence rate for both methods as well as the expected large disparity in overall error levels; WENO5 has the smaller errors and an enormous advantage in overall efficiency (in accuracy per unit CPU time). For the nonlinear problems with discontinuities, however, we generally see both first-order self-convergence of error as compared to an exact solution, or when an analytic solution is not available, a converged solution generated on an extremely fine grid. The overall comparison of error levels shows some variation from problem to problem. For Sod's shock tube, PLMDE has nearly half the error, while on the peak problem the errors are nearly the same. For the interacting blast wave problem the two methods again produce a similar level of error with a slight edge for the PLMDE. On the other hand, for the Shu-Osher problem, the errors are similar on the coarser grids, but favors WENO by a factor of nearly 1.5 on the finer grids used. In all cases holding mesh resolution constant though, PLMDE is less costly in terms of CPU time by approximately a factor of 6. If the CPU cost is taken as fixed, that is run times are

  14. Water quality in the upper Shoal Creek basin, southwestern Missouri, 1999-2000 (United States)

    Schumacher, John G.


    broilers and 300,000 turkeys. Probable nonhuman sources included turkeys, horses, chickens, and cattle; however, wildlife sources such as deer, raccoon, muskrat, and opossum were not evaluated. Human waste was an important source of E. coli in water samples collected at the MDNR monitoring site (site 3) on Shoal Creek and at two tributary sites (Joyce Creek and Woodward Creek). In general, the detection of human ribopatterns was consistent with the detection of organic compounds commonly associated with human wastewater such as caffeine, triclosan, or phenol, and the fecal indicators cholesterol and 3B-coprostanol. Ribopattern analysis indicate that horses were an important source of E. coli in Woodward Creek, which was consistent with horses being pastured immediately upstream from the sampling site on this creek. Pogue Creek contains a large density of turkey barns and five of eight E. coli isolates from one sample from Pogue Creek were matched to turkeys. Water samples from Pogue Creek generally did not contain detectable concentrations of human wastewater compounds, but one sample did contain detectable quantities of the antibiotics tylosin and lincomycin (widely used in the animal industry), and sulfamethoxazole (human use only). Although promising, the ability of ribopattern analyses to positively identify the source of a particular isolate is uncertain because of the small sample size, possible differences between animal source patterns in the study area and database used, lack of native wildlife source patterns, and variation in results depending on the number of possible animal host considered. Results of this study indicate that a trend of increasing fecal coliform densities with increasing time detected by the MDNR is, in part, caused by trends in annual precipitation and stream discharge, and not necessarily changes in land use or densities of animal operations. A multiple linear regression (MLR) model using specific conductance and wate

  15. Natural equilibria and anthropic effects on sediment transport in big river systems: The Nile case (United States)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Andò, Sergio; Padoan, Marta; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Villa, Igor


    knowledge of the Nile sediment system not only has wide paleoclimatic, paleoceanographic and archaeological implications, including a better understanding of Quaternary environmental changes in northern Africa, water circulation and sapropel development in the Mediterranean Sea, and impact on the Egyptian civilization by natural phenomena, but is also strongly needed to mitigate undesirable impacts of human activities on natural equilibria and to improve watershed, reservoir and coastal management. Mineralogical data (Shukri, 1950) integrated by new petrographic, heavy-mineral and geochemical analyses (Padoan et al., 2011) show how sediments derived from Archean gneisses exposed through northern Uganda and from Panafrican basements drained by Ethiopian tributaries of River Sobat become progressively enriched in quartz at the expense of unstable components across the Sudd and Machar Marshes (grey shaded area). Petrographic, mineralogical, and isotopic signatures are gradually homogenized along both the Bahr el Jebel/Bahr ez Zeraf and the Sobat and remain finally unchanged down to Khartoum, which suggests massive sediment dumping in the marshes. This explains why White Nile sediment contribution to the main Nile downstream Khartoum is virtually negligible (Garzanti et al., 2006). Garzanti, E., Andò, S., Vezzoli, G., Abdel Megid, A.A., El Kammar, A., 2006. Petrology of Nile River sands (Ethiopian and Sudan): sediment budgets and erosion patterns. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 252, 327-341. Padoan, M., Garzanti, E., Harlavan, Y., Villa, I.M., 2011. Tracing Nile sediment sources by Sr and Nd isotope signatures (Uganda, Ethiopia, Sudan). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 75, 3627-3644. Said, R., 1993. The River Nile, Oxford, Pergamon, 1993, 320 p. Shukri, N.M., 1950. The mineralogy of some Nile sediments. Quart. J. Geol. Soc. London, 105, 511-534. Williams, M.A.J., Faure, H., 1980. The Sahara and the Nile. Balkema, Rotterdam. Woodward, J.C., Macklin, M.G., Krom, M.D., Williams, M.A.J., 2007

  16. Deciphering Selectivity in Organic Reactions: A Multifaceted Problem. (United States)

    Balcells, David; Clot, Eric; Eisenstein, Odile; Nova, Ainara; Perrin, Lionel


    Computational chemistry has made a sustained contribution to the understanding of chemical reactions. In earlier times, half a century ago, the goal was to distinguish allowed from forbidden reactions (e.g., Woodward-Hoffmann rules), that is, reactions with low or high to very high activation barriers. A great achievement of computational chemistry was also to contribute to the determination of structures with the bonus of proposing a rationalization (e.g., anomeric effect, isolobal analogy, Gillespie valence shell pair electron repulsion rules and counter examples, Wade-Mingos rules for molecular clusters). With the development of new methods and the constant increase in computing power, computational chemists move to more challenging problems, close to the daily concerns of the experimental chemists, in determining the factors that make a reaction both efficient and selective: a key issue in organic synthesis. For this purpose, experimental chemists use advanced synthetic and analytical techniques to which computational chemists added other ways of determining reaction pathways. The transition states and intermediates contributing to the transformation of reactants into the desired and undesired products can now be determined, including their geometries, energies, charges, spin densities, spectroscopy properties, etc. Such studies remain challenging due to the large number of chemical species commonly present in the reactive media whose role may have to be determined. Calculating chemical systems as they are in the experiment is not always possible, bringing its own share of complexity through the large number of atoms and the associated large number of conformers to consider. Modeling the chemical species with smaller systems is an alternative that historically led to artifacts. Another important topic is the choice of the computational method. While DFT is widely used, the vast diversity of functionals available is both an opportunity and a challenge. Though

  17. Improved data for integrated modeling of global environmental change (United States)

    Lotze-Campen, Hermann


    The assessment of global environmental changes, their impact on human societies, and possible management options requires large-scale, integrated modeling efforts. These models have to link biophysical with socio-economic processes, and they have to take spatial heterogeneity of environmental conditions into account. Land use change and freshwater use are two key research areas where spatial aggregation and the use of regional average numbers may lead to biased results. Useful insights can only be obtained if processes like economic globalization can be consistently linked to local environmental conditions and resource constraints (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). Spatially explicit modeling of environmental changes at the global scale has a long tradition in the natural sciences (Woodward et al 1995, Alcamo et al 1996, Leemans et al 1996). Socio-economic models with comparable spatial detail, e.g. on grid-based land use change, are much less common (Heistermann et al 2006), but are increasingly being developed (Popp et al 2011, Schneider et al 2011). Spatially explicit models require spatially explicit input data, which often constrains their development and application at the global scale. The amount and quality of available data on environmental conditions is growing fast—primarily due to improved earth observation methods. Moreover, systematic efforts for collecting and linking these data across sectors are on the way ( This has, among others, also helped to provide consistent databases on different land cover and land use types (Erb et al 2007). However, spatially explicit data on specific anthropogenic driving forces of global environmental change are still scarce—also because these cannot be collected with satellites or other devices. The basic data on socio-economic driving forces, i.e. population density and wealth (measured as gross domestic product per capita), have been prepared for spatially explicit analyses (CIESIN, IFPRI

  18. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Nederveen Pieterse


    Full Text Available - Walter E.A. van Beek, Ph. Quarles van Ufford, Religion and development; Towards an integrated approach, Amsterdam: Free University Press, 1988., M. Schoffeleers (eds. - J.H. de Beer, H.F. Tillema, A journey among the people of Central Borneo in word and picture, edited and with an introduction by Victor T. King, Singapore: Oxford University Press, 1989. 268 pp. - Chris de Beet, Richard Price, Alabi’s world. Baltimore and London: The John Hopkins University Press, 1990. xx + 444 pp. - G. Bos, Neil L. Whitehead, Lords of the tiger spirit; A history of the Caribs in colonial Venezuela and Guyana 1498-1820, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, Leiden. Caribbean series 10, Dordrecht/Providence: Foris publications, 1988, 250 pp., maps, ills., index, bibl. - James R. Brandon, Richard Schechner, By means of performance: Intercultural studies of theatre and ritual. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990. 190 + xv pp + ills. Paperback, Willa Appel (eds. - J.N. Breetvelt, Matti Kamppinen, Cognitive systems and cultural models of illness, Helsinki: Academia Scientiarum Fennica, FF Comunications No. 244, 1989. 152 pp. - Martin van Bruinessen, Mark R. Woodward, Islam in Java: Normative piety and mysticism in the Sultanate of Yogykarta. Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1989, 311 pp, index. - J.G. de Casparis, Pauline Lunsingh Scheurleer, Ancient Indonesian Bronzes; A catalogue of the exhibition in the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam with a general introduction. Leiden: Brill, 1988. IX + 179 pp., richly illustrated., Marijke J. Klokke (eds. - Hugo Fernandes Mendes, Luc Alofs, Ken ta Arubiano? Sociale intergartie en natievorming op Aruba, Leiden: Caraïbische Afdeling, Koninklijk Instituut voor Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 1990. ix + 232 pp., Leontine Merkies (eds. - Rene van der Haar, I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt, Kommunikation bei den Eipo; Eine humanethologische bestandsaufnahme, Berlin: Dietrich Reimer Verlag, 1989., W. Schiefenh

  19. A more rapid approach to systematically assessing published associations of genetic polymorphisms and disease risk: type 2 diabetes as a test case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cho AH


    Full Text Available Alex H Cho1, Xiaolei Jiang2, Devin M Mann3, Kensaku Kawamoto4, Timothy J Robinson5, Nancy Wang6, Jeanette J McCarthy2, Mark Woodward7, Geoffrey S Ginsburg1,21Center for Personalized Medicine and Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, 3Section of Preventive Medicine and Epidemiology, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, 4Department of Biomedical Informatics, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 5Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, VA, 6School of Medicine, University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 7George Institute for Global Health and University of Sydney, AustraliaBackground: Comparative effectiveness research and research in genomic medicine are not orthogonal pursuits. Both require a robust evidence base, and each stands to benefit from applying the methods of the other. There is an exponentially growing literature reporting associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and increased risk for diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Literature-based meta-analysis is an important method of assessing the validity of published gene-disease associations, but a traditional emphasis on exhaustiveness makes it difficult to study multiple polymorphisms efficiently. Here we describe a novel two-step search method for broadly yet systematically reviewing the literature to identify the "most-studied" gene-disease associations, thereby selecting those with a high possibility of replication on which to conduct abbreviated, simultaneous meta-analyses. This method was then applied to identify and evaluate the validity of SNPs reported to be associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk, to demonstrate proof of principle.Methods: A two-step MEDLINE search (1950 to present was conducted in September 2007 for published genetic association data related to SNPs associated with risk of type 2 diabetes. The

  20. Geologic and isostatic map of the Nenana Basin area, central Alaska (United States)

    Frost, G.M.; Barnes, D.F.; Stanley, R.G.


    datum, digital terrain corrections, and conversion to isostatic gravity so that geologic structures on the margin of the Alaska Range are more clearly portrayed (Simpson and others, 1986). Computation procedures are described in part by Barnes (1972, 1984), Jachens and Roberts (1981), and Barnes and others (1994). The calculations used a crustal density of 2.67 g/cm 3 , a density contrast at the base of the isostatic root of 0.4 g/cm 3 , and a root thickness at sea level of 25 km. The distribution of data within the map area is uneven and locally controls the shape of the computer-generated contours. Altimetry was used for most of the elevation control and its inconsistency is responsible for many of the small contour irregularities. Ninety percent of the measurements are estimated to have an accuracy of about 1.5 mgal or about a quarter of the 5 mgal contour interval. Data collection and analysis were assisted by R.V. Allen, R.C. Jachens, M.A. Fisher, T.R. Bruns, J.G. Blank, J.W. Bader, Z.C. Valin, J.W. Cady, R.L. Morin, and P.V. Woodward. The most promising area for petroleum exploration is a prominent 25 mgal isostatic gravity low north of Nenana (T. 2 S., R. 8 W.). This gravity low probably corresponds to the deepest part of a sedimentary basin filled by Cenozoic strata that includes nonmarine fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the Eocene to Miocene Usibelli Group. Smaller gravity lows are associated with outcrops of these sedimentary rocks north of Suntrana (T. 12 S., R. 6-9 W.) and Sable Pass (T. 16 S., R. 11 W.). A broad low on the north flank of the Alaska Range east of the Wood River (T. 10 S., R. 1 E.) indicates another basin under the Tanana lowland that extends eastward off the map area towards Delta Junction, where its presence was confirmed by both gravity and seismic data (Barnes and others, 1991). Gravity modelling suggests that the base of the Usibelli Group in the area north of Nenana (T. 2 S., R. 8 W.) is about 3,000 to 3,350 m beneath t

  1. Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Sutherland


    Vogel (eds. - David Henley, Robert W. Hefner, Market cultures; Society and morality in the new Asian capitalisms. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1998, viii + 328 pp. - David Henley, James F. Warren, The Sulu zone; The world capitalist economy and the historical imagination. Amsterdam: VU University Press for the Centre for Asian Studies, Amsterdam (CASA, 1998, 71 pp. [Comparative Asian Studies 20.] - Huub de Jonge, Laurence Husson, La migration maduraise vers l’Est de Java; ‘Manger le vent ou gratter la terre’? Paris: L’Harmattan/Association Archipel, 1995, 414 pp. [Cahier d’Archipel 26.] - Nico Kaptein, Mark R. Woodward, Toward a new paradigm; Recent developments in Indonesian Islamic thought. Tempe: Arizona State University, Program for Southeast Asian Studies, 1996, x + 380 pp. - Catharina van Klinken, Gunter Senft, Referring to space; Studies in Austronesian and Papuan languages. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, xi + 324 pp. - W. Mahdi, J.G. de Casparis, Sanskrit loan-words in Indonesian; An annotated check-list of words from Sanskrit in Indonesian and Traditional Malay. Jakarta: Badan Penyelenggara Seri NUSA, Universitas Katolik Indonesia Atma Jaya, 1997, viii + 59 pp. [NUSA Linguistic Studies of Indonesian and Other Languages in Indonesia 41.] - Henk Maier, David Smyth, The canon in Southeast Asian literatures; Literatures of Burma, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Richmond: Curzon, 2000, x + 273 pp. - Toon van Meijl, Robert J. Foster, Social reproduction and history in Melanesia; Mortuary ritual, gift exchange, and custom in the Tanga islands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995, xxii + 288 pp. - J.A. de Moor, Douglas Kammen, A tour of duty; Changing patterns of military politics in Indonesia in the 1990’s. Ithaca, New York: Southeast Asia Program, Cornell University, 1999, 98 pp., Siddharth Chandra (eds. - Joke van Reenen, Audrey Kahin, Rebellion to integration; West Sumatra and the Indonesian

  2. A potential archive of Pleistocene uplift and erosion in the eastern Nete basin, Campine area, north-eastern Belgium (United States)

    Beerten, Koen; Leterme, Bertrand


    of ONDRAF/NIRAS. References Hijma, M.P., Cohen, K.M., Roebroeks, W., Westerhoff, W.E., Busschers, F.S., 2012. Pleistocene Rhine-Thames landscapes: geological background for hominin occupation of the southern North Sea region. Journal of Quaternary Science, 27, 17-39. Toucanne, S., Zaragosi, S., Bourillet, J.F., Gibbard, P.L., Eynaud, F., Giraudeau, J., Turon, J.L., Cremer, M., Cortijo, E., Martinez, P., Rossignol, L., 2009. A 1.2 Ma record of glaciation and fluvial discharge from the Western European Atlantic margin. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28, 2974-2981. van Balen, R.T., Houtgast, R.F., Van der Wateren, F.M., Vandenberghe, J., Bogaart, P.W., 2000. Sediment budget and tectonic evolution of the Meuse catchment in the Ardennes and the Roer Valley Rift System. Global and Planetary Change, 27, 113-129. Westaway, 2001. Flow in the lower continental crust as a mechanism for the Quaternary uplift of the Rhenish Massif, north-west Europe. In: Maddy, D., Macklin, M.G. & Woodward, J.C. (eds) River Basin Sediment Systems: Archives of Environmental Change. Balkema (Rotterdam), 87-167.

  3. Estudios en la ecoepidemiología y enfermedad por el virus dengue en el Valle del Cauca 2002-2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Barreto Barreto


    ">Publicación Científica 2000; 548: 1-109.

    5. HARRIS E, ROBERTS TG, SMITH L, SELLE J, KRAMER LD, VALLE S ET AL. Typing of dengue viruses in clinical specimens and mosquitoes by single-tube multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR. J Clin Microbiol 1998; 36(9: 2634- 2639.

    6. LANCIOTTI RS, CALISHER CH, GUBLER DJ, CHANG GJ,VORNDAM AV. Rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses from clinical samples by using reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 1992; 30(3: 545-551.

    7. CHUNGUE E, ROCHE C, LEFEVRE MF, BARBAZAN P, CHANTEAU S. Ultra-rapid, simple, sensitive, and economical silica method for extraction of dengue viral RNA from clinical specimens and mosquitoes by reverse transcriptasepolymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol 1993; 40(2: 142- 145.

    8. ASTUDILLO J, RESTREPO-DE MESA M, TAFUR L. Dengue confirmado virológica y serológicamente en Cali. Colombia Médica 1989; 20(1: 2-7.

    9. GROOT H. The reinvasion of Colombia by aedes aegypti: aspects to remember. Am J Trop Med Hyg 1980; 29: 330- 338.

    10. KOVATS RS, CAMPBELL-LENDRUM DH, MCMICHAEL AJ, WOODWARD A, COX JS. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease? Philos Trans Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2001; 356(1411: 1057- 1068.